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Sample records for salivary gland carcinoma

  1. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  2. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Worley, N K; Daroca, P J

    1997-06-01

    Undifferentiated carcinoma of the minor salivary glands has been rarely reported in the world literature. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma, which is a variant of undifferentiated carcinoma, is distinguished from small cell and large cell undifferentiated carcinoma by its association with benign lymphoepithelial lesions. We report a case of a lymphoepithelial carcinoma developing in a minor salivary gland of the oral cavity in a 69-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a lymphoepithelial carcinoma arising from a minor salivary gland.

  3. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. PMID:27521038

  4. Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jahan-Parwar, B; Huberman, R M; Donovan, D T; Schwartz, M R; Ostrowski, M L

    1999-05-01

    Two parotid mucoepidermoid carcinomas with predominant oncocytic features were initially assessed on frozen section. Because of extensive oncocytic change, it was inferred that the lesions were most likely benign. Permanent sections revealed low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma with prominent oncocytic change (in more than 75% of the neoplasms) in both cases. Review of 48 additional consecutive cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands revealed prominent oncocytic change (accounting for 60% of the neoplasm) in one high-grade lesion. Phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin stains revealed strong granular cytoplasmic staining in the oncocytic elements; immunohistochemical stains for antimitochondrial antibodies also showed intense immunoreactivity in these cells. Oncocytic change is not typically a prominent feature of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands, and to our knowledge, only three such cases have been reported previously. Because most salivary gland lesions with oncocytic change are benign, it is important to distinguish mucoepidermoid carcinoma from other entities that may show prominent oncocytic change. We report three additional examples of this rare lesion, two low-grade tumors and one high-grade tumor, and review our experience with oncocytic change in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

  5. Carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Luna, M A; Batsakis, J G; Tortoledo, M E; del Junco, G W

    1989-08-01

    A clinicopathological analysis of eight examples of carcinomas arising from salivary gland monomorphic adenomas, carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma, is presented. These uncommon to rare neoplasms have a predilection for the parotid glands, are diagnosed about a decade later than their benign precursors, and most often arise from the dermal analogue type of monomorphic adenoma. As judged by follow-up periods of two to 16 years, carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma are locally aggressive neoplasms with the clinical course marred by recurrences but without regional or distant metastases.

  6. Salivary duct carcinoma in major and minor salivary glands. A clinicopathological analysis of four cases.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Y; Shem-Tov, Y; Gal, R

    1988-10-01

    Salivary duct carcinomas are an uncommon but distinct group of highly malignant salivary gland tumours. We report the clinical course, pathological findings and surgical treatment of this tumour in 4 patients. In one patient an intraductal tumour developed in a minor salivary gland, while in the other three patients, a major salivary gland was involved by an infiltrating salivary duct carcinoma. We point out the highly aggressive biological behaviour of the tumour when occurring in the major salivary glands, in contrast to the benign course of the intraductal carcinoma in the minor salivary gland.

  7. Salivary Gland Epithelial- Myoepithelial Carcinoma: behaviour, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Senis-Segarra, L; Sahuquillo-Arce, E; Davo, R; Hamad-Arcis, P; Floria-Garcia, L M; Baquero, M C

    2002-01-01

    Across the whole spectrum of the tumoral pathology in the maxillo-facial and cervical areas, we can find those tumours where the aetieology is in the salivary glands. The tumours in the salivary glands are subdivided in benign and malignant tumours whenever this theorical subdivision is possible. The Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma represents about the 1% of the malignant neoplasms in the salivary glands and also affect other anatomical areas where there are glands: lung, kidney, uterus and so on. We start from a clinical case of a Epithelial-Myoepithelial of salivary minor gland carcinoma doing a bibliographic review of this unusual histological lineage. So we present a case of Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma of a minor salivary gland in the right cheek. We'll review the clinical and histological features of this uncommon tumour. And we'll discuss about the best way for diagnosis, treatment and the differential diagnosis to similar clinical injuries.

  8. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Veras, Emanuela F T; Sturgis, Erich; Luna, Mario A

    2007-12-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) comprises approximately 30% of all salivary gland malignancies, making it the most common malignant tumor of the salivary glands. Multiple histologic variants with a wide range of differentiation have been described. Sclerosing MEC (SMEC) is a rare subtype that may be misdiagnosed as a benign reactive condition or low-grade non-SMEC malignancy. We report 4 cases of SMEC and evaluated them with Her-2/neu and MIB-1 to determine whether an association exists between the histologic grade and immunohistochemical findings. In 3 cases, histologic examination demonstrated relatively well-circumscribed, nonencapsulated tumors composed of extensive central sclerosis with keloid-like stroma and scattered epithelial islands of low-grade MEC. In the fourth case, the tumor showed similar sclerotic stroma; but the epithelial component was of intermediate grade. In all 4 cases, eosinophils and neutrophils were part of the inflammatory infiltrate; and the edges were surrounded by lymphoid tissue, with germinal center formation and residual epithelial islands. A Mayer mucicarmine stain revealed abundant intracytoplasmic mucin. We found MIB-1 labeling indices of 5% or less in cases 1, 2, and 3 and 12% in case 4, suggesting an association between MIB-1 index and tumor grade. The tumors were negative for Her-2/neu in all 4 cases. The latter seems to bear no relationship to tumor grade.

  9. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a minor salivary gland in childhood.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, H; Dahlqvist, A; Anniko, M; Carlsöö, B

    1987-12-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms in childhood and adolescence are rare, especially in the minor salivary glands. Vasoformative tumours and pleomorphic adenomas appear to be the most common benign neoplastic salivary gland lesions in the pediatric age group. The distribution of various malignant histological types is not always consistent with that in the adult population, and they appear more often in girls than in boys. Only 17 cases have previously been documented. The clinical and histological picture of a case of palatal mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a 13-year-old girl is presented as well as a review of the literature on malignant salivary gland tumours in childhood.

  10. [Differential diagnosis of squamous epithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Seifert, G; Donath, K

    1998-05-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the salivary glands are localized predominantly in the major salivary glands and must be distinguished from metastases of extraglandular SCC of the skin, especially the head and neck area. Squamous cell metaplasia in non-tumourous diseases of the salivary gland (e.g. necrotizing sialometaplasia) as well as in benign or malignant salivary gland tumours (e.g. metaplastic Warthin tumour) can simulate SCC. Other differential diagnostic problems are the structural variants of SCC which develop predominantly in the minor salivary glands, but not in the major salivary glands. Special types include the very rare adenoid SCC with pseudoglandular structures as the result of acantholysis, the biphasic adenosquamous carcinoma with differentiation as SCC and adenocarcinoma, the biphasic basaloid squamous carcinoma with a structure as SCC and solid basaloid carcinoma (analogous to the solid type of adenoid-cystic carcinoma) and the poorly differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma (grade III) with biphasic structure of undifferentiated epidermoid and intermediate cells as well as inclusion of small groups of mucous-producing goblet cells. The differential diagnostic criteria are analysed concerning prognosis and treatment.

  11. Minor salivary gland carcinoma: a review of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Haymerle, Georg; Schneider, Sven; Harris, Luke; Häupl, Theresia; Schopper, Christian; Pammer, Johannes; Grasl, Matthaeus Ch; Erovic, Boban M

    2016-09-01

    Minor salivary gland carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors with broad variation in clinical appearance and histopathology. Clinical data of patients with small salivary gland malignancies were collected from the medical records. Tissue microarray was constructed to determine the expression pattern of 24 proteins in 35 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. The choice of markers was based on involvement in neoangiogenesis, cell-to-cell contact, cell-cycle regulation and carcinogenesis. Protein expression data were correlated to patients' clinical data. Overexpression of patched (p = 0.046) and Smo (p = 0.032) was linked to a better overall survival and Glutathione S-transferase π overexpression was linked to prolonged disease-free survival (p = 0.005). Cox-1 (p = 0.035) and VEGFR2 (p = 0.009) were significantly linked to decreased survival for recurrent disease. Bcl-x (84 %), β-catenin (87 %) and Cox-2 (87 %) were significantly overexpressed in minor salivary gland carcinomas. We have shown that Smo resulted in a better overall survival, whereas Gstπ in improved disease-free survival. VEGFR2 was a prognostic factor for survival after recurrence in patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and anti-Wnt-1 antibodies might be a potential therapeutic option in an adjuvant setting or for patients with unresectable tumors of the minor salivary glands.

  12. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  13. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  14. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma in a Minor Salivary Gland in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Simsek, Sera; Cakur, Binali

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), one of the most common salivary gland malignancies, is rare in children. MEC mainly occurs in the parotid gland, along with minor glands being the second common site, particularly in palate. Clinical, histological, and radiological findings of palatal MEC in a 12-year-old girl are presented with three-year follow-up. Pathologic lesions must be considered in differential diagnoses of intraoral asymptomatic lesions, and their detailed inspection should be taken into consideration. PMID:23970980

  15. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  16. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many types of salivary gland adenocarcinomas. Acinic cell carcinoma: Most acinic cell carcinomas start in the ... cancer can develop in the salivary glands. Squamous cell carcinoma: This cancer occurs mainly in older men. ...

  17. Mitochondrial Mutations in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Marietta; Smith, Ian M.; Califano, Joseph A.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2009-01-01

    Background The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. Methodology The entire mitochondrial genome of 22 salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of salivary glands and matched leukocyte DNA was sequenced to determine the frequency and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in ACC tumors. Principal Findings Seventeen of 22 ACCs (77%) carried mitochondrial mutations, ranging in number from 1 to 37 mutations. A disproportionate number of mutations occurred in the D-loop. Twelve of 17 tumors (70.6%) carried mutations resulting in amino acid changes of translated proteins. Nine of 17 tumors (52.9%) with a mutation carried an amino acid changing mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) complex. Conclusions/Significance Mitochondrial mutation is frequent in salivary ACCs. The high incidence of amino acid changing mutations implicates alterations in aerobic respiration in ACC carcinogenesis. D-loop mutations are of unclear significance, but may be associated with alterations in transcription or replication. PMID:20041111

  18. Multiple reciprocal translocations in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tonon, Giovanni; Gehlhaus, Kristen Stover; Yonescu, Raluca; Kaye, Frederic J; Kirsch, Ilan R

    2004-07-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the most common human malignant salivary gland tumor, can arise from both major and minor salivary glands, including sites within the pulmonary tracheobronchial tree. We performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY) on two tumor cell lines: H3118, derived from tumor originating in the parotid gland, and H292, from tumor in the lung. In both cell lines, CGH showed a partial gain within the short arm of chromosome 7 and SKY revealed the presence of the previously reported reciprocal translocation t(11;19)(q21;p12). Additional chromosomal rearrangements were found in both cell lines, including three more reciprocal translocations in cell line H292 [t(1;16), t(6;8)x2] and three other reciprocal translocations in cell line H3118 [t(1;7), t(3;15), and t(7;15)]. A review of the literature of other reported cases of mucoepidermoid carcinomas analyzed with standard G-banding techniques, as well as distinct benign salivary gland tumors, such as pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumor, confirmed the presence of a karyotype dominated by reciprocal translocations. Four chromosomal bands were involved in chromosomal translocations in both cell lines: 1q32, 5p15, 7q22, and 15q22. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies showed that the breakpoints in these four bands were often within a few megabases of each other. The involvement of similar chromosomal bands in breakpoints in these two cell lines suggests that these regions may be predisposed or selected for chromosomal rearrangements in this tumor type. The presence of multiple reciprocal translocations in both benign and malignant salivary gland tumors may also suggest a particular mechanism within mucous or serous glands mediating chromosomal rearrangements.

  19. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland carcinomas and literature review

    PubMed Central

    SHIGEISHI, HIDEO; OHTA, KOUJI; OKUI, GAKU; SEINO, SAYAKA; HASHIKATA, MIHO; YAMAMOTO, KAZUHIRO; ISHIDA, YOKO; SASAKI, KAZUKI; NARUSE, TAKAKO; RAHMAN, MOHAMMAD ZESHAAN; UETSUKI, RYO; NIMIYA, AKIKO; ONO, SHIGEHIRO; SHIMASUE, HIROSHI; HIGASHIKAWA, KOICHIRO; SUGIYAMA, MASARU; TAKECHI, MASAAKI

    2015-01-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare and exhibit a broad spectrum of phenotypic heterogeneity. The objective of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in patients with salivary gland carcinomas and review the results in light of other reports. We retrospectively reviewed 40 patients with primary salivary gland carcinomas who were diagnosed and treated at our institution between 1991 and 2014. Of the 40 tumors, 19 (47.5%) were mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 11 (27.5%) were adenoid cystic carcinomas, 7 (17.5%) were acinic cell carcinomas, 2 (5.0%) were myoepithelial carcinomas and 1 (2.5%) was a squamous cell carcinoma. Clinically positive lymph nodes were present in 4 patients (10.0%). As regards clinical stage, 15 cases (37.5%) were stage I, 13 (32.5%) were stage II, 1 (2.5%) was stage III and 11 (27.5%) were stage IVA. The majority of the patients (97.5%) were treated with surgery, of whom 25 (62.5%) received surgery alone and 14 (35.0%) underwent surgery in combination with chemotherapy or chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The median follow-up time for all the patients was 48 months. The disease-specific survival rate at 5 years was 87.1%. We identified a significant correlation between poor survival rate and histological grade (intermediate/high), tumor size (T3/T4), lymph node metastasis (node-positive) and clinical stage (III/IV) using the Kaplan-Meier method (P<0.05 for each). In addition, the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis confirmed that lymph node metastasis and tumor size were independent prognostic factors for disease-specific survival (hazard ratio = 18.7 and 15.1, respectively; P=0.023 and 0.037, respectively). Furthermore, tumor size was found to be a predictive factor regarding recurrence in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 8.35; P=0.025). Our results suggest that lymph node metastasis and tumor size are significant prognostic factors for patients with salivary gland carcinomas. PMID:25469295

  20. Cytologic diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nagel, H; Hotze, H J; Laskawi, R; Chilla, R; Droese, M

    1999-06-01

    The cytomorphologic features in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies from 31 primary and 33 recurrent adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) were investigated. The correct FNA diagnosis was established in 24 of 31 primary ACC (77%). The diagnostic clue in aspirates from ACC are large globules of extracellular matrix, partially surrounded by basaloid tumor cells. In FNAs with predominance of basaloid tumor cells, but lacking characteristic globules, all other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors of epithelial-myoepithelial differentiation should be considered in the cytologic diagnosis. Pleomorphic adenoma is most frequently confused with ACC, and therefore, the cytologic findings in FNAs from 50 pleomorphic adenomas were compared with those diagnosed as ACC. Furthermore, rare neoplasms of salivary glands with epithelial-myoepithelial cell differentiation, including basal-cell adenoma and carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, as well as some nonsalivary gland neoplasms presenting an adenoid cystic pattern, must be considered. The cytologic features of these entities are discussed in detail with respect to the cytologic diagnostic criteria of ACC.

  1. [New developments in molecular diagnostics of carcinomas of the salivary glands: "translocation carcinomas"].

    PubMed

    Skálová, Alena; Šteiner, Petr; Vaneček, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the discovery of translocations and the fusion oncogenes that they result in has changed the way diagnoses are made in salivary gland pathology. These genetic aberrations are recurrent; and at the very least serve as powerful diagnostic tools in salivary gland tumors diagnosis and classification. They also show promise as prognostic markers and hopefully as targets of therapy. In this review the 4 carcinomas currently known to harbor translocations will be discussed, namely mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The discovery and implications of each fusion will be highlighted and how they have helped to reshape the current classification of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27526014

  2. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-10

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  3. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory.

  4. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory. PMID:27327192

  5. Cytologic diagnosis of acinic-cell carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nagel, H; Laskawi, R; Büter, J J; Schröder, M; Chilla, R; Droese, M

    1997-05-01

    The cytologic findings in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies obtained from 40 primary and 18 recurrent acinic-cell carcinomas (ACC) were retrospectively analyzed. Cytomorphologically, ACC is characterized by acinar differentiated tumor cells. In addition to these diagnostic clue cells, other types of neoplastic cells including vacuolated cells, cells resembling oncocytes, and nonspecific glandular cells are encountered. A pronounced lymphocytic reaction is a hallmark in 10% of ACC aspirates. Both the variety of tumor cell differentiation and the pronounced lymphocytic reaction observed in ACC aspirates may result in confusion with other salivary gland lesions. The differential diagnosis of ACC encompasses adenocarcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumor, sebaceous lymphadenoma, benign lymphoepithelial lesion, sialoadenosis, sialadenitis caused by radiotherapy, and lymphadenitis. Primary ACCs were correctly diagnosed in 68%; additionally, ACC was suspected or included in the differential diagnosis in 15%. Increased familiarity with the spectrum of cytomorphologic findings and the potential diagnostic pitfalls in ACC will improve the cytodiagnosis of this neoplasm.

  6. Low p53 protein expression in salivary gland tumours compared with lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Soini, Y; Kamel, D; Nuorva, K; Lane, D P; Vähäkangas, K; Pääkkö, P

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-one salivary gland tumours (23 pleomorphic adenomas, 5 Warthin's tumours, 12 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 7 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 3 undifferentiated carcinomas and 1 acinic cell tumour) and 27 lung carcinomas (18 squamous cell carcinomas) were analysed immunohistochemically for the expression of p53 nuclear phosphoprotein. Eight out of 51 (16%) salivary gland tumours were p53 positive. Three of these were benign and 5 malignant. All 3 benign salivary gland tumours were pleomorphic adenomas and expressed only occasional nuclear positivity with less than 1% of tumour cells positive. Of the 5 p53-positive malignant tumours, 3 were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 2 undifferentiated carcinomas. The malignant salivary gland tumours expressed more than 1% of positive nuclei in every case. Seventeen lung carcinomas were p53 positive (63%). Thirteen of these were squamous cell carcinomas, 3 were adenocarcinomas and 1 small cell lung carcinoma. The results show that mutations of the p53 gene may be infrequent in salivary gland tumours when compared with lung carcinomas. The relatively indolent course of some histological types of malignant salivary gland tumours could be associated with the preservation of the non-mutated p53 gene in most of these tumours. The presence of p53 positivity in some pleomorphic adenomas might, on one hand, suggest that p53 gene alterations are also present in these tumours; on the other hand, the accumulation of the p53 protein in these tumours might also be due to some unknown mechanism, not necessarily related to p53 gene mutation.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of myoepithelial cell carcinoma of salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Magrini, Elisabetta; Pragliola, Antonella; Farnedi, Anna; Betts, Christine M; Cocchi, Roberto; Foschini, Maria P

    2004-01-01

    Myoepithelial cell carcinoma (MCC) of the salivary gland is a rare entity. Here, we describe the karyotype of MCC. The patient was a 53-year-old man, with a rapidly growing lesion of the palate. Despite complete surgical excision, radio- and chemotherapy, the lesion rapidly harboured local and distant metastases leading to the death of the patient, 4 months after the diagnosis. On histological and ultrastructural examination, the primary tumour and the related metastases were composed of oval and spindle cells, with features of myoepithelial cell differentiation reported in the literature. Cytogenetic analysis showed a composite karyotype in the primary tumour: 45-46,XY, +3[cp3]/ 44-45,XY, -17[cp4]/ 46,XY[5]. The lymph-node metastasis was near-triploid and showed a complex karyotype. Our cytogenetic data differ from those described in benign or slowly growing salivary gland tumours showing myoepithelial cell differentiation. It is suggested that highly aggressive tumours might follow a different pathway of malignant transformation.

  8. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with salivary calculi: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; Kamath, M Panduranga; Sreedharan, Suja; Suhas, S S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the head and neck are relatively rare tumors, consisting of approximately 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms. ACC, a slow-growing aggressive malignant tumor of salivary gland commonly seen in the submandibular, sublingual, minor salivary glands is seldom found in the parotid. Calculus, the common cause of salivary gland dysfunction is usually identified in submandibular salivary gland because of its duct anatomy and physiochemical characteristic serous secretion. We report an unusual case of co-existent presentation of ACC with salivary calculi in the parotid gland which is never been reported in the literature. Co-existence of ductal calculi and ACC is rare. Presence of parotid calculus could be due to long standing ductal obstruction by the slow-growing ACC of the parotid or other possibility is that the malignancy could have developed because of chronic irritation by parotid calculi. Confirmatory studies are required to understand its mutual pathological association. PMID:26458630

  9. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report.

    PubMed

    Ismı, Onur; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature.

  10. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report

    PubMed Central

    Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature. PMID:26645012

  11. p63 immunohistochemistry differentiates salivary gland oncocytoma and oncocytic carcinoma from metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Jonathan B; Hoschar, Aaron P; Dvorakova, Mari; Parwani, Anil V; Barnes, E Leon; Seethala, Raja R

    2007-12-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can pose diagnostic challenges in the head and neck often resembling benign and malignant oncocytic lesions. Immunohistochemical panels have been reported to help with this differential but are not entirely specific or sensitive. We have noticed that p63 routinely stains salivary gland oncocytomas but not metastatic RCC. Nineteen oncocytomas, 9 cases of oncocytosis, 9 oncocytic carcinomas and 16 head and neck metastatic RCC were studied. Morphologic features evaluated were cytoplasmic character (clear versus oncocytic), Fuhrman nuclear grade, mitotic rate, growth pattern, presence of lumens/blood lakes and stromal characteristics. Tumors were stained with antibodies to p63, renal cell carcinoma marker (RCCm), CD10, and vimentin. Eight benign oncocytic tumors (29%) had clear cell features while 6 metastatic RCC (37%) had oncocytic features. Median Fuhrman nuclear grade was 2 in oncocytoma and oncocytosis and 3 both oncocytic carcinoma and metastatic RCC. Mitotic rates were only significantly different between benign oncocytic tumors and metastatic RCC. All oncocytomas had lumina compared to half of metastatic RCC, all of which also demonstrated blood lakes. Seven benign oncocytic tumors (25%) and 5 oncocytic carcinomas (56%) had RCC-like vascular stroma. All primary salivary gland tumors were positive for p63, predominately in basal cell-type distribution. None of the metastatic RCC was positive. RCCm was entirely specific but lacked sensitivity for metastatic RCC while CD10 and vimentin showed variable sensitivity and specificity. While clinical history and morphology usually are adequate, demonstration of p63 staining can definitively exclude metastatic RCC from the differential diagnosis of similar appearing tumors in salivary glands, namely oncocytoma and oncocytic carcinoma, with 100% specificity and sensitivity. While RCCm, CD10, and vimentin performed adequately, they were significantly less reliable than p63 with both

  12. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity

    PubMed Central

    Damjanov, Ivan; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir

    2016-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results.

  13. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity.

    PubMed

    Damjanov, Ivan; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir

    2016-08-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results. PMID:27483184

  14. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Palatal Minor Salivary Glands with Intracranial Extension: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dossani, Rimal Hanif; Akbarian-Tefaghi, Hesam; Lemonnier, Lori; Mehta, Vikas; Jacobsohn, Jamie A.; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is one of the most common malignant tumors of both major and minor salivary glands. Although there are reports of parotid MEC tumors extending intracranially via the facial nerve, intracranial extension from MEC originating from minor salivary glands in the palate has not previously been reported. This report presents a case of MEC arising from the minor salivary glands of the palate and extending into the middle fossa via the foramen rotundum with perineural invasion of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. The patient received surgical intervention via a combined otolaryngology and neurosurgery approach to achieve gross total resection of the tumor. This was followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. The epidemiology, histopathology, and treatment of MEC originating from salivary glands are discussed. PMID:27781194

  15. MTA1 regulation of ERβ pathway in salivary gland carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshiro, Kazufumi Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-09-04

    Abstracts: Although Metastatic-tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) is differentially expressed in metastatic cancer and coregulates the status and activity of nuclear receptors, its role upon estrogen receptor β (ERβ) – a potent tumor suppressor, remains poorly understood. Here we investigated whether MTA1 regulates the expression and functions of ERβ, an ER isoform predominantly expressed in salivary gland cancer cells. We found that the depletion of the endogenous MTA1 in the HSG and HSY salivary duct carcinoma cell lines enhances the expression of ERβ while MTA1 overexpression augmented the expression of ERβ in salivary duct carcinoma cells. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown inhibited the proliferations and invasion of HSG and HSY cells. The noted ERβ downregulation by MTA1 overexpression involves the process of proteasomal degradation, as a proteasome inhibitor could block it. In addition, both MTA1 knockdown and ERβ overexpression attenuated the cell migration and inhibited the ERK1/2 signaling in the both cell lines. These findings imply that MTA1 dysregulation in a subset of salivary gland cancer might promote aggressive phenotypes by compromising the tumor suppressor activity of ERβ, and hence, MTA1-ERβ axis might serve a new therapeutic target for the salivary gland cancer. - Highlights: • MTA1 silencing upregulates ERβ expression in salivary gland carcinoma cells. • MTA1 overexpression downregulates ERβ expression via proteasomal degradation. • Upregulation of ERβ expression inhibits cell migration and ERK signaling. • MTA1 knockdown inhibits cell proliferation and invasion.

  16. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands showing EWSR1 rearrangement: molecular analysis of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with prominent clear cell component.

    PubMed

    Skálová, Alena; Weinreb, Ilan; Hyrcza, Martin; Simpson, Roderick H W; Laco, Jan; Agaimy, Abbas; Vazmitel, Marina; Majewska, Hanna; Vanecek, Tomas; Talarčik, Peter; Manajlovic, Spomenka; Losito, Simona N; Šteiner, Petr; Klimkova, Adela; Michal, Michal

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the presence of the EWSR1 rearrangement in a variety of clear cell salivary gland carcinomas with myoepithelial differentiation. A total of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with a prominent clear cell component included 51 cases of clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas de novo (CCMC), 21 cases of CCMCs ex pleomorphic adenoma (CCMCexPA), 11 cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), 6 cases of EMC with solid clear cell overgrowth, and 5 cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary glands. In addition, 10 cases of myoepithelial carcinomas devoid of clear cell change and 12 cases of benign myoepithelioma were included as well. All the tumors in this spectrum were reviewed, reclassified, and tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the EWSR1 rearrangement using the Probe Vysis EWSR1 Break Apart FISH Probe Kit. The EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 20 of 51 (39%) cases of CCMC, in 5 of 21 (24%) cases of CCMCexPA, in 1 of 11 (9%) cases of EMC, and in 4 of 5 (80%) cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The 25 EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs and CCMCexPAs shared similar histomorphology. They were arranged in nodules composed of compact nests of large polyhedral cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. Necrosis, areas of squamous metaplasia, and hyalinization were frequent features. Immunohistochemically, the tumors expressed p63 (96%), cytokeratin CK14 (96%), and S100 protein (88%). MIB1 index varied from 10% to 100%, with most cases in the 20% to 40% range. Clinical follow-up information was available in 21 cases (84%) and ranged from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5.2 y); 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Ten patients are alive with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease in the follow-up period from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5 y), 3 patients are alive with recurrent and metastatic disease, and 8 died of disseminated cancer 9 months to 16 years after diagnosis (mean 6 y). Lymph node metastasis appeared in 5 patients

  17. Mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity in salivary gland carcinomas other than mammary analogue secretory carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kalyani R; Solomon, Isaac H; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2013-11-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that has morphologic features similar to secretory carcinoma of the breast and that also harbors the same ETV6 translocation. Diffuse mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity are used to differentiate MASC from its morphologic mimics, especially acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. However, the combination of mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity has not been well studied in other types of salivary gland carcinomas that may have focal areas reminiscent of MASC. Here we evaluated mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity in 15 cases each of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and also in 2 cases of adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified, and 1 mucinous adenocarcinoma. Cases with significant co-expression of mammaglobin and S-100 (moderate or strong immunoreactivity in >25% of tumor cells) were further analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the ETV6 (12p13) break-apart probe. Nine cases (60%) of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and two (13.3%) of adenoid cystic carcinoma met the criteria for significant co-expression of mammaglobin and S-100. All were negative for the ETV6 translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Although mammaglobin and S-100 positivity was seen in the majority of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas and a minority of adenoid cystic carcinomas, none were positive for the ETV6 translocation characteristic of MASC. This indicates a need for caution in the use of immunohistochemistry for diagnosing MASC, especially in the absence of cytogenetic confirmation.

  18. Searching for mammary analogue [corrected] secretory carcinoma of salivary gland among its mimics.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Andre; Nosé, Vania; Rojas, Claudia; Fan, Yao-Shan; Gomez-Fernandez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of salivary gland is a recently described entity with unique morphologic, clinical, and genetic characteristics, including the characteristic t(12;15)(p13;q25) with ETV6-NTRK3 translocation found in secretory carcinomas of the breast. Before their initial description, these salivary gland tumors were generally diagnosed as acinic cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. For the purpose of this study, all cases of salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma, cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS), diagnosed over a 10-year period were retrieved from our surgical pathology files. There were a total of 11 cases diagnosed as acinic cell carcinoma, 10 cases of adenocarcinoma, NOS, and 6 cases of cribriform cystadenocarcinoma. All slides were reviewed by two pathologists (AP, CGF) and tumors that show morphologic features of mammary analog secretory carcinoma according to the recent literature were selected. This process narrowed down the initial number to six cases originally diagnosed as acinic cell carcinoma, three cases originally diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, NOS, and one case originally diagnosed as cribriform cystadenocarcinoma. The 10 cases were subjected to immunohistochemistry for S-100, mammaglobin, and ANO1, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for t(12;15)(p13;q25) with ETV6-NTRK3 fusion rearrangement. The ETV6-NTRK3 gene rearrangement was detected in three tumors. These three tumors, initially diagnosed as acinic cell carcinomas, stained positive for S-100 and mammaglobin, and negative for ANO1 by immunohistochemistry. Two of the three patients were male (2/3). In summary, mammary analog secretory carcinoma is a newly described diagnostic entity that should be in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumors that morphologically mimic other neoplasms, mainly acinic cell carcinomas. They differ from conventional acinic cell tumors immunohistochemically and molecularly

  19. Basaloid ductal carcinoma in situ arising in salivary gland metaplasia of the breast: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun Jeong; Kang, Su Hwan; Bae, Young Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland metaplasia is a newly recognized, adenosis-like lesion which could not be classified according to known categories of adenosis of the breast. We report a case of basaloid ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) arising in a background of salivary gland metaplasia in a 49-year old woman who visited our hospital for a right breast mass. Breast ultrasonography showed a multi-lobulating mixed hypoechoic and isoechoic mass measuring 2.9 cm in size at the periareolar area. Histologically, the lesion showed a well-defined DCIS with basaloid tumor cells and central comedo-type necrosis surrounded by salivary gland metaplasia composed of glands or ducts not specific to the breast, ducts with cribriform proliferation of luminal epithelial cells, and ducts with varying degrees of proliferation of basaloid cells including solid nests of basaloid cells. Salivary gland metaplasia is a most unusual lesion of the breast characterized by salivary gland-type acini and ducts with various proliferations of luminal and basaloid cells, and accompanied by malignant tumor of basal cell type.

  20. Multiple malignant salivary gland neoplasms: mucoepidermoid carcinoma of palate and adenoid cystic carcinoma of floor of mouth.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Joseph C; Schafer, Duane R; Callihan, Michael D

    2008-03-01

    Salivary gland tumors usually occur as single lesions. To have more than one tumor is unusual. We report a case of an adult male who presented with a mucoepidermoid carcinoma involving the minor salivary glands of the palate at age 57 years, followed by an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the floor of mouth at age 63 years. The patient later succumbed to non-Hodgkin lymphoma at age 72 years. There are 31 acceptable cases of multiple malignant salivary gland neoplasms reported in the world literature. Multiple malignant tumors of the same histologic type are more common than those of different histologic type. Bilateral acinic cell adenocarcinoma was the most frequent combination of multiple salivary gland malignancy, accounting for 14 cases (10 synchronous and four metachronous). All involved the parotid glands bilaterally with the exception of one case that involved parotid and submandibular gland. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma accounted for three of the four cases of multiple malignant tumors involving minor salivary glands. Individuals with a history of malignancy are at risk for the development of additional malignant tumors and should receive appropriate clinical follow-up. PMID:20614341

  1. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Urano, Makoto; Abe, Masato; Horibe, Yoshimune; Kuroda, Makoto; Mizoguchi, Yoshikazu; Sakurai, Kazuo; Naito, Kensei

    2002-01-01

    We encountered two cases of low malignant mucoepidermoid carcinoma with scanty cellular atypism which originated in the parotid or submandibular gland and was characterized by marked fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltration within tumor tissue despite the predominance of the squamous component. Here we report these two cases and provide a review of the literature. We believe that clinically these two tumors with stromal fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltration have a low malignant potential, although histological examination revealed a scanty mucus-producing epithelial component. Therefore, we consider this type of tumor as a new subtype of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. A low-malignant mucoepidermoid carcinoma with stromal fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltration, as described in these two cases, may be misdiagnosed as a highly malignant mucoepidermoid carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma because of its histologically scanty mucus-producing epithelial component. The objective of this study was to clarify their differences and to discuss the rendering of an accurate histological diagnosis, the degree of malignancy in relation to prognosis prediction, and the choice of therapy. In addition, we propose regarding this type of tumor as a new subtype of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. PMID:12049340

  2. Labial salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Neville, B W; Damm, D D; Weir, J C; Fantasia, J E

    1988-05-15

    A study was conducted on labial salivary gland tumors from four oral pathology laboratories. Of the 103 identified tumors, 87 (84.5%) were from the upper lip, whereas 16 (15.5%) were from the lower lip. Of the 87 upper lip tumors, 80 (92.0%) were benign. Forty-three of these were monomorphic adenomas and 37 were pleomorphic adenomas. Seven malignant tumors of the upper lip were as follows: four adenoid cystic carcinomas, two acinic cell carcinomas, and one adenocarcinoma. Of the 16 lower lip tumors, 15 (93.8%) were malignant. Thirteen of these were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and two were acinic cell carcinomas. The only benign lower lip tumor was an intraductal papilloma. These results confirm the findings of previous investigations, showing that minor salivary gland tumors are much more common in the upper lip than the lower lip, but that lower lip tumors are more likely to be malignant.

  3. Reticular and myxoid non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an unusual case mimicking a salivary gland carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Fredrik; Vijayadwaja, Desai; Loh, Kwok Seng; Tan, Kong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of non-keratinizing carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NK-NPC) with an unusual histopathological pattern. The neoplastic cells were arranged in anastomosing cords embedded in a stroma which contained a significant component of alcian blue-positive myxoid substance forming a reticular pattern. These histopathological features gave an initial impression of a salivary gland-type carcinoma. On immunohistochemistry the tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive for cytokeratins (AE1-3 and 5/6) and p63 and there was strong and diffuse nuclear positivity for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA on in situ hybridization. This case highlights the histomorphological variability of NK-NPC. Awareness of the histological spectrum of NK-NPC is important in clinical practice and this is not always adequately highlighted in currently used standard textbooks of Head and Neck Pathology. PMID:24323539

  4. Reticular and myxoid non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an unusual case mimicking a salivary gland carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Fredrik; Vijayadwaja, Desai; Loh, Kwok Seng; Tan, Kong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of non-keratinizing carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NK-NPC) with an unusual histopathological pattern. The neoplastic cells were arranged in anastomosing cords embedded in a stroma which contained a significant component of alcian blue-positive myxoid substance forming a reticular pattern. These histopathological features gave an initial impression of a salivary gland-type carcinoma. On immunohistochemistry the tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive for cytokeratins (AE1-3 and 5/6) and p63 and there was strong and diffuse nuclear positivity for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA on in situ hybridization. This case highlights the histomorphological variability of NK-NPC. Awareness of the histological spectrum of NK-NPC is important in clinical practice and this is not always adequately highlighted in currently used standard textbooks of Head and Neck Pathology.

  5. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary gland: in situ detection of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, S Y; Chung, L P; Yuen, S T; Ho, C M; Wong, M P; Chan, S Y

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To examine the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary gland in Hong Kong Chinese. METHODS--Ten cases of lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary gland (eight parotid and two submandibular) were examined. In situ hybridisation was used to localise EBER RNA, immunohistochemical methods to detect expression of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) in EBV positive tumours, and Southern blot analysis to examine the clonality of EBV in the two cases where frozen tissue was available. RESULTS--None of the cases had a history of Sjögren's syndrome or histological evidence of a benign lymphoepithelial lesion. The IgA antibody titre against EBV viral capsid antigen was elevated in four cases. All cases were EBV positive by in situ hybridisation, with a strong uniform positive signal in the epithelial cells, and all cases expressed LMP-1. Southern blot analysis revealed that the clonal episomal form of the virus was present. Two of the three female patients in this series also developed carcinoma of cervix. One of these carcinomas had histological features of a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma but was EBV negative. CONCLUSIONS--A consistent association between EBV and lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary gland was found. The presence of the virus in a clonal episomal form, and the expression of LMP-1 viral oncoprotein is further evidence of the role of EBV in the oncogenesis of this tumour. Images PMID:8543624

  6. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  7. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  8. MTA1 regulation of ERβ pathway in salivary gland carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-09-01

    Although Metastatic-tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) is differentially expressed in metastatic cancer and coregulates the status and activity of nuclear receptors, its role upon estrogen receptor β (ERβ) - a potent tumor suppressor, remains poorly understood. Here we investigated whether MTA1 regulates the expression and functions of ERβ, an ER isoform predominantly expressed in salivary gland cancer cells. We found that the depletion of the endogenous MTA1 in the HSG and HSY salivary duct carcinoma cell lines enhances the expression of ERβ while MTA1 overexpression augmented the expression of ERβ in salivary duct carcinoma cells. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown inhibited the proliferations and invasion of HSG and HSY cells. The noted ERβ downregulation by MTA1 overexpression involves the process of proteasomal degradation, as a proteasome inhibitor could block it. In addition, both MTA1 knockdown and ERβ overexpression attenuated the cell migration and inhibited the ERK1/2 signaling in the both cell lines. These findings imply that MTA1 dysregulation in a subset of salivary gland cancer might promote aggressive phenotypes by compromising the tumor suppressor activity of ERβ, and hence, MTA1-ERβ axis might serve a new therapeutic target for the salivary gland cancer.

  9. Minor Salivary Gland Changes in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Histopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Ragunathan, Yoithapprabhunath Thukanayakanpalayam; Lakshmi, Suman Jhansi; Nallusamy, Jaisanghar; Joseph, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most common etiology for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is tobacco and tobacco related products which cause nuclear damage to the keratinocytes. The chemical carcinogens not only affect the lining of oral epithelium but also affect the lining epithelium of the excretory ducts of the salivary glands. Thus, there is a possibility of epithelial dysplasia of the salivary duct epithelium which may lead to potential malignant transformation. Aim The study was performed to see the changes in the minor salivary glands and excretory ducts in cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC. Materials and Methods A total of 278 archival cases of mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, OSCC including verrucous carcinoma were histopathologically evaluated to observe changes in the excretory ducts and the minor salivary glands. Results In the study there were 56.5% males and 43.5% females. The age group that was most commonly affected in both the sexes was 50-60 yr old. Buccal mucosa was the most common site of involvement. Ductal changes observed in the excretory duct include simple hyperplasia, metaplastic changes such as mucous, oncocytic & squamous, and infiltration of inflammatory cells and malignant cells. Acinar changes observed were degeneration, squamous metaplasia, myoepithelial cell proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Both the excretory ducts and ducts within the gland showed dysplasia. Conclusion According to observations in our study it is suggested that histopathological interpretation for oral mucosal lesions especially oral epithelial dysplasias and OSCC should also include changes related to salivary gland tissue to provide a better treatment plan and prevent recurrence of the malignant tumours. PMID:27630945

  10. Minor Salivary Gland Changes in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Histopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Ragunathan, Yoithapprabhunath Thukanayakanpalayam; Lakshmi, Suman Jhansi; Nallusamy, Jaisanghar; Joseph, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most common etiology for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is tobacco and tobacco related products which cause nuclear damage to the keratinocytes. The chemical carcinogens not only affect the lining of oral epithelium but also affect the lining epithelium of the excretory ducts of the salivary glands. Thus, there is a possibility of epithelial dysplasia of the salivary duct epithelium which may lead to potential malignant transformation. Aim The study was performed to see the changes in the minor salivary glands and excretory ducts in cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC. Materials and Methods A total of 278 archival cases of mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, OSCC including verrucous carcinoma were histopathologically evaluated to observe changes in the excretory ducts and the minor salivary glands. Results In the study there were 56.5% males and 43.5% females. The age group that was most commonly affected in both the sexes was 50-60 yr old. Buccal mucosa was the most common site of involvement. Ductal changes observed in the excretory duct include simple hyperplasia, metaplastic changes such as mucous, oncocytic & squamous, and infiltration of inflammatory cells and malignant cells. Acinar changes observed were degeneration, squamous metaplasia, myoepithelial cell proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Both the excretory ducts and ducts within the gland showed dysplasia. Conclusion According to observations in our study it is suggested that histopathological interpretation for oral mucosal lesions especially oral epithelial dysplasias and OSCC should also include changes related to salivary gland tissue to provide a better treatment plan and prevent recurrence of the malignant tumours.

  11. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Arévalo, Mónica L; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 Candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), Acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm.

  12. Long-term outcome of patients treated by radiation therapy alone for salivary gland carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. . E-mail: achen@radonc17.ucsf.edu; Bucci, M. Kara; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Garcia, Joaquin; Eisele, David W.; Fu, Karen K.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To review a single-institution experience with the management of salivary gland cancers treated by radiation alone. Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 45 patients with newly diagnosed salivary gland carcinomas were treated with definitive radiation to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 57-74 Gy). Distribution of T-stage was: 24% T1, 18% T2, 31% T3, and 27% T4. Histology was: 14 mucoepidermoid (31%), 10 adenocarcinoma (22%), 8 adenoid cystic (18%), 4 undifferentiated (9%), 4 acinic (9%), 2 malignant mixed (4%), 2 squamous (4%), and 1 salivary duct carcinoma (2%). No patient had clinical or pathologic evidence of lymph node disease. Median follow-up was 101 months (range, 3-285 months). Results: The 5-year and 10-year rate estimates of local control were 70% and 57%, respectively. A Cox proportional hazard model identified T3-4 disease (p = 0.004) and radiation dose lower than 66 Gy (p = 0.001) as independent predictors of local recurrence. The 10-year overall survival and distant metastasis-free rates were 46% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion: Radiation therapy alone is a reasonable alternative to surgery in the definitive management of salivary gland cancers and results in long-term survival in a significant proportion of patients. Radiation dose in excess of 66 Gy is recommended.

  13. Advances in salivary gland pathology.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, W; Chan, J K C

    2007-07-01

    This review summarizes the new findings on salivary gland pathology under the following categories: immunohistochemistry; molecular genetics; newly recognized tumour types; known tumour entities with new findings; and progression of salivary gland tumours. In the application of immunohistochemistry, CD117 can aid in highlighting the luminal cell component of various salivary gland tumours, whereas p63 or maspin can aid in highlighting the abluminal cell component. A high Ki67 index remains the most useful marker to predict adverse outcome in salivary gland carcinoma. Specific chromosomal translocations are recognized in pleomorphic adenoma (with translocation involving PLGA1 or HMGA2 gene) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (with MECT1-MAML2 gene fusion). Newly recognized entities include: sclerosing polycystic adenosis (with recent molecular evidence supporting its neoplastic nature), sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia, keratocystoma, adenoma with additional stromal component (lymphadenoma, lipoadenoma and adenofibroma), cribriform adenocarcinoma of the tongue and signet ring adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland. Known tumour entities with new findings include: salivary duct carcinoma (with newly recognized mucinous, micropapillary and sarcomatoid variants), intraductal carcinoma (with controversies in terminology), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (with newly proposed grading parameters and oncocytic variant), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (with newly recognized morphological variants), small cell carcinoma (with most cases being related to Merkel cell carcinoma), extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (with specific chromosomal translocation) and chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (being a component of IgG4-related sclerosing disease). Progression of salivary gland tumours can take the form of malignant transformation of a benign tumour, progression from low-grade to high-grade carcinoma, dedifferentiation, or stromal invasion of an in situ carcinoma.

  14. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa masquerading as a salivary gland neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Ranjini; Nayal, Bhavna; Kantipudi, Swarna; Ray, Satadru

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the oral cavity is a rare occurrence with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) being the third most common tumor to metastasize to this location. Buccal mucosa is rarely involved and in the absence of a known primary, such lesions pose a diagnostic challenge to the pathologist. The histomorphological features may mimic a primary salivary gland neoplasm adding to the dilemma. We present one such case of metastatic RCC of the buccal mucosa.

  15. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  16. Salivary gland tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Luna, M A; Batsakis, J G; el-Naggar, A K

    1991-10-01

    Fewer than 5% of all primary salivary gland neoplasms occur in children, but if benign supporting tissue tumors are excluded, a higher proportion than in adults are malignant. The first decade of life, and particularly the first 2 years of life, has a preponderance of benign neoplasms. Commencing with the second decade, carcinomas rise in incidence and are most often mucoepidermoid and acinic cell carcinomas. The pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial salivary tumor throughout childhood. The embryoma may be a uniquely childhood epithelial salivary gland tumor.

  17. P63 expression can be used in differential diagnosis of salivary gland acinic cell and mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sams, Ralph N; Gnepp, Douglas R

    2013-03-01

    Differentiation of salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma from mucoepidermoid carcinoma can be diagnostically challenging as both may have prominent mucin production. P63 is a p53 homologue required for limb and epidermal morphogenesis. It is expressed in basal and myoepithelial cells of normal salivary gland tissues. In this immunohistochemical study, we examined the expression of p63 in salivary gland acinic cell and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) and its use in differentiating these two entities. A search was performed and appropriate cases were selected from Lifespan Hospital System archives as well as the consult archives of one author (DRG). 31 salivary gland acinic cell carcinomas (ACC) and 24 MEC were examined for p63 expression by immunohistochemistry. The nuclear immunoreactivity was examined by both authors and was graded semi-quantitatively with negative being less than 10 % of cells staining. Positive staining was graded as follows: 10-25 % of tumor cells staining was weakly positive, 26-75 % of tumor cells staining was moderately positive, and 76-100 % of tumor cells staining was strongly positive. Negative nuclear staining of the tumor cells was seen in 30/31 (96 %) of salivary gland ACC while 1/31 (3 %) showed diffuse nuclear staining of the tumor cells. This latter case was later reclassified as mammary analogue secretory carcinoma following confirmatory molecular testing for the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. Strong positive nuclear staining of the tumor cells was seen in 24 (100 %) of salivary gland MEC cases. P63 is an immunohistochemical stain that can potentially aid in differentiating unusual ACC with prominent mucin production from MEC of the salivary gland. According to this study, acinic cell carcinoma is always negative for p63 immunoreactivity while mucoepidermoid carcinoma is always positive.

  18. Salivary gland neoplasia in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bull, P D

    1999-10-01

    Salivary gland tumours, benign or malignant, are rare in childhood and as a result may be misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately. Ten children with salivary gland tumours have been treated by the author over a period of 18 years. Four tumours were benign and six malignant. Treatment in all cases was by surgical excision. There has been one recurrence, treated by further surgery, in an acinic cell carcinoma. Three cases had inadequate surgery or biopsy before referral. These findings reflect other series, which demonstrate that a solid tumour in a salivary gland in childhood is more likely to be malignant than to be benign.

  19. Adenoid cystic carcinomas of the breast and salivary glands (or 'The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde' of exocrine gland carcinomas).

    PubMed

    Marchiò, Caterina; Weigelt, Britta; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-03-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a tumour with myoepithelial differentiation and characterised by the presence of a dual population of basaloid and luminal cells arranged in specific growth patterns. These tumours, regardless of the anatomical site, are characterised by expression of the proto-oncogene and therapeutic target c-KIT, and seem to harbour a specific chromosomal translocation t(6;9) leading to the fusion gene MYB-NFIB and overexpression of the oncogene MYB. However, the clinical behaviour of salivary gland and breast AdCC differs; while salivary gland lesions have a relatively high proclivity to metastasise, patients with breast AdCCs have an excellent outcome. Here the clinical, morphological and molecular features, and potential therapeutic targets of salivary gland and breast AdCCs are reviewed. PMID:20203221

  20. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland consisting of high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Magaki, Shino D; Bhuta, Sunita; Abemayor, Elliot; Nabili, Vishad; Sepahdari, Ali R; Lai, Chi K

    2015-09-01

    Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare salivary gland malignancy that presents diagnostic difficulties partly because of its wide range of histologic presentations. We report a case of a 77-year-old man, who presented with a 6-year history of a parotid mass that had undergone rapid growth within weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an infiltrative mass in the parotid gland, and the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy result was highly suspicious for carcinoma. Subsequent excision of the tumor demonstrated a poorly differentiated epithelial neoplasm consisting of keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma with regions of both ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive salivary duct carcinoma (SDC). Only focal areas exhibited a benign pleomorphic adenoma component. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a CXPA that consists of both a high-grade SDC and a keratinizing SCC in the parotid gland.

  1. Prognostic factors in primary salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma: an analysis of 376 cases in an Eastern Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Ow, A; Ruan, M; Yang, W; Zhang, C; Wang, L; Zhang, C

    2014-06-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is an infrequent malignant neoplasm that originates most commonly in the salivary glands. The present study aimed to provide new information on prognostic factors in patients with salivary gland MEC. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients diagnosed with primary salivary gland MEC between 2003 and 2010 was conducted. The incidence of MEC in the minor salivary glands (62.2%) was almost twice that in the major salivary glands (37.8%). The most frequently affected sites were the parotid gland and palate. Lymph node metastasis was reported more frequently in male than female patients (P = 0.02), in high-grade than low/intermediate grade lesions (P < 0.001), and in lesions involving the submandibular gland (P < 0.001). The disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years was 80.47%, with rates of 98.0%, 86.5%, and 38.5% for low-, intermediate-, and high-grade tumours, respectively. Among various clinicopathological factors, the only independent prognostic factor was histological grade (P < 0.001). Primary tumour site and histological grade are two important factors affecting cervical lymph node metastasis. Histological grade is the only independent factor affecting survival beyond tumor lymph node metastasis (TNM) staging in salivary gland MEC. Further advances in therapy are needed to improve the outcomes for patients with high-grade lesions. PMID:24568836

  2. Recurrent malignant salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Bigas, M A; Sako, K; Razack, M S; Shedd, D P; Bakamjian, V Y; Castillo, N B; Rao, U

    1989-10-01

    Recurrent salivary gland malignancies present difficult therapeutic decisions and poor prognosis in many instances, and treatment becomes of a palliative nature only. As many of the salivary gland malignancies we see are of the recurrent type, the following study was done to determine the efficacy of a vigorous attempt at retreatment. During the period January 1, 1960, through December 31, 1984, 352 patients with major and minor salivary gland tumors were evaluated at our institution. There were 149 benign lesions and 203 patients with malignant tumors. Of these, 99 patients had recurrent and metastatic tumors that had been treated initially elsewhere. Thirty-three of these patients were able to be treated with curative intent: surgery, 21; surgery plus radiation, 9; radiation therapy alone, 2; and radiation plus chemotherapy, 1. The 5 year survival with no evidence of disease was achieved in three patients with surgery alone and two patients with surgery plus radiation therapy. The group of five patients was comprised of two patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas of the parotid, one with intermediate grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid, one, sebaceous cell carcinoma of the parotid, and one, adenoid cystic carcinoma of an accessory salivary gland. The results of this study serve to re-emphasize the relative poor yield of attempts at retreatment of loco-regional recurrence of salivary gland tumors.

  3. Postirradiation malignant salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Rice, D H; Batsakis, J G; McClatchey, K D

    1976-11-01

    Information concerning the relationship between salivary gland tumors and prior exposure to radiation for benign conditions or by accident is slowly being gathered. As yet, no statistical confidence can be established in this relationship. Very likely, this confidence will require studies akin to those done on the problem of thyroid cancer and irradiation. Including the case reported here, 50 tumors of the salivary glands have been reported to have followed prior radiation exposure. Twenty-three of these tumors have been malignant, with the mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most frequent histological type. The latent period in salivary tissues is 20 or more years.

  4. Embryoma (sialoblastoma) of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G; Frankenthaler, R

    1992-11-01

    There are four clinicopathologic categories of the exclusively major salivary gland tumors that present in the perinatal period. The two with the smallest representation among the 20 cases reported to date are those with a hamartomalike appearance and those with benign adult equivalents--the pleomorphic and monomorphic adenomas. Five cases have been undifferentiated or basaloid salivary carcinomas. Embryomas (sialoblastomas) are the most numerous. These tumors manifest a histologic phenotype like that of the epithelial anlage of the salivary glands, albeit in an arrested state of differentiation.

  5. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain mutations are rare in salivary gland carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Dahse, R; Driemel, O; Schwarz, S; Dahse, J; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Berndt, A; Kosmehl, H

    2009-01-01

    Activating mutations within the epidermal growth factor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase domain identify non-small cell lung cancer patients with improved clinical response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Recently, we identified two EGFR mutations in a cohort of 25 salivary gland carcinomas (SGCs) by screening the tumour samples for the both most common hotspot mutations in exons 19 and 21 by allele-specific PCR. Here, we present a comprehensive sequencing analysis of the entire critical EGFR tyrosine kinase domain in 65 SGC of the main histopathological types. We found EGFR mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain to be a rare event in SGCs. No additional mutations other than the two known exon 19 deletions (c.2235_2249del15) in a mucoepidermoid carcinoma and an adenoid cystic carcinoma have been detected. Other putative predictive markers for EGFR-targeted therapy in SGCs might be relevant and should be investigated. PMID:19174819

  7. Intraductal carcinoma of salivary gland (so-called low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma) arising in an intraparotid lymph node.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, Ilan

    2011-09-01

    Since the first description of an entirely intraductal epithelial proliferation of salivary gland by Chen in 1983 as an "intraductal carcinoma", there have been several dozen reported cases with the same and various additional names including "low-grade salivary duct carcinoma", "low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and "carcinoma in situ" of salivary gland. These refer to a combination of nests and cysts of varying size formed by a cellular proliferation resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia or ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. The lesions are generally entirely intraductal with low, intermediate or high-grade dysplasia. Occasional benign tumors of salivary gland, particularly Warthin tumor and rare salivary carcinomas may arise within an intraparotid lymph node. In addition, intraparotid lymph nodes are a routine location for metastatic disease. A case of a 59-year-old female with a parotid mass is described, which grossly had the appearance of a Warthin tumor. Microscopically, it was an entirely intranodal proliferation of cells with diffuse AE1/AE3 and S100 positivity. The nests and cysts were completely surrounded by a rim of non-neoplastic myoepithelial cells, which were positive for CK14, p63, SMA, MSA and calponin. The tumor cells were negative for these markers. The cells were only focally positive for AR and BRST-2. They showed negligible MIB-1 staining. This report describes, for the first time, an entirely intranodal location for a low-grade intraductal carcinoma (so-called low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma).

  8. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and ... the rest of the mouth. Salivary glands empty saliva into the mouth through ducts that open at ...

  9. Specific association of Epstein-Barr virus with lymphoepithelial carcinoma among tumors and tumorlike lesions of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Chan, J K; Yip, T T; Tsang, W Y; Poon, Y F; Wong, C S; Ma, V W

    1994-10-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNAs in situ localization procedure is a convenient, highly sensitive, and highly specific technique that is applicable to routinely fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections; this technique can be used for the study of the association and, hence, the possible causal role of EBV in tumors. This study was performed to elucidate whether EBV plays a role in the pathogenesis of tumors that arise in the salivary glands, since the salivary gland is known to be a reservoir for EBV replication. Cases that were selected included 61 examples of various benign and malignant neoplasms, as well as tumorlike conditions of the major and minor salivary glands. Only the five cases of lymphoepithelial carcinoma (so-called malignant lymphoepithelial lesion) and the single case of metastatic nasopharyngeal undifferentiated carcinoma showed staining with EBV-encoded RNAs, whereas negative findings were found in all of the other cases. In the cases with positive results, all of the neoplastic epithelial cells showed strong nuclear signals, but the lymphoid cells were negative. The consistent association of EBV with lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary gland suggests that the virus probably plays a causal role in this tumor, at least in the Asian population, whereas there is no evidence for a causal role of EBV in other primary tumors of the salivary gland.

  10. PAK2 promotes migration and proliferation of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Lei; Bu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Li, Yi-Cun; Ma, Si-Rui; Yu, Guang-Tao; Mao, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    P21 activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is a member of Group I PAKs family and highly expressed in various cancers. Current studies have demonstrated that PAK2 played a pivotal role in tumor progression. However, the role of PAK2 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma is still unclear. This study aims to explore the expression and the function of PAK2 in AdCC. Human salivary gland tissue microarray, including 18 normal salivary glands (NSG), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 72 AdCC, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of PAK2. The result showed that PAK2 was significantly increased in AdCC compared with NSG and PMA. Then the Pearson correlation analysis using serial tissue sections showed a close correlation of PAK2 with Cyclin D1, Phospho-STAT3 at Tyrosine 705 (p-STAT3) and Ki-67. Further in vitro study utilizing PAK2 knockdown via siRNA transfection revealed significantly reduced migration and proliferation of AdCC cell lines compared with control group. Knockdown of PAK2 decreased the expression of Cyclin D1 in AdCC cell lines. In addition, the inhibition of STAT3 reduced the expression of PAK2 in AdCC cell lines. These findings suggested that PAK2 promotes AdCC cell migration and proliferation and may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27648129

  11. PAK2 promotes migration and proliferation of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Lei; Bu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Li, Yi-Cun; Ma, Si-Rui; Yu, Guang-Tao; Mao, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    P21 activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is a member of Group I PAKs family and highly expressed in various cancers. Current studies have demonstrated that PAK2 played a pivotal role in tumor progression. However, the role of PAK2 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma is still unclear. This study aims to explore the expression and the function of PAK2 in AdCC. Human salivary gland tissue microarray, including 18 normal salivary glands (NSG), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 72 AdCC, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of PAK2. The result showed that PAK2 was significantly increased in AdCC compared with NSG and PMA. Then the Pearson correlation analysis using serial tissue sections showed a close correlation of PAK2 with Cyclin D1, Phospho-STAT3 at Tyrosine 705 (p-STAT3) and Ki-67. Further in vitro study utilizing PAK2 knockdown via siRNA transfection revealed significantly reduced migration and proliferation of AdCC cell lines compared with control group. Knockdown of PAK2 decreased the expression of Cyclin D1 in AdCC cell lines. In addition, the inhibition of STAT3 reduced the expression of PAK2 in AdCC cell lines. These findings suggested that PAK2 promotes AdCC cell migration and proliferation and may be a potential therapeutic target.

  12. PAK2 promotes migration and proliferation of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Lei; Bu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Li, Yi-Cun; Ma, Si-Rui; Yu, Guang-Tao; Mao, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    P21 activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is a member of Group I PAKs family and highly expressed in various cancers. Current studies have demonstrated that PAK2 played a pivotal role in tumor progression. However, the role of PAK2 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma is still unclear. This study aims to explore the expression and the function of PAK2 in AdCC. Human salivary gland tissue microarray, including 18 normal salivary glands (NSG), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 72 AdCC, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of PAK2. The result showed that PAK2 was significantly increased in AdCC compared with NSG and PMA. Then the Pearson correlation analysis using serial tissue sections showed a close correlation of PAK2 with Cyclin D1, Phospho-STAT3 at Tyrosine 705 (p-STAT3) and Ki-67. Further in vitro study utilizing PAK2 knockdown via siRNA transfection revealed significantly reduced migration and proliferation of AdCC cell lines compared with control group. Knockdown of PAK2 decreased the expression of Cyclin D1 in AdCC cell lines. In addition, the inhibition of STAT3 reduced the expression of PAK2 in AdCC cell lines. These findings suggested that PAK2 promotes AdCC cell migration and proliferation and may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27648129

  13. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M; Wicha, Max S; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-29

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells.

  14. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T.; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M.; Wicha, Max S.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2015-01-01

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells. PMID:26449187

  15. Renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis to salivary glands - a series of 9 cases: clinico-pathological study.

    PubMed

    Majewska, H; Skálová, A; Radecka, K; Stodulski, D; Hyrcza, M; Stankiewicz, C; Biernat, W

    2016-03-01

    Metastatic tumors involving salivary glands arising from the non-head and neck area are very rare. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is known for its high propensity for metastasis to unusual localizations. RCC metastasis to the maxillofacial area is an uncommon event (16%), but metastasis to salivary glands is extremely rare. We report a series of 9 such cases retrieved from two institutions. The group included 6 females and 3 males. The age at diagnosis ranged from 60 to 97 years (mean 72.6 years). The tumors involved the parotid gland in 7 cases, and the submandibular and small salivary gland of the oral cavity in 1 case each. The size of tumors ranged from 0.4 to 5 cm. Total parotidectomy with selective neck dissection was performed in 4 cases, while superficial parotidectomy was performed in 1 case and simple resection in 3 cases. Histologically, all the tumors were clear cell renal cell carcinomas, and therefore the differential diagnosis mainly included clear cell variants of salivary gland carcinomas. The parotid gland was the initial manifestation of renal malignancy in 4 of the cases, while in the remaining 5 cases a history of RCC had been known. The salivary gland involvement developed from 11 months to 13 years after the time of diagnosis of the primary tumor. In 2 cases it was the first site of dissemination. Pathologists need to maintain a high index of suspicion for the possibility of metastasis when confronted with oncocytic or clear cell neoplasms developing in salivary glands. RCC, although rare, should be included in this differential diagnosis. PMID:27179273

  16. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Saori; Yoshihara, Toshio

    2007-07-01

    The proliferative activity of the tumor cells and the expression of tumor-associated genes and sex steroid hormone receptors were investigated immunohistochemically in ten cases of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA) of the salivary glands. These were analyzed in benign and malignant components separately, and then were compared with ten cases of the other malignant tumors [adenocarcinomas, not otherwise specified (ACN) and salivary duct carcinomas (SDC)] and ten cases of pleomorphic adenomas (PA). The results obtained in this study were as follows: (1) malignant component of Ca-ex-PA showed a higher incidence of PCNA and Ki67 than benign component of Ca-ex-PA. A significant difference between benign component of Ca-ex-PA and PA was not observed. (2) A significant difference in the incidence of p53, c-erbB-2, EGFR overexpression was observed only between malignant component of Ca-ex-PA and benign component of Ca-ex-PA. (3) The incidence of PCNA, Ki67, p53, c-erbB-2 overexpression in malignant component of Ca-ex-PA showed the highest data among the four groups. These results suggest that Ca-ex-PA acquired the particular biological behavior in contrast to the other salivary neoplasms in the long-standing process while PA undergoes malignant transformation.

  17. Differential diagnosis between adenoid cystic carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary glands of palate.

    PubMed

    Cerulli, Giulio; Renzi, Giancarlo; Perugini, Maurizio; Becelli, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    Tumors arising from minor salivary glands of the palate may exhibit an overlap of clinical and biologic features that may produce diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Surgical treatment can be very different, depending on the dimensions and malignant or benign nature of the tumors, and therefore should be planned on the basis of an accurate differential diagnosis. A retrospective analysis in 24 patients with pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma of minor salivary glands of the palate was performed to investigate the accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and biopsy with histology in the preoperative diagnosis. Preoperative diagnoses obtained with FNAC and biopsy were compared with findings of the definitive histopathologic examination performed on the resected mass. Correspondence between the preoperative diagnoses determined by FNACs and the definitive histopathologic results was observed in 22 of 24 cases, whereas a complete equivalence was found with regards to histology. In the analysis, FNAC was associated with 91.6% accuracy and an error rate of 8.4% in the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the palate. From the results of the analysis, histologic examination is still the most accurate diagnostic tool in such tumors. FNAC can be considered in tumors of the head and neck regions that are difficult to reach by means of a common biopsy.

  18. Salivary gland-type tumors of the breast: a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors including "triple negative carcinomas" of low malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Foschini, Maria P; Krausz, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Salivary gland-type neoplasms of the breast are uncommon and comprise numerous entities analogous to that more commonly seen in salivary glands. The clinicopathologic spectrum ranges from benign to malignant but there are important differences as compared with those of their salivary counterpart. In the breast, benign adenomyoepithelioma is recognized in addition to malignant one, whereas in the salivary gland a histologically similar tumor is designated as epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma without a separate benign subgroup. Mammary adenoid cystic carcinoma is a low-grade neoplasm compared with its salivary equivalent. It is also important to appreciate that in contrast to "triple negative" conventional breast carcinomas with aggressive course, most salivary-type malignant breast neoplasms behave in a low-grade manner. Most of these tumors are capable of differentiating along both epithelial and myoepithelial lines, but the amount of each lineage-component varies from case to case, contributing to diagnostic difficulties. Well established examples of this group include pleomorphic adenoma, adenomyoepithelioma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Another family of salivary gland-type mammary epithelial neoplasms is devoid of myoepithelial cells. Key examples include mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. The number of cases of salivary gland-type mammary neoplasms in the published data is constantly increasing but some of the rarest subtypes like polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and oncocytic carcinoma are "struggling" to become clinically relevant entities in line with those occurring more frequently in salivary glands.

  19. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  20. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2/neu) in Salivary Gland Carcinomas: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Mislat; Alqarni, Mohammed Ali; Alnobi, Abdelrahman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study is to assess the relation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or HER2/neu with the development of salivary gland carcinomas and use of Herceptin in the treatment of these cancers. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface searching for articles from 1994 up to 2014 relating to the existence of HER-2 protein and gene in salivary gland carcinomas and HER2/neu targeted therapy, written in English language. Almost all the studies in literature reported a frequent over expression and amplification of HER2/nue in salivary duct carcinomas (SDC) compared to other salivary gland cancers. Herceptin given as a monotherapy was not effective. The data on Herceptin combined chemotherapy are potentially promising but inadequate to evaluate drug activity, as patients also received a variety of cytotoxic agents. Therefore, Herceptin contribution to tumour response outcomes could not be precisely determined and the total number of cases is not sufficient. It is recommended that further work involves a large series of HER2/neu positive salivary gland cancers (randomized control trial) treated with chemotherapy with and without Herceptin. This might need multi-institutional cooperation. PMID:25859537

  1. Aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Kline, T S; Merriam, J M; Shapshay, S M

    1981-09-01

    Aspiration biopsy by fine needle from the major salivary glands has been an under-utilized technic in the United States. To evaluate this form of biopsy, 69 patients with salivary gland enlargement were examined by this technic; 47 had confirmative histology. Characteristic ABC patterns were seen in the benign mixed tumor, the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, the mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and malignancy metastatic to the salivary gland. These findings are described. The method proved complication-free and accurate and is recommended for all tumors of the salivary gland.

  2. Malignant mixed tumors arising in salivary glands. I. Carcinomas arising in benign mixed tumors: a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    LiVolsi, V A; Perzin, K H

    1977-05-01

    Forty-seven cases of malignant mixed tumor (MMT) arising in major and minor salivary glands are presented. By definition, all these lesions contained both a benign mixed tumor (BMT) as well as a malignant neoplasm, usually a poorly differentiated carcinoma. In some cases, the carcinoma developed in a previously untreated salivary gland mass which was known to have been present for many years, others evolved in a recurrent previously resected BMT and still others originated in a previously undetected BMT. Adverse prognostic factors included: carcinomatous involvement of the resection lines, perineural invasion, metastases in lymph nodes, and origin in a major salivary gland. Lesions arising in the palate had a better prognosis as compared to major salivary gland tumors. Some patients died of locally uncontrollable tumor and others because of metastatic disease. Local recurrences of MMT were seen frequently; 18 patients (38%) had a total of 32 local recurrences. Of patients followed five years or more, seven (35%) had died of tumor, 11 (55%) had no evidence of disease, and two (10%) had died of other causes. Prolonged follow-up is required because recurrences and death from tumor may be seen many years following the diagnosis of MMT. Recommendations for therapy are made. Criteria for differentiating MMT from recurrent BMT and from cylindromatous carcinoma are discussed.

  3. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions.

  4. Tenascin in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Soini, Y; Pääkkö, P; Virtanen, I; Lehto, V P

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of tenascin immunoreactivity was analysed in salivary gland tissue and in various benign and malignant tumours of the salivary gland. In the non-neoplastic tissue, tenascin was seen in the areas of basement membranes of the ductal epithelium. No immunoreactivity could be observed in the serous or mucous glands. In pleomorphic adenomas, tenascin immunoreactivity could be seen in the stromal compartment. It was more pronounced in the dense stromal areas and chondroid elements than in the myxoid area. In Warthin's tumours, strong tenascin immunoreactivity could be observed in the basement membrane zone of the epithelial component. In the lymphatic component, faint reticular staining could be seen. In adenoid cystic carcinomas, acinic cell tumours and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, tenascin showed a linear stromal distribution. No intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity could be seen in any of the cases. The widespread tenascin positivity in salivary gland tumours suggests that tenascin may play a role in the induction and progression of salivary gland tumours, presumably by interfering with the normal parenchymal-mesenchymal interaction.

  5. The oncofetal protein IMP3 is an indicator of early recurrence and poor outcome in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Elshafey, Mohamed R.; Ahmed, Rehab A.; Mourad, Mohamed I; Gaballah, Essam T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary malignancy of the salivary glands. Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein-3 (IMP3) is an important prognostic factor in some cancers and a tool that differentiates between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. This study aimed to identify a relationship between the expression of IMP3 and the outcome of salivary gland MEC, as well as to differentiate MEC from pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Methods:Tissue specimens from 70 cases of salivary gland MEC, 40 cases of PA, and 10 cases with normal salivary gland were examined immunohistochemically for IMP3. The association among the expression of IMP3, clinicopathological characteristics and patient's survival was assessed. Results:IMP3 was present in 51.4% of MEC but absent in PA and normal salivary gland tissues. IMP3 expression was associated with age > 60 years, submandibular gland tumors, tumor size > 4 cm, high-grade tumors, lymph node metastasis, involvement of surgical margins, perineural invasion, distant metastasis, advanced TNM stage, tumor relapse, and death ( P<0.05). Increased expression of IMP3, tumors of the submandibular gland, and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors of -free survival (DFS). In addition, IMP3 was a strong predictor of overall survival (OS) together with distant metastasis and intermediate and high-grade tumors. Conclusions:IMP3 expression is highly important in evaluating the outcome of MEC. IMP3 can be used to differentiate MEC from PA of salivary glands. PMID:27458536

  6. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic study of 25 patients.

    PubMed

    Savera, A T; Sloman, A; Huvos, A G; Klimstra, D S

    2000-06-01

    Salivary gland carcinomas displaying exclusively myoepithelial differentiation (myoepithelial carcinoma) are considered rare. Their histopathologic features, immunohistochemical profile, and clinical behavior are not well characterized. The authors reviewed the clinicopathologic features of 25 salivary gland tumors fulfilling two fundamental histologic criteria: unequivocally malignant and exclusively myoepithelial. For most of these, the original diagnosis was malignant mixed tumor. Thirteen men and 12 women aged 24 to 77 years (mean age, 55 yrs) participated in the study, and most presented with a painless mass. The parotid gland was the most common site (n = 15). Tumors ranged from 2.1 to 5.5 cm, arising either in association with a benign mixed tumor (n = 15) or de novo (n = 10). Histologically, all the tumors displayed infiltrative growth and most had a characteristic multinodular architecture with a cellular periphery and central necrotic/myxoid zones. Epithelioid, hyaline, spindle, clear, or mixed cell types were noted with accompanying myxoid and/or hyalinized extracellular matrix. Ten tumors were high grade cytologically and 15 were low grade. The mitotic rate ranged from three to 51 mitoses per 10 high-power fields. Necrosis was present in 15 tumors and perineural and vascular invasion were identified in 11 and four neoplasms respectively. Immunoreactivities included CAM5.2 (89%), AE1:AE3 (100%), 34betaE12 (92%), cytokeratin 7 (21%), cytokeratin 14 (53%), vimentin (100%), S-100 protein (100%), smooth muscle actin (50%), calponin (75%), muscle-specific actin (31%), glial fibrillary acidic protein (31%), carcinoembryonic antigen (0%), and epithelial membrane antigen (21%). Ultrastructural examination of three tumors showed myoepithelial features. Ten patients developed recurrences, mostly multiple. Follow up of 17 patients showed that eight patients (47%) developed metastases (six high grade, two low grade) and five patients (29%) died of disease (four high

  7. Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kini, Yogesh; Desai, Chirag; Mahindra, Uma; Kalburge, Jitendra

    2012-04-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA), as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells' invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years. PMID:22919226

  8. Microcystic/Reticular Schwannoma Arising in the Submandibular Gland: A Rare Benign Entity that Mimics More Common Salivary Gland Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ryan P; Melamed, Jonathan; Yee-Chang, Melissa; Marcus, Sonya; Givi, Babak; Zamuco, Ronaldo

    2016-09-01

    Microcystic/reticular schwannoma is a recently described variant of schwannoma with a predilection for the gastrointestinal tract, rarely involving the head/neck region. This is the first reported case involving the submandibular gland. We present a case in a 34 year old man with 4.5 cm submandibular mass. Fine needle aspiration suggested a spindle cell lesion. Frozen section evaluation raised the possibility of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Resection showed a well circumscribed mass with a mucoid appearance. Histologic findings include a lobular architecture with fibrous septa, a lympho-plasmacytic infiltrate, and scattered lymphoid aggregates at the periphery. There are two distinct histologic patterns with solid areas of spindle cells and areas of spindle/ovoid cells with a microcystic pattern in a myxoid background. The tumor has a pushing border, with extension into adipose and adjacent parenchyma, without cytologic atypia or necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains are positive for S-100 and CD34, and negative for calponin, mammoglobin, ALK1, p63, ER, GFAP, SMA, desmin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and C-Kit. Mucicarmine stain is negative. Recognition of this benign unusual variant of schwannoma is paramount for appropriate conservative treatment due to the morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap with primary salivary gland carcinomas.

  9. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children.

  10. Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts Lead the Invasion of Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cells by Creating an Invasive Track

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Jia, Zhuqiang; Kong, Jing; Zhang, Fuyin; Fang, Shimeng; Li, Xiaojie; Li, Wuwei; Yang, Xuesong; Luo, Yong; Lin, Bingcheng; Liu, Tingjiao

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are critical in determining tumor invasion and metastasis. However the role of CAFs in the invasion of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is poorly understood. In this study, we isolated primary CAFs from two ACC patients. ACC-derived CAFs expressed typical CAF biomarkers and showed increased migration and invasion activity. Conditioned medium collected from CAFs significantly promoted ACC cell migration and invasion. Co-culture of CAFs with ACC cells in a microfluidic device further revealed that CAFs localized at the invasion front and ACC cells followed the track behind the CAFs. Interfering of both matrix metalloproteinase and CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway inhibited ACC invasion promoted by CAFs. Overall, our study demonstrates that ACC-derived CAFs exhibit the most important defining feature of CAFs by promoting cancer invasion. In addition to secretion of soluble factors, CAFs also lead ACC invasion by creating an invasive track in the ECM. PMID:26954362

  11. Salivary gland carcinoma in Denmark 1990-2005: a national study of incidence, site and histology. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA).

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton; Overgaard, Jens; Johansen, Jørgen; Kristensen, Claus A; Homøe, Preben; Sørensen, Christian Hjort; Andersen, Elo; Bundgaard, Troels; Primdahl, Hanne; Lambertsen, Karin; Andersen, Lisbeth Juhler; Godballe, Christian

    2011-07-01

    To describe the incidence, site and histology (WHO 2005) of salivary gland carcinomas in Denmark. Nine hundred and eighty-three patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2005 were identified from three nation-wide registries. The associated clinical data were retrospectively retrieved from patient medical records. Histological revision was performed in 886 cases (90%). Based on histological revision, 31 patients (3%) were excluded from the study leaving 952 for epidemiological analysis. The mean crude incidence in Denmark was 1.1/100,000/year. The male vs. female ratio was 0.97 and the median age was 62 years. The parotid gland was the most common site (52.5%) followed by the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity (26.3%). The most frequent histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (25.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (16.9%), adenocarcinoma NOS (12.2%) and acinic cell carcinoma (10.2%). The revision process changed the histological diagnosis in 121 out of 886 cases (14%). The incidence of salivary gland carcinoma in Denmark is higher than previously reported. More than half of salivary gland carcinomas are located in the parotid gland with adenoid cystic carcinoma being the most frequent subtype. Histological classification of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult and evaluation by dedicated pathology specialists might be essential for optimal diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21612974

  12. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kevin F; Meier, Jeremy D; Ward, P Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Salivary gland disorders include inflammatory, bacterial, viral, and neoplastic etiologies. The presentation can be acute, recurrent, or chronic. Acute suppurative sialadenitis presents as rapid-onset pain and swelling and is treated with antibiotics, salivary massage, hydration, and sialagogues such as lemon drops or vitamin C lozenges. Viral etiologies include mumps and human immunodeficiency virus, and treatment is directed at the underlying disease. Recurrent or chronic sialadenitis is more likely to be inflammatory than infectious; examples include recurrent parotitis of childhood and sialolithiasis. Inflammation is commonly caused by an obstruction such as a stone or duct stricture. Management is directed at relieving the obstruction. Benign and malignant tumors can occur in the salivary glands and usually present as a painless solitary neck mass. Diagnosis is made by imaging (e.g., ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and biopsy (initially with fine-needle aspiration). Overall, most salivary gland tumors are benign and can be treated with surgical excision.

  13. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  14. Expression of miRNAs in adenoid cystic carcinomas of the breast and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Orsolya; Tőkés, Anna-Mária; Vranic, Semir; Gatalica, Zoran; Vass, László; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Szász, A Marcell; Kulka, Janina

    2015-11-01

    Despite their similar histomorphologic appearance, adenoid cystic carcinomas of the breast and salivary glands (bACCs and sACCs, respectively) are clinically and pathologically diverse. We studied the expression levels of 18 microRNAs (miRNAs) in bACCs and sACCs and control normal breast and salivary gland tissues (bNs and sNs, respectively) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues. miRNAs showing significant differences between the study groups were selected for target prediction. Increased expression of miR-17 and miR-20a was found in bACCs compared with bNs (p(miR-17) = 0.017 and p(miR-20a) = 0.024, respectively), while the expression level of let-7b and miR-193b was lower in sACCs compared with normal sNs (p let-7b = 0.032 and p(miR-193b) = 0.023, respectively). Expression of miR-23b and miR-27b differed between normal breast and normal salivary gland tissue (p(miR-23b) = 0.007 and p(miR-27b) = 0.024, respectively), but not between bACCs and sACCs. The potential target mRNAs CCND1 and BCL2 were identified as reported targets of let-7b, miR-193b, miR-17, and miR-20a. Expression of their corresponding proteins cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 was studied by immunohistochemistry. We found both proteins overexpressed in bACCs as well as sACCs in comparison with corresponding normal tissues. However, expression of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 proteins was not significantly different between bACCs and sACCs or between bNs and sNs. Although no differences in miRNA levels were found between bACCs and sACCs, in both organs, miRNA expression level was highly different between tumor tissue and control tissue. PMID:26293217

  15. Expression of miRNAs in adenoid cystic carcinomas of the breast and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Orsolya; Tőkés, Anna-Mária; Vranic, Semir; Gatalica, Zoran; Vass, László; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Szász, A Marcell; Kulka, Janina

    2015-11-01

    Despite their similar histomorphologic appearance, adenoid cystic carcinomas of the breast and salivary glands (bACCs and sACCs, respectively) are clinically and pathologically diverse. We studied the expression levels of 18 microRNAs (miRNAs) in bACCs and sACCs and control normal breast and salivary gland tissues (bNs and sNs, respectively) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues. miRNAs showing significant differences between the study groups were selected for target prediction. Increased expression of miR-17 and miR-20a was found in bACCs compared with bNs (p(miR-17) = 0.017 and p(miR-20a) = 0.024, respectively), while the expression level of let-7b and miR-193b was lower in sACCs compared with normal sNs (p let-7b = 0.032 and p(miR-193b) = 0.023, respectively). Expression of miR-23b and miR-27b differed between normal breast and normal salivary gland tissue (p(miR-23b) = 0.007 and p(miR-27b) = 0.024, respectively), but not between bACCs and sACCs. The potential target mRNAs CCND1 and BCL2 were identified as reported targets of let-7b, miR-193b, miR-17, and miR-20a. Expression of their corresponding proteins cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 was studied by immunohistochemistry. We found both proteins overexpressed in bACCs as well as sACCs in comparison with corresponding normal tissues. However, expression of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 proteins was not significantly different between bACCs and sACCs or between bNs and sNs. Although no differences in miRNA levels were found between bACCs and sACCs, in both organs, miRNA expression level was highly different between tumor tissue and control tissue.

  16. WISP-1 overexpression upregulates cell proliferation in human salivary gland carcinomas via regulating MMP-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fu-Jun; Wang, Xin-Juan; Zhou, Xiao-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background WISP-1 is a member of the CCN family of growth factors and has been reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis by triggering downstream events via integrin signaling. However, little is known about the role of WISP-1 in proliferation of salivary gland carcinoma (SGC) cells. Methods In this study, we investigated the WISP-1 expression in SGC tissues via immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting assay, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, and then evaluated the regulatory role of WISP-1 in the growth of SGC A-253 cells. In addition, the role of MMP-2 in the WISP-1-mediated growth regulation was also investigated. Results It was demonstrated that the WISP-1 expression was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in 15 of 21 SGC tumor tissues, compared to the non-tumor tissues (five of 21), associated with the lymph node dissection and bone invasion. The in vitro CCK-8 assay and colony-forming assay demonstrated that the exogenous WISP-1 treatment or the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the growth of A-253 cells. In addition, we confirmed that the WISP-1 overexpression upregulated the MMP-2 expression in A-253 cells with the gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies, and that the MMP-2 knockdown attenuated the WISP-1-mediated growth promotion of A-253 cells. Conclusion We found that WISP-1 was overexpressed in the human SGCs, and the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the salivary gland cell proliferation via upregulating MMP-2 expression. Our study recognized the oncogenic role of WISP-1 in human SGCs, which could serve as a potential target for anticancer therapy. PMID:27799801

  17. Integrated, genome-wide screening for hypomethylated oncogenes in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chunbo; Sun, Wenyue; Tan, Marietta; Glazer, Chad A.; Bhan, Sheetal; Zhong, Xiaoli; Fakhry, Carole; Sharma, Rajni; Westra, William H.; Hoque, Mohammad O.; Moskaluk, Christopher A.; Sidransky, David; Califano, Joseph A.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy that is poorly understood. In order to look for relevant oncogene candidates under the control of promoter methylation, an integrated, genome-wide screen was performed. Experimental Design Global demethylation of normal salivary gland cell strains using 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza dC) and Trichostatin A (TSA), followed by expression array analysis was performed. ACC-specific expression profiling was generated using expression microarray analysis of primary ACC and normal samples. Next, the two profiles were integrated to identify a subset of genes for further validation of promoter demethylation in ACC versus normal. Finally, promising candidates were further validated for mRNA, protein, and promoter methylation levels in larger ACC cohorts. Functional validation was then performed in cancer cell lines. Results We found 159 genes that were significantly re-expressed after 5-Aza dC/TSA treatment and overexpressed in ACC. After initial validation, eight candidates showed hypomethylation in ACC: AQP1, CECR1, C1QR1, CTAG2, P53AIP1, TDRD12, BEX1, and DYNLT3. Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) showed the most significant hypomethylation and was further validated. AQP1 hypomethylation in ACC was confirmed with two independent cohorts. Of note, there was significant overexpression of AQP1 in both mRNA and protein in the paraffin-embedded ACC cohort. Furthermore, AQP1 was up-regulated in 5-Aza dC/TSA treated SACC83. Lastly, AQP1 promoted cell proliferation and colony formation in SACC83. Conclusions Our integrated, genome-wide screening method proved to be an effective strategy for detecting novel oncogenes in ACC. AQP1 is a promising oncogene candidate for ACC and is transcriptionally regulated by promoter hypomethylation. PMID:21551254

  18. Analysis and significance of c-MET expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Bell, Diana; Ferrarotto, Renata; Fox, Melanie D; Roberts, Dianna; Hanna, Ehab Y; Weber, Randal S; El-Naggar, Adel K

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a rare salivary gland malignancy, is a histogenetic, morphologic, and clinical heterogeneous disease. Extensive efforts have been made to characterize molecular events associated with these tumors, including the identification of prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Increased copy number gain and amplification of c-Met, the cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, has been shown to enhance tumor growth and invasiveness and promote metastasis in certain tumor types. In this study, we evaluated the expression of c-Met by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a large cohort of salivary gland ACCs and examined its clinicopathologic implications. Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from 200 ACC patients were used in this study. Pathologic patterns and phenotypic expression of c-Met were recorded and compared with clinical factors including gender, age, disease stage at diagnosis, and clinical outcomes. Correlations between c-MET expression and clinical characteristics were assessed by Pearson's chi-square test or by the 2-tailed Fisher exact test. Curves describing overall survival were generated by Kaplan-Meier product limit method. Strong c-MET expression was seen in inner ductal and outer myoepithelial cells in 53.2% of the cases. There was no correlation between c-Met overexpression and clinicopathologic parameters or patient's overall survival ( p = .94074). In conclusion, c-MET expression is high in a significant subgroup of ACC patients. While c-MET expression is not a prognostic factor in ACC, its role as a predictive marker of benefit from MET inhibitors deserves further investigation.

  19. EWSR1 genetic rearrangements in salivary gland tumors: a specific and very common feature of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Akeesha A; LeGallo, Robin D; van Zante, Annemieke; Frierson, Henry F; Mills, Stacey E; Berean, Kenneth W; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Stelow, Edward B

    2013-04-01

    The Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) is translocated in many sarcomas. Recently, its rearrangement has been described in salivary gland hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas (HCCCs) and in a subset of soft tissue myoepitheliomas. This study examines the presence of the EWSR1 rearrangement in a variety of salivary gland lesions including classic myoepitheliomas and HCCCs. Using a tissue microarray and whole-mount sections, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on a variety of salivary gland lesions including HCCCs. The EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 87% of HCCCs (13 of 15); all other salivary gland lesions including classic myoepitheliomas had intact EWSR1. Patients with HCCCs with rearranged EWSR1 included 1 man, 10 women, and 2 of unknown sex. Ages ranged from 35 to 83 years; the tumor size ranged from 0.8 to 5.5 cm, and the involved locations included: palate (2), base of the tongue (2), mandible (2), submandibular gland (2), lip (1), floor of the mouth (1), sublingual gland (1), inner cheek (1), and nasopharynx (1). All HCCCs were composed of sheets and nests of monotonous cells with clear cytoplasm within a hyalinized stroma. All tested cases were immunoreactive with antibodies to p63 and were nonreactive with antibodies to more conventional myoepithelial antigens (e.g., smooth muscle actin and S100 protein). These findings show that the EWSR1 rearrangement is almost a defining feature of HCCCs and also confirm that classic salivary gland myoepitheliomas are distinct from these tumors and do not share a pathogenetic relationship with their soft tissue counterparts. PMID:23426124

  20. Lymphomas of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, M J; Bennett, M H; Cawson, R A

    1986-08-01

    Primary lymphomas arising in salivary glands are very uncommon. The histologic classification of 40 cases of lymphomas in salivary gland tissue submitted to the British Salivary Gland Tumour Panel is reported, and, for 30 of the patients for whom adequate information was available, the clinical presentation, management, and outcome have been analyzed. Lymphomas in salivary glands represented 1.7% of all reported salivary neoplasms. The majority developed in the parotid glands of patients aged between 50 and 70 years. Only four cases gave a premorbid history compatible with sicca syndrome. In this series, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas predominated; 23 were Grade I, and 13 were Grade II. Treatment regimens were not uniform, but are outlined. Survival ranged from 5 to 111 months. Median survival for the group was 49 months. Prognosis was not influenced by the clinical stage of disease at presentation. Four cases of lymphoma arising in benign lymphoepithelial lesions are included. None had clinical symptoms of sicca complex. Prognosis for this group was found to be as favorable as the others.

  1. GATA3 immunohistochemical expression in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren E; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William H; Bishop, Justin A

    2013-12-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on a diverse collection of 180 benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms including 10 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 41 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 2 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, 15 mammary analogue secretory carcinomas, 7 metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 oncocytic carcinomas, 5 oncocytomas, 34 pleomorphic adenomas, 4 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, 25 salivary duct carcinomas, and 5 Warthin tumors. Staining for GATA3 was observed in 92/180 (51 %) of salivary gland tumors. GATA3 staining was observed in most of the tumor types, but diffuse immunolabeling was consistently seen in salivary duct carcinoma (25 of 25) and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (15 of 15)-the two tumor types that most closely resemble breast neoplasia. Background benign salivary gland tissue was also usually weakly positive in both acini and ducts. GATA3 immunostaining is not restricted to tumors of breast and urothelial origin. Rather, it is expressed across many different types of salivary gland neoplasms. As a result, salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a GATA3-positive carcinoma, particularly in the head and neck. Although GATA3 immunohistochemistry is not helpful in resolving the differential diagnosis between a primary salivary gland neoplasm and metastatic breast

  2. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  3. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Christou, Andri; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Merkouris, Anastasios; Frangos, Savvas; Tamana, Panayiota; Charalambous, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000-10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, p < 0.10, and p < 0.05, resp.). Parotid gland massage also reduced the salivary damage significantly (p < 0.001). Additionally, vitamin C had some limited effect (p = 0.37), whereas no effect was present in the case of chewing gum (p = 0.99). Conclusion. The review showed that, among nonpharmacological interventions, sialogogues and parotid gland massage had the greatest impact on reducing salivary damage induced by radioiodine therapy of DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions. PMID:27446226

  4. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Papastavrou, Evridiki; Frangos, Savvas; Tamana, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000–10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, p < 0.10, and p < 0.05, resp.). Parotid gland massage also reduced the salivary damage significantly (p < 0.001). Additionally, vitamin C had some limited effect (p = 0.37), whereas no effect was present in the case of chewing gum (p = 0.99). Conclusion. The review showed that, among nonpharmacological interventions, sialogogues and parotid gland massage had the greatest impact on reducing salivary damage induced by radioiodine therapy of DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions. PMID:27446226

  5. Rare Malignant and Benign Salivary Gland Epithelial Tumors.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R; Barnes, E Leon

    2011-12-01

    Although at least 24 distinct histologic salivary gland carcinomas exist, many of them are rare, comprising only 1% to 2% of all salivary gland tumors. These include epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, (hyalinizing) clear cell carcinoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, cystadenocarcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma), oncocytic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified. Few tumors (clear cell carcinoma and basal cell adenocarcinoma) have unique molecular correlates. Benign tumors, although histologically less diverse, are far more common, with pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin tumor the most common salivary gland tumors. Many benign tumors have malignant counterparts for which histologic distinction can pose diagnostic challenge.

  6. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  7. Minor salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma in children and adolescents: a case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Because well-documented cases of mucoepidermoid carcinomas that are of minor salivary gland origin and occur in children and adolescents have rarely been reported, little information regarding their clinical features and biologic behavior is available. This case report represents a retrospective clinical analysis of five minor salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas accessioned from a 35-year period at the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry and combines the data with 15 well-documented cases from the English language literature. Case presentation The five mucoepidermoid carcinomas in patients from birth to 19 years of age accounted for 1.3% of the accessioned minor salivary gland neoplasms. There were an additional 15 well-documented cases in the literature. Combining the data for the 20 mucoepidermoid carcinomas resulted in a mean age of 13.5 years and a 2.3:1 female-to-male ratio. Collectively, the hard palate, soft palate, and hard palate/soft palate junction accounted for 85% of the cases. Thirty-five percent of the cases presented as a fluctuant submucosal swelling with surface color alterations. The average duration was five months, and bone involvement occurred in seven cases. A histologic grade of low to intermediate predominated (95%). Surgical removal was the treatment in all cases. Thirteen cases had adequate follow-up of three years or more, and recurrence was documented in only one case. There were no cases of death or metastasis in this series. Conclusions In children and adolescents, mucoepidermoid carcinomas have a female predilection and occur most commonly on the hard or soft palate or both. A fluctuant submucosal lump with a bluish color is a helpful diagnostic clue. The histologic grades of most mucoepidermoid carcinomas in the first and second decades of life are low and, to a lesser degree, intermediate. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice and results in a recurrence rate of less than 10%. PMID

  8. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  9. [Nasal endoscope surgery of acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland on nasal septum: a case report].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Xiuzhen; Wang, Jizhe

    2016-02-01

    A 67-year-old male patient was admitted because of "the right side nasal obstruction repeatedly for 4 years". He got nasal obstruction 4 years ago, especially for the right side nasal cavity, sometimes got blood in his nasal discharge, then the symptom relieved after accepting treatment in local hospital. During the 4 years, the symptom repeatedly occurrence. Three days before hospitalization, the CT examination indicated abnormal things in his nasal cavity and the bone of his nasal sinus had been destroyed. Some abnormal organism were sent to pathological examination, and the report indicated it is acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland. During the nasal endoscope surgery, a red goiter was found in his nose with its surface crude and brittle. Then we cut the goiter by nasal endoscope, during the operation we find the bottom of the goiter is on the nasal septum. Two weeks after the operation, the patient received the radiation therapy. One year after the operation he doesn't get the abnormal symptom and the nasal MRI not found recidivation. PMID:27373103

  10. Clinicopathological characteristics and cell cycle proteins as potential prognostic factors in myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Passador-Santos, F; Grönroos, M; Irish, J; Gilbert, R; Gullane, P; Perez-Ordonez, B; Mäkitie, A; Leivo, I

    2016-03-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma (MCA) is a rare malignancy of salivary glands that was included in the WHO Classification of Head and Neck Tumors in 1991. MCA has shown a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes, but attempts to identify prognostic markers for this malignancy have not resulted in significant progress. Conventional histopathological characteristics such as tumour grade, nuclear atypia, mitotic index and cell proliferation have failed to predict the outcome of MCA. In this study, we reviewed the histopathology of 19 cases of MCA focusing on nuclear atypia, mitotic count, tumour necrosis, nerve and vascular invasion and occurrence of a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma in connection to the MCA. Histopathological characteristics and clinical information were correlated with the immunohistochemical expression of cell cycle proteins including c-Myc, p21, Cdk4 and Cyclin D3. The proportion of tumour cells immunoreactive for these markers and their intensity of staining were correlated with clinical information using logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Using logistic regression analysis, cytoplasmic c-Myc expression was associated with the occurrence of metastases (P = 0.019), but limitations of semi-quantitation of immunostaining and the limited number of cases preclude definitive conclusions. Our data show that the occurrence of tumour necrosis predicts poor disease-free survival in MCA (P = 0.035).

  11. Mutations associated with carcinomas arising from pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Kishimoto, Y; Virmani, A K; Smith, A; Vuitch, F; Albores-Saavedra, J; Gazdar, A F

    1996-08-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of salivary glands. Carcinomas in pleomorphic adenomas (CPAs) may arise by malignant transformation of the epithelial components of PAs. Occasionally, transitional zones containing cells with histological features intermediate between those of the benign PA and carcinomatous components of CPA are identified. After careful microdissection of archival microslides, the authors studied 12 cases of CPAs and their attendant adenomatous and transitional areas for mutations in the p53, RB, and K-ras genes, and at chromosomal loci 5q and 9p. The authors failed to find mutations in the K-ras gene or 9p locus. A relatively high rate of mutations (loss of heterozygosity [LOH] and microsatellite alterations) at the p53 gene were detected in CPAs (58%), and at somewhat lower frequencies at the RB gene (33%) and chromosomal location 5q (17%). Mutational frequency in the associated transitional and adenomatous areas were slightly lower than in the corresponding CPAs. No mutations were detected in adenomatous or transitional areas unless they also were present in the corresponding CPAs. Mutations of these three genes were absent in four cases of CPA, and in seven PAs without malignant change. These findings indicate that most CPAs arise from adenomas as the result of mutations in the three genes, especially p53. In addition, other, as yet unidentified genes may also be involved both in the development of PA and in its malignant progression to CPA. Mutational analysis of PAs may provide information of prognostic importance.

  12. [Significance of molecular-cytogenetic findings in mucoepidermoid carcinoma as an example of salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Röser, K; Jäkel, K T; Bullerdiek, J; Löning, T

    2005-09-01

    Chromosome translocations in tumors frequently give rise to fusion genes encoding proteins with oncogenic activities. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) are characterized by a t(11;19)(q21-22;p13) translocation found in approximately 60% of the tumors. This t(11;19) translocation results in a fusion gene consisting of exon 1 of the MECT 1 gene and exons 2-5 of the MAML 2 gene. As a result of the t(11;19) a fusion protein is generated which, independent of NOTCH-ligands, activates the transcription of the NOTCH target gene HES 1. The altered function of MAML 2 causes a disruption of NOTCH signalling which suggests a novel mechanism of tumorigenesis. Pending the elucidation of the t(11;19) at the molecular level of an apparently identical chromosomal translocation in Warthin's tumor, the identification of the translocation in MEC by FISH- and/or RT-PCR-analyses may become important in diagnosis and might have prognostic relevance. Warthin's tumors are benign salivary gland neoplasms with a distinctive histomorphology and histogenesis completely different from MEC.

  13. Primary intraosseous (central) salivary gland neoplasms in jaw bones: report of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandible diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Zaharopoulos, Paul

    2004-10-01

    A case of intraosseous (central) mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandible diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, with the diagnosis confirmed by surgical resection of the tumor is presented. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common histotype of malignant and benign salivary gland tumors, which occasionally arise within the facial bones of mandible and maxilla, besides their ordinary derivation from the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck regions. This case is unusual in that although tumors of the jaws abound, only rare reports of intraosseous salivary gland-type lesions sampled by FNA exist. The current concepts exploring the intraosseous derivation of salivary gland tumors are presented and certain points on FNA technic for adequate sampling of such lesions are related.

  14. Undifferentiated carcinoma of the salivary gland in Greenlandic Eskimos: demonstration of Epstein-Barr virus DNA by in situ nucleic acid hybridization.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Dutoit, S J; Therkildsen, M H; Neilsen, N H; Jensen, H; Hansen, J P; Pallesen, G

    1991-08-01

    Paraffin sections of 11 undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas of lymphoepithelioma type (malignant lymphoepithelial lesion) arising in Greenlandic Eskimos (Inuit) were examined for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using in situ nucleic acid hybridization with a 35S-labeled EBV-specific probe. Epstein-Barr virus genomes were detected in each case in malignant epithelial cells, but were not found in lymphoid stroma or in residual benign salivary epithelium. Eight undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas from non-Eskimo patients (including two with lymphoepithelioma-like features) were negative for EBV-DNA. Our results confirm the existence of a consistent and specific association between EBV and tumor cells of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinoma of lymphoepithelioma type arising in Greenlandic Eskimos.

  15. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary glands: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Débora Lima; Corrêa, Marcelo Brum; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare tumor, especially in the minor salivary glands. This case report describes a 40-year-old man who presented with an EMC on the palate. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a biphasic structure consisting of duct-lining cuboidal cells in the inner layer and clear myoepithelial cells in the outer layer. The clear cells predominated, and the diagnosis was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining. The inner cuboidal epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratins, whereas the outer cells were positive for S-100 protein and smooth muscle actin. The patient was treated with a wide surgical excision, and no recurrence or metastasis was observed at a 10-year follow-up. A literature review found only 30 well-documented cases of EMC in the intraoral minor salivary glands. PMID:27599278

  16. Cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Skálová, A; Leivo, I

    1996-06-01

    Salivary gland tumors often pose considerable difficulty in differential diagnostic and prognostic assessment based on histomorphologic grounds alone. Histomorphology may poorly correlate with clinical outcome and the tumors within the same type in classification schedule exhibit different clinical courses. Prognostic relevance of various cell proliferation markers has been investigated in many types of human cancer, recently including salivary gland tumors. Evaluation of DNA content by flow cytometry and by cytophotometry, AgNOR technique, and immunohistochemical detection of antigens in cycling cells such as the Ki67 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) have been applied to a variety of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors in only few studies so far. Cell proliferation, assessed with the MIB1 antibody, that recognizes the Ki67 antigen in proliferating cells, represents a significant prognostic factor for acinic cell carcinomas and mucoepidermoid carcinomas of salivary gland origin. Moreover, much lower proliferative activity as assessed with the MIB1 antibody helps to distinguish difficult cases of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas from adenoid cystic carcinomas and may contribute to differentiation of solid myoepithelial cell-rich pleomorphic adenomas from various malignant tumors. Thus, assessment of cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors using the MIB1 antibody and PCNA in paraffin-embedded tissue should be incorporated into routine immunohistologic evaluation of histologically difficult cases of salivary gland tumors.

  17. Imaging of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Weissman, J L

    1995-12-01

    CT and MRI have greatly facilitated evaluation of pathology of the three pairs of major salivary glands and the hundreds of minor salivary glands. Imaging can frequently offer a specific histological diagnosis for benign and malignant neoplasms of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. Obstruction, infection, autoimmune processes, and congenital anomalies also are readily diagnosed. CT and MRI studies assess the anatomic extent of minor salivary gland neoplasms. Sialography continues to provide useful information about intrinsic abnormalities of the parotid and submandibular ducts.

  18. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of salivary gland with high-grade histology arising in hard palate, report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenyi; Lindley, Sarah W; Lindley, Peter H; Krempl, Gregory A; Seethala, Raja R; Fung, Kar-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland analog secretary carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland is typically a tumor of low histologic grade and behaves as a low-grade malignancy with relatively benign course. This tumor shares histologic features, immunohistochemical profile, and a highly specific genetic translocation, ETV6-NTRK3, with secretory carcinoma of breast. Histologically, it is often mistaken as acinic cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, and other primary salivary gland tumors. Here we report a case of MASC with high-grade transformation and cervical lymph node metastases confirmed with ETV6-NTRK3 translocation arising in the hard palate of a 41 year-old adult. Interestingly, the metastatic carcinoma has lower grade than the original tumor which strongly support malignant transformation of the original tumor. Most commonly, MASC arises from the parotid gland and less often in minor salivary glands. Metastasis is relatively uncommon and high-grade histology has only been reported in four cases with three of them arising from the parotid gland and the location of the fourth one has not been reported. This is the first case with high grade histology that arise from minor salivary gland and it emphasizes the importance of molecular screening of salivary gland tumor with high-grade histology for ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. In our literature of 115 cases that includes the current case, MASC occurred predominantly in adult with only a few cases under 18 years of age and a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Parotid gland is more commonly affected but there is also significant occurrence in minor salivary glands. Except for the cases with high grade histology, the overall prognosis is good.

  19. Expression of NFkB1, GADD45A and JNK1 in salivary gland carcinomas of different histotypes.

    PubMed

    Gobel, Gyula; Szanyi, István; Révész, Péter; Bauer, Miklós; Gerlinger, Imre; Németh, Árpád; Ember, István; Gocze, Katalin; Gombos, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    The class of salivary gland tumours is very heterogenous, both in a histopathological and clinical sense. Since they are uncommon lesions, their clinical management is still problematic. Molecular mechanisms underlying the development of these cancer types may be fundamental for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease. In this study, the gene expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NKkB1/p65), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1) and growth arrest and DNA damage (GADD45A), which all play an important role in inflammatory and cell survival mechanisms, was assessed in benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary gland. The absolute mRNA content of paraffin embedded samples of salivary gland cancer was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using specific primers for NFkB1, GADD45A and JNK1. Expression values (relative to HPRT) were statistically evaluated. Among the detected alterations in gene expression, the only difference reaching statistical significance was in the case of NFkB1 in adenocystic carcinomas (p=0.05). Given the importance of these signalling mechanisms in the biology of tumorigenesis, these results may be implemented in further research and these genes might become targets for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  20. Acinic-cell carcinoma, papillary-cystic variant: a diagnostic dilemma in salivary gland aspiration.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Z

    2002-10-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays a pivotal role as the initial diagnostic modality of choice when dealing with salivary gland (SG) lesions. Due to the heterogeneous nature of most SG neoplasms, cytologic interpretation on FNA can be quite challenging. This is particularly valid when dealing with rare tumor types, such as the papillary-cystic variant of acinic-cell carcinoma (ACC-PCV), resulting in a high rate of false-negative cytologic diagnoses. Seven cases of ACC-PCV diagnosed on tissue resection with a prior FNA performed in cytology were studied. Material consisted of Diff-Quik and Papanicolaou stained cytologic smears, as well as hematoxylin-eosin stained cell block and histopathologic sections. In no case did the FNA performed prior to the surgical resection eventuate in a cytopathologic diagnosis of cancer. A retrospective morphologic review of the smears disclosed several characteristics common to all 7 cases, i.e., mostly tightly cohesive fragments of neoplastic epithelium seen as monolayered sheets or with a prominent papillary architecture, high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio ductal-type epithelium, cystic material and degenerated cellular debris, histiocytes, cells with squamoid and metaplastic oncocytic changes, vacuolated and pigmented histiocyte-like tumor cells, and lack of a predominant single-cell component or naked neoplastic cell nuclei. ACC-PCV represents a rare yet significant cause of false-negative results for cancer on SG aspirations. An erroneous interpretation may occur due to lack of experience in dealing with this tumor type, the rarity of published literature on ACC-PCV, and a predominantly cystic, somewhat variegated appearance of the tumor mimicking other benign and malignant SG lesions.

  1. Local-regional recurrence after surgery without postoperative irradiation for carcinomas of the major salivary glands: Implications for adjuvant therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Granchi, Phillip J.; Garcia, Joaquin; Bucci, M. Kara; Fu, Karen K.; Eisele, David W. . E-mail: deisele@ohns.ucsf.edu

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To determine factors predictive of local-regional recurrence (LRR) after surgery alone for carcinomas of the major salivary glands in an attempt to evaluate the potential role of postoperative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 207 patients with carcinomas of the major salivary glands were treated with definitive surgery without postoperative radiation therapy. Histology was: 67 mucoepidermoid (32%), 50 adenoid cystic (24%), 34 acinic cell (16%), 23 malignant mixed (11%), 16 adenocarcinoma (8%), 6 oncocytic (3%), 6 myoepithelial (3%), and 5 other (2%). Distribution of pathologic T-stage was: 54 T1 (26%), 83 T2 (40%), 46 T3 (22%), and 24 T4 (12%). Sixty patients (29%) had microscopically positive margins. Median follow-up was 6.1 years (range, 0.5-18.7 years). Results: The 5-year and 10-year estimates of local-regional control were 86% and 74%, respectively. A Cox proportional hazard model identified pathologic lymph node metastasis (hazard ratio [HR], 4.8; p = 0.001), high histologic grade (HR, 4.2; p = 0.003), positive margins (HR, 2.6; p = 0.03), and T3-4 disease (HR, 2.0; p = 0.04) as independent predictors of LRR. The presence of any one of these factors was associated with 10-year local-regional control rates of 37% to 63%. Conclusion: Lymph node metastasis, high tumor grade, positive margins, and T3-4 stage predict for significant rates of LRR after surgery for carcinomas of the major salivary glands. Postoperative radiation therapy should be considered for patients with these disease characteristics.

  2. TRK-A, HER-2/neu, and KIT Expression/Activation Profiles in Salivary Gland Carcinoma1,2

    PubMed Central

    Dagrada, Gian Paolo; Greco, Angela; Staurengo, Samantha; Guzzo, Marco; Locati, Laura D; Carbone, Antonino; Pierotti, Marco A

    2008-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinomas (SDCs) and adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) are the most aggressive and the most frequent carcinomas of the salivary glands, respectively. Little is known about them in terms of molecular/biochemical characterization and conventional treatments are ineffective. On cryopreserved material, we analyzed the expression/activation status of TRK-A, HER-2/neu, and KIT receptors by means of immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis experiments, and the presence of their cognate ligands by means of Western blot analysis and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 9 SDCs, 12 ACCs, and 8 normal glands. The amplification status of HER-2/neu was also investigated by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis on fixed material. The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-deregulated profile of the SDCs was characterized by the overexpression of activated TRK-A in the presence of its ligand, and the overexpression of HER-2/neu sustained by gene amplification. The RTK signature of the ACCs was represented by the overexpression of activated KIT and TRK-A and their cognate ligands, and the overexpression of activated HER-2/neu, in the absence of gene amplification, possibly sustained by epidermal growth factor receptor heterodimerization. In conclusion, SDCs and ACCs, although sharing TRK-A autocrine loop activation, have different pathologically activated RTK-deregulated profiles that may be potential targets for pharmacological RTK inhibitors. PMID:18795122

  3. EWSR1-ATF1 fusion is a novel and consistent finding in hyalinizing clear-cell carcinoma of salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Antonescu, Cristina R; Katabi, Nora; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun Shao; Seethala, Raja R; Jordan, Richard C; Perez-Ordoñez, Bayardo; Have, Cherry; Asa, Sylvia L; Leong, Iona T; Bradley, Grace; Klieb, Hagen; Weinreb, Ilan

    2011-07-01

    Hyalinizing clear-cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a rare, low-grade salivary gland tumor with distinctive clear-cell morphology and pattern of hyalinization as well as focal mucinous differentiation. However, histological overlap exists with other salivary gland tumors, such as epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMCa), salivary myoepithelial carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). The potential relationship between HCCC and its morphological mimics has not been yet investigated at the genetic level. In this study, we conducted a molecular analysis for the presence of rearrangements in MAML2, commonly seen in MECs, and EWSR1, involved in "soft tissue myoepithelial tumors" (SMET) by fusion with POU5F1, PBX1, or ZNF444. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on 23 HCCC cases for abnormalities in MAML2, EWSR1, FUS, POU5F1, PBX1, and ZNF444. FISH for MAML2 was negative in all cases (0 of 14), including those with mucinous differentiation (0 of 7). An EWSR1 rearrangement was identified in 18 of 22 HCCCs (82%), while no break-apart signals were seen in FUS, POU5F1, PBX1, or ZNF444. 3'RACE on an EWSR1 rearranged HCCC identified an EWSR1-ATF1 fusion, which was confirmed by RT-PCR. ATF1 involvement was further confirmed by FISH analysis in 13 of 14 EWSR1-rearranged HCCC cases (93%). In contrast, all control cases tested, including among others 5 EMCa and 3 MEC with clear cells, were negative for EWSR1 and ATF1 rearrangements. The presence of EWSR1-ATF1 fusion in most HCCCs reliably separates these tumors from its histological mimics. The distinction from MEC is particularly important, as conventional MEC grading schemes overgrade these indolent HCCCs, potentially impacting on treatment.

  4. Taxonomy of salivary gland neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

  5. Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

  6. F. N. A. C. of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Senguptal, Sanjay; Roy, Anup; Mallick, Mamata Cuha; Kundu, Biswajit; Das, Sudip Kumar; Das, Sulekha

    2002-07-01

    During a period of 12 years, 874 salivary gland lesions were aspirated of which 740 (86.85%) were from parotid gland. Cystic, inflammatory & neoplastic lesions were 25.25%. 54.45% & 20.30%, respectively. Plcomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign & adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumors.On cytohistologic correlation, sensilitvity of cytology for diagnosing cystic, inflammatory, neoplastic lesions proved to be 93.3%. 95.7% & 100% respectively. Overall accuracy for cytodiagnosis of malignant salivary gland lesions in our study was 96.07%.

  7. Salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Speight, P M; Barrett, A W

    2002-09-01

    Salivary gland tumours are a relatively rare and morphologically diverse group of lesions. Although most clinicians and pathologists will have encountered the more common benign neoplasms, few have experience of the full range of salivary cancers, which are best managed in specialist centres. This review considers some current areas of difficulty and controversy in the diagnosis and management of these neoplasms. The classification of these lesions is complex, encompassing nearly 40 different entities, but precise classification and terminology is essential for an accurate diagnosis and for the allocation of tumours to prognostic groups. For many salivary tumours diagnosis is straightforward but the wide range of morphological diversity between and within tumour types means that a diagnosis may not be possible on small incisional biopsies and careful consideration of the clinical and pathological features together is essential. Although tumour grading is important and helpful, it is not an independent prognostic indicator and must be considered in the context of stage. Large malignancies tend to have a poor prognosis regardless of grade and even high-grade neoplasms may do well when they are small. A helpful guide to management of salivary cancers is the '4 cm rule'.

  8. Sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Croitoru, Claudia M; Mooney, Julia E; Luna, Mario A

    2003-08-01

    Primary sebaceous neoplasms of the salivary glands are extremely rare occurrences; furthermore, sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma has only been reported in three patients. We report a case of sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma arising in a lymphadenoma of the parotid gland. The patient was a 55-year-old man who presented with a parotid mass of 3 years' duration. Histologically, the lesion consisted of a sebaceous lymphadenoma with transition to a sebaceous carcinoma. The cytologic touch-preparation at the time of frozen section showed clusters of benign sebaceous cells in a rich lymphocytic background together with tridimensional clusters of malignant epithelial cells, strongly raising the suspicion of a malignant neoplasm arising in a benign sebaceous lesion. Malignant transformation of the sebaceous lymphadenoma, although rare, should be considered in enlarging, locally invasive parotid lesions, considering that clinical behavior and prognosis will be determined by the nature of the malignant component.

  9. Salivary gland neoplasms in children.

    PubMed

    Ogata, H; Ebihara, S; Mukai, K

    1994-04-01

    We reviewed 20 children with salivary gland neoplasms treated at the National Cancer Center Hospital between 1964 and 1990. Retrospective analyses of pathological features and the clinical courses of these cases constituted the bases of the present study. The age of onset was late childhood in 19 cases, ranging from 9 to 20 years, but one patient was 1 year old. Approximately half (55%) the neoplasms were malignant. Histologically, all the benign neoplasms were pleomorphic adenomas (nine cases) and the most common malignant neoplasm was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (six cases, 55%), followed by adenocarcinoma (three cases, 27%), adenoid cystic carcinoma (one case, 9%) and malignant mixed tumor (one case, 9%). Recurrences of pleomorphic adenomas occurred only in the three patients initially treated with enucleation; meanwhile, five patients treated with superficial parotidectomy, and one with submandibular glandectomy, had no recurrence. Recurrences of malignant tumors occurred in all six patients initially treated with enucleation only and in one with superficial parotidectomy but not in two patients treated with total parotidectomy. In seven patients treated with prophylactic neck dissection, no metastasis was identified pathologically. The results support no enucleation of the tumor being applied at the first operation for curing both benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The indication for radical neck dissection appears to be limited.

  10. Salivary gland tumors of the lip.

    PubMed

    Owens, O T; Calcaterra, T C

    1982-01-01

    The UCLA experience with minor salivary gland tumors of the lip is presented and contrasted with that of the literature. The incidence of benign to malignant tumors of the lip does not follow the inverse relationship stated in the axiom that the smaller the salivary gland the greater the probability that a developing tumor will be malignant. Benign tumors represent over 80% of all salivary gland tumors of the lip. There is no preponderant malignant tumor for the lip. Adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma occur with almost equal frequency. Because of the indolent nature of these tumors, excellent survival rates can be achieved with wide local excision with few recurrences, if the tumors are adequately treated when first seen.

  11. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  12. Aspiration cytology of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Geisinger, K R; Weidner, N

    1986-08-01

    Although mass lesions of the salivary glands are readily accessible to examination by fine-needle aspiration, the use of this modality has been limited. In part, this may be related to the difficulty differentiating between benign and malignant neoplasms in some cytologic specimens. Marked atypia in reactive non-neoplastic epithelium also could result in a false-positive diagnosis. In addition, aspiration of hypocellular material from cystic neoplasms, eg, well-differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma, may lead to false-negative cytologic reports. However, the diagnostic specificities claimed by a number of authors for this method are excellent. Furthermore, aspirates of certain specific neoplasms may yield highly distinctive cellular samples, such as the uniform tumor cells and extracellular hyaline spheres in many adenoid cystic carcinomas. Another example is the characteristic transition between the epithelial and myoepithelial cells of pleomorphic adenomas, which may contain prominent myxoid matrical material. With the increasing recognition of such features, the reported levels of diagnostic accuracy are improving.

  13. Diagnostic dilemma involving a mass in the parapharyngeal space: A metastatic breast carcinoma masquerading as a malignant salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Murhekar, Kanchan; Majhi, Urmila; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors are rare and account for about 0.5% of all head and neck neoplasms. Most PPS tumors are benign (up to 80%) while the remaining 20% are malignant. These tumors are either primaries; most commonly arising from salivary glands or metastatic tumors or due to direct extension of tumors from the adjacent sites. Distant metastasis from breast cancers more commonly involves the lungs, bones, brain and liver. Metastasis to the PPS from a primary breast carcinoma is rare, with only one case reported in literature. We, to the best of our knowledge report the second case of a carcinoma breast metastasizing to the PPS and further discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges involved in its management. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan apart from explicitly defining the extent of the PPS tumor, majorly influenced the therapeutic decision making process by ruling out other sites of metastasis.

  14. Salivary gland neoplasms: an analysis of 74 cases.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Deepika; Sharma, Rohit; Sinha, Ramen; Suresh Menon, P

    2009-06-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, 74 cases of salivary gland neoplasms were analyzed retrospectively, of which 44 (60%) were benign and 30 (40%) malignant. 61 % percent of neoplasms were in the parotid gland, 22% in the minor salivary glands including sublingual salivary glands, and 17% in the submandibular glands. The most common benign neoplasm was pleomorphic adenoma (64%), and the most common malignant neoplasm were adenoid cystic carcinoma (17%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (23%). We analyze the incidence and distribution of all types of salivary gland neoplasms in our series, and provide data for comparison with other epidemiological studies from different geographical sites and races. Demographic data from these studies help us to a better understanding of the biological and clinical characteristics of the disease. Further epidemiological surveys should be encouraged for better understanding of the disease and to provide early and better treatment of salivary gland neoplasms.

  15. SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, George S.; Helsper, James T.

    1960-01-01

    In a review of a series of 248 salivary gland tumors, seen over a 28-year period, all pathologic material was brought up to date by reclassification according to more recent criteria and nomenclature. In parotid tumors, a probable lowered recurrence rate and a definite decrease in incidence of permanent facial nerve paralysis was found in the more recent cases in which the “Y” incision was used, with identification of the seventh nerve as it leaves the stylomastoid foramen. The five-year recurrence rate for primary mixed tumor was 8.3 per cent, and in recurrent cases it was found to be 18.1 per cent. Of 44 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors in all sites who were observed for five years or more, 32 or 72.7 per cent survived five years. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:18732337

  16. Salivary gland carcinoma in Denmark 1990-2005: outcome and prognostic factors. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA).

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton; Overgaard, Jens; Johansen, Jørgen; Kristensen, Claus A; Homøe, Preben; Sørensen, Christian Hjort; Andersen, Elo; Bundgaard, Troels; Primdahl, Hanne; Lambertsen, Karin; Andersen, Lisbeth Juhler; Godballe, Christian

    2012-02-01

    To describe outcome and prognostic factors in a national Danish series of patients treated for salivary gland carcinoma. From three Danish nation-wide registries and supplementary patient records, 871 patients diagnosed with primary major or minor salivary gland carcinoma in the period from 1990 to 2005 were identified. A total of 796 (91%) histological specimens were revised according to the WHO 2005 classification. The median follow-up time was 78 months. Three hundred and thirty-four patients (38%) experienced recurrence. Crude survival, disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival after 5 and 10 years were 66%, 76%, 64% and 51%, 69%, 58%, respectively. In multivariate analysis age, latency, stage, microscopic margins, vascular invasion and histological grade were all independent prognostic factors with regards to crude and disease-specific survival. Stage, microscopic margins, vascular invasion and histological grade were independent prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival. Age over 61 years, latency under 8 months, stage 3+4 disease, involved or close microscopic margins, vascular invasion and high histological grade are all independent prognostic factors with a negative impact on survival in salivary gland carcinoma patients. This knowledge can be helpful in guiding clinicians in daily work and choice of treatment across the large variety of salivary gland carcinoma subtypes. PMID:21968090

  17. Sebaceous variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland. A case report with cytohistologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Hayes, M M; Cameron, R D; Jones, E A

    1993-01-01

    The findings on fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of a case of sebaceous variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland are described. The aspirates consisted predominantly of uniform intermediate-type epithelial cells, which led to erroneous diagnosis of a benign neoplasm. The cytologic features of the intermediate, clear, mucinous and sebaceous cells were correlated with the different histologic patterns seen within the neoplasm. Problems encountered with the diagnosis are discussed.

  18. Human kallikrein 8 expression in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Darling, Mark R; Tsai, Sam; Jackson-Boeters, Linda; Daley, Thomas D; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2008-09-01

    The human kallikrein 8 protein (KLK8) is expressed in many normal tissues including esophagus, skin, testis, tonsil, kidney, breast, and salivary gland, and is found in biological fluids including breast milk, amniotic fluid, seminal fluid and serum. It has also been shown to be a biomarker and prognostic factor for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether KLK8 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues. Pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas NOS of both minor and major salivary glands were examined. The results of this study indicate that most salivary gland tumors show high levels of expression of KLK8.

  19. [Nuclear morphometry and DNA cytometry in the grading of malignant tumors of the salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W Z

    1992-05-01

    Nuclear morphometry and DNA cytometry were performed in 6 normal salivary glands and 37 malignant tumors of the salivary gland. Multivariate discrimination analysis was used to grade the malignant salivary gland tumors. The discrimination rate was 100% for normal salivary gland, benign tumor, high malignant carcinoma and low malignant carcinoma. It was 66.7% for borderline malignancies. These results indicate that quantitative cytological analysis is effective and reproducible in the grading of salivary gland tumors. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed that there was a very complicated correlation between DNA content and nuclear morphometric parameters of salivary gland tumors.

  20. Locally Advanced Stage High-Grade Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Salivary Gland in a 9-Year-Old Girl: The Controversy of Adjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Olga Micol; Dorado, Elena Daghoum; García, María Dolores Amorós; Ramírez, María Isabel Oviedo; de la Fuente Muñoz, Isabel; Soler, Jose Luis Fuster

    2016-01-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare in children, mostly represented by low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas. For these patients, long-term survival rates above 95% are reported after surgical resection. Here we report a case of a 9-year-old girl with a high grade locally advanced mucoepidermoid carcinoma undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy after surgery. We emphasize the controversy and lack of evidence-based indication for these highly toxic adjuvant therapy modalities in children. PMID:27746885

  1. Salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, P J; Black, K M

    1985-10-01

    A retrospective review of 643 patients with salivary gland tumors seen between 1958-72 is reported. There were 328 malignant and 375 benign tumors. All patients with malignant tumors were assessed in a multidisciplinary head and neck clinic. The median age for developing malignant tumors was 58 and there was a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. For benign tumors the median age was 46 years and the male to female ratio 0.8:1. Overall the primary tumor was controlled by the first planned treatment in 145 (44%) malignant tumors and in 253 (80%) benign tumors. The five and 10 year actuarial survival for malignant tumors was 59.4% and 45.6% respectively.

  2. Human kallikrein 13 expression in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Darling, M R; Jackson-Boeters, L; Daley, T D; Diamandis, E P

    2006-01-01

    The human kallikrein 13 protein (hK13) is expressed in many normal tissues. Petraki et al have previously described presence of hK13 in salivary gland tissue, localized to duct epithelia and some acinar cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether hK13 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues. Pleomorphic adenomas (PA), adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC), polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA), acinic cell carcinomas (ACI), mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified (ANOS) of both minor and major salivary glands were examined. The results of this study indicate that most salivary gland tumors show high levels of expression of hK13. Overall, staining in PA was significantly less than that seen in normal salivary gland tissue. PLGA, ACC and ANOS each stained significantly more than normal salivary gland tissue while MEC and ACI did not. Ductal cells and cells lining duct-like structures showed a higher intensity of staining than non-ductal cells in most tumors. Tumors which exhibited only non-ductal cells also exhibited cytoplasmic staining. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high expression of hK13 in several common salivary gland tumors.

  3. Tubuloalveolar adenoma of salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Pulitzer, D R; Reed, R J; Megehee, J A

    1985-06-01

    An unusual monomorphic salivary gland adenoma, occurring in a 57-year-old woman, is described. The lesion was histologically similar to the so-called tubular adenoma; however, occasional microscopic foci of serous (acinar cell) differentiation were present. The term tubuloalveolar adenoma is proposed to describe salivary gland tumors that are histologically benign and composed of cells resembling those of normal intercalated ducts and secretory units (acini).

  4. Patterns of nodal relapse after surgery and postoperative radiation therapy for carcinomas of the major and minor salivary glands: What is the role of elective neck irradiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. . E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com; Garcia, Joaquin; Lee, Nancy Y.; Bucci, M. Kara; Eisele, David W.

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of nodal relapses from carcinomas of the salivary glands among patients with clinically negative necks in an attempt to determine the potential utility of elective neck irradiation (ENI). Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 251 patients with clinically N0 carcinomas of the salivary glands were treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. None of the patients had undergone previous neck dissection. Histology was: adenoid cystic (84 patients), mucoepidermoid (60 patients), adenocarcinoma (58 patients), acinic cell (21 patients), undifferentiated (11 patients), carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (7 patients), squamous cell (7 patients), and salivary duct carcinoma (3 patients); 131 patients (52%) had ENI. Median follow-up was 62 months (range, 3-267 months). Results: The 5- and 10-year actuarial estimates of nodal relapse were 11% and 13%, respectively. The 10-year actuarial rates of nodal failure were 7%, 5%, 12%, and 16%, for patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 disease, respectively (p = 0.11). The use of ENI reduced the 10-year nodal failure rate from 26% to 0% (p = 0.0001). The highest crude rates of nodal relapse among those treated without ENI were found in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (67%), undifferentiated carcinoma (50%), adenocarcinoma (34%), and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (29%). There were no nodal failures observed among patients with adenoid cystic or acinic cell histology. Conclusion: ENI effectively prevents nodal relapses and should be used for select patients at high risk for regional failure.

  5. Papillary cystadenoma: a rare tumor of the minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Mahler, V; Schell, H

    1999-01-01

    Papillary cystadenoma of the minor salivary glands is a rare benign neoplasm that clinically resembles mucous cysts. Characteristic histological features are diagnostic. However, salivary gland histology is particularly difficult to interpret. Primarily, as further clinical and histological differential diagnoses have to take into account the well-differentiated cystic mucoepidermoid carcinoma and the papillary cystic type of acinic cell carcinoma, both malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands. We report on a 39 year old female with a bluish cystic lesion at the buccal mucosa, which occurred 14 years after the excision of a similar appearing, histologically proven mucous retention cyst at the same location. The histology of this tumor, however, revealed a papillary cystadenoma. Although rare, benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms occur in minor salivary glands, and are clinically indistinguishable from mucous retention cysts. The dermatologist should be familiar with these differential diagnoses, since different therapeutic consequences result from an early diagnosis obtained by excision and histological examination of oral cystic tumors.

  6. Salivary gland lesions: a Jamaican perspective.

    PubMed

    Williams, N P; Boyd, D L; Choy, L; Hanchard, B

    2001-03-01

    A retrospective analysis of the spectrum and relative frequency of salivary gland lesions diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica, between 1965 and 1994, is reported. Four hundred and sixty-four salivary gland biopsies were received. Of these 99 (21.3%) were non-neoplastic and the remaining 365 (78.7%) were neoplasms: 261 (71.5%) were benign and 104 (28.5%) malignant. Benign mixed tumour (BMT)/pleomorphic adenoma (PA) was the most common neoplasm (63.3%) while mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was the most common malignant neoplasm (9.6%), followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) (7.4%). The increased frequency of MEC over ACC is at variance with other reported series but the preponderance of pleomorphic adenoma is consistent. In the major salivary glands, benign neoplasms predominate at a ratio of 3:1, while a higher proportion of minor salivary gland neoplasms was malignant, ratio 1.2:1 (p = 0.003). These data represent the first attempt to document the spectrum of disease related to oral and maxillofacial pathology in Jamaica.

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of retinoblastoma pathway proteins in normal salivary glands and in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Etges, A; Nunes, F D; Ribeiro, K C B; Araújo, V C

    2004-03-01

    The expression of G1-phase cell-cycle regulators is commonly deregulated in human malignancies. In the present study, we investigate components of the retinoblastoma (RB) pathway in normal salivary glands (NSG) and in salivary gland tumours (SGT). Samples of NSG, pleomorphic adenoma (PA), adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), malignant myoepithelioma (MEM), carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA), and polymorphous, low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) were examined immunohistochemically using antibodies to cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK-4), retinoblastoma protein (pRb), CDK inhibitor p16 and transcription factor E2F-1. In normal salivary glands, cyclin D1 and cdk-4 were not expressed in any case while p16 was positively expressed. pRb was abundant and E2F-1 moderately expressed. In tumors, cdk-4 was overexpressed in half of the cases. Most tumour cases showed decreased pRb immunoexpression compared to normal salivary glands. In contrast, expression of p16 and E2F-1 increased. pRb expression was absent in three cases of PA, two of EMC and one of CEPA. One case of MEM and one of PLGA showed no E2F-1 expression. Statistical analyses revealed positive correlations between cyclin D1 and cdk-4, cyclin D1 and E2F-1, cdk-4 and E2F-1, and p16 and E2F-1. The benign and malignant tumours expressed retinoblastoma pathway proteins differently form the normal salivary gland. Our findings suggest that, pRb pathway deregulation in salivary gland neoplasms is unrelated to their biological behaviour.

  8. [Quantitative study on nucleolar organizer regions in salivary gland tumours].

    PubMed

    Wang, S Z

    1992-03-01

    The argyrophil staining technique for nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) had been applied to a series of benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. We have studied 38 salivary gland tumours, 16 benign and 22 malignant. In all specimens clearly defined silver-stained intranuclear AgNOR dots were visible. The differences between the numbers of AgNORs in the benign and malignant groups, notably pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, were highly significant. This result suggested that the AgNOR technique is of diagnostic help in distinguishing between these salivary gland tumours.

  9. cGMP phosphodiesterase activity evaluation in human carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Mariani, A; Santoleri, F; Fioroni, M; Vitale, D; Piatelli, A; Di Nicola, M; Rubini, C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences of cGMP-PDE activity in salivary glands, between a control group and different benign tumour groups and, where present, with malign tumour groups. Endogen cGMP was evaluated too. The enzymatic reaction used the method of Spoto et al., with minor variations. The samples were organized in six groups: A (Adenolymphoma and Warthins tumour); B (Pleomorphic Adenoma); C (Basaloid Adenoma); D (Myoepitelioma). The control group was represented by healthy patients. In A and B groups, we have analyzed malign pathologies (Adenocarcinoma and Parotid Lymphoma) The benign tumours have more activity than controls, especially in Myoepitelioma (D) but with a decrement in the C group, which presents lower values of cGMP than the other three groups, where the concentration is similar. Between A and B groups, the activity values of malign tumours are similar, higher than controls and than the other benign pathologies, but not higher than in myoepitelioma. The cyclic concentration is similar for malign pathologies, with concentrations lower than controls, similar to Basaloid Adenoma (C).

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, M; Carrozza, M

    1990-04-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was first isolated from colonic carcinoma and has been used as a diagnostic marker. CEA has also been observed in a variety of epithelial tumors and normal tissues. In this study, CEA was localized by means of immunohistochemical procedures in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, as well as in normal parotid gland, indicating that CEA is not a reliable marker for differentiation between benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms.

  11. [Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Halimi, P; Gardner, M; Petit, F

    2005-06-01

    Tumors of salivary glands arise mainly from the parotid gland. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is mandatory not only to localize precisely the tumor within the gland but also to differentiate between benign and malignant neoplasms, in competition with cytology in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Tumors without risk of transformation, such as adenolymphoma, are not systematically operated on. Indications of roentgenotherapy and irradiation volumes depend on histologic type, localisation and size of the tumor.

  12. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (perlecan) synthesized by ACC3, adenoid cystic carcinoma cells of human salivary gland origin.

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Cheng, J; Toyoshima, K; Oda, K; Saku, T

    1999-02-01

    The biosynthesis of basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), known as perlecan, in ACC3 cells established from a adenoid cystic carcinoma of the human salivary gland was studied using metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation with discriminative antibodies specific for HSPG core protein. Treatment of immunoprecipitated HSPG with HNO2, heparitinase, and chondroitinase ABC revealed that ACC3 cells synthesized HSPG molecules composed of 470-kDa core protein and heparan sulfate but not of chondroitin sulfate. The core protein was shown to contain complex type N-linked oligosaccharides by digestion with N-glycanase and endoglycosidase H. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the mature form of HSPG was formed in the cells in 30 min and released into the medium thereafter. Degradation of HSPG was also found in the chase period of 3 h. In time course experiments, HSPG was found to be synthesized maximally at day 4 after plating, deposited in the cell layer maximally at day 6, and secreted maximally at day 8. This was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, Northern blotting, and in-situ hybridization. The results indicate that ACC3 cells synthesize, secrete and degrade basement membrane type HSPG, which is analogous to those produced by other cell types, and that the biosynthesis and secretion of HSPG in ACC3 cells are strictly regulated by the cell growth, that may be reflected in the characteristic histology of adenoid cystic carcinomas. PMID:9990141

  13. Basaloid tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Chhieng, David C; Paulino, Augusto F

    2002-12-01

    Basaloid tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant lesions characterized by small tumor cells with round or ovoid nuclei surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm. Primary salivary gland tumors with this predominant morphology include basal cell adenoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, cellular pleomorphic adenoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and small cell undifferentiated carcinoma. Certain metastatic lesions and nonepithelial neoplasms can also demonstrate a basaloid appearance. Histologic diagnosis based on resected tumors is usually straightforward when the architecture can be adequately assessed. However, in limited biopsies and particularly in cytologic samples, the evaluation can be quite challenging. A systematic approach aided by immunohistochemistry is essential to arrive at an accurate diagnosis.

  14. Pulmonary salivary gland-type tumors with features of malignant mixed tumor (carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma): a clinicopathologic study of five cases.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2011-11-01

    We report 5 cases of pulmonary salivary gland-type tumors with features of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Patient ages ranged from 44 to 71 years (mean, 53.8 years); 4 patients were men and 1 was a woman. In all 5 cases, the lesions were associated with the bronchial system. None of the patients had a history of a head and neck salivary gland neoplasm. Histologically, the lesions were invasive tumors containing malignant myoepithelial elements and duct-like structures embedded in a benign chondromyxoid stroma. Areas reminiscent of residual pleomorphic adenoma were noted in 2 cases. Follow-up for 3 patients revealed that 2 died 22 and 54 months after diagnosis and 1 was alive 20 months after diagnosis. The cases are characterized by unique morphologic features that, coupled with their immunoprofile, suggest the possibility that these tumors represent carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, an entity that has not been well documented in the bronchopulmonary system.

  15. Tumours of minor salivary glands--a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Nag, Dipanwita; Biswas, Pranab Kumar; Mandal, Palash Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Nirmal Kumar; Gautam, Dibyendu; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2012-08-01

    The salivary gland system comprises 3 pairs of major glands ie, parotid, submandibular and sublingual and also thousands of lobules of minor salivary glands dispersed in oral cavity, nasal cavity, maxillary sinuses and upper airways. Most of the studies on salivary gland tumours included both major and minor salivary glands. Objectives of this study were to see the age, sex and site distribution of minor salivary gland tumours as well as cytohistologic correlation during their diagnosis. The study is a retrospective one and done in the pathology department of Medical College, Kolkata taking the cases referred from ENT and Surgery departments in the period from April 2008 to March 2011. There were 123 cases of salivary gland tumours including both major and minor salivary glands in this study. Out of these, 21 cases of minor salivary gland tumours were selected and further analysed. There were 9 cases of benign and 12 cases of malignant tumours. Most benign cases were pleomorphic adenoma and most of malignant were adenoid cystic carcinoma affecting maximally males above 40 years of age. For malignant cases the cytohistologic correlation was 100% whereas in benign it was 70%. We had no need of using immunohistochemistry as histologic diagnosis were clear-cut. Pathologic staging were done in most of malignant cases thus helping the clinicians to adopt better treatment protocol.

  16. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  17. Prolactin binding in minor salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Abbey, L M; Witorsch, R J

    1985-07-01

    An immunohistochemical study of 15 minor salivary gland tumors was initiated to determine if prolactin binding occurred in these tissues. Eight benign mixed tumors (BMT) and 7 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) were selected at random from the surgical biopsy service of the MCV/VCU School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology. The specimens were cut and mounted on slides along with sections of rat pituitary and rat ventral prostate which served as methodologic controls. Experimental specimens were incubated for 24 hours with varying concentrations of highly purified (iodination grade) rat prolactin; controls were incubated with vehicle. Following incubation the specimens were stained according to the Sternberger peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Results showed dose-dependent staining for prolactin binding sites in 7 of 8 BMTs and 5 of 7 ACCs. The staining was wider in distribution than we observed in normal human minor salivary gland tissue. Binding was confined primarily to cells of duct origin in both types of tumor. In individual cells, staining was observed in diffuse cytoplasmic and perinuclear locations as well as in nuclei and apical regions. We conclude that two minor salivary gland neoplasms (BMT and ACC) exhibit prolactin binding at different cellular locations and in a more widespread pattern than was observed in normal minor salivary gland.

  18. [Myoepithelial differentiation markers in salivary gland neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, F; Marucci, G; Foschini, M P

    2001-12-01

    Salivary gland tumors frequently present myoepithelial cell differentiation that is not always easily identified on routinely stained sections. Recently novel markers of myoepithelium have been studied, such as calponin (CALP), caldesmon (CALD), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. These markers, together with smooth muscle actin may be useful tools for identifying myoepithelial cells. We immunohistochemically studied a series of 23 benign and malignant salivary gland tumors using antibodies to these four markers. The tumors were classified as follows: pleomorphic adenoma (n = 8), basal cell adenoma (n = 3), myoepithelioma with plasmacytoid cells (n = 2), epithelial-myoepithelial cell carcinoma (n = 6) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 4). All tumors were positive for at least one of the four markers. CALP and smooth muscle actin were the markers more frequently expressed. Positivity was mostly located in the myoepithelial cells that constitute the external layer of the glandular or tubular neoplastic structures. In poorly differentiated epithelial myoepithelial carcinomas, composed of solid sheets of neoplastic cells and sometimes of clear cells, immunohistochemical staining for myoepithelial markers evidenced rudimentary glandular structures. CALP and smooth muscle actin were positive in the two cases of myoepithelioma with plasmacytoid cells. In conclusion, the combined staining with four markers helps to disclose myoepithelial cell differentiation and can be a useful tool for the correct histopathological diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. Among the four markers studied, CALP and smooth muscle actin were the most useful to identify myoepithelial cell differentiation.

  19. A guide to salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    McEwen, D R; Sanchez, M M

    1997-03-01

    This article discusses salivary gland disorders and provides nurses with a broad base of knowledge for use in planning and implementing perioperative patient care. Salivary gland disorders may be caused by nonneoplastic conditions or neoplasms. Nonneoplastic conditions generally are related to inflammatory processes or are secondary to existing disease processes. Neoplasms manifest themselves as benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands. Patients with nonneoplastic conditions may undergo surgical procedures for health problems unrelated to their salivary gland disorders; however, patients with salivary gland neoplasms usually undergo surgical excisions of their tumors and affected glands. Patients in both categories require skilled perioperative nursing care.

  20. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  1. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  2. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  3. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer or Salivary Gland Cancer That Is Metastatic and/or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-06

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharynx Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  4. Immunopathological study of neuropeptide expression in human salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Deguchi, H; Nakahata, A; Kurashima, C; Hirokawa, K

    1990-01-01

    The immunoreactivity of anti-neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and anti-Leu-7 on formalin-fixed sections of human salivary gland neoplasms was determined by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. In addition, neuropeptides, such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin, and substance P, in human salivary gland neoplasms were expressed, whereas other polypeptides, including glucagon, cholecystokinin, leu-enkephalin and calcitonin, were absent. When 182 paraffin-embedded examples of human salivary gland tumors, including 112 benign and 70 malignant neoplasms, were examined immunohistochemically, positive immunoreactivity was observed in: 51 cases with NSE (59%) and 46 cases with Leu-7 (54%) of 86 pleomorphic adenomas; 11 cases with Leu-7 (61%) of 18 Warthin's tumors; 7 cases with Leu-7 (58%) of 12 acinic cell carcinomas; 5 cases with NSE (31%) of 16 adenoid cystic carcinomas; 5 cases with NSE (42%) and 4 cases with Leu-7 (33%) of 12 adenocarcinomas; 4 cases with NSE (25%) and 6 cases with Leu-7 (38%) of 16 undifferentiated carcinomas. The other tumors, such as oxyphilic adenomas, basal cell adenomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, were nonreactive. Neuropeptides were observed in the neoplastic epithelial cells of certain tumors such as Warthin's tumors, acinic cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. These findings suggest the possibility that cells of neuroendocrine origin, present in certain neoplastic salivary gland epithelia may play a significant role in the histogenesis of human salivary gland neoplasms.

  5. Pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Khandekar, Shubhangi; Dive, Alka; Munde, Prashant; Wankhede, Neena Dongre

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland swellings can result from tumors, an inflammatory process or cysts. It can sometimes be difficult to establish; whether pathology arises from the salivary gland itself or adjacent structures. Neoplasms of the salivary glands account for less than 1% of all tumors, 3-5% of all head and neck tumors and benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of minor salivary glands arising de novo is very rare. PA is the most common tumor of the salivary gland. While the majority arises from the parotid gland, only a small percentage arises from the buccal minor salivary gland. A case of PA of minor salivary glands in the buccal mucosa in a 70-year-old female is discussed. It includes review of literature, clinical features, histopathology, radiological findings and treatment of the tumor; with emphasis on diagnosis.

  6. MTA1 Expression in Benign and Malignant Salivary gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Mirhadi, Hosein; Torabi-Ardekani, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) are important parts of human neoplasms. The most common SGT is pleomorphic adenoma and the most common malignant SGTs are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Metastasis-associated genes 1 (MTA1), a member of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation complex, is one newly discovered gene which recruits histone deacetylation, causing ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling, and regulating transcription. MTA1 had been shown to be overexpressed in malignant tumors with the enhancement of invasion and metastasis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six samples of salivary gland tumors from the Khalili Hospital archive, including 20 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 17 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 19 cases of ACC, and 23 cases of normal salivary gland tissues were chosen for immunohistochemical analysis of MTA1. Results: MTA1 expression in the malignant tumors was significantly higher than that in pleomorphic adenoma (P<0.001), and higher in pleomorphic adenoma than the normal salivary glands(P< 0.001). In total, 69.6% of normal salivary gland tissues showed MTA1, but all cases of salivary gland tumors were positive for MTA1. High nuclear expression of MTA1 was detected in 83.3% (30/36) of the malignant salivary gland tumors and 45% (9/20) of pleomorphic adenoma, while low MTA1 expression was seen in all of the normal salivary gland tissues. No statistically significant correlation was found between MTA1 protein expression and any clinicopathological features (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that MTA1 was significantly overexpressed in malignant salivary gland neoplasm in comparison to a lower level in benign pleomorphic adenoma, suggesting that MTA1 protein might be involved in carcinogenesis. PMID:26878004

  7. Fusion oncogenes in salivary gland tumors: molecular and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of uncommon diseases that pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. However, the recent discovery of a translocation-generated gene fusion network in salivary gland carcinomas as well in benign salivary gland tumors opens up new avenues for improved diagnosis, prognostication, and development of specific targeted therapies. The gene fusions encode novel fusion oncoproteins or ectopically expressed normal or truncated oncoproteins. The major targets of the translocations are transcriptional coactivators, tyrosine kinase receptors, and transcription factors involved in growth factor signaling and cell cycle regulation. Notably, several of these targets or pathways activated by these targets are druggable. Examples of clinically significant gene fusions in salivary gland cancers are the MYB-NFIB fusion specific for adenoid cystic carcinoma, the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion typical of low/intermediate-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and the recently identified ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Similarly, gene fusions involving the PLAG1 and HMGA2 oncogenes are specific for benign pleomorphic adenomas. Continued studies of the molecular consequences of these fusion oncoproteins and their down-stream targets will ultimately lead to the identification of novel driver genes in salivary gland neoplasms and will also form the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies for salivary gland cancers and, perhaps, other neoplasms.

  8. Classification of the pathohistology of diseases of the salivary glands - review of 2,600 cases in the Salivary Gland Register.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G; Donath, K

    1976-10-01

    Three major disease groups emerge from a classification of the pathohistology of 2,600 salivary gland preparations in the salivary gland register (from 1965 to 1974): salivary gland tumors (41%), salivary gland inflammations (26%), and sialadenosis (6%). Mucoceles (2%) and salivary gland cysts (1.5%) are seen less often. It is diagnostically important that lymph node changes in the area of the salivary glands (lymphadenitis, lymphomas, etc.) are worked up under suspicion of a primary salivary gland disease. Sialadenosis involves a primary, vegetative neuropathy, which is accompanied by enlargement of acinar cells. Under the heading of chronic sialdenitis, we fine 50% socalled Küttner tumors of the submandibular gland, 21% chronic relapsing parotitis, 14% chronic inflammations of the minor salivary glands and the sublingual gland, and 12% immune sialadenitis (myoepithelial sialadenitis in Sjögren's syndrome and epitheloid cell sialadenitis in Heerfordts syndrome). A more than average number of immune sialadenitis cases develop into malignant lymphomas (4 cases in the salivary gland register). The 1,067 tumor cases containing of 929 epithelial tumors (87%), 89 mesenchymal tumors (hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, lipomas, neurofibromas, sarcomas) and 49 metastases or periglandular tumors. Epithelial tumors were grouped on the basis of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Benign tumors (71.5%) consisted of pleomorphic adenomas (51.5%) and monomorphic adenomas (50%). After the pleomorphic adenomas, cystadenolymphomas (over 10%) represented the most frequent benign salivary gland tumor. On the basis of epithelial and stromal differentiation, pleomorphic adenomas were subdividied into four subtypes (stroma-rich and stroma-poor adenomas). The malignant tumors consisted of acinar cell tumors (2.5%), mucoepidermoid tumors (6%), and carcinomas at various levels of differentiation (adenoid-cystic carcinomas, 6.5%; adenocarcinomas, 2%; squamous cell carcinomas, 2

  9. DNA copy number changes in carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland: a comparative genomic hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Morio, Takashi; Morimitsu, Yosuke; Hisaoka, Masanori; Makishima, Kazumi; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2002-08-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the salivary glands and is rarely associated with concurrent epithelial malignancy, which is designated as carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma (CPA). Genetic abnormalities potentially related to the development of CPA have not been fully investigated. We analyzed DNA copy number changes in each of the adenomatous and carcinomatous components of seven CPA by comparative genomic hybridization using DNA extracted from microdissected tissues of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples. Carcinomatous components of CPA showed multiple DNA copy number changes at 1-18 different genomic sites (mean 13 sites). Adenomatous components displayed less frequent DNA copy number changes (0-13 sites; mean, 5). In both components, the majority of the changes were gains. The most common recurrent gains in carcinomatous components were seen at 6q (four cases in each), whereas gains at 13q1-2 and 15q1 were most frequently detected in adenomatous components (three cases in each). In five CPA, the same chromosomal regions were involved in the DNA copy number changes detected in both components. Our data suggest that an accumulated or increased number of chromosomal changes including 6q abnormalities may be associated with the development of carcinomatous components in a subset of CPA.

  10. Tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Madani, Gitta; Beale, Timothy

    2006-12-01

    This article reviews the role of imaging in the management of tumors of the salivary glands, discussing tumor localization, extent, and, where possible, characterization. The relative benefits of the different modalities and the typical features of benign and malignant lesions are discussed for each modality. Characteristic appearances of specific tumors are highlighted.

  11. Identification of methylated genes in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma xenografts using global demethylation and methylation microarray screening

    PubMed Central

    LING, SHIZHANG; RETTIG, ELENI M.; TAN, MARIETTA; CHANG, XIAOFEI; WANG, ZHIMING; BRAIT, MARIANA; BISHOP, JUSTIN A.; FERTIG, ELANA J.; CONSIDINE, MICHAEL; WICK, MICHAEL J.; HA, PATRICK K.

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare head and neck malignancy without molecular biomarkers that can be used to predict the chemotherapeutic response or prognosis of ACC. The regulation of gene expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) through DNA promoter methylation may play a role in the carcinogenesis of ACC. To identify differentially methylated genes in ACC, a global demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) was utilized to unmask putative TSG silencing in ACC xenograft models in mice. Fresh xenografts were passaged, implanted in triplicate in mice that were treated with 5-AZA daily for 28 days. These xenografts were then evaluated for genome-wide DNA methylation patterns using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip array. Validation of the 32 candidate genes was performed by bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) in a separate cohort of 6 ACC primary tumors and 6 normal control salivary gland tissues. Hypermethylation was identified in the HCN2 gene promoter in all 6 control tissues, but hypomethylation was found in all 6 ACC tumor tissues. Quantitative validation of HCN2 promoter methylation level in the region detected by BS-seq was performed in a larger cohort of primary tumors (n=32) confirming significant HCN2 hypomethylation in ACCs compared with normal samples (n=10; P=0.04). HCN2 immunohistochemical staining was performed on an ACC tissue microarray. HCN2 staining intensity and H-score, but not percentage of the positively stained cells, were significantly stronger in normal tissues than those of ACC tissues. With our novel screening and sequencing methods, we identified several gene candidates that were methylated. The most significant of these genes, HCN2, was actually hypomethylated in tumors. However, promoter methylation status does not appear to be a major determinant of HCN2 expression in normal and ACC tissues. HCN2 hypomethylation is a biomarker of ACC and may play an important role in the

  12. Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Swanson, P E; Pettinato, G; Lillemoe, T J; Wick, M R

    1991-02-01

    Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) is a 15-kd glycoprotein that is expressed by normal apocrine epithelia and in a majority of breast carcinomas. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this substance is also present in tumors of the salivary glands, sweat glands, and prostate gland. To determine whether the expression of CGDFP-15 might aid in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland lesions, the anti-GCDFP-15 monoclonal antibody D6 was applied to paraffin sections of 133 such neoplasms. Benign tumors (76% reactive) were more often labeled than malignant lesions (28% reactive) by this antibody; overall, 53 (41%) of 133 cases were positive for GCDFP-15. Notably, the tubuloglandular components in 17 (81%) of 21 pleomorphic adenomas were reactive, but no example of either adenoid cystic carcinoma or polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma were labeled. In contrast, 24% of adenocarcinomas stained with this antibody. The apparent expression of GCDFP-15 by a spectrum of salivary gland tumors supports their biologic relationship to lesions of the cutaneous apocrine glands and breast. Furthermore, the demonstration of this determinant may be of use in suggesting the salivary gland nature of poorly differentiated carcinomas of the head and neck, and it may facilitate the separation of pleomorphic adenoma from histologically similar malignant neoplasms in the salivary glands themselves.

  13. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of terminal duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Frierson, H F; Covell, J L; Mills, S E

    1987-06-01

    The cytologic features of terminal duct carcinoma of the palate, as observed in a fine-needle aspiration specimen, are described and contrasted with the cytologic features reported for benign mixed tumor, basal-cell adenoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Terminal duct carcinoma, at times, may be difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish from adenoid cystic carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration specimens. In most instances, this distinction may not be important.

  14. Ultrasound in salivary gland disease.

    PubMed

    Bruneton, J N; Mourou, M Y

    1993-01-01

    This text reviews the normal ultrasound (US) anatomy of the salivary glands along with tumoral, lithiasic, and inflammatory pathologies. For salivary gland tumors, US does have limitations (failure to visualize the entire parotid gland, relations with the nerve plexus, in-depth spread of large tumors, false-negative errors of malignancy for small encapsulated tumors). However, US is a simple technique allowing correct identification of the benign nature of a lesion in over 80% of the cases. For lesions under 3 cm in diameter, US is generally the only imaging technique used; for larger lesions, CT or MR is required. Sialolithiasis and inflammatory diseases are being documented by US more and more and the indications for sialography have strongly decreased.

  15. Salivary gland neoplasms in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arotiba, G T

    1996-01-01

    This 14 year retrospective clinico-statistical analysis of 237 salivary gland neoplasms in Lagos, Nigeria, was undertaken with a view to providing further insights into the presentation of this disease in Africans. These neoplasms constituted 10.0% of all head and neck neoplasms, and were most frequently situated at the parotid gland (32.1%), the palate (24.9%) and the submandibular gland (19.4%). While parotid squamous cell carcinoma affected more males (41.2%) than females (4.7%) (P = 0.03); parotid mucoepidermoid carcinoma affected more females (53.3%) than males (11.8%) (P = 0.0149). Furthermore, labial salivary gland tumours affected more females (6.8%) than males (1.7%) (P = 0.05). At presentation, patients with palatal tumours were relatively more advanced in age (Peak = 6th decade) than those with parotid and submandibular tumours (Peak = 3rd decade). Males presenting with pleomorphic adenoma were relatively younger than their female counterparts. This is especially true of palatal pleomorphic adenoma. The recurrence rate for benign tumours was 4.8%. Majority of patients with malignant tumours (83.9%) had significant local extension, regional or distant metastasis at presentation. In twenty-nine percent of these patients with cancer, the disease was controlled for 1-5 years of follow-ups. However, a quarter of these patients with cancer defaulted the planned treatment regime because they could not afford the cost of treatment or they opted for traditional medical care.

  16. Human kallikrein 6 expression in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Darling, M R; Jackson-Boeters, L; Daley, T D; Diamandis, E P

    2006-03-01

    Human kallikrein 6 (hK6), also known as zyme/protease M/neurosin), is expressed in many normal glandular tissues. The aim of this study was to determine whether hK6 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), using an immunohistochemical method. Pleomorphic adenomas (PA), adenoid cystic carcinomas, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas, acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified of both minor and major salivary glands were examined. Cells lining duct-like structures and non-duct-like cells were scored. Only in PA of minor salivary gland origin was overall staining higher in duct-like than in non-duct-like cells. In all other tumors exhibiting both types of cells, hK6 staining was similar in both duct-like and non-duct-like cells. Tumors that exhibited non-duct-like cells only also exhibited cytoplasmic staining. Results of this study show that salivary gland tumors express hK6, apparently downregulated in comparison with normal salivary gland tissue, and that this expression is not specific for any of the tumors studied.

  17. [Salivary gland tumors. Clinical aspects and therapy].

    PubMed

    Swoboda, H; Franz, P

    1994-05-01

    Salivary gland tumors are rare. One-fifth are malignant. The parotid is the gland most often affected, particularly in adenomas. Adenomas and carcinomas are tumors that occur in adulthood; angiomas are the tumors that occur most frequently in childhood. Other than their localization, salivary gland tumors have few specific signs. In the clinical examination the locoregional and functional presentation is evaluated. Imaging studies refine or correct the clinical diagnosis, primarily by visualizing the deeper planes. Morphological diagnosis in benign lesions depends on resection results; in malignant lesions additional intraoperative frozen section is needed, and in questionable cases incisional biopsy. Fine-needle aspiration cytology may provide valuable knowledge when planning therapy. Limited parotid tumors are resected by lateral or subtotal parotidectomy. Carcinomas are resected as needed, with neck dissection added in case of lymph-node involvement. Small adenoid cystic carcinomas can be treated curatively by very wide resection. Aggressive and extensive tumors are irradiated postoperatively. Malignancies not operated upon are irradiated primarily. Facial nerve paralysis can be rehabilitated by different nerve repair or static surgical techniques.

  18. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  19. PLAG1 gene alterations in salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma: a combined study using chromosome banding, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carmo; Fonseca, Isabel; Roque, Lúcia; Pereira, Teresa; Ribeiro, Catarina; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Soares, Jorge

    2005-08-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the salivary glands. It has marked histological diversity with epithelial, myoepithelial and mesenchymal-type cells arranged in a variety of architectural and differentiation patterns. Pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1), shown to be consistently rearranged in pleomorphic adenomas, is activated by chromosomal translocations involving 8q12, the chromosome region that is most frequently affected in these tumors. In this study, we evaluated PLAG1 involvement in salivary gland tumorigenesis by determining the frequency of its alterations in a selected group of 20 salivary gland tumors: 16 pleomorphic adenomas and four carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma, having in common the presence of karyotypic chromosome 8 deviations, either structural, with 8q12 rearrangements, or numerical, with gain of chromosome 8. PLAG1 status was analyzed using in situ hybridization techniques, on metaphase cells, by fluorescence detection and/or interphase cells in paraffin sections, by chromogenic detection. Except for one pleomorphic adenoma case (5%) that lacked PLAG1 involvement, 17 tumors (85%), (14 pleomorphic adenomas and three carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma) showed intragenic rearrangements of PLAG1 and the remaining two cases (10%), (one pleomorphic adenoma and one carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma), had chromosome trisomy 8 only. To further investigate the role of PLAG1 on pleomorphic adenomas tumorigenesis, as well as the putative morphogenesis mechanism, we attempted to identify the cell types (epithelial vs myoepithelial) carrying 8q12/PLAG1 abnormalities by a combined phenotypic/genotypic analysis in four cases (three pleomorphic adenoma and one carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma) characterized by 8q12 translocations and PLAG1 rearrangement. In these cases, both cells populations carried PLAG1 rearrangements. This finding further supports the pluripotent single-cell theory, which postulates that the tumor-initiated, modified

  20. Diagnostic problems of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Ruchita; Dey, Pranab

    2015-06-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of salivary gland is a popular technique with high sensitivity and specificity. However, the interpretation of FNAC smear of salivary gland lesions is a great challenge to the cytologists. The cytological features of the various tumors of the salivary gland have overlapping cytological features and many other lesions in the head neck region may mimic salivary lesions. Moreover, at times it may be difficult to differentiate benign from malignant tumor of the tumor with same cell of origin. In this article, we have discussed the various problems in the diagnosis of FNAC of the salivary gland lesions.

  1. Cytology of the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2014-03-01

    Common usage of fine-needle aspirate (FNA) for salivary gland lesions is the preoperative determination of whether a lesion is neoplastic, its lineage, and if neoplastic, whether it is low grade/benign, or high grade. Immunohistochemical stains can be performed on cell blocks to determine lineage and help refine diagnosis, although their performance is not always equivalent to that seen in surgical specimens. Several characteristic translocations have been described in various entities in these categories, and these can be evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the future, high-throughput next-generation sequencing panels may further refine cytologic diagnosis in salivary tumors.

  2. Morphological heterogeneity of oral salivary gland carcinomas: a clinicopathologic study of 41 cases with long term follow-up emphasizing the overlapping spectrum of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stephan; Müller, Maximilian; Ettl, Tobias; Stockmann, Philipp; Zenk, Johannes; Agaimy, Abbas

    2011-04-01

    We analyzed 41 oral salivary gland carcinomas from consecutive 290 salivary gland carcinoma database (14%) with emphasis on the histological spectrum and clinical outcome of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). The cohort included 14 ACCs, 14 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs), 8 PLGAs, 3 adenocarcinomas, not otherwise specified and 2 acinic cell carcinomas. Mean age was 48, 58 and 61 yrs for ACC, MEC and PLGA, respectively. Eight patients (19.5%) died of tumor at a mean interval of 66.5 months. ACC and PLGA showed similar mean age, gender distribution, predominant palatal localization, nodal metastasis, perineural invasion and MIB-1 index. However, ACC tended to show higher tumor stage and residual tumor (R1/R2) more frequently than PLGA, but this was statistically not significant. ACC and PLGA showed overlapping architectural patterns. However, ACCs displayed well organized basal-luminal differentiation, highlighted by CK5/CK7 immunostaining. In contrast, PLGA showed a disorganized histological and immunohistological pattern. C-Kit expression (CD117) was common in ACC, generally mirroring that of CK7 and virtually lacking in PLGA. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a similar clinical course for ACC and PLGA with 5 years survivals of 87% and 80%, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) performed on all 290 salivary carcinomas confirmed the specificity of the translocation t (11; 19) for MEC and its absence in all other carcinomas including ACC and PLGA. Our results emphasize the diversity of oral salivary gland carcinomas and the overlapping clinicopathological features of ACC and PLGA.

  3. Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Goode, R K; Corio, R L

    1988-01-01

    Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin is an extremely rare neoplasm. The diagnosis is established on the basis of oncocytic cellular features in conjunction with dysplastic change. These dysplastic changes may occur in benign oncocytomas or arise de novo. The tumor occurs most commonly in the parotid glands of persons over 60 years of age. Tumors that measure less than 2 cm at the initial surgical procedure appear to have a better prognosis than larger tumors. Aggressive surgical intervention at the initial presentation of the neoplasm, compared to simple enucleation, seems to offer a more favorable prognosis. Recurrence is an ominous feature. Metastasis, when it occurs, is widespread.

  4. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments.

  5. Histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, N; Agarwal, A; Raj, V; Chandra, S

    2013-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare group of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. The problem is compounded by the ability of these cells to differentiate and modify into various morphological subtypes resulting in a myraid of histomorphological patterns. This also leads to a frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms and sometimes even between benign and malignant lesions causing significant diagnostic dilemma which sometimes may even not be resolved by immunohistochemical studies. Despite this the knowledge of histogenesis and morhogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumorigenesis greatly helps the pathologist in classifying these lesions as well as determining the prognosis. It will also help in development of newer strategies for differentiating these lesions and making an early diagnosis. The present article is aimed at reviewing and summarizing the current concepts regarding the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  6. Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A 16, tumour protein 53 and epidermal growth factor receptor in salivary gland carcinomas is not associated with oncogenic virus infection.

    PubMed

    Senft, Ellen; Lemound, Juliana; Stucki-Koch, Angelika; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Kreipe, Hans; Hussein, Kais

    2015-03-01

    It is known that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can cause squamous cell neoplasms at several sites, such as cervix uteri carcinoma and oral squamous carcinoma. There is little information on the expression of HPV and its predictive markers in tumours of the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. We therefore assessed oral salivary gland neoplasms to identify associations between HPV and infection-related epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A/p16) and tumour protein p53 (TP53). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from oral salivary gland carcinomas (n=51) and benign tumours (n=26) were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for several HPV species, including high-risk types 16 and 18. Evaluation of EGFR, CDKN2A, TP53 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was performed by immunohistochemistry. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was evaluated by EBV-encoded RNA in situ hybridisation. We demonstrated that salivary gland tumours are not associated with HPV infection. The expression of EGFR, CDKN2A and TP53 may be associated with tumour pathology but is not induced by HPV. CMV and EBV were not detectable. In contrast to oral squamous cell carcinomas, HPV, CMV and EBV infections are not associated with malignant or benign neoplastic lesions of the salivary glands.

  7. [Cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Frade González, C; García-Caballero, T; Lozano Ramírez, A; Labella Caballero, T

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies on cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors have shown the utility of immunostain with MIB1 in the differential diagnosis and prognosis of these neoplasms. We have carried out a study of 39 salivary gland tumors (17 benign), from different histological lineages. The immunocytochemical method used was the streptavidin--biotin--peroxidase complex which used the MIB1 monoclonal antibody. Benign tumors showed a low cell proliferation rates, below 5% with an overall average of 1.9%. The malignant tumors presented higher rates, with a middle value of 17.85%. Epidermoid carcinomas had the higher cell proliferation rates, with an average of 43%. In adenoid cystic carcinomas, we have observed that proliferation was greater at the peripheral level of tumor nests and cell surrounding the cystic structures. Neoplasms of low grade of malignancy presented lower cell proliferation rates. The MIB1 immunostain allowed to reach a differential diagnosis between pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma, specially in those cases in which there could be any doubt.

  8. Characterization of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland: discrimination from its mimics by the presence of the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation and novel surrogate markers.

    PubMed

    Urano, Makoto; Nagao, Toshitaka; Miyabe, Satoru; Ishibashi, Kenichiro; Higuchi, Kayoko; Kuroda, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized salivary gland tumor harboring an ETV6-NTRK3 translocation similar to secretory carcinoma of the breast. Histologically, MASC mimics papillary-cystic, microcystic, and follicular-type acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC) of the salivary gland. Using histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular genetic techniques, we reevaluated 18 cases originally diagnosed as AciCC between 1993 and 2012. The last of these methods was used to detect the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. The results reconfirmed 6 cases as AciCC (3 men; average age, 63 years) and helped us reclassify 10 cases as MASC (6 men; mean age, 46 years) and 2 as LGCCC (2 women; mean age, 48 years). Using IHC, we identified the 3 histologic types according to the expression patterns of vimentin, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin 19, S-100, mammaglobin, MUC1, GATA-binding protein 3, adipophilin, α-amylase, DOG-1, SOX-10, and p63. The number of tumors diagnosed as MASC indicates that AciCC includes bona fide MASC cases. Because differential diagnosis among zymogen granule-poor AciCC, MASC, and LGCCC tumors is challenging, we recommend using molecular genetic tests for ETV6-NTRK3 for accurate diagnosis. Furthermore, detailed analyses of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissues and IHC studies using the markers described here should be incorporated into routine practices.

  9. Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) on the anterior chest wall of a newborn.

    PubMed

    Aby, Janelle L; Patel, Mayha; Sundram, Uma; Benjamin, Latanya T

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) is a rare condition typically seen in the newborn period. This developmental heterotopia is generally nonprogressive, with little risk of malignant transformation. We present the second known reported case of a salivary gland choristoma located on the anterior chest wall. Knowledge of this rare entity will allow for accurate diagnosis and management of this benign anatomic variant.

  10. Clinical implication of CD166 expression in salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Ahmadi, Shahab

    2015-04-01

    CD166 is a glycoprotein of immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules which is overexpressed in many tumors. However, no published literature was found concerning CD166 expression in salivary gland tumor. The purpose of this study was to examine the CD166 expression in the salivary gland tumor by an immunohistochemical approach, to examine the clinical implication of this marker in the prognosis and diagnosis of the salivary gland tumor. In this study, 45 samples of salivary tumors from Khalili Hospital archive including 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 16 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 14 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma, and 15 normal salivary glands were selected for immunohistochemistry (IHC) method staining for CD166. CD166 immunoreactivity in malignant tumors (adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC)) (56.7 ± 14.05) was significantly higher than that of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) (34.3 ± 17.07) (P < 0.000) and higher in the PA than normal salivary gland (13.2 ± 12.1) (P = 0.001). CD166 expression was significantly higher in the high-grade tumors (90.3 ± 11.07) compared to low-grade (65.11 ± 27.08) malignant tumors (P = 0.002). CD166 expression showed a significant association with tumor size and the clinical stage (P < 0.001). In conclusion, an overexpression of CD166 was detected in the benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and its expression in the malignant tumor was associated with the aggressive behavior and tumor progression. For this reason, CD166 may be one of the potential biomarkers for predicting tumor behavior in the prognosis of this disease.

  11. [Clinico-morphologic characterization of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Kulikov, L S; Iagubov, A S; Dorofeev, D A; Mashkovtsev, Iu V

    1997-01-01

    64 cases of SGMC were studied. Clinical morphology of epidermoid carcinoma was studied according to the 2nd edition of the International histologic classification of the tumors of this site (WHO, Geneva, 1990). This allows to study not only incidence of this tumor depending on the site, sex and age, but to give new data on its biology. The malignancy of all the three types of this tumor (of low, moderate and high grade) was confirmed by means of histologic, histochemical, electron-microscopic (EM) and EM-histochemical methods. The previous assumption on benign character of the low-grade variant of the tumor was not confirmed.

  12. Salivary gland lesions: recent advances and evolving concepts.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruta; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Clark, Jonathan R

    2015-06-01

    Recently, there have been significant developments in our understanding of salivary gland pathology, and new entities, such as mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, have been described. Attempts are being made to identify effective therapeutic agents for salivary duct carcinomas by using molecular diagnostic techniques. Concepts such as high-grade transformation have been described, which not only influence macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of a specimen but, given the high incidence of metastases and morbidity, also carry significant treatment implications. Specific chromosomal translocations, which can be detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization, can augment diagnostic accuracy and carry prognostic implications. The landscape of benign salivary gland lesions is changing with better understanding of chronic sclerosing sialadenitis related to IgG4. This multiorgan inflammatory condition may primarily present as a salivary gland lesion and clinically and radiologically mimic a salivary gland malignancy. Histology and immunohistochemistry play a critical role in its accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to review these changes, with an emphasis on their effect on patient management. Given their diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications, it is critical that surgeons, oncologists, pathologists, and those involved in caring for patients with salivary gland tumors are aware of these changes while considering management options.

  13. Cytogenetic analysis of salivary gland type tumors.

    PubMed

    Mark, H F; Hanna, I; Gnepp, D R

    1996-08-01

    Fourteen salivary gland type tumors were analyzed with a combination of conventional cytogenetics via GTG-banding, molecular cytogenetics via fluorescent in situ hybridization, and chromosome morphometry. Nine tumors were benign (eight pleomorphic adenomas and one Warthin tumor) five tumors were malignant (one carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, two adenoid cystic carcinomas including one from the breast, a basal cell adenocarcinoma, and an acinic cell carcinoma). Thirteen specimens grew in tissue culture; the basal cell adenocarcinoma did not grow. The Warthin tumor had a normal karyotype, one pleomorphic adenoma was normal, one had a clone with a missing Y chromosome, and the other pleomorphic adenomas had structural chromosomal abnormalities including the following: translocations between chromosomes 3 and 8, chromosomes 6 and 16, chromosomes 8 and 9, chromosomes 8 and 12, chromosomes 8 and 14, and chromosomes 8 and 21. Of the four malignant tumors with karyotypes, the acinic cell carcinoma and one adenoid cystic carcinoma were normal, the second adenoid cystic carcinoma showed a normal polymorphic variant, whereas the carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma demonstrated the following karyotype: 46,XX,dir ins(8;5)(q12;q12q35), add(12)(p13)/46,XX. In conclusion, 66% of the benign tumors and 25% of the malignant tumors demonstrated abnormal karyotypes.

  14. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  15. [Skin adnexal and salivary gland neoplasms. Similarities and differences of selected patients].

    PubMed

    Mentzel, T

    2004-02-01

    Benign and malignant skin adnexal neoplasms, especially glandular lesions, show morphologically striking similarities to salivary gland tumors. On the other hand, histological and clinical differences are evident, and knowledge of their existence is important for adequate treatment and reliable prognostication. In this review similarities and differences of selected entities are briefly described and discussed. The following entities are reviewed: cylindroma (vs. membranous variant of basal cell adenoma), sebaceoma (vs. sebaceous adenoma), syringocystadenoma papilliferum (vs. sialadenoma papilliferum), chondroid syringoma (vs. pleomorphic adenoma), cutaneous myoepithelioma (vs. myoepithelioma of salivary glands), cutaneous malignant myoepithelioma (vs. malignant myoepithelioma of salivary glands), cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma (vs. adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands), and mucinous eccrine carcinoma (vs. mucous carcinoma of salivary glands).

  16. Salivary gland hypofunction in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, M

    1994-03-01

    Elderly dental patients often complain of mouth dryness. This complaint is most often caused by xerogenic medications or, less often, by systemic diseases. Aging per se has no significant clinical impact on salivary gland output. Salivary gland hypofunction, whether caused by medications or systemic disorders, have a strong negative impact on intraoral tissues, with a significant reduction in the quality of life.

  17. [Papillary cystadenoma of the minor salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Mahler, V; Schell, H

    1998-10-01

    Papillary cystadenoma of the minor salivary glands is a rare benign tumor that clinically resembles a mucous cyst. We demonstrate its histologic features and differential diagnosis by a case report. Benign and malignant neoplasms of the minor salivary glands are not well acknowledged in the dermatologic literature, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis for mucous cysts.

  18. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Fazylov, A A; Baĭmatova, B A

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasonic tomography was applied to diagnose salivary gland diseases in 201 patients. Malignant disorders were found in 53 cases, benign in 127, and inflammation in 21. The investigation yielded some echographic diagnostic criteria for tumors and non-tumorous salivary gland diseases.

  19. The Role of Autophagy in Salivary Gland Homeostasis and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Bathke, M.; Lin, H.H.; Ann, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process that has been shown to have a role in many cellular processes including the removal of excessive or damaged proteins and protein aggregates. The salivary glands play a critical role in oral health, and their secretory capacity may be critically intertwined with the autophagic process. This review describes the role of autophagy activation in normal salivary gland homeostasis and during the glandular stress responses of therapeutic radiation, ductal ligation, autoimmunity, and salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma. PMID:26092378

  20. A rare malignancy of the parotid gland in a 13-year-old Taiwanese boy: case report of a mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland with molecular study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Michael J; Wu, Pei Ru; Chen, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chia-Yu; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2014-03-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described malignancy of the salivary glands characterized by an ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion gene. Morphologically, MASC is sometimes difficult to distinguish from acinic cell carcinoma. Consequently, identifying the chromosomal translocation is essential for diagnosis. We present a case of parotid gland MASC in a 13-year-old boy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Histologic evaluation showed a tumor composed of microcysts, tubular structures, solid nests, or papillary architecture, with secretions within the lumens of the cysts or tubules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells showed diffuse positive staining of S-100 protein, cytokeratin 19, and vimentin. ETV6 rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and EN fusion transcripts were verified by reverse transcription (RT-PCR) assay.

  1. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandibular anterior region: The role of immunohistochemical markers in its definitive diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Chetana; Salati, Naser; Rao, Lakshmi; Radhakrishnan, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a high-grade adenocarcinoma arising from the ductal epithelium of salivary glands which rarely involves the minor salivary glands. The varied histological presentation in the minor salivary gland tumors makes them the most heterogeneous group of neoplasms, making the diagnosis a challenge. This report highlights the importance of immunohistochemical markers in the definitive diagnosis of SDC. PMID:27721618

  2. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-14

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  3. Basal-cell adenoma of the salivary gland: a benign adenoma that cytologically mimics adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stanley, M W; Horwitz, C A; Henry, M J; Burton, L G; Lowhagen, T

    1988-01-01

    We describe the fine-needle aspiration cytology of two cases of basal-cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland. Both consisted of groups of small uniform cells with scant cytoplasm and occasional single cells. Small amounts of metachromatic stroma were present in smears from one case. The cytologic and histologic similarities between (BCA) and the solid type of adenoid cystic carcinoma are emphasized. Unequivocal distinction between these two entities may not be possible by cytologic criteria alone.

  4. Oncocytoma of palatal minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Khakbaz Baboli, Oveis; Yarmand, Fateme

    2015-05-01

    Oncocytoma is a rare benign salivary gland tumor, which mostly occurs in the parotid gland. In this article, we describe an early onset of oncocytoma of minor salivary gland in a 36-year, white male. On clinical examination, we encounter with a painless, granular, sessile mass. After Excisional biopsy, the histopathological features revealed sheets of cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and large, round nuclei that are known as "Oncocyte".

  5. Lipomatous infiltration of the canine salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Brown, P J; Lucke, V M; Sozmen, M; Whitbread, T J; Wyatt, J M

    1997-06-01

    Benign connective tumours of the canine salivary glands are rare. This report describes lipomatous infiltration of parotid or submandibular salivary glands in seven dogs in which the glands were enlarged as a result of infiltration by fat cells; they appeared to have been successfully treated by local excision. The precise cause of the lipomatous infiltration in the dogs is unclear but different causes of similar lesions in humans are discussed.

  6. [Acinar cell carcinoma of submaxillary gland].

    PubMed

    Comeche, C; Calabuig, C; Barona, R

    1997-01-01

    Although acine cell neoplasms have for a long time been regarded as benign tumors, they are presently considered to represent the carcinomas. These rare tumors mainly affect the parotid glands, and only exceptionally involve other salivary glands. Clinically, acic cell carcinoma present as isolated tumors simulating a pleomorphic adenoma. The diagnosis is histopathological, and complete surgical removal of the tumor is the treatment of choice, with cervical lymphatic voiding and/or postoperative radiotherapy in selected cases. A prolonged patient follow-up is required, for the tumor may recur many years after surgery. We report a case of acinic cell carcinoma in submaxillary gland.

  7. Expression of androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors in salivary gland tumors. Frequent expression of androgen receptor in a subset of malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Selim M; Faquin, William C; Dayal, Yogeshwar

    2003-06-01

    The expression of sex hormone receptors in some tumors suggests a role for these receptors in tumor pathogenesis and therapy. Previous studies of the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in salivary gland tumors have reported conflicting results. We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors (AR, ER, and PR) in a series of 78 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded salivary gland tumors. Immunoreactivity for AR was seen in 14 of 14 carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas, 6 of 6 salivary duct carcinomas, and 2 of 2 basal cell adenocarcinomas but in only 2 of 10 acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas each. AR expression was distributed evenly between the sexes. ER and PR were expressed in only a few cases of salivary gland tumors. All 26 benign salivary gland tumors were negative for AR, ER, and PR. The uniform expression of AR exclusively in a subset of malignant salivary gland tumors suggests a possible role for AR in the histogenesis and possibly in the clinical management of these malignant salivary gland tumors.

  8. PCNA, Ki-67 and p53 expressions in submandibular salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Alves, F A; Pires, F R; De Almeida, O P; Lopes, M A; Kowalski, L P

    2004-09-01

    Salivary gland tumours are uncommon with a broad heterogeneity. The most common benign tumour is the pleomorphic adenoma, whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma predominate among the malignancies. Most salivary gland tumours occur in the parotid, and consequently clinical and biological data are normally derived from this site. This work describes the expressions of PCNA, Ki-67 and p53 in 15 pleomorphic adenomas, 15 mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 15 adenoid cystic carcinomas of the submandibular gland. Our results showed that all pleomorphic adenomas were negative for p53 and Ki-67 with 66.6% being positive for PCNA. Conversely, p53 was positive in 53% of the mucoepidermoid carcinomas and in 20% of the adenoid cystic carcinomas. Ki-67 was expressed in 47.7% of the mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 40% of the adenoid cystic carcinomas. All malignant tumours were positive for PCNA. These results indicate that the proliferative rate analysed with PCNA and Ki-67 and the expression of p53 in pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland were similar to those described in the parotid and minor salivary glands. However, mucoepidermoid carcinomas showed higher expression of these markers than those of other salivary glands. This work is the first describing the expression of these immunohistochemical markers exclusively in submandibular salivary gland tumours.

  9. Pitfalls in the staging of cancer of the major salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Elliott R; Saindane, Amit M

    2013-02-01

    The major salivary glands consist of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. Most neoplasms in other subsites in the head and neck are squamous cell carcinoma, but tumors of the salivary glands may be benign or malignant. Surgical treatment differs if the lesion is benign, and therefore preoperative fine needle aspiration is important in salivary neoplasms. The role of imaging is to attempt to determine histology, predict likelihood of a lesion being malignant, and report an imaging stage. This article reviews the various histologies, imaging features, and staging of major salivary gland neoplasms.

  10. True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcoma) of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Stephen, J; Batsakis, J G; Luna, M A; von der Heyden, U; Byers, R M

    1986-06-01

    True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcomas) of salivary glands are of a high grade of malignancy and are distinguishable from the more frequently occurring carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma. Having a putative origin from a benign pleomorphic adenoma, the true malignant mixed tumor is an aggressive, often rapidly lethal neoplasm in which the sarcomatous element is most often a chondrosarcoma and the epithelial element is most often a ductal carcinoma. The twelve cases in this report represent the largest recorded series to date.

  11. Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Colby, T V; Dorfman, R F

    1979-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands are probably more common than has been previously recognized. They must be differentiated from the benign lymphoepithelial lesion, although there may be an association between the two. The entire histologic spectrum of malignant lymphomas found at other sites can be seen in the salivary gland. In this study of 59 patients with lymphoma affecting the salivary gland, a large percentage were found to have disseminated disease. We recommend the same rigorous clinical evaluation and staging procedures as used in patients who present with primary lymph node involvement.

  12. Nucleolar organizer regions in malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Fujita, S; Takahashi, H; Okabe, H

    1992-10-01

    Proliferative activity of carcinomas arising from salivary glands was analyzed by enumeration of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs). The mean numbers of AgNORs in the various tumors were as follows: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 2.20; acinic cell carcinoma, 2.51; adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), 2.57; carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, 1.00 (benign component) and 3.99 (cancer-bearing area); salivary duct carcinoma, 4.49; polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, 3.37; sebaceous carcinoma, 2.57; oncocytic carcinoma, 4.63; adenocarcinoma, 4.53. Cells of most tumors showed heterogeneous activity within the same tumor. In mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the mucous cells had suppressed activity in comparison with the epidermoid cells and intermediate cells. In ACC, the activity of the tumor cells increased according to growth pattern in the order tubular, glandular and solid. In carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, vigorous proliferative activity was observed in the malignant component, whereas less active cells were seen in the myxoid or chondroid matrix. AgNOR staining was useful for distinguishing benign from malignant regions in carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma. Our results suggest that mucoepidermoid carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma and ACC, except for that with a solid growth pattern, may be considered as low-grade malignancies, whereas solid-type ACC, the cancer component in carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma and some of the other carcinomas have high-grade malignant behavior.

  13. Basement membrane proteins in salivary gland tumours. Distribution of type IV collagen and laminin.

    PubMed

    Skalova, A; Leivo, I

    1992-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of type IV collagen and laminin in normal salivary glands and in salivary gland tumours of various types was studied using rabbit antisera. In normal salivary glands, type IV collagen and laminin were co-localized in basement membranes surrounding acini, ducts, fat cells and peripheral nerves. In salivary gland tumours, three main patterns of co-expression of these basement membrane proteins were distinguished. Linear basement membrane-like staining was detected in duct-cell-derived benign salivary gland tumours and in acinic cell carcinomas. In invasive lesions, however, these basement membrane proteins were distributed in an irregular, interrupted manner, and in many cases they were completely absent. Both benign and malignant salivary gland tumours which have a prominent myoepithelial cell component display a particular deposition of basement membrane molecules adjacent to the modified myoepithelial cells, and at the margins of extracellular matrix deposits within these tumours.

  14. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; da Silva Lascane, Nelise Alexandre; Altemani, Albina; Sousa, Suzana

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, 3 cases of very rare intraoral carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenomas showing a striking differentiation of the malignant component towards epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma were described. The tumors occurred in 2 men and 1 woman with median age of 56 years. Involved sites included palate and buccal mucosa. Two patients experienced local recurrences, of which one died of disease complications. In all cases, residual pleomorphic adenoma was present. The malignant component in all cases shared morphological aspects with epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Those areas were characterized by eosinophilic duct-forming cells surrounded by layers of clear cells. The studied immunohistochemical markers highlighted a biphasic cell population. Duct-forming cells expressed pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, and focally cytokeratin 14, whereas the clear cell component strongly stained to cytokeratin 14, vimentin, and p63 but weakly stained to pan-cytokeratin and focally to α-smooth muscle actin, an immunophenotype compatible with both epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation. The Ki-67 proliferation index was up to 40% in malignant areas. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component are rare, locally aggressive, and potentially lethal tumors. The peculiar morphological and immunohistochemical aspects described may raise problems in diagnosis and classification of such cases, particularly in incisional biopsies.

  15. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-02-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts).

  16. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems. PMID:23974175

  17. Is DOG1 really useful in the diagnosis of salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma? - A DOG1 (clone K9) analysis in fine needle aspiration cell blocks and the review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Canberk, Sule; Onenerk, Mine; Sayman, Elif; Goret, Ceren Canbey; Erkan, Murat; Atasoy, Tugba; Kilicoglu, Gamze Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: DOG1 is a transmembrane protein originally “discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumors,” works as a calcium-activated chloride channel protein. There is a limited number of studies on the potential usage of this antibody in the diagnosis of salivary gland tumors on routine practice in cell blocks. The aim of this study was to search for the usefulness of K9 clone in oncocytic type tumors and review of the literature. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic materials of predominantly oncocytic morphology salivary gland tumors; acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) (n = 8), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 2), pleomorphic adenoma (PA) (n = 22), Warthin tumor (WT) (n = 20), myoepithelioma (ME) (n = 5), benign oncocytoma (BeO) (n = 3), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (n = 7), mammary analog salivary gland carcinoma (n = 2) were immunostained with DOG1 (clone K9) stain. Results: Of the 8 AciCCs, 7 were observed apical-luminal positive staining, demonstrating 1–3 + intensity, and involving 40–70% of the tumor cells. One MEC of 7 (14%), 1 ME of 5 (20%), and 4 PA of 22 (18%) showed weak (1+) cytoplasmic granular staining in 5–10% of the tumor cells. Pure oncocytic neoplasms (WT, BeO) showed no expression with DOG1-K9. Conclusions: FNA is a common tool in the diagnosis and management of salivary gland tumors. DOG1-K9 clone was very useful with a unique staining pattern of apical-luminal positivity in the differential diagnosis of AciCC from other oncocytic salivary gland tumors. PMID:26425134

  18. Epidemiological study of salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Frade Gonzalez, C; Lozano Ramirez, A; Garcia Caballero, T; Labella Caballero, T

    1999-01-01

    Tumours located in the salivary glands form the most heterogeneous group in all human oncological pathology. They show various epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary characteristics which separate them from other neoplasms of the head and neck. In this paper, we have carried out a study on their epidemiological aspects, collecting 80 cases diagnosed in the ENT Service of the University Hospital Complex of Santiago over 17 years. The incidence was 1.22 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The frequency was higher in males (58.75%) and in the 7th decade of age. A predominance was noticed in females under 40 years of age and in males over this age, but the differences were not statistically significant. The most frequent site was the parotid gland, and we could not find any case in the sublingual gland. In 52.5% of cases the tumour was benign, pleomorphic adenoma being the most prevalent. Among malignant tumours, the epidermoid carcinoma stood out in our series. The prevalence of benign tumours in females and of malignant tumours in males was clear, with significant differences. We compare our results with the data published in the literature.

  19. [Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Dusek, J; Cerný, L; Wiedermann, B

    1977-05-01

    A series of eight observations serves for demonstrating the clinico-pathological picture of the benign lymphoepithelial lesion of salivary glands. The glandular lesion was associated with joint symptoms, one of the female patients developed malignant lymphoma.

  20. Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline.

  1. Immunolocalization of interleukin-6 in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Gandour-Edwards, R; Kapadia, S B; Gumerlock, P H; Barnes, L

    1995-05-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates immune responses and acute phase reactions. It has demonstrated a growth factor function in several tumors, including those of salivary, plasma cell, and renal origin. We performed immunohistochemical staining for IL-6 localization on 57 salivary tumors. Reactivity was scored by intensity (0 to 4+) and percentage of cells staining, and the tumors were classified into three groups representing low (0 to 1+, 0% to 30%), moderate (2 to 3+, 31% to 75%), or high (> 3 to 4+, 76% to 100%) reactors. High reactivity was found in all primary pleomorphic adenomas (N = 10), five of eight recurrent pleomorphic adenomas, and all polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas (N = 4). Moderate reactivity was observed in four of seven basal cell adenomas and three of five myoepitheliomas. Low reactivity characterized all acinic cell carcinomas (N = 3) and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (N = 3) as well as six of nine primary adenoid cystic carcinomas and all metastatic adenoid cystic carcinomas (N = 3). Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (N = 5) had three low and two moderate reactors. A pattern emerged in which the benign and low grade malignant tumors showed stronger reactivity than the metastatic or high grade malignant tumors. This suggests an inverse relationship between the presence of IL-6 and the biological aggressiveness of salivary gland tumors. The function of IL-6 in salivary gland neoplasia awaits further study and elucidation.

  2. Salivary gland-like tumours of the breast: surgical and molecular pathology.

    PubMed

    Pia-Foschini, M; Reis-Filho, J S; Eusebi, V; Lakhani, S R

    2003-07-01

    Breast glands and salivary glands are tubulo-acinar exocrine glands that can manifest as tumours with similar morphological features, but that differ in incidence and clinical behaviour depending on whether they are primary in breast or salivary glands. Salivary gland-like tumours of the breast are of two types: tumours with myoepithelial differentiation and those devoid of myoepithelial differentiation. The first and more numerous group comprises a spectrum of lesions ranging from "bona fide" benign (such as benign myoepithelioma and pleomorphic adenoma), to low grade malignant (such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, low grade adenosquamous carcinoma, and adenomyoepithelioma), to high grade malignant lesions (malignant myoepithelioma). The second group comprises lesions that have only recently been recognised, such as acinic cell carcinoma, oncocytic carcinoma of the breast, and the rare mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

  3. Major and minor salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Marco; Locati, Laura D; Prott, Franz J; Gatta, Gemma; McGurk, Mark; Licitra, Lisa

    2010-05-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare. The most common tumor site is the parotid. Aetiologic factors are not clear. Nutrition may be a risk factor, as well as irradiation or a long-standing histologically benign tumor that occurs at youth. Painless swelling of a salivary gland should always be considered as suspicious, especially if no sign of inflammation is present. Signs and symptoms related to major salivary gland tumors differ from those concerning minor salivary gland tumors, as they depend on the different location of the salivary gland. Surgical excision represents the standard option in the treatment of resectable tumors of both major and minor salivary glands. Neutron, heavy ions or proton radiotherapy may be a treatment option for inoperable locoregional disease. Surgery, irradiation or re-irradiation are treatment options for local relapse, whereas radical neck dissection is indicated for regional relapses. Metastatic disease may be either treated with radiotherapy or palliative chemotherapy, depending on the site of metastases. For highly selected patients the employment of anti-androgen therapy is indicated.

  4. Flow cytometric DNA ploidy in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Driemel, Oliver; Maier, Heinz; Kraft, Klaus; Haase, Stephan; Hemmer, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    This study on 279 tumours of the salivary glands was conducted to analyse whether the assessment of DNA ploidy by flow cytometry may assist histopathology in discriminating benign from malignant types of tumours. The group of benign tumours included 164 pleomorphic adenomas, 51 Warthin's tumours, 7 basal cell adenomas, 2 lipomas as well as 5 other different tumours. All of the 229 benign tumours were diploid. The malignant tumours consisted of 18 adenoid cystic adenomas, 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 5 acinic cell carcinomas, 5 carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma as well as of 12 other malignancies belonging to 7 different tumour entities. Twelve of 50 malignant salivary gland tumours were aneuploid. There was no significant relationship between the DNA ploidy status and histopathological grading, lymph node metastasis and local recurrence development, respectively. In three cases which initially were taken for pleomorphic adenomas by routine histological examination, aneuploid cell populations exposed by DNA flow cytometric analysis gave rise to a closer inspection of the suspect lesions. Examination of consecutive slides actually revealed small assemblies of carcinoma cells that required a final diagnosis as non-invasive carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma. The most obvious value of DNA flow cytometry in salivary gland tumours is thus its contribution to assist histopathology in identifying potentially malignant lesions.

  5. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Zacharie; Fokouo, Jean Valentin; Mebada, Arlette Onomo; Djomou, François; NDjolo, Alexis; Oyono, Jean Louis Essame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location. In Cameroon, existing studies give incomplete data. Hence, we underwent this study in order to draw the general profile of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the period spanning from January 2000 to December 2010 (11 years). It was done in nine Pathology services of different hospitals in Yaoundé, Douala and Bamenda. We consulted the archive registers of those services, retaining any patient with salivary gland tumor, whatever the histological type or location. Information gathered was the year of diagnosis, the service, the age and sex, the site of the tumor (gland) the histological type and the benign/ malignant character. Results We recruited a total of 275 files. Women were 56% (154/275) and men 44% (121/275) of the sample. Fifty eight tumors were malignant (21.9%) while 217 were benign (78.1%). The overall mean age was 37.44 years, with extremes between 1 and 84 years. Pleomorphic adenoma (60.36%) was the most common benign tumor. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (31%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (22.4%) and adenocarcinoma (19%) were the most common malignant tumors. Palate (66.7%), cheek (30%) and lips (3.3%) were the sites were the minor salivary glands were mostly involved. Conclusion The differences with western world authors suggest a geographical variability of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27217890

  6. Diagnostic utility of PLAG1 immunohistochemical determination in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Rotellini, Matteo; Palomba, Annarita; Baroni, Gianna; Franchi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    PLAG1 (pleomorphic adenoma gene 1) is a proto-oncogene whose overexpression is a crucial oncogenic event in salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas (PA), and in carcinoma ex-PA. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the sensitivity and the specificity of PLAG1 as a marker in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland benign and malignant tumors. We examined 101 cases, including 36 PAs, 8 myoepitheliomas, 3 basal cell adenomas, and 1 canalicular adenoma among benign tumors; 16 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 10 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 8 acinic cell carcinomas, 8 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas, 7 salivary duct carcinoma, and 4 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma among malignant tumors. PLAG1 was diffusely positive in 94.4% of PAs and in all myoepitheliomas, although with a lower staining intensity. Among malignant tumors, 2 (25%) polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas and 1 salivary duct carcinoma ex-PA were positive. In conclusion, PLAG1 is a marker with good specificity for PA and could be a useful diagnostic adjunct in the diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. In particular, this marker is negative in the most common salivary carcinomas, including adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and acinic cell carcinoma. However, some mimickers of PA, like polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, may show occasional positivity for PLAG1, thus limiting its diagnostic use. In addition, carcinoma ex-PA shows consistent positivity, and therefore should be considered as a diagnostic possibility in case of a malignant tumor with PLAG1 expression.

  7. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  8. Recurrent Benign Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Witt, Robert Lee; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-01-01

    The most important causes of recurrence of benign pleomorphic adenoma are enucleation with intraoperative spillage and incomplete tumor excision in association with characteristic histologic findings for the lesion (incomplete pseudocapsule and the presence of pseudopodia). Most recurrent pleomorphic adenomas (RPAs) are multinodular. MRI is the imaging method of choice for their assessment. Nerve integrity monitoring may reduce morbidity of RPA surgery. Although treatment of RPA must be individualized, total parotidectomy is generally recommended given the multicentricity of the lesions. However, surgery alone may be inadequate for controlling RPA over the long term. There is growing evidence from retrospective series that postoperative radiotherapy results in significantly better local control. A high percentage of RPAs are incurable. All patients should therefore be informed about the possibility of needing multiple treatment procedures, with possible impairment of facial nerve function, and radiation therapy for RPA. Reappearance of Warthin tumor is a metachronous occurrence of a new focus or residual incomplete excision of all primary multicentric foci of Warthin tumor. Selected cases can be observed. Conservative surgical management can include partial superficial parotidectomy or extracapsular dissection. Not uncommonly, other major and minor salivary gland neoplasms, including myoepithelioma, basal cell adenoma, oncocytoma, canalicular adenoma, cystadenoma, and ductal papilloma, follow an indolent course after surgical resection, with rare cases of recurrence.

  9. Cytogenetic investigations on a cell line derived from a carcinoma arising in a salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Bullerdiek, J; Hutter, K J; Brandt, G; Weinberg, M; Belge, G; Bartnitzke, S

    1990-02-01

    This article discusses the results of cytogenetic investigations of a cell line derived from a malignant tumor arising in a benign salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma. Initial karyotypic studies became possible with cells of the second in vitro passage and revealed the existence of hypertetraploidy. Furthermore, a marked polysomy 7 and a translocation involving 12q13-15, a breakpoint also frequently seen in benign pleomorphic adenomas, were noteworthy. During long term culture, the number of chromosomes per cell decreased as well as the number of copies of chromosome 7. Cell tumorigenicity was proved by heterotransplantation to nude mice. The resulting tumors were karyotyped again. No significant changes of the chromosome number or of the degree of polysomy 7 were found compared to the cells before heterotransplantation. In contrast, the cells from the nude mice tumors showed a remarkable number of different isochromosomes probably indicating an unknown factor supporting the generation of isochromosomes. The consistent presence of the t(12;?)(q13-15;?) makes the cell line well suited for molecular studies of this breakpoint region.

  10. [Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Cwalina, Piotr; Skorek, Andrzej; Narozny, Waldemar; Stankiewicz, Czesław

    2002-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma, a benign tumor often seen in ENT practice, arises either from minor as well from major salivary glands. 5-14% of tumors occur in minor glands. Sixteen cases of minor salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas are studied. Eight of them originate from the oral cavity: 6 from the palate, one from the lower lip and one from the cheek. Two oral adenomas were malignant. In 4 patients tumors occur in the nasal cavity and in two other patients--in the neck. The clinical and pathological features of these patients are presented. Special attention is given to malignant transformation and the rate of recurrence of the tumors.

  11. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of oral minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A W; Speight, P M

    1995-04-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia is a rare cause of swelling of the oral minor salivary glands, but is of significance because of its clinical resemblance to salivary gland tumors. The histologic appearance is one of benign hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the minor mucous glands. The clinical and histologic features of 20 new cases are reported, 19 of which occurred in the hard or soft palate. The cause of adenomatoid hyperplasia has hitherto been unclear, but the observation that 14 subjects were tobacco smokers or denture wearers, or both, suggests chronic, local trauma may be an important factor in the development of the condition.

  12. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    PubMed

    Gurzu, S; Krause, M; Ember, I; Azamfirei, L; Gobel, G; Feher, K; Jung, I

    2012-01-01

    Mena (mammalian Ena) is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG) and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10) and also benign (n=20) and malignant (n=35) lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin's tumors) were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5), carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5), acinic cell carcinomas (n=5), squamous cell carcinomas (n=10) and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2) were positive. The lymphomas (n=5) and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1) were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  13. [The ultrasound examination of salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Kordylewska, M; Dziamska, K; Citowicki, W

    1993-01-01

    The results obtained after the examination of 107 ultrasound cases of changed salivary glands were presented. The characteristic features for changes most often appearing in salivary glands were presented. In case of tumours and cysts the diagnosis was formed on the basis of the ultrasound character of the change (low homogenas, density in cysts, higher density, non homogenous character in tumours), the degree of separation from the surrounding tissue (clear capsule in cyst and benign tumours, lack of capsule, indistinctive image in change of malignant character, in case of infiltration of surrounding tissues). The diagnosis of inflammation was made depending on the character of the change of the parenchyma of salivary gland--the increase of the gland with the lowering of density characteristic for acute inflammation, the reduction of size, increased sonographic density, enlarged leading out (duct), the echo of concrement is characteristic together with the accompanying acoustic shade for bigger concrements.

  14. Osteoradionecrosis in patients with salivary gland malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, J Rhet; Xu, Li; Sturgis, Erich M.; Mohamed, Abdallah S. R.; Hofstede, Theresa M.; Chambers, Mark S.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Fuller, Clifton David; Beadle, Beth; Gunn, G. Brandon; Hutcheson, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The present study was undertaken to evaluate osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in patients with salivary gland malignancies (SGM) after treatment with radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The medical records of 172 patients treated with radiation therapy for SGM during a 12-year period (August 2001 to November 2013) were reviewed. Incidence, time to event, staging and management of ORN were analyzed. RESULTS Of the 172 patients, 7 patients (4%) developed ORN (median latency: 19 months, range: 4–72 months). Of those 7 patients, 4 required major surgery, 1 required hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), one required minor debridement, and one required conservative management. Total prescribed radiation dose varied from 50 Gy (1 case) to 70 Gy (1 case) among those patients who developed ORN, and radiotherapy was delivered postoperatively after osseous resection in 4 of 7 cases. Three of the 7 cases of ORN occurred after traumatic injury to the bone. Of the 7 patients who developed ORN, 3 had SGM of the major glands, 3 had other sites of the oral cavity, and 1 had a sinonasal location. CONCLUSION While the rate of ORN after radiotherapy for SGM was somewhat lower (4%) than previously published data on patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck treated with radiation therapy (8% to 14%), ORN necessitating major surgery remains a rare, but clinically significant, possible late effect of radiotherapy in SGM survivors. Location is very important, with all cases that developed ORN having primary disease arising in the oral cavity. PMID:27208837

  15. Malignant lymphoepithelial lesion of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Saw, D; Lau, W H; Ho, J H; Chan, J K; Ng, C S

    1986-09-01

    Eight cases of malignant lymphoepithelial lesion (MLEL) of major salivary glands, seven of which occurred in Southern Chinese patients, are reported. All but two of the patients were older than 40 years of age; there were five male and three female patients. The parotid and submandibular glands were the sites of origin in equal numbers of cases. Six patients had elevated titers of serum IgA against Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen. Seven remained well after surgery and local radiation therapy, and one died of miliary tuberculosis without evidence of residual neoplasm. Histologically, MLELs were characterized by syncytial clumps of large cells with vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli, admixed with abundant small lymphocytes and plasma cells. Two features not emphasized previously in the literature were the presence of reactive histiocytes in some epithelial islands, producing a starry sky pattern, and perineural invasion, which was identified in four cases. The tumor cells showed strong immunostaining for cytokeratin. The literature concerning this rare tumor is reviewed, and the differential diagnosis between MLEL and benign lymphoepithelial lesion, metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma, and malignant lymphoma is discussed.

  16. [Salivary gland-type lung tumor: An update].

    PubMed

    Gibault, Laure; Badoual, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    "Salivary gland-type" tumors arising from the bronchi and lung are rare but not exceptional entities. They are mostly represented by malignant entities such as cystic adenoid carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and epithelial/myoepithelial carcinoma. Benign tumors are rare, mainly encompassing pleomorphic adenomas, which are to differentiate from mucous gland adenomas, another entity arising specifically from the peri-bronchial glands. These tumours develop in the proximal bronchi and are not associated with smoke abuse. Their main treatment is surgery. It is important to differentiate them from other broncho-pulmonary tumours as they do not share the same prognosis and therapeutic. This article will review the WHO 2015 classification of these tumours as well as recent updates from the literature to help define diagnosis criteria for these uncommon entities. PMID:26774826

  17. The activity of selected glycosidases in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Bierc, Marcin; Minarowski, Lukasz; Woźniak, Lukasz; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Knas, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2010-09-30

    The monitoring of the patients after salivary gland tumors surgery is an important clinical issue. Still imperfect diagnostic procedures also remain a challenge for searching new sensitive and specific biomarkers of neoplastic processes in salivary glands. The aim of the presented study was an the assessment of the activity of HEX, with its isoforms HEX-A and HEX-B, GLU, GAL, MAN and FUC in salivary gland tumor tissues in comparison to a healthy salivary gland tissues taken during autopsy. A group of 42 patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, aged 25-65 were examined. Fragments of salivary gland tumor tissue, fragments of healthy tissue removed during autopsy, blood serum and saliva were collected from patients with salivary gland tumors and healthy volunteers. In salivary gland tumor tissue the activity of HEX, HEX-A, HEX-B, GAL, FUC was considerably higher than in comparison to healthy salivary gland tissue and ascending trend of activity of GLU, MAN was also noticed. The activity of all lysosomal exoglycosidases in blood serum in patients with salivary gland tumors was considerably higher in comparison to healthy volunteers blood serum. The considerably higher activity of HEX, HEX-A, GLU, GAL, MAN, FUC and descending trend of activity of HEX-B were noticed in saliva of patients with salivary gland tumors in comparison to healthy volunteers. The assessment of HEX in blood serum and saliva of patients with salivary gland tumor can be possibly used in diagnostics and monitoring of salivary glands tumors.

  18. [Major salivary gland disorders in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Przewoźny, Tomasz; Stodulski, Dominik; Stankiewicz, Czesław

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was a review of 67 children treated for salivary gland tumors in the ENT Department Medical University of Gdańsk since 1974 to 2008. In that group we observed 52 children with tumor of the parotid gland, 13 with tumor of submandibular gland and 2 with subligual gland tumors. Tumor-like lesions were stated the largest group of tumors and were observed in 33 (49%) of children, mainly of chronic sialadenitis (17 cases). Predominant number of tumors was observed in scholarship children. The most common symptoms were slow enlargement of tumor and swelling of the salivary gland. In the group of benign tumors most common was pleomorphic adenoma (19 cases) and in the group of malignant tumors most common was clear cell carcinoma (2 cases) and rhabdomyosarcoma (2 cases). In this report the authors describe basic epidemiological and clinical data (age, sex, duration of symptoms, histological structure of tumor, diagnostic methods, methods and results of treatment) and observations connected with differences of salivary gland tumors in that group of patients.

  19. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid salivary gland in a cow.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Breno S; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Grandi, Fabrizio; Nonogaki, Suely; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S

    2012-09-01

    A 6-year-old Girolando dairy cow was presented for evaluation of a large subcutaneous facial mass. Fine-needle aspirates of the mass contained many neoplastic cells with high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios arranged in sheets and loosely cohesive clusters with streaming erythrocytes and neutrophils in the background. Neoplastic cells were 13-25 μm in diameter and were round to cuboidal with variably distinct borders. Based on the signalment, anatomic location, and cytologic findings, differential diagnoses included salivary adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The cow was euthanized and a necropsy was performed. The primary neoplasm arose from the left parotid salivary gland and meastatic tumor was found in the regional lymph nodes and lung. Histologically, the tumor was composed of anastomosing and irregular solid islets surrounded by scant stroma. Cells were negative for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), PAS-diastase, and Alcian blue pH 2.5 stains, used to detect mucin. On immunohistochemical analysis, neoplastic luminal salivary gland cells expressed cytokeratin, but not S100, α-smooth muscle actin, or vimentin. Peripheral cells of neoplastic islets were immunoreactive for p63. The final diagnosis was nonsecretory adenocarcinoma of the parotid salivary gland. PMID:22954300

  20. Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Hamed, G; Shmookler, B M; Ellis, G L; Punja, U; Feldman, D

    1994-03-01

    Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland is rare. We describe a 60-year-old woman who presented with a slowly growing left parotid mass. The patient underwent a total parotidectomy, and her postoperative course was uneventful. The gland was enlarged and showed a partially cystic mass containing clear mucoid material. Microscopically, the entire mass showed variably sized cysts lined predominantly with oncocytes and a few mucous goblet cells. Histochemical stains for mitochondria, such as phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin, confirmed the presence of oncocytes. The recognition of this variant is important, since most of the other primary oncocytic lesions of the salivary glands are benign. The tumor in this case is considered to be a low-grade carcinoma; therefore, complete surgical excision and long-term clinical follow-up are adequate management.

  1. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for salivary gland cancer What’s new in salivary gland cancer research and treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  2. Primary Pulmonary Salivary Gland-type Tumors: A Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nadja; Weissferdt, Annikka; Kalhor, Neda; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary salivary gland-type tumors (SGT) comprise a very small proportion of primary lung neoplasms. The most common tumors among this group are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Contrary to the head and neck region, benign SGT such as pleomorphic adenomas are exceedingly rare in the pulmonary system. More recently, 2 additional SGT, namely hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma and salivary duct-like carcinoma were recognized as primary lung tumors expanding the spectrum of SGT that have been described to originate in the tracheobronchial system. Primary pulmonary SGT must be clinically excluded from metastatic salivary gland neoplasms as their morphology is indistinguishable from that of their salivary gland counterparts. Little is known about the clinical behavior and best treatment approach for these unusual tumors. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of primary pulmonary SGT with particular emphasis on morphologic characteristics and latest developments in terms of immunohistochemical and molecular techniques.

  3. Pathophysiology of myoepithelial cells in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amisha Ashok Kumar; Mulla, Aamera Farouq; Mayank, Mrinal

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelial cells (MECs) are considered to be a key participant in most salivary gland diseases, particularly tumors. MECs structurally resemble both epithelial cells and smooth muscles. Diagnostic dilemmas caused are due to inadequacy of characterizing the wide spectrum of morphologic and immunologic features which are different for both normal and neoplastic MECs. This article discusses the development, functions and structure of both normal and neoplastic MECs, their staining properties and differences in the morphologic and immunophenotypic properties of the MEC in detail. It also describes the role of MEC in pathogenesis and morphogenesis of various nonneoplastic and neoplastic salivary gland lesions and thereby are responsible for the myriad histopathology of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27721615

  4. Epithelial salivary gland tumors in children and adolescents. Analysis of 80 cases (Salivary Gland Register 1965-1984).

    PubMed

    Seifert, G; Okabe, H; Caselitz, J

    1986-01-01

    In the Salivary Gland Register (University of Hamburg), 9883 cases were recorded from 1965 to 1984. Among these cases there were 3,326 neoplasms, of which 3,017 were epithelial in origin. In this latter group, 80 neoplasms arose in children and adolescents. Among these 80 persons, there was a slight predominance of females; 57 tumors (71%) were localized in the parotid gland, and only 6 (8%) in the submandibular gland. The incidence of the tumor types was different in children and adolescents as compared to the incidence in adults: monomorphic adenomas were virtually absent in children (only 1 patient), and benign tumors were also less common (65%). The incidence of mucoepidermoid tumors was remarkable (12 cases, 15%). Acinic cell tumors occurred more frequently (5 cases, 6%). The neoplasms have been analyzed histologically. Two very rare tumors, a monomorphic salivary duct adenoma and an embryonal carcinoma, were also studied by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry.

  5. Salivary gland neoplasms: a 21year review of cases seen at University College Hospital, Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Kolude, B; Lawoyin, J O; Akang, E E

    2001-01-01

    The present study updates the experience of salivary gland tumours in Ibadan. All cases of benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms histologically diagnosed between 1975 and 1995 in the Oral Pathology Department and Cancer Registry of the University College Hospital, Ibadan were reviewed. Salivary gland neoplasms accounted for 3.5% of head and neck neoplasms, the majority (46.5%) occurring in the parotid, followed by the submandibular (18.1%) and palatal glands (10.7%). The ratio of benign to malignant neoplasms was 1.1 to 1. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were the most common malignant neoplasms. There was a predilection of adenoid cystic carcinoma for the submandibular gland.

  6. [Basal cell adenomas of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskiĭ, O M

    1975-01-01

    The author presents data on morphology and clinical features of basal-cell adenomas of the salivary gland (10 cases). Singling out this neoplasm into independent onconosological group seems reasonable since basal-cell adenoma not infrequently is erroneously diagnosed as cylindroma or mixed tumour of the salivary gland, which may lead to a wrong clinical prognosis and inadequate therapeutic measures. The clinical course of this tumour is benign. The main morphological feature of the tumour is a monomorphic character of cell elements, their palisade-like distribution over the periphery of individual tumour structures and a clear-cut delimination of the parenchyma from the stroma.

  7. [Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Guallart Doménech, F; Molina Mira, A; González Martínez, M A; Pons Rocher, F; Mompó Romero, L; Serrano Badía, E

    1994-01-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary glands in an uncommon clinicopathologic entity, first reported, in 1971, by Giansanti and cols. The condition mimics a neoplasm because of its swelling, but the histologic picture agrees with that of normal appearing salivary gland tissue. The interest of this entity is that although benign pseudotumoral lesion, it can be clinically confused with benign or malignant tumors and even, through fine needle aspiration cytology, with low grade mucoepidermoid tumors. We present one case of this condition arising in the soft palate in a patient with unilateral serous otitis media. A review of the published literature on the subject is done.

  8. Imaging tumors of the minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, T; Minami, M; Ozawa, K; Akimoto, Y; Okada, M; Yamamoto, H; Suzuki, H; Sasaki, Y

    1994-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging evaluations of nine histopathologically confirmed minor salivary gland tumors were made retrospectively and compared with evaluations of images obtained by computed tomography. All tumors had low-to-intermediate T1 signal intensities and intermediate-to-high T2 signal intensities. Malignant tumors had an irregular margin in all but one case. Benign tumors invariably had well-defined margins. In terms of tumor margination, the magnetic resonance imaging findings correlated well with the histopathologic findings. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the internal architecture of the minor salivary gland tumors multidirectionally and was superior to computed tomography in this respect and in the ability to locate the tumors.

  9. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  10. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R. Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion. PMID:26752884

  11. [Salivary gland-like tumors of the breast].

    PubMed

    Otterbach, F; Schmid, K W

    2006-09-01

    A subset of rare benign and malignant breast tumors with and without myoepithelial differentiation are morphologically and histogenetically similar to salivary gland tumors, but may differ in incidence and clinical behavior. The clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and prognostic features of ten salivary gland-like tumor entities of the breast are discussed and compared with their respective counterparts in the salivary glands.

  12. Genetic variants in DNA double-strand break repair genes and risk of salivary gland carcinoma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Tang, Hongwei; El-Naggar, Adel K; Wei, Peng; Sturgis, Erich M

    2015-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) repair is the primary defense mechanism against ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. Ionizing radiation is the only established risk factor for salivary gland carcinoma (SGC). We hypothesized that genetic variants in DSB repair genes contribute to individual variation in susceptibility to SGC. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study in which we analyzed 415 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 45 DSB repair genes in 352 SGC cases and 598 controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Rs3748522 in RAD52 and rs13180356 in XRCC4 were significantly associated with SGC after Bonferroni adjustment; ORs (95% CIs) for the variant alleles of these SNPs were 1.71 (1.40-2.09, P = 1.70 × 10(-7)) and 0.58 (0.45-0.74, P = 2.00 × 10(-5)) respectively. The genetic effects were modulated by histological subtype. The association of RAD52-rs3748522 with SGC was strongest for mucoepidermoid carcinoma (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.55-3.15, P = 1.25 × 10(-5), n = 74), and the association of XRCC4-rs13180356 with SGC was strongest for adenoid cystic carcinoma (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.87, P = 6.91 × 10(-3), n = 123). Gene-level association analysis revealed one gene, PRKDC, with a marginally significant association with SGC risk in non-Hispanic whites. To our knowledge, this study is the first to comprehensively evaluate the genetic effect of DSB repair genes on SGC risk. Our results indicate that genetic variants in the DSB repair pathways contribute to inter-individual differences in susceptibility to SGC and show that the impact of genetic variants differs by histological subtype. Independent studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26035306

  13. Fatty Acid binding protein 7 is a molecular marker in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands: implications for clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Phuchareon, Janyaporn; Overdevest, Jonathan B; McCormick, Frank; Eisele, David W; van Zante, Annemieke; Tetsu, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands. Its diagnosis is difficult due to overlapping features with other salivary tumors. Gene expression analysis may complement traditional diagnostic methods. We searched gene expression patterns in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and in our tumor and normal samples. The biologic and prognostic potential of the identified genes was analyzed. The GEO data set of primary xenografted ACCs revealed that expression of five genes, engrailed homeobox 1 (EN1), fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), hemoglobin epsilon 1, MYB, and versican (VCAN), was dramatically increased. mRNA expression of EN1, FABP7, MYB, and VCAN distinguished our sporadic ACCs from normal tissues and benign tumors. FABP7 expression appeared to be regulated differently from EN1 and MYB and was crossly correlated with poor prognosis in our ACC cohort. Immunohistochemistry showed that FABP7 protein was predominantly expressed in the nucleus of myoepithelial cells of both tubular and cribriform subtypes. In contrast, in the solid subtype, which is often associated with a lower survival rate, FABP7 protein was uniformly expressed in cancerous cells. One case with cribriform architecture and the highest level of FABP7 mRNA showed strong FABP7 staining in both duct-type epithelial and myoepithelial cells, suggesting that diffuse expression of FABP7 protein might be related to aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. We propose FABP7 as a novel biomarker in ACC. The molecule may be useful in diagnosis and for identifying more effective therapies targeting this protein or upstream molecules that regulate it.

  14. Oncocytoma of minor salivary gland involving the retromolar region: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Palakshappa, Suhasini Gotur; Bansal, Vishal; Reddy, Vandana; Kamarthi, Nagaraju

    2014-01-01

    Oncocytic neoplasms comprise a group of rare tumors of salivary glands. Histologically, World Health Organization (WHO) (1991) classified them into three distinct types: Oncocytosis, oncocytoma and oncocytic carcinoma. Oncocytoma is also known by the more descriptive and less confusing terms of oxyphilic adenoma and oxyphilic granular cell adenoma. Oncocytoma is a rare benign salivary gland neoplasm composed of large epithelial cells with characteristic bright eosinophilic granular cytoplasm (oncocytic cells). It accounts for approximately 0.4-1% of all salivary gland neoplasms, occurring primarily in parotid glands, with only a small percentage occurring in minor salivary glands of palate, tonsillar fossi, larynx, nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and the lacrimal gland. It occurs primarily in persons older than 50 years of age. According to some authors, the biologic behavior of oncocytomas arising from minor salivary glands is that of an aggressive nature and should be considered as low-grade malignancies. Only 17 cases of histologically verified oncocytoma of an intraoral minor salivary gland are reported in literature, the current case being the 18th. Owing to the lack of large series, assiduous study of the cases reported in the literature may lead to better understanding of this rare entity. We herein describe a rare and probably the first case of minor salivary gland oncocytoma involving retromolar area in a 32-year-old female patient with a brief review of literature.

  15. Cell therapy for salivary gland regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-Y; Chang, F-H; Chen, C-Y; Huang, C-Y; Hu, F-C; Huang, W-K; Ju, S-S; Chen, M-H

    2011-03-01

    There are still no effective therapies for hyposalivation caused by irradiation. In our previous study, bone marrow stem cells can be transdifferentiated into acinar-like cells in vitro. Therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation with bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells may help functional regeneration of salivary glands. Bone marrow stem cells were labeled with nanoparticles and directly co-cultured with acinar cells to obtain labeled acinar-like cells. In total, 140 severely combined immune-deficiency mice were divided into 4 groups for cell therapy experiments: (1) normal mice, (2) mice receiving irradiation around their head-and-neck areas; (3) mice receiving irradiation and intra-gland transplantation with labeled stem cells; and (4) mice receiving irradiation and intra-gland transplantation with labeled acinar-like cells. Our results showed that salivary glands damaged due to irradiation can be rescued by cell therapy with either bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells for recovery of saliva production, body weight, and gland weight. Transdifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells into acinar-like cells in vivo was also noted. This study demonstrated that cell therapy with bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells can help functional regeneration of salivary glands, and that acinar-like cells showed better therapeutic potentials than those of bone marrow stem cells.

  16. Human kallikrein 3 (prostate specific antigen) and human kallikrein 5 expression in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Darling, M R; Tsai, S; Jackson-Boeters, L; Daley, T D; Diamandis, E P

    2006-01-01

    The human kallikrein 5 protein (hK5) is expressed in many normal tissues, most notably in skin, breast, salivary gland and esophagus. It has also been shown to be a potential biomarker for breast, ovarian and testicular cancer. Human kallikrein 3 (hK3; prostate-specific antigen) is the most useful marker for adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. The aim of this study was to determine whether hK3 and hK5 are expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues. Pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas, acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified of both minor and major salivary glands were examined. The results of this study indicate that most salivary gland tumors do not show high levels of expression of hK5. Staining was most prominent in keratinizing epithelia in pleomorphic adenomas. hK3 is not expressed in salivary gland tumors.

  17. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  18. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Białek, Ewa J; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  19. Salivary Gland Neoplasms in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J; Eisele, David W

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms (SGNs) in children are uncommon. Epithelial SGNs (ESGNs) comprise the majority (95%), with the remaining being mesenchymal SGNs (MeSGNs). Pleomorphic adenoma is the most frequently encountered benign neoplasm, mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most frequent malignant ESGN, and rhabdomyosarcoma is the most frequent malignant MeSGN. ESGN presents in the second decade, whereas MeSGN presents in the first and second decades. Swelling without pain or neurological signs is the main presentation of both benign and malignant neoplasms. Making an accurate preoperative histological diagnosis is important, so a needle biopsy or a perioperative frozen section is useful when there is doubt about the disease status of the patient; the excised tumour margin is also important. Surgical excision should aim to achieve clear margin excision in benign and malignant ESGNs, minimising the need for adjuvant radiotherapy and maximising the long-term likelihood of patient cure. Benign ESGNs are uncommon, and excision is curative, whereas malignant ESGN and MeSGN should be managed by a multidisciplinary paediatric oncology team.

  20. Recurrent Fusions in MYB and MYBL1 Define a Common, Transcription Factor-Driven Oncogenic Pathway in Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brayer, Kathryn J.; Frerich, Candace A.; Kang, Huining; Ness, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC), the second most common malignancy of salivary glands, is a rare tumor with bleak prognosis for which therapeutic targets are unavailable. We used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze low-quality RNA from archival, formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. In addition to detecting the most common ACC translocation, t(6;9) fusing the MYB proto-oncogene to NFIB, we also detected previously unknown t(8;9) and t(8;14) translocations fusing the MYBL1 gene to the NFIB and RAD51B genes, respectively. RNA-seq provided information about gene fusions, alternative RNA splicing and gene expression signatures. Interestingly, tumors with MYB and MYBL1 translocations displayed similar gene expression profiles, and the combined MYB and MYBL1 expression correlated with outcome, suggesting that the related Myb proteins are interchangeable oncogenic drivers in ACC. Our results provide important details about the biology of ACC and illustrate how archival tissue samples can be used for detailed molecular analyses of rare tumors. PMID:26631070

  1. Malignant oncocytic tumour of the parotid salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Leventon, G; Katz, D R; Bell, C D

    1976-03-01

    A 49-year-old man developed a tumour mass in his right parotid salivary gland nine years after a histologically proven benign mixed tumour of the same salivary gland had been surgically removed. Radical resection of the right parotid salivary gland and associated lymph nodes and soft tissues of the neck was performed. The parotid tumour was composed of oncocytic cells which infiltrated the surviving salivary gland tissue. Most of the excised lymph nodes contained metastatic deposits of oncocytic cells identical to the tumour seen in the parotid. There are no previous reports of the occurrence of both pleomorphic adenoma and malignant oncocytoma in the same salivary gland.

  2. No Epstein Barr and cytomegalovirus DNA found in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Kärjä, V; Syrjänen, K; Syrjänen, S

    1997-01-01

    A series of 219 (106 malignant and 113 benign) salivary gland tumours was investigated by in situ hybridisation (ISH) to detect Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA. Normal salivary gland did not show hybridisation signals for these viruses. Tumours presenting hybridisation signals in ductal and myoepithelial cells and 17 Warthin's tumours were further studied by PCR, but none of these tumours contained EBV or CMV DNA. Our series did not contain lymphoepithelial carcinomas, which are EBV-associated tumours. The results suggest that factors other than EBV or CMV are involved in carcinogenesis of primary salivary gland tumours.

  3. True malignant mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma) of palatal minor salivary gland origin.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y

    1991-01-01

    True malignant mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma) of salivary gland origin is exceedingly rare and is distinguishable from the more frequently occurring carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. This paper reports a case of true malignant mixed tumor originating from a palatal minor salivary gland of a 55-year-old male. Histologically, nests of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma were scattered in a sarcomatous background which partially showed an unequivocal chondrosarcoma. Clinical course of the present patient suggested that a pre-existing benign minor salivary gland lesion developed to a carcinosarcoma.

  4. Salivary gland tumours studied by means of the AgNOR technique.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D W; Crocker, J; Watts, A; Shenoi, P M

    1988-11-01

    Difficulty is sometimes encountered in distinguishing between pleomorphic adenoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, especially in small biopsies from salivary glands. The argyrophil (AgNOR) staining technique for nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) has been applied to a series of benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. We studied 35 salivary gland tumours, 13 benign and 22 malignant. In all specimens clearly defined silver-stained intranuclear AgNOR dots were visible. The differences between the numbers of AgNORs in the benign and malignant groups, notably pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, were highly significant. In view of this difference we propose that the AgNOR staining technique is of diagnostic help in distinguishing between these salivary gland tumours.

  5. Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Fois, Paolo; Giannuzzi, Anna Lisa; Paties, Carlo Terenzio; Falcioni, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Choristoma of the middle ear is a rare condition characterized by the presence of normal salivary gland tissue in the middle ear space. Salivary gland choristomas are benign lesions that are frequently associated with ossicular chain and facial nerve anomalies. Total surgical excision is indicated when there is no risk of damaging the facial nerve. We describe a new case of salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear, and we discuss the etiology, histologic features, and management of such lesions. Our patient was a 22-year-old woman in whom we surgically removed a whitish retrotympanic mass. Intraoperatively, we also detected an ossicular chain malformation. Histologic examination of the choristoma revealed the presence of salivary gland tissue. Furthermore, the lesion contained an extensive and previously undescribed component: a well-defined pseudostratified respiratory-type epithelium, similar to that of a normal eustachian tube. Ten months after removal of the choristoma, we surgically repaired the ossicular chain anomalies. No recurrence was noted on follow-up.

  6. Salivary gland tumors: review of 643 cases.

    PubMed

    Main, J H; Orr, J A; McGurk, F M; McComb, R J; Mock, D

    1976-03-01

    643 cases of salivary gland tumors constitute two series of histological sections that were studied from hospitals and dental schools in Southeast Scotland and Southern Ontario. The Scottish series represented epithelial tumors of the parotid and intra-oral salivary glands, but the Canadian series also included tumors of the submandibular and sublingual glands. Classification was based on that recommended by the World Health Organisation (Thackray 1972). While direct statiscal comparisons between the two series are not appropriate, the differences between them suggest that malignant tumors are more common in Canada. The Scottish series contains the largest proportion of benign salivary tumors so far reported. In the Scottish series, 88.7% of parotid tumors were benign compared with 51.9% of Canadian series. In the Canadian series from the submandibular glands, 21.2% only were benign. Of the intra-oral salivary tumors, 62.2% from the Scottish series were benign compared with only 34.7% from the Canadian series.

  7. Suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kun; Duan, Zejun; Bian, Yu; Wang, Mengyang; Qi, Xueling

    2014-01-01

    Suprasellar salivary gland-Like pleomorphic adenoma is not a common disease and seldom reported so far. We are reporting a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrent suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma, who underwent an operation of subtotal, subfrontal resection under the wrong pathology diagnosis of benign teratoma in another hospital 4-year-ago. Four years later, he was admitted to our hospital for additional visual loss of the right eye (left, 1.0; right, 0.4) resulting from tumor regrowth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that suprasellar extension and compressed optic chiasm resulted in visual disturbance of the patient. The tumor was totally excised and histological examination evidenced the pathological features of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma. The patient did not receive any further treatment and he is free from tumor recurrence for 30 months after the operation. From this point of view, clinical prognosis of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma was good after total surgical resection.

  8. Salivary gland tumors studied by means of the AgNOR technique.

    PubMed

    Epivatianos, A; Trigonidis, G

    1994-01-01

    Silver-binding nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) were counted in sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 14 benign and 17 malignant tumors of minor salivary glands. The difference in the mean number of AgNORs count per nucleus between benign and malignant tumors was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). A positive correlation between the AgNORs count and the degree of malignancy of the malignant salivary gland tumors was generally observed. The AgNORs technique can be used as a diagnostic aid in differentiating between benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, and possibly the salivary duct carcinoma from the acinic cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

  9. Sialography and scanning of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Gates, G A

    1977-06-01

    This discussion is a brief review of the current status of sialography and salivary gland scanning in the diagnosis of salivary disorders. Both techniques are in current use; the contrast sialogram is most useful in evaluating recurrent inflammatory disorders, and the radiosialogram finds its greatest value in evaluating patients with suspected neoplasms. These examinations should not be used in lieu of a histologic diagnosis in tumor cases except when a smooth margined radiopositive lesion corresponding with a clinically evident Warthin tumor is noted; in this case a presumptive diagnosis of a benign neoplasm may be established. The utilization of these radiographic techniques depends upon the facilities available, the needs of the particular patient, and the experience and clinical judgment of the salivary gland surgeon.

  10. Association of hepatocyte growth factor expression with salivary gland tumor differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Yasuda, Masanori; Asano, Shigeyuki; Karakida, Kazunari; Ota, Yoshihide; Osamura, R Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Yoshihisa

    2003-12-01

    To clarify the significance of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression in salivary gland tumors, HGF distribution in tissue sections and HGF concentrations in saliva and serum were examined. Sixty salivary gland adenomas, 61 salivary gland carcinomas and three autopsy fetuses were studied. Hepatocyte growth factor expression was observed in the duct-type luminal cells by immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization. However, HGF failed to be expressed in acinar cells and myoepithelium of normal salivary gland tissue. Hepatocyte growth factor tended to be expressed more intensely in benign salivary gland tumors than in malignant salivary gland tumors (P < 0.0001). In highly malignant tumors, the expression was limited in some cases. Salivary and serological HGF concentrations of 18 patients, comprised of 12 benign cases and six malignant cases, were analyzed before and after operation by an ELISA system. The concentrations were distinctly elevated after operation, in both saliva and serum, compared to before operation (P < 0.0005). However, there were no significant relationships between HGF concentration and histology, age, gender, size or location. Our findings suggest that HGF may play an important role in the development of salivary ducts of normal salivary tissues and differentiation of ductal structures of their neoplasms, while HGF kinetics in saliva and serum would be less likely to reflect the neoplastic character, benign or malignant.

  11. Accuracy of frozen section diagnosis of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Gnepp, D R; Rader, W R; Cramer, S F; Cook, L L; Sciubba, J

    1987-04-01

    Three hundred and one salivary gland lesions (162 benign, 72 malignant, and 67 benign non-neoplastic) of 677 cases were evaluated by use of intraoperative frozen sections by 66 pathologists. In seven patients, the diagnosis was deferred for permanent sections. In four cases (1.3%), the diagnosis at permanent section changed from one category of benign tumor to another, and in five cases (1.7%), from one category of malignant tumor to another. In four tumors, a frozen section diagnosis of benign was changed to malignant on permanent sectioning; all four involved acinic cell carcinomas. Only two tumors were incorrectly diagnosed as malignant. We conclude that diagnoses of most salivary gland lesions based on frozen section examination are reliable and accurate. However, the literature does indicate that caution should be exercised when malignant tumors are dealt with.

  12. Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, M; Christensen, C; Brightman, V

    1992-07-01

    There is considerable difficulty in the making of initial clinical decisions as to whether a given patient has salivary gland hypofunction, and hence requires additional salivary gland evaluation. This study identified a set of four clinical measures that, together, successfully predicted the presence or absence of salivary gland hypofunction. The four measures were: dryness of lips, dryness of buccal mucosa, absence of saliva produced by gland palpation, and total DMFT; they were derived from discriminant analysis of data collected from 71 individuals with normal and low salivary flow rates. These measures are proposed as criteria for clinical decision-making, as well as for classification of patients in studies of salivary gland dysfunction syndromes. This study also identified unstimulated whole salivary flow rates of 0.12-0.16 mL/min as the critical range separating individuals with salivary gland hypofunction from those with normal gland function.

  13. Signet ring cell tumor of the minor salivary gland exhibiting benign behavior.

    PubMed

    Foschini, Maria P; Baldovini, Chiara; Pennesi, Maria G; Cocchi, Roberto; Simpson, Roderick H W

    2012-02-01

    Signet ring cell (SRC) carcinomas are usually aggressive malignancies, arising most frequently in the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, but also, although less often, in other organs such as the breast, bladder, and lungs. They are particularly unusual in the salivary glands, and the aim of the present study is to report a case of a tumor of the minor salivary glands of the lower lip composed largely of SRCs but which displayed benign clinical behavior.

  14. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the management of salivary gland tumors: an Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Stow, Nicholas; Veivers, David; Poole, Alan

    2004-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 104 cases of salivary gland tumors that were initially assessed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Based on subsequent histopathologic analysis of excised specimens, we found that preoperative FNAB was highly sensitive and specific for both benign and malignant tumors-including the most common, pleomorphic adenomas and squamous cell carcinomas, respectively. Despite its possible drawbacks, we conclude that preoperative FNAB is a useful tool in the management of salivary gland tumors.

  15. Pleomorphic adenoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in minor salivary gland: a case report

    PubMed Central

    GOULART, Maria Carolina Vaz; FREITAS-FARIA, Patrícia; GOULART, Gláuter Rodrigues; de OLIVEIRA, Adriano Macedo; CARLOS-BREGNI, Roman; SOARES, Cleverson Teixeira; LARA, Vanessa Soares

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common salivary gland tumor, accounts for 54 to 65% of all salivary gland neoplasias and 80% of the benign salivary gland tumors. It most frequently affects the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and the minor salivary glands. Microscopically, mucous, sebaceous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia, sometimes with the formation of keratin pearls, may be present, but the latter rarely results in the formation of extensive keratin-filled cysts lined by squamous epithelium. Extensive squamous metaplasia can be mistaken for malignancy, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in a minor salivary gland, and discuss its microscopic features, including the immunohistochemical characteristics, and differential diagnosis of this uncommon presentation. PMID:21552721

  16. Pleomorphic adenoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in minor salivary gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Maria Carolina Vaz; Freitas-Faria, Patrícia; Goulart, Gláuter Rodrigues; Oliveira, Adriano Macedo de; Carlos-Bregni, Roman; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2011-04-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common salivary gland tumor, accounts for 54 to 65% of all salivary gland neoplasias and 80% of the benign salivary gland tumors. It most frequently affects the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and the minor salivary glands. Microscopically, mucous, sebaceous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia, sometimes with the formation of keratin pearls, may be present, but the latter rarely results in the formation of extensive keratin-filled cysts lined by squamous epithelium. Extensive squamous metaplasia can be mistaken for malignancy, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in a minor salivary gland, and discuss its microscopic features, including the immunohistochemical characteristics, and differential diagnosis of this uncommon presentation.

  17. Gene amplification in Rhynchosciara salivary gland chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Glover, D M; Zaha, A; Stocker, A J; Santelli, R V; Pueyo, M T; De Toledo, S M; Lara, F J

    1982-01-01

    Late in the fourth larval instar, several regions of the Rhynchosciara americana salivary gland chromosomes undergo "DNA puffing." We have constructed a library of cloned cDNAs synthesized from poly(A)+RNA isolated from salivary glands during the period of development when the DNA puffs are active. From this library we have studied clones representative of three genes active during this period but not active at earlier developmental periods of the gland. One of these genes is not amplified during the developmental process and encodes a 0.6-kilobase RNA molecule. The other two genes are located within the DNA-puff sites C3 and C8 and encode 1.25-kilobase and 1.95-kilobase RNA molecules, respectively. We estimate from the quantitation of transfer hybridization experiments that each of these genes undergoes 16-fold amplification during DNA puffing. Images PMID:6953439

  18. "Clear cell" oncocytoma of salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Ellis, G L

    1988-07-01

    For the most part, clear cell neoplasms of the salivary glands are adenocarcinomas of at least low-grade malignant potential. However, a rare benign clear cell tumor of major salivary glands can be distinguished as a histologic variant of oncocytoma and oncocytosis. Ten such cases have been identified in the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (Washington, DC). Eight patients were women, and nine of the lesions involved the parotid gland. All of the patients were middle-aged or older adults. The light-microscopic morphology and the phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin (PTAH), PAS, and mucicarmine staining patterns were consistent with oncocytoma and oncocytosis. Transitions from typical eosinophilic oncocytes to clear cells were evident. Electron microscopy and histochemistry demonstrated that the clear cytoplasm seen by light microscopy was primarily due to artifact and intracytoplasmic glycogen. Mitochondria were the preponderant cytoplasmic organelles. Two patients were known to have experienced recurrent lesions.

  19. A study of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions with histopathological corroboration.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Anjali; Das, Tushar Kanti; Raha, Kalpana; Hati, Ganesh Chandra; Mitra, Pradip Kumar; Dasgupta, Anjali

    2005-06-01

    The diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration cytology as initial work up of salivary gland enlargement was assessed in one hundred and eighty-five salivary gland specimens over three years period and corroborated with histopathology, whenever feasible. All smears were evaluated according to cell size, amount of cytoplasm, cytologic atypia and presence of lymphocytes. (a) Variable cytologic appearances of pleomorphic salivary adenoma were observed. (b) Cellular pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma showed basaloid cell features. (c) Tumours with intermediate size cells and bland cytology included low grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma and cystic lesions. (d) Warthin's tumour, oncocytoma, salivary duct carcinoma and high grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma revealed large cells and abundant cytoplasm with or without atypia. A major diagnostic categories were inflammatory lesions (n = 7 5), cystic lesions (n = 9), benign tumours (n = 81), malignant neoplasms (n = 1 8) and normal acinar pattern (n = 2). Malignant tumours included muco-epidermoid carcinoma (n = 5), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 3), acinic cell carcinoma (n = 2), adenocarcinoma (n= 2), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), undifferentiated carcinoma (n= 4) and malignant lymphoma (n = 1). Histopathological correlation was possible in 40% of benign and 80% of malignant neoplasms. The overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were very high. So it can be concluded that fine needle aspiration cytology can play important role in early diagnosis and subsequent therapeutic planning of salivary gland lesions.

  20. [Tumors of different histological type in unilateral salivary glands: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Da-Min; He, Hua-Wei; Liu, Mei-Yan; He, Zhi-Xiu

    2010-12-01

    Tumors of synchronous benign and malignant in unilateral salivary glands have rarely been reported. A case of 21-year-old girl who was diagnosed as synchronously adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left parotid and pleomorphic adenoma of the left submandibular gland. The classification, clinic pathology, diagnosis, possible mechanism were discussed based on similar literatures.

  1. Oncocytic variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of submandibular gland: an unusual clinical and morphological entity.

    PubMed

    Krishnanand, Geetha; Kaur, Manpreet; Rao, Ravikala V; Monappa, Vidya

    2007-07-01

    In this case report we describe a rare tumor--Oncocytic variant of Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland with a review of the literature. Oncocytic metaplasia in salivary glands is a benign change that is associated with increasing age and also seen in a few salivary gland neoplasms', which include oncocytoma, Warthin's tumor, and the rare, oncocytic carcinoma. Oncocytic differentiation in mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is uncommon. Only twelve well-documented cases of oncocytic MEC have been reported previously all of which occurred in the parotid gland. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma involving the submandibular salivary gland. The recognition of this entity is important, since most of the other primary oncocytic lesions of the salivary gland are benign.

  2. Expression and mutation patterns of p53 in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Nordkvist, A; Röijer, E; Bang, G; Gustafsson, H; Behrendt, M; Ryd, W; Thoresen, S; Donath, K; Stenman, G

    2000-03-01

    The expression and mutation patterns of p53 were studied in a series of 68 benign pleomorphic adenomas and 237 malignant salivary gland tumors. p53 overexpression (nuclear staining exceeding 10%) was detected in 20% of the malignant salivary gland tumors, with the highest prevalence observed in polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma and the lowest in adenoid cystic carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. In contrast, none of the 68 benign pleomorphic adenomas had nuclear staining exceeding 10%. SSCP and nucleotide sequence analysis of exons 4 to 9 of p53 in 19 malignant tumors revealed 9 mutations in 7 tumors. Our findings indicate that p53 may be a useful marker to help discriminate between benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

  3. Pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary gland of the cheek.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arpit; Deshmukh, Shraddha; Shaikh, Ahmed; Dabholkar, Jyoti

    2013-09-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumour of the salivary gland. While the majority arises from the parotid gland, only a small percentage arises from the minor salivary glands. The cheek, however, is a rarely affected site with respect to pleomorphic adenomas of the minor salivary glands. Herein, we report a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the cheek, which presented with intraoral swelling, and conclude that complete surgical excision can be a curative treatment for this benign tumour.

  4. An analysis of salivary gland neoplasms: a 12-year, single-institution experience in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Etit, Demet; Ekinci, Nese; Tan, Ayca; Altinel, Deniz; Dag, Filiz

    2012-03-01

    The epidemiology of salivary gland tumors worldwide is not very well defined. Although many studies on this subject have been undertaken, the data are generally focused on specific topics such as parotid gland neoplasms or tumors of the major salivary glands. We conducted a study to establish the prevalence and distribution of benign and malignant neoplasms of both the major and minor salivary glands at a single institution. We reviewed 244,204 cases that had come through our pathology department from January 1994 through December 2005 and found 235 cases of a salivary gland neoplasm (0.09%). The female-to-male ratio was 1.04:1, and the mean age of the patients was 47 years. Of the 235 neoplasms, 159 (67.66%) were located in the parotid gland, 34 (14.47%) in the submandibular gland, and 42 (17.87%) in the minor salivary glands. A total of 146 tumors (62.13%) were benign and 89 (37.87%) were malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm, occurring in 98 cases (41.70%). The most common malignancy was mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with 27 cases (11.49%). Our data demonstrate that the characteristics of salivary gland tumors in a Turkish population at a single institution are similar to those reported in the literature worldwide.

  5. Expression and mutations of p53 in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Kärjä, V J; Syrjänen, K J; Kurvinen, A K; Syrjänen, S M

    1997-05-01

    A series of 219 salivary gland tumours (103 carcinomas and 116 benign tumours) were analysed for p53 protein expression using immunohistochemistry, and for mutations in p53 gene using non-radioactive single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). p53 expression was present in 36% (42/116) of the benign tumours and in 54% (56/103) of the carcinomas. The highest prevalence of p53 expression was found in adenoid cystic carcinomas (69%), followed by mucoepidermoid carcinomas (67%). Of the benign tumours, pleomorphic adenomas showed the highest prevalence of p53 positivity (41%). In malignant tumours, expression of p53 bore no correlation to local recurrence, metastatic disease or survival of the patients. Exons 5 through 9 were analysed and four mutations were found in 20 cases of p53-immunopositive tumours and two in 20 p53-negative tumours. Each of the exons 5, 6 and 8/9 had two mutations, whereas no mutations were detected in exon 7.

  6. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the accessory parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Baklacı, Deniz; Güngör, Volkan; Özcan, Müge; Yılmaz, Yavuz Fuat; Ünal, Adnan; Çolak, Aysel

    2015-01-01

    Accessory parotid gland is a small salivary gland tissue separated from main part of parotid gland. It is located on the masseter muscle anterior to the Stensen's duct. Tumors of accessory parotid gland are rare. In this article, we report an unusual case of adenoid cystic carcinoma involving accessory parotid gland. The patient presented with a progressively growing mass in the middle portion of her cheek. She underwent a partial parotidectomy including both the superficial and accessory lobes. The histopathologic diagnosis was adenoid cystic carcinoma of cribriform type. PMID:26476520

  7. Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Harris, N L

    1999-01-01

    Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands can be either reactive or neoplastic. Reactive lesions include cystic lymphoid hyperplasia--a multicystic ductal proliferation with reactive germinal centers, seen most often in intravenous drug users infected with HIV--and the lymphoepithelial sialadenitis of Sjögren's syndrome (so-called benign lymphoepithelial lesion [BLEL] or myoepithelial sialadenitis [MESA]). This lymphoid proliferation involves infiltration of ductal epithelium by lymphocytes of marginal zone or monocytoid B-cell type, forming lymphoepithelial lesions (epimyoepithelial islands). Patients with lymphoepithelial sialadenitis have a 44-fold increased risk of developing salivary gland or extrasalivary lymphoma, of which 80% are marginal zone/MALT type. Broad strands of marginal zone or monocytoid B cells around lymphoepithelial lesions and monotypic immunoglobulin detection by immunohistochemistry are considered diagnostic of MALT lymphoma. B-cell clones are detected in over 50% of cases of MESA by molecular genetic methods, but this does not correlate with overlymphoma. "Nodal" type B-cell lymphomas of the salivary glands are either follicular lymphoma (35%), which may arise in intrasalivary gland lymph nodes and behave similarly to follicular lymphoma in other sites, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (30%), which may arise de novo or secondary to either MALT or follicular lymphomas.

  8. Salivary gland tumors in Turkey: demographic features and histopathological distribution of 510 patients.

    PubMed

    Kızıl, Yusuf; Aydil, Utku; Ekinci, Ozgür; Dilci, Alper; Köybaşıoğlu, Ahmet; Düzlü, Mehmet; Inal, Erdoğan

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic and clinicopathologic data of salivary gland tumors managed at a tertiary referral medical center in Turkey. The data of 510 patients with salivary gland tumors managed during the period of January 1984 to May 2012, were reviewed. Only primary neoplasms derived from salivary glands were included. Out of 510 neoplasms, 352 (69.0 %) were classified as benign and 158 (31.0 %) were classified as malignant. There was a male predominance and male:female ratio was 1.23 (281/229). The most common location was parotid gland (372/510, 72.9 %) followed by minor salivary glands (97/510, 19.0 %) and submandibular gland (40/510, 7.9 %). The malignancy rates were 21.5, 40.0, and 56.7 % in parotid, submandibular, and minor salivary glands locations, respectively. The most common location for minor salivary gland neoplasms was oral cavity (61/97, 62.9 %). Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) was the most common histopathological type (45.3 %) in the whole study group and also among pediatric patients. The most common malignant neoplasms were adenoid cystic carcinoma (39/510, 7.6 %) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (5.7 %). Salivary gland tumors are more common in men. The malignancy rate is almost three times higher in neoplasms derived from minor glands when compared to parotid gland. PA is the most common histopathological tumor type in all locations and in all age groups.

  9. Update in salivary gland cytopathology: Recent molecular advances and diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Pusztaszeri, Marc P; Faquin, William C

    2015-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are notorious for their extraordinary diversity and for the morphological overlap that exists between many of these entities. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a well-established role in the evaluation of patients with a salivary gland lesion, helping to guide clinical management. However, salivary gland FNAB has several limitations and does not allow for a specific diagnosis in some cases. For these reasons, salivary gland FNAB is considered one of the most challenging areas in cytopathology. Over the last decade, new salivary gland entities have been recognized, enlarging SGT diversity and complexity even more. In addition, a subset of SGT, including common entities such as pleomorphic adenoma and uncommon new entities such as mammary analog secretory carcinoma, have been characterized cytogenetically by the presence of specific translocations. The molecular consequences of these translocations and their potential prognostic and therapeutic values are not yet well characterized. However, these translocations and their resulting fusion oncogenes and oncoproteins can be used as diagnostic clues in salivary gland FNAB material in order to overcome the limitations of cytomorphological evaluation alone. In this review, we focus on SGTs currently known to harbor translocations and fusion genes, including uncommon and recently recognized entities, and discuss their potential application to salivary gland FNAB.

  10. Detection of C-KIT (CD117) molecule in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Andreadis, Dimitrios; Epivatianos, Apostolos; Poulopoulos, Athanasios; Nomikos, Alexandros; Papazoglou, Georgios; Antoniades, Demetrios; Barbatis, Calypso

    2006-01-01

    C-KIT (CD117), a tyrosine kinase receptor, is involved in the growth and development of normal tissues and some types of neoplasms. In the present study we analysed the expression of this molecule in salivary gland tumours. Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of 40 benign and 57 malignant salivary gland tumours were retrieved and retrospectively studied immunohistochemically using a polyclonal C-KIT antibody in an Envision/HRP technique. In addition five samples of chronic submandibular sialadenitis, five normal minor salivary glands and parotid or submandibular gland tissue adjacent to benign tumour were also studied. C-KIT expression was observed in cases of adenoid cystic, acinic cell polymorphous low grade, epithelial-myoepithelial, carcinosarcoma and basal cell adenocarcinomas, as in luminal cells of pleomorphic adenomas, in serous acinar and only in intercalated and a small number of striated ductal cells of inflammatory salivary gland tissue, whereas normal salivary lobules were generally negative except a weak positivity of intercalated cells. Contrary to other reports, this study suggests that, C-KIT protein does not appear to be an exclusively specific marker for benign or malignant salivary gland neoplasms, but may be useful in differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma from polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Furthermore its expression in serous acinar cells in sialadenitis and intercalated ductal cells in normal and inflammatory lesions may indicate a possible participation in pathogenesis of both neoplastic and non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases.

  11. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  12. Tumors of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, E M; Friedman, M; Becker, S; Sisson, G A; Keyes, G A

    1977-06-01

    Tumors of the major salivary glands are reviewed according to classification, location, surgical procedure and end results. Our data of the incidence of benign and malignant tumors show that the most commonly involved area is the parotid gland and the most frequent is of the mixed variety. In the parotid region 80 percent are benign and 20 percent are malignant; whereas, in the submandibular gland, the malignant and benign tumors are equally distributed. The need for an extensive surgical attack and inclusion of contiguous structure is dictated by the nature of the malignant disease. The role of postoperative irradiation is discussed as is the indication for neck dissection. Management of the facial nerve, relative to malignant tumors of the parotid gland, is considered in detail.

  13. Fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Nettle, W J; Orell, S R

    1989-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of salivary glands was performed in 187 patients. In 106 patients with satisfactory FNAB smears who proceeded to surgery, the original cytologic diagnosis was compared with subsequent histopathology. There were 74 benign tumours and 25 malignant tumours. Nineteen of the latter were primary malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands, and 6 were metastatic. The cytologic diagnosis by FNAB correlated exactly with the histologic diagnosis in 95% of benign neoplasms and in 68% of malignant neoplasms, with an overall accuracy of 88%. A false negative diagnosis for malignancy was made in five cases and a false positive diagnosis in one case. Hence the sensitivity for malignancy was 80% and the specificity was 99%. The most frequently misdiagnosed lesions were pleomorphic adenoma and muco-epidermoid carcinoma. FNAB of salivary gland lesions is easy to perform and free of complications, but the cytologic patterns may be difficult to interpret, and considerable experience is necessary in order to achieve a high diagnostic accuracy.

  14. [Salivary gland stem cells : Can they restore radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction?].

    PubMed

    Rotter, N; Schwarz, S; Jakob, M; Brandau, S; Wollenberg, B; Lang, S

    2010-06-01

    Adult stem cells are actively investigated in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, as they exhibit specific characteristics that make them promising candidates for cellular therapies. Depending on their tissue of origin these characteristics include long-term proliferation and the capacity to differentiate into various cell types. To date adult stem cells have been isolated from a multitude of tissues. Non-embryogenic adult tissues contain only small numbers of such stem cells and the derivation of such tissues can cause comorbidities. Therefore, there is ongoing interest in the identification and characterisation of novel cell sources for stem cell isolation and characterisation.Recently, salivary gland tissue has also been explored as a possible source of stem cells, first in animals and later in humans. Such salivary gland-derived stem cells might be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced salivary gland hypofunction, and possibly also in other diseases with loss of acinar cells, such as sequelae of radio iodine treatment or Sjögren's disease.In this paper we review the current status of salivary gland stem cell biology and application and discuss the possible role of stem cells in the development of novel therapies for salivary gland dysfunctions such as postradiogenic xerostomia.

  15. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Baker, Olga J

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  16. [Ultrasound diagnosis of salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, A; Gutiérrez-Cabello, F; Jiménez-Alonso, J; Aranegui, P; Castro, J; Hernández-Hernández, L

    1997-03-01

    The ultrasonic diagnosis of salivary gland tumors can give a more accurate information than clinical data alone. For example, it will help differentiate intraglandular from extraglandular tumors and benign from malignant processes. We conducted a prospective study in 39 patients with parotidal or submaxillary tumors. Patients were evaluated with a physical exam and a with ultrasound. Results indicate that only 53.86% of the physical examinations were correct in their diagnosis compared to 87.18% of the those done by ultrasound. Specificity and sensibility for malignancy was 96.43% and 81.81% respectively. These results were similar to those reported by other authors. We conclude that the use of ultrasound techniques in the study of salivary gland pathology is well justified, due to its capacity to provide high resolution, improving clinical diagnosis.

  17. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    PubMed

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  18. Salivary gland malignant neoplasms: treatment and prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Borthne, A.; Kjellevold, K.; Kaalhus, O.; Vermund, H.

    1986-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of 183 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors treated between 1955 and 1978 is presented. The analysis showed that radiation therapy lowered the recurrence rates after surgery and controlled approximately one-third of the inoperable tumors. A dose-response relationship exists and the data suggest that the radiation dose should not be less than that corresponding to a CRE-value of 1950 reu (70 Gy/7 weeks). Histology, location and clinical stage are important prognostic factors.

  19. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Shintani, S; Matsuura, H; Hasegawa, Y

    1997-08-01

    The usefulness of fine needle aspiration (FNA) as a preoperative diagnostic procedure was studied in 43 patients with salivary gland tumors. Nine of the tumors were malignant and 34 benign. The diagnostic sensitivity of FNA was 88.9% (8/9), the specificity 94.1% (32/34) and the accuracy 93.0% (40/43). These results indicate that FNA is a highly sensitive and specific screening procedure.

  20. [Differential echographic diagnosis of salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Bleier, R; Rochels, R

    1988-05-01

    76 patients with tumorous swellings of the salivary glands were examined by means of standardized A-scan and B-scan sonography. B-scan echography allowed a differentiation between benign and malignant tumours in all cases. Analysis of the various A-scan criteria (internal structure, reflectivity, borders, consistency and sound attenuation) provided a pathognomonic combination of these criteria for each lesion, enabling further histological diagnosis.

  1. Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Mischke, R E; Brackmann, D E; Gruskin, P

    1977-07-01

    We discuss the eighth reported case of a benign salivary gland tumor in the middle ear. The lesion was a smooth lobulated mass and was found to be intimately associated with the tympanic portion of the facial nerve. Recommended treatment is biopsy without attempting removal. This concept of management is supported by a report of a similar case with a 15-year follow-up.

  2. Inverted ductal papilloma of minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, D J; Hopper, C; Speight, P M

    1994-08-01

    Inverted ductal papillomas are rare tumours of minor salivary glands. A case is reported on the lower lip of a 50-year-old man. The tumour showed a characteristic endophytic growth pattern and was composed of bulbous papillary projections of basaloid cells dilating and filling the superficial portion of the excretory duct. Histologically, inverted ductal papillomas resemble the inverted papilloma of the nose and paranasal sinuses, but are completely benign and are not associated with malignant change.

  3. Salivary gland monomorphic adenoma. Ultrastructural, immunoperoxidase, and histogenetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, I.; Kahn, H. J.; Van Nostrand, A. W.; Baumal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Monomorphic adenoma of basal cell type is a salivary gland tumor believed to result from a proliferation of a single type of cell. However, ultrastructural and immunocytochemical investigations of 6 monomorphic adenomas (5 from parotid and 1 from intraoral minor salivary gland) indicate that there are two classes of these lesions, one composed of two types of tumor cells and the other wholly or predominantly made up of one type of cell (isomorphic). In the former group, the organization of the tumor cells closely mimicked that of normal and hyperplastic salivary gland intercalated ducts. Aggregates of tumor cells were arranged as an inner layer of luminal epithelial cells which were surrounded by an outer layer of cells that, in some cases, had ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features indicating myoepithelial cell differentiation. In some adenomas formed by two types of tumor cells, basal-lamina-lined extracellular spaces were identified ultrastructurally in relation to modified myoepithelial cells; such spaces had the same fine-structural features as those reported in pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Predominantly isomorphic adenomas were composed exclusively of luminal epithelial cells. These results indicate that despite the varied histologic patterns in the numerous subtypes of monomorphic adenoma, there is a central theme of differentiation and organization in this type of neoplasm which recapitulates the ductoacinar unit of normal salivary gland parenchyma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:6375388

  4. Fine-needle aspiration of secondary neoplasms involving the salivary glands. A report of 36 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Cohen, J M; Cangiarella, J F; Waisman, J; McKenna, B J; Chhieng, D C

    2000-01-01

    Metastases or secondary deposits account for 16% of the malignant neoplasms involving the major salivary glands. A correct diagnosis of a secondary neoplasm is important to avoid unnecessary radical surgery and to guide further therapy. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is an excellent noninvasive diagnostic tool for evaluating salivary gland lesions. We reviewed 36 secondary malignant salivary gland neoplasms evaluated by FNAB. Ancillary studies were performed in selected cases. Follow-up included clinical correlation and review of histologic material. For 4 adenocarcinomas, 4 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 undifferentiated carcinoma, 1 cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, 10 cutaneous melanomas including 1 desmoplastic variant, 3 osteosarcomas, 11 non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and 2 multiple myelomas, there was 1 false-negative FNAB result. The desmoplastic melanoma was interpreted as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. A malignant diagnosis was given in all remaining cases except the secondary basal cell carcinoma, which was diagnosed as a neoplasm with basal cell features. FNAB is a reliable tool to differentiate hematologic malignant neoplasms and melanomas from other salivary gland neoplasms. A complete knowledge of the clinical history, review of previous pathologic materials, and, in some instances, the use of ancillary studies are crucial for recognizing solid malignant neoplasms secondarily involving the salivary glands. PMID:10631854

  5. The nucleolar organizer regions associated protein (Ag-NORs) in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, K; Sasaki, K; Tsuji, T; Shinozaki, F

    1989-04-01

    A silver colloid technique used to identify nucleolar organizer regions associated protein (Ag-NORs) has been applied to 20 salivary gland tumors. The method was readily applicable to the preparations of paraffin-embedded sections and the Ag-NORs were enumerated with ease. A significant difference was found between the numbers of Ag-NORs in the nuclei of malignant salivary gland tumors, such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid tumor and adenocarcinoma (with a mean of from 2.05 to 2.78 per nucleus) and those of benign salivary gland, such as pleomorphic adenoma, adenolymphoma (Wartin tumor) and clear cell adenoma (with a mean of from 1.47 to 1.72 per nucleus). It is proposed that the Ag-NORs technique, which is rapid, simple, and inexpensive, may be useful in the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign salivary gland tumors.

  6. Non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions: a 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Tahlan, Anita; Mundi, Irneet; Punia, R P S; Dass, Arjun

    2011-08-01

    The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. A series of non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions is reviewed to analyze their spectrum and their relative frequency. This is a retrospective study of salivary gland excisions and biopsies received in our department from January 1994 to December 2008. Routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all the salivary gland excisions and biopsies received were analyzed. Of the 393 salivary gland excisions and biopsies received, 216 cases were reported as non-neoplastic (55%) and formed our study group; 177 (45%) were neoplastic. Non-neoplastic lesions were more frequent in major salivary glands (65.7%) and submandibular gland was the most commonly involved (66.2%). Lip was the most frequent site (81.7%) for minor salivary gland lesions. Inflammation was the predominant pathological finding (49.5%), of which non-specific chronic sialadenitis constituted the majority (86.9%). Sialolithiasis was present in 22 cases (20.6%); all of these cases were of non-specific chronic sialadenitis. Cysts were second in frequency (36.6%), of which mucocele was the most common (54.5%). There were 5.6% cases of benign lympho-epithelial lesions, while normal salivary gland tissue was seen in 6.5% cases. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases are more common than neoplastic diseases and have a wide disease spectrum.

  7. Fine-needle sampling of salivary gland lesions. IV. Review of 50 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma with histologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1997-08-01

    Fine-needle sampling (FNS) of 50 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, including 44 primary tumors, five local recurrences, and one lymph node metastasis, was performed preoperatively in 44 patients. Concordant cytologic diagnoses were established in only 19 (38%) tumors, whereas 15 (30%) were classified as carcinoma, five (10%) as suspicious, and six (12%) as benign tumors. The material was insufficient for cytologic evaluatin in five (10%) cases. The tumors were classified histologically as high-, intermediate-, and low-grade in 15, 13, and 22 cases, respectively. The quality of diagnosis did not vary between high- and intermediate-grade, but was lower in low-grade tumors: Malignancy was diagnosed or suspected in 13 (87%) high-grade tumors, 11 (85%) intermediate-grade tumors, and 15 (68%) low-grade tumors. In conclusion, FNS is an accurate technique in high- or intermediate-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas, but quite unsatisfactory in low-grade tumors.

  8. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion.

  9. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion. PMID:27602340

  10. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Alcure, Monica Leal; Della Coletta, Ricardo; Graner, Edgard; Di Hipolito, Oswaldo; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

    2005-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common disorders of particular major salivary glands. It is caused by sialolith within the ducts or parenchyma of particularly major salivary glands. Although sialolithasis is not uncommon, it often is clinically misdiagnosed when minor salivary glands are affected. This article describes the clinical and microscopic findings of nine cases of sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands. The lesions frequently appeared as single and asymptomatic nodules in middle-aged patients. Only three sites were affected: four lesions were found in the upper lip, three in the buccal mucosa, and two in the lower lip. The most common clinical hypotheses for diagnosis were mucocele, sialoadenitis, and benign salivary gland tumor. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands was misdiagnosed frequently. It should be considered as a possible diagnosis when swelling of the oral tissues is observed. PMID:16158797

  11. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Alcure, Monica Leal; Della Coletta, Ricardo; Graner, Edgard; Di Hipolito, Oswaldo; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

    2005-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common disorders of particular major salivary glands. It is caused by sialolith within the ducts or parenchyma of particularly major salivary glands. Although sialolithasis is not uncommon, it often is clinically misdiagnosed when minor salivary glands are affected. This article describes the clinical and microscopic findings of nine cases of sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands. The lesions frequently appeared as single and asymptomatic nodules in middle-aged patients. Only three sites were affected: four lesions were found in the upper lip, three in the buccal mucosa, and two in the lower lip. The most common clinical hypotheses for diagnosis were mucocele, sialoadenitis, and benign salivary gland tumor. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands was misdiagnosed frequently. It should be considered as a possible diagnosis when swelling of the oral tissues is observed.

  12. Fine-needle sample of salivary gland lesions. V: Cytology of 22 cases of acinic cell carcinoma with histologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1997-11-01

    Fine-needle sampling (FNS) of 22 acinic cell carcinomas, including 17 primary tumors, 4 local recurrences, and 1 lymph node metastasis was performed preoperatively in 17 patients. Cytologic diagnoses were concordant with histology in 3 (13.7%) cases, whereas 15 (68.2%) cases were cytologically classified as malignant, 2 (9.1%) as suspicious, and 1 (4.5%) as benign (pleomorphic adenoma). The material was unsatisfactory for cytologic evaluation in 1 (4.5%) case. Preoperative FNS technique is, therefore, useful in acinic cell carcinoma with a concordant malignant/suspicious rate of 91%.

  13. Immunocompetent cells in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kärjä, V J; Syrjänen, K J; Syrjänen, S M

    1996-10-01

    IgA-, IgG, and IgM-producing plasma cells as well as 3- and T-lymphocytes were immunophenotyped and quantitated in a series of 216 benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, with special emphasis placed on the clinical behavior of the tumors. Highest number of plasma cells were found in mucoepidermoid carcinomas, where IgG-plasma cells were the sole Ig-class secreted. No IgA-immunoreactivity was found in adenoid cystic, undifferentiated, acinic cell, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas. In squamous cell carcinomas, the number of IgM-plasma cells was higher than that in other salivary gland tumors. Basal cell adenomas contained only IgM-positive plasma cells. In logistic regression analysis, IgG- and IgM-producing plasma cells in malignant salivary gland tumors were related to an increased tumor diameter (p = 0.022 and 0.046, respectively). In benign tumors, neither clinical nor prognostic value could be attributed to the distribution of plasma cells. T-cells and B-cells were present in 63.9% and 33.8% of all tumors, found in 63.8% and 26.7% (p = 0.0048) of the benign tumors, and in 64.1% and 41.7% (not significant) of the malignant tumors, respectively. The presence of T- of B-lymphocytes was of no prognostic significance in malignant tumors. In benign tumors, however, the mean age of the patients was significantly higher (p = 0.010) and the mean time to recurrence significantly shorter (p = 0.018) in patients with tumors containing T-cells than in those devoid of these cells. In conclusion, the cell-mediated immunity (T-cells and their subsets) seems to play a more important role in pathogenesis and prognostication of salivary gland neoplasms than do the cells of the B-cell lineage, and, clearly, further studies are needed to elucidate these issues.

  14. The range and demographics of salivary gland tumours diagnosed in a UK population.

    PubMed

    Jones, A V; Craig, G T; Speight, P M; Franklin, C D

    2008-04-01

    Salivary gland tumours are relatively rare and comprise a diverse range of neoplasms. The aim of this study was to determine the range and demographics of all histologically diagnosed salivary tumours in a European population. All entries for salivary gland tumours from 1974 to 2005 inclusive were retrieved and analysed for each diagnosis including number of specimens, male:female ratio and age range. These data were then analysed for the distribution of benign and malignant salivary tumours in major and minor salivary glands. 58,880 specimens were received; of these, 741 cases (1.3% of all specimens) were diagnosed as salivary gland tumours with a male to female ratio of 0.7:1. There were 481 (64.9%) benign and 260 (35.1%) malignant neoplasms, with the most common tumours being pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, respectively. Our study provides demographic data on a large series of salivary gland tumours in a European population. Accurate diagnosis is essential as salivary lesions have diverse clinical and prognostic outcomes. This study has confirmed that some tumours have a predilection for certain sites and that the risk of malignant disease is also greater at specific sites within the oral cavity.

  15. Characteristics of salivary gland tumours in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al Sarraj, Yasir; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Al Siraj, Ammar; AlShayeb, Maher

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours (SGT) are relatively rare cancers characterised by striking morphological diversity and wide variation in the global distribution of SGT incidence. Given the proximity to the head and neck structures, management of SGT has been clinically difficult. To the best of our knowledge, there are no epidemiological studies on SGT from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) or the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries (GCC). Patient charts (N = 314) and associated pathological records were systematically reviewed between the years 1998-2014. Predominance of benign (74%) compared with malignant (26%) SGT was observed. Among the 83 malignant SGT identified, frequency was higher in males (61%) than in females (39%) and peak occurrence was in the fifth decade of life. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common type of tumour (35%) followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (18.1%) and acinar cell carcinoma (10.8%). A similar pattern of tumour distribution was seen in patients from GCC, Asian, and Middle East countries. This is the first report to address the distribution of salivary gland tumours in a multiethnic, multicultural population of the Gulf. The results suggest that the development of an SGT registry will help clinicians and researchers to better understand, manage, and treat this rare disease.

  16. Two malignant salivary gland tumours of different type in one patient.

    PubMed

    Hosni, A; Fisher, C; Rhŷs-Evans, P

    1994-09-01

    The synchronous or metachronous occurrence of two tumours of the salivary glands in one patient is rare. These are mainly benign and of the same histological type. Here we report a 56-year-old man who developed a mucoepidermoid tumour of the left parotid gland four years after diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right submandibular gland. This combination of neoplasms has not to our knowledge been reported before.

  17. Warthin's tumor of the parotid salivary gland. A case report.

    PubMed

    Patel, B; Mandel, L

    1999-10-01

    Neoplasms of the salivary glands are not uncommon. The dentist is in the unique position to make an early diagnosis and refer the patient for definitive treatment. This article will review the clinical appearance, pathology, treatment and potential complications of Warthin's tumor, a benign salivary gland tumor. It describes a case presented at the Salivary Gland Center. Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery, New York Presbyterian Hospital-Columbia Campus.

  18. Lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary glands: pathology, biology and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    DiGiuseppe, J A; Corio, R L; Westra, W H

    1996-05-01

    Lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary glands are common to a variety of pathologic conditions including autoimmune disorders, malignant lymphomas, and immunoregulatory responses to parenchymal neoplasms. Clearly, the correct identification of these salivary gland lymphoid infiltrates has important implications regarding patient prognosis and management. Immunophenotypic and molecular analyses have demonstrated that many lesions formerly regarded as myoepithelial sialadentis or benign lymphoepithelial lesion in fact represent neoplastic lymphoid proliferations with the potential for extrasalivary dissemination. In the most recent classification scheme of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, these neoplasms fall within the spectrum of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the early stages of HIV infection, patients may develop salivary gland enlargement resulting from cystic lymphoepithelial lesions. These lesions are thought to reflect a localized manifestation of persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. Although HIV-associated salivary gland disease is regarded as a benign condition, malignant lymphoma has been described in association with some of these lesions, and further work is required to define more precisely the risk of salivary gland lymphoma in HIV-infected patients. Tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation refers to a prominent lymphoid reaction accompanying certain epithelial tumors of the salivary glands. Although tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation has not received as much attention as other types of salivary lymphoid infiltrates, it is a common phenomenon that is sometimes mistaken for an intraparotid lymph node harboring metastatic carcinoma.

  19. Oncocytic and oncocytoid tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Paulino, A F; Huvos, A G

    1999-05-01

    Primary pink cell tumors of the salivary glands constitute a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant lesions characterized by tumor cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. These tumors are composed predominantly of oncocytic, epidermoid, or myoepithelial cells. Tumors with a significant oncocytic component include Warthin's tumor, oncocytoma, and oncocytic carcinoma. An epidermoid component can be seen as a metaplastic change or as a true cellular constituent of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Myoepithelial cells may have an epithelioid character and as a consequence may impart a pink cell appearance in pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelioma, and myoepithelial carcinoma. Usually most of these tumors are fairly distinct morphologically and do not present diagnostic dilemmas. In select circumstances, especially when dealing with a limited tissue sample, a systematic approach with an appropriate immunohistochemical panel should be used in order to arrive at a correct diagnosis. Accurate assessment is the key in the subsequent management and follow-up of these patients.

  20. Intraoral salivary gland tumors: a retrospective study of 201 cases.

    PubMed

    Isacsson, G; Shear, M

    1983-02-01

    Two hundred and one cases of intraoral salivary gland tumors were studied from the files of the School of Pathology, University of the Witwaterstrand and South African Institute for Medical Research. 145 cases (72.5%) were classified as benign, comprising 140 pleomorphic adenomas and 5 monomorphic adenomas. The other 56 cases were classified as malignant or potentially malignant tumors, represented by 21 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, 13 mucoepidermoid tumors, 5 carcinoma in pleomorphic adenomas and 2 epidermoid carcinomas. The patients in the malignant/potentially malignant group were significantly older than those in the benign group and a smaller proportion of their tumors were palatal, the difference being statistically significant. The high frequency of pleomorphic adenoma might result from a relatively higher number of black than white patients in this sample.

  1. Tumors of the salivary gland in Mexicans. A retrospective study of 360 cases

    PubMed Central

    Durán-Padilla, Marco A.; Gómez-Apo, Erick; Quezada-Rivera, Daniel; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish distribution frequency and demographic characteristics of salivary gland tumours (SGT) i6n order to identify possible risk profiles. Design of study: The present report constitutes an eight year retrospective study (January 2000-August 2007). The archives of the Clinical and Experimental Pathology Laboratory (Graduate and Research Division, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico) as well as archives of the Surgical Pathology Service (General Hospital, Mexico City) were subject to revision in order to select all cases where SGT tumour diagnoses were emitted. Age and gender of patients as well as SGT topography were obtained from medical records. Selected cases were classified according to location of the lesion, histological lineage and biological behaviour. Results: 360 cases of SGT were included, 227 (67%) cases were benign tumours, while 83 cases (23%) were malignant tumours. SGT were most frequent in women with ages ranging from their 3rd to 5th decades of life. 275 tumours were located in major salivary glands, 78.9% of them were identified in the parotid gland. The most frequent location of tumours arising from minor salivary glands (33 cases, 38%) was found in the palatine glands. Tumours of epithelial lineage were the predominant histological type. The most frequent benign tumours were pleomorphic adenomas (86.1%) and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum (7.3%). The most frequent malignant tumours were adenoid cystic carcinomas (25%) and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (23.6%) Conclusions: Salivary gland tumours in Mexican population appear principally in major salivary glands of women in their 3rd to 5th decade of life. Key words: Salivary glands tumours, epithelial tumours, pleomorphic adenoma, papillary cistadenoma lymphomatosum, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma. PMID:22143697

  2. Warthin tumor arising from the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Toshinori; Baba, Junichi; Murata, Shogo; Mitsudo, Kenji; Maegawa, Jiro; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Tohnai, Iwai

    2012-09-01

    Warthin tumor (WT) accounts for 4% to 13% of all salivary gland tumors. This benign tumor, which commonly arises in the parotid gland, is the second most common tumor of the salivary gland. WT is multicentric in 12% to 20% of patients and is bilateral in 5% to 14%. The mean age at diagnosis is 62 years (range, 12-92 years), and it rarely presents (<6%) before age 40 years. Extraparotid WT, arising from the submandibular gland or cervical lymph node for example, is very infrequent, with corresponding incidences of 0.4% to 6.9% and 8%, respectively. Moreover, WT arising from the minor salivary gland is extremely rare, with a reported incidence of merely 0.1% to 1.2%. We report here WT arising from the minor salivary gland in the buccal mucosa in a 66-year-old woman and review cases of WT of the minor salivary gland reported in the English literature.

  3. Minor salivary gland neoplasm in children.

    PubMed

    Spuntarelli, Giorgio; Santecchia, Luigino; Urbani, Urbano; Zama, Mario

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present a review of the literature, and we focus on 2 particular cases of cancer of the salivary glands accessory in pediatric patients The accessory parotid is the site of congenital and acquired lesions. In adults, the acquired lesions are often neoplastic and are usually similar to those seen in the main parotid gland. The disorders in children are less well defined, as only a few cases have been reported.The accessory parotid gland, or accessory parotid, is a nodule of normal salivary tissue separated from the main parotid gland, located on the masseter muscle, to which it is bound by an extension of the masseteric fascia and connected to the Stensen duct at that level. In contrast to the extensive literature on acquired lesions of the accessory parotid in adults, very few cases of malignant or benign lesions of the accessory parotid in children could be found in the literature. A review of several articles reporting lesions of the accessory parotid in adult patients, reporting 3 or more cases each for a total of 71 patients, showed 24 malignant neoplasms, 39 benign neoplasms, and 8 nonneoplastic lesions. Lesions of the accessory parotid are quite rare in children but should be considered when facing mass located in the cheek.

  4. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland: a review of 341 cases.

    PubMed

    Stewart, C J; MacKenzie, K; McGarry, G W; Mowat, A

    2000-03-01

    Three hundred and forty-one salivary gland fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens taken over a 6-yr period were reviewed and correlated with clinical and/or histological findings. The aspirates were derived from parotid gland (212 cases), submandibular gland (124 cases), and minor salivary gland (5 cases). The major diagnostic categories were unsatisfactory (10 cases), normal (100 cases), sialadenitis (74 cases), cyst (34 cases), lipoma (5 cases), pleomorphic adenoma (55 cases), Warthin's tumor (36 cases), and malignancy (27 cases). The latter included 14 primary salivary neoplasms (4 lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type, 3 adenocarcinomas, 2 squamous carcinomas, 2 adenoid cystic cacinomas, and one case each of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma), and 13 metastases, 9 of which were derived from squamous carcinomas of head and neck origin. Clinicopathological review showed that 88 of 91 (97%) benign epithelial tumors and 27 of 31 (87%) malignant neoplasms with adequate FNA sampling were accurately diagnosed cytologically. False-negative results were caused by sampling error (7 cases), most notably in cystic tumors, or were due to misinterpretation of uncommon neoplasms (3 cases). The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 92%, 100%, and 98%, respectively. FNA cytology provides accurate diagnosis of most salivary gland lesions and contributes to conservative management in many patients with nonneoplastic conditions.

  5. Radiation-induced salivary gland tumors: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A

    1976-09-01

    I discuss radiation-induced salivary gland tumors, with special emphasis on those tumors thought to be secondary to childhood head and neck irradiation for benign diseases. I report such a case and review the literature. Statistically, 77.6% of irradiation-induced tumors occur in the parotid gland and 22.4% in the submaxillary and minor salivary glands. A greater proportion of malignant tumors are noted in the submaxillary and minor salivary glands. At present, there is no demonstrable relationship between tumor occurrence and the amount of radiation recieved. Young children are more susceptible to irradiation-induced salivary tumors than older individuals.

  6. Clinical analysis of salivary gland tumor cases in West China in past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Jiang; Li, Yi; Wen, Yu-Ming; Liu, Hua; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2008-02-01

    In our study, 3461 cases of salivary gland tumor treated between 1955 and 2002 at West China Stomatology Hospital of Sichuan University were retrospectively analyzed, and compared with the previous reports. Measures such as age, tumor location, tumor histological type, and the nature of the growth (benign or malignant) were recorded at the same time. The findings are as follows: the average ages of salivary gland tumor patients were 41.38 years for the benign cases and 45.20 for the malignant ones; the male:female ratio was 0. 99:1 in the benign cases and 1.34:1 in the malignant ones; primary tumors were mostly in the parotid gland, palate and submandibular gland in sequence. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent benign tumor followed by Warthin's tumor and basal cell adenoma, whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified were the most frequent malignant tumors. The incidence of salivary gland tumors increased with age. The male:female ratio of malignant tumors was higher than that of benign ones. The parotid gland and palate were the most common locations of salivary gland tumors. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most frequent benign and malignant tumors, respectively.

  7. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and molecular study including 2 cases harboring ETV6-X fusion.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yohei; Ishibashi, Kenichiro; Masaki, Ayako; Fujii, Kana; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Kawakita, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Manabu; Miyabe, Satoru; Shimozato, Kazuo; Nagao, Toshitaka; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade carcinoma with morphologic and genetic similarity, including ETV6-NTRK3 fusion, to secretory carcinoma of the breast. ETV6 is frequently involved in other epithelial and nonepithelial tumors, and many fusion partners of ETV6 have been reported. In the present study, 14 Japanese MASC cases were clinicopathologically and molecularly analyzed. The median age of the patients was 39 years, and the male:female ratio was 6:8. All cases showed histopathologic findings compatible with those previously described for MASC and harbored an ETV6 split as visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two cases showed thick fibrous septa and invasive features including vascular or perineural tumor involvement, findings that are rare in MASC. In addition, in these 2 cases, non-NTRK3 genes appeared to fuse with ETV6 (ETV6-X fusion). NTRK1 and NTRK2, both members of the NTRK family, were not involved. Of the 14 MASC cases, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was positive in 6 cases, and the relative expression level of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was variable, ranging from 1 to 5.8. Results of the present study of MASC suggest that (1) ETV6 occasionally fuses with unknown non-NTRK3 genes, (2) ETV6-X cases might have an invasive histology, (3) for molecular diagnosis of MASC, fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect ETV6 splits is the method of choice, and (4) the expression level of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript is considerably variable. These findings provide a novel insight into the oncogenesis, histopathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this newly recognized carcinoma. PMID:25651470

  8. Quality of Life after Salivary Gland Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wax, Mark K; Talmi, Yoav P

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has been recognized as an important endpoint in addition to disease-related and global survival. It is particularly important for patients with salivary gland neoplastic disease. For patients who are undergoing benign salivary gland tumor surgery, cosmetic and functional outcomes are extremely important, as these patients' psychological well-being and ability to function in society can be severely impacted. The following issues related to surgical treatment are discussed: incision, loss of local tissue sensation, development of Frey's syndrome, facial nerve function, and cosmesis. Improvements in the placement of the incision combined with additional minimally invasive procedures have improved QoL. The ultimate goal of benign parotid neoplastic surgery is complete tumor excision while avoiding cosmetic and functional damage, which includes preservation of the function of the facial nerve and its branches; this is the key to maintaining preoperative levels of QoL. There are many measures available to improve cosmesis that have minimal morbidity and that, when used, can provide significant improvements in patient outcomes. The treatment of malignant salivary gland neoplasms is primarily directed at treating the malignancy. When surgical treatment affects important neighboring structures, such as the lingual or hypoglossal nerves, as in submandibular/sublingual cancer, there is a tremendous effect on QoL if postoperative dysfunction of these structures results. Often, this treatment involves using ancillary surgical procedures, such as neck dissection, or nonsurgical treatment, such as radiation therapy. The effect of such multi-modality treatment on QoL is significant. The treatment of underlying salivary disease is often overshadowed by these adjunctive treatments. PMID:27092786

  9. Evaluation of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary glands: an analysis of 141 cases.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, G; Dashini, M

    2001-12-01

    141 salivary gland lesions that were subjected to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, from January 1993 to October 2000 were reviewed with a view to assess the sensitivity and utility of cytological diagnosis in diseases of salivary glands. The highest number of cases was seen in the sixth decade of life. There was no gender preponderance in salivary gland neoplasms except in Warthin's tumours that occurred predominantly in males. The parotid gland was the most frequent salivary gland needled. Seven cases (5%) presented with bilateral salivary gland enlargement. Cytological study yielded a neoplastic diagnosis in 74.5% cases. Of the neoplastic lesions, 71.4% could be definitely designated as benign and 25.7% as clearly malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma and acinic cell carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant neoplasms diagnosed respectively. 53 cases had histological correlation; of these, 49 (92.5%) were neoplastic. The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytological diagnosis in salivary gland lesions was found to be 73.6%.

  10. Salivary gland tumours: profile and management at a tertiary cancer centre.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Nootan K; Hazarika, Sidhartha; Deo, Suryanarayana; Kar, Madhabananda; Kumar, Sunil; Samaiya, Atul; Sharan, Rajeev; Rath, Goura K

    2011-06-01

    Salivary gland tumours comprise a varied group of benign and malignant neoplastic lesions posing a challenge to surgeon. To review the profile of salivary gland tumours presenting to a referral cancer centre and their overall management, a retrospective analysis of prospective head and neck cancer database of the surgical oncology department of Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital (IRCH), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) was performed. Forty patients of salivary gland tumours treated between 1995 and 2003 were analysed. All computations including recurrences and survival were carried out using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for windows software (SPSS Inc, USA). The profile of salivary gland tumours presenting to a cancer centre setting was found to be different - 77.5% being malignant tumours and the remaining 22.5% werebenign tumours. Most common site of involvement was the parotid gland (72.5%). Muco-epidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinomas were the most common histological types. Conservative resection was adequate for benign tumours. For primary malignant tumours, radical surgery with or without neck dissection and appropriate reconstruction, combined with postoperative radiotherapy was effective in achieving good locoregional control. Optimal management of primary tumour along with appropriate neck dissection including resection of the involved salivary gland is necessary for the management of metastatic salivary gland tumours.

  11. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar ... team performed a procedure called a needle core biopsy of the submandibular glands in 15 people who ...

  12. Cathepsin-D and tumor associated antigen DF3 in salivary gland neoplasia. Differential diagnostic and prognostic applications.

    PubMed

    Vigneswaran, N; Müller, S; DeRose, P; Cohen, C

    1994-12-01

    Salivary gland tumors pose considerable difficulty in diagnostic and prognostic assessment based on the histopathologic features alone. Cathepsin-D is overexpressed in cancer cells where its concentration in the primary tumor is correlated with increased risk of metastasis. DF3 antigen is a tumor associated glycoprotein that is specific for malignant cells of glandular origin. We examined the distribution patterns of cathepsin-D and DF3 antigens in benign (n = 11) and malignant (n = 44) salivary gland tumors of various histologic types. The frequency of cathepsin-D expression is significantly increased (p < 0.001) in salivary gland carcinomas compared to benign mixed tumors (BMT). High levels of cathepsin-D expression was frequent in carcinomas ex BMT, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas-NOS and adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC). Acinic cell carcinomas and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas were mostly negative. Intense cytoplasmic staining for DF3 antigen was noted in the tumor cells of mucoepidermoid carcinomas, carcinomas ex BMT and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas-NOS whereas other types of salivary gland carcinomas exhibited either negative or only focal membrane staining. The noted differences in the reactive patterns of cathepsin-D and DF3 antigen among various histologic types of salivary gland carcinomas may have differential diagnostic and prognostic applications.

  13. Potential role for inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A tumor suppressor in salivary gland malignancies.

    PubMed

    Routila, Johannes; Mäkelä, Juho-Antti; Luukkaa, Heikki; Leivo, Ilmo; Irjala, Heikki; Westermarck, Jukka; Mäkitie, Antti; Ventelä, Sami

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of salivary gland malignancies remain unknown. To reveal novel molecular factors behind the development of salivary gland cancer, we performed gene expression analyses from Smgb-Tag mouse salivary gland samples. The overall purpose was to apply these results for clinical use to find new approaches for both possible therapeutic targets and more accurate diagnostic tools. Smgb-Tag mouse strain, in which salivary neoplasms arise through a dysplastic phase in submandibular glands, was investigated using genome-wide microarray expression analysis, ingenuity pathway analysis, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Thirty-eight human salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma samples were investigated using immunohistochemistry for validation purposes. Our genome-wide study showed that Ppp2r1b, a PP2A subunit encoding tumor suppressor gene, is underexpressed in submandibular gland tumors of Smgb-Tag mice. mTOR signaling pathway was significantly enriched and mTOR linked PP2A subunit gene B55 gamma was significantly underexpressed in the analyses. Furthermore, parallel immunohistochemical analysis of three PP2A inhibitors demonstrated that two PP2A inhibitors, CIP2A and SET, are highly expressed in both dysplastic and adenocarcinomatous tumors of the Smgb-Tag mice. In addition, all 38 investigated human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma samples stained positively for CIP2A and most for SET. Finally, p-S6 staining showed activation of mTOR pathway in human adenoid cystic carcinoma samples. Our results suggest that PP2A inhibition either via PP2A subunit underexpression or PP2A inhibitor overexpression play an important role in the formation of salivary gland malignancy, potentially due to mTOR signaling activation.

  14. Basal cell adenocarcinoma of minor salivary and seromucous glands of the head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, I; Soares, J

    1996-05-01

    Basal cell adenocarcinoma of salivary glands is an uncommon and recently described entity occurring almost exclusively at the major salivary glands. This report provides an overview of the clinicopathologic profile of this neoplasm by including the personal experience on the clinical features, microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics, proliferation activity, and DNA tumor patterns of 12 lesions occurring at the minor salivary glands of the head and neck region, where basal cell adenocarcinoma is probably an underecognized entity, previously reported under different designations. Basal cell adenocarcinoma predominates at the seventh decade without sex preference. The tumors affecting the minor salivary glands occur most frequently at the oral cavity (jugal mucosa, palate) and the upper respiratory tract. The prevalent histologic tumor pattern is represented by solid neoplastic aggregates with a peripheral cell palisading arrangement frequently delineated by basement membrane-like material. The neoplastic clusters are formed by two cell populations: the small dark cell type (that predominates) and a large cell type. Necrosis, either of the comedo or the apoptotic type, is a frequent finding. Perineural growth occurs in 50% of the cases and vascular permeation in 25%. Immunohistochemistry identifies a dual differentiation with a reactivity pattern indicative of ductal epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation, which can be confirmed by electron microscopy. The differential diagnosis of the neoplasm includes its benign counterpart, the basal cell adenoma, solid variant of adenoid cystic carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and basaloid squamous carcinoma. The tumors recur more frequently than lesions originating in major salivary glands. Mortality is associated with the anatomic site of the lesion, advanced stage, residual neoplasia at surgery, and tumor recurrence. The importance of recognizing basal cell adenocarcinoma outside major salivary glands is

  15. Salivary gland calculi – contemporary methods of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rzymska-Grala, Iwona; Stopa, Zygmunt; Grala, Bartłomiej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Wanyura, Hubert; Zuchowska, Anna; Sawicka, Monika; Zmorzyński, Michał

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones’ formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts’ pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Nonenhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts’ cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. PMID:22802788

  16. Interleukin-33 Expression Indicates a Favorable Prognosis in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Rössle, Matthias; Cathomas, Gieri; Bonapace, Laura; Sachs, Melanie; Dehler, Silvia; Storz, Martina; Huber, Gerhard; Moch, Holger; Junt, Tobias; Mertz, Kirsten D

    2016-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) is abundantly expressed in epithelial barrier tissues such as salivary glands. Here, we characterized nuclear IL-33 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and associated it with disease outcome. Most benign salivary gland tumors expressed IL-33, and all Warthin's tumors showed strong and consistent IL-33 expression in the basally oriented cells of their bilayered epithelium. In the malignant group of neoplasms, nuclear IL-33 expression was limited to specific tumor entities-for example, to epithelial-myopepithelial carcinomas (n = 9/11), acinic cell carcinomas (n = 13/27), and oncocytic carcinomas (n = 2/2). IL-33 expression in the combined group of malignant salivary gland neoplasms was significantly associated with favorable histological parameters, lack of metastasis, and longer overall survival, compared with IL-33-negative tumors. We conclude that IL-33 expression is a novel prognostic marker for malignant salivary gland tumors with potential use in clinical diagnostics.

  17. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  18. Contemporary management of tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Scianna, Joseph M; Petruzzelli, Guy J

    2007-03-01

    Management of tumors of the salivary glands requires a detailed understanding of the anatomy and pathologic processes affecting these glands. Salivary glands give rise to benign and malignant neoplasms and are affected by a variety of systemic diseases. CT remains the most common primary imaging study; magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also been explored. Fine-needle aspiration as part of the diagnostic evaluation remains controversial due to varying sensitivities and specificities. Surgical extirpation is the primary modality for management of tumors of the salivary glands. Parotid surgery carries a potentially high morbidity with possible unsightly scarring and facial nerve damage. Nontraditional surgical approaches and instrumentation, as well as facial nerve monitoring, can decrease the morbidity of a parotidectomy. In specific instances, malignant salivary gland tumors warrant cervical lymphadenectomy. Adjuvant therapy is primarily accomplished with radiation. Chemotherapy continues to play a palliative role in salivary gland malignancies; however, newer trials are investigating the therapeutic role of chemotherapy.

  19. Primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Minni, A; Roukos, R; De Carlo, A; Di Tillo, G; Illuminati, G; Gallo, P

    2012-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the skin is an extremely rare neoplasm but is common in the major and minor salivary glands accounting of approximately 30% of all malignant tumors arising from these glands. Cutaneous involvement should be carefully assessed to exclude the possibility of metastases from distant sites. We report an 81 year-old man presenting a primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating his left parotid gland. Excision of the affected skin and a total parotidectomy with supraomohyoid neck dissection (level I-III) was performed followed by radiotherapy. No relapse after 2 years follow up has been observed. Since the primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently develops metastases it is important to distinguish it from primary MEC originating from the salivary glands for better management and suitable therapeutic decisions.

  20. Primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Minni, A; Roukos, R; De Carlo, A; Di Tillo, G; Illuminati, G; Gallo, P

    2012-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the skin is an extremely rare neoplasm but is common in the major and minor salivary glands accounting of approximately 30% of all malignant tumors arising from these glands. Cutaneous involvement should be carefully assessed to exclude the possibility of metastases from distant sites. We report an 81 year-old man presenting a primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating his left parotid gland. Excision of the affected skin and a total parotidectomy with supraomohyoid neck dissection (level I-III) was performed followed by radiotherapy. No relapse after 2 years follow up has been observed. Since the primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently develops metastases it is important to distinguish it from primary MEC originating from the salivary glands for better management and suitable therapeutic decisions. PMID:23090800

  1. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vandana; Wadhwan, Vijay; Aggarwal, Pooja; Sharma, Preeti; Reddy, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists.

  2. WISP-2 expression in human salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kouzu, Yukinao; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Kato, Masaki; Higo, Morihiro; Nimura, Yoshinori; Harada, Koji; Numata, Tsutomu; Seki, Naohiko; Sato, Mitsunobu; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2006-04-01

    This study was designed to disclose detailed genetic mechanisms in salivary gland tumors (SGTs) for development of novel independent marker. We constructed an in-house cDNA microarray carrying 2,201 cDNA clones derived from SGT and oral squamous cell carcinoma cDNA libraries. Four cell lines that originated from the SGT-derived cell lines were analyzed using this microarray system. The genes identified by our microarray system were further analyzed at the mRNA or protein expression level in other types of human cancer cell lines and clinical samples (ten normal salivary glands [NSGs], eleven pleomorphic adenomas, ten adenoid cystic carcinomas and three adenocarcinomas). Two up-regulated genes and six down-regulated genes were identified in common when compared with the control RNA. Of the up-regulated genes, WISP-2, which plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis, was selected for further analyses. We found a higher expression of the WISP-2 gene in the SGT-derived cell lines compared with other types of human cancer cell lines. Furthermore, WISP-2 mRNA and protein expression levels in NSGs were significantly higher than those in SGTs. These results suggest that WISP-2 could be a reliable independent marker and that down-regulation or loss of the WISP-2 gene may be associated with the development of SGTs.

  3. Current concepts in diagnosis of unusual salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ajay Kumar; Bindal, Ruchi; Kapoor, Charu; Vaidya, Sharad; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2012-12-01

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively uncommon and account for approximately 3-6% of all neoplasms of the head and neck. Tumors mostly involve the major salivary glands, 42.9-90% of which occur in the parotid glands and 8-19.5% in the sub-mandibular glands; tumors in the sub-lingual glands being uncommon. Despite the plethora of different malignant salivary gland tumor presented to pathologists for diagnosis, there is consensus on a limited number of pathologic observations that determine treatment and outcome. There are few absolutes in salivary gland tumor diagnosis given the marked spectrum and overlap of differentiated cell types that participate in the numerous benign and malignant tumors. Thus, there are enumerating antibodies that may be helpful in resolving difficult differential diagnoses when applied with astute morphologic correlation. In general, immunohistochemistry as an ancillary diagnostic tool should be used sparingly and wisely as a morphologic adjunct because of the lack of specificity of many markers for specific histologic tumor types. The aim of this review is to discuss the molecular profiling of salivary gland neoplasms and correlate this with histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms. We have elected to discuss and illustrate some of the unusual salivary gland tumors that the practicing pathologist find difficult to diagnose. These have been selected because they readily simulate each other but have very different clinical therapies and, therefore, should be included routinely in differential diagnosis.

  4. High-resolution genomic profiling of adenomas and carcinomas of the salivary glands reveals amplification, rearrangement, and fusion of HMGA2.

    PubMed

    Persson, Fredrik; Andrén, Ywonne; Winnes, Marta; Wedell, Barbro; Nordkvist, Anders; Gudnadottir, Gunhildur; Dahlenfors, Rigmor; Sjögren, Helene; Mark, Joachim; Stenman, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA) is an epithelial malignancy developing within a benign salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Here we have used genome-wide, high-resolution array-CGH, and fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify genes amplified in double min chromosomes and homogeneously staining regions in PA and Ca-ex-PA and to identify additional genomic imbalances characteristic of these tumor types. Ten of the 16 tumors analyzed showed amplification/gain of a 30-kb minimal common region, consisting of the 5'-part of HMGA2 (encoding the three DNA-binding domains). Coamplification of MDM2 was found in nine tumors. Five tumors had cryptic HMGA2-WIF1 gene fusions with amplification of the fusion oncogene in four tumors. Expression analysis of eight amplified candidate genes in 12q revealed that tumors with amplification/rearrangement of HMGA2 and MDM2 had significantly higher expression levels when compared with tumors without amplification. Analysis of individual HMGA2 exons showed that the expression of exons 3-5 were substantially reduced when compared with exons 1-2 in 9 of 10 tumors with HMGA2 activation, indicating that gene fusions and rearrangements of HMGA2 are common in tumors with amplification. In addition, recurrent amplifications/gains of 1q11-q32.1, 2p16.1-p12, 8q12.1, 8q22-24.1, and 20, and losses of 1p21.3-p21.1, 5q23.2-q31.2, 8p, 10q21.3, and 15q11.2 were identified. Collectively, our results identify HMGA2 and MDM2 as amplification targets in PA and Ca-ex-PA and suggest that amplification of 12q genes (in particular MDM2), deletions of 5q23.2-q31.2, gains of 8q12.1 (PLAG1) and 8q22.1-q24.1 (MYC), and amplification of ERBB2 may be of importance for malignant transformation of benign PA.

  5. Evaluation of PAX2 and PAX8 expression in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Randall T; Alderman, Megan A; Thompson, Lester D R; McHugh, Jonathan B

    2015-03-01

    PAX2 and PAX8 are transcription factors involved in embryogenesis that have been utilized as immunohistochemical indicators of tumor origin. Specifically, PAX2 is a marker of neoplasms of renal and müllerian origin, while PAX8 is expressed by renal, müllerian, and thyroid tumors. While studies examining these transcription factors in a variety of tumors have been published, data regarding their expression in salivary gland neoplasms are limited. The goal of this study was to assess expression of PAX2 and PAX8 in a large cohort of salivary gland tumors. Utilizing tissue microarrays, samples of normal salivary glands (n = 68) and benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms (n = 442) were evaluated for nuclear immunoreactivity with PAX2 and PAX8. No expression was observed with either marker in the normal salivary glands, and PAX8 was negative in all neoplasms. Focal expression of PAX2 was observed in one example each of oncocytoma and acinic cell carcinoma. These results indicate that evaluation of PAX2 and/or PAX8 expression would be valuable in differentiating primary salivary gland tumors from metastases known to express PAX2 and/or PAX8.

  6. Genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shumei; Elkin, Sheryl K; Schwaederle, Maria; Tomson, Brett N; Helsten, Teresa; Carter, Jennifer L; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-09-22

    Effective treatment options for advanced salivary gland tumors are lacking. To better understand these tumors, we report their genomic landscape. We studied the molecular aberrations in 117 patients with salivary gland tumors that were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes), and analyzed by N-of-One, Inc. (Lexington, MA). There were 354 total aberrations, with 240 distinct aberrations identified in this patient population. Only 10 individuals (8.5%) had a molecular portfolio that was identical to any other patient (with four different portfolios amongst the ten patients). The most common abnormalities involved the TP53 gene (36/117 [30.8% of patients]), cyclin pathway (CCND1, CDK4/6 or CDKN2A/B) (31/117 [26.5%]) and PI3K pathway (PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN or AKT1/3) (28/117 [23.9%]). In multivariate analysis, statistically significant co-existing aberrations were observed as follows: TP53 and ERBB2 (p = 0.01), cyclin pathway and MDM2 (p = 0.03), and PI3K pathway and HRAS (p = 0.0001). We were able to identify possible cognate targeted therapies in most of the patients (107/117 [91.5%]), including FDA-approved drugs in 80/117 [68.4%]. In conclusion, salivary gland tumors were characterized by multiple distinct aberrations that mostly differed from patient to patient. Significant associations between aberrations in TP53 and ERBB2, the cyclin pathway and MDM2, and HRAS and the PI3K pathway were identified. Most patients had actionable alterations. These results provide a framework for tailored combinations of matched therapies. PMID:26247885

  7. Genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shumei; Elkin, Sheryl K.; Schwaederle, Maria; Tomson, Brett N.; Helsten, Teresa; Carter, Jennifer L.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment options for advanced salivary gland tumors are lacking. To better understand these tumors, we report their genomic landscape. We studied the molecular aberrations in 117 patients with salivary gland tumors that were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes), and analyzed by N-of-One, Inc. (Lexington, MA). There were 354 total aberrations, with 240 distinct aberrations identified in this patient population. Only 10 individuals (8.5%) had a molecular portfolio that was identical to any other patient (with four different portfolios amongst the ten patients). The most common abnormalities involved the TP53 gene (36/117 [30.8% of patients]), cyclin pathway (CCND1, CDK4/6 or CDKN2A/B) (31/117 [26.5%]) and PI3K pathway (PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN or AKT1/3) (28/117 [23.9%]). In multivariate analysis, statistically significant co-existing aberrations were observed as follows: TP53 and ERBB2 (p = 0.01), cyclin pathway and MDM2 (p = 0.03), and PI3K pathway and HRAS (p = 0.0001). We were able to identify possible cognate targeted therapies in most of the patients (107/117 [91.5%]), including FDA-approved drugs in 80/117 [68.4%]. In conclusion, salivary gland tumors were characterized by multiple distinct aberrations that mostly differed from patient to patient. Significant associations between aberrations in TP53 and ERBB2, the cyclin pathway and MDM2, and HRAS and the PI3K pathway were identified. Most patients had actionable alterations. These results provide a framework for tailored combinations of matched therapies. PMID:26247885

  8. [Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the accessory salivary glands--a case report].

    PubMed

    Chadli-Debbiche, A; Ben Brahim, E; Dougaz, A; Mansouri, D; Fraoua-Abdelmoula, F; Mbarek, A; Mamouri, M; Mzabi-Regaya, S

    2000-10-01

    A case of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland is reported. This tumor was first described in two clinical case series in 1983. Before that time most of these neoplasms were diagnosed as benign salivary gland neoplasms (pleomorphic adenomas) or salivary malignant conditions (malignant pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas and adenocarcinoma not otherwise stated). This neoplasm, with few exceptions, originates in minor salivary gland tissues of the palates or buccal mucosa. It is characteristically slow to enlarge. Clinical reports show the neoplasm present for many years before diagnosis. The tumor have a variety of morphological patterns, a cytological uniformity and an infiltration into adjacent structures. The treatment is a wide local excision. Recurrences and lymph node metastases are rare.

  9. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Kaswan, Sumita; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The intra oral occlusal radiographs were also evaluated to determine the presence or absence of salivary stones. The results were compared and analyzed using the Chi-square test (p<0.001). Results: Salivary gland calcifications were detected in 5 patients. 191 patients had pulp narrowing and 118 patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and salivary stones (p>0.001) and also between pulp stones and salivary gland stones (p>0.001). Conclusions: However, the incidental findings of salivary gland stones on intra oral occlusal radiographs can provide useful information in the early diagnosis of the condition, but in the present study no significant relationship was found between the presence of pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Key words:Pulp stone, salivary gland stone, periapical radiograph, occlusal radiograph. PMID:25674311

  10. Benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D R; Spiegel, J C; Maves, M

    1975-01-01

    The benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the salivary glands has been labeled with multiple, confusing terms. We recommend the abandonment of the vague term of Mikulicz disease. The histopathologic findings of lymphoid infiltration, intraductal proliferation, epimyoepithelial islands, and acinar atrophy are presented. The relationship between this lesion and autoimmune diseases, including Sjögren syndrome, is noted. Difficulty of histopathologic differentiation between this lesion and malignant lymphoma can occur. The association of the benign lymphoepithelial lesion with the simultaneous presence or future development of lymphoma is discussed.

  11. Primary malignant lymphomas of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nime, F A; Cooper, H S; Eggleston, J C

    1976-02-01

    Primary malignant lymphomas of the salivary glands are rare, and only 43 possible cases have been reported. Four new cases from the Johns Hopkins Hospital are described, including clinical presentation, histologic findings, and subsequent course. The literature on this subject is reviewed, including cases arising in preexisting benign lymphoepithelial lesion with or without Sjögren's syndrome. Although the number of reported cases with complete documentation and follow-up information is too small for significant statistical analysis, these patients appear to have a better prognosis than the usual lymphoma patient. The possible reasons for this are discussed.

  12. Malignant fibrous histiocytomas of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, E; Wells, S; Fox, H; Reeve, N L; Knox, F

    1982-09-01

    The light microscopic, immunohistological and ultrastructural findings in two cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma arising in salivary glands are presented and the features of seven previously reported cases are reviewed. This neoplasm is extremely rare in this site and may pose problems in diagnosis. It has to be distinguished from other spindled cell tumours, in particular from epithelial tumours of predominantly spindled cell pattern; immunohistological markers for histiocytic cells may be of value. The histogenesis of this neoplasm is controversial but our electron microscopic findings support an origin from mesenchymal cells which differentiate along a broad fibrohistiocytic spectrum.

  13. Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Bottrill, I D; Chawla, O P; Ramsay, A D

    1992-07-01

    A salivary gland choristoma is an extremely uncommon tumour in the middle ear space. It appears to be a developmental abnormality and may be associated with abnormalities of adjacent structures. It usually presents with unilateral conductive deafness which may be long-standing and the tumour often pursues a benign, slow growing course. It is usually possible to excise it, but problems may arise as there may be variable associated anatomical abnormalities of the middle ear. We present the nineteenth recorded case, review the literature and discuss the management of this condition.

  14. Sarcomatoid salivary duct carcinoma of the palate: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Tomihara, Kei; Hamashima, Takeru; Nagao, Toshitaka; Nakamori, Kenji; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Noguchi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an uncommon neoplasm that most commonly occurs in major salivary glands, mainly the parotid gland. SDC is rarely found in the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity. This report presents an extremely rare case of sarcomatoid SDC originating in a minor salivary gland of the palate. The tumor was histologically characterized by the presence of both carcinomatous and sarcomatoid components. The patient presented with a painless mass in the right palate, which slowly increased in size over 20 years. The clinical course of the present case suggests that the tumor most probably developed as a result of malignant transformation of a preexisting benign tumor of the palatal salivary gland. This report describes the clinical and histologic features of this extremely rare case of sarcomatoid SDC with reference to the relevant literature.

  15. A retrospective study of 60 cases of salivary gland tumors in a Thai population.

    PubMed

    Poomsawat, Sopee; Punyasingh, Jirapa; Weerapradist, Woranut

    2004-01-01

    Sixty cases of salivary gland tumors were diagnosed in the Oral Pathology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, from 1973 to 2002. Fifty-two cases (86.7%) involved the intraoral minor salivary glands, six cases (10%) were found in the major glands, and two cases (3.3%) were intrabony. The predominance of malignant over benign tumors was evident with 68.3% being malignant and 31.7% benign. Patients ranged in age from 9 to 75 years. The female to male ratio of benign intraoral salivary gland tumors was 1.4 to 1 and of malignant types was 1.1 to 1. The principle site of occurrence was the palate (65.4%), followed by buccal mucosa (13.5%). Pleomorphic adenoma (30%) was the most common benign tumor, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (44.3%) was the most common malignant tumor. Comparing the data from the present study with other series, some discrepancies exist.

  16. [Diagnostic pitfalls in benign and malignant salivary gland diseases. Their significance for prognosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    1998-03-01

    Diagnostic pitfalls exist when benign salivary gland diseases are mistakenly classified as malignant, with consequences for treatment and prognosis. Examples are necrotizing sialometaplasia, metaplastic Warthin tumour and sclerosing polycystic sialadenopathy. The proper diagnosis is of eminent importance to distinguish cases of primary tumours that have developed in salivary glands or their lymph nodes from cases of extraglandular tumours with metastases in these glands or their nodes. In these cases clinical data and additional immunocytochemical methods are necessary to clarify the exact diagnosis, especially when the primary salivary gland tumours have a structure largely identical to the metastases (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma). Nasopharyngeal or cervical chordomas can be mistaken for pleomorphic adenoma or mucinous adenocarcinoma. The initial stage of malignant MALT lymphomas in association with Sjögren's syndrome demands identification of clonal rearrangement for therapeutic implication. The diagnostic criteria for proper classification are analysed in detail.

  17. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

    2013-11-15

    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4-5 weeks) without any selection. After five passages, we obtained adherent cells that expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD44, CD49f, CD90 and CD105, but not the hematopoietic stem cell markers, CD34 and CD45, and that were able to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, hSGSCs were differentiated into amylase-expressing cells by using a two-step differentiation method. Transplantation of hSGSCs to radiation-damaged rat salivary glands rescued hyposalivation and body weight loss, restored acinar and duct cell structure, and decreased the amount of apoptotic cells. These data suggest that the isolated hSGSCs, which may have characteristics of mesenchymal-like stem cells, could be used as a cell therapy agent for the damaged salivary gland.

  18. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence.

  19. Clear cell tumors of the salivary glands, jaws, and oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, E; Altini, M; Favia, G

    1997-08-01

    Clear cell tumors of the oral mucosa, jaws, and salivary glands constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions which may be either odontogenic, salivary gland, or metastatic in origin. Clear cells in these proliferations most frequently result from fixation artifact but may also be the result of cytoplasmic accumulation of water, glycogen, intermediate filaments, or immature zymogen granules, or a paucity of cellular organelles. Odontogenic neoplasms that may be characterized by a predominantly clear cell component include odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastoma, and calcifying epithelial odontogenic (Pindborg) tumor. Clear cell tumors of salivary gland origin are almost invariably malignant in nature but they do include two benign lesions; namely, oncocytoma and myoepithelioma. Clear cells in acinic cell carcinoma seldom comprise a significant portion of the tumor whereas clear cell mucoepidermoid carcinomas can readily be identified by an admixture of clear-squamoid, mucous and intermediate cells. Lesions previously reported as "clear cell adenoma" "clear cell carcinoma, or glycogen-rich carcinoma" can be divided into the distinctive biphasic epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma and monophasic lesions which have been shown to be either myoepithelial or ductal in origin. The latter are primarily represented by the recently described "hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma." The most common metastatic clear cell tumor in the oral mucosa and the jaws is the renal cell carcinoma. However, metastases of melanoma and malignant clear cell tumors of the prostate, bowel, thyroid, and liver must also be considered.

  20. Incidence, diagnosis, and classification of salivary gland tumors. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Johns, M E; Goldsmith, M M

    1989-02-01

    The diagnosis of salivary gland tumors is complicated by their relative infrequency, the limited amount of pretreatment information usually available, and the wide range of biologic behaviors seen with different histopathologic types. Most salivary gland neoplasms originate in the parotid, 10-15% arise from the submandibular glands, and the rest occur in the sublingual and minor salivary glands. The probability of a salivary gland neoplasm being malignant is inversely proportional to the size of the gland. The authors discuss two major theories of histogenesis, itemize the various benign and malignant varieties of tumor, discuss the presentation and prognosis for each type, and present a list of factors that influence survival. They also discuss the newest staging system.

  1. Needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Shaha, A R; Webber, C; DiMaio, T; Jaffe, B M

    1990-10-01

    The value of needle aspiration biopsy in the evaluation and management of salivary gland pathology is controversial. The major reasons for this controversy are the difficulty in cytologic evaluation and the fact that the extent of surgery can be easily defined based on clinical judgement. However, a preoperative diagnosis is helpful in discussions with patients regarding the extent and type of surgery. Apart from the fact that needle biopsy can distinguish benign from malignant conditions, it is also very useful in distinguishing between salivary and other nonsalivary pathology. Over the past 7 1/2 years, we have performed 160 needle aspirations of parotid, submandibular, and submucosal lesions. Adequate specimens for cytologic evaluation were obtained in 155 patients (97%). A total of 84 parotid lesions, 70 submandibular lumps, and 6 submucosal abnormalities were detected. A cytologic diagnosis of benign pathology was made in 120 patients. Twelve patients had lymphoma and the diagnosis was suspected based on needle aspiration. There were 10 patients with tuberculosis and 30 patients with hyperplastic lymph nodes or benign lymphoepithelial disease of the parotid. There were three false-positive and two false-negative reports. No complications such as hematoma, nerve injury, or infection developed. The major difficulty was in distinguishing between malignancy and obstructive sialadenitis in the submandibular region. Needle aspiration was helpful in evaluating lesions in the tail of the parotid and submandibular area. The cytologic distinction between salivary and nonsalivary pathology was useful in planning the appropriate surgery and the extent of surgical resection. From a clinical standpoint, the distinction between benign and malignant salivary and nonsalivary pathology was very helpful. Preoperative diagnosis of Warthin's tumor, lymphoma, or benign lymphoepithelial disease was essential to the correct management of these patients.

  2. Low-grade intraductal carcinoma of the lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Bursztyn, Lulu L C D; Hyrcza, Martin D; Allen, Larry H; Berean, Kenneth W; Wehrli, Bret

    2014-04-01

    Intraductal carcinoma has been described in the salivary glands as a relatively benign tumour with low-grade histopathologic features. To our knowledge, this tumour has not previously been reported in the lacrimal gland. We report the first case of low-grade intraductal carcinoma occurring in the lacrimal gland. This tumour was discovered incidentally on neuro-imaging in an asymptomatic 65-year-old patient. Incisional biopsy revealed uniform, polygonal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and minimal nuclear atypia, arranged in solid, cribiform and micropapillary nests. The patient underwent complete surgical excision with no evidence of recurrence at 8 months of follow-up.

  3. Salivary gland tumors in a Brazilian population: a retrospective study of 496 cases.

    PubMed

    Ito, F A; Ito, K; Vargas, P A; de Almeida, O P; Lopes, M A

    2005-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors are uncommon and the microscopical features can be complex. Epidemiological data of these tumors in the various parts of the world can be helpful for a better understanding of its biology and clinical characteristics. In this study, 496 epithelial and mesenchymal tumors of major and minor salivary glands diagnosed at Londrina Cancer Institute during the period from 1972 to 2001 were reviewed. Out of all cases, 335 (67.5%) were classified as benign and 161 (32.5%) as malignant. The majority of the cases occurred in the parotid gland (67.7%), followed by the minor salivary glands (22.8%) and submandibular gland (9.5%). Among the minor salivary gland tumors, the palate was the most frequent location (67%). The tumors affected more commonly adult patients with peak incidence between 40 and 50 years of age and with a slightly predominance in females. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent tumor representing 54.2% of all cases, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma (13.5%), Warthin's tumor (8.5%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (7.9%).

  4. Intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors: a clinicopathological study of 546 cases.

    PubMed

    Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Pringle, Gordon A; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Chen, Sow-Yeh

    2007-05-01

    Salivary gland tumors are uncommon and most reported series include tumors affecting both major and minor glands. Very few series have focused solely on intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study is to report the clinicopathological data of intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors in our oral biopsy files during the last 14 years. A total of 546 minor salivary gland tumors, including 305 benign (55.9%) and 241 malignant (44.1%) lesions, were reviewed. The two most common tumors were pleomorphic adenoma (181 cases, 33.2%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (125 cases, 22.9%), and the most commonly affected site was the palate (181 cases, 33.2%). The highest incidence was found in patients in the 5-7th decade of life, and females were more commonly affected than males in the vast majority of various histological types of tumors. Large series of intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors help to understand their clinical and pathological aspects and consequently their proper management and prognosis.

  5. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    PubMed

    Tessmer, Marlowe S; Reilly, Emma C; Brossay, Laurent

    2011-01-13

    Natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg) cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  6. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland masses in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Michelow, Pam; Dezube, Bruce J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-08-01

    Salivary gland disease is an important manifestation of HIV-infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytologic findings of salivary gland fine needle aspiration (FNA) in South African human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. A retrospective review was performed on confirmed HIV-positive patients who underwent FNA of various body sites, including salivary glands, over a 5-year period. There were 495 (14.1%) salivary gland FNAs out of a total of 3,501 HIV-positive patients. This included 260 (52.5%) parotid, 226 (45.7%) submandibular, 2 (0.4%) sublingual, and 7 (1.4%) specimens labeled as a salivary gland aspirate, exact site not provided. Patients were of average age 34 years (range 9 months to 63 years) with a female: male ratio of 1:0.6. There were 37 (7.5%) inadequate FNAs and 22 (4.4%) that contained normal gland constituents only. Most diagnoses were benign and comprised 168 (33.9%) reactive lymphadenopathy, 115 (23.2%) benign lymphoepithelial cysts, 62 (12.5%) mycobacterial infections, and 52 (10.5%) abscesses, of which 10 had associated mycobacterial infections. Neoplasms accounted for 31 (6.7%) diagnoses including 11 pleomorphic adenomas, 13 lymphoma, 3 Kaposi sarcoma, 1 squamous cell carcinoma, 1 metastatic carcinoma, and 1 rhabdomyosarcoma. There were four epidermoid inclusion cysts, three non-specific sialadenitis, one mucocele, and one spindle cell lesion not able to be further characterized. FNA is a useful procedure to evaluate salivary gland lesions in an HIV-infected population, allowing prompt management to be undertaken and obviating the need for surgery in many instances, an important consideration in an underfunded public health care system.

  7. Irradiation as an etiologic factor in tumours of the thyroid, parathyroid and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J A; Mustard, R A; Simpson, W J

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation to the head and neck region, usually of low dosage, results in an increased frequency of thyroid, parathyroid and salivary gland tumours. The authors have reviewed their experience with these tumours. Fifty of 475 patients with carcinoma of the thyroid had received previous irradiation. Papillary or mixed papillar-follicular carcinoma occurred most commonly. Eleven of 100 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism had been irradiated and had a parathyroid adenoma. Twenty of 662 patients with salivary gland tumours had previously been irradiated. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common tumour. Patients who have been irradiated and have a palpable abnormality of the thyroid or the salivary glands should be treated surgically. The various noninvasive tests are of little value in distinguishing between a benign and a malignant tumour. Those with hypercalcemia, considered to be due to primary hyperparathyroidism, should be treated by exploration of the neck, identification of the four parathyroid glands and excision of an adenoma with biopsy of the three remaining glands. If more than one gland is abnormal, a subtotal parathyroidectomy is recommended.

  8. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid glands and its relationship with benign lymphoepithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Manuela; Rizzardi, Clara

    2008-02-01

    The salivary glands, despite their relatively simple morphology, give rise to more than 30 histologically distinct benign and malignant tumors. Salivary gland neoplasms comprise less than 2% of all tumors in humans and 3% of all head and neck tumors. They arise in the parotid gland in 80% of cases, and approximately 80% are benign and 20% are malignant. Among them are lymphoepithelial lesions, rare lesions of the salivary glands and especially of the parotid gland that are characterized by lymphocytic infiltration associated with an epithelial proliferation. They are divided into benign, which is considered as a tumorlike condition, and malignant, which is a rare carcinoma of the salivary glands. This article provides a review of the current knowledge on lymphoepithelial carcinoma with a look at its association with benign lesions and on the importance of making the correct diagnosis for the appropriate treatment.

  9. Maspin as a Tumour Suppressor in Salivary Gland Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Sheirawan, Mohammad Kinan; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Alenzi, Faris; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Maspin is a protein that belongs to serin protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. The purpose of this study was to review the literature concerning the expression of maspin in salivary gland tumours. A literature search was done using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface. Statistical analysis was not done because only seven studies were available in literature, the collected data were different and the results could not be compared. Expression of maspin was down regulated in more aggressive salivary gland tumours. Maspin may function as a tumour suppressor in salivary gland tumours. PMID:25654053

  10. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion

    PubMed Central

    Senthilkumar, B.; Mahabob, M. Nazargi

    2012-01-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula), and the buccal mucosa. PMID:23066247

  11. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, B; Mahabob, M Nazargi

    2012-08-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula), and the buccal mucosa. PMID:23066247

  12. Chromosomal aberrations in adenomatoid hyperplasia of palatal minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Manor, Esther; Sinelnikov, Igor; Brennan, Peter A; Bodner, Lipa

    2013-03-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary glands is rare, idiopathic, and benign, and typically presents as a tumour-like mass in the hard or soft palate. Its exact nature is not clear and histological examination usually shows an excess of normal-appearing minor salivary glands. To our knowledge, cytogenetic analysis of it in a minor salivary gland of the palate has not previously been reported. We present the cytogenetic analysis of adenomatoid hyperplasia in the hard palate of a 52-year-old woman.

  13. Salivary gland tumours in Zimbabwe: report of 282 cases.

    PubMed

    Chidzonga, M M; Lopez Perez, V M; Portilla-Alvarez, A L

    1995-08-01

    Tumours of the salivary glands are relatively uncommon. In a review of 282 black patients seen at Harare Central Hospital, Zimbabwe, the relative incidence of various tumour types and the age and sex distribution were similar to those reported in other series. There were more tumours of the minor salivary glands than in reported Western series. There were more tumours of the minor salivary glands than in reported Western series. Pain and rapid growth were significant in distinguishing malignant from benign tumours. Malignant tumours were more common in elderly than in young patients.

  14. Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Manucha, Varsha; Ioffe, Olga B

    2008-09-01

    Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands is a group of rare tumors that are histologically identical to benign mixed tumors and that inexplicably metastasize. A review of the literature revealed that it usually occurs after multiple local recurrences, and the interval between diagnosis of primary pleomorphic adenoma and metastases ranges between 3 and 52 years. The most common site for metastasis is bone, followed by the head and neck and lung. No histologic or molecular parameters exist at the present time that could predict the development of metastasis in these neoplasms. Metastasectomy confers significant survival advantage over nonoperative treatment for localized and accessible metastases, but there is no definite treatment protocol available in cases of widespread metastases.

  15. Acinic cell tumors of salivary gland origin.

    PubMed

    Clemis, J D; Bland, J; Fung, C

    1977-09-01

    The acinic cell tumor of salivary gland origin, once thought to be benign, is now known to be an incidiously slow growing malignant neoplasm with lethal potential. While the degree of malignant behavior of individual acinic cell tumors is notably variable, all must be treated with aggression. Traditional and current methods of treatment are reviewed; and, in conjunction with the tumors herein reported, guidelines for managment of this uncommon malignancy are suggested. Four cases have been reviewed in detail and critically analyzed. The pathology, including features of both light and electron microscopy, in included--particularly in relation to the oncocytoid areas identified in from 10% to 40% of the parenchymal cells of our tumors. Since an accurate histopathologic diagnosis is the first step in the establishment of a proper treatment plan, pitfalls in histologic diagnosis have been stressed.

  16. HPV Infection, but Not EBV or HHV-8 Infection, Is Associated with Salivary Gland Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Hühns, Maja; Simm, Georg; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Zimpfer, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Benign and malignant salivary gland tumours are clinically heterogeneous and show different histology. Little is known about the role of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in salivary gland neoplasms. We investigated the presence of the three viruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples in a cohort of 200 different salivary gland tumours. We performed EBV-LMP-1 and HHV-8 and p16 immunohistochemistry, a specific chip based hybridization assay for detection and typing of HPV and a chromogenic in situ hybridization for EBV analysis. Only one case, a polymorphic low-grade carcinoma, showed HHV-8 expression and one lymphoepithelial carcinoma was infected by EBV. In 17 cases (9%) moderate or strong nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 expression was detected. The HPV type was investigated in all of these cases and additionally in 8 Warthin's tumours. In 19 cases HPV type 16 was detected, mostly in Warthin's tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma NOS. We concluded that HHV-8 infection and EBV infection are not associated with salivary gland cancer, but HPV infection may play a role in these tumour entities. PMID:26618178

  17. HPV Infection, but Not EBV or HHV-8 Infection, Is Associated with Salivary Gland Tumours.

    PubMed

    Hühns, Maja; Simm, Georg; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Zimpfer, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Benign and malignant salivary gland tumours are clinically heterogeneous and show different histology. Little is known about the role of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in salivary gland neoplasms. We investigated the presence of the three viruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples in a cohort of 200 different salivary gland tumours. We performed EBV-LMP-1 and HHV-8 and p16 immunohistochemistry, a specific chip based hybridization assay for detection and typing of HPV and a chromogenic in situ hybridization for EBV analysis. Only one case, a polymorphic low-grade carcinoma, showed HHV-8 expression and one lymphoepithelial carcinoma was infected by EBV. In 17 cases (9%) moderate or strong nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 expression was detected. The HPV type was investigated in all of these cases and additionally in 8 Warthin's tumours. In 19 cases HPV type 16 was detected, mostly in Warthin's tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma NOS. We concluded that HHV-8 infection and EBV infection are not associated with salivary gland cancer, but HPV infection may play a role in these tumour entities.

  18. Intraoral minor salivary gland tumors: a review of 75 cases in a Libyan population.

    PubMed

    Jaber, M A

    2006-02-01

    Minor salivary gland carcinomas are uncommon but most often occur in the oral cavity, particularly the hard palate. Dental examination may provide an opportunity for early detection. During the period of 1977-2000 a group of 75 patients (31 males and 44 females, median age 44.2 years and range 15-86 years) with minor salivary gland tumors were diagnosed, based on the 1991 WHO classification. The peak occurrence of the tumors was in the fifth decade for males and sixth decade for females. The frequency of benign tumors was 38.6% (n = 29) and malignant tumors 61.3% (n = 46). Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common histological type of benign tumor identified whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were the most common malignant tumors. The most common primary location of the tumors was the palate followed by the cheek. A benign tumor usually presented as an asymptomatic swelling and ulceration, pain being more frequently associated with the malignant tumors. This study shows that intraoral tumors of minor salivary glands vary widely in presentation, and should be taking into account by medical and dental practitioners in any differential diagnosis when assessing intraoral pathology. Any lesion arising from the hard palate (the most common site in this series) should be considered as a possible minor salivary gland tumor. Referral to a multidisciplinary head and neck clinic following diagnosis is strongly recommended.

  19. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands. PMID:27347918

  20. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands.

  1. SOX10 is a novel marker of acinus and intercalated duct differentiation in salivary gland tumors: a clue to the histogenesis for tumor diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ohtomo, Rie; Mori, Taisuke; Shibata, Shinsuke; Tsuta, Koji; Maeshima, Akiko M; Akazawa, Chihiro; Watabe, Yukio; Honda, Kazufumi; Yamada, Tesshi; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Asai, Masao; Okano, Hideyuki; Kanai, Yae; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2013-08-01

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively rare and morphologically diverse and heterogeneous tumors; therefore, histogenesis-based tumor markers are sorely needed to aid in diagnosing and determining the cell type of origin. SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) protein is a transcription factor known to be crucial in the specification of the neural crest and maintenance of Schwann cells and melanocytes. In addition, positive expression has also been implicated in the major salivary gland. Here, we examined SOX10 expression in various salivary gland tumors to correlate this expression with myoepithelial markers. Overall, 76 malignant and 14 benign tumors were examined. SOX10 expression clearly delineated two distinct subtypes of human salivary gland tumors; acinic cell carcinomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, myoepithelial carcinomas, and pleomorphic adenomas, including the pleomorphic adenoma component of carcinoma, were SOX10 positive, while salivary duct carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, an oncocytic carcinoma, Oncocytomas, and Warthin tumors were SOX10 negative. Also, SOX10 was expressed in solid-type or non-specific morphology salivary gland tumors, but was not expressed in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. In normal human salivary gland tissue, SOX10 expression was specific to the nuclei of acini and both luminal and abluminal cells of intercalated ducts but not in other sites. Moreover, the murine model suggested that SOX10 continued to be expressed from the developmental stage to adulthood in the acinar and both luminal and abluminal intercalated ducts in the major salivary gland. Thus, SOX10 is a novel marker for diagnosing and understanding the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors.

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein-6 is a marker of serous acinar cell differentiation in normal and neoplastic human salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Heikinheimo, K A; Laine, M A; Ritvos, O V; Voutilainen, R J; Hogan, B L; Leivo, I V; Heikinheimo, A K

    1999-11-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-6, also known as vegetal-pale-gene-related and decaplentaplegic-vegetal-related) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of multifunctional signaling molecules. BMP-6 appears to play various biological roles in developing tissues, including regulation of epithelial differentiation. To study the possible involvement of BMP-6 in normal and neoplastic human salivary glands, we compared its mRNA and protein expression in 4 fetal and 15 adult salivary glands and in 22 benign and 32 malignant salivary gland tumors. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis indicated that BMP-6 transcripts are expressed at low levels in acinar cells of adult submandibular glands but not in ductal or stromal cells. BMP-6 was immunolocated specifically in serous acini of parotid and submandibular glands. None was found in primitive fetal acini or any other types of cell in adult salivary glands, including mucous acini and epithelial cells of intercalated, striated, and excretory ducts. All 16 cases of acinic cell carcinoma consistently exhibited cytoplasmic BMP-6 staining in the acinar tumor cells. Other cell types in these tumors, including intercalated duct-like cells, clear, vacuolated cells, and nonspecific glandular cells, exhibited no cytoplasmic BMP-6 staining. Other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors lacked BMP-6 immunoreactivity, except in areas of squamous differentiation. The results indicate that in salivary glands, BMP-6 expression is uniquely associated with acinar cell differentiation and suggest that BMP-6 may play a role in salivary gland function. More importantly, our experience of differential diagnostic problems related to salivary gland tumors suggests that the demonstration of consistent and specific BMP-6 immunoreactivity in acinic cell carcinoma is likely to be of clinical value.

  3. Gene expression screening of salivary gland neoplasms: molecular markers of potential histogenetic and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Maruya, Shin-Ichiro; Kim, Hyung-Woo; Weber, Randal S; Lee, Jack J; Kies, Merril; Luna, Mario A; Batsakis, John G; El-Naggar, Adel K

    2004-08-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms comprise phenotypically and biologically diverse lesions of uncertain histogenesis. The molecular events associated with their development and clinicopathological heterogeneity remain unknown. To reveal these events, we performed microarray expression analysis using a nylon-filter membrane platform on 18 primary lesions representing the most common benign and malignant types. Our study identified a small set of genes that are differentially altered between normal salivary gland tissues and benign and malignant tumors. Of the 5000 genes arrayed, 136 genes were differentially expressed by normal tissue, benign tumors, and various malignant neoplasms. Hierarchical clustering analysis differentiated between adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) and other malignant subtypes. Non-ACC specimens manifested overlapping patterns of gene expression within and between tumors. Most of the differentially expressed genes share functional similarities with members of the adhesion, proliferation, and signal transduction pathways. Our study identified: 1) a set of genes that differentiate normal tissue from tumor specimens, 2) genes that differentiate pleomorphic adenoma and ACCs from other malignant salivary gland neoplasms, and 3) different patterns of expression between ACCs arising from major and minor salivary gland sites. The differentially expressed genes provide new information on potential genetic events of biological significance in future studies of salivary gland tumorigenesis.

  4. Is fine needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland masses really necessary?

    PubMed

    Candel, A; Gattuso, P; Reddy, V; Matz, G; Castelli, M

    1993-07-01

    The use of fine needle aspirate biopsies (FNAB's) in the outpatient setting has progressively escalated, particularly in the area of head and neck pathology. An increasing percentage of these are for salivary gland masses. We present our experience with salivary gland FNAB's at our institution for four years, from 1988-1992. One thousand and twenty-two (1,022) FNAB's of superficial masses were performed by two pathologists. One hundred sixty-three (15.9%) were salivary gland biopsies. Of these 163 cases, 21 (12.9%) were normal tissue, 77 (47.2%) were inflammatory processes, 50 (30.7%) were benign tumors, and 15 (9.2%) were malignant tumors. None of the aspirates were unsatisfactory. Tissue correlation was possible in 47 (28.8%) cases. Two false negative cases (4.3%) were identified; these were a Warthin's tumor diagnosed as chronic sialoadenitis by FNAB; and a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed as adenocarcinoma by FNAB. There were no false positive cases. Overall sensitivity was 95.7% and specificity was 100%. Our experience indicates that FNAB of salivary glands is an effective screening procedure in evaluating salivary gland masses. The cytologic diagnosis may assist the clinician in allaying patients' anxieties, as well as in further collateral workup prior to definitive therapy.

  5. An unusual case of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland radiologically simulating a benign lesion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shubhra; Patankar, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Epithelialmyoepithelial carcinoma (EMEC) is a rare low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasm that most commonly occurs in the parotid gland but can also arise in minor salivary glands. Here, we present a case of EMEC in a 60-year-old male patient with a huge swelling in the left parotid gland region. Clinically and radiologically, it simulated a benign salivary gland neoplasm. However, fine-needle aspiration cytology and histologic examination revealed atypical myoepithelial cells in solid sheets or nests suggestive of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Diagnosis was further confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining with calponin (CALP) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) for glycogen.

  6. Primary salivary duct carcinoma of the lung, mucin-rich variant.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Grimes, Brandon S; Xian, Rena R; Lee, Jay M; Barjaktarevic, Igor; Xu, Haodong

    2016-01-01

    Primary salivary gland-type lung cancer is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from the seromucinous glands of the respiratory tract. Histopathologically, they are identical to salivary gland neoplasms of the head and neck. While mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are overwhelmingly the most common subtypes found in the lung, reports of uncommon subtypes can be found in the literature. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman with primary lung salivary duct carcinoma, mucin-rich variant--an exceedingly rare subtype of an already rare malignant salivary-type neoplasm. One case of primary lung salivary duct carcinoma has been reported in the literature; however, the mucin-rich variant has never been described in the lung. Furthermore, the tumor in our case bears a rare BRAF G464V mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a BRAF G464V mutation detected in a salivary duct carcinoma or any other salivary-type neoplasm.

  7. Increased mast cell counts in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad-Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Mast cells are one of the characteristic factors in angiogenesis, growth, and metastatic spread of tumors. The distribution and significance of mast cells in many tumors have been demonstrated. However, few studies have evaluated mast cell infiltration in salivary gland tumors. In this study, mast cell counts were evaluated in benign and malig-nant salivary gland tumors. Materials and methods. This descriptive and cross-sectional study assessed 30 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 13 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (diagnosed on the basis of 2005 WHO classifica-tion), with adequate stroma in peritumoral and intratumoral areas, and 10 cases of normal salivary glands. The samples were stained with 5% diluted Giemsa solution and the average stained cell counts were calculated in 10 random microscopic fields in peri- and intra-tumoral areas. Data were analyzed by t-test and Mann-Whitney and Krusskal-Wallis tests. Results. The average mast cell counts increased in the tumors compared to normal salivary glands. There was no signifi-cant difference between benign and malignant tumors and also between different malignant tumors. Infiltration was signifi-cantly denser in peri-tumoral stroma in both tumoral groups (P = 0.001). Minor salivary glands contained significantly more numerous mast cells. Conclusion. Although mast cell counts increased in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, there were no signifi-cant differences between the tumoral groups. Further studies are suggested to determine the type of these cells which might be useful in the assessment of biological nature of the tumor and its future treatment modality.

  8. Retroauricular Pleomorphic Adenoma Arising from Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bacaj, Patrick; Borah, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 38-year-old woman is described who presented with a slowly growing mass on the posterior aspect of the left ear. Excision and histopathologic evaluation revealed a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) originating from heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Many authors have presented cases of PAs originating from ceruminous glands in the external auditory canal or of so-called chondroid syringoma originating from apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. This is the only case in the recent literature of a PA originating from a heterotopic rest of salivary gland tissue in the retroauricular region. The 3 main sources of PAs, their embryologic derivation, and treatment are described.

  9. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the parotid salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Mysorekar, V V; Dandekar, C P; Sreevathsa, M R

    2004-09-01

    Benign ectopic thyroid tissue within the parotid salivary gland is very rare. A 32-year-old woman presented with a slowly-growing, painless mass in the parotid region. The mass, which was clinically diagnosed as a parotid tumour, was found at surgery to be cystic in nature. Histological examination showed thyroid tissue with secondary changes in the cyst wall and colloid in the lumen. On iodine isotope scan, the thyroid gland was found in its normal location. The possible origin of the ectopic thyroid tissue in the parotid salivary gland could be due to a common evolution of the thyroid and parotid glands, a heteroplasia or a metaplasia.

  10. Spectrum of Salivary Gland Lesions in a Tertiary Level Hospital.

    PubMed

    Begum, A; Baten, M A; Alam, M M; Huq, M H; Ahsan, M M; Khan, M K; Saleh, F M; Talukder, S I

    2015-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively infrequent and account for less than 2% of all human tumors. This study was conducted to see the prevalence of patterns of non neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of salivary glands in greater Mymensingh. It was a retrospective study carried out in the department of Pathology, Community Based Medical College Bangladesh from January 2010 to December 2012. Heamatoxylin and eosin stained sections were studied in all cases. Total 98 cases of salivary gland lesions were retrieved and evaluated. Out of them 55 cases were female and 43 were male. Mean age of the cases were 42 years. Among the salivary gland lesions non-neoplastic lesions 24.48% and neoplastic lesions 75.51%. Among neoplastic lesions benign tumor comprises 91.89% and malignant tumor comprises 8.10%.

  11. Salivary Glands: Stem Cells, Self-duplication, or Both?

    PubMed

    Aure, M H; Arany, S; Ovitt, C E

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the intrinsic potential for renewal and regeneration within a tissue is critical for the rational design of reparative strategies. Maintenance of the salivary glands is widely thought to depend on the differentiation of stem cells. However, there is also new evidence that homeostasis of the salivary glands, like that of the liver and pancreas, relies on self-renewal of differentiated cells rather than a stem cell pool. Here, we review the evidence for both modes of turnover and consider the implications for the process of regeneration. We propose that the view of salivary glands as postmitotic and dependent on stem cells for renewal be revised to reflect the proliferative activity of acinar cells and their role in salivary gland homeostasis.

  12. Histochemical, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic markers in salivary gland tumor pathology.

    PubMed

    Vered, Marilena; Dayan, Dan

    2007-02-01

    Evaluation of: Adeyemi BF, Kolude BM, Akang EE, Lawoyin JO: A study of silver nucleolar organizer regions in categorization and prognosis of salivary gland tumors. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 102, 513-520 (2006). In this study, various confirmed benign and malignant salivary gland tumors underwent a known histochemical silver staining method involving nuclear-associated proteins with diagnostic and prognostic capacity in other malignant tumors. The study examined the methods' ability to differentiate between benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and between different histopathological grades of malignant tumors, and sought correlations between the staining results and staging, metastatic disease and survival. The staining method proved inadequate, confirming many previously published results. This article highlights the growing awareness of pathologists and oral pathologists in developing countries to the uniqueness of salivary gland tumors, and demonstrates their understanding of the importance of both early detection and appropriate treatment.

  13. Benign solid oncocytoma of intraoral minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Damm, D D; White, D K; Geissler, R H; Drummond, J F; Henry, B B

    1989-01-01

    We present an example of an intraoral benign solid oncocytoma of minor salivary gland origin. A review of intraoral benign solid oncocytomas reported in the English-language literature and discussion of the clinical behavior of these tumors are included.

  14. Salivary gland tumours in Ibadan, Nigeria: a study of 295 cases.

    PubMed

    Abiose, B O; Oyejide, O; Ogunniyi, J

    1990-09-01

    Over a period of 21 years 295 primary salivary gland epithelial tumours were collected and studied. These tumours constituted 2.8% of all head and neck tumours seen at the University College Hospital. Ibadan, over the same period. Two hundred and one (68.1%) were in the major glands and 94 (31.9%) were in the minor intra-oral glands, with the parotid and palatal glands being most frequently involved. There was no statistically significant difference in the sex ratio, and the incidence of tumour gradually increased with age to a peak during the 4th decade. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign lesion while mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas were the common malignant lesions seen, and were more prevalent in older males. Unlike in other African studies, adenolymphoma, acinic cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma types were all identified.

  15. Salivary gland neoplasms in children: a 10-year survey at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Kessler, A; Handler, S D

    1994-06-01

    Fifteen salivary gland tumors were treated at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between 1982 and 1991. Eight of these lesions were malignant and 7 were benign. All of the benign tumors were pleomorphic adenomas. For these, superficial parotidectomy or excision of the submandibular gland was the treatment of choice. One child had recurrence 2 years after her initial surgery. Among the malignant lesions, mucoepidermoid carcinoma was diagnosed in 5 children, and acinic cell carcinoma in 3. Six malignant tumors involved the parotid gland, while 2 originated in the submandibular salivary gland. Superficial or total parotidectomy, or excision of the submandibular gland was performed, according to the nature and the location of the lesion. The facial nerve was sacrificed in one patient because of extensive involvement of the nerve. A 2-year survival rate of 100% was achieved, and all the patients were free of disease at the end of the follow-up period. Successful management of salivary gland lesions in children requires a high index of suspicion of possible malignancy and complete surgical removal as the initial treatment. Radiation therapy is recommended in the management of those patients with microscopic residual tumor and/or nodal involvement.

  16. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo, A; McLaren, K M; Boccato, P; Maran, A G

    1999-01-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a rare, recently described tumor of salivary gland origin. Differential diagnosis includes benign lesions as clear cell change in a pleomorphic adenoma or in oncocytoma and malignant tumors - i.e. epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, clear cell acinic carcinoma, clear cell squamous carcinoma, clear cell malignant melanoma, clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, clear cell rhabdomyosarcoma, sebaceous carcinoma and metastasis of renal carcinoma. A favorable prognosis after wide local excision has been evidenced. Three new cases of HCCC (2 in the oral cavity and 1 in the parotid gland) are presented.

  17. Pleomorphic adenoma--unusual presentation of a salivary gland tumor in the neck of a child.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, K V; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bansal, Vishal; Saxena, Susmita; Elhence, Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic salivary gland tumors are rare in children. When salivary gland tumors do develop, they preferentially affect major salivary glands and then minor salivary glands. Pleomorphic adenoma, also referred to as a benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. Approximately 90% of these tumors occur in the parotid gland, while the remaining 10% affect the minor salivary glands. However, it is uncommon to find them elsewhere in the head and neck region. We report a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma in the upper neck, an unusual site in an 8-year-old boy.

  18. Diagnostic challenges in aspiration cytology of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Schindler, S; Nayar, R; Dutra, J; Bedrossian, C W

    2001-05-01

    The main goal of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of salivary gland lesions is to assist the clinician in the management of patients who present with a mass lesion. Cytologic examination aims to determine, if a process is inflammatory and/or reactive, benign or malignant neoplasm and if possible renders a specific diagnosis. It has been argued that in the area of salivary gland tumors, surgical management relies less heavily on a specific preoperative diagnosis, because almost all neoplastic salivary gland lesions will undergo surgical excision. However, knowing beforehand if a lesion is malignant or benign, will aid in planning surgery and may prompt or postpone decisions for surgical intervention. The salivary glands are unique in their histologic complexity and morphological variability of tumors, which is reflected in the cytologic material. In addition to the overlapping morphologic patterns of salivary gland tumors, they also represent relatively rare lesions, thus making it more difficult to acquire diagnostic expertise in FNA. Other than approaching salivary gland tumors by a description of single entities in their benign and malignant categories, we favor a more practical approach to diagnosis based on the key morphologic features noted in FNAs. This article addresses differential diagnoses according to the predominant cytologic presentation with attention to the cell type and size, nature of the cytoplasm, and the smear background.

  19. Salivary gland tumours: an analysis of 62 cases.

    PubMed

    Sousa, J; De Sa, O

    2001-03-01

    Salivary gland tumors are rare entities among the patients with head and neck neoplastic lesions. Between January 1987 to August 1997, 62 patients with salivary gland tumors presented to the surgical department of Goa Medical College, which is a tertiary referral center for the region. These patients were analyzed with an aim to study the clinical and histopathological correlation. While no age predisposition for the malignancy was found, the parotid gland was the most common site for both malignant & benign tumors (69.35%), and the minor glands (4.8%) the least common. Apart from the presence of facial nerve involvement, pain and rapid growth were also the indicators of malignancy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) proved to be a reliable method for management of these tumors. All the patients underwent surgery with minimal morbidity and no mortality. There was no identifiable association between smoking, alcohol intake and the occurrence of the salivary glands tumors.

  20. Sebaceous lymphadenoma of salivary gland: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maffini, F; Fasani, R; Petrella, D; Maiorano, E; Bruschini, R; Pelosi, G; Viale, G

    2007-06-01

    The unusual case is described of a benign parotid gland neoplasm with intermingled sebaceous and lymphoid tissue, synchronous to breast cancer. In the past, the patient had undergone a simple surgical procedure for a cystic parotid gland lesion in that same gland. Secondary neoplasms have only occasionally been reported, since there are few cases for corroborating the strong correlation between salivary neoplasms and other carcinomas as in Muir-Torre syndrome; the previous cystic lesion showed the origin of the neoplasm from a sebaceous inclusion in the lymph node as a postulate of Warthin tumour.

  1. Fine needle aspiration cytology of minor salivary gland tumours of the palate.

    PubMed

    Sahai, Kavita; Kapila, Kusum; Dahiya, Sonika; Verma, Kusum

    2002-10-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology of minor salivary gland tumours of the palate This retrospective study was carried out to review aspirates from minor salivary gland tumours of the palate and to assess the problems encountered in their diagnosis, especially the cytological diagnosis of newer entities such as polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). Fifty-five cases of palatal salivary gland tumours aspirated over a period of 16 years were reviewed. Histology was available in 26 cases. Pleomorphic adenoma (27 cases) was the most common benign cytodiagnosis. Eleven aspirates were malignant tumours of which eight cases were adenoid cystic carcinoma and three cases were mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Seven cases were diagnosed on fine needle aspiration as suggestive of PLGA. However histological confirmation was available in only one of these cases. Concordance between the initial and revised typings of the tumours was seen in only 28 cases (54%) in the present study. Initially 18 of the 51 tumours (35.3%) could not be typed; and after review, only three could not be typed. Three cases of oncocytoma could be diagnosed on review only. Palatal salivary gland tumours, although relatively uncommon, are difficult to diagnose cytologically. This is more so in cases of newer entities such as PLGA, as their cytological diagnosis is still not well characterized.

  2. Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepali; Nayak, Nabeen C

    2015-07-01

    Oncocytic metaplasia rarely has been reported in mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Most salivary gland lesions with oncocytic change are benign; therefore, it is important to distinguish mucoepidermoid carcinoma from other entities that may show prominent oncocytic change. We report a rare case of oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a 65-year-old woman.

  3. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  4. Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland. An unusual glossal presentation of a minor salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Ruby, S G; Kish, J K

    1996-08-01

    A case of an unusual oncocytic variant of minor salivary gland adenocarcinoma presenting in the base of the tongue in a 79 year old male with a remote history of regional radiotherapy is presented. The tumor had a striking morphologic similarity to the more common granular cell tumor, with which it could have been easily confused, leading to significant misdiagnosis. The light microscopic, cytologic, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic features are presented, with a discussion of the differentiating features of this lesion compared to other more common benign and malignant glossal tumors.

  5. Synchronous benign epithelial tumors arising in the palatal minor salivary gland. First report of an unusual minor salivary gland lesion.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y; Kuroda, M; Suzuki, A

    1990-02-01

    A review of the literature shows that unilateral benign salivary gland tumors of different histologic types in a single gland are so rare as to be curiosities, and all of such reported tumors have arisen in the parotid gland. The present paper reports a case of synchronous benign epithelial tumors of different histologic type arising in the palatal minor salivary gland of a 57-year-old woman who had first noted palatal swelling about 20 years previously. Pathologically, the lesion was composed of two distinct tumors, pleomorphic adenoma and lumenless trabecular adenoma, which were sharply demarcated from each other by a thin layer of fibrous connective tissue. Foci of tumor cells with cellular atypia were seen in some areas of the pleomorphic adenoma. The present case is thought to represent a previously undescribed component within the spectrum of minor salivary gland tumors.

  6. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis by lip biopsy of minor salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, Hyman; Anderson, Larry G.; Rosenberg, Earle H.; Sheffer, Albert L.

    1974-01-01

    In two patients with bilateral parotid gland swelling of unknown etiology the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established by lip biopsy of the minor salivary glands. This simple, innocuous biopsy procedure may prove useful in tissue documentation of sarcoidosis. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4442017

  7. Signs and symptoms in patients with salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed Central

    Longman, L. P.; Higham, S. M.; Bucknall, R.; Kaye, S. B.; Edgar, W. M.; Field, E. A.

    1997-01-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction can have a devastating effect on oral health and may be an indicator of systemic disease such as Sjögren's syndrome. This prospective study investigates the oral and non-oral signs and symptoms in 120 patients with objective evidence of salivary gland hypofunction (ie, an unstimulated whole salivary flow of < 0.2 ml/min). Patients were questioned about symptoms associated with decreased oral function; non-oral symptoms were also noted. The underlying cause of salivary gland hypofunction was established on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and further investigations. Eighty-five per cent of patients reported symptoms of decreased oral function in addition to oral dryness. Non-oral signs and symptoms were reported by 106 patients. Fifty-three per cent of patients were diagnosed as having Sjögren's syndrome. The prevalence of the following non-oral signs and symptoms were significantly higher in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, than in those without; a history of dry/irritated eyes, salivary gland swelling, dry skin and reduced lacrimal flow. Salivary gland hypofunction is associated with a wide range of oral and non-oral signs and symptoms. Several of these are of potential value as triggers for the clinician to identify patients with Sjögren's syndrome, and should serve to prompt referral for specialist investigation. PMID:9122105

  8. Carcinoma in basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Nagao, T; Sugano, I; Ishida, Y; Matsuzaki, O; Konno, A; Kondo, Y; Nagao, K

    1997-01-01

    Malignant transformation of basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland is rarely reported, and when occurred, may principally become manifest as a malignant basaloid tumor, i.e. basal cell adenocarcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma. We describe herein three cases of non-basaloid carcinoma arising in BCA. The incidence of this malignant tumor was 0.2% of all parotid gland tumors and 4.3% of BCAs in our series. One case was salivary duct carcinoma showing histologic evidence of transition between malignant and benign elements. The remaining two cases were well-encapsulated parotid gland tumors, which were composed of BCA and scattered foci of malignant transformation. Malignant components were adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS), and sometimes intermixed with neoplastic myoepithelial cells included BCA cells. These two cases were regarded to be intracapsular carcinoma in BCA. BCA components showed solid, tubular and trabecular arrangements. The patients' prognosis was quite variable among these three cases; the first case died of disease after 27 months, whereas the latter two cases are alive and well for 4 and 10 years after surgery. Ki-67 labeling index indicated that cell proliferative activity was at least five times higher in carcinomas than BCAs. Non-basaloid carcinomas such as salivary duct carcinoma or adenocarcinoma, NOS, do develop in BCAs as in the case of a pleomorphic adenoma with malignant transformation, though the incidence may be extremely rare.

  9. Warthin tumor of the upper lip: an unusual location of a benign salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Almeida, Aroldo; Costa Hanemann, João Adolfo; Tostes Oliveira, Denise

    2011-06-01

    Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum) is a benign salivary gland tumor involving almost exclusively the parotid gland. The lip is a very unusual location for this type of tumor, which develops only rarely in minor salivary glands. The case of 42-year-old woman with Warthin tumor arising in minor salivary glands of the upper lip is reported.

  10. c-erbB-2 oncogene expression in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Kärjä, V; Syrjänen, S; Kataja, V; Syrjänen, K

    1994-01-01

    Prompted by recent findings on the amplification of c-erbB-2 (HER-2, neu) oncogene in salivary gland tumours, the present study was conducted to analyse the expression of c-erbB-2 in both benign and malignant salivary gland tumours, with special emphasis on its prognostic significance and relevance to clinical data. A series of 219 salivary gland tumours (with pertinent clinical data), including 103 malignant and 116 benign tumours, were analysed immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody to c-erbB-2 protein. Smoking was not a risk factor for malignant tumours, smokers being equally represented in both groups: 18.4 and 21.6% in malignant and benign series, respectively. Multi-variate analysis of the extensive clinical data did not disclose any other risk factors either. Cellular membrane staining for c-erbB-2 was present in 36 (35.0%) carcinomas and 41 (35.3%) benign tumours. Among the malignant tumours, c-erbB-2 expression was most frequent in adenoid cystic carcinomas (57.7%) followed by adenocarcinomas (39.3%). Among the benign tumours, 47% of Warthin's tumours and 33.3% of the pleomorphic adenomas showed staining for c-erbB-2. The highest prevalence of c-erbB-2 immunoreactivity was seen in adenocarcinomas of the parotid gland (81.8%), followed by undifferentiated carcinomas (75%) and adenoid cystic carcinomas (73.3%) in that location. Age at diagnosis, number of recurrences, analysis as well as time to relapse or metastases were similar in c-erbB-2-positive and -negative malignant tumours. Also mortality in c-erbB-2-positive and -negative salivary gland cancers was similar.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Study of salivary gland lesions with fine needle aspiration cytology and histopothology along with immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Srabani; Bera, Moumita; Bhattacharya, Pranab Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasish; Manna, Asim Kumar; Pathak, Swapan; Maiti, Krishnendu

    2010-12-01

    Salivary gland swelling is a common and important problem. Acute and chronic sialadenitis, different benign and malignant neoplasms are the common causes which present with salivary gland swelling. Imaging technique is not so helpful in pre-operative diagnosis; microscopical examination is required for diagnosis. Pre-operative core needle biopsy is hazardous and may damage facial nerve, lead to fistula formation or associated with tumour seeding. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is however virtually risk-free. The study was done to assess the utility of FNAC and its accuracy and pitfalls with respect to histopathology and advantages of immunohistochemistry. The study was done with 40 cases of salivary gland swelling. After clinical examination, FNAC and histopathological examination along with immunohistochemistry was done and the results were correlated. Out of 40 cases, 25 involved the parotid gland, most common age group affected was 20 - 40 years and male: female ratio was 5: 3. Out of 40 cases 37 cases were cytologically and histopathologically correlated and rest 3 cases were different. Among these 3 cases, 2 were adenoid cystic carcinoma which was cytologically diagnosed as benign neoplasm (monomorphic adenoma). One case of Warthin's tumour was cytologically diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. The sensitivity of this study was found to be 71.43%, specificity 100% and accuracy was 93.10%. This study corroborates well with other studies including immunohistochemical findings. p53 expression was found to be related with nature of the neoplasm. FNAC is an important tool for early diagnosis of salivary gland lesions.

  12. Immunohistochemichal Assessment of the CrkII Proto-oncogene Expression in Common Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors and Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Askari, Mitra; Darabi, Masoud; Jahanzad, Esa; Mostakhdemian Hosseini, Zahra; Musavi Chavoshi, Marjan; Darabi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Various morphologies are seen in different salivary gland tumorsor within an individual tumor, and the lesions show divers biological behaviors. Experimental results support the hypothesis that increased CrkII proto-oncogene is associated with cytokine-induced tumor initiation and progression by altering cell motility signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to assess the CrkII expression in common malignant salivary gland tumors and pleomorphic ade-noma. Materials and methods. Immunohistochemical analysis of CrkII expression was performed on paraffin blocks of 64 car-cinomas of salivary glands, 10 pleomorphic adenomas, and 10 normal salivary glands. Biopsies were subjected to immu-nostaining with EnVision detection system using monoclonal anti-CrkII. Evaluation of immunoreactivity of CrkII was based on the immunoreaction intensity and percentage of stained tumor cells which were scored semi-quantitatively on a scale with four grades 0 to 3. Kruskal-wallis test and additional Mann-Whitney statistical test were used for analysis of CrkII expression levels. Results. Increased expression of CrkII was seen (P=0.005) in malignant tumors including: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, but CrkII expression in acinic cell carcinoma was weak. CrkII expression in pleomorphic adenoma was weak or negative. A weak staining was sparsely seen in normal acinar serous cell. Conclusion. Increased expression of CrkII and its higher intensity of staining in tumors with more aggressive biologic behavior in carcinomas of salivary gland is consistent with a role for this proto-oncogene in salivary gland tumorigenesis and cancer progression.

  13. Tumors of the major and minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    McKenna, R J

    1984-01-01

    Surgery for salivary gland tumors requires technical skill, competence in head and neck anatomy, and a familiarity with a variety of tumors. Benign salivary tumors at all sites should be 100 percent curable, with a local recurrence rate of less than five percent; these local failures should be curable with further surgery. The majority of parotid tumors are benign. Sixty-two percent of patients with malignant parotid tumors will be alive at five years, 54 percent at 10 years, and 47 percent at 15 years. These survival rates for malignant parotid tumors are better than those for malignant tumors in the submaxillary and minor salivary glands and may be explained in part by the presence of a higher percentage of low-grade malignant tumors in the parotid gland. Since most submaxillary gland tumors are malignant, they are more dangerous than parotid tumors. A total of 80 percent of patients with submaxillary gland tumors die as a result of cancer. Almost all minor salivary gland tumors are malignant; curability relates to size, local extension, histology, and nodal metastases. Forty-five percent are alive at five years, and 21 percent at 15 years. Wide-field radical surgical excision is needed for malignant salivary tumors to minimize local recurrences and treatment failures. Future improvement in treatment results will be made possible by increased awareness of this group of tumors, earlier diagnosis when tumors are still small, more radical extirpation, and greater use of postoperative radiation therapy.

  14. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the palate composed of invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma components: an unusual case with immunohistochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Sedassari, Bruno T; da Silva Lascane, Nelise A; Tobouti, Priscila L; Pigatti, Fernanda M; Franco, Maria I F; de Sousa, Suzana C O M

    2014-12-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is an unusual epithelial malignancy that develops from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common tumor of salivary glands, and constitutes about 11.5% of all carcinomas that affect these glands. Intraoral minor salivary glands and seromucous glands of the oropharynx are uncommon locations of CXPA. On histopathological examination, the tumor comprises a wide morphological spectrum with a variable proportion between the benign and malignant components with the latter often predominating and overlapping the PA, which may cause misdiagnosis. Here, we report a case of palatal minor salivary gland CXPA composed of invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma components with multiple nodal metastases in a 74-year-old woman. Neoplastic cells showed heterogeneous immunohistochemical profile with both luminal and myoepithelial differentiation. The invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma component demonstrated overexpression of the oncoprotein human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. This feature should be considered and evaluated as a possible target for adjuvant therapy in case of metastatic disease.

  15. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the salivary gland: problem cases.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, C B; Frable, W J

    1993-01-01

    Among 582 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies of major and minor salivary glands performed between 1974 and 1990, lack of cytological histologic correlation was noted in 21 cases. Of these, the cause in 10 FNAs was inadequate cytological sampling of the lesion. [One case of malignant hemangiopericytoma was tentatively diagnosed as a monomorphic adenoma on FNA, a polymorphic T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed as granulomatous inflammation on aspiration biopsy, a benign lymphoepithelial lesion was diagnosed as a reactive lymph node, a branchial cleft cyst was called benign mixed tumor (BMT), one case of chronic sialoadenitis was called BMT by FNA, two cases of benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL) were diagnosed as cystic Warthin's tumor, two low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas were called BMT, and a BMT was cytologically diagnosed as a Warthin's tumor with squamous metaplasia versus low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. One case of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma was diagnosed only as a "cyst."] Review of these cases identifies constant features that permit differentiation between Warthin's tumor and BLEL, and among BMT, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and chronic sialoadenitis. Despite a few problem cases, FNA of the salivary gland is accurate in the preoperative diagnosis and classification of salivary gland neoplasms.

  16. Metastasising pleomorphic salivary gland adenoma presenting as synchronous pulmonary and hepatic metastases.

    PubMed

    Abou-Foul, Ahmad K; Madi, Mohammed; Bury, Danielle; Merritt, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Pleomorphic salivary adenomas (PAs) are the commonest benign tumours of glandular origin in the head and neck. Occasionally PAs undergo malignant transformation to carcinoma-ex-PA and can metastasise. More rarely they metastasise without malignant transformation of the primary tumour. We present a case of a benign pleomorphic salivary gland adenoma, presenting 7 years later with multiple liver metastases and a synchronous pulmonary metastasis. Histological analysis of the lung and liver lesions confirmed a diagnosis of metastasising pleomorphic adenoma (MPA). The lung lesion was fully excised, but the multifocal nature of the liver lesions rendered them inoperable. The patient is being managed conservatively and to date has no local recurrence of the primary salivary gland tumour or any further metastases. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of MPA with simultaneous metastasis to both lungs and liver, and also the first to describe multiple liver metastases.

  17. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.

  18. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K. S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eilsbruch, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than ≈20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than ≈25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk. PMID:20171519

  19. Tumors of the major salivary glands in children.

    PubMed

    Shikhani, A H; Johns, M E

    1988-01-01

    During the 30-year period 1955-1985, 21 children with neoplasms of the major salivary glands were treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. A thorough review of the English literature revealed an additional 472 cases. The cases were studied as to age, sex, site, histopathologic characteristics, mode of treatment, and results. The majority of the patients were between 8 and 20 years of age. There was a female preponderance of 1.42:1. The parotid gland was the site of origin in 85.1%, the submandibular in 11.7%, and the sublingual in 3.2%. An equal incidence of benign (50.1%) and malignant (49.9%) lesions is noted. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign neoplasm and mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant neoplasm. The final prognosis seems to be similar with superficial or total parotidectomy, provided the tumor has been completely removed at the initial surgery. Re-excision is recommended for tumor recurrence, and the use of radiation therapy should be individually determined in cases of aggressive malignancies.

  20. Oncocytic carcinoma of the submandibular gland: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nakada, M; Nishizaki, K; Akagi, H; Masuda, Y; Yoshino, T

    1998-05-01

    Oncocytes are characterized by a remarkable number of mitochondria as demonstrated by electron microscopy. Oncocytomas are very rare tumors that are usually benign and typically occur in the parotid gland. Oncocytic carcinomas are exceedingly rare in the salivary glands. We describe a 69-year-old Japanese man with an oncocytic carcinoma of the submandibular gland. We reviewed 38 articles describing oncocytic carcinoma of the head and neck that included clinicopathologic features. Oncocytic carcinomas appear to arise from benign oncocytomas, or may also arise de novo. In oncocytic carcinoma of the head and neck, the presence of distant, rather than local lymph node, metastasis is the most important prognostic indicator.

  1. Evaluation of MYB Promoter Methylation in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chunbo; Bai, Weiliang; Junn, Jacqueline C.; Uemura, Mamoru; Hennessey, Patrick T.; Zaboli, David; Sidransky, David; Califano, Joseph A.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor MYB was recently proposed to be a promising oncogene candidate in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). However, the up-regulation of MYB in ACC could not be explained solely by deletion of its 3′ end. It is widely accepted that the promoter methylation status can regulate the transcription of genes, especially in human cancers. Therefore, it is important to know whether MYB promoter demethylation could explain the over-expression of MYB in ACC. By using the Methprimer program, we identified nine CpG islands in the promoter of MYB. All of these CpG islands were located within the −864 to +2,082 nt region relative to the transcription start site of MYB. We then used bisulfite genomic sequencing to evaluate the methylation levels of the CpG islands of MYB in 18 primary ACC tumors, 13 normal salivary gland tissues and nine cancer cell lines. Using cell lines, we also determined the relative MYB expression levels and correlated these with the methylation levels. With bisulfite genomic sequencing, we found no detectable methylation in the CpG islands of MYB in either ACC or normal salivary gland tissues. There was a variable degree of MYB expression in the cell lines tested, but none of these cell lines demonstrated promoter methylation. Promoter hypomethylation does not appear to explain the differential expression of MYB in ACC. An alternative mechanism needs to be proposed for the transcriptional control of MYB in ACC. PMID:21324728

  2. Clock Genes Show Circadian Rhythms in Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L.; Seon, Y.J.; McHugh, J.; Papagerakis, S.; Papagerakis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous self-sustained oscillations with 24-hour periods that regulate diverse physiological and metabolic processes through complex gene regulation by “clock” transcription factors. The oral cavity is bathed by saliva, and its amount and content are modified within regular daily intervals. The clock mechanisms that control salivary production remain unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the expression and periodicity of clock genes in salivary glands. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry were performed to show circadian mRNA and protein expression and localization of key clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per1, and Per2), ion and aqua channel genes (Ae2a, Car2, and Aqp5), and salivary gland markers. Clock gene mRNAs and clock proteins were found differentially expressed in the serous acini and duct cells of all major salivary glands. The expression levels of clock genes and Aqp5 showed regular oscillatory patterns under both light/dark and complete-dark conditions. Bmla1 overexpression resulted in increased Aqp5 expression levels. Analysis of our data suggests that salivary glands have a peripheral clock mechanism that functions both in normal light/dark conditions and in the absence of light. This finding may increase our understanding of the control mechanisms of salivary content and flow. PMID:22699207

  3. [The synchroneous tumors of different histopathology in the parotid salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Bień, Stanisław; Kamiński, Bartłomiej; Kopczyński, Janusz; Sygut, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    Ipsilateral salivary gland tumors of different histological types are very rare. Out of 196 parotidectomies performed (from 03. 2001 to 12. 2005), in 6 (3.06%) cases synchronous tumors of different type has been found in pathologic specimens. In 5 cases pleomorphic adenoma was one of synchronous tumor--in 2 cases with adenocarcinoma and in single cases with salivary duct carcinoma, adenolymphoma, and myoepithelioma. In one case, the adenolymphoma was synchronous with carcinoma planoepitheliale metastaticum from the primary in the skin post auricular area (late metastasis). Following the review of literature concerning the problem, two concepts has been critically discussed--the real synchronous occurrence of two different tumors, and transformation of benign tumor of salivary neoplasm to its malignant form.

  4. Oral mucosal status and major salivary gland function

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, A.; Fox, P.C.; Ship, J.A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Baum, B.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Normal salivary function is considered to be critical for the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. However, few studies have examined mucosal changes in patients with objectively documented salivary gland performance. In the present report, the mucosal status of 298 subjects being evaluated in a dry mouth clinic was assessed. A complete oral examination was performed and unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were collected separately from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Data were analyzed according to diagnosis and salivary output after the assignment of an oral mucosal rating to each subject. In general, the mucosal surfaces were well preserved and infections were not seen. Patients evaluated for Sjoegren's syndrome and radiation-induced xerostomia had the lowest salivary gland performance but displayed a mucosal status similar to denture-wearing healthy subjects or patients with normal salivary flow who had idiopathic xerostomia. However, those patients with a total lack of salivary flow rarely had normal-appearing oral mucosa. These results confirm a role for saliva in oral mucosal preservation and also suggest that other factors may act to maintain oral mucosal integrity.

  5. Salivary gland tumours: a 15-year review at the Dental Centre Lagos University Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ladeinde, A L; Adeyemo, W L; Ogunlewe, M O; Ajayi, O F; Omitola, O G

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of tumours of the salivary gland seen at the Dental Centre, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria over a period of 15 years. All cases that were histologically diagnosed as salivary gland tumours from January 1990 to December 2004 were retrieved from the histopathology records of the Department of Oral Pathology and Biology and Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. All the cases were subjected to analysis of age, sex, site of occurrence and histologic diagnosis based on 1991 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification. Salivary gland constituted 6.3% of all oro-facial tumours and tumour-like lesions. The frequency of malignant tumours was 60.8% (n = 73) and benign tumours 39.2% (n = 47). Minor salivary glands (63.3%) were mostly affected. The male-to-female ratio was 1.1:1, and most (72.5%) of the tumours occurred in the age group of 21-60 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most commonly occurring tumour (29.2%) followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (19.2%). The predominant benign and malignant tumours were pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma respectively. Palate (45.8%) was the most frequently affected site. The mean.age (+/-SD) of patients with benign tumours was significantly lower than those with malignant tumours (P = 0.003). The incidence of salivary gland tumours in this study is higher than in most previous reports. Malignant tumours which occurred in older age group were the most commonly seen.

  6. Expression of the ERBB2 protein in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Stenman, G; Sandros, J; Nordkvist, A; Mark, J; Sahlin, P

    1991-03-01

    Fifty-two primary human salivary gland tumors were analyzed for expression of the p185ERBB2 protein using immunohistochemical and immunoblotting techniques. About 63% (33/52) of the tumors expressed the ERBB2 protein. The highest expression levels were detected among the carcinomas, where 32% of the tumors showed intense membrane staining in 25-100% of the tumor cells. In benign pleomorphic adenomas, the corresponding figure was only 12%. Clinical follow-up data available for 18 of the 19 patients with carcinomas suggested an association between high ERBB2 protein levels and poor prognosis as measured by recurrence of disease and/or the appearance of metastases. These results indicate that ERBB2 activation and overexpression could be an important genetic event with possible prognostic implications in a subset of malignant salivary gland tumors.

  7. Benign salivary gland tissue inclusion in a pulmonary hilar lymph node from a patient with invasive well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung: a potential misinterpretation for the staging of carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Annisa L; Truong, Luan D; Cagle, Philip; Zhai, Qihui Jim

    2011-06-01

    Benign epithelial and nonepithelial inclusions have been found in lymph nodes in multiple body sites. These inclusions have been seen in cervical, axillary, mediastinal, abdominal, and pelvic lymph nodes. They appear as benign epithelial, parathyroid, decidual, mesothelial, angiolipomatous, nevus cells, or Tamm-Horsfall protein. Although heterotopic salivary gland tissue is not infrequent in paraparotid lymph nodes, it has only been described in lymph nodes of the pulmonary hilum once. A 68-year-old woman with gastric lymphoma now in remission presented for routine follow-up and was found to have a lung mass. After a fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, lobectomy and lymph node dissection were performed. Histological sections of lung demonstrated a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and one lymph node, which displayed a subcapsular nest of well-formed salivary glands occupying approximately one third of the nodal tissue. The inclusion was composed of acinar cells of both serous and mucinous types, but ductal type of cells were not seen. Identification of heterotopic tissue in lymph nodes is of great importance for patient management. Misdiagnosing benign glandular inclusions for metastasis could potentially lead to incorrect tumor staging. Benign salivary gland tissue inclusions should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating for metastatic adenocarcinoma. The salivary gland inclusion in pulmonary hilar lymph node may be histogenetically related to the minor salivary glands, which are located within the bronchial submucosa.

  8. Giant presentation of pleomorphic adenoma in major salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manish; Chaudhary, Neena; Gupta, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign salivary gland tumour, accounting for as many as 80% of all such tumours. Although PA most commonly occurs in the parotid gland (85% cases), it may involve submandibular (8%), lingual and minor salivary glands. It is a benign tumour with a slow and continuous growth and without treatment can assume enormous dimensions. This paper describes a giant PA's arising in the submandibular gland and treated by complete surgical excision without sequel. In our case, a male patient presented with a tumour history of more than 4 years and weight of the resected mass was 2.24 kg. Giant PA's of the submandibular gland are very rare in medical literature.

  9. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands with high-grade transformation: report of 3 cases with the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion and analysis of TP53, β-catenin, EGFR, and CCND1 genes.

    PubMed

    Skálová, Alena; Vanecek, Tomas; Majewska, Hanna; Laco, Jan; Grossmann, Petr; Simpson, Roderick H W; Hauer, Lukas; Andrle, Pavel; Hosticka, Lubor; Branžovský, Jindrich; Michal, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland origin (MASC) is a recently described tumor resembling secretory carcinoma of the breast characterized by strong S-100 protein, mammaglobin, and vimentin immunoexpression and which harbors a t(12;15) (p13;q25) translocation resulting in ETV6-NTRK3 fusion product. Histologically, conventional MASC displays bland histomorphology and a lobulated growth pattern and is often composed of microcystic, tubular, and solid structures with abundant eosinophilic homogenous or bubbly secretions. Colloid-like secretory material stains positively for periodic acid-Schiff with and without diastase as well as for Alcian Blue. We present for the first time, 3 patients with MASC of the parotid gland in which high-grade (HG) transformation developed in each case characterized by an accelerated clinical course and poor outcome. The HG component revealed strong membrane staining for EGFR and β-catenin, cytoplasmic/nuclear staining for S-100 protein, and nuclear staining for cyclin-D1, whereas HER-2/neu was absent. Analysis for the presence of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript revealed positivity in both HG and low-grade component of MASC in 2 of the 3 studied cases. The tumor in case 2 was negative in both its elements for the t(12;15) translocation, but ETV6 gene rearrangement was detected in both components in all 3 cases. Analysis of TP53 and CTNNB1 gene mutations in the HG component of MASCs as well as detection of copy number aberration of EGFR and CCND1 gene did not harbor any abnormalities. All 3 patients with HG-transformed MASC died of disseminated disease within 2 to 6 years after diagnosis. Recognizing HG-transformed MASC and testing for ETV6 rearrangement may be of potential value in patient treatment, because the presence of the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation may represent a therapeutic target in MASC. PMID:24145651

  10. Utility of fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Chhieng, D C; Argosino, R; McKenna, B J; Cangiarella, J F; Cohen, J M

    1999-10-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has been increasingly utilized as a diagnostic tool in evaluating salivary gland masses, primarily to differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic lesions. Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) frequently present with salivary gland lesions. In this study, we reviewed the cytology of salivary gland lesions in HIV-infected patients and assessed the value of FNA in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions in HIV-infected patients. One hundred and three FNAs of salivary gland lesions from 78 HIV-infected patients (63 males and 15 females) were included in our study. The patients' ages ranged from 7-65 yr, with a mean age of 40.9 yr. FNAs were classified into three categories: benign lymphoepithelial lesions (BLL) (77 cases or 74.8%), inflammatory processes (14 cases or 13.6%), including 3 reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and neoplastic lesions (6 cases or 5.8%). The latter included three malignant lymphomas, a multiple myeloma, a metastatic adenocarcinoma from a lung primary, and a direct extension of basal-cell carcinoma. Six (5.8%) aspirates were nondiagnostic. No false-positive or false-negative cases were noted during follow-up of these patients. In conclusion, FNA is a simple and cost-effective procedure for the diagnosis of HIV-related salivary gland lesions. The majority of these lesions are cystic BLL and can be managed conservatively. Malignant lesions are rarely encountered and are readily recognized by FNA. Diagn. Cytopathol. 1999;21:260-264.

  11. Pitfalls in the biopsy diagnosis of intraoral minor salivary gland neoplasms: diagnostic considerations and recommended approach.

    PubMed

    Turk, Andrew T; Wenig, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Among the more common types of intraoral minor salivary gland neoplasms are pleomorphic adenoma, basal cell adenoma, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma. These minor salivary gland neoplasms share similar morphologic features and to a large extent immunohistochemical findings. Differentiation between these benign and malignant neoplasms is often predicated on the presence or absence of invasion. As such, in the presence of limited tissue sampling that typifies the initial testing modalities, including fine needle aspiration biopsy and/or incisional biopsy, it often is not possible to differentiate a benign from malignant minor salivary gland neoplasm. The diagnostic difficulties arise from the absence in needle or incisional biopsy of the tumor's periphery to determine whether infiltrative growth is or is not present. In this manuscript we discuss limitations and considerations associated with evaluation of incisional biopsies of intraoral minor salivary gland tumors. We offer a diagnostic approach to evaluating these biopsies, and suggest diagnostic terminology for biopsy specimens in which distinction between benignancy and malignancy is not feasible. The pathologist's approach to this distinction is critical, as treatment of benign neoplasms is generally conservative, whereas malignant lesions may warrant more aggressive management.

  12. Ag-NOR technique in fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland masses.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, M R

    1992-01-01

    Because of their complexity, salivary gland lesions are often difficult to identify correctly with fine needle aspiration cytology. To see whether the Ag-NOR staining technique for nucleolar organizer regions would be useful in this respect, we studied a series of smears from benign and malignant salivary gland lesions. The smears, previously treated with Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain, were destained and restained with Ag-NOR silver. The correlation between the cytologic-histologic diagnosis and the number of Ag-NORs in benign (sialadenitis, pleomorphic adenoma, oncocytoma and Warthin's tumor) and malignant lesions (adenoid cystic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma and squamous carcinoma) was statistically significant (P = less than .05). The Ag-NOR technique appears useful in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. One great advantage is that previously stained slides can be reused for silver staining, thus providing an excellent guide to the diagnosis, especially in doubtful cases and when corresponding histologic specimens or extra unstained slides are unavailable.

  13. Molecular analyses of the candidate tumor suppressor gene, PLAGL1, in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Enlund, Fredrik; Persson, Fredrik; Stenman, Göran

    2004-12-01

    Deletions affecting the long arm of chromosome 6 are a characteristic feature of all major subtypes of malignant salivary gland tumors. Moreover, a subgroup of adenoid cystic carcinomas have t(6;9)(q23-25;p21-24) translocations with breakpoints located within the commonly deleted region. Here we have examined the possible involvement of the candidate tumor suppressor gene, PLAGL1, in these deletions and translocations. Northern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of a series of 27 salivary gland tumors revealed no significant changes in the gene expression or rearrangements of PLAGL1. FISH analysis also demonstrated that the 6q translocation breakpoint in adenoid cystic carcinomas with t(6;9) is proximal to the PLAGL1 locus. Collectively, these results indicate that PLAGL1 is not likely to be the major target gene of the 6q rearrangements in salivary gland tumors.

  14. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the sublingual gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi; Konda, Toshiyuki; Tsuji, Motomu

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of a sublingual gland in a 70-year-old man. Under a clinical diagnosis of benign salivary gland tumor, excision of the mass with the sublingual salivary gland in an en bloc fashion via an intraoral approach was performed. Histopathologically, there was a rupture of the fibrous capsule and diffuse cell-rich sheets composed of myoepithelial cells with round nuclei were also seen. Immunohistochemically, the cells that composed of cell rich sheets were positive to smooth muscle actin. Final diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma was made.

  15. Anorexia/bulimia-related sialadenosis of palatal minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, M D; Fedele, S; Lo Russo, L

    2004-08-01

    In patients affected by alimentary disorders sialadenosis is frequently observed. This non-inflammatory condition is described to affect major salivary glands, leading to the characteristic parotid and/or submandibular swelling. Thus fine-needle aspiration cytology or parotid open biopsy are generally required to diagnose histologically the disorder. We report the case of a 28-year-old patient affected by bulimia/anorexia nervosa who presented, in addition to parotid enlargement, a bilateral symmetric painless soft swelling of the hard palate. The lesion was biopsied and histopathological examination showed the classical features of sialadenosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of sialadenosis affecting palatal minor salivary glands. It underlines that when sialadenosis is clinically suspected, clinicians could check also patients' oral cavity for minor salivary glands involvement, in order to potentially avoid invasive extra-oral procedures and to easily confirm diagnosis with an intra-oral biopsy.

  16. Incidence of salivary gland neoplasms in a defined UK population.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J; McGurk, Mark

    2013-07-01

    To establish a true prevalence of salivary gland tumours in a fixed population in the United Kingdom (UK), we searched the unified computerised pathology records of two teaching hospitals, including two private hospitals, for all salivary gland neoplasms (benign and malignant) over two 10-year periods (January 1988-December 1997, and January 1998-December 2007). Reports included needle biopsy, open biopsy, or excision biopsy. Equivocal results were checked by review of the medical notes. Patients referred from outside the catchment area were excluded. Both series combined showed that all neoplasms confirmed the 10:1:1 rule of distribution, but the benign to malignant ratio did not conform to standard teaching. The data suggest that 70-75 benign, and 8-14 malignant neoplasms present annually/million population, which is consistent with established patterns. However, this points towards a lower incidence of cancer in the major salivary glands than was traditionally thought.

  17. Fine needle aspiration and frozen section of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Cross, D L; Gansler, T S; Morris, R C

    1990-03-01

    This report examines the role of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and frozen section (FS) examination in the management of salivary gland lesions, and is based on a review of 58 cases. FNA specimens were first classified as nonneoplastic, or as benign or malignant neoplasms. Identification of specific morphologic type of neoplastic lesions was attempted. Overall accuracy for assigning cases was 86%. Specific accuracy (histologic type of neoplasms predicted by FNA) was 72%. No inflammatory lesion was incorrectly diagnosed as neoplasm. Eight patients with histologically documented neoplasm had aspirates classified as nonneoplastic because the sample obtained was not representative. These data indicate that FNA is a highly specific method for identifying benign and malignant neoplasms. Applications of salivary gland FNA include (1) identification of nonneoplastic lesions that may respond to nonsurgical management, (2) identification of neoplasms that represent lymph node metastases rather than primary lesions of the salivary gland, (3) preliminary identification of lymphomas, and (4) preliminary separation of benign and malignant neoplasms.

  18. Needle aspiration biopsy of major salivary gland tumors. Its value.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, P; Farrar, W B; James, A G; Finkelmeier, W; McCabe, D P

    1986-02-01

    Three hundred forty-one needle aspiration biopsies (NAB) of major salivary gland tumors were performed over a 32-year period. Eighty percent of tumors were benign, and 20% were malignant. Preoperative NAB findings were compared with pathologic diagnosis of the surgically resected specimen in all cases. Forty-six of 63 aspirates from malignant tumors were correctly diagnosed by NAB, establishing a sensitivity at 73%. Two hundred forty-nine of 265 aspirates from benign tumors were correctly diagnosed by NAB, establishing a specificity at 94%. Overall accuracy was 90%. Diagnostic error or difficulty in clinically localizing the tumor to the salivary gland was encountered in 64 patients with parotid tumors and 12 patients with submandibular tumors. NAB correctly localized over 85% of these tumors to the salivary gland, thus enabling both immediate and correct decision-making concerning subsequent management to be undertaken.

  19. [The value of sonography in salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Klein, K; Türk, R; Gritzmann, N; Traxler, M

    1989-02-01

    In a prospective study, 178 patients with tumours of the salivary glands were examined both clinically and by ultrasound. All patients have since been operated upon, and the diagnosis was confirmed histologically. The diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination is compared with that of ultrasound. Every tumour of the salivary glands could be diagnosed by ultrasound. In the benign group, an exact diagnosis of the tumour type was possible in 83% of cases. In the malignant group an exact diagnosis was only possible in 57% of cases. Furthermore, it is possible with ultrasound to recognise multiple and bilateral tumours, to determine whether a tumour is intra- or extraglandular, and to show the nature of the tumour (cyst, abscess, central necrosis) to a much greater extent than with clinical examination alone. In addition, a fairly good assessment of the cervical and intraglandular lymph nodes is obtained. We believe that ultrasound is of great importance in the diagnosis of tumours of the salivary glands.

  20. Experimental rabies in skunks: immune response and salivary gland infection.

    PubMed

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A; Campbell, J B

    1987-01-01

    Groups of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were inoculated intramuscularly with graded doses of street rabies virus. At various intervals after inoculation, saliva and sera were tested for rabies virus and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Skunks that developed rabies were killed in terminal stages of the disease and the following examinations were made: titers of virus and antibody in submandibular salivary glands and brain, extent of immunofluorescence in submandibular salivary glands, and histologic examination of various tissues. Skunks that received inocula containing 4 x 10(4) to 4 x 10(5) mouse intracerebral lethal dose50 (MICLD50) had detectable serum neutralizing antibodies by 7-12 days postinoculation; however, most of the skunks that received lower doses (40 to 4 x 10(3) MICLD50) did not have detectable serum neutralizing antibodies until clinical signs began. In the salivary glands, slight and extensive immunofluorescence corresponded to high and low titers of tissue neutralizing antibody. Also low viral titers were associated with high tissue neutralizing antibody titers. There was a close correlation between viral titers in right and left submandibular salivary glands. The results suggest that the immune response can impede the process of infection of the salivary glands resulting in lack of antigen or low amounts of antigen in this tissue. This could occur through interference with centrifugal neural transport of virus and/or neutralization of virus during transfer from neural elements to epithelial cells. Lack of infectious virus or low viral titers in salivary glands containing antigen and high levels of tissue neutralizing antibodies can be caused partly by postmortem virus neutralization (during viral titration).

  1. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they

  2. Analysis of the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A.; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R.; Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E−6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Brown, Gwen; Ship, Jonathan A

    2004-02-01

    The keystone of the architecture of the oral cavity is saliva; however, it is rarely acknowledged as a vital physiologic secretion. Saliva plays three major roles in oral and systemic health. It provides host protection, assists in the initiation of food and fluid intake, and enables communication through speech. Without adequate salivary output augmented by a rich assortment of salivary proteins and electrolytes, oral and pharyngeal health declines as well as a person's quality of life. This article will provide a brief summary of the function of saliva, oral and systemic etiologies of salivary dysfunction, and methods to treat and prevent salivary disorders. Oral health care professionals can play a vital role in identifying patients at risk for developing salivary dysfunction and should provide appropriate preventive and interventive techniques that will help preserve oral health and function.

  4. Rapamycin delays salivary gland atrophy following ductal ligation.

    PubMed

    Bozorgi, S S; Proctor, G B; Carpenter, G H

    2014-03-27

    Salivary gland atrophy is a frequent consequence of head and neck cancer irradiation therapy but can potentially be regulated through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Excretory duct ligation of the mouse submandibular gland provokes severe glandular atrophy causing activation of mTOR. This study aims to discover the effects of blocking mTOR signaling in ligation-induced atrophic salivary glands. Following 1 week of unilateral submandibular excretory duct ligation: gland weights were significantly reduced, 4E-BP1 and S6rp were activated, and tissue morphology revealed typical signs of atrophy. However, 3 days following ligation with rapamycin treatment, a selective mTOR inhibitor, gland weights were maintained, 4E-BP1 and S6rp phosphorylation was inhibited, and there were morphological signs of recovery from atrophy. However, following 5 and 7 days of ligation and rapamycin treatment, glands expressed active mTOR and showed signs of considerable atrophy. This evidence suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin delays ligation-induced atrophy of salivary glands.

  5. Disorders and tumors of the salivary glands in children.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Paul; Silvera, V Michelle; Perez-Atayde, Antonio; Cunningham, Michael J; Rahbar, Reza

    2015-02-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are rare in children. In infants most tumors are benign hemangiomas, with some notable exceptions, such as sialoblastomas. An asymptomatic swelling in the periauricular region is the most common presenting complaint in older children. Approximately 50% of these lesions are malignant, which dictates a thorough diagnostic evaluation by a head and neck surgeon. Surgical excision is the primary treatment modality. Prognosis is primarily determined by histopathologic findings. This review discusses neoplastic lesions of the salivary glands in children, and malignant epithelial tumors in particular.

  6. [Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands. Report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    BenJelloun, H; Jouhadi, H; Maazouzi, A; Benchakroun, N; Acharki, A; Tawfiq, N; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2005-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is rare. Tumours develop mostly in children and young patients but can be diagnosed in older people. We report three new cases in women 7, 14 and 75 years old. Tumefaction of the parotid region and facial paralysis were the principle clinical symptoms. Two patients underwent a total parotidectomy and radiotherapy. The third patient had a locally advanced tumour and received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Loco-regional recurrence was observed in all cases and median survival was 12 months. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is locally aggressive. Treatments include surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains to be discussed. PMID:15953749

  7. Aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions advantages and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Dani, A A; Kotwal, M N; Kherdekar, M S

    1994-07-01

    FNAC of the major salivary glands was performed on 72 patients during a period of two and a half years. In 64 patients samples were satisfactory. The cytologic diagnosis was correlated with histology available in 36 cases. 21 out of 22 benign lesions and 12 out 4 malignant lesions were correctly identified rendering a diagnostic accuracy of 91 percent. The pitfalls of FNAC of salivary gland lesions are reflected by the overall false positive rate of 5.5 percent of false negative rate of 2.7 percent. Diagnostic pitfalls are due to variability of tumor morphology which makes sampling & interpretation difficult. Multiple sampling and increasing experience help to minimize errors.

  8. Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: malignant and benign.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Gary L

    2007-12-01

    Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial sialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

  9. [DNA ploidy and proliferative activity in salivary gland tumours].

    PubMed

    Driemel, Oliver; Kraft, Klaus; Hemmer, Jörg

    2007-08-01

    DNA ploidy and S-Phase fraction (SPF) of 279 salivary gland tumours were analysed using high-resolution DNA flow cytometry. All 229 benign neoplasms were diploid while 12 of 50 malignant tumours showed cell populations with aneuploid DNA content. The SPF values of diploid malignancies were significantly higher if compared with pleomorphic adenomas but did not differ from that of the zystadenolymphoma (Warthin tumour) group. While aneuploidy represents a distinct indicator of malignancy SPF values are of minor relevance for dignity assessment in salivary gland tumours.

  10. [Cytologic diagnosis of salivary gland lesions by fine needle aspiration].

    PubMed

    Fu, X W

    1989-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology was used in diagnosis of 504 major and minor salivary gland lesions. In 180 cases with satisfactory specimens, cytologic diagnosis was contrasted with pathohistologic findings. There were 150 benign lesions (including 124 tumors and 26 cases of other lesions) and 30 malignant tumors. The total correspondence rate was 94.5%. The rate of misdiagnosis was 5.5%. Cytologic appearance of various salivary gland tumors is described and the significance of distribution of mucus is discussed. The misdiagnosed cases were mainly in the early stage.

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, G; Verma, A K; Sood, N; Khurana, N

    1994-07-01

    247 salivary gland lesions were subjected to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology; 179 were designated as neoplastic lesions and 68 as non-neoplastic. Based on cytomorphologic features, the neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions were subcategorised. All but 36 of the neoplastic lesions were subjected to histopathologic study. The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytology for neoplastic lesions was 91%. The sensitivity rate for detecting malignant tumours was 87.8% and the specificity 98.0%. There was 100% sensitivity for cytodiagnosis of benign tumours. The high sensitivity and specificity of cytodiagnosis makes FNA cytology a valuable diagnostic modality in the evaluation of salivary gland lesions.

  12. Lipofuscin in salivary glands in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Buchner, A; David, R

    1978-07-01

    Lipofuscin granules were observed in normal salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and minor salivary glands). The pigment was confined mainly to the epithelial cells of the intralobular ducts, but isolated granules were also found in acinar cells and myoepithelial cells. In chronic sialadenitis pigment granules were found in the intralobular epithelial cells and in macrophages in the surrounding ionnective tissue. In benign epithelial tumors pigment granules were observed within neoplastic epithelial cells and in macrophages in the stroma, while malignant tumors displayed pigmented granules only in macrophages in the stroma.

  13. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor of the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Tinsa, Faten; Boussetta, Khadija; Bousnina, Souad; Menif, Khaled; Nouira, Faouzi; Haouet, Slim; Sahtout, Samia

    2010-01-01

    Nasal and upper respiratory tract obstruction in the neonatal period can result from a variety of conditions, and may be present with variable symptoms. Salivary gland anlage tumor, also referred as congenital pleomorphic adenoma, is a very rare benign congenital tumor of the nasopharynx, which may produce nasal obstruction and other associated, nonspecific symptoms. We report a case of congenital salivary gland anlage tumor causing a severe neonatal respiratory distress with pulmonary hypertension. The tumor was removed and the outcome was favourable without recurrence at five years of the follow up.

  14. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Lim, Foong-Yen; Elluru, Ravindhra G; Koch, Bernadette L

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful.

  15. Functional salivary gland regeneration as the next generation of organ replacement regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Miho; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Oral health is maintained by the coordinated function of many organs including the teeth and salivary glands. Dysfunction of these organs causes many problems, such as dental caries, swallowing dysfunction and periodontal disease. Regenerative therapy for salivary gland tissue repair and whole-salivary gland replacement is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept that may have potential for the full recovery of salivary gland function. Salivary gland tissue stem cells are thought to be candidate cell sources for salivary gland tissue repair therapies. In addition, whole-salivary gland replacement therapy may become a novel next-generation organ regenerative therapy. Almost all organs arise from reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions of the germ layers. We developed a novel bioengineering method, an organ germ method that can reproduce organogenesis through the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. A bioengineered salivary gland germ can regenerate a structurally correct salivary gland in vitro, and bioengineered salivary glands successfully secrete saliva into the oral cavity from ducts in the recipient through the reestablishment of the afferent-efferent neural network. The bioengineered salivary gland can also improve the symptoms of xerostomia, such as bacterial infection and swallowing dysfunction. In this review, we describe recent findings and technological developments of salivary gland regenerative therapy.

  16. Salivary gland tumor: a review of 599 cases in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Flávia Aparecida; Duarte, Eliza Carla Barroso; Taveira, Cláudia Teixeira; Máximo, Aline Abreu; de Aquino, Erica Carvalho; Alencar, Rita de Cássia; Vencio, Eneida Franco

    2009-12-01

    Salivary gland tumors consist of a group of heterogeneous lesions with complex clinicopathological characteristics and distinct biological behaviors. Worldwide series show a contrast in the relative incidence of salivary gland tumors, with some discrepancies in clinicopathological data. The main aim of this study was to describe demographic characteristics of 599 cases in a population from Central Brazil over a 10-year period and compare these with other epidemiological studies. Benign tumors represented 78.3% of the cases. Women were the most affected (61%) and the male:female ratio was 1:1.6. Parotid gland tumors were the most frequent (68.5% of cases) and patient age ranged from 1 to 88 years-old (median of 45 years old). The most frequent tumors were pleomorphic adenomas (68.4%) and benign tumors were significantly more frequent in the parotid (75.9%), while malignant tumors were more frequent in the minor salivary glands (40%) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, women and the parotid gland were the most affected and pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent lesion, followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma and Warthin's tumor.

  17. [Mixed tumour of submandibular salivary gland. Case report].

    PubMed

    Trandafirescu, Mioara-Florentina; Miron, Ingrith; Mihăilă, Doina

    2004-01-01

    The authors present the case of 14 years male child with tumour located on submandibular salivary glands. It was proceeded the biopsy and tumour excision, the tissue fragments being further processed at paraffin, sectioned and than stained HE, PAS, Alcian-Blue, Van Gieson and Gordon-Sweet. The first biopsy performed from the latero-cervical ganglion revealed the presence of an benign tumour of salivary gland. Totally excision of the tumour emphasized the presence of a salivary gland encapsulated tumour, sized 2.5/2.5/2 cm, nodule shaped, white colored, hard consistency. Histopathologic examination revealed the existence of a proliferating encapsulated tumor, well separated from the normal adjacent tissue. The small sized tumour cells with moderate cytoplasm induce formation of glandular lumens, some of them with cystic dilatation, with mucous content. Other tumour cells form small cords or nests. The tumour stroma forms mucoid areas, some with osteoid appearance. We have presented a case of a 14 years aged child with pleomorphic adenoma with rare location within the submandibular salivary gland. The post biopsy rapid increase of the tumour imposed the totally surgical gland excision.

  18. Is salivary gland function altered in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity-insulin resistance?

    PubMed

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-04-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction in several systemic diseases has been shown to decrease the quality of life in patients. In non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), inadequate salivary gland function has been evidenced to closely associate with this abnormal glycemic control condition. Although several studies demonstrated that NIDDM has a positive correlation with impaired salivary gland function, including decreased salivary flow rate, some studies demonstrated contradictory findings. Moreover, the changes of the salivary gland function in pre-diabetic stage known as insulin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current evidence from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies regarding the relationship between NIDDM and salivary gland function, as well as the correlation between obesity and salivary gland function. Consistent findings as well as controversial reports and the mechanistic insights regarding the effect of NIDDM and obesity-insulin resistance on salivary gland function are also presented and discussed.

  19. Bortezomib Followed by the Addition of Doxorubicin at Disease Progression in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (Cancer) of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  20. Intraoral minor salivary gland tumors: a demographic and histologic study of 200 cases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Fujita, S; Tsuda, N; Tezuka, F; Okabe, H

    1990-06-01

    In a demographic and histologic study of 200 intraoral minor salivary gland tumors seen in Japan (Nagasaki and Miyagi prefectures), 127 cases (63.5%) were classified as benign, comprising 124 pleomorphic adenomas and 3 monomorphic adenomas. The other 73 cases (36.5%) were malignant tumors, represented by 33 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 16 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 10 carcinoma in pleomorphic adenomas, 6 acinic cell carcinomas, 5 adenocarcinomas, one polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, one undifferentiated carcinoma and one clear cell carcinoma. There was an overall female preponderance (1.78/1). The mean age for females was 47.2 years and for males was 50.6 years. The mean age for patients with malignant tumors was 10 years greater than for patients with benign tumors and was statistically significant. The palate was the most common site for intraoral minor salivary gland tumors followed by the lip and buccal mucosa. These three sites accounted for 83% of all cases. Tumors arising in these three sites were predominantly benign. In contrast, those located in the gingiva, floor of the mouth and tongue were predominantly malignant. The results of this study were compared with other recent studies.

  1. [Clinical significance of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in major salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Oka, Kasumi; Chikamatsu, Kazuaki; Eura, Masao; Katsura, Fumihiro; Yumoto, Eiji; Tokunaga, Hidehiro

    2002-11-01

    We compared preoperative evaluations of 93 fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) of major salivary gland tumors done over a 5 year period with pathologic diagnoses of surgically resected specimens. The overall accuracy was 88.5%. Eight of 15 aspirates from malignant tumors were correctly diagnosed by FNAB, for a sensitivity of 53.3%, while 69 of 72 aspirates from benign tumors were correctly diagnosed by FNAB, for a specificity of 95.8%. Five malignant tumors diagnosed as benign by FNAB were squamous cell carcinoma, carcinoma in pleiomorphic adenoma, malignant lymphoma, low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and acinic cell carcinoma. The false negatives in the first 2 cases appeared to be due to inaccurate placement of the aspiration site. The other 3 cases showed lack of atypia, leading to a benign diagnosis. Malignant lymphoma is difficult to diagnose as malignant, even in properly aspirated specimens, so we recommend open biopsy when malignant lymphoma is suspected from physical and radiological examinations. A case confirmed pathologically as benign myoepithelioma was diagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinoma preoperatively, based on the finding of a cribriform pattern containing mucin. It should be borne in mind that myoepithelioma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are difficult to distinguish by FNAB. Although FNAB is useful in diagnosing major salivary gland tumors, its low sensitivity (high percentage of false negatives) is undesirable. It may thus be helpful in intraoperative decision-making when combined with frozen sectioning.

  2. Evaluation of the nucleolar organizer region associated proteins in minor salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, W F; Raubenheimer, E J

    1991-07-01

    Forty-three intraoral salivary gland tumors were studied to determine the value of the AgNOR technique in the assessment of these neoplasms. Well defined black dots were visible in the nucleii of all the specimens studied. The mean AgNOR count per nucleus for each tumor was calculated as follows: pleomorphic adenoma (n = 15) 1.52; Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (n = 12) 1.90; adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 6) 2.92; mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n = 4) 1.93; carcinoma ex mixed tumor (n = 4) 2.05; undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 1) 3.13 and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (n = 1) 2.23. The difference between the means of benign and malignant tumors (P less than 0.01) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma (P less than 0.01) were highly significant. The overlapping of the AgNOR count between various tumors prohibited the use of this technique as an absolute criterion in establishing a final diagnosis. It could however be used as a diagnostic aid in differentiating between salivary gland neoplasms.

  3. Correlation of human Bub1 expression with tumor-proliferating activity in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Yoneda, Shingo; Taki, Masayuki; Nobumori, Takeshi; Ohta, Kouji; Higashikawa, Koichiro; Yasui, Wataru; Kamata, Nobuyuki

    2006-04-01

    Human Bub1 plays an important role at the spindle assembly check-point to prevent cell cycle progression following spindle damage. We examined the expression of Bub1 mRNA and protein in 21 human salivary gland tumors (7 pleomorphic adenomas, 2 warthin tumors, 5 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 3 adenoid cystic carcinomas and 4 acinic cell carcinomas) and 3 normal submandibular glands using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or western blotting. The mean expression levels of Bub1 mRNA and protein were higher in malignant tumors (0.12+/-0.028/1.75+/-0.53) than normal submandibular glands (0.042+/-0.014/0.19+/-0.044) and benign tumors (0.058+/-0.01/0.97+/-0.44). We found a significant association between the level of Bub1 mRNA/protein expression and clinical stage in malignant tumors (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.019/p=0.016). We analyzed its relation with the proliferative activity monitored by the Ki-67 labeling index by immunohistochemistry as well as the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by Western blotting. A significant correlation was found between Bub1 mRNA/protein expression and the Ki-67 labeling index in salivary gland tumors (Spearman's correlation coefficient by rank test, p=0.026/p=0.002). These results indicate that increased expression of the human Bub1 gene is closely linked to abnormal cell proliferation in malignant conditions.

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and microvascular density in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Faur, Alexandra Corina; Lazar, Elena; Cornianu, Marioara

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates whether salivary tumours with different morphology and evolution also differ in terms of neovascularization and VEGF expression and the prognostic value of the results. Surgical specimens from 45 patients - 8 pleomorphic adenomas (PA), 7 Warthin tumours (WT), 5 basal cell adenomas (BA), 6 carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA), 6 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC), 5 acinic cell carcinomas (AC), 4 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) and 4 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified (ADK NOS) - were immunostained. In malignant salivary tumours, the following mean microvascular density (MVD) values were recorded (± SD = Standard Deviation): 27.61 (SD ± 2.27) in cases with CEPA, 27.08 (DS ± 7.81) in AC and 32.93 (SD ± 7.76) in ADK NOS, with lower values for MEC 24.31(SD ± 2.88) and for ACC 22.13 (SD ± 5.44). For benign tumours, an MVD of 35.71 (SD ± 2.09) was recorded in WT and lower average values in PA (MVD = 14.84; SD ± 4.86) and in BA (MVD = 23.96; SD ± 9.13). MVD did not correlate with the investigated clinicopathological parameters. The VEGF expression is significantly more important (p = 0.001) in malignant salivary tumours as compared with benign ones. The VEGF expression and the microvascularization in salivary gland tumours are important elements to be considered when formulating a diagnosis and assessing case evolutions in patients with such tumours.

  5. The innervation of salivary glands as revealed by morphological methods.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J R; Kidd, A

    1993-09-01

    Salivary secretion is nerve mediated. The salivary glands are supplied by parasympathetic and sympathetic efferent nerves which travel to the glands by separate routes. Once in the glands the axons from each type of nerve intermingle and travel together in association with Schwann cells, forming Schwann-axon bundles. Two types of neuro-effector relationships exist with salivary parenchymal and myoepithelial cells: epilemmal (outside the parenchymal basement membrane) and hypolemmal (within the parenchymal basement membrane). Their relative frequencies with either type of nerve differ greatly between glands and species. Salivary blood vessels receive epilemmal innervations by both sympathetic and parasympathetic axons. The classical transmitters--acetylcholine in parasympathetic and noradrenaline in sympathetic axons--are stored in small vesicles. A variety of non-conventional neuropeptide transmitters have also been found in salivary nerves by immunohistochemistry, and they occur in large dense-cored vesicles. Prolonged high frequency stimulation has been found to cause depletion of large dense-cored vesicles from glandular nerves. In recent years afferent nerves have started to be identified and are found in greatest numbers around the main salivary ducts, where they may form a hypolemmal association with the epithelial cells. Functional studies demonstrate complex interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. Morphological assessments of changes in the parenchymal cells after nerve stimulations or denervations add greatly to our understanding of the nerve functions. At least four types of influence can be exerted on salivary parenchymal cells by the nerves: hydrokinetic (water mobilizing), proteokinetic (protein secreting), synthetic (inducing synthesis), and trophic (maintaining normal functional size and state). In respect to each role, wide glandular and species differences exist between the relative contributions made by each type of nerve.

  6. The innervation of salivary glands as revealed by morphological methods.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J R; Kidd, A

    1993-09-01

    Salivary secretion is nerve mediated. The salivary glands are supplied by parasympathetic and sympathetic efferent nerves which travel to the glands by separate routes. Once in the glands the axons from each type of nerve intermingle and travel together in association with Schwann cells, forming Schwann-axon bundles. Two types of neuro-effector relationships exist with salivary parenchymal and myoepithelial cells: epilemmal (outside the parenchymal basement membrane) and hypolemmal (within the parenchymal basement membrane). Their relative frequencies with either type of nerve differ greatly between glands and species. Salivary blood vessels receive epilemmal innervations by both sympathetic and parasympathetic axons. The classical transmitters--acetylcholine in parasympathetic and noradrenaline in sympathetic axons--are stored in small vesicles. A variety of non-conventional neuropeptide transmitters have also been found in salivary nerves by immunohistochemistry, and they occur in large dense-cored vesicles. Prolonged high frequency stimulation has been found to cause depletion of large dense-cored vesicles from glandular nerves. In recent years afferent nerves have started to be identified and are found in greatest numbers around the main salivary ducts, where they may form a hypolemmal association with the epithelial cells. Functional studies demonstrate complex interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. Morphological assessments of changes in the parenchymal cells after nerve stimulations or denervations add greatly to our understanding of the nerve functions. At least four types of influence can be exerted on salivary parenchymal cells by the nerves: hydrokinetic (water mobilizing), proteokinetic (protein secreting), synthetic (inducing synthesis), and trophic (maintaining normal functional size and state). In respect to each role, wide glandular and species differences exist between the relative contributions made by each type of nerve

  7. Tumour-like lesions of the salivary glands. The new WHO classification.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    1992-10-01

    Tumour-like lesions must be distinguished from true tumours of the salivary glands. In the new WHO classification of salivary gland tumours seven entities were considered: sialadenosis, oncocytosis (diffuse oncocytosis and focal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia), necrotizing sialometaplasia (salivary gland infarction), benign lymphoepithelial lesion (chronic myoepithelial sialadenitis), salivary duct cysts (mucoceles of the minor salivary glands of extravasation or retention type, cysts of the major salivary glands, ranula and dysgenetic polycystic disease of the parotid gland), chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the submandibular gland (Küttner tumour), and cystic lymphoid hyperplasia in AIDS. The main topics of clinical data and pathohistology were described and documented by the results of the Salivary Gland Register in Hamburg (1965-1989).

  8. WIF1, an inhibitor of the Wnt pathway, is rearranged in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Queimado, Lurdes; Lopes, Carla S; Reis, Antonio M C

    2007-03-01

    Chromosome rearrangements involving 12q13-15 are frequent among several tumors, including pleomorphic adenomas. The common molecular target for these aberrations is the HMGA2 gene, but various fusion partners of HMGA2 have been reported in tumors. Here we report the identification of the WNT inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) gene as a novel HMGA2 fusion partner in a salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma. In normal salivary gland tissue WIF1 is expressed at a high level and HMGA2 is not expressed. However, in the pleomorphic adenoma expressing the HMGA2/WIF1 fusion transcript, we observed re-expression of HMGA2 wild-type transcripts and very low levels of WIF1 expression. These data suggest a possible synergistic effect between upregulation of HMGA2 and downregulation of WIF1. We screened 13 additional benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and detected WIF1 rearrangement in one out of two carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma analyzed. In this malignant tumor, the rearrangement of one WIF1 allele coexists with loss of the other allele, a classic signature of a tumor suppressor gene. WIF1 is an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in human cancer. In transgenic mouse models, Wnt activation leads to a high frequency of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that WIF1 is a recurrent target in human salivary gland oncogenesis and that downregulation of WIF1 plays a role in the development and/or progression of pleomorphic adenomas.

  9. Cystic lesions of the salivary glands: cytologic features in fine-needle aspiration biopsies.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Lester J; Gopez, Evelyn V

    2002-10-01

    A variety of neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions of the salivary glands have a predominantly cystic architecture. Fine-needle aspirates of these lesions yield watery or mucoid material, frequently of low cellularity. Such aspirates may be obtained from mucus retention cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, cystadenomas, Warthin's tumors, cystic pleomorphic adenomas, low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas, cystadenocarcinomas, and examples of polycystic disease of the parotid gland. The cellular component within the fluid obtained from these lesions may be exceedingly scant or absent, making cytologic diagnosis difficult and, at times, impossible. We studied a series of 56 cystic lesions of the salivary glands, including 38 Warthin's tumors, 6 benign cysts, 2 lymphoepithelial cysts, 5 low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 1 cystic pleomorphic adenoma, 2 cystadenomas, and 2 cystadenocarcinomas. Careful attention to the cellular elements present often allowed definitive cytologic diagnosis, with an overall accuracy rate of 84%. The presence of atypical squamous metaplasia in oncocytic lesions was a significant cause of false-positive diagnoses of carcinoma (4 cases, 7%). Aspirates of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma may contain no epithelial cells and result in false-negative diagnoses (1 case, 2%).

  10. Tumours of the minor salivary glands. A clinicopathologic study of 243 cases.

    PubMed

    Ma, D Q; Yu, G Y

    1987-01-01

    243 patients with tumours of the minor salivary glands were analysed clinicopathologically. The palate was the most common location for the lesions. Mixed tumours (pleomorphic adenomas) were the most common benign tumour type. Muco-epidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were the dominant types of malignant tumours. For malignant tumours, the overall 3-year survival rate was 84.0%, 5-year 80.2%, 10-year 66.7% and 15-year 53.6%. The overall recurrency rate was 38.9%. The rate of cervical lymph node metastases and distant metastases rate were both 9.2%.

  11. Intranuclear inclusions in pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Murty, D A; Sodhani, P

    1993-01-01

    On reviewing extensive literature on intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions, one finds that the entity is almost synonymous with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. But over the years, normal tissue aspirates as well as aspirates from many benign and malignant tumors have revealed the presence of these vacuoles. As more and more aspirations of cervical region are being done, it is becoming evident that intranuclear vacuoles are of decreasing specificity for papillary carcinoma of thyroid. This case is probably the first case report of intranuclear vacuoles from a pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland and is being reported here for this unusual finding.

  12. Multifocal canalicular adenoma of the minor labial salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Samar, María Elena; Avila, Rodolfo Esteban; Fonseca, Ismael Bernardo; Anderson, William; Fonseca, Gabriel M; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Canalicular adenoma (CA) is an uncommon benign neoplasia of salivary glands which is clinically difficult to recognise. Despite having an excellent prognosis, the histological diagnosis and clinical management of this entity can be troublesome. While the main differential diagnosis to consider is basal cell adenoma (BCA), similar histological patterns and multifocality have been observed in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), both locally-aggressive malignancies which require radically different treatment to CA. An emphasis has been placed on the value of immunohistochemistry in avoiding diagnostic and surgical errors. CA is positive for AE1/AE3, CD117 and S-100 protein, and negative for p63, α-SMA, Ki 67 and vimentin. Here we discuss the case of a 61-year-old female with CA in her right upper lip, showing multifocal growth histologically. The differential diagnosis with other adenomas is discussed in addition to the role of immunohistochemical studies that can confirm the clinical and surgical findings. PMID:25550873

  13. Salivary Gland. Photon beam and particle radiotherapy: Present and future.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Ester; Iacovelli, Nicola Alessandro; Bonora, Maria; Cavallo, Anna; Fossati, Piero

    2016-09-01

    Salivary gland cancers (SGCs) are rare diseases and their treatment depends upon histology, stage and site of origin. Radical surgery is the mainstay of treatment but radiotherapy (RT) plays a key role in both the postoperative and the inoperable setting, as well as in recurrent disease. In the absence of prospective randomized trials, a wide retrospective literature suggests postoperative RT (PORT) in patients with high risk pathological features. SGCs, and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) in particular, are known to be radio-resistant tumors and should therefore respond well to particle beam therapy. Recently, excellent outcome has been reported with radical carbon ion RT (CIRT) in particular for ACC. Both modern photon- and hadron-based treatments are effective and are characterized by a favourable toxicity profile. But it is not clear whether one modality is superior to the other for disease control, due to the differences in patients' selection, techniques, fractionation schedules and outcome measurements among clinical experiences. In this paper, we review the role of photon and particle RT for malignant SGCs, discussing the difference between modalities in terms of biological and technical characteristics. RT dose and target volumes for different histologies (ACC versus non-ACC) have also been taken into consideration. PMID:27394087

  14. A clinicopathologic study of 196 intraoral minor salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M A; Kowalski, L P; da Cunha Santos, G; Paes de Almeida, O

    1999-07-01

    We present a retrospective study of 196 patients with intraoral minor salivary gland tumours, 128 malignant and 68 benign, diagnosed from 1954 to 1993 in the A. C. Camargo Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. Sixty-five percent of the cases occurred in the palate, followed by tongue (9.7%) and retromolar area (6.1%). Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was predominant among the malignant tumours. Surgery was the main treatment method and postoperative radiotherapy and radiotherapy alone were used in 40 and 15 patients, respectively. Local recurrence was observed in two patients with pleomorphic adenoma and in eight patients with malignant tumours. Regional lymph node metastases occurred in four cases and distant metastases in five. Forty-six of 47 patients with benign tumours who were followed up from 1 to 7 years were alive without disease. Twenty-four of 79 patients with malignant tumours who were followed up for at least 5 years died due the tumour and 47 were alive without disease.

  15. Multifocal canalicular adenoma of the minor labial salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Samar, María Elena; Avila, Rodolfo Esteban; Fonseca, Ismael Bernardo; Anderson, William; Fonseca, Gabriel M; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Canalicular adenoma (CA) is an uncommon benign neoplasia of salivary glands which is clinically difficult to recognise. Despite having an excellent prognosis, the histological diagnosis and clinical management of this entity can be troublesome. While the main differential diagnosis to consider is basal cell adenoma (BCA), similar histological patterns and multifocality have been observed in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), both locally-aggressive malignancies which require radically different treatment to CA. An emphasis has been placed on the value of immunohistochemistry in avoiding diagnostic and surgical errors. CA is positive for AE1/AE3, CD117 and S-100 protein, and negative for p63, α-SMA, Ki 67 and vimentin. Here we discuss the case of a 61-year-old female with CA in her right upper lip, showing multifocal growth histologically. The differential diagnosis with other adenomas is discussed in addition to the role of immunohistochemical studies that can confirm the clinical and surgical findings.

  16. Expression of S-100 protein, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha fetoprotein in normal salivary glands and primary salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Günhan, O; Evren, G; Demiriz, M; Can, C; Celasun, B; Finci, R

    1992-12-01

    The distribution of S-100 protein, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha fetoprotein was studied in 38 primary salivary gland tumors. S-100 protein, a useful marker of myoepithelial cells, was demonstrated in some benign tumors. Carcinoembryonic antigen expression was consistently positive in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Demonstration of epithelial membrane antigen helped to confirm the epithelial nature of some neoplastic cells. Alpha fetoprotein was not expressed in any of the cases examined. No correlation was found between immunopositivity and tumor behavior in the present series.

  17. A histopathologic study of salivary gland tumors in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ochicha, Ochicha; Malami, Sani; Mohammed, Aminu; Atanda, Akinfenwa

    2009-01-01

    Significant differences in the global distribution of salivary gland tumors have been reported, but no formal study has been carried out here in Kano, the largest city in northern Nigeria. We therefore undertook this eight-year retrospective study of all histologically diagnosed salivary neoplasms at the histopathology laboratory of our referral teaching hospital in Kano. Seventy-eight salivary gland tumors were diagnosed during the eight-year study period accounting for 0.4% of all neoplasms. Benign tumors were more prevalent, comprising 56.4%, while malignancies were 43.6%. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the commonest histological types constituting 48.7% and 23.1% respectively, while the most frequent sites were parotid, submandibular and minor salivary glands accounting for 49%, 26% and 24% respectively. As in most studies of black populations there were no adenolymphomas. Age distribution was bimodal with a benign peak in the third decade and a malignant peak in the sixth. Our findings were broadly similar to most other African reports but somewhat at variance with Western literature. Improved hospital attendance with more comprehensive reporting would yield more representative data.

  18. Differential expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Phattarataratip, Ekarat; Masorn, Marisa; Jarupoonphol, Werapong; Supatthanayut, Sirinpaporn; Saeoweiang, Pichanee

    2016-10-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is the epithelial-specific molecule expressed on various epithelial cell types. The function of EpCAM involves cellular adhesion, proliferation, and signaling in both normal tissues and cancers. The purposes of this study were to investigate the EpCAM expression in salivary gland neoplasms and examine its relationship with pathologic characteristics. Forty-two cases of salivary gland neoplasms, including 20 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs), 11 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs), 9 pleomorphic adenomas (PAs), and 2 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (PLGAs) were enrolled. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule expression was analyzed immunohistochemically using MOC-31 and BerEP4 antibodies. Results showed that the majority of MECs and all PLGAs showed EpCAM expression in more than 50% of neoplastic cells, whereas most PAs and ACCs did not express this protein. In MECs, most EpCAM-positive neoplastic cells were clear cells, glandular epithelial cells, and intermediate cells, whereas squamous cells and mucous cells were largely negative. The expression was limited to ductal epithelium in EpCAM-positive PAs and ACCs. The decreased EpCAM expression in MECs was significantly associated with microscopically diminished cystic components, the presence of small nest invasion at invasive front, cellular anaplasia, vascular invasion, and high pathologic grade. These data suggested that EpCAM showed different expression pattern among salivary gland neoplasms and in different grades of MECs. PMID:27649957

  19. Elastosis in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. A histochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    David, R; Buchner, A

    1980-05-01

    One hundred sixteen cases of various types of salivary gland tumors were examined for the presence of elastic tissue. Almost all the pleomorphic adenomas (97%) and all the malignant pleomorphic adenomas contained elastic tissue in varying amounts. A high percentage (82%) of adenoid cystic carcinomas also contained elastic tissue but the overall quantity was significantly less than in pleomorphic adenomas. All other salivary gland tumors studied, i.e. adenolymphomas, oxyphilic adenomas, mucoepidermoid tumor, and various variants of monomorphic adenomas, were devoid of significant elastic tissue. At the ultrastructural level, the elastic fibers were mainly seen close to neoplastic myoepithelial-like cells, and all stages of elastogenesis were present, ranging from young elastic fibers with a high microfibrilelastin ratio, usually associated with basal-membrane-like material, to mature fibers consisting mainly of an amorphous electron lucent central elastin component. It is postulated that elastic tissue in the salivary gland tumors is produced by the myoepithelial-like tumor cells rather than by tumor stromal induction as has been described in some types of breast carcinomas.

  20. Immunoreactivity of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in salivary gland tumours: an assessment of growth potential.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Hashimura, K; Qin, C; Shrestha, P; Sumitomo, S; Mori, M

    1993-01-01

    Immunoreactivity of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was assessed to evaluate growth potential in surgically resected tissue specimens from 70 cases of benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. Three stage streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase immunostaining using monoclonal antibody to PCNA showed a heterogeneity of PCNA index and distribution. In normal salivary gland specimens, PCNA was demonstrated in the nuclei of few ductal and acinar cells. In pleomorphic adenoma a multiple nodular growth pattern was observed with positive immunoreactivity restricted to the nuclei of tubulo-ductal structures. Warthin's tumour had positive nuclei in the outer cuboidal cells of epithelial component and germinal centres of lymphoid tissue. Myoepithelioma and acinic cell carcinoma showed slightly differing values and a statistically significant difference in the value of the index was observed in tumour cell aggregates of the cribiform type of adenoid cystic carcinoma and the solid undifferentiated type and between low/intermediate and high-grade mucoepidermoid tumours. PCNA is a useful marker of tumour cell proliferation; the index correlates with the grade of malignancy in salivary gland tumours.

  1. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update

    PubMed Central

    Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  2. Fine-needle aspiration of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Zarka, M A

    1996-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration is increasingly used in community practices for the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions, and it often renders an unequivocal diagnosis. This chapter discusses in detail the technical considerations of FNA, non-neoplastic and inflammatory conditions, benign neoplasms, common malignant neoplasms, and rare malignant neoplasms.

  3. [Fine-needle puncture of salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Hustin, J; Lejuste, P

    1989-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology of major salivary glands is easy to perform at a low cost. Its predictive value is 100% for malignancy. Its main indications are: the diagnosis of inflammatory lesions, of malignant growths (either epithelial or lymphoma or metastases) and the follow-up of benign lesions which are not immediately amenable to surgery.

  4. Acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland in children.

    PubMed

    Levine, S B; Potsic, W P

    1986-09-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma is an infrequent malignancy of salivary gland tissue in adults that is very rare in children. Review of the English literature reveals only 25 reported cases of this neoplasm in pediatric populations. This is a case report of the youngest known child to undergo parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection for an acinic cell carcinoma. The unusual clinical and surgical findings might suggest the need for changes in approach to treatment of a tumor that has been previously described as relatively benign.

  5. First case of salivary mucocele originating from the minor salivary gland of the soft palate in a dog.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Miyawaki, Shingo; Kanayama, Muneki; Takagi, Mitsuru; Murakami, Mami; Sugikata, Yasuki; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    We found a case of salivary mucocele that originated in the minor salivary gland (palatine gland) of the soft palate in a dog. At first admission, the soft palate swelled remarkably. Computed tomography (CT) revealed cystic radiolucency inside a large quantity of liquid in the soft palate, and most of the airway was occupied. Marsupialization was performed, but since a recurrence was observed one month later, the salivary mucocele was removed. There has been no report of salivary mucocele arising from the minor salivary gland of the soft palate in dogs. To our knowledge, this case is the first. Complete removal, including minor salivary glands surrounding the lesion, is necessary for treatment of salivary mucocele in dogs.

  6. Late recurrence of acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Miki, H; Masuda, E; Ohata, S; Komaki, K; Hirokawa, M; Uehara, H; Asano, H; Monden, Y

    1999-08-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma of the salivary glands is a rare cancer representing a low grade malignancy. The recurrence of a tumor is sometimes encountered, usually within 5 years of initial operation. We describe an unusual recurrence after a long interval following primary surgery. In 1987, a 60-year-old woman underwent excision of a mass in the superficial lobe of the right parotid gland under the preoperative diagnosis of a benign tumor. A histologic diagnosis of acinic cell carcinoma was made by examining sections from the resected mass. The patient noted several small nodules in the right parotid region in 1995, but she did not visit our clinic until 1998 when tenderness developed. A locally recurrent tumor and cervical lymph nodes containing metastases were resected and postoperative radiotherapy was given 11 years after the first operation. At least 10 years of follow-up may be necessary for patients with acinic cell carcinoma because of slow-tumor growth.

  7. Characteristic Formation of Hyaluronan-Cartilage Link Protein-Proteoglycan Complex in Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Hiroko; Nishikado, Akira; Hayasaki, Hana; Isogai, Zenzo; Yoneda, Masahiko; Kawata, Ryo; Hirose, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) and its binding molecules, cartilage link protein (LP) and proteoglycan (PG), are structural components of the hydrated extracellular matrix. Because these molecules play important roles in the tumor microenvironment, we examined the distribution of HA, LP, versican, and aggrecan in salivary gland tumors using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, including double staining. LP was present in pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) tissues, and aggrecan was absent in the malignant tumors that we investigated. LP colocalized with both HA and aggrecan in the chondromyxoid matrix of PA, suggesting the presence of a HA-LP-aggrecan complex. Furthermore, the HA-LP-versican complex could be observed in the pseudocystic space of the cribriform structures in ACC. The characteristic HA-LP-PG complex in PA and ACC might play a role in the behavior of tumors, and immunohistochemical analysis of these molecules could represent a diagnostic adjunct for salivary gland tumors.

  8. An immunohistochemical study of Na+/I- symporter in human thyroid tissues and salivary gland tissues.

    PubMed

    Jhiang, S M; Cho, J Y; Ryu, K Y; DeYoung, B R; Smanik, P A; McGaughy, V R; Fischer, A H; Mazzaferri, E L

    1998-10-01

    The human Na+/I- symporter (hNIS) is the plasma membrane protein that mediates active iodide uptake into several tissues, such as the thyroid and salivary glands. To study the distribution and cellular localization of the hNIS protein, we have generated a polyclonal antibody that could detect the hNIS protein by immunohistochemical staining on tissue sections. In normal thyroids, hNIS expression is heterogeneous, and it is only detected in sporadic thyrocytes of a given follicle. The hNIS protein was not detected in thyroid carcinomas, yet it was detected in the majority of thyrocytes in Graves' thyroids. In salivary glands, hNIS protein was not detected in acinar cells, but it was detected in ductal cells. The hNIS proteins are clustered in the basal and lateral membranes in cells stained positive for hNIS.

  9. Pigmented pleomorphic adenoma, a novel melanin-pigmented benign salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yasunori; Satoh, Masanobu; Nakamura, Shin-ichi

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports a pleomorphic adenoma with grossly visible pigmentation resulting in the macroscopic appearance of melanotic lesion in a 33-year-old Japanese male. In addition to the characteristic histopathological features of a benign pleomorphic adenoma, variously formed and -sized cells, many of which were considered to be melanocytes, containing melanin pigment in their cytoplasm, were distributed in the epithelial component. In addition, melanin pigment was deposited in tumor cells of duct structures. Furthermore, condensed secretory substances with marked pigmentation were frequently seen in the tubular lumina. Perusal of the English language literature revealed only two cases of parenchymal pigmentation of salivary gland tumors: both were mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The possible histogenesis of melanocytes in the salivary gland lesions is discussed, though no firm conclusion could be drawn.

  10. Systemic therapies for recurrent and/or metastatic salivary gland cancers.

    PubMed

    Vattemi, Emanuela; Graiff, Claudio; Sava, Teodoro; Pedersini, Rebecca; Caldara, Alessia; Mandarà, Marta

    2008-03-01

    Salivary gland carcinomas are rare cancers, comprising 1-5% of head and neck cancers. They represent a morphologically and clinically diverse group of tumors. The most commonly histopathologic types are mucoepidermoid cancer, adenoid cystic cancer and adenocarcinomas. Malignant salivary gland tumors generally present as painless, slow-growing tumors that are indistinguishable from benign tumors. Surgery is the principal treatment and is curative in early stage. Radiation therapy should be considered in most patients after surgical resection. Chemotherapy is reserved for palliative treatment of metastatic disease but results are disappointing. Recent studies have investigated the role of targeted therapies in a palliative setting. Multicentre cooperative group clinical trials are required to assess novel therapies to maximize patient resources in this uncommon tumor.

  11. Intraoral minor salivary gland tumors: a retrospective study of 129 cases.

    PubMed

    Kusama, K; Iwanari, S; Aisaki, K; Wada, M; Ohtani, J; Itoi, K; Hanai, K; Shimizu, K; Komiyama, K; Kudo, I; Moro, I

    1997-09-01

    From 1970 to 1996, 129 cases of intraoral minor salivary gland tumors were diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Nihon University School of Dentistry. The diagnosis of each case was based on the 1991 WHO classification. Eighty benign and 49 malignant minor salivary gland tumors were found in the approximately 9,300 oral biopsies submitted during the 27-year period. Pleomorphic adenomas were the most commonly histologic type of the benign tumors identified and 51% of the malignant tumors were diagnosed as mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The most common primary location of the tumors was the palate. Sixty percent of all tumors occurred in females and the peak age for incidences of all tumors was found in the third, fourth, sixth and seventh decades. These results were compared with those of the studies in different world population groups.

  12. Tumours of the salivary glands in northeastern China: a retrospective study of 2508 patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-dong; Meng, Ling-jiao; Hou, Ting-ting; Huang, Shao-hui

    2015-02-01

    Little information has been published in English about the epidemiology of tumours of the salivary glands in northeastern China. From August 2004 to March 2014, 2508 cases of primary epithelial salivary gland tumours were diagnosed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the Affiliated Stomatology Hospital of China Medical University. Tumours were analysed according to their histological type and site, and the age and sex of the patients. Ages ranged from 5 to 98 years, with a slight propensity in favour of men. The peak incidence was in the sixth decade for both sexes. The mean (SD) ages were 48 (16) years when the tumour was benign and 51 (15) years when it was malignant. The parotid gland and palate were the sites most commonly affected. There were 1934 (77.1%) benign and 574 (22.9%) malignant tumours, with the most common histological types being pleomorphic adenomas and mucoepidermoid carcinomas. A lesion that arises from the floor of the mouth (92.8%) or the tongue (86.2%) is more likely to be malignant than those from other minor salivary glands.

  13. Collagen IV and tenascin immunoreactivity as prognostic determinant in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Kärjä, V; Syrjänen, K; Syrjänen, S

    1995-07-01

    The expression of collagen IV and tenascin was studied in a series of 219 salivary gland tumours with special emphasis on the prognostic significance of these extracellular matrix constituents. Continuous and uninterrupted staining of the basal membrane with collagen IV antibody was found in 62% (64/103) of the carcinomas and in 92% (107/116) of the benign tumours, the staining being weak and interrupted in 38% (39/103) and 8% (9/116) of cases, respectively. Weak immunoreactivity for collagen IV was significantly (p = 0.05) associated with recurrences of the malignant salivary gland tumours. Intense collagen IV staining of the basal membrane was more frequent (35.9%) in patients who were alive, as compared with that (19.4%) of the patients who died of salivary gland cancer (p = 0.03). Similarly, the intactness of the basal membrane was directly related to patient survival. In benign tumours, no such differences were found. In multivariate analysis, collagen IV immunoreactivity was related to the age of the patients (p = 0.007) and to tumour diameter > 4.0 cm (p = 0.005). Intense tenascin immunoreactivity was found in 45% (46/103) of the carcinomas and in 43% (50/116) of the benign tumours, 55% (57/103) and 57% (66/116) of the cases being entirely tenascin-negative, respectively. Tenascin immunoreactivity was not related to the clinical behaviour of malignant salivary gland tumours. In benign tumours, an intense staining for tenascin was a determinant of recurrent disease (p = 0.05). In multivariate analysis, tenascin immunoreactivity was intimately associated with erbB-2 positivity (p = 0.03) and weak staining of collagen IV (p = 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Surgical treatment of benign tumours of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R; Misset, M; Ysebaert, D; Van de Heyning, P; Koekelkoren, E; Claes, L; Van Laer, C; Peeters, L; Hintjens, J; Van Elst, F; Van Marck, E; Bultinck, J

    1996-01-01

    In this multicentre retrospective study 30 patients with benign salivary gland tumours are reviewed. Initial operation consisted of total parotidectomy in 6 patients, superficial lobectomy in 13 and tumour enucleation in 11. There were 5 recurrences, treated by enucleation in 1, superficial lobectomy in 2 and extensive total resection in 2 patients. In 18 cases a typical facial nerve dissection was performed. The resected specimens showed a pleiomorph adenoma in 24 cases and monomorph adenoma's in 6 cases. Complications were haematoma formation, Frey syndrome and facial nerve paresis. Recurrences were related to incomplete resection or fragmentation during operation. In this study benign tumours of the salivary glands proved to have a good prognosis, provided a total tumour excision with nerve dissection is performed; the excision should consist of a superficial lobectomy or total parotidectomy depending on the location of the tumour in the lateral or medial part of the gland.

  15. Dysplastic pleomorphic adenoma of the sublingual salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Clark, J; Bailey, B M; Eveson, J W

    1993-12-01

    All tumours of the sublingual gland are rare and paradoxically the large majority are malignant. A case of pleomorphic adenoma in the sublingual gland is described. The tumour showed areas of dysplasia and the difficulties in distinguishing this from benign pleomorphic adenoma or carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma are considered, and the literature is reviewed.

  16. [Mesenchymal (non-epithelial) salivary gland tumors. Analysis of 167 tumor cases of the salivary gland register].

    PubMed

    Seifert, G; Oehne, H

    1986-09-01

    The total material of the Salivary Gland Register (1965-1985) contained 167 mesenchymal tumours with an intra- or paraglandular localisation. This corresponds to 1.5% of all cases of the Salivary Gland Register or to 5% of all salivary gland tumours. Periglandular tumours without relation to the salivary gland tissue, metastatic tumours or malignant lymphomas were not considered in this study. With respect to the localisation, the age and sex distribution and the histopathological classification the following results were obtained: 90% of all mesenchymal tumours were localised in the parotid gland and 10% in the submandibular gland. In lipomas, the percentage of the parotid gland was even 95%; in lymphangiomas, however, it was only 80%. Angiomas occur preferably in the first and second decades and represent in this age period nearly 90% of all mesenchymal tumours. The age peak of lipomas lies in the fifth to sixth decades, whereas neurogenic tumours are distributed relatively equal over the fourth to seventh decades. A sex disposition was seen in lipomas (85% in males), neurinomas (65% in females) and neurofibromas (75% in males). 90% were benign mesenchymal tumours, 10% sarcomas. Within the benign tumours 47.5% were angiomas, 22.5% lipomas, 16% neurogenic tumours and 4% rare benign tumours. In angiomas (79 cases) haemangiomas (50 cases), lymphangiomas (17 cases), mixed haemangiomas and lymphangiomas (9 cases) and haemangiopericytomas (3 cases) could be seen, in neurogenic tumours (27 cases) neurinomas (12 cases), neurofibromas (12 cases) and neurofibromatoses (3 cases), in sarcomas (17 cases) malignant fibrous histiocytomas (5 cases), malignant schwannomas (5 cases), embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas (4 cases) and other rare sarcomas (one case each myxoid liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, malignant haemangioendothelioma).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland in a white patient: detection of Epstein-Barr virus by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Kotsianti, A; Costopoulos, J; Morgello, S; Papadimitriou, C

    1996-01-01

    Paraffin sections of an undifferentiated salivary gland carcinoma of lymphoepithelioma type, arising in a white (Greek) patient and confirmed by immunohistochemistry, were examined for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), using in situ hybridization to detect EBV-specific EBER1 message. Epstein-Barr virus was detected in malignant epithelial cells, but was not found in lymphoid stroma or in residual benign salivary epithelium. These results confirm the existence of an association between EBV and tumor cells of undifferentiated carcinoma of parotid gland. This is the first demonstration of EBV in a salivary gland lymphoepithelioma arising in a non-Eskimo, white patient. This finding suggests that the association of EBV with undifferentiated salivary gland carcinoma may exist in geographic regions remote from Greenland.

  18. Lithium Induces Glycogen Accumulation in Salivary Glands of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Souza, D N; Mendes, F M; Nogueira, F N; Simões, A; Nicolau, J

    2016-02-01

    Lithium is administered for the treatment of mood and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to verify whether treatment with different concentrations of lithium may affect the glycogen metabolism in the salivary glands of the rats when compared with the liver. Mobilization of glycogen in salivary glands is important for the process of secretion. Two sets of experiments were carried out, that is, in the first, the rats received drinking water supplemented with LiCl (38,25 and 12 mM of LiCl for 15 days) and the second experiment was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of LiCl solution (12 mg/kg and 45 mg LiCl/kg body weight) for 3 days. The active form of glycogen phosphorylase was not affected by treatment with LiCl considering the two experiments. The active form of glycogen synthase presented higher activity in the submandibular glands of rats treated with 25 and 38 mM LiCl and in the liver, with 25 mM LiCl. Glycogen level was higher than that of control in the submandibular glands of rats receiving 38 and 12 mM LiCl, in the parotid of rats receiving 25 and 38 mM, and in the liver of rats receiving 12 mM LiCl. The absolute value of glycogen for the submandibular treated with 25 mM LiCl, and the liver treated with 38 mM LiCl, was higher than the control value, although not statistically significant for these tissues. No statistically significant difference was found in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands for protein concentration when comparing experimental and control groups. We concluded that LiCl administered to rats influences the metabolism of glycogen in salivary glands.

  19. Evaluation of p27 Expression in Salivary Gland Neoplasms; A Step Forward in Unveiling the Role of p27

    PubMed Central

    Malgaonkar, Nikhil I.; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Kharma, MY; Al-Maweri, SA; Alaizari, NA; Altamimi, MA.; Darwish, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Salivary gland neoplasms are not uncommon lesions that are seen in the head and neck region. The role of cell cycle regulators as well as that of oncogenes remains unexplored in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. Aim Present study was conducted to evaluate the expression of p27 in the three common salivary gland neoplasms. Materials and Methods A total of 34 cases (19 pleomorphic adenoma, 8 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 7 adenoid cystic carcinoma) were included. The sections were subjected to p27 staining and rated for the expression. Results Of the total 52.6% of pleomorphic adenoma cases, 25% of mucoepidermoid carcinoma cases and only 14.2% of adenoid cystic carcinoma cases showed strong expression suggesting variable p27 expression in both malignant neoplasms. Normal salivary gland tissue was stained as a positive control for the evaluation. Conclusion The results of the study suggest an important role for p27 in pathogenesis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma as well as adenoid cystic carcinoma while its role in pathogenesis of pleomorphic adenoma remains questionable keeping in view the strong expression of p27 in the same. PMID:27630940

  20. Different Wnt signals act through the Frizzled and RYK receptors during Drosophila salivary gland migration.

    PubMed

    Harris, Katherine E; Beckendorf, Steven K

    2007-06-01

    Guided cell migration is necessary for the proper function and development of many tissues, one of which is the Drosophila embryonic salivary gland. Here we show that two distinct Wnt signaling pathways regulate salivary gland migration. Early in migration, the salivary gland responds to a WNT4-Frizzled signal for proper positioning within the embryo. Disruption of this signal, through mutations in Wnt4, frizzled or frizzled 2, results in misguided salivary glands that curve ventrally. Furthermore, disruption of downstream components of the canonical Wnt pathway, such as dishevelled or Tcf, also results in ventrally curved salivary glands. Analysis of a second Wnt signal, which acts through the atypical Wnt receptor Derailed, indicates a requirement for Wnt5 signaling late in salivary gland migration. WNT5 is expressed in the central nervous system and acts as a repulsive signal, needed to keep the migrating salivary gland on course. The receptor for WNT5, Derailed, is expressed in the actively migrating tip of the salivary glands. In embryos mutant for derailed or Wnt5, salivary gland migration is disrupted; the tip of the gland migrates abnormally toward the central nervous system. Our results suggest that both the Wnt4-frizzled pathway and a separate Wnt5-derailed pathway are needed for proper salivary gland migration. PMID:17507403