Sample records for salmon fatty acid

  1. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  2. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    PubMed Central

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  3. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  4. Validation of a One-Step Method for Extracting Fatty Acids from Salmon, Chicken and Beef Samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhichao; Richardson, Christine E; Hennebelle, Marie; Taha, Ameer Y

    2017-10-01

    Fatty acid extraction methods are time-consuming and expensive because they involve multiple steps and copious amounts of extraction solvents. In an effort to streamline the fatty acid extraction process, this study compared the standard Folch lipid extraction method to a one-step method involving a column that selectively elutes the lipid phase. The methods were tested on raw beef, salmon, and chicken. Compared to the standard Folch method, the one-step extraction process generally yielded statistically insignificant differences in chicken and salmon fatty acid concentrations, percent composition and weight percent. Initial testing showed that beef stearic, oleic and total fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower by 9-11% with the one-step method as compared to the Folch method, but retesting on a different batch of samples showed a significant 4-8% increase in several omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid concentrations with the one-step method relative to the Folch. Overall, the findings reflect the utility of a one-step extraction method for routine and rapid monitoring of fatty acids in chicken and salmon. Inconsistencies in beef concentrations, although minor (within 11%), may be due to matrix effects. A one-step fatty acid extraction method has broad applications for rapidly and routinely monitoring fatty acids in the food supply and formulating controlled dietary interventions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Lower levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants, metals and the marine omega 3-fatty acid DHA in farmed compared to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lundebye, Anne-Katrine, E-mail: aha@nifes.no

    Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PBDE, endosulfan,more » pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, cadmium and lead levels were low and comparable in both wild and farmed fish, and there was no significant difference in the marine omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. The total fat content was significantly higher in farmed than wild salmon due to a higher content of both saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as a higher content of omega-6 fatty acids. The omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio was considerably lower in farmed than wild salmon due to the high level of omega-6 fatty acids. Contaminant concentrations in Atlantic salmon were well below maximum levels applicable in the European Union. Atlantic salmon, both farmed and wild, is a good source of EPA and DHA with a 200 g portion per week contributing 3.2 g or 2.8 g respectively, being almost twice the intake considered adequate for adults by the European Food Safety Authority (i.e. 250 mg/day or 1.75 g/week). - Highlights: • A comprehensive study of contaminants and nutrients in farmed- and wild Atlantic salmon. • Wild salmon had higher levels of persistent organic pollutants and mercury than farmed salmon. • Farmed salmon had higher levels of omega-6 fatty acids than wild salmon. • Farmed- and wild salmon had

  6. Comparison of polyunsaturated fatty acids content in filets of anadromous and landlocked sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Lepskaya, Ekaterina V; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S; Malyshevskaya, Kseniya K; Markevich, Grigory N

    2012-12-01

    Fatty acid composition and content of 2 forms of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from lakes in Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) were compared. One form of sockeye salmon was anadromous ("marine"), that is, adult fish migrated in ocean to feed and grow and than return in the lake to breed. Fish of another form, kokanee, never migrate in the ocean. Per cent levels of the main indicators of nutritive value, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), were significantly higher in the landlocked O. nerka. However, concentrations of EPA and DHA per wet weight of filets were higher in the marine form, because of the relatively higher content of sum of fatty acids in their muscle tissue. As concluded, fish fed in marine environment had higher contents of long-chain n-3 fatty acids per wet weight than fish of the same species, fed in fresh waters. In general, both the anadromous sockeye salmon and the landlocked kokanee salmon can be recommended for human diet as a valuable product concerning contents of EPA and DHA. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Lower levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants, metals and the marine omega 3-fatty acid DHA in farmed compared to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Lock, Erik-Jan; Rasinger, Josef D; Nøstbakken, Ole Jakob; Hannisdal, Rita; Karlsbakk, Egil; Wennevik, Vidar; Madhun, Abdullah S; Madsen, Lise; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Ørnsrud, Robin

    2017-05-01

    Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PBDE, endosulfan, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, cadmium and lead levels were low and comparable in both wild and farmed fish, and there was no significant difference in the marine omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. The total fat content was significantly higher in farmed than wild salmon due to a higher content of both saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as a higher content of omega-6 fatty acids. The omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio was considerably lower in farmed than wild salmon due to the high level of omega-6 fatty acids. Contaminant concentrations in Atlantic salmon were well below maximum levels applicable in the European Union. Atlantic salmon, both farmed and wild, is a good source of EPA and DHA with a 200g portion per week contributing 3.2g or 2.8g respectively, being almost twice the intake considered adequate for adults by the European Food Safety Authority (i.e. 250mg/day or 1.75g/week). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Variation in lipid classes and fatty acid composition of salmon shark (Lamna ditropis) liver with season and gender.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Chamila; Gotoh, Naohiro; Wada, Shun

    2003-02-01

    The influence of season and gender on lipid content, lipid classes, and fatty acid compositions was assessed in livers of salmon shark (Lamna ditropis), caught in the Pacific Ocean. No significant difference in the hepatosomatic index was noted with season, though the lipid content was significantly higher (P<0.05) in winter. Triacylglycerol (TAG) was identified as the predominant lipid class (78.5-82.0%), followed by sterol esters (5.7-9.1%) and hydrocarbons (3.4-5.4%). No significant differences were observed in TAG composition with respect to the season or gender. However, diacylglyceryl ether contents were significantly higher (P<0.05) in winter (3.8-5.3%) than those obtained in summer (1.3-1.1%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids constituted the major fatty acid class of salmon shark total liver lipid and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) (22.7-28.4%) was the most abundant fatty acid which was significantly lower (P<0.05) in winter. These results suggested that lipid characteristics of salmon shark liver were influenced by season, but not by gender.

  9. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Brose, Stephen A; Rosenberger, Thad A; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J

    2011-10-26

    The consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether the consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the contents of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regioisomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and EPA, while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The contents of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of a coating on the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect on prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA contents, indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids, and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined.

  10. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Juvenile Salmon Growth, Biochemistry, and Aerobic Performance: A Laboratory Rearing Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, M. N. C.; Miller, J. A.; Copeman, L.; Hurst, T. P.

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile salmon undergo important physiological and ecological transitions as they migrate from freshwater to the ocean, a phase characterized by rapid growth and high mortality. It is becoming increasing clear that variations in nutritional quality of marine prey may be as important as prey quantity in determining salmon survival during this critical period in their life history. Growth potential, and hence survival, may be related to the size when salmon first become piscivorous. We tested the hypothesis that prey nutrient composition and predator nutritional history affects growth, biochemistry, and performance in a population of subyearling Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha). Salmon were reared for 12 weeks on three energetically similar experimental diets. Diets were created with ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) of 0.56, 0.94, and 1.47 by altering the amount of krill, anchovy, and two fatty acid supplements. Tagged salmon reared on the high DHA:EPA anchovy diet trended towards faster growth (0.33±0.05 mm d-1) compared to fish reared on the low DHA:EPA krill diet (0.27±0.03 mm d-1) or blended diet (0.29±0.02 mm d-1). Tissue turnover in salmon, measured in half-lives, was 5 to 28 days for essential fatty acids, and 9 to 184 days for bulk isotopes of nitrogen and carbon, indicating that predator tissue fatty acids reflect diet sooner than stable isotopes. After the rearing experiment, salmon were starved for 4 weeks and their critical swimming speeds measured to determine whether nutritional history had an affect on aerobic performance. Although there were no significant differences in swim performance among diet treatments, there was a significant relationship (r2=0.57, p=0.02) between swimming speed and an individual's size and storage lipids across diet treatments. Results from this study will support future ecological studies of migrating juvenile salmon and quantitative estimates of diet in other anadromous fish.

  11. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

  12. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) as a net producer of long-chain marine ω-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sanden, Monica; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Berntssen, Marc H G; Lie, Øyvind; Torstensen, Bente E

    2011-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of replacing high levels of marine ingredients with vegetable raw materials and with emphasis on lipid metabolism and net production of long-chain polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acids (EPA + DHA). Atlantic salmon were fed three different replacement vegetable diets and one control marine diet before sensory attributes, β-oxidation capacity, and fatty acid productive value (FAPV) of ingested fatty acids (FAs) were evaluated. Fish fed the high replacement diet had a net production of 0.8 g of DHA and a FAPV of 142%. Fish fed the marine diet had a net loss of DHA. The present work shows that Atlantic salmon can be a net producer of marine DHA when dietary fish oil is replaced by vegetable oil with minor effects on sensory attributes and lipid metabolism.

  13. Twice-weekly consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon increases plasma content of phospholipid n-3 fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated intake of the n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is related to risk reduction of cardiovascular and other diseases. Increased consumption of seafood such as farmed Atlantic salmon is an effective way to consume n-3 but there is a paucity of data as ...

  14. Dose-dependent consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids differentially

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Wolters, William W.; Burr, Gary S; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake benefits cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Increasing consumption at a population level may be better addressed by diet than through supplementation. However, limited data are available on the effect of the dose response to fish intake on plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids. To compare the effects of different doses of farmed Atlantic salmon on plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) proportions and CVD risk biomarkers (glucose, insulin, HOMAIR, hsCRP, and IL-6) in healthy subjects we performed a randomized 3-period cross-over designed trial (4 wk treatment, 4-8 wk washout) to compare the effects of twice/wk consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon at doses of 90, 180, and 270 g in 19 apparently healthy men and women with a mean age of aged 40-65 years and a BMI between 25-34.9 kg/m2. All study visits were conducted at the USDA, ARS Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center. EPA and total n-3 were increased (p<0.05) by all treatments in a dose response manner, with total n-3 of 8.03 ± 0.26 and 9.21 ± 0.26 % for 180 and 270 g doses, respectively. Linoleic acid did not change in response to treatment while arachidonic acid (P<0.05) and total omega-6 fatty acids (n-6) decreased dose dependently (<0.0001). The addition of farmed Atlantic salmon to the diet twice/wk for 4 wk at portions of 180g and 270g modifies PLFA proportions of n-3 and n-6 in a level associated with decreased risk for CVD. PMID:23351633

  15. The Salmon in Pregnancy Study: study design, subject characteristics, maternal fish and marine n-3 fatty acid intake, and marine n-3 fatty acid status in maternal and umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Vlachava, Maria; Diaper, Norma D; Rosenlund, Grethe; Urwin, Heidi; Yaqoob, Parveen; Rossary, Adrien; Farges, Marie-Chantal; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Liaset, Bjørn; Frøyland, Livar; Helmersson, Johanna; Basu, Samar; Garcia, Erika; Olza, Josune; Mesa, Maria D; Aguilera, Concepcion M; Gil, Angel; Robinson, Sian M; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C

    2011-12-01

    Oily fish provides marine n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids that are considered to be important in the growth, development, and health of the fetus and newborn infant. The objectives were to increase salmon consumption among pregnant women and to determine the effect on maternal and umbilical cord plasma marine n-3 fatty acid content. Women (n = 123) with low habitual consumption of oily fish were randomly assigned to continue their habitual diet or were provided with 2 portions of farmed salmon/wk to include in their diet from week 20 of pregnancy until delivery. Median weekly consumption frequency of study salmon in the salmon group was 1.94 portions, and total fish consumption frequency was 2.11 portions/wk in the salmon group and 0.47 portions/wk in the control group (P < 0.001). Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the diet, from seafood, and from oily fish were higher in the salmon group (all P < 0.001). Percentages of EPA and DHA in plasma phosphatidylcholine decreased during pregnancy in the control group (P for trend = 0.029 and 0.008, respectively), whereas they increased in the salmon group (P for trend for both < 0.001). EPA and DHA percentages were higher in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine at weeks 34 and 38 of pregnancy and in umbilical cord plasma phosphatidylcholine in the salmon group (P < 0.001 for all). If pregnant women, who do not regularly eat oily fish, eat 2 portions of salmon/wk, they will increase their intake of EPA and DHA, achieving the recommended minimum intake; and they will increase their and their fetus' status of EPA and DHA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00801502.

  16. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt.

  17. Fatty acids, mercury, and methylmercury bioaccessibility in salmon (Salmo salar) using an in vitro model: Effect of culinary treatment.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sara; Afonso, Cláudia; Cardoso, Carlos; Batista, Irineu; Chaveiro, Nádia; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria

    2015-10-15

    The effect of culinary treatments on the fatty acid profile, mercury (Hg), and methylmercury (MeHg) levels of salmon was studied. The bioaccessibility of fatty acids, Hg, and MeHg in raw and grilled salmon was determined. The most intense thermal treatment (grilling) did not alter the relative fatty acid (FA) profile. There were bioaccessibility differences between FAs. To the authors' knowledge, for the first time, higher bioaccessibility of the long-chain FAs than the short- and medium-chain FAs was measured. Chemical interaction phenomena seemed to play a role. On the other hand, higher levels of unsaturation decreased bioaccessibility. Two main alternative hypotheses were put forward, either lower polarity led to higher incorporation of FAs with longer hydrophobic aliphatic chain and lower number of double bonds in the emulsion present in the bioaccessible fraction or enzymatic selectivity preferentially hydrolyzed some FAs on the basis of their structure or position in the triacylglycerol molecule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coronary changes in the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L: characterization and impact of dietary fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Dalum, A; Tangen, R; Falk, K; Hordvik, I; Rosenlund, G; Torstensen, B; Koppang, E O

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of fatty acids from fishes is widely regarded as beneficial for preventing cardiovascular disorders. Nevertheless, salmonids themselves are victims of vascular diseases. As the pathogenesis and nature of these changes are elusive, they are here addressed using novel morphological and transcriptional approaches. Coronary arteries of wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., (n = 12) were investigated using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, and RT-qPCR was employed to investigate expression of stretch-induced genes. In an experimental trial, fish were fed diets with different fatty acids composition, and histological features of the coronary arteries (n = 36) were investigated. In addition, the heart fatty acid profile (n = 60) was analysed. There were no differences in morphological or immunological features between wild fish and groups of experimental fish. Arteriosclerotic lesions consisted of smooth muscle cells in dissimilar differential stages embedded in considerable amounts of extracellular matrix in a similar fashion to what is seen in early stages of human atherosclerosis. No fat accumulations were observed, and very few inflammatory cells were present. In affected arteries, there was an induction of stretch-related genes, pointing to a stress-related response. We suggest that salmon may have a natural resistance to developing atherosclerosis, which corresponds well with their high investment in lipid metabolism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Reducing persistent organic pollutants while maintaining long chain omega-3 fatty acid in farmed Atlantic salmon using decontaminated fish oils for an entire production cycle.

    PubMed

    Berntssen, M H G; Olsvik, P A; Torstensen, B E; Julshamn, K; Midtun, T; Goksøyr, A; Johansen, J; Sigholt, T; Joerum, N; Jakobsen, J-V; Lundebye, A-K; Lock, E-J

    2010-09-01

    Oily fish are an important source of health promoting nutrients such as the very long chain marine omega-3 (VLC-n3) fatty acids and simultaneously a source of potentially hazardous contaminants. Fish oils that are used in fish feed are the main source for both contaminants and VLC-n3. Decontamination techniques have recently been developed to effectively remove persistent organic contaminants from fish oils. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of potentially hazardous contaminants and the health beneficial fatty acids in Atlantic salmon reared on novel decontaminated feeds. Atlantic salmon were fed for 18 months (an entire seawater production cycle) on diets based on decontaminated or non-treated (control) fish oils until market size (approximately 5 kg). The level of known notorious persistent organic pollutants (POPs, i.e. dioxins, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), non dioxin-like PCBs, poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), and organochlorine pesticides), as well as fatty acid composition were analysed in fish oils, the two diets, and Atlantic salmon fillet. The oil decontamination process was a two-step procedure using active carbon and short path distillation. The fillet levels of POPs in market size fish were reduced by 68-85% while the concentration of very long chain omega-3 fatty acids was reduced by 4-7%. No differences in biomarkers of dioxin-like component exposures, such as hepatic gene expression of CYP1A or AhR2B, CYP1A protein expression and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, were observed between salmon raised on normal or decontaminated feeds, thus indicating that the difference in POPs levels were of no biological significance to the fish. Atlantic salmon reared on decontaminated feeds had sum polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCB concentrations that were comparable with terrestrial food products such as beef, while the level of marine omega-3 fatty acids remained as high as for

  20. Salmon diet in patients with active ulcerative colitis reduced the simple clinical colitis activity index and increased the anti-inflammatory fatty acid index--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Grimstad, Tore; Berge, Rolf K; Bohov, Pavol; Skorve, Jon; Gøransson, Lasse; Omdal, Roald; Aasprong, Ole G; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Hausken, Trygve

    2011-02-01

    Data concerning the anti-inflammatory effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are inconsistent. Salmon fillet contains n-3 PUFAs and bioactive peptides that may improve its effects compared to fish oil alone. We assessed the efficacy of a salmon-rich diet in patients with mild ulcerative colitis. An 8-week intervention pilot study was designed to assess the effects of 600 grams Atlantic salmon consumption weekly in 12 UC patients. Simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI), a dietary questionnaire, sigmoidoscopy, selected serum inflammatory markers, fecal calprotectin, and plasma and rectal biopsy fatty acid profiles were assessed before and after intervention. The levels of C20:4n-6 arachidonic acid in biopsies after dietary intervention were correlated with histology and endoscopy scores. The concentrations of n-3 PUFAs, C20:5n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid, C22:6n-3 docosahexaenoic acid, and the n-3/n-6 ratio increased in plasma and rectal biopsies. The anti-inflammatory fatty acid index (AIFAI) increased both in biopsies and plasma accompanied with a significantly reduced SCCAI. Based on evidence of SCCAI and AIFAI and a tendency of decreased levels of CRP and homocysteine, intake of Atlantic salmon may have beneficial effects on disease activity in patients with mild ulcerative colitis.

  1. Combining eicosapentaenoic acid, decosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, using a fully crossed design, affect gene expression and eicosanoid secretion in salmon head kidney cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Holen, Elisabeth; He, Juyun; Espe, Marit; Chen, Liqiou; Araujo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Future feed for farmed fish are based on untraditional feed ingredients, which will change nutrient profiles compared to traditional feed based on marine ingredients. To understand the impact of oils from different sources on fish health, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were added to salmon head kidney cells, in a fully crossed design, to monitor their individual and combined effects on gene expression. Exposing salmon head kidney cells to single fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA) or decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), resulted in down-regulation of cell signaling pathway genes and specific fatty acid metabolism genes as well as reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) had no impact on gene transcription in this study, but reduced the cell secretion of PGE2. The combined effect of AA + EPA resulted in up-regulation of eicosanoid pathway genes and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Bclx (an inducer of apoptosis) and fatty acid translocase (CD36) as well as increased cell secretion of PGE2 into the media. Adding single fatty acids to salmon head kidney cells decreased inflammation markers in this model. The combination AA + EPA acted differently than the rest of the fatty acid combinations by increasing the inflammation markers in these cells. The concentration of fatty acid used in this experiment did not induce any lipid peroxidation responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of UV radiation and diet on polyunsaturated fatty acids in the skin, ocular tissue and dorsal muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) held in outdoor rearing tanks.

    PubMed

    Arts, Michael T; Browman, Howard I; Jokinen, Ilmari E; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit

    2010-01-01

    The effect of UV radiation (UVR) on juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was assessed by measuring the fatty acid (FA) profiles of muscle, dorsal and ventral skin, and ocular tissues following 4-month long exposures to four different UVR treatments in outdoor rearing tanks. Fish were fed two different diets (Anchovy- and Herring-oil based) that differed in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations. Anchovy-fed salmon had higher concentrations of ALA (alpha-linoleic acid; 18:3n-3), EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3) and DPA (docosapentaenoic acid, 22:5n-3) in their muscle tissues than fish fed the Herring feed. Fish subjected to enhanced UVB levels had higher concentrations of LIN (linolenic acid, 18:2n-6) and ALA, total omega-6 FA and SAFA (saturated fatty acids) in their tissues compared with fish in reduced UV treatments. Concentrations of ALA, LIN, GLA (gamma-linolenic acid; 18:3n-6), EPA, PUFA and total FA were higher in ventral skin of fish exposed to enhanced UVB compared with fish in reduced UV treatments. Salmon exposed to reduced UV weighed more per-unit-length than fish exposed to ambient sunlight. The FA profiles suggest that fish exposed to UV radiation were more quiescent than fish in the reduced UV treatments resulting in a buildup of catabolic substrates.

  3. Assessment of a land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) population as a potential genetic resource with a focus on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Betancor, M B; Olsen, R E; Solstorm, D; Skulstad, O F; Tocher, D R

    2016-03-01

    The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively lower levels of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) than found in prey for post-smolt salmon in seawater. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon. A two factorial study was performed comparing land-locked and farmed salmon parr fed diets formulated with fish or rapeseed oil for 8 weeks. The land-locked parr had higher capacity to synthesise n-3 LC-PUFA as indicated by higher expression and activity of desaturase and elongase enzymes. The data suggested that the land-locked salmon had reduced sensitivity to dietary fatty acid composition and that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) did not appear to suppress expression of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes or activity of the biosynthesis pathway, probably an evolutionary adaptation to a natural diet lower in DHA. Increased biosynthetic activity did not translate to enhanced n-3 LC-PUFA contents in the flesh and diet was the only factor affecting this parameter. Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid and non-destructive assessment of polyunsaturated fatty acids contents in Salmon using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Feifei; Mba, Ogan; Liu, Li; Ngadi, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important nutrients present in Salmon. However, current methods for quantifying the fatty acids (FAs) contents in foods are generally based on gas chromatography (GC) technique, which is time-consuming, laborious and destructive to the tested samples. Therefore, the capability of near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging to predict the PUFAs contents of C20:2 n-6, C20:3 n-6, C20:5 n-3, C22:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 in Salmon fillets in a rapid and non-destructive way was investigated in this work. Mean reflectance spectra were first extracted from the region of interests (ROIs), and then the spectral pre-processing methods of 2nd derivative and Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing were performed on the original spectra. Based on the original and the pre-processed spectra, PLSR technique was employed to develop the quantitative models for predicting each PUFA content in Salmon fillets. The results showed that for all the studied PUFAs, the quantitative models developed using the pre-processed reflectance spectra by "2nd derivative + SG smoothing" could improve their modeling results. Good prediction results were achieved with RP and RMSEP of 0.91 and 0.75 mg/g dry weight, 0.86 and 1.44 mg/g dry weight, 0.82 and 3.01 mg/g dry weight for C20:3 n-6, C22:5 n-3 and C20:5 n-3, respectively after pre-processing by "2nd derivative + SG smoothing". The work demonstrated that NIR hyperspectral imaging could be a useful tool for rapid and non-destructive determination of the PUFA contents in fish fillets.

  5. Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on Toll-like receptor activation in primary leucocytes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Arnemo, Marianne; Kavaliauskis, Arturas; Andresen, Adriana Magalhaes Santos; Bou, Marta; Berge, Gerd Marit; Ruyter, Bente; Gjøen, Tor

    2017-08-01

    The shortage of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the international markets has led to increasing substitution of fish oil by plant oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed and thereby reducing the EPA and DHA content in salmon. However, the minimum required levels of these fatty acids in fish diets for securing fish health are unknown. Fish were fed with 0, 1 or 2% EPA or DHA alone or in combination of both over a period, growing from 50 to 400 g. Primary head kidney leucocytes were isolated and stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to determine if EPA and DHA deficiency can affect expression of important immune genes and eicosanoid production. Several genes related to viral immune response did not vary between groups. However, there was a tendency that the high-level EPA and DHA groups expressed lower levels of IL-1β in non-stimulated leucocytes. These leucocytes were also more responsive to the TLR ligands, inducing higher expression levels of IL-1β and Mx1 after stimulation. The levels of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 in serum and media from stimulated leucocytes were lower in both low and high EPA and DHA groups. In conclusion, leucocytes from low EPA and DHA groups seemed to be less responsive towards immunostimulants, like TLR ligands, indicating that low levels or absence of dietary EPA and DHA may have immunosuppressive effects.

  6. Comparison of fatty acids and lipids of smolting hatchery-fed and wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Ackman, R G; Takeuchi, T

    1986-02-01

    In Atlantic Canada the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar change from the parr stage to the smolt stage while still in fresh water, preparatory to migration to salt water. In some stocks this takes place during the second overwintering. In several hatcheries where the water temperature drops to 0-0.5 C and the ponds ice over, there is a high incidence of erosion of the dorsal and pectoral fins and sometimes of the caudal fin. No disease organism has been identified, and the lesions heal over in most cases. Dietary fatty acids were thought to be a factor. A detailed study of lipid recoveries and classes has shown that in the skins of abnormal fish the total lipid is 7.8% compared to 4.7% in control fish. Unexpectedly, an analysis of one lot of healthy smoltstage wild fish showed that whole bodies have only a quarter of the lipid of comparable hatchery fish. Comparison of fatty acids showed that wild fish lipids include a higher proportion of arachidonic acid than those of the hatchery fish. In the latter, linoleic acid is provided readily by diet but the elongation to arachidonic acid evidently does not proceed. These results suggest that the smolt lipid is involved intimately with either the cause of the dermal lesion or is a defense mechanism, possibly mediated through oxygenase activity.

  7. Algae in fish feed: performances and fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon.

    PubMed

    Norambuena, Fernando; Hermon, Karen; Skrzypczyk, Vanessa; Emery, James A; Sharon, Yoni; Beard, Alastair; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2015-01-01

    Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet) of algae in fish feed (aquafeed) resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal), Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi) and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp.) for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination), in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed.

  8. Algae in Fish Feed: Performances and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Norambuena, Fernando; Hermon, Karen; Skrzypczyk, Vanessa; Emery, James A.; Sharon, Yoni; Beard, Alastair; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2015-01-01

    Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet) of algae in fish feed (aquafeed) resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal), Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi) and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp.) for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination), in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed. PMID:25875839

  9. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Rimbach, Gerald; Menoyo, David

    2015-07-10

    The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic (DHA) acids). However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6%) on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC), showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively) but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG.

  10. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Rimbach, Gerald; Menoyo, David

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic (DHA) acids). However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6%) on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC), showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively) but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG. PMID:26184234

  11. Modifications of Atlantic salmon by-product oil for obtaining different ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids concentrates: An approach to comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Haq, Monjurul; Park, Seul-Ki; Kim, Min-Jung; Cho, Yeon-Jin; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2018-04-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) rich 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAG), omega-3 polyunsaturated free fatty acids (ω-3 PUFFAs) concentrate, and PUFA enriched acylglycerols were prepared from salmon frame bone oil (SFBO) by enzymatic alcoholysis, urea complexation, and enzymatic esterification, respectively. The yields of 2-MAG, ω-3 PUFFAs concentrate, and PUFA enriched acylglycerols were 40.25, 16.52, and 15.65%, respectively. ω-3 PUFFAs concentrate and PUFA enriched acylglycerols showed darker red color than SFBO and 2-MAG due to aggregation of astaxanthin pigment in ω-3 PUFFAs concentrate during urea complexation. The viscosity and specific gravity of SFBO and PUFA enriched acylglycerols showed similar values whereas 2-MAG and ω-3 PUFFAs showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower values. Stability parameters like acid value, peroxide value, free fatty acid value, and p-anisidine value of SFBO and ω-3 PUFAs concentrates were within acceptable limits except extreme high acid value and free fatty acid value of ω-3 PUFFAs concentrate. Thermogravimetric analysis showed similar and higher thermal stability of SFBO and PUFA enriched acylglycerols than 2-MAG and ω-3 PUFFAs concentrate. The ω-3 PUFAs content in 2-MAG, ω-3 PUFFAs concentrate, and PUFA enriched acylglycerols was increased to 20.81, 52.96, and 51.74% respectively from 13.54% in SFBO. ω-3 PUFFAs concentrate and PUFA enriched acylglycerols showed higher DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity than SFBO and 2-MAG. The results obtained from this study suggest the production of PUFA enriched acylglycerols rich in ω-3 PUFAs supplements from fish oil for human and pet animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Tissue Fatty Acid Profile is Differently Modulated from Olive Oil and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in ApcMin/+ Mice.

    PubMed

    Tutino, Valeria; Caruso, Maria G; De Leonardis, Giampiero; De Nunzio, Valentina; Notarnicola, Maria

    2017-11-16

    Fatty acid profile can be considered an appropriate biomarker for investigating the relations between the patterns of fatty acid metabolism and specific diseases, as cancer, cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. Aim of this study was to test the effects of diets enriched with olive oil and omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) on fatty acid profile in intestinal tissue of ApcMin/+ mice. Three groups of animals were considered: control group, receiving a standard diet; olive oilgroup, receiving a standard diet enriched with olive oil; omega-3 group, receiving a standard diet enriched with salmon fish. Tissue fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography method. Olive oil and omega-3 PUFAs in the diet differently affect the tissue fatty acid profile. Compared to control group, the levels of Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs) were lower in olive oil group, while an increase of SFAs was found in omega-3 group. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs) levels were enhanced after olive oil treatment, and in particular, a significant increase of oleic acid levels was detected; MUFAs levels were instead reduced in omega-3 group in line with the decrease of oleic acid levels. The total PUFAs levels were lower in olive oil respect to control group. Moreover, a significant induction of Saturation Index (SI) levels was observed after omega-3 PUFAs treatment, while its levels were reduced in mice fed with olive oil. Our data demonstrated a different effect of olive oil and omega-3 PUFAs on tissue lipid profile in APCMin/+ mice. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Assessing diet compositions of Lake Ontario predators using fatty acid profiles of prey fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Happell, Austin; Pattridge, Robert; Rinchard, Jacques; Walsh, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid profiles are used in food web studies to assess trophic interactions between predator and prey. The present study provides the first comprehensive fatty acid dataset for important prey and predator species in Lake Ontario. Three major prey fish (alewife, rainbow smelt, and round goby) were collected at three sites along the southern shore of Lake Ontario during the spring and fall of 2013, and predator species were collected in similar locations during the summer of 2013. Fatty acid compositions were compared among all prey species, all predator species, and information from both predator and prey was used to infer foraging differences among predators. Seasonal differences in fatty acids were found within each prey species studied. Differences among prey species were greater than any spatio-temporal differences detected within species. Fatty acids of predators revealed species-specific differences that matched known foraging habits. Chinook and Coho salmon, which are known to select alewife as their dominant prey item, had relatively little variation in fatty acid profiles. Conversely, brown trout, lake trout, yellow perch and esocids had highly variable fatty acid profiles and likely highly variable diet compositions. In general, our data suggested three dominant foraging patterns: 1) diet composed of nearly exclusively alewife for Chinook and Coho Salmon; 2) a mixed diet of alewife and round goby for brown and lake trout, and both rock and smallmouth bass; 3) a diet that is likely comprised of forage fishes other than those included in our study for northern pike and chain pickerel.

  14. An oil containing EPA and DHA from transgenic Camelina sativa to replace marine fish oil in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): Effects on intestinal transcriptome, histology, tissue fatty acid profiles and plasma biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Betancor, Mónica B.; Li, Keshuai; Sprague, Matthew; Bardal, Tora; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Han, Lihua; Måsøval, Kjell; Torrissen, Ole; Napier, Johnathan A.; Tocher, Douglas R.; Olsen, Rolf Erik

    2017-01-01

    New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively). The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35%) and fish oil (10%), reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 12-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either a blend of fish oil/rapeseed oil (FO), wild-type camelina oil (WCO) or transgenic camelina oil (DCO) as added lipid source. The DCO diet did not affect any of the fish performance or health parameters studied. Analyses of the mid and hindgut transcriptomes showed only mild effects on metabolism. Flesh of fish fed the DCO diet accumulated almost double the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA than fish fed the FO or WCO diets, indicating that these oils from transgenic oilseeds offer the opportunity to increase the n-3 LC-PUFA in farmed fish to levels comparable to those found a decade ago. PMID:28403232

  15. An oil containing EPA and DHA from transgenic Camelina sativa to replace marine fish oil in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): Effects on intestinal transcriptome, histology, tissue fatty acid profiles and plasma biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Betancor, Mónica B; Li, Keshuai; Sprague, Matthew; Bardal, Tora; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Han, Lihua; Måsøval, Kjell; Torrissen, Ole; Napier, Johnathan A; Tocher, Douglas R; Olsen, Rolf Erik

    2017-01-01

    New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively). The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35%) and fish oil (10%), reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 12-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either a blend of fish oil/rapeseed oil (FO), wild-type camelina oil (WCO) or transgenic camelina oil (DCO) as added lipid source. The DCO diet did not affect any of the fish performance or health parameters studied. Analyses of the mid and hindgut transcriptomes showed only mild effects on metabolism. Flesh of fish fed the DCO diet accumulated almost double the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA than fish fed the FO or WCO diets, indicating that these oils from transgenic oilseeds offer the opportunity to increase the n-3 LC-PUFA in farmed fish to levels comparable to those found a decade ago.

  16. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases hepatic levels of arachidonic acid-derived oxylipins and ceramides in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction of vegetable ingredients in fish feed has affected the fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Here we investigated how changes in fish feed affected the metabolism of mice fed diets containing fillets from such farmed salmon. We demonstrate that replacement of...

  17. Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon as Affected by Water Temperature.

    PubMed

    Norambuena, Fernando; Morais, Sofia; Emery, James A; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2015-01-01

    Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways. Three experimental diets were formulated to be identical, except for the ratio EPA/ARA, and fed to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kept either at 10°C or 20°C. Results showed that fatty acid metabolic utilisation, and likely also their dietary requirements for optimal performance, can be affected by changes in their relative levels and by environmental temperature in Atlantic salmon. Thus, the increase in temperature, independently from dietary treatment, had a significant effect on the β-oxidation of a fatty acid including EPA, as observed by the apparent in vivo enzyme activity and mRNA expression of pparα -transcription factor in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation genes- and cpt1 -key enzyme responsible for the movement of LC-PUFA from the cytosol into the mitochondria for β-oxidation-, were both increased at the higher water temperature. An interesting interaction was observed in the transcription and in vivo enzyme activity of Δ5fad-time-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of EPA and ARA. Such, at lower temperature, the highest mRNA expression and enzyme activity was recorded in fish with limited supply of dietary EPA, whereas at higher temperature these were recorded in fish with limited ARA supply. In consideration that fish at higher water temperature

  18. Characteristics of formed Atlantic salmon jerky.

    PubMed

    Oberholtzer, Ashlan S; Dougherty, Michael P; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2011-08-01

    Smoked salmon (Salmo salar L.) processing may generate large amounts of small pieces of trimmed flesh that has little economic value. Opportunities exist to develop new added-value foods from this by-product. Brining was compared with dry salting for the production of formed salmon jerky-style strips that were then smoked. The formulations also contained brown sugar and potato starch. Salted samples had higher salt concentrations and required less force to break using a TA-XT2 Texture Analyzer. Brined samples contained more fat and were darker, redder and more yellow than the salted samples. Processing concentrated omega-3 fatty acids compared with raw salmon, and the brined jerky had the highest omega-3 fatty acid content. A panel of 57 consumers liked the appearance and aroma of both samples equally (approximately 6.7 for appearance and 6.3 for aroma on the 9-point hedonic scale. Higher acceptability scores for taste, texture, and overall quality were given to the brined product (6.7 to 6.9 against 6.2 to 6.3). Salmon trim from smoking facilities can be utilized to produce a jerky that is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, simultaneously adding value and reducing the waste stream. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts.

    PubMed

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G; Carter, Chris G; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend.

  20. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    PubMed Central

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G.; Carter, Chris G.; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  1. Physical and nutritional properties of baby food containing added red salmon oil (Oncorhynchus nerka) and microencapsulated red salmon oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Unpurified red salmon oil (UPSO) was purified (PSO) using chitosan. Both unpurified and purified oils were evaluated for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), moisture, and color. An emulsion system containing PSO (EPSO) was prepared: system was analyzed for c...

  2. Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon as Affected by Water Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Norambuena, Fernando; Morais, Sofia; Emery, James A.; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways. Three experimental diets were formulated to be identical, except for the ratio EPA/ARA, and fed to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kept either at 10°C or 20°C. Results showed that fatty acid metabolic utilisation, and likely also their dietary requirements for optimal performance, can be affected by changes in their relative levels and by environmental temperature in Atlantic salmon. Thus, the increase in temperature, independently from dietary treatment, had a significant effect on the β-oxidation of a fatty acid including EPA, as observed by the apparent in vivo enzyme activity and mRNA expression of pparα -transcription factor in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation genes- and cpt1 -key enzyme responsible for the movement of LC-PUFA from the cytosol into the mitochondria for β-oxidation-, were both increased at the higher water temperature. An interesting interaction was observed in the transcription and in vivo enzyme activity of Δ5fad–time-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of EPA and ARA. Such, at lower temperature, the highest mRNA expression and enzyme activity was recorded in fish with limited supply of dietary EPA, whereas at higher temperature these were recorded in fish with limited ARA supply. In consideration that fish at higher water temperature

  3. Stabilizing Smoked Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) Tissue after Extraction of Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alaska salmon oils are rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are prized by the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the tissue that remains after oil extraction does not have an established market. Discarded salmon tissues were preserved using a combination of smoke-processing and acid...

  4. Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Michael J; Villeneuve, Laure AN; Obach, Alex; Jensen, Linda; Bron, James E; Tocher, Douglas R; Taggart, John B

    2008-01-01

    Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO) or linseed (LO) oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic β-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain whole body cholesterol

  5. Dietary protein deficiency affects n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids hepatic storage and very low density lipoprotein transport in rats on different diets.

    PubMed

    Bouziane, M; Prost, J; Belleville, J

    1994-04-01

    Fatty livers and the similarity between the skin lesions in kwashiorkor and those described in experimental essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency have led to the hypothesis that protein and EFA deficiencies may both occur in chronic malnutrition. The relationship between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and hepatic lipid composition was studied after 28 d of protein depletion to determine the interactions between dietary protein levels and EFA availability. Rats were fed purified diets containing 20 or 2% casein and 5% fat as either soybean oil rich in EFA, or salmon oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, or hydrogenated coconut oil poor in EFA. Animals were divided into six groups, SOC (20% casein + 5% soybean oil), SOd (2% casein + 5% soybean oil), COC (20% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), COd (2% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), SAC (20% casein + 5% salmon oil) and SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil). After 28 d, liver steatosis and reduced VLDL-phospholipid contents (P < 0.001) were observed in protein-deficient rats. In protein deficiency, triacylglycerol and phospholipid fatty acid compositions in both liver and VLDL showed a decreased polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio. This ratio was higher with the salmon oil diets and lower with the hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Furthermore, independent of the oil in the diet, protein deficiency decreased linoleic and arachidonic acids in VLDL phospholipids. Conversely, despite decreased proportions of EPA at low protein levels, DHA levels remained higher in rats fed salmon oil diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, O; Angulo, O

    1997-01-01

    The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of triglycerides and significant (p < 0.01) elevation of high density lipoproteins. The hypercholesterolemic group reduced significantly the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides; high density lipoproteins were augmented by 11.6%. The hypolipidemic effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was manifest in the Mexican volunteers under the conditions here evaluated.

  7. Characterization of a Value-Added Salmon Product: Infant/Toddler Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Santos, Felicia Ann

    2009-01-01

    Salmon are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids. These are important in the human diet and especially for young children in the first two years of life. Wild Alaskan salmon was utilized in a novel way by development and investigation of basic baby food product formulations from sockeye and pink salmon. Thus, physical and sensory properties of baby…

  8. Physical properties of microencapsulated gamma-3 salmon oil with egg white powder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microencapsulated salmon oil with egg white powders are a good source of high quality protein and amino acids including leucine and omega-3 fatty acids, which may be beneficial for athletes. The study demonstrated that egg white powders containing omega-3 salmon oil can be effectively produced by sp...

  9. Preserving Salmon Byproducts through Smoke-Processing Prior to Ensilage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmon is an important fishery in Alaska and accounts for about 9% of the annual catch. Processing these fish results in valuable byproducts that contain oils with high concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Previous research demonstrated that when discarded salmon head...

  10. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sheridan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxinmore » and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via ..beta..-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents.« less

  11. Influence of the marine feeding area on the muscle and egg fatty-acid composition of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar spawners estimated from the scale stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Torniainen, J; Kainz, M J; Jones, R I; Keinänen, M; Vuorinen, P J; Kiljunen, M

    2017-05-01

    Fatty acids in muscle tissue and eggs of female Atlantic salmon Salmo salar spawners were analysed to evaluate the dietary quality of their final feeding areas in the Baltic Sea. The final likely feeding area was identified by comparing stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of the outermost growth region (final annulus) of scales of returned S. salar with that of reference S. salar caught from different feeding areas. Some overlap of stable-isotope reference values among the three areas, in addition to prespawning fasting, decreased the ability of muscle tri-acylglycerols to discriminate the final likely feeding area and the area's dietary quality. Among three long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6), the proportions of ARA in total lipids of spawning S. salar muscle and eggs showed a significant negative correlation with increasing probability of S. salar having returned from the Baltic Sea main basin (i.e. the Baltic Sea proper). The results suggest that ARA in muscle and eggs is the best dietary indicator for dietary characteristics of final marine feeding area dietary characteristics among S. salar in the Baltic Sea. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Cognitive antecedents of consumers' willingness to purchase fish rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

    PubMed

    Foxall, G; Leek, S; Maddock, S

    1998-12-01

    A sample of UK consumers (N = 311) was interviewed in order to identify the attitudinal, cognitive and involvement characteristics of probable early adopters of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) fed fish. Attitude to fish significantly influenced PUFA fish, premium price PUFA fish, PUFA salmon, PUFA eel and PUFA sturgeon purchase. Involvement in healthy eating influenced PUFA fish, premium price PUFA fish and PUFA salmon purchase. Cognitive style did not influence PUFA fish and premium price PUFA fish purchase; nor, contrary to earlier research, did cognitive style and involvement interact to influence intended PUFA fish purchases.

  13. Utilization of smoked salmon trim in extruded smoked salmon jerky.

    PubMed

    Kong, J; Dougherty, M P; Perkins, L B; Camire, M E

    2012-06-01

    During smoked salmon processing, the dark meat along the lateral line is removed before packaging; this by-product currently has little economic value. In this study, the dark meat trim was incorporated into an extruded jerky. Three formulations were processed: 100% smoked trim, 75% : 25% smoked trim : fresh salmon fillet, and 50% : 50% smoked trim : fresh salmon blends (w/w basis). The base formulation contained salmon (approximately 83.5%), tapioca starch (8%), pregelatinized potato starch (3%), sucrose (4%), salt (1.5%), sodium nitrate (0.02%), and ascorbyl palmitate (0.02% of the lipid content). Blends were extruded in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder and then hot-smoked for 5 h. There were no significant differences among formulations in moisture, water activity, and pH. Protein was highest in the 50 : 50 blend jerky. Ash content was highest in the jerky made with 100% trim. Total lipids and salt were higher in the 100% trim jerky than in the 50 : 50 blend. Hot smoking did not adversely affect docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in lipids from 100% smoked trim jerky. Servings of salmon jerky made with 75% and 100% smoked trim provided at least 500 mg of EPA and DHA. The 50 : 50 formulation had the highest Intl. Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*, a*, and b* color values. Seventy consumers rated all sensory attributes as between "like slightly" and "like moderately." With some formulation and processing refinements, lateral line trim from smoked salmon processors has potential to be incorporated into acceptable, healthful snack products. Dark meat along the lateral line is typically discarded by smoked salmon processors. This omega-3 fatty acid rich by-product can be used to make a smoked salmon jerky that provides a convenient source of these healthful lipids for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Fatty acid transfer between multilamellar liposomes and fatty acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Brecher, P; Saouaf, R; Sugarman, J M; Eisenberg, D; LaRosa, K

    1984-11-10

    A simple experimental system was developed for studying the movement of long-chain fatty acids between multilamellar liposomes and soluble proteins capable of binding fatty acids. Oleic acid was incorporated into multilamellar liposomes containing cholesterol and egg yolk lecithin and incubated with albumin or hepatic fatty acid-binding protein. It was found that the fatty acid transferred from the liposomes to either protein rapidly and selectively under conditions where phospholipid and cholesterol transfer did not occur. More than 50% of the fatty acid contained within liposomes could become protein bound, suggesting that the fatty acid moved readily between and across phospholipid bilayers. Transfer was reduced at low pH, and this reduction appeared to result from decreased dissociation of the protonated fatty acid from the bilayer. Liposomes made with dimyristoyl or dipalmitoyl lecithin and containing 1 mol per cent palmitic acid were used to show the effect of temperature on fatty acid transfer. Transfer to either protein did not occur at temperatures where the liposomes were in a gel state but occurred rapidly at temperatures at or above the transition temperatures of the phospholipid used.

  15. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. EPA, DHA, and Lipoic Acid Differentially Modulate the n-3 Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway in Atlantic Salmon Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bou, Marta; Østbye, Tone-Kari; Berge, Gerd M; Ruyter, Bente

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how EPA, DHA, and lipoic acid (LA) influence the different metabolic steps in the n-3 fatty acid (FA) biosynthetic pathway in hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon fed four dietary levels (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) of EPA, DHA or a 1:1 mixture of these FA. The hepatocytes were incubated with [1- 14 C] 18:3n-3 in the presence or absence of LA (0.2 mM). Increased endogenous levels of EPA and/or DHA and LA exposure both led to similar responses in cells with reduced desaturation and elongation of [1- 14 C] 18:3n-3 to 18:4n-3, 20:4n-3, and EPA, in agreement with reduced expression of the Δ6 desaturase gene involved in the first step of conversion. DHA production, on the other hand, was maintained even in groups with high endogenous levels of DHA, possibly due to a more complex regulation of this last step in the n-3 metabolic pathway. Inhibition of the Δ6 desaturase pathway led to increased direct elongation to 20:3n-3 by both DHA and LA. Possibly the route by 20:3n-3 and then Δ8 desaturation to 20:4n-3, bypassing the first Δ6 desaturase step, can partly explain the maintained or even increased levels of DHA production. LA increased DHA production in the phospholipid fraction of hepatocytes isolated from fish fed 0 and 0.5% EPA and/or DHA, indicating that LA has the potential to further increase the production of this health-beneficial FA in fish fed diets with low levels of EPA and/or DHA.

  17. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  18. Manipulating Membrane Fatty Acid Compositions of Whole Plants with Tween-Fatty Acid Esters 1

    PubMed Central

    Terzaghi, William B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a method for manipulating plant membrane fatty acid compositions without altering growth temperature or other conditions. Tween-fatty acid esters carrying specific fatty acids were synthesized and applied to various organs of plants growing axenically in glass jars. Treated plants incorporated large amounts of exogenous fatty acids into all acylated membrane lipids detected. Fatty acids were taken up by both roots and leaves. Fatty acids applied to roots were found in leaves, while fatty acids applied to leaves appeared in both leaves higher on the plant and in roots, indicating translocation (probably in the phloem). Foliar application was most effective; up to 20% of membrane fatty acids of leaves above the treated leaf and up to 40% of root membrane fatty acids were exogenously derived. Plants which took up exogenous fatty acids changed their patterns of fatty acid synthesis such that ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids remained essentially unaltered. Fatty acid uptake was most extensively studied in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), but was also observed in other species, including maize (Zea mays L.), mung beans (Vigna radiata L.), peas (Pisum sativum L.), petunia (Petunia hybrida L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Potential applications of this system include studying internal transport of fatty acids, regulation of fatty acid and membrane synthesis, and influences of membrane fatty acid composition on plant physiology. Images Figure 2 PMID:16666997

  19. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  20. Triploidy does not decrease contents of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in filets of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Artamonova, Valentina S; Makhrov, Alexander A; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Kalachova, Galina S; Dgebuadze, Yury Y

    2017-02-01

    Triploid fish has become an important item of commercial aquaculture, but data on its fatty acid (FA) composition are still controversial, especially regarding essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA). We studied FA composition and content of diploid and triploid pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, reared in aquaculture in a bay of the White Sea (Russia). FA composition, measured as percentages of total FA of triploids and immature diploid females significantly differed from that of mature diploid fish. Specifically, mature diploids had higher percentage of EPA and DHA in their muscle tissue (filets) compared to that of triploids and immature diploid females. Nevertheless, the contents of EPA and DHA per mass of the filets in diploid and triploid specimens were similar. Thus, no special efforts are needed to improve EPA and DHA contents in filets of triploids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incorporation of dietary n-3 fatty acids into selective phosphatidylcholine lipids in human plasma after salmon intake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. Intake of n-3 LCPUFA is often quantified by analysis of plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); however, the typical analysis by gas chromatography does not allow fo...

  2. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  3. Determining the effect of different cooking methods on the nutritional composition of salmon (Salmo salar) and chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) fillets.

    PubMed

    Bastías, José M; Balladares, Pamela; Acuña, Sergio; Quevedo, Roberto; Muñoz, Ociel

    2017-01-01

    The effect of four cooking methods was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid, calcium, iron, and zinc content in salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. The moisture content of steamed salmon decreased (64.94%) compared to the control (68.05%); a significant decrease was observed in Chilean jack mackerel in all the treatments when compared to the control (75.37%). Protein content in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel significantly increased under the different treatments while the most significant decrease in lipids was found in oven cooking and canning for salmon and microwaving for Chilean jack mackerel. Ash concentration in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel did not reveal any significant differences. Iron and calcium content only had significant changes in steaming while zinc did not undergo any significant changes in the different treatments. Finally, no drastic changes were observed in the fatty acid profile in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel.

  4. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  5. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  6. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Determining the effect of different cooking methods on the nutritional composition of salmon (Salmo salar) and chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) fillets

    PubMed Central

    Balladares, Pamela; Acuña, Sergio; Quevedo, Roberto; Muñoz, Ociel

    2017-01-01

    The effect of four cooking methods was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid, calcium, iron, and zinc content in salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. The moisture content of steamed salmon decreased (64.94%) compared to the control (68.05%); a significant decrease was observed in Chilean jack mackerel in all the treatments when compared to the control (75.37%). Protein content in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel significantly increased under the different treatments while the most significant decrease in lipids was found in oven cooking and canning for salmon and microwaving for Chilean jack mackerel. Ash concentration in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel did not reveal any significant differences. Iron and calcium content only had significant changes in steaming while zinc did not undergo any significant changes in the different treatments. Finally, no drastic changes were observed in the fatty acid profile in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. PMID:28686742

  8. Incorporation of Extracellular Fatty Acids by a Fatty Acid Kinase-Dependent Pathway in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Joshua B.; Frank, Matthew W.; Jackson, Pamela; Subramanian, Chitra; Rock, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Acyl-CoA and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthetases activate exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids in Gram-negative bacteria. However, Gram-positive bacteria utilize an acyltransferase pathway for the biogenesis of phosphatidic acid that begins with the acylation of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate by PlsY using an acyl-phosphate (acyl-PO4) intermediate. PlsX generates acyl-PO4 from the acyl-ACP end-products of fatty acid synthesis. The plsX gene of Staphylococcus aureus was inactivated and the resulting strain was both a fatty acid auxotroph and required de novo fatty acid synthesis for growth. Exogenous fatty acids were only incorporated into the 1-position and endogenous acyl groups were channeled into the 2-position of the phospholipids in strain PDJ39 (ΔplsX). Extracellular fatty acids were not elongated. Removal of the exogenous fatty acid supplement led to the rapid accumulation of intracellular acyl-ACP and the abrupt cessation of fatty acid synthesis. Extracts from the ΔplsX strain exhibited an ATP-dependent fatty acid kinase activity, and the acyl-PO4 was converted to acyl-ACP when purified PlsX is added. These data reveal the existence of a novel fatty acid kinase pathway for the incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into S. aureus phospholipids. PMID:24673884

  9. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  10. Uptake and selective partitioning of dietary lipids to ovarian and muscle tissue of maturing female coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, during secondary oocyte growth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ronald B; Kroeger, Eric L; Reichert, William L; Carter, Cameron S; Rust, Michael B

    2017-06-01

    Female coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, were fed one of two experimental feeds containing lipids with markedly different stable 13 C isotope signatures during the late cortical alveolus, lipid droplet, and vitellogenesis stages of secondary oocyte growth. Ovarian and muscle lipids fatty acid concentrations were significantly affected by treatment during all three stages of development. Stable 13 C isotope analyses confirmed that dietary lipids were incorporated into both ovarian and muscle lipids during all three stages and revealed that ovarian lipids were more affected than muscle lipids during vitellogenesis. Arachidonic acid (ARA) was incorporated into ovarian lipids at the highest rate of all fatty acids examined with the greatest uptake observed during the cortical alveolus and lipid droplet stages of development. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was incorporated into ovarian lipids at the next highest rate with the greatest uptake observed during the lipid droplet stage of development. The presence of an ovary specific, fatty acid transfer mechanism is proposed. Results from this study demonstrate the ability to greatly alter the fatty acid composition of ovarian lipids through a dietary change during secondary oocyte growth and may be of great interest to producers of farmed salmon and salmon broodstock programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature t...

  12. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  13. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse themore » mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.« less

  14. Composition and consumer acceptability of a novel extrusion-cooked salmon snack.

    PubMed

    Kong, J; Dougherty, M P; Perkins, L B; Camire, M E

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a value-added jerky-style snack from salmon flesh and to minimize loss of healthful lipids during processing. Three formulations were extruded in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder. The base formulation included Atlantic salmon (82%, w/w), sucrose (4%), pregelatinized starch (3%), modified tapioca starch (3%), salt (2%), and teriyaki flavoring (2%). Three oil binding agents (tapioca starch, high-amylose cornstarch, oat fiber) were each studied at the 4% level. Barrel temperature, from feed to die, was 65, 155, 155, and 80 degrees C. Screw speed was 250 rpm. Feed rate was 220 g/min. Extrudates were convection-dried at 93 degrees C for 40 min. A texture analyzer was used to evaluate textural properties. Sixty-three consumers evaluated the hedonic attributes of the snacks. Extrusion cooking did not adversely affect content of omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in Atlantic salmon. The oat fiber formulation had the highest lipid (17.49%) content. The other formulations had higher moisture content. A serving (28 g) of the oat formulation provides 0.6 g EPA + DHA. Snacks containing oat fiber had the highest CIE L* and b* values. Snacks containing oat fiber required greater force to bend, cut, and puncture. The oat fiber formulation had the lowest overall acceptability. This portable snack could appeal to consumers who are interested in the health benefits of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and provide salmon processors with a value-added solution for processing by-products.

  15. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  16. Selected quality parameters of salmon and meat when fried with or without added fat.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, I; Al-Saghir, S; Kanzler, S; Frisch, G; Majchrzak, D; Wagner, K-H

    2006-07-01

    To determine whether pan-frying (pork, beef and salmon) without oil or with different fats (olive oil, corn oil or a partially hydrogenated plant oil) or steaming (only salmon) have effects on the total fat content, the fatty acid pattern, lipid peroxidation, tocopherols and in particular for salmon on vitamin D(3) and astaxanthin. Pork, beef patties and salmon were pan-fried (6 min each), beef fillet was pan-fried (5 min) with an additional braising period of 90 minutes and salmon was steamed for 12 minutes. Each pan-frying treatment was done with the above mentioned fats and without fat. Total fat was determined gravimetrically, the fatty acid pattern with GC, the tocopherols, astaxanthin and vitamin D(3) by using HPLC. The effects on the fat quality and quantity in the final products were related to the pan-frying fat used, however, the power of the outcome was depending on the surface to volume ratio. The highest increase in total fat was observed for pork, followed by the beef patties and the braised beef. The same has been assessed for the fatty acid pattern. Tocopherols changed according to the oil used, in particular gamma-tocopherol significantly increased for each preparation after the use of corn oil. Only in pork an increase in lipid oxidation of the oil preparations has been observed. Vitamin D(3) in salmon significantly decreased after heat treatment, however a 150 g salmon portion would provide between 13.9 and 14.7 mug Vitamin D(3) which is around five times more than the average daily intake. Pan-frying without fat can be recommended for the daily use, since the total fat intake is too high in developed countries and one main task of nutritional recommendations is to reduce the total fat intake. When pan-fried with fat, the choice of the fat is of high importance since it directly influences the quality and the flavour of the final product. In order to increase the fat quality from nutritional point of view only oils of plant or vegetable origin

  17. Identification of a two-component fatty acid kinase responsible for host fatty acid incorporation by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Joshua B.; Broussard, Tyler C.; Bose, Jeffrey L.; Rosch, Jason W.; Jackson, Pamela; Subramanian, Chitra; Rock, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was required to support virulence factor transcription. These data reveal the function of two conserved gene families, their essential role in the incorporation of host fatty acids by Gram-positive pathogens, and connects fatty acid kinase to the regulation of virulence factor transcription in S. aureus. PMID:25002480

  18. Aspirin Increases Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 hr incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. PMID:27856258

  19. [Fatty acids in confectionery products].

    PubMed

    Daniewski, M; Mielniczuk, E; Jacórzyński, B; Pawlicka, M; Balas, J; Filipek, A; Górnicka, M

    2000-01-01

    The content of fat and fatty acids in 144 different confectionery products purchased on the market in Warsaw region during 1997-1999 have been investigated. In examined confectionery products considerable variability of both fat and fatty acids content have been found. The content of fat varied from 6.6% (coconut cookies) up to 40% (chocolate wafers). Saturated fatty acids were present in both cis and trans form. Especially trans fatty acids reach (above 50%) were fats extracted from nut wafers, coconuts wafers.

  20. Distinctive metabolite profiles in in-migrating Sockeye salmon suggest sex-linked endocrine perturbation.

    PubMed

    Benskin, Jonathan P; Ikonomou, Michael G; Liu, Jun; Veldhoen, Nik; Dubetz, Cory; Helbing, Caren C; Cosgrove, John R

    2014-10-07

    The health of Skeena River Sockeye salmon (Onchorhychus nerka) has been of increasing concern due to declining stock returns over the past decade. In the present work, in-migrating Sockeye from the 2008 run were evaluated using a mass spectrometry-based, targeted metabolomics platform. Our objectives were to (a) investigate natural changes in a subset of the hepatic metabolome arising from migration-associated changes in osmoregulation, locomotion, and gametogenesis, and (b) compare the resultant profiles with animals displaying altered hepatic vitellogenin A (vtg) expression at the spawning grounds, which was previously hypothesized as a marker of xenobiotic exposure. Of 203 metabolites monitored, 95 were consistently observed in Sockeye salmon livers and over half of these changed significantly during in-migration. Among the most dramatic changes in both sexes were a decrease in concentrations of taurine (a major organic osmolyte), carnitine (involved in fatty acid transport), and two major polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). In females, an increase in amino acids was attributed to protein catabolism associated with vitellogenesis. Animals with atypical vtg mRNA expression demonstrated unusual hepatic amino acid, fatty acid, taurine, and carnitine profiles. The cause of these molecular perturbations remains unclear, but may include xenobiotic exposure, natural senescence, and/or interindividual variability. These data provide a benchmark for further investigation into the long-term health of migrating Skeena Sockeye.

  1. Do fatty acids affect fetal programming?

    PubMed

    Kabaran, Seray; Besler, H Tanju

    2015-08-13

    In this study discussed the primary and regulatory roles of fatty acids, and investigated the affects of fatty acids on metabolic programming. Review of the literature was carried out on three electronic databases to assess the roles of fatty acids in metabolic programming. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined, and the most relevant articles were selected for screening and inclusion in this review. The mother's nutritional environment during fetal period has important effects on long term health. Fatty acids play a primary role in growth and development. Alterations in fatty acid intake in the fetal period may increase the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. Maternal fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and lactation are passed to the fetus and the newborn via the placenta and breast milk, respectively. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during the fetal period change the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids, which can cause structural and functional problems in cells. Additionally, the metabolic and neuroendocrine environments of the fetus and the newborn play key roles in the regulation of energy balance. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during pregnancy and lactation may result in permanent changes in appetite control, neuroendocrine function and energy metabolism in the fetus, leading to metabolic programming. Further studies are needed to determine the role of fatty acid intake in metabolic programming.

  2. Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, fatty acids and mitochondrial physiology.

    PubMed

    Kastaniotis, Alexander J; Autio, Kaija J; Kerätär, Juha M; Monteuuis, Geoffray; Mäkelä, Anne M; Nair, Remya R; Pietikäinen, Laura P; Shvetsova, Antonina; Chen, Zhijun; Hiltunen, J Kalervo

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria and fatty acids are tightly connected to a multiplicity of cellular processes that go far beyond mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. In line with this view, there is hardly any common metabolic disorder that is not associated with disturbed mitochondrial lipid handling. Among other aspects of mitochondrial lipid metabolism, apparently all eukaryotes are capable of carrying out de novo fatty acid synthesis (FAS) in this cellular compartment in an acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent manner. The dual localization of FAS in eukaryotic cells raises the questions why eukaryotes have maintained the FAS in mitochondria in addition to the "classic" cytoplasmic FAS and what the products are that cannot be substituted by delivery of fatty acids of extramitochondrial origin. The current evidence indicates that mitochondrial FAS is essential for cellular respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis. Although both β-oxidation and FAS utilize thioester chemistry, CoA acts as acyl-group carrier in the breakdown pathway whereas ACP assumes this role in the synthetic direction. This arrangement metabolically separates these two pathways running towards opposite directions and prevents futile cycling. A role of this pathway in mitochondrial metabolic sensing has recently been proposed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipids of Mitochondria edited by Guenther Daum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exogenous fatty acid metabolism in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) is a target for novel antibiotic development. All bacteria encode for mechanisms to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and some bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. Bacteria encode three different mechanisms for activating exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipid synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-CoA in Gammaproteobacteria such as E. coli. Acyl-CoA molecules constitute a separate pool from endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Acyl-CoA can be used for phospholipid synthesis or broken down by β-oxidation, but cannot be used for lipopolysaccharide synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-ACP in some Gram-negative bacteria. The resulting acyl-ACP undergoes the same fates as endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-phosphates in Gram-positive bacteria, and can be used for phospholipid synthesis or become acyl-ACP. Only the order Lactobacillales can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. FASII shuts down completely in presence of exogenous fatty acids in Lactobacillales, allowing Lactobacillales to synthesize phospholipids entirely from exogenous fatty acids. Inhibition of FASII cannot be bypassed in other bacteria because FASII is only partially down-regulated in presence of exogenous fatty acid or FASII is required to synthesize essential metabolites such as β-hydroxyacyl-ACP. Certain selective pressures such as FASII inhibition or growth in biofilms can select for naturally occurring one step mutations that attenuate endogenous fatty acid synthesis. Although attempts have been made to estimate the natural prevalence of these mutants, culture-independent metagenomic methods would provide a better estimate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide stress derived from fatty acid beta-oxidation improves fatty acid utilization in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hidetaka; Hoshino, Yasushi; Nakase, Kentaro; Usuda, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are a promising raw material for substance production because of their highly reduced and anhydrous nature, which can provide higher fermentation yields than sugars. However, they are insoluble in water and are poorly utilized by microbes in industrial fermentation production. We used fatty acids as raw materials for L-lysine fermentation by emulsification and improved the limited fatty acid-utilization ability of Escherichia coli. We obtained a fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain by laboratory evolution and demonstrated that it expressed lower levels of an oxidative-stress marker than wild type. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) concentration of a fatty acid-utilizing wild-type E. coli strain was higher than that of a glucose-utilizing wild-type E. coli strain. The novel mutation rpsA(D210Y) identified in our fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain enabled us to promote cell growth, fatty-acid utilization, and L-lysine production from fatty acid. Introduction of this rpsA(D210Y) mutation into a wild-type strain resulted in lower H₂O₂ concentrations. The overexpression of superoxide dismutase (sodA) increased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations and inhibited E. coli fatty-acid utilization, whereas overexpression of an oxidative-stress regulator (oxyS) decreased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations and promoted E. coli fatty acid utilization and L-lysine production. Addition of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger thiourea promoted L-lysine production from fatty acids and decreased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations. Among the ROS generated by fatty-acid β-oxidation, H₂O₂ critically affected E. coli growth and L-lysine production. This indicates that the regression of ROS stress promotes fatty acid utilization, which is beneficial for fatty acids used as raw materials in industrial production.

  5. Fatty Acids of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Judith C.; Dworkin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    Fatty acids were extracted from saponified vegetative cells and myxospores of Myxococcus xanthus and examined as the methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. The acids consisted mainly of C14 to C17 species. Branched acids predominated, and iso-pentadecanoic acid constituted half or more of the mixture. The other leading component (11–28%) was found to be 11-n-hexadecenoic acid. Among the unsaturated acids were two diunsaturated ones, an n-hexadecadienoic acid and an iso-heptadecadienoic acid. No significant differences between the fatty acid compositions of the vegetative cells and myxospores could be detected. The fatty acid composition of M. xanthus was found to be markedly similar to that of Stigmatella aurantiaca. It is suggested that a fatty acid pattern consisting of a large proportion of iso-branched C15 and C17 acids and a substantial amount of an n-16:1 acid is characteristic of myxobacteria. PMID:4197903

  6. Effect of liver fatty acid binding protein on fatty acid movement between liposomes and rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    McCormack, M; Brecher, P

    1987-06-15

    Although movement of fatty acids between bilayers can occur spontaneously, it has been postulated that intracellular movement is facilitated by a class of proteins named fatty acid binding proteins (FABP). In this study we have incorporated long chain fatty acids into multilamellar liposomes made of phosphatidylcholine, incubated them with rat liver microsomes containing an active acyl-CoA synthetase, and measured formation of acyl-CoA in the absence or presence of FABP purified from rat liver. FABP increased about 2-fold the accumulation of acyl-CoA when liposomes were the fatty acid donor. Using fatty acid incorporated into liposomes made either of egg yolk lecithin or of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, it was found that the temperature dependence of acyl-CoA accumulation in the presence of FABP correlated with both the physical state of phospholipid molecules in the liposomes and the binding of fatty acid to FABP, suggesting that fatty acid must first desorb from the liposomes before FABP can have an effect. An FABP-fatty acid complex incubated with microsomes, in the absence of liposomes, resulted in greater acyl-CoA formation than when liposomes were present, suggesting that desorption of fatty acid from the membrane is rate-limiting in the accumulation of acyl-CoA by this system. Finally, an equilibrium dialysis cell separating liposomes from microsomes on opposite sides of a Nuclepore filter was used to show that liver FABP was required for the movement and activation of fatty acid between the compartments. These studies show that liver FABP interacts with fatty acid that desorbs from phospholipid bilayers, and promotes movement to a membrane-bound enzyme, suggesting that FABP may act intracellularly by increasing net desorption of fatty acid from cell membranes.

  7. Identification of fatty acids and fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Kelly K; Ham, Bryan M; Nichols, Jason J; Ziegler, Corrie; Green-Church, Kari B

    2007-01-01

    The complex superficial lipid layer of the tear film functions to prevent evaporation and maintain tear stability. Although classes of lipids found in the tear film have been reported, individual lipid species are currently being studied with more sophisticated. The purpose of this work was to show the identification of fatty acids and the fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions by using electrospray mass spectrometry. methods. Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) were analyzed by electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (positive- and negative-ion mode). Accurate mass determination and collision-induced dissociation of meibum, and lipid standards were used to identify lipid species. Mass analysis of meibum in an acidic chloroform-methanol solution in positive-ion mode revealed a mass peak of m/z 282.3, which was identified as the protonated molecule of oleamide [C(18)H(35)NO+H](+). The high-resolution mass analysis of the m/z 282.2788 peak (oleamide) demonstrated a mass accuracy of 3.2 parts per million (ppm). Collision-induced dissociation of this species from meibum, compared with an oleamide standard, confirmed its identification. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, and oleic free fatty acids were identified in a similar manner, as were the other fatty acid amides (myristamide, palmitamide, stearamide, and erucamide). The findings indicate that oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide), an endogenous fatty acid primary amide, is a predominant component of meibum when examined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The novel finding of oleamide and other members of the fatty acid amide family in the tear film could lead to additional insights into the role of fatty acid amide activity in human biological systems and may indicate a new function for this lipid class of molecules in ocular surface signaling and/or in the maintenance of the complex tear film.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  9. Effects of Fatty Acid Addition to Oil-in-water Emulsions Stabilized with Sucrose Fatty Acid Ester.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takamasa; Kawai, Takahiro; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2018-03-01

    Adding fatty acids to an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion changes the stability of the emulsion. In this study, we prepared a series of O/W emulsions consisting of oil (triolein/fatty acid mixture), water and a range of surfactants (sucrose fatty acid esters) with varying hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) in order to determine the effects of alkyl chain length and the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid molecules on the stability of the emulsions. As a result, sucrose fatty acid esters with HLB = 5-7 were suitable for obtaining O/W emulsions. In addition, the creaming phenomenon was inhibited for 30 days or more when fatty acids having a linear saturated alkyl chain with 14 or more carbon atoms were added. These findings are useful for designing stable O/W emulsions for food and cosmetic products.

  10. Fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in human milk from Granada (Spain) and in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    López-López, A; López-Sabater, M C; Campoy-Folgoso, C; Rivero-Urgell, M; Castellote-Bargalló, A I

    2002-12-01

    To investigate differences in fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in colostrum, transitional and mature human milk, and in term infant formulas. Departament de Nutrició i Bromatologia, University of Barcelona, Spain and University Hospital of Granada, Spain. One-hundred and twenty mothers and 11 available types of infant formulas for term infants. We analysed the fatty acid composition of colostrum (n=40), transitional milk (n=40), mature milk (n=40) and 11 infant formulas. We also analysed the fatty acid composition at sn-2 position in colostrum (n=12), transitional milk (n=12), mature milk (n=12), and the 11 infant formulas. Human milk in Spain had low saturated fatty acids, high monounsaturated fatty acids and high linolenic acid. Infant formulas and mature human milk had similar fatty acid composition. In mature milk, palmitic acid was preferentially esterified at the sn-2 position (86.25%), and oleic and linoleic acids were predominantly esterified at the sn-1,3 positions (12.22 and 22.27%, respectively, in the sn-2 position). In infant formulas, palmitic acid was preferentially esterified at the sn-1,3 positions and oleic and linoleic acids had higher percentages at the sn-2 position than they do in human milk. Fatty acid composition of human milk in Spain seems to reflect the Mediterranean dietary habits of mothers. Infant formulas resemble the fatty acid profile of human milk, but the distribution of fatty acids at the sn-2 position is markedly different.

  11. Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-Round in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Gonçalo S; Holdt, Susan L; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-07-15

    This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a reference site in Denmark (2013-2014). Generally, there was no difference in the biomass composition between sites; however, significant seasonal changes were found. The lipid concentration varied from 0.62%-0.88% dry weight (DW) in July to 3.33%-3.35% DW in November (p < 0.05) in both sites. The fatty acid composition in January was significantly different from all the other sampling months. The dissimilarities were mainly explained by changes in the relative abundance of 20:5n-3 (13.12%-33.35%), 14:0 (11.07%-29.37%) and 18:1n-9 (10.15%-16.94%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) made up more than half of the fatty acids with a maximum in July (52.3%-54.0% fatty acid methyl esters; FAME). This including the most appreciated health beneficial PUFA's, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), but also arachidonic (ARA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are not found in land vegetables such as cabbage and lettuce. Compared to fat (salmon) and lean fish (cod) this seaweed species contains higher proportions of ARA and SDA, but lower EPA (only cod) and DHA. Conclusively, the season of harvest is important for the choice of lipid quantity and quality, but the marine vegetables provide better sources of EPA, DHA and long-chain (LC)-PUFA's in general compared to traditional vegetables.

  12. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  13. Dietary n-3 fatty acid restriction during gestation in rats: neuronal cell body and growth-cone fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Auestad, N; Innis, S M

    2000-01-01

    Growth cones are membrane-rich structures found at the distal end of growing axons and are the predecessors of the synaptic membranes of nerve endings. This study examined whether n-3 fatty acid restriction during gestation in rats alters the composition of growth cone and neuronal cell body membrane fatty acids in newborns. Female rats were fed a standard control diet containing soy oil (8% of fatty acids as 18:3n-3 by wt) or a semisynthetic n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet with safflower oil (0.3% of fatty acids as 18:3n-3 by wt) throughout normal pregnancy. Experiments were conducted on postnatal day 2 to minimize the potential for contamination from synaptic membranes and glial cells. Dietary n-3 fatty acid restriction resulted in lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations and a corresponding higher docosapentaenoic acid concentration in neuronal growth cones, but had no effects on neuronal cell body fatty acid concentrations. These studies suggest that accretion of DHA in growth cones, but not neuronal cell bodies, is affected by n-3 fatty acid restriction during gestation. Differences in other fatty acids or components between the semisynthetic and the standard diet, however, could have been involved in the effects on growth-cone DHA content. The results also provide evidence to suggest that the addition of new membrane fatty acids to neurons during development occurs along the shaft of the axon or at the growth cone, rather than originating at the cell body.

  14. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

    2007-01-01

    Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %.

  15. Regulatory divergence of homeologous Atlantic salmon elovl5 genes following the salmonid-specific whole-genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Tocher, Douglas R; Leaver, Michael J

    2016-10-10

    Fatty acyl elongase 5 (elovl5) is a critical enzyme in the vertebrate biosynthetic pathway which produces the physiologically essential long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) from 18 carbon fatty acids precursors. In contrast to most other vertebrates, Atlantic salmon possess two copies of elovl5 (elovl5a and elovl5b) as a result of a whole-genome duplication (WGD) which occurred at the base of the salmonid lineage. WGDs have had a major influence on vertebrate evolution, providing extra genetic material, enabling neofunctionalization to accelerate adaptation and speciation. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which such duplicated homeologous genes diverge. Here we show that homeologous Atlantic salmon elovl5a and elovl5b genes have been asymmetrically colonised by transposon-like elements. Identical locations and identities of insertions are also present in the rainbow trout duplicate elovl5 genes, but not in the nearest extant representative preduplicated teleost, the northern pike. Both elovl5 salmon duplicates possessed conserved regulatory elements that promoted Srebp1- and Srebp2-dependent transcription, and differences in the magnitude of Srebp response between promoters could be attributed to a tandem duplication of SRE and NF-Y cofactor binding sites in elovl5b. Furthermore, an insertion in the promoter region of elovl5a confers responsiveness to Lxr/Rxr transcriptional activation. Our results indicate that most, but not all, transposon mobilisation into elovl5 genes occurred after the split from the common ancestor of pike and salmon, but before more recent salmonid speciations, and that divergence of elovl5 regulatory regions have enabled neofuntionalization by promoting differential expression of these homeologous genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  17. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  18. Association between very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland and dry eye resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideko; Harauma, Akiko; Takimoto, Mao; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-06-01

    In our previously study, we reported lower tear volume in with an n-3 fatty acid deficient mice and that the docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acid levels in these mice are significantly reduced in the meibomian gland, which secretes an oily tear product. Furthermore, we noted very long chain fatty acids (≥25 carbons) in the meibomian gland. To verify the detailed mechanism of the low tear volume in the n-3 fatty acid-deficient mice, we identified the very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland, measured the fatty acid composition in the tear product. Very long chain fatty acids were found to exist as monoesters. In particular, very long chain fatty acids with 25-29 carbons existed for the most part as iso or anteiso branched-chain fatty acids. n-3 fatty acid deficiency was decreased the amount of meibum secretion from meibomian gland without change of fatty acid composition. These results suggest that the n-3 fatty acid deficiency causes the enhancement of evaporation of tear film by reducing oily tear secretion along with the decrease of meibomian gland function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z.; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  20. [Effect of Gram-negative bacteria on fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Vuillemin, N; Dupeyron, C; Leluan, G; Bory, J

    1981-01-01

    The gram-negative bacteria investigated exert various effects on fatty acids. P. aeruginosa and A. calcoaceticus catabolize any of the fatty acids tested. S. marcescens is effective upon all fatty acids excepting butyric acid. The long chain fatty acids only are degraded by E. coli, meanwhile the other fatty acids present a bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity on it. The authors propose a simple and original method for testing the capability of degradation of fatty acids by some bacterial species.

  1. History of fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  2. Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-Round in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Gonçalo S.; Holdt, Susan L.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a reference site in Denmark (2013–2014). Generally, there was no difference in the biomass composition between sites; however, significant seasonal changes were found. The lipid concentration varied from 0.62%–0.88% dry weight (DW) in July to 3.33%–3.35% DW in November (p < 0.05) in both sites. The fatty acid composition in January was significantly different from all the other sampling months. The dissimilarities were mainly explained by changes in the relative abundance of 20:5n-3 (13.12%–33.35%), 14:0 (11.07%–29.37%) and 18:1n-9 (10.15%–16.94%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’s) made up more than half of the fatty acids with a maximum in July (52.3%–54.0% fatty acid methyl esters; FAME). This including the most appreciated health beneficial PUFA’s, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), but also arachidonic (ARA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are not found in land vegetables such as cabbage and lettuce. Compared to fat (salmon) and lean fish (cod) this seaweed species contains higher proportions of ARA and SDA, but lower EPA (only cod) and DHA. Conclusively, the season of harvest is important for the choice of lipid quantity and quality, but the marine vegetables provide better sources of EPA, DHA and long-chain (LC)-PUFA’s in general compared to traditional vegetables. PMID:26184241

  3. Short communication: Association of milk fatty acids with early lactation hyperketonemia and elevated concentration of nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Lock, A L; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the limited research available on the association between concentrations of milk fatty acids and elevated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in early lactation dairy cattle. Measurement of milk fatty acids for detection of cows in excessive negative energy balance has the potential to be incorporated in routine in-line monitoring systems. Blood samples were taken from 84 cows in second or greater lactation 3 times per week between 3 to 14 d in milk. Cows were characterized as hyperketonemic (HYK) if blood BHB concentration was ≥1.2mmol/L at least once and characterized as having elevated concentrations of NEFA (NEFAH) if serum NEFA concentration was ≥1mmol/L at least once. Composition of colostrum and milk fatty acids at wk 2 postpartum was used to investigate the potential diagnostic value of individual fatty acids and fatty acid ratios for the correct classification of cows with NEFA and BHB concentrations above these thresholds, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify thresholds of fatty acid concentration and fatty acid ratios when ROC area under the curve was ≥0.70. Correct classification rate (CCR, %) was calculated as {[(number of true positives + number of true negatives)/total number tested] × 100}. None of the colostrum fatty acids yielded a sufficiently high area under the curve in ROC analysis for the association with HYK and NEFAH. The following fatty acids and fatty acid ratios were identified for an association with NEFAH (threshold, CCR): C15:0 (≤0.65g/100g, 68.3%); cis-9 C16:1 (≥1.85g/100g, 70.7%); cis-9 C18:1 (≥26g/100g, 69.5%), cis-9 C18:1 to C15:0 ratio (≥45, 69.5%); cis-9 C16:1 to C15:0 (≥2.50, 73.2%). Several fatty acids were associated with HYK (threshold, CCR): C6:0 (≤1.68g/100g, 80.5%), C8:0 (≤0.80g/100g, 80.5%), C10:0 (≤1.6g/100g, 79.3%); C12:0 (≤1.42g/100g, 82.9%); C14:0 (≤6.10g/100g, 84

  4. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease coronary artery disease and improve blood flow. PUFAs have been known to have anti-inflammatory action and improved the chronic inflammation such as auto-immune diseases or degenerative neurologic diseases. PUFAs are used for metabolic syndrome related with obesity or diabetes. However, there are several considerations related with intake of PUFAs. Obsession with the intake of unsaturated fatty acids could bring about the shortage of essential fatty acids that are crucial for our body, weaken the immune system, and increase the risk of heart disease, arrhythmia, and stroke. In this review, we discuss types, physiologic mechanism of action of PUFAs, intake of PUFAs for children, recommended intake of PUFAs, and considerations for the intake of PUFAs. PMID:24224148

  6. The Microbiota of Freshwater Fish and Freshwater Niches Contain Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Producing Shewanella Species

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Joseph E.; Jensen, Brittany J.; Bishop, Sydney S.; Lokken, James P.; Dorff, Kellen J.; Ripley, Michael P.; Munro, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 years ago, it was discovered that free-living bacteria isolated from cold ocean depths could produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3), two PUFA essential for human health. Numerous laboratories have also discovered that EPA- and/or DHA-producing bacteria, many of them members of the Shewanella genus, could be isolated from the intestinal tracts of omega-3 fatty acid-rich marine fish. If bacteria contribute omega-3 fatty acids to the host fish in general or if they assist some bacterial species in adaptation to cold, then cold freshwater fish or habitats should also harbor these producers. Thus, we undertook a study to see if these niches also contained omega-3 fatty acid producers. We were successful in isolating and characterizing unique EPA-producing strains of Shewanella from three strictly freshwater native fish species, i.e., lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and walleye (Sander vitreus), and from two other freshwater nonnative fish, i.e., coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and seeforellen brown trout (Salmo trutta). We were also able to isolate four unique free-living strains of EPA-producing Shewanella from freshwater habitats. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses suggest that one producer is clearly a member of the Shewanella morhuae species and another is sister to members of the marine PUFA-producing Shewanella baltica species. However, the remaining isolates have more ambiguous relationships, sharing a common ancestor with non-PUFA-producing Shewanella putrefaciens isolates rather than marine S. baltica isolates despite having a phenotype more consistent with S. baltica strains. PMID:26497452

  7. Fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Knivett, V. A.; Cullen, Julia

    1967-01-01

    1. Fatty acid formation by cells of a strain of Escherichia coli has been studied in the exponential, post-exponential and stationary phases of growth. 2. During the exponential phase of growth, the metabolic quotient (mμmoles of fatty acid synthesized/mg. dry wt. of cells/hr.) for each fatty acid in the extractable lipid was constant. 3. The newly synthesized fatty acid mixtures produced during this phase contained hexadecanoic acid (41%), hexadecenoic acid (31%), octadecenoic acid (21%) and the C17-cyclopropane acid, methylenehexadecanoic acid (4%). 4. As the proportion of newly synthesized material increased, changes in the fatty acid composition of the cells during this period were towards this constant composition. 5. Abrupt changes in fatty acid synthesis occurred when exponential growth ceased. 6. In media in which glycerol, or SO42− or Mg2+, was growth-limiting there was a small accumulation of C17-cyclopropane acid in cells growing in the post-exponential phase of growth. 7. Where either NH4+ or PO43− was growth-limiting and there were adequate supplies of glycerol, Mg2+ and SO42−, there was a marked accumulation of C17-cyclopropane acid and C19-cyclopropane acid appeared. 8. Under appropriate conditions the metabolic quotient for C17-cyclopropane acid increased up to sevenfold at the end of exponential growth. Simultaneously the metabolic quotients of the other acids fell. 9. A mixture of glycerol, Mg2+ and SO42− stimulated cyclopropane acid formation in resting cells. PMID:5340364

  8. Characteristic lipids of Bordetella pertussis: simple fatty acid composition, hydroxy fatty acids, and an ornithine-containing lipid.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Y; Moribayashi, A

    1982-01-01

    The lipids and fatty acids of Bordetella pertussis (phases I to IV) were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry and compared with those of B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica. The major lipid components of the three species were phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, and an ornithine-containing lipid. The ornithine-containing lipid was characteristic of the genus Bordetella. The fatty acid composition of the total extractable cellular lipids of B. pertussis was mostly hexadecanoic and hexadecenoic acids (90%) in a ratio of about 1:1. The hexadecenoic acid of B. pertussis was in the cis-9 form. The fatty acid composition of the residual bound lipids was distinctly different from that of the extractable lipids, and residual bound lipids being mainly 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, tetradecanoic, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acids, with 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid occurring in some strains. It was determined that the 3-hydroxy fatty acids were derived from lipid A. The fatty acid composition of the total extractable cellular lipids of B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica, mainly composed of hexadecanoic and heptadecacyclopropanoic acid, differed from that of B. pertussis. Although the fatty acid composition of the residual bound lipids of B. parapertussis was similar to that of the residual bound lipids of B. pertussis, 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid was detected only in the bound lipids of B. bronchiseptica. Images PMID:6284719

  9. Characteristic lipids of Bordetella pertussis: simple fatty acid composition, hydroxy fatty acids, and an ornithine-containing lipid.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Y; Moribayashi, A

    1982-08-01

    The lipids and fatty acids of Bordetella pertussis (phases I to IV) were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry and compared with those of B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica. The major lipid components of the three species were phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, and an ornithine-containing lipid. The ornithine-containing lipid was characteristic of the genus Bordetella. The fatty acid composition of the total extractable cellular lipids of B. pertussis was mostly hexadecanoic and hexadecenoic acids (90%) in a ratio of about 1:1. The hexadecenoic acid of B. pertussis was in the cis-9 form. The fatty acid composition of the residual bound lipids was distinctly different from that of the extractable lipids, and residual bound lipids being mainly 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, tetradecanoic, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acids, with 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid occurring in some strains. It was determined that the 3-hydroxy fatty acids were derived from lipid A. The fatty acid composition of the total extractable cellular lipids of B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica, mainly composed of hexadecanoic and heptadecacyclopropanoic acid, differed from that of B. pertussis. Although the fatty acid composition of the residual bound lipids of B. parapertussis was similar to that of the residual bound lipids of B. pertussis, 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid was detected only in the bound lipids of B. bronchiseptica.

  10. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes wemore » successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.« less

  11. Antibacterial Targets in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, H. Tonie; Reynolds, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway is an attractive but still largely unexploited target for development of new anti-bacterial agents. The extended use of the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid and the antiseptic triclosan, which are inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis, validates this pathway as a target for anti-bacterial development. Differences in subcellular organization of the bacterial and eukaryotic multi-enzyme fatty acid synthase systems offer the prospect of inhibitors with host vs. target specificity. Platensimycin, platencin, and phomallenic acids, newly discovered natural product inhibitors of the condensation steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, represent new classes of compounds with antibiotic potential. An almost complete catalogue of crystal structures for the enzymes of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway can now be exploited in the rational design of new inhibitors, as well as the recently published crystal structures of type I FAS complexes. PMID:17707686

  12. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  14. Low levels of very-long-chain n-3 PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) diet reduce fish robustness under challenging conditions in sea cages.

    PubMed

    Bou, Marta; Berge, Gerd M; Baeverfjord, Grete; Sigholt, Trygve; Østbye, Tone-Kari; Ruyter, Bente

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the minimum requirements of the essential n -3 fatty acids EPA and DHA in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) that can secure their health under challenging conditions in sea cages. Individually tagged Atlantic salmon were fed 2, 10 and 17 g/kg of EPA + DHA from 400 g until slaughter size (about 3·5 kg). The experimental fish reared in sea cages were subjected to the challenging conditions typically experienced under commercial production. Salmon receiving the lowest EPA + DHA levels showed lower growth rates in the earlier life stages, but no significant difference in final weights at slaughter. The fatty acid composition of various tissues and organs had remarkably changed. The decreased EPA + DHA in the different tissue membrane phospholipids were typically replaced by pro-inflammatory n -6 fatty acids, most markedly in the skin. The EPA + DHA levels were maintained at a higher level in the liver and erythrocytes than in the muscle, intestine and skin. After delousing at high water temperatures, the mortality rates were 63, 52 and 16 % in the salmon fed 2, 10 and 17 g/kg EPA + DHA. Low EPA + DHA levels also increased the liver, intestinal and visceral fat amount, reduced intervertebral space and caused mid-intestinal hyper-vacuolisation. Thus, 10 g/kg EPA + DHA in the Atlantic salmon diet, a level previously regarded as sufficient, was found to be too low to maintain fish health under demanding environmental conditions in sea cages.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  16. Fatty acids of pulmonary surfactant phosphatidylcholine from fetal rabbit lung tissue in culture. Biosynthesis of n-10 monoenoic fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, K J; Resele-Tiden, C; Rossi, M E

    1988-08-01

    We have previously reported that fetal rabbit lung tissue in organ culture produces a lamellar body material (pulmonary surfactant) with a lower percentage of disaturated phosphatidylcholine than is typically found in rabbit lung in vivo (Longmuir, K.J., C. Resele-Tiden, and L. Sykes. 1985. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 833: 135-143). This investigation was conducted to identify all fatty acids present in the lamellar body phosphatidylcholine, and to determine whether the low level of disaturated phosphatidylcholine is due to excessive unsaturated fatty acid at position sn-1, sn-2, or both. Fetal rabbit lung tissue, 23 days gestation, was maintained in culture for 7 days in defined (serum-free) medium. Phospholipids were labeled in culture with [1-14C]acetate or [U-14C]glycerol (to follow de novo fatty acid biosynthesis), or with [1-14C]palmitic acid (to follow incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acid). Radiolabeled fatty acid methyl esters obtained from lamellar body phosphatidylcholine were first separated by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC) into two fractions of 1) 14:0 + 16:1 and 2) 16:0 + 18:1. Complete separation of the individual saturated and monoenoic fatty acids was achieved by silver nitrate TLC of the two fractions. Monoenoic fatty acid double bond position was determined by permanganate-periodate oxidation followed by HPLC of the carboxylic acid phenacyl esters. Lamellar body phosphatidylcholine contained four monoenoic fatty acids: 1) palmitoleic acid, 16:1 cis-9; 2) oleic acid, 18:1 cis-9; 3) cis-vaccenic acid, 18:1 cis-11; and 4) 6-hexadecenoic acid, 16:1 cis-6. In addition, 8-octadecenoic acid, 18:1 cis-8, was found in the fatty acids of the tissue homogenate. The abnormally low disaturated phosphatidylcholine content in lamellar body material was the result of abnormally high levels of monoenoic fatty acid (principally 16:1 cis-9) found at position sn-2. Position sn-1 contained normal levels of saturated fatty acid. The biosynthesis

  17. Uncoupling EPA and DHA in Fish Nutrition: Dietary Demand is Limited in Atlantic Salmon and Effectively Met by DHA Alone.

    PubMed

    Emery, James A; Norambuena, Fernando; Trushenski, Jesse; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2016-04-01

    Due to the scarcity of marine fish oil resources, the aquaculture industry is developing more efficient strategies for the utilization of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). A better understanding of how fish utilize EPA and DHA, typically provided by fish oil, is needed. However, EPA and DHA have different physiological functions, may be metabolized and incorporated into tissues differently, and may vary in terms of their importance in meeting the fatty acid requirements of fish. To address these questions, Atlantic salmon were fed experimental diets containing, as the sole added dietary lipid source, fish oil (positive control), tallow (negative control), or tallow supplemented with EPA, DHA, or both fatty acids to ~50 or 100% of their respective levels in the positive control diet. Following 14 weeks of feeding, the negative control diet yielded optimum growth performance. Though surprising, these results support the notion that Atlantic salmon requirements for n-3 LC-PUFA are quite low. EPA was largely β-oxidized and inefficiently deposited in tissues, and increasing dietary levels were associated with potential negative effects on growth. Conversely, DHA was completely spared from catabolism and very efficiently deposited into flesh. EPA bioconversion to DHA was largely influenced by substrate availability, with the presence of preformed DHA having little inhibitory effect. These results clearly indicate EPA and DHA are metabolized differently by Atlantic salmon, and suggest that the n-3 LC-PUFA dietary requirements of Atlantic salmon may be lower than reported and different, if originating primarily from EPA or DHA.

  18. Fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli and its applications towards the production of fatty acid based biofuels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The idea of renewable and regenerative resources has inspired research for more than a hundred years. Ideally, the only spent energy will replenish itself, like plant material, sunlight, thermal energy or wind. Biodiesel or ethanol are examples, since their production relies mainly on plant material. However, it has become apparent that crop derived biofuels will not be sufficient to satisfy future energy demands. Thus, especially in the last decade a lot of research has focused on the production of next generation biofuels. A major subject of these investigations has been the microbial fatty acid biosynthesis with the aim to produce fatty acids or derivatives for substitution of diesel. As an industrially important organism and with the best studied microbial fatty acid biosynthesis, Escherichia coli has been chosen as producer in many of these studies and several reviews have been published in the fields of E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis or biofuels. However, most reviews discuss only one of these topics in detail, despite the fact, that a profound understanding of the involved enzymes and their regulation is necessary for efficient genetic engineering of the entire pathway. The first part of this review aims at summarizing the knowledge about fatty acid biosynthesis of E. coli and its regulation, and it provides the connection towards the production of fatty acids and related biofuels. The second part gives an overview about the achievements by genetic engineering of the fatty acid biosynthesis towards the production of next generation biofuels. Finally, the actual importance and potential of fatty acid-based biofuels will be discussed. PMID:24405789

  19. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids (ῳ-3 fatty acids) in epilepsy: animal models and human clinical trials.

    PubMed

    DeGiorgio, Christopher M; Taha, Ameer Y

    2016-10-01

    There is growing interest in alternative and nutritional therapies for drug resistant epilepsy. ῳ-3 fatty acids such as fish or krill oil are widely available supplements used to lower triglycerides and enhance cardiovascular health. ῳ-3 fatty acids have been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy. Yet, evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials in epilepsy is at an early stage. This report focuses on the key ῳ-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, their incorporation into the lipid bilayer, modulation of ion channels, and mechanisms of action in reducing excitability within the central nervous system. This paper presents pre-clinical evidence from mouse, rat, and canine models, and reports the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids in randomized controlled clinical trials. An English language search of PubMed and Google scholar for the years 1981-2016 was performed for animal studies and human randomized controlled clinical trials. Expert commentary: Basic science and animal models provide a cogent rationale and substantial evidence for a role of ῳ-3 fatty acids in reducing seizures. Results in humans are limited. Recent Phase II RCT evidence suggests that low to moderate dose of ῳ-3 fatty acids reduce seizures; however, larger multicenter randomized trials are needed to confirm or refute the evidence. The safety, health effects, low cost and ease of use make ῳ-3 fatty acids an intriguing alternative therapy for drug resistant epilepsy. Though safety of profile is excellent, the human data is not yet sufficient to support efficacy in drug resistant epilepsy at this time.

  1. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Ondrej; Brezinova, Marie; Rombaldova, Martina; Slavikova, Barbora; Posta, Martin; Beier, Petr; Janovska, Petra; Veleba, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan; Kudova, Eva; Pelikanova, Terezie; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13-DHAHLA, and 14-DHAHDHA, and were synthesized by adipocytes at concentrations comparable to those of protectins and resolvins derived from DHA in WAT. 13-DHAHLA exerted anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties while reducing macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides and enhancing the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed to n-3 PUFAs, in both mice and humans. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    PubMed Central

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  3. Evaluation of a high-EPA oil from transgenic Camelina sativa in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): Effects on tissue fatty acid composition, histology and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Betancor, M B; Sprague, M; Sayanova, O; Usher, S; Campbell, P J; Napier, J A; Caballero, M J; Tocher, D R

    2015-07-01

    Currently, one alternative for dietary fish oil (FO) in aquafeeds is vegetable oils (VO) that are devoid of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Entirely new sources of n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids through de novo production are a potential solution to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil (ECO) with > 20% EPA and its potential to substitute for FO in Atlantic salmon feeds was tested. Fish were fed with one of the three experimental diets containing FO, wild-type camelina oil (WCO) or ECO as the sole lipid sources for 7 weeks. Inclusion of ECO did not affect any of the performance parameters studied and enhanced apparent digestibility of individual n-6 and n-3 PUFA compared to dietary WCO. High levels of EPA were maintained in brain, liver and intestine (pyloric caeca), and levels of DPA and DHA were increased in liver and intestine of fish fed ECO compared to fish fed WCO likely due to increased LC-PUFA biosynthesis based on up-regulation of the genes. Fish fed ECO showed slight lipid accumulation within hepatocytes similar to that with WCO, although not significantly different to fish fed FO. The regulation of a small number of genes could be attributed to the specific effect of ECO (311 features) with metabolism being the most affected category. The EPA oil from transgenic Camelina (ECO) could be used as a substitute for FO, however it is a hybrid oil containing both FO (EPA) and VO (18:2n-6) fatty acid signatures that resulted in similarly mixed metabolic and physiological responses.

  4. [Overexpression of four fatty acid synthase genes elevated the efficiency of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis in mammalian cells].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guiming; Saleh, Abdulmomen Ali Mohammed; Bahwal, Said Ahmed; Wang, Kunfu; Wang, Mingfu; Wang, Didi; Ge, Tangdong; Sun, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Three long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6), are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids in the body. They are important in developing and maintaining the brain function, and in preventing and treating many diseases such as cardiovascular disease, inflammation and cancer. Although mammals can biosynthesize these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, the efficiency is very low and dietary intake is needed to meet the requirement. In this study, a multiple-genes expression vector carrying mammalian A6/A5 fatty acid desaturases and multiple-genes expression vector carrying mammalian Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid desaturases and Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid elongases coding genes was used to transfect HEK293T cells, then the overexpression of the target genes was detected. GC-MS analysis shows that the biosynthesis efficiency and level of DHA, EPA and ARA were significantly increased in cells transfected with the multiple-genes expression vector. Particularly, DHA level in these cells was 2.5 times higher than in the control cells. This study indicates mammal possess a certain mechanism for suppression of high level of biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the overexpression of Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid desaturases and Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid elongases broke this suppression mechanism so that the level of DHA, EPA and ARA was significantly increased. This study also provides a basis for potential applications of this gene construct in transgenic animal to produce high level of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid.

  5. The Microbiota of Freshwater Fish and Freshwater Niches Contain Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Producing Shewanella Species.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Frank E; McGraw, Joseph E; Jensen, Brittany J; Bishop, Sydney S; Lokken, James P; Dorff, Kellen J; Ripley, Michael P; Munro, James B

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30 years ago, it was discovered that free-living bacteria isolated from cold ocean depths could produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3), two PUFA essential for human health. Numerous laboratories have also discovered that EPA- and/or DHA-producing bacteria, many of them members of the Shewanella genus, could be isolated from the intestinal tracts of omega-3 fatty acid-rich marine fish. If bacteria contribute omega-3 fatty acids to the host fish in general or if they assist some bacterial species in adaptation to cold, then cold freshwater fish or habitats should also harbor these producers. Thus, we undertook a study to see if these niches also contained omega-3 fatty acid producers. We were successful in isolating and characterizing unique EPA-producing strains of Shewanella from three strictly freshwater native fish species, i.e., lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and walleye (Sander vitreus), and from two other freshwater nonnative fish, i.e., coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and seeforellen brown trout (Salmo trutta). We were also able to isolate four unique free-living strains of EPA-producing Shewanella from freshwater habitats. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses suggest that one producer is clearly a member of the Shewanella morhuae species and another is sister to members of the marine PUFA-producing Shewanella baltica species. However, the remaining isolates have more ambiguous relationships, sharing a common ancestor with non-PUFA-producing Shewanella putrefaciens isolates rather than marine S. baltica isolates despite having a phenotype more consistent with S. baltica strains. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  7. [Elimination of all trans fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Katan, M B

    2008-02-09

    At the start of the 20th century, the production of trans fatty acids was originally largely driven by the increasing demand for margarine. The two Dutch margarine firms Van den Bergh and Jurgens played an important role in this early development. In the early 1990s it was shown that trans fatty acids increase the risk of heart disease. Unilever, the successor to Van den Bergh and Jurgens, then took the lead in eliminating trans fatty acids from retail foods worldwide. As a result, intake in The Netherlands fell from 15 g per day in 1980 to 3 g per day in 2003. Dairy products and meat are now the major source of trans fatty acids. The effects on health of these ruminant trans fatty acids are unclear. There are three lessons to be learned from the rise and fall of trans fatty acids. First, a history of safe use does not guarantee safety of food components, because routine surveillance will fail to detect adverse effects on common illnesses with long incubation periods. Second, it shows that it is more effective and easier to change the composition of foods than to change consumer behaviour. And third, governments can have a major impact on consumers' health by mandating the use of healthier food ingredients.

  8. The effect of pH on the toxicity of fatty acids and fatty acid amides to rainbow trout gill cells.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Matthew J; Voronca, Delia C; Chapman, Robert W; Moeller, Peter D R

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) expose aquatic organisms to multiple physical and chemical stressors during an acute time period. Algal toxins themselves may be altered by water chemistry parameters affecting their bioavailability and resultant toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two abiotic parameters (pH, inorganic metal salts) on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids, two classes of lipids produced by harmful algae, including the golden alga, Prymnesium parvum, that are toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout gill cells were used as a model of the fish gill and exposed to single compounds and mixtures of compounds along with variations in pH level and concentration of inorganic metal salts. We employed artificial neural networks (ANNs) and standard ANOVA statistical analysis to examine and predict the effects of these abiotic parameters on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Our results demonstrate that increasing pH levels increases the toxicity of fatty acid amides and inhibits the toxicity of fatty acids. This phenomenon is reversed at lower pH levels. Exposing gill cells to complex mixtures of chemical factors resulted in dramatic increases in toxicity compared to tests of single compounds for both the fatty acid amides and fatty acids. These findings highlight the potential of physicochemical factors to affect the toxicity of chemicals released during algal blooms and demonstrate drastic differences in the effect of pH on fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  10. Lipomobilization in periparturient dairy cows influences the composition of plasma nonesterified fatty acids and leukocyte phospholipid fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G A; O'Boyle, N J; Herdt, T H; Sordillo, L M

    2010-06-01

    The periparturient period is characterized by sudden changes in metabolic and immune cell functions that predispose dairy cows to increased incidence of disease. Metabolic changes include alterations in the energy balance that lead to increased lipomobilization with consequent elevation of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations. The objective of this study was to establish the influence of lipomobilization on fatty acid profiles within plasma lipid fractions and leukocyte phospholipid composition. Blood samples from 10 dairy cows were collected at 14 and 7 d before due date, at calving, and at 7, 14, and 30 d after calving. Total lipids and lipid fractions were extracted from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The degree of lipomobilization was characterized by measurement of plasma NEFA concentrations. The fatty acid profile of plasma NEFA, plasma phospholipids, and leukocyte phospholipids differed from the composition of total lipids in plasma, where linoleic acid was the most common fatty acid. Around parturition and during early lactation, the proportion of palmitic acid significantly increased in the plasma NEFA and phospholipid fractions with a concomitant increase in the phospholipid fatty acid profile of leukocytes. In contrast, the phospholipid fraction of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in leukocytes was diminished during the periparturient period, especially during the first 2 wk following parturition. This study showed that the composition of total plasma lipids does not necessarily reflect the NEFA and phospholipid fractions in periparturient dairy cows. These findings are significant because it is the plasma phospholipid fraction that contributes to fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids. Increased availability of certain saturated fatty acids in the NEFA phospholipid fractions may contribute to altered leukocyte functions during the periparturient period. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published

  11. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  12. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  13. Transformation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids/Esters to Corresponding Keto Fatty Acids/Esters by Aerobic Oxidation with Pd(II)/Lewis Acid Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Senan, Ahmed M; Zhang, Sicheng; Zeng, Miao; Chen, Zhuqi; Yin, Guochuan

    2017-08-16

    Utilization of renewable biomass to partly replace the fossil resources in industrial applications has attracted attention due to the limited fossil feedstock with the increased environmental concerns. This work introduced a modified Wacker-type oxidation for transformation of unsaturated fatty acids/esters to the corresponding keto fatty acids/esters, in which Cu 2+ cation was replaced with common nonredox metal ions, that is, a novel Pd(II)/Lewis acid (LA) catalyst. It was found that adding nonredox metal ions can effectively promote Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids/esters to the corresponding keto fatty acids/esters, even much better than Cu 2+ , and the promotional effect is highly dependent on the Lewis acidity of added nonredox metal ions. The improved catalytic efficiency is attributed to the formation of heterobimetallic Pd(II)/LA species, and the oxidation mechanism of this Pd(II)/LA catalyst is also briefly discussed.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids: new insights into the pharmacology and biology of docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H

    2013-12-01

    Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, which are predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Each of these omega-3 fatty acids has distinct biological effects that may have variable clinical effects. In addition, plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids are affected not only by dietary intake, but also by the polymorphisms of coding genes fatty acid desaturase 1-3 for the desaturase enzymes that convert short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The clinical significance of this new understanding regarding the complexity of omega-3 fatty acid biology is the purpose of this review. FADS polymorphisms that result in either lower levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or higher levels of long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, are associated with dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. EPA and DHA have differences in their effects on lipoprotein metabolism, in which EPA, with a more potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha effect, decreases hepatic lipogenesis, whereas DHA not only enhances VLDL lipolysis, resulting in greater conversion to LDL, but also increases HDL cholesterol and larger, more buoyant LDL particles. Overall, these results emphasize that blood concentrations of individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which reflect both dietary intake and metabolic influences, may have independent, but also complementary- biological effects and reinforce the need to potentially provide a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids to maximize cardiovascular risk reduction.

  15. ω-3 Fatty acids reverse lipotoxity through induction of autophagy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Xu, Chengfu; Yan, Tianlian; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease concerning hepatocyte lipid accumulation as well as apoptosis induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) and to explore the underlying mechanism involving autophagy. Hepatocytes were incubated with a mixture of free fatty acids (FFAs) to mimic in vitro lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, presented by lipid accumulation and cellular apoptosis. Chemical inhibitor or inducer of autophagy and genetic deficit cells, as well as ω-3 fatty acids were used as intervention. The autophagic role of ω-3 fatty acids was investigated using Western blot and immunofluorescence. The underlying mechanism of ω-3 fatty acids involving autophagy was preliminarily explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. FFAs induce lipid accumulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Inhibition or genetic defect of autophagy increases lipid accumulation induced by FFA, whereas induction acts inversely. ω-3 Fatty acids reduced lipid accumulation and inhibited apoptosis induced by FFA. ω-3 Fatty acids induced autophagy by downregulating stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression in hepatocytes. ω-3 Fatty acids exert protective effects on hepatocytes against lipotoxicity through induction of autophagy, as demonstrated by inhibition of lipid accumulation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reciprocal effects of 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid on fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Otto, D A; Chatzidakis, C; Kasziba, E; Cook, G A

    1985-10-01

    Under certain incubation conditions 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) stimulated the oxidation of palmitate by hepatocytes, as observed by others. A decrease in malonyl-CoA concentration accompanied the stimulation of oxidation. Under other conditions, however, TOFA inhibited fatty acid oxidation. The observed effects of TOFA depended on the TOFA and fatty acid concentrations, the cell concentration, the time of TOFA addition relative to the addition of fatty acid, and the nutritional state of the animal (fed or starved). The data indicate that only under limited incubation conditions may TOFA be used as an inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis without inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. When rat liver mitochondria were preincubated with TOFA, ketogenesis from palmitate was slightly inhibited (up to 20%) at TOFA concentrations that were less than that of CoA, but the inhibition became almost complete (up to 90%) when TOFA was greater than or equal to the CoA concentration. TOFA had only slight or no inhibitory effects on the oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA, palmitoyl(-)carnitine, or butyrate. Since TOFA can be converted to TOFyl-CoA, the data suggest that the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation from palmitate results from the decreased availability of CoA for extramitochondrial activation of fatty acids. These data, along with previous data of others, indicate that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by CoA sequestration is a common mechanism of a group of carboxylic acid inhibitors. A general caution is appropriate with regard to the interpretation of results when using TOFA in studies of fatty acid oxidation.

  17. Digestion of fatty acids in ruminants: a meta-analysis of flows and variation factors: 2. C18 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Glasser, F; Schmidely, P; Sauvant, D; Doreau, M

    2008-05-01

    In ruminants, dietary lipids are extensively hydrogenated by rumen micro-organisms, and the extent of this biohydrogenation is a major determinant of long-chain fatty acid profiles of animal products (milk, meat). This paper reports on the duodenal flows of C18 fatty acids and their absorption in the small intestine, using a meta-analysis of a database of 77 experiments (294 treatments). We established equations for the prediction of duodenal flows of various 18-carbon (C18) fatty acids as a function of the intakes of their precursors and other dietary factors (source and/or technological treatment of dietary lipids). We also quantified the influence of several factors modifying rumen metabolism (pH, forage : concentrate ratio, level of intake, fish oil supplementation). We established equations for the apparent absorption of these fatty acids in the small intestine as a function of their duodenal flows. For all C18 unsaturated fatty acids, apparent absorption was a linear function of duodenal flow. For 18:0, apparent absorption levelled off for high duodenal flows. From this database, with fatty acid flows expressed in g/kg dry matter intake, we could not find any significant differences between animal categories (lactating cows, other cattle or sheep) in terms of rumen metabolism or intestinal absorption of C18 fatty acids.

  18. Expression of dehydratase domains from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase increases the production of fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Oyola-Robles, Delise; Rullán-Lind, Carlos; Carballeira, Néstor M; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2014-02-05

    Increasing the production of fatty acids by microbial fermentation remains an important step toward the generation of biodiesel and other portable liquid fuels. In this work, we report an Escherichia coli strain engineered to overexpress a fragment consisting of four dehydratase domains from the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase enzyme complex from the deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. The DH1-DH2-UMA enzyme fragment was excised from its natural context within a multi-enzyme PKS and expressed as a stand-alone protein. Fatty acids were extracted from the cell pellet, esterified with methanol and quantified by GC-MS analysis. Results show that the E. coli strain expressing the DH tetradomain fragment was capable of producing up to a 5-fold increase (80.31 mg total FA/L culture) in total fatty acids over the negative control strain lacking the recombinant enzyme. The enhancement in production was observed across the board for all the fatty acids that are typically made by E. coli. The overexpression of the DH tetradomain did not affect E. coli cell growth, thus showing that the observed enhancement in fatty acid production was not a result of effects associated with cell density. The observed enhancement was more pronounced at lower temperatures (3.8-fold at 16 °C, 3.5-fold at 22 °C and 1.5-fold at 30 °C) and supplementation of the media with 0.4% glycerol did not result in an increase in fatty acid production. All these results taken together suggest that either the dehydration of fatty acid intermediates are a limiting step in the E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis machinery, or that the recombinant dehydratase domains used in this study are also capable of catalyzing thioester hydrolysis of the final products. The enzyme in this report is a new tool which could be incorporated into other existing strategies aimed at improving fatty acid production in bacterial fermentations toward accessible biodiesel precursors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  19. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and P-90-1985...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and P-90-1985...

  1. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid...

  2. PlsX deletion impacts fatty acid synthesis and acid adaptation in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Cross, Benjamin; Garcia, Ariana; Faustoferri, Roberta; Quivey, Robert G

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus mutans, one of the primary causative agents of dental caries in humans, ferments dietary sugars in the mouth to produce organic acids. These acids lower local pH values, resulting in demineralization of the tooth enamel, leading to caries. To survive acidic environments, Strep. mutans employs several adaptive mechanisms, including a shift from saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids. PlsX is an acyl-ACP : phosphate transacylase that links the fatty acid synthase II (FASII) pathway to the phospholipid synthesis pathway, and is therefore central to the movement of unsaturated fatty acids into the membrane. Recently, we discovered that plsX is not essential in Strep. mutans. A plsX deletion mutant was not a fatty acid or phospholipid auxotroph. Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters indicated that membrane fatty acid chain length in the plsX deletion strain differed from those detected in the parent strain, UA159. The deletion strain displayed a fatty acid shift similar to WT, but had a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids at low pH. The deletion strain survived significantly longer than the parent strain when cultures were subjected to an acid challenge of pH 2.5.The ΔplsX strain also exhibited elevated F-ATPase activity at pH 5.2, compared with the parent. These results indicate that the loss of plsX affects both the fatty acid synthesis pathway and the acid-adaptive response of Strep. mutans.

  3. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  4. [CONTENT OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN SPAIN].

    PubMed

    Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Dal Re Saavedra, M Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2015-09-01

    trans fatty acids are associated to several health disorders, as ischemic heart disease or diabetes mellitus. to assess the content of trans fatty acids in products in Spain, and the percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids. 443 food products were acquired in Spain, and they were classified into groups. The content in fatty acids was analyzed using gas chromatography. Estimates of central tendency and variability of the content of trans fatty acids in each food group were computed (in g of trans fatty acids/100 g of product). The percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids was calculated in each group. 443 products were grouped into 42 groups. Median of trans fatty acids was less than 0.55 g / 100 g of product in all groups except one. 83 % of groups had less than 2 % of trans fatty acids, and 71 % of groups had less than 1 %. the content of trans fatty acids in Spain is low, and it currently doesn't play a public health problem. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: Structure elucidation and metabolic engineering

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John; Burkart, Michael D.

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understandingmore » of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. Lastly, in this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.« less

  6. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: Structure elucidation and metabolic engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-20

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understandingmore » of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. Lastly, in this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.« less

  7. Plasma fatty acid profile and alternative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Klvanová, J

    1997-01-01

    Plasma profile of fatty acids was examined in a group of children consisting of 7 vegans, 15 lactoovovegetarians and 10 semivegetarians. The children were 11-15 years old and the average period of alternative nutrition was 3.4 years. The results were compared with a group of 19 omnivores that constituted an average sample with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters from a larger study of health and nutritional status of children in Slovakia. Alternative nutrition groups had significantly lower values of saturated fatty acids. The content of oleic acid was identical to omnivores. A significant increase was observed for linoleic and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acids. The dihomo-gamma-linolenic (n-6) acid and arachidonic (n-6) acid values were comparable to omnivores for all alternative nutrition groups. Values of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lactoovovegetarians were identical to those of omnivores whereas they were significantly increased in semivegetarians consuming fish twice a week. Due to the total exclusion of animal fats from the diet, vegans had significantly reduced values of palmitoleic acid as well as eicosapentaenoic (n-3) acid and docosahexaenoic (n-3) acid resulting in an increased n-6/n-3 ratio. Values of plasma fatty acids found in alternative nutrition groups can be explained by the higher intake of common vegetable oils (high content of linoleic acid), oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid (cereal germs, soybean oil, walnuts), as well as in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish). The results of fatty acids (except n-3 in vegans) and other lipid parameters confirm the beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. The effects of n-3 fatty acid deficiency and repletion upon the fatty acid composition and function of the brain and retina.

    PubMed

    Connor, W E; Neuringer, M

    1988-01-01

    It is now apparent that both n-6 and n-3 fatty acids are essential for normal development in mammals, and that each has specific functions in the body. N-6 fatty acids are necessary primarily for growth, reproduction, and the maintenance of skin integrity, whereas n-3 fatty acids are involved in the development and function of the retina and cerebral cortex and perhaps other organs such as the testes. Fetal life and infancy are particularly critical for the nervous tissue development. Therefore, with respect to human nutrition, adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids should be provided during pregnancy, lactation and infancy, but probably throughout life. We estimate that adequate levels are provided by diets containing 6-8% kcals from linoleic acid and 1% from n-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA), resulting in a ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids of 4:1 to 10:1. The essentiality of n-3 fatty acids resides in their presence as DHA in vital membranes of the photoreceptors of the retina and the synaptosomes and other subcellular membranes of the brain. The replacement of DHA in deficient animals by the n-6 fatty acid, 22:5, results in abnormal functioning of the membranes for reasons as yet to be ascertained. Most significant is the lability of fatty acid composition in the retinal and brain of deficient animals. Dietary fish oil, which contains EPA and DHA, will readily lead to a change in the composition of the membrane of retina and brain, fatty acids, with DHA replacing the n-6 fatty acid, 22:5. The interrelationships between the chemistry of neural and retinal membranes as affected by diet and their biological functioning provides an exciting prospect for future investigations.

  9. Analysis of mixtures of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Ting; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Huo, Weiyan; Yan, Daojiang; Chen, Jinjin; Zhou, Jiemin; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-01-03

    Microbial production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols has attracted increasing concerns because of energy crisis and environmental impact of fossil fuels. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for the extraction and quantification of these compounds become necessary. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection (HPLC-RID) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in these samples. The optimum chromatographic conditions are C18 column eluted with methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v); column temperature, 26°C; flow rate, 1.0mL/min. Calibration curves of all selected analytes showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9989). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the 10 compounds were less than 4.46% and 5.38%, respectively, which indicated that the method had good repeatability and precision. Besides, a method for simultaneous extraction of fatty acids and fatty alcohols from fermentation broth was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solvent, ethyl acetate; solvent to sample ratio, 0.5:1; rotation speed, 2min at 260rpm; extraction temperature, 10°C. This study provides simple and fast methods to simultaneously extract and quantify fatty acids and fatty alcohols for the first time. It will be useful for the study of microbial production of these products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of aerosol formulation to amino acids and fatty acids contents in Haruan extract.

    PubMed

    Febriyenti; Bai-Baie, Saringat Bin; Laila, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Haruan (Channa striatus) extract was formulated to aerosol for wound and burn treatment. Haruan extract is containing amino acids and fatty acids that important for wound healing process. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of formulation and other excipients in the formula to amino acids and fatty acids content in Haruan extract before and after formulated into aerosol. Precolumn derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) method is used for amino acids analysis. Fatty acids in Haruan extract were esterified using transesterification method to form FAMEs before analyzed using GC. Boron trifluoride-methanol reagent is used for transesterification. Tyrosine and methionine concentrations were different after formulated. The concentrations were decrease. There are six fatty acids have amount that significantly different after formulated into concentrate and aerosol. Contents of these fatty acids were increase. Generally, fatty acids which had content increased after formulated were the long-chain fatty acids. This might be happen because of chain extension process. Saponification and decarboxylation would give the chain extended product. Therefore contents of long-chain fatty acids were increase. Generally, the aerosol formulation did not affect the amino acids concentrations in Haruan extract while some long-chain fatty acids concentrations were increase after formulated into concentrate and aerosol.

  11. Correlations between FAS elongation cycle genes expression and fatty acid production for improvement of long-chain fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunhee; Jung, Yeontae; Lee, Seunghan; Lee, Jinwon

    2013-03-01

    Microorganisms have been used for biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) production due to their significant environmental and economic benefits. The aim of the present research was to develop new strains of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 and to increase the content of long-chain fatty acids by overexpressing essential enzymes that are involved in the fatty acid synthase elongation cycle. In addition, the relationship of β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase (fabH), β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (fabG), β-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrase (fabZ), and β-enoyl-ACP reductase (fabI) with respect to fatty acid production was investigated. The four enzymes play a unique role in fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation processes. We report the generation of recombinant E. coli strains that produced long-chain fatty acids to amounts twofold over wild type. To verify the results, NAD(+)/NADH ratios and glucose analyses were performed. We also confirmed that FabZ plays an important role in producing unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) as E. coli SGJS25 (overexpressing the fabZ gene) produced the highest percentage of UFAs (35 % of total long-chain fatty acids), over wild type and other recombinants. Indeed, cis-9-hexadecenoic acid, a major UFA in E. coli SGJS25, was produced at levels 20-fold higher than in wild type after 20 h in culture. The biochemically engineered E. coli presented in this study is expected to be more economical for producing long-chain fatty acids in quality biodiesel production processes.

  12. Trans-Fats Inhibit Autophagy Induced by Saturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Sauvat, Allan; Chen, Guo; Müller, Kevin; Tong, Mingming; Aprahamian, Fanny; Durand, Sylvère; Cerrato, Giulia; Bezu, Lucillia; Leduc, Marion; Franz, Joakim; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Sadoshima, Junichi; Madeo, Frank; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2018-04-01

    Depending on the length of their carbon backbone and their saturation status, natural fatty acids have rather distinct biological effects. Thus, longevity of model organisms is increased by extra supply of the most abundant natural cis-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, but not by that of the most abundant saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid. Here, we systematically compared the capacity of different saturated, cis-unsaturated and alien (industrial or ruminant) trans-unsaturated fatty acids to provoke cellular stress in vitro, on cultured human cells expressing a battery of distinct biosensors that detect signs of autophagy, Golgi stress and the unfolded protein response. In contrast to cis-unsaturated fatty acids, trans-unsaturated fatty acids failed to stimulate signs of autophagy including the formation of GFP-LC3B-positive puncta, production of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, and activation of the transcription factor TFEB. When combined effects were assessed, several trans-unsaturated fatty acids including elaidic acid (the trans-isomer of oleate), linoelaidic acid, trans-vaccenic acid and palmitelaidic acid, were highly efficient in suppressing autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by palmitic, but not by oleic acid. Elaidic acid also inhibited autophagy induction by palmitic acid in vivo, in mouse livers and hearts. We conclude that the well-established, though mechanistically enigmatic toxicity of trans-unsaturated fatty acids may reside in their capacity to abolish cytoprotective stress responses induced by saturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2018 German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatty acid supply with complementary foods and LC-PUFA status in healthy infants: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Libuda, Lars; Mesch, Christina M; Stimming, Madlen; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Warschburger, Petra; Blanke, Katharina; Reischl, Eva; Kalhoff, Hermann; Kersting, Mathilde

    2016-06-01

    Introduction of complementary food usually leads to decreasing intakes of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), compared to full breastfeeding. In the randomised controlled PINGU intervention trial, we tested the effects of complementary foods with different contents of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on term infant LC-PUFA status. Healthy infants born at term were randomised to receive from the introduction of complementary feeding at the age of 4 to 6 months until age of 10 months ready-made complementary meals either with ALA-rich rapeseed oil (intervention group (IG)-R), with salmon twice weekly to provide preformed DHA (IG-F), or with linoleic acid-rich corn oil (control group, CG). Fatty acid composition was assessed in erythrocyte (RBC) and plasma glycerophospholipids. Complete data of fatty acids in RBC (plasma) were available from 158 (155) infants. After intervention, infants assigned to IG-F showed higher RBC and plasma percentages of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), DHA, and total n-3 LC-PUFA than CG (each p < 0.001). In IG-R, levels of ALA and the ratio of ALA to LA in plasma and RBC (all p < 0.0001) as well as RBC-EPA (p < 0.0001) were higher than in CG, while DHA levels did not differ between IG-R and CG. Regular fish consumption during complementary feeding enhances infant EPA and DHA status. The usage of rapeseed oil in small amounts concordant with EU-law for commercial meals enhances endogenic EPA-synthesis, but does not affect DHA status. Provision of oily fish with complementary feeds is advisable to prevent a decline of DHA status. www.clinicaltrials.gov , identifier: NCT01487889, title: Polyunsaturated fatty acids in child nutrition-a German multimodal optimisation study (PINGU).

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Benton, Jeannie L.; Sandeman, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus americanus) brain where, as in many vertebrate species, neurogenesis persists throughout life. The factors that regulate adult neurogenesis are highly conserved among species, and the crustacean brain has been successfully utilized as a model for investigating this process. In this study, lobsters were fed one of three diets that differed in fatty acid content. These animals were subsequently incubated in 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to detect cells in S-phase of the cell cycle. A quantitative analysis of the resulting BrdU-labeled cells in the projection neuron cluster in the brain shows that short-term augmentation of dietary omega-3 relative to omega-6 fatty acids results in significant increases in the numbers of S-phase cells, and that the circadian pattern of neurogenesis is also altered. It is proposed that the ratio of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids may alter neurogenesis via modulatory influences on membrane proteins, cytokines and/or neurotrophins. PMID:17240063

  15. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including..., safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty acids derived from these substances...

  16. 7 Things to Know about Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Y Z 7 Things To Know About Omega-3 Fatty Acids Share: Omega-3 fatty acids are a group of polyunsaturated fatty ... a number of functions in the body. The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in ...

  17. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    PubMed

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Fatty acid metabolism in breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Marie E.

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism is recognized as a component of malignant transformation in many different cancers, including breast; yet the potential for targeting this pathway for prevention and/or treatment of cancer remains unrealized. Evidence indicates that proteins involved in both synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids play a pivotal role in the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. The following essay summarizes data implicating specific fatty acid metabolic enzymes in the genesis and progression of breast cancer, and further categorizes the relevance of specific metabolic pathways to individual intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Based on mRNA expression data, the less aggressive luminal subtypes appear to rely on a balance between de novo fatty acid synthesis and oxidation as sources for both biomass and energy requirements, while basal-like, receptor negative subtypes overexpress genes involved in the utilization of exogenous fatty acids. With these differences in mind, treatments may need to be tailored to individual subtypes. PMID:28412757

  19. Four Trypanosoma brucei fatty acyl-CoA synthetases: fatty acid specificity of the recombinant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, D W; Englund, P T

    2001-01-01

    As part of our investigation of fatty acid metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei, we have expressed four acyl-CoA synthetase (TbACS) genes in Esherichia coli. The recombinant proteins, with His-tags on their C-termini, were purified to near homogeneity using nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. Although these enzymes are highly homologous, they have distinct specificities for fatty acid chain length. TbACS1 prefers saturated fatty acids in the range C(11:0) to C(14:0) and TbACS2 prefers shorter fatty acids, mainly C(10:0). TbACS3 and 4, which have 95% sequence identity, have similar specificities, favouring fatty acids between C(14:0) and C(17:0). In addition, TbACS1, 3 and 4 function well with a variety of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:11535136

  20. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants frommore » herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate

  1. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid...

  2. Naturally occurring fatty acids: Source, chemistry, and uses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid...

  4. Fatty acid ω-hydroxylases from Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Bjelica, Anica; Haggitt, Meghan L; Woolfson, Kathlyn N; Lee, Daniel P N; Makhzoum, Abdullah B; Bernards, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Potato StCYP86A33 complements the Arabidopsis AtCYP86A1 mutant, horst - 1. Suberin is a cell-wall polymer that comprises both phenolic and aliphatic components found in specialized plant cells. Aliphatic suberin is characterized by bi-functional fatty acids, typically ω-hydroxy fatty acids and α,ω-dioic acids, which are linked via glycerol to form a three-dimensional polymer network. In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), over 65 % of aliphatics are either ω-hydroxy fatty acids or α,ω-dioic acids. Since the biosynthesis of α,ω-dioic acids proceeds sequentially through ω-hydroxy fatty acids, the formation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids represents a significant metabolic commitment during suberin deposition. Four different plant cytochrome P450 subfamilies catalyze ω-hydroxylation, namely, 86A, 86B, 94A, and 704B; though to date, only a few members have been functionally characterized. In potato, CYP86A33 has been identified and implicated in suberin biosynthesis through reverse genetics (RNAi); however, attempts to express the CYP86A33 protein and characterize its catalytic function have been unsuccessful. Herein, we describe eight fatty acid ω-hydroxylase genes (three CYP86As, one CYP86B, three CYP94As, and a CYP704B) from potato and demonstrate their tissue expression. We also complement the Arabidopsis cyp86A1 mutant horst-1 using StCYP86A33 under the control of the Arabidopsis AtCYP86A1 promoter. Furthermore, we provide preliminary analysis of the StCYP86A33 promoter using a hairy root transformation system to monitor pStCYP86A33::GUS expression constructs. These data confirm the functional role of StCYP86A33 as a fatty acid ω-hydroxylase, and demonstrate the utility of hairy roots in the study of root-specific genes.

  5. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs.

  6. High-oleate yeast oil without polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Kamineni, Annapurna; Consiglio, Andrew L; MacEwen, Kyle; Friedlander, Jonathan; Blitzblau, Hannah G; Hamilton, Maureen A; Crabtree, Donald V; Su, Austin; Afshar, Jonathan; Sullivan, John E; LaTouf, W Greg; South, Colin R; Greenhagen, Emily H; Shaw, A Joe; Brevnova, Elena E

    2018-01-01

    Oleate-enriched triacylglycerides are well-suited for lubricant applications that require high oxidative stability. Fatty acid carbon chain length and degree of desaturation are key determinants of triacylglyceride properties and the ability to manipulate fatty acid composition in living organisms is critical to developing a source of bio-based oil tailored to meet specific application requirements. We sought to engineer the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for production of high-oleate triacylglyceride oil. We studied the effect of deletions and overexpressions in the fatty acid and triacylglyceride synthesis pathways to identify modifications that increase oleate levels. Oleic acid accumulation in triacylglycerides was promoted by exchanging the native ∆9 fatty acid desaturase and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase with heterologous enzymes, as well as deletion of the Δ12 fatty acid desaturase and expression of a fatty acid elongase. By combining these engineering steps, we eliminated polyunsaturated fatty acids and created a Y. lipolytica strain that accumulates triglycerides with > 90% oleate content. High-oleate content and lack of polyunsaturates distinguish this triacylglyceride oil from plant and algal derived oils. Its composition renders the oil suitable for applications that require high oxidative stability and further demonstrates the potential of Y. lipolytica as a producer of tailored lipid profiles.

  7. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E., E-mail: kathryn.hopperton@mail.utoronto.ca; Duncan, Robin E., E-mail: robin.duncan@uwaterloo.ca; Bazinet, Richard P., E-mail: richard.bazinet@utoronto.ca

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as {sup 14}C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231)more » and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We

  8. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris [Portola Valley, CA; Broun, Pierre [Burlingame, CA; van de Loo, Frank [Weston, AU; Boddupalli, Sekhar S [Manchester, MI

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  9. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  10. Multiple genes for functional 6 fatty acyl desaturases (Fad) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): gene and cDNA characterization, functional expression, tissue distribution and nutritional regulation.

    PubMed

    Monroig, Oscar; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Morais, Sofia; Leaver, Michael J; Taggart, John B; Tocher, Douglas R

    2010-09-01

    Fish are the primary source in the human food basket of the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoate (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoate (DHA; 22:6n-3), that are crucial to the health of higher vertebrates. Atlantic salmon are able to synthesize EPA and DHA from 18:3n-3 through reactions catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad) and elongases of very long chain fatty acids. Previously, two cDNAs encoding functionally distinct Delta5 and Delta6 Fads were isolated, but screening of a genomic DNA library revealed the existence of more putative fad genes in the Atlantic salmon genome. In the present study, we show that there are at least four genes encoding putative Fad proteins in Atlantic salmon. Two genes, Delta6fad_a and Delta5fad, corresponded to the previously cloned Delta6 and Delta5 Fad cDNAs. Functional characterization by heterologous expression in yeast showed that the cDNAs for both the two further putative fad genes, Delta6fad_b and Delta6fad_c, had only Delta6 activity, converting 47 % and 12 % of 18:3n-3 to 18:4n-3, and 25 and 7 % of 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-6, for 6Fad_b and Delta6fad_c, respectively. Both 6fad_a and 6fad_b genes were highly expressed in intestine (pyloric caeca), liver and brain, with 6fad_b also highly expressed in gill, whereas 6fad_c transcript was found predominantly in brain, with lower expression levels in all other tissues. The expression levels of the 6fad_a gene in liver and the 6fad_b gene in intestine were significantly higher in fish fed diets containing vegetable oil compared to fish fed fish oil suggesting up-regulation in response to reduced dietary EPA and DHA. In contrast, no significant differences were found between transcript levels for 6fad_a in intestine, 6fad_b in liver, or 6fad_c in liver or intestine of fish fed vegetable oil compared to fish fed fish oil. The observed differences in tissue expression and nutritional regulation of the fad genes are discussed in relation to gene structures and fish

  11. Modifying Effects of Vitamin E on Chlorpyrifos Toxicity in Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Olsvik, Pål A.; Berntssen, Marc H. G.; Søfteland, Liv

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) may ameliorate the toxicity of the pesticide chlorpyrifos in Atlantic salmon. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were exposed to vitamin E, chlorpyrifos or a combination of vitamin E and chlorpyrifos (all 100 μM). Transcriptomics (RNA-seq) and metabolomics were used to screen for effects of vitamin E and chlorpyrifos. By introducing vitamin E, the number of upregulated transcripts induced by chlorpyrifos exposure was reduced from 941 to 626, while the number of downregulated transcripts was reduced from 901 to 742 compared to the control. Adding only vitamin E had no effect on the transcriptome. Jak-STAT signaling was the most significantly affected pathway by chlorpyrifos treatment according to the transcriptomics data. The metabolomics data showed that accumulation of multiple long chain fatty acids and dipeptides and amino acids in chlorpyrifos treated cells was partially alleviated by vitamin E treatment. Significant interaction effects between chlorpyrifos and vitamin E were seen for 15 metabolites, including 12 dipeptides. The antioxidant had relatively modest effects on chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress. By combining the two data sets, the study suggests that vitamin E supplementation prevents uptake and accumulation of fatty acids, and counteracts inhibited carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, this study shows that vitamin E only to a moderate degree modifies chlorpyrifos toxicity in Atlantic salmon liver cells. PMID:25774794

  12. Metabolism of exogenous fatty acids, fatty acid-mediated cholesterol efflux, PKA and PKC pathways in boar sperm acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Sharoare; Afrose, Sadia; Sawada, Tomio; Hamano, Koh-Ichi; Tsujii, Hirotada

    2010-03-01

    For understanding the roles of fatty acids on the induction of acrosome reaction which occurs under association of cholesterol efflux and PKA or PKC pathways in boar spermatozoa, metabolic fate of alone and combined radiolabeled 14 C-oleic acid and 3 H-linoleic acid incorporated in the sperm was compared, and behavior of cholesterol and effects of PKA and PKC inhibitors upon fatty acid-induced acrosome reaction were examined. Semen was collected from a Duroc boar, and the metabolic activities of fatty acids in the spermatozoa were measured using radioactive compounds and thin layer chromatography. Cholesterol efflux was measured with a cholesterol determination assay kit. Participation of fatty acids on the AR through PKA and PKC pathways was evaluated using a specific inhibitor of these enzymes. Incorporation rate of 14 C-oleic acid into the sperm lipids was significantly higher than that of 3 H-linoleic acid ( P < 0.05). The oxidation of 14 C-oleic acid was higher in combined radiolabeling rather than in one. The highest amounts of 3 H-linoleic acid and 14 C-oleic acid were recovered mainly in the triglycerides and phospholipids fraction, and 14 C-oleic acid distribution was higher than the 3 H-linoleic acid in both labeled ( P < 0.05) sperm lipids. In the 3 H-linoleic and 14 C-oleic acid combined radiolabeling, the incorporation rate of the radioactive fatty acids in all the lipid fractions increased 15 times more than the alone radiolabeling. Boar sperm utilize oleic acid to generate energy for hyperactivation ( P < 0.05). Supplementation of arachidonic acid significantly increased ( P < 0.05) cholesterol efflux in sperm. When spermatozoa were incubated with PKA or PKC inhibitors, there was a significant reduction of arachidonic acid-induced acrosome reaction (AR) ( P < 0.05), and inhibition by PKA inhibitor is stronger than that by PKC inhibitor. Incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid, into triglycerides and phospholipids provides

  13. Arachidonic Acid Stress Impacts Pneumococcal Fatty Acid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Eijkelkamp, Bart A.; Begg, Stephanie L.; Pederick, Victoria G.; Trapetti, Claudia; Gregory, Melissa K.; Whittall, Jonathan J.; Paton, James C.; McDevitt, Christopher A.

    2018-01-01

    Free fatty acids hold dual roles during infection, serving to modulate the host immune response while also functioning directly as antimicrobials. Of particular importance are the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are not commonly found in bacterial organisms, that have been proposed to have antibacterial roles. Arachidonic acid (AA) is a highly abundant long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and we examined its effect upon Streptococcus pneumoniae. Here, we observed that in a murine model of S. pneumoniae infection the concentration of AA significantly increases in the blood. The impact of AA stress upon the pathogen was then assessed by a combination of biochemical, biophysical and microbiological assays. In vitro bacterial growth and intra-macrophage survival assays revealed that AA has detrimental effects on pneumococcal fitness. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that AA exerts antimicrobial activity via insertion into the pneumococcal membrane, although this did not increase the susceptibility of the bacterium to antibiotic, oxidative or metal ion stress. Transcriptomic profiling showed that AA treatment also resulted in a dramatic down-regulation of the genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, in addition to impacts on other metabolic processes, such as carbon-source utilization. Hence, these data reveal that AA has two distinct mechanisms of perturbing the pneumococcal membrane composition. Collectively, this work provides a molecular basis for the antimicrobial contribution of AA to combat pneumococcal infections. PMID:29867785

  14. Physiological activities of hydroxyl fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the search of value-added products from surplus soybean oil, we produced many new hydroxy fatty acids through microbial bioconversion. Hydroxy fatty acids are used in a wide range of industrial products, such as resins, waxes, nylons plastics, lubricants, cosmetics, and additives in coatings and...

  15. Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M G

    1990-02-01

    In recent years, there has been growing public awareness of the potential health benefits of dietary fatty acids, and of the distinction between the effects of the omega6 and omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are concentrated in vegetable and fish oils, respectively. A part of the biologic effectiveness of the two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids resides in their relative roles as precursors of the eicosanoids. However, we are also beginning to appreciate that as the major components of the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, they can interact with and directly influence the functioning of select integral membrane proteins. Among the most important of these are the enzymes, receptors, and ion channels that are situated in the plasma membrane of the cell, since they carry out the communication and homeostatic processes that are necessary for normal cell function. This review examines current information regarding the effects of diet-induced changes in plasma membrane fatty acid composition on several specific enzymes (adenylate cyclase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and cell-surface receptors (opiate, adrenergic, insulin). Dietary manipulation studies have demonstrated a sensitivity of each to a fatty acid environment that is variably dependent on the nature of the fatty acid(s) and/or source of the membrane. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve fatty acid-dependent effects on protein conformation, on the "fluidity" and/or thickness of the membrane, or on protein synthesis. Together, the results of these studies reinforce the concept that dietary fats have the potential to regulate physiologic function and to further our understanding of how this occurs at a membrane level.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Colleen; Watson, Helen

    2016-01-05

    Studies suggest that a diet rich in omega-3 essential fatty acids may have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects for chronic conditions such as cystic fibrosis. This is an updated version of a previously published review. To determine whether there is evidence that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality and to identify any adverse events associated with supplementation. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Authors and persons interested in the subject of the review were contacted.Date of last search: 13 August 2013. Randomised controlled trials in people with cystic fibrosis comparing omega-3 fatty acid supplements with placebo. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the studies. The searches identified 15 studies; four studies with 91 participants (children and adults) were included; duration of studies ranged from six weeks to six months. Two studies were judged to be at low risk of bias based on adequate randomisation but this was unclear in the other two studies. Three of the studies adequately blinded patients, however, the risk of bias was unclear in all studies with regards to allocation concealment and selective reporting.Two studies compared omega-3 fatty acids to olive oil for six weeks. One study compared a liquid dietary supplement containing omega-3 fatty acids to one without for six months. One study compared omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids to a control (capsules with customised fatty acid blends) for three months. Only one short-term study (19 participants) comparing omega-3 to placebo reported a significant improvement in lung function and Shwachman score and a reduction in sputum volume in the omega-3 group. Another

  17. Comprehensive genetic study of fatty acids helps explain the role of noncoding inflammatory bowel disease associated SNPs and fatty acid metabolism in disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jezernik, Gregor; Potočnik, Uroš

    2018-03-01

    Fatty acids and their derivatives play an important role in inflammation. Diet and genetics influence fatty acid profiles. Abnormalities of fatty acid profiles have been observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a group of complex diseases defined by chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. IBD associated fatty acid profile abnormalities were observed independently of nutritional status or disease activity, suggesting a common genetic background. However, no study so far has attempted to look for overlap between IBD loci and fatty acid associated loci or investigate the genetics of fatty acid profiles in IBD. To this end, we conducted a comprehensive genetic study of fatty acid profiles in IBD using iCHIP, a custom microarray platform designed for deep sequencing of immune-mediated disease associated loci. This study identifies 10 loci associated with fatty acid profiles in IBD. The most significant associations were a locus near CBS (p = 7.62 × 10 -8 ) and a locus in LRRK2 (p = 1.4 × 10 -7 ). Of note, this study replicates the FADS gene cluster locus, previously associated with both fatty acid profiles and IBD pathogenesis. Furthermore, we identify 18 carbon chain trans-fatty acids (p = 1.12 × 10 -3 ), total trans-fatty acids (p = 4.49 × 10 -3 ), palmitic acid (p = 5.85 × 10 -3 ) and arachidonic acid (p = 8.58 × 10 -3 ) as significantly associated with IBD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from n-3 fatty acid precursors in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kaduce, Terry L; Chen, Yucui; Hell, Johannes W; Spector, Arthur A

    2008-05-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain, has important functions in the hippocampus. To better understand essential fatty acid homeostasis in this region of the brain, we investigated the contributions of n-3 fatty acid precursors in supplying hippocampal neurons with DHA. Primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons incorporated radiolabeled 18-, 20-, 22-, and 24-carbon n-3 fatty acid and converted some of the uptake to DHA, but the amounts produced from either [1-14C]alpha-linolenic or [1-14C]eicosapentaenoic acid were considerably less than the amounts incorporated when the cultures were incubated with [1-14C]22:6n-3. Most of the [1-14C]22:6n-3 uptake was incorporated into phospholipids, primarily ethanolamine phosphoglycerides. Additional studies demonstrated that the neurons converted [1-14C]linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, the main n-6 fatty acid in the brain. These findings differ from previous results indicating that cerebral and cerebellar neurons cannot convert polyunsaturated fatty acid precursors to DHA or arachidonic acid. Fatty acid compositional analysis demonstrated that the hippocampal neurons contained only 1.1-2.5 mol% DHA under the usual low-DHA culture conditions. The relatively low-DHA content suggests that some responses obtained with these cultures may not be representative of neuronal function in the brain.

  19. Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2013-06-01

    A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and γ-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization.

  20. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  1. The impact of omega-3 fatty acids on osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Maggio, M; Artoni, A; Lauretani, F; Borghi, L; Nouvenne, A; Valenti, G; Ceda, G P

    2009-01-01

    The essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) comprise 2 main classes: n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The most common source of n-6 fatty acids is linoleic acid (LA) which is found in high concentrations in various vegetable oils. Arachidonic acid (AA), the 20-carbon n-6 fatty acid, is obtained largely by synthesis from LA in the body. The n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) are found in fish and fish oils. Long-Chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and lipid mediators derived from LCPUFAs have critical roles in the regulation of a variety of biological processes including bone metabolism. There are different mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids affect bone: effect on calcium balance, effect on osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast activity, change of membrane function, decrease in inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), modulation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Animal studies have shown that a higher dietary omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids ratio is associated with beneficial effects on bone health. In spite of increasing evidence of the positive effects of dietary fats on bone metabolism from animal and in vitro studies, the few studies conducted in humans do not allow us to draw a definitive conclusion on their usefulness in clinical practice.

  2. Cellular fatty acids and aldehydes of oral Eubacterium.

    PubMed

    Itoh, U; Sato, M; Tsuchiya, H; Namikawa, I

    1995-02-01

    The cellular fatty acids and aldehydes of oral Eubacterium species were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. E. brachy and E. lentum contained mainly branched-chain fatty acids, whereas the others contained straight-chain acids. E. brachy, E. lentum, E. yurii ssp. yurii, E. yurii spp. margaretiae, E. limosum, E. plauti and E. aerofaciens also contained aldehydes with even carbon numbers. In addition to species-specific components, the compositional ratios of fatty acids and aldehydes characterized each individual species. The 10 species tested were divided into 5 groups by the principal component analysis. Cellular fatty acids and aldehydes would be chemical markers for interspecies differentiation of oral Eubacterium.

  3. Fatty Acid-Based Monomers as Styrene Replacements for Liquid Molding Resins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    fatty acid length and unsaturation level on resin and polymer properties. Fig. 2. The addition of fatty acids ( oleic acid ) to glycidyl methacylate to...the synthetic route used to form the methacrylated fatty acids (MFA). The carboxylic acid of fatty acids undergoes a simple addition reaction with... form methacrylated fatty acid monomer

  4. On-site Direct Detection of Astaxanthin from Salmon Fillet Using Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hikima, Jun-Ichi; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O; Sakai, Masahiro; Maita, Masashi; Yazawa, Kazunaga; Takeyama, Haruko; Aoki, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    A new technology employing Raman spectroscopy is attracting attention as a powerful biochemical technique for the detection of beneficial and functional food nutrients, such as carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. This technique allows for the dynamic characterization of food nutrient substances for the rapid determination of food quality. In this study, we attempt to detect and measure astaxanthin from salmon fillets using this technology. The Raman spectra showed specific bands corresponding to the astaxanthin present in salmon and the value of astaxanthin (Raman band, 1518 cm -1 ) relative to those of protein/lipid (Raman band, 1446 cm -1 ) in the spectra increased in a dose-dependent manner. A standard curve was constructed by the standard addition method using astaxanthin as the reference standard for its quantification by Raman spectroscopy. The calculation formula was established using the Raman bands typically observed for astaxanthin (i.e., 1518 cm -1 ). In addition, we examined salmon fillets of different species (Atlantic salmon, coho salmon, and sockeye salmon) and five fillets obtained from the locations (from the head to tail) of an entire Atlantic salmon. Moreover, the sockeye salmon fillet exhibited the highest astaxanthin concentration (14.2 mg/kg), while coho salmon exhibited an intermediate concentration of 7.0 mg/kg. The Raman-based astaxanthin concentration in the five locations of Atlantic salmon was more strongly detected from the fillet closer to the tail. From the results, a rapid, convenient Raman spectroscopic method was developed for the detection of astaxanthin in salmon fillets.

  5. [Blood fluidity and omega-3 fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    1991-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are highly unsaturated fatty acids with a first (counted from the methyl end) double bound at the third carbon atom. Their biological effects--mainly changes of blood lipids and of the eicosanoid pattern--are due to a competitive inhibition of omega-6 fatty acids within the prostaglandin metabolism. Hemorheological effects have also been described repeatedly. A placebo-controlled, double blind study shows that red cell deformability is raised and blood viscosity decreased by omega-3 fatty acids in stepwise increasing doses. When the dose is further increased there is a drop of plasma viscosity and red cell aggregation. An open study with hyperlipoproteinemic patients confirms these effects: After 21 days of 8 capsules Ameu per day there is a significant reduction of plasma viscosity. After 56 days treatment (same dosage) blood viscosity drops and red cell deformability increases significantly. At present the evidence is growing to suggest that omega-3 fatty acids can delay atherogenesis. The above data allow the hypothesis that hemorheology may be involved in this.

  6. Selective heterogeneous acid catalyzed esterification of N-terminal sulfyhdryl fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our interest in thiol fatty acids lies in their antioxidative, free radical scavenging, and metal ion scavenging capabilities as applied to cosmeceutical and skin care formulations. The retail market is filled with products containing the disulfide-containing free fatty acid, lipoic acid. These pr...

  7. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids...

  8. Maternal adipose tissue becomes a source of fatty acids for the fetus in fasted pregnant rats given diets with different fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Ortega-Senovilla, Henar; Herrera, Emilio

    2017-11-10

    The utilization of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) by the fetus may exceed its capacity to synthesize them from essential fatty acids, so they have to come from the mother. Since adipose tissue lipolytic activity is greatly accelerated under fasting conditions during late pregnancy, the aim was to determine how 24 h fasting in late pregnant rats given diets with different fatty acid compositions affects maternal and fetal tissue fatty acid profiles. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given isoenergetic diets containing 10% palm-, sunflower-, olive- or fish-oil. Half the rats were fasted from day 19 of pregnancy and all were studied on day 20. Triacylglycerols (TAG), glycerol and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were analyzed by enzymatic methods and fatty acid profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fasting caused increments in maternal plasma NEFA, glycerol and TAG, indicating increased adipose tissue lipolytic activity. Maternal adipose fatty acid profiles paralleled the respective diets and, with the exception of animals on the olive oil diet, maternal fasting increased the plasma concentration of most fatty acids. This maintains the availability of LCPUFA to the fetus during brain development. The results show the major role played by maternal adipose tissue in the storage of dietary fatty acids during pregnancy, thus ensuring adequate availability of LCPUFA to the fetus during late pregnancy, even when food supply is restricted.

  9. Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2013-01-01

    A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and γ-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

  10. The interaction of albumin and fatty-acid-binding protein with membranes: oleic acid dissociation.

    PubMed

    Catalá, A

    1984-10-01

    Bovine serum albumin or fatty-acid-binding protein rapidly lose oleic acid when incubated in the presence of dimyristoyl lecithin liposomes. The phenomenon is dependent on vesicle concentration and no measurable quantities of protein are found associated with liposomes. Upon gel filtration on Sepharose CL-2B of incubated mixtures of microsomes containing [1-14C] oleic acid and albumin or fatty-acid-binding protein, association of fatty acid with the soluble proteins could be demonstrated. Both albumin and fatty-acid-binding protein stimulated the transfer of oleic acid from rat liver microsomes to egg lecithin liposomes. These results indicate that albumin is more effective in the binding of oleic acid than fatty-acid-binding protein, which allows a selective oleic acid dissociation during its interaction with membranes.

  11. Growth-Environment Dependent Modulation of Staphylococcus aureus Branched-Chain to Straight-Chain Fatty Acid Ratio and Incorporation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Sen, Suranjana; Sirobhushanam, Sirisha; Johnson, Seth R; Song, Yang; Tefft, Ryan; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of membrane glycerolipids is a major determinant of Staphylococcus aureus membrane biophysical properties that impacts key factors in cell physiology including susceptibility to membrane active antimicrobials, pathogenesis, and response to environmental stress. The fatty acids of S. aureus are considered to be a mixture of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs), which increase membrane fluidity, and straight-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that decrease it. The balance of BCFAs and SCFAs in USA300 strain JE2 and strain SH1000 was affected considerably by differences in the conventional laboratory medium in which the strains were grown with media such as Mueller-Hinton broth and Luria broth resulting in high BCFAs and low SCFAs, whereas growth in Tryptic Soy Broth and Brain-Heart Infusion broth led to reduction in BCFAs and an increase in SCFAs. Straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids (SCUFAs) were not detected. However, when S. aureus was grown ex vivo in serum, the fatty acid composition was radically different with SCUFAs, which increase membrane fluidity, making up a substantial proportion of the total (<25%) with SCFAs (>37%) and BCFAs (>36%) making up the rest. Staphyloxanthin, an additional major membrane lipid component unique to S. aureus, tended to be greater in content in cells with high BCFAs or SCUFAs. Cells with high staphyloxanthin content had a lower membrane fluidity that was attributed to increased production of staphyloxanthin. S. aureus saves energy and carbon by utilizing host fatty acids for part of its total fatty acids when growing in serum, which may impact biophysical properties and pathogenesis given the role of SCUFAs in virulence. The nutritional environment in which S. aureus is grown in vitro or in vivo in an infection is likely to be a major determinant of membrane fatty acid composition.

  12. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induce PPARα-Regulated Fatty Acid β-Oxidative Genes: Synergistic Roles of L-FABP and Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L.; Martin, Gregory G.; Petrescu, Anca D.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    While TOFA (acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor) and C75 (fatty acid synthase inhibitor) prevent lipid accumulation by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, the mechanism of action is not simply accounted for by inhibition of the enzymes alone. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a mediator of long chain fatty acid signaling to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) in the nucleus, was found to bind TOFA and its activated CoA thioester, TOFyl-CoA, with high affinity while binding C75 and C75-CoA with lower affinity. Binding of TOFA and C75-CoA significantly altered L-FABP secondary structure. High (20 mM) but not physiological (6 mM) glucose conferred on both TOFA and C75 the ability to induce PPARα transcription of the fatty acid β-oxidative enzymes CPT1A, CPT2, and ACOX1 in cultured primary hepatocytes from wild-type (WT) mice. However, L-FABP gene ablation abolished the effects of TOFA and C75 in the context of high glucose. These effects were not associated with an increased cellular level of unesterified fatty acids but rather by increased intracellular glucose. These findings suggested that L-FABP may function as an intracellular fatty acid synthesis inhibitor binding protein facilitating TOFA and C75-mediated induction of PPARα in the context of high glucose at levels similar to those in uncontrolled diabetes. PMID:23533380

  13. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Fatty Acids Present in the Lipopolysaccharide of Rhizobium trifolii

    PubMed Central

    Russa, R.; Lorkiewicz, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Approximately 70% of the fatty acids recovered after acid or alkaline hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Rhizobium trifolii were hydroxy fatty acids identified as hydroxymyristic and hydroxypalmitic acids. Palmitic acid was the only saturated fatty acid found in the lipopolysaccharide of R. trifolii. Octadecenoic and a small amount of hexadecenoic acids were also identified. The results of BF3 methanolysis and hydroxylaminolysis suggest that hydroxypalmitic acid is N-acyl bound. PMID:4852028

  15. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid... conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid, and fatty acids conforming with § 172.860...

  16. Structural and functional interaction of fatty acids with human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-05-01

    The human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant, the most common in the FABP family, has been associated with elevated liver triglyceride levels. How this amino acid substitution elicits these effects is not known. This issue was addressed using human recombinant wild-type (WT) and T94A variant L-FABP proteins as well as cultured primary human hepatocytes expressing the respective proteins (genotyped as TT, TC and CC). The T94A substitution did not alter or only slightly altered L-FABP binding affinities for saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids, nor did it change the affinity for intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Nevertheless, the T94A substitution markedly altered the secondary structural response of L-FABP induced by binding long chain fatty acids or intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Finally, the T94A substitution markedly decreased the levels of induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-regulated proteins such as L-FABP, fatty acid transport protein 5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α itself meditated by the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Thus, although the T94A substitution did not alter the affinity of human L-FABP for long chain fatty acids, it significantly altered human L-FABP structure and stability, as well as the conformational and functional response to these ligands. © 2014 FEBS.

  17. Bacterial fatty acid metabolism in modern antibiotic discovery.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial fatty acid synthesis is essential for many pathogens and different from the mammalian counterpart. These features make bacterial fatty acid synthesis a desirable target for antibiotic discovery. The structural divergence of the conserved enzymes and the presence of different isozymes catalyzing the same reactions in the pathway make bacterial fatty acid synthesis a narrow spectrum target rather than the traditional broad spectrum target. Furthermore, bacterial fatty acid synthesis inhibitors are single-targeting, rather than multi-targeting like traditional monotherapeutic, broad-spectrum antibiotics. The single-targeting nature of bacterial fatty acid synthesis inhibitors makes overcoming fast-developing, target-based resistance a necessary consideration for antibiotic development. Target-based resistance can be overcome through multi-targeting inhibitors, a cocktail of single-targeting inhibitors, or by making the single targeting inhibitor sufficiently high affinity through a pathogen selective approach such that target-based mutants are still susceptible to therapeutic concentrations of drug. Many of the pathogens requiring new antibiotic treatment options encode for essential bacterial fatty acid synthesis enzymes. This review will evaluate the most promising targets in bacterial fatty acid metabolism for antibiotic therapeutics development and review the potential and challenges in advancing each of these targets to the clinic and circumventing target-based resistance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Fat and fatty acids chosen in chocolates content].

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Andrzej; Kowalczyk, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    The objective of present work was to comparison of fat and chosen fatty acid in chocolates with, approachable on national market. In the investigations on fat and fatty acids content in the milk chocolates, there were used 14 chocolates, divided into 3 groups either without, with supplements and stuffing. Crude fat content in the chocolates was determined on Soxhlet automatic apparatus. The saturated ad nsaturated acids content was determined using gas chromatographic method. Content of fat and fatty cids in chocolates were differentiation. The highest crude fat content was finding in chocolates with tuffing (31.8%) and without supplements (28.9%). The sum of saturated fatty acids content in fat above 62%) was highest and low differentiation in the chocolates without supplements. Among of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids depended from kind of chocolates dominated, palmitic, stearic, oleic and, linoleic acids. Supplements of nut in chocolates had on influence of high oleic and linoleic level

  19. Cellular Fatty Acid Metabolism and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Erin; Schulze, Almut; Zechner, Rudolf; Walther, Tobias C.; Farese, Robert V.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells commonly have characteristic changes in metabolism. Cellular proliferation, a common feature of all cancers, requires fatty acids for synthesis of membranes and signaling molecules. Here, we provide a view of cancer cell metabolism from a lipid perspective, and we summarize evidence that limiting fatty acid availability can control cancer cell proliferation. PMID:23791484

  20. New insights into the molecular mechanism of intestinal fatty acid absorption

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tony Y.; Liu, Min; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fat is the most important energy source of all the nutrients. Fatty acids, stored as triacylglycerols in the body, are an important reservoir of stored energy and derive primarily from animal fats and vegetable oils. Design Although the molecular mechanisms for the transport of water-insoluble amphipathic fatty acids across cell membranes have been debated for many years, it is now believed that the dominant means for intestinal fatty acid uptake is via membrane-associated fatty acid-binding proteins, i.e., fatty acid transporters on the apical membrane of enterocytes. Results These findings indicate that intestinal fatty acid absorption is a multistep process that is regulated by multiple genes at the enterocyte level, and intestinal fatty acid absorption efficiency could be determined by factors influencing intraluminal fatty acid molecules across the brush border membrane of enterocytes. To facilitate research on intestinal, hepatic and plasma triacylglycerol metabolism, it is imperative to establish standard protocols for precisely and accurately measuring the efficiency of intestinal fatty acid absorption in humans and animal models. In this review, we will discuss the chemical structure and nomenclature of fatty acids and summarize recent progress in investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the intestinal absorption of fatty acids, with a particular emphasis on the physical-chemistry of intestinal lipids and the molecular physiology of intestinal fatty acid transporters. Conclusions A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of intestinal fatty acid absorption should lead to novel approaches to the treatment and the prevention of fatty acid-related metabolic diseases that are prevalent worldwide. PMID:24102389

  1. Separation of free fatty acids from high free fatty acid crude palm oil using short-path distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japir, Abd Al-Wali; Salimon, Jumat; Derawi, Darfizzi; Bahadi, Murad; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi

    2016-11-01

    The separation of free fatty acids (FFAs) was done by using short-path distillation (SPD). The separation parameters was at their boiling points, a feed amount of 2.3 mL/min, an operating pressure of 10 Torr, a condenser temperature of 60°C, and a rotor speed of 300 rpm. The physicochemical characteristics of oil before and after SPD were determined. The results showed that FFA % of 8.7 ± 0.3 and 0.9 ± 0.1 %, iodine value of 53.1 ± 0.4 and 52.7 ± 0.5 g I2/100 g, hydroxyl value of 32.5 ± 0.6 and 13.9 ± 1.1 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable value of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.20 ± 0.15%, moisture content of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.24 ± 0.01 % for high free fatty acid crude palm oil before and after distillation, respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) results showed that the major fatty acids in crude palm oil (CPO) were palmitic acid (44.4% - 45%) followed by oleic acid (39.6% - 39.8%). In general, high free fatty acid crude palm oil after molecular distillation (HFFA-CPOAM) showed admirably physicochemical properties.

  2. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  3. Dietary fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive motifs affect serum and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions, serum lipids, postprandial glucose regulation and growth in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mjøs, Svein A; Pampanin, Daniela M; Slizyte, Rasa; Carvajal, Ana; Remman, Tore; Høgøy, Ingmar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-10-01

    The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks. The fatty acid compositions were similar in the experimental diets, and none of them contained any long-chain n-3 PUFA. Ratios of lysine:arginine and methionine:glycine were lower in HER and SAL diets when compared with CAS, and taurine was detected only in fish protein hydrolysate diets. Motifs with reported hypocholesterolemic or antidiabetic activities were identified in both fish protein hydrolysates. Rats fed HER diet had lower serum HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and higher serum TAG, MUFA and n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with CAS-fed rats. SAL rats gained more weight and had better postprandial glucose regulation compared with CAS rats. Serum lipids and fatty acids were only marginally affected by SAL, but adipose tissue contained less total SFA and more total n-3 PUFA when compared with CAS. To conclude, diets containing hydrolysed rest raw material from herring or salmon proteins may affect growth, lipid metabolism, postprandial glucose regulation and fatty acid composition in serum and adipose tissue in obese Zucker rats.

  4. Structure Dependence of Long-Chain [18F]Fluorothia Fatty Acids as Myocardial Fatty Acid Oxidation Probes

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Mukesh K.; Belanger, Anthony P.; Wang, Shuyan; DeGrado, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    In-vivo imaging of regional fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rates would have considerable potential for evaluation of mammalian diseases. We have synthe sized and evaluated 18F-labeled thia fatty acid analogues as metabolically trapped FAO probes to understand the effect of chain length, degree of unsaturation and placement of the thia-substituent on myocardial uptake and retention. 18-[18F]fluoro-4-thia-(9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid (3) showed excellent heart:background radioactivity concentration ratios along with highest retention in heart and liver. Pretreatment of rats with the CPT-1 inhibitor, POCA, caused >80% reduction in myocardial uptake of 16-[18F]fluoro-4-thia-hexadecanoic acid (2), and 3 indicating high specificity for FAO. In contrast, 18-[18F]fluoro-4-thia-octadecanoic acid (4), showed dramatically reduced myocardial uptake and blunted response to POCA. 18-[18F]fluoro-6-thia-octadecanoic acid (5), showed moderate myocardial uptake and no sensitivity of myocardial uptake to POCA. The results demonstrate relationships between structures of 18F-labelled thia fatty acid and uptake, and their utility as FAO probes in various tissues. PMID:23153307

  5. Unveiling of novel regio-selective fatty acid double bond hydratases from Lactobacillus acidophilus involved in the selective oxyfunctionalization of mono- and di-hydroxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Hye-Jin; Park, Chul-Soon; Hong, Seung-Hye; Park, Ji-Young; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is the first time demonstration of cis-12 regio-selective linoleate double-bond hydratase. Hydroxylation of fatty acids, abundant feedstock in nature, is an emerging alternative route for many petroleum replaceable products thorough hydroxy fatty acids, carboxylic acids, and lactones. However, chemical route for selective hydroxylation is still quite challenging owing to low selectivity and many environmental concerns. Hydroxylation of fatty acids by hydroxy fatty acid forming enzymes is an important route for selective biocatalytic oxyfunctionalization of fatty acids. Therefore, novel fatty acid hydroxylation enzymes should be discovered. The two hydratase genes of Lactobacillus acidophilus were identified by genomic analysis, and the expressed two recombinant hydratases were identified as cis-9 and cis-12 double-bond selective linoleate hydratases by in vitro functional validation, including the identification of products and the determination of regio-selectivity, substrate specificity, and kinetic parameters. The two different linoleate hydratases were the involved enzymes in the 10,13-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid biosynthesis. Linoleate 13-hydratase (LHT-13) selectively converted 10 mM linoleic acid to 13S-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid with high titer (8.1 mM) and yield (81%). Our study will expand knowledge for microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes and facilitate the designed production of the regio-selective hydroxy fatty acids for useful chemicals from polyunsaturated fatty acid feedstocks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in perinatal settings.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Dawn S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is (a) to explain the role of omega-3 fatty acids in human health, specifically in fetal/neonatal development, (b) to summarize the recent research behind the innovations in infant formula manufacturing and advertisement of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for pregnant and lactating mothers, and (c) to relate the research findings to clinical practice. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in perinatal settings is discussed here from three vantage points: (a) supplementation of the third-trimester pregnant woman to enhance fetal development, (b) supplementation of the lactating mother to enhance development of the breastfeeding infant, and (c) supplementation of infant formulas to enhance development of the bottle-feeding infant. Supplementation can occur by increasing one's intake of foods high in omega-3 fatty acids or by ingesting fatty acid nutritional supplements. The challenge of supplementation for vegan and vegetarian women is also addressed.

  7. APPLICATION OF RADIOISOTOPES TO THE QUANTITATIVE CHROMATOGRAPHY OF FATTY ACIDS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Budzynski, A.Z.; Zubrzycki, Z.J.; Campbell, I.G.

    1959-10-31

    The paper reports work done on the use of I/sup 131/, Zn/sup 65/, Sr/sup 90/, Zr/sup 95/, Ce/sup 144/ for the quantitative estimation of fatty acids on paper chromatograms, and for determination of the degree of usaturation of components of resolved fatty acid mixtures. I/sup 131/ is used to iodinate unsaturated fatty acids, and the amount of such acids is determined from the radiochromatogram. The degree of unsaturation of fatty acids is determined by estimation of the specific activiiy of spots. The other isotopes have been examined from the point of view of their suitability for estimation of total amountsmore » of fatty acids by formation of insoluble radioactive soaps held on the chromatogram. In particular, work is reported on the quantitative estimation of saturated fatty acids by measurement of the activity of their insoluble soaps with radioactive metals. Various quantitative relationships are described between amount of fatty acid in spot and such parameters as radiometrically estimated spot length, width, maximum intensity, and integrated spot activity. A convenient detection apparatus for taking radiochromatograms is also described. In conjunction with conventional chromatographic methods for resolving fatty acids the method permits the estimation of composition of fatty acid mixtures obtained from biological material. (auth)« less

  8. Roles of unsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) in the brain at various ages and during ageing.

    PubMed

    Bourre, J M

    2004-01-01

    Among various organs, in the brain, the fatty acids most extensively studied are omega-3 fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) deficiency alters the structure and function of membranes and induces minor cerebral dysfunctions, as demonstrated in animal models and subsequently in human infants. Even though the brain is materially an organ like any other, that is to say elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively), for long it was not accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function. Lipids, and especially omega-3 fatty acids, provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. In fact the brain, after adipose tissue, is the organ richest in lipids, whose only role is to participate in membrane structure. First it was shown that the differentiation and functioning of cultured brain cells requires not only alpha-linolenic acid (the major component of the omega-3, omega3 family), but also the very long omega-3 and omega-6 carbon chains (1). It was then demonstrated that alpha-linolenic acid deficiency alters the course of brain development, perturbs the composition and physicochemical properties of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes (2). This leads to physicochemical modifications, induces biochemical and physiological perturbations, and results in neurosensory and behavioural upset (3). Consequently, the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (premature and term) conditions the visual and cerebral abilities, including intellectual. Moreover, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are certainly involved in the prevention of some aspects of cardiovascular disease (including at the level of cerebral vascularization), and in some neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, as well as in dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease. Recent

  9. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  10. Short branched-chain C6 carboxylic acids result in increased growth, novel 'unnatural' fatty acids and increased membrane fluidity in a Listeria monocytogenes branched-chain fatty acid-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Sen, Suranjana; Sirobhushanam, Sirisha; Hantak, Michael P; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2015-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotolerant food borne pathogen, responsible for the high fatality disease listeriosis, and expensive food product recalls. Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) of the membrane play a critical role in providing appropriate membrane fluidity and optimum membrane biophysics. The fatty acid composition of a BCFA-deficient mutant is characterized by high amounts of straight-chain fatty acids and even-numbered iso fatty acids, in contrast to the parent strain where odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids predominate. The presence of 2-methylbutyrate (C5) stimulated growth of the mutant at 37°C and restored growth at 10°C along with the content of odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids. The C6 branched-chain carboxylic acids 2-ethylbutyrate and 2-methylpentanoate also stimulated growth to a similar extent as 2-methylbutyrate. However, 3-methylpentanoate was ineffective in rescuing growth. 2-Ethylbutyrate and 2-methylpentanoate led to novel major fatty acids in the lipid profile of the membrane that were identified as 12-ethyltetradecanoic acid and 12-methylpentadecanoic acid respectively. Membrane anisotropy studies indicated that growth of strain MOR401 in the presence of these precursors increased its membrane fluidity to levels of the wild type. Cells supplemented with 2-methylpentanoate or 2-ethylbutyrate at 10°C shortened the chain length of novel fatty acids, thus showing homeoviscous adaptation. These experiments use the mutant as a tool to modulate the membrane fatty acid compositions through synthetic precursor supplementation, and show how existing enzymes in L. monocytogenes adapt to exhibit non-native activity yielding unique 'unnatural' fatty acid molecules, which nevertheless possess the correct biophysical properties for proper membrane function in the BCFA-deficient mutant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Khera, Pawan; Pandey, Manish K; Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C; Culbreath, Albert K; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line 'SunOleic 97R' × low oleic line 'NC94022') and T-population (normal oleic line 'Tifrunner' × low oleic line 'GT-C20') were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition.

  12. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1).

    PubMed

    Demidenko, Aleksandr; Akberdin, Ilya R; Allemann, Marco; Allen, Eric E; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G

    2016-01-01

    Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane-based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1) . Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of fatty acid transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These studies indicated that both fatty acid degradation and acetyl- and malonyl-CoA levels are bottlenecks for higher level fatty acid production. The best strain generated in this study synthesizes 111 ± 2 mg/gDCW of extractable fatty acids, which is ~20% more than the original strain. A candidate gene for fatty acid biosynthesis regulation, farE , was identified and studied. Its deletion resulted in drastic changes to the fatty acid profile, leading to an increased pool of C18-fatty acid methyl ester. The FarE-regulon was further investigated by RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in farE -knockout mutants and farE -overexpressing strains. These gene profiles highlighted a novel set of enzymes and regulators involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. The gene expression and fatty acid profiles of the different farE -strains support the hypothesis that metabolic fluxes upstream of fatty acid biosynthesis restrict fatty acid production in the methanotroph.

  13. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1)

    PubMed Central

    Demidenko, Aleksandr; Akberdin, Ilya R.; Allemann, Marco; Allen, Eric E.; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.

    2017-01-01

    Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane-based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1). Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of fatty acid transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These studies indicated that both fatty acid degradation and acetyl- and malonyl-CoA levels are bottlenecks for higher level fatty acid production. The best strain generated in this study synthesizes 111 ± 2 mg/gDCW of extractable fatty acids, which is ~20% more than the original strain. A candidate gene for fatty acid biosynthesis regulation, farE, was identified and studied. Its deletion resulted in drastic changes to the fatty acid profile, leading to an increased pool of C18-fatty acid methyl ester. The FarE-regulon was further investigated by RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in farE-knockout mutants and farE-overexpressing strains. These gene profiles highlighted a novel set of enzymes and regulators involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. The gene expression and fatty acid profiles of the different farE-strains support the hypothesis that metabolic fluxes upstream of fatty acid biosynthesis restrict fatty acid production in the methanotroph. PMID:28119683

  14. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  15. Original Research: Effect of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile in duck liver: Efficient conversion of short-chain to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Du, Xue; Shen, Jianliang; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, have been associated with potential health benefits for chronic disease prevention. Our previous studies found that dietary omega-3 fatty acids could accumulate in the meat and eggs in a duck model. This study was to reveal the effects of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile and conversion of omega-3 fatty acids in duck liver. Female Shan Partridge Ducks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The experimental diets substituted the basal diet by 2% of flaxseed oil, rapeseed oil, beef tallow, or fish oil, respectively. In addition, a dose response study was further conducted for flaxseed and fish oil diets at 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively. At the end of the five-week treatment, fatty acids were extracted from the liver samples and analyzed by GC-FID. As expected, the total omega-3 fatty acids and the ratio of total omega-3/omega-6 significantly increased in both flaxseed and fish oil groups when compared with the control diet. No significant change of total saturated fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids was found in both rapeseed and beef tallow groups. The dose response study further indicated that 59–81% of the short-chain omega-3 ALA in flaxseed oil-fed group was efficiently converted to long-chain DHA in the duck liver, whereas 1% of dietary flaxseed oil could produce an equivalent level of DHA as 0.5% of dietary fish oil. The more omega-3 fatty acids, the less omega-6 fatty acids in the duck liver. Taken together, this study showed the fatty acid profiling in the duck liver after various dietary fat consumption, provided insight into a dose response change of omega-3 fatty acids, indicated an efficient conversion of short- to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, and suggested alternative long-chain omega-3 fatty acid-enriched duck products for human health benefits. PMID:27510581

  16. Original Research: Effect of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile in duck liver: Efficient conversion of short-chain to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Du, Xue; Shen, Jianliang; Lu, Lizhi; Wang, Weiqun

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, have been associated with potential health benefits for chronic disease prevention. Our previous studies found that dietary omega-3 fatty acids could accumulate in the meat and eggs in a duck model. This study was to reveal the effects of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile and conversion of omega-3 fatty acids in duck liver. Female Shan Partridge Ducks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The experimental diets substituted the basal diet by 2% of flaxseed oil, rapeseed oil, beef tallow, or fish oil, respectively. In addition, a dose response study was further conducted for flaxseed and fish oil diets at 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively. At the end of the five-week treatment, fatty acids were extracted from the liver samples and analyzed by GC-FID. As expected, the total omega-3 fatty acids and the ratio of total omega-3/omega-6 significantly increased in both flaxseed and fish oil groups when compared with the control diet. No significant change of total saturated fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids was found in both rapeseed and beef tallow groups. The dose response study further indicated that 59-81% of the short-chain omega-3 ALA in flaxseed oil-fed group was efficiently converted to long-chain DHA in the duck liver, whereas 1% of dietary flaxseed oil could produce an equivalent level of DHA as 0.5% of dietary fish oil. The more omega-3 fatty acids, the less omega-6 fatty acids in the duck liver. Taken together, this study showed the fatty acid profiling in the duck liver after various dietary fat consumption, provided insight into a dose response change of omega-3 fatty acids, indicated an efficient conversion of short- to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, and suggested alternative long-chain omega-3 fatty acid-enriched duck products for human health benefits. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  17. New insights into the molecular mechanism of intestinal fatty acid absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tony Y; Liu, Min; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fat is one of the most important energy sources of all the nutrients. Fatty acids, stored as triacylglycerols (also called triglycerides) in the body, are an important reservoir of stored energy and derived primarily from animal fats and vegetable oils. Although the molecular mechanisms for the transport of water-insoluble amphipathic fatty acids across cell membranes have been debated for many years, it is now believed that the dominant means for intestinal fatty acid uptake is via membrane-associated fatty acid-binding proteins, that is, fatty acid transporters on the apical membrane of enterocytes. These findings indicate that intestinal fatty acid absorption is a multistep process that is regulated by multiple genes at the enterocyte level, and intestinal fatty acid absorption efficiency could be determined by factors influencing intraluminal fatty acid molecules across the brush border membrane of enterocytes. To facilitate research on intestinal, hepatic and plasma triacylglycerol metabolism, it is imperative to establish standard protocols for precisely and accurately measuring the efficiency of intestinal fatty acid absorption in humans and animal models. In this review, we will discuss the chemical structure and nomenclature of fatty acids and summarize recent progress in investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the intestinal absorption of fatty acids, with a particular emphasis on the physical chemistry of intestinal lipids and the molecular physiology of intestinal fatty acid transporters. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of intestinal fatty acid absorption should lead to novel approaches to the treatment and the prevention of fatty acid-related metabolic diseases that are prevalent worldwide. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl- N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive fatty acids Δ9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic acid) and Δ9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) acid but Δ6-hexadecenoic acid (sapienic acid) and Δ8-octadecenoic acid. The present study focuses on the structure identification of human sebum-specific unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues based on the identification of their degradation products. These results are discussed for further investigations and method developments for age determination of fingerprints, which is still a tremendous challenge because of several factors affecting the aging behavior of individual compounds in fingerprints.

  19. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues.

    PubMed

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive fatty acids Δ9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic acid) and Δ9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) acid but Δ6-hexadecenoic acid (sapienic acid) and Δ8-octadecenoic acid. The present study focuses on the structure identification of human sebum-specific unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues based on the identification of their degradation products. These results are discussed for further investigations and method developments for age determination of fingerprints, which is still a tremendous challenge because of several factors affecting the aging behavior of individual compounds in fingerprints. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-01-01

    Diets rich in ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) such as alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with decreased incidence and severity of several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. At least some of the beneficial effects of these dietary fatty acids are via metabolites such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and resolvins. The effects of ω3-PUFAs are in contrast to those of fatty acids with virtually identical structures, such as the ω6-PUFAs linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, and their corresponding metabolites. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss both the nutrigenomics (nutrient-gene interactions) and nutrigenetics (genetic variation in nutrition) of dietary fatty acids with a focus on the ω3-PUFAs (Gebauer et al., 2007(1)). Important in the biological response for these fatty acids or their metabolites are cognate receptors that are able to regulate gene expression and coordinately affect metabolic or signaling pathways associated with CVD and cancer. Four nuclear receptor (NR) subfamilies will be emphasized as receptors that respond to dietary and endogenous ligands: (1) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, (2) retinoid X receptors, (3) liver X receptors, and (4) farnesoid X receptor. In addition to the different responses elicited by varying structures of fatty acids, responses may vary because of genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize ω3- and ω6 fatty acids or that respond to them. In particular, polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturases and the aforementioned NRs contribute to the complexity of nutritional effects seen with ω3-PUFAs. Following a brief introduction to the health benefits of ω3-PUFAs, the regulation of gene expression by these dietary fatty acids via NRs will be characterized. Subsequently, the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key enzymes involved in the metabolism and response to ω3-PUFAs will

  1. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of nine studies in the CHARGE consortium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scope: Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. We evaluated i...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  4. Cadmium Alters the Concentration of Fatty Acids in THP-1 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Łukomska, Agnieszka; Drozd, Arleta; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    Fatty acid composition of human immune cells influences their function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of known toxicant and immunomodulator, cadmium, at low concentrations on levels of selected fatty acids (FAs) in THP-1 macrophages. The differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages was achieved by administration of phorbol myristate acetate. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM, and 2 μM CdCl 2 . Fatty acids were extracted from samples according to the Folch method. The fatty acid levels were determined using gas chromatography. The following fatty acids were analyzed: long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid and stearic acid, very long-chain saturated fatty acid (VLSFA) arachidic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and vaccenic acid, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Treatment of macrophages with very low concentrations of cadmium (5-200 nM) resulted in significant reduction in the levels of arachidic, palmitoleic, oleic, vaccenic, and linoleic acids and significant increase in arachidonic acid levels (following exposure to 5 nM Cd), without significant reduction of palmitic and stearic acid levels. Treatment of macrophages with the highest tested cadmium concentration (2 μM) produced significant reduction in the levels of all examined FAs: SFAs, VLSFA, MUFAs, and PUFAs. In conclusion, cadmium at tested concentrations caused significant alterations in THP-1 macrophage fatty acid levels, disrupting their composition, which might dysregulate fatty acid/lipid metabolism thus affecting macrophage behavior and inflammatory state.

  5. Fatty acid and sterol composition of three phytomonas species.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, C V; Waldow, L; Pelegrinello, S R; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Filho, B A; Filho, B P

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine.

  6. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; Duncan, Robin E; Bazinet, Richard P; Archer, Michael C

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from (14)C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as (14)C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2-3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipotoxicity, fatty acid uncoupling and mitochondrial carrier function.

    PubMed

    Rial, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Leonor; Gallardo-Vara, Eunate; Zaragoza, Pilar; Moyano, Eva; González-Barroso, M Mar

    2010-01-01

    Diseases like obesity, diabetes or generalized lipodystrophy cause a chronic elevation of circulating fatty acids that can become cytotoxic, a condition known as lipotoxicity. Fatty acids cause oxidative stress and alterations in mitochondrial structure and function. The uncoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation is one of the most recognized deleterious fatty acid effects and several metabolite transporters are known to mediate in their action. The fatty acid interaction with the carriers leads to membrane depolarization and/or the conversion of the carrier into a pore. The result is the opening of the permeability transition pore and the initiation of apoptosis. Unlike the other members of the mitochondrial carrier superfamily, the eutherian uncoupling protein UCP1 has evolved to achieve its heat-generating capacity in the physiological context provided by the brown adipocyte and therefore it is activated by the low fatty acid concentrations generated by the noradrenaline-stimulated lipolysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of in-situ fatty acid extraction protocols for the analysis of staphylococcal cell membrane associated fatty acids by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Marcus J; Dunstan, R Hugh

    2018-05-01

    The composition and integrity of the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is critical to the survival of staphylococci in dynamic environments and it is important to investigate how the cell membrane responds to changes in the environmental conditions. The staphylococcal membrane differs from eukaryotic and many other bacterial cell membranes by having a high abundance of branch fatty acids and relatively few unsaturated fatty acids. The range of available methods for extraction and efficient analyses of staphylococcal fatty acids was initially appraised to identify the best potential procedures for appraisal. Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Rosenbach (ATCC® 29213) was grown under optimal conditions to generate a cell biomass to compare the efficiencies of three approaches to extract and prepare methyl esters of the membrane fatty acids: (1) acidic direct transesterification of lipids, (2) modified basic direct transesterification of membrane lipids with adjusted reaction times and temperatures, and (3) base catalysed hydrolysis followed by acid catalysed esterification in two separate chemical reactions (MIDI process). All methods were able to extract fatty acids from the cell mass effectively where these lipids represented approximately 5% of the cellular dry mass. The acidic transesterification method had the least number of steps, the lowest coefficient of variation at 6.7% and good resistance to tolerating water. Basic transesterification was the least accurate method showing the highest coefficient of variation (26%). The MIDI method showed good recoveries, but had twice the number of steps and a coefficient of variation of 16%. It was also found that there was no need to use an anti-oxidant such as BHT for the protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids when the GC-MS injection liner was clean. It was concluded that the acidic transesterification procedures formed the most efficient and reproducible method for the analyses of staphylococcal membrane fatty acids

  9. 6-methyl-8-hexadecenoic acid: A novel fatty acid from the marine spongeDesmapsama anchorata.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, N M; Maldonado, M E

    1988-07-01

    The novel fatty acid 7-methyl-8-hexadecenoic (1) was identified in the marine spongeDesmapsama anchorata. Other interesting fatty acids identified were 14-methyl-8-hexadecenoic (2), better known through its methyl ester as one of the components of the sex attractant of the female dermestid beetle, and the saturated fatty acid 3-methylheptadecanoic (3), known to possess larvicidal activity. The main phospholipid fatty acids encountered inD. anchorata were palmitic (16∶0), behenic (22∶0) and 5,9-hexacosadienoic acid (26∶2), which together accounted for 50% of the total phospholipid fatty acid mixture.

  10. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induce PPAR α -Regulated Fatty Acid β -Oxidative Genes: Synergistic Roles of L-FABP and Glucose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Petrescu, Anca D; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    While TOFA (acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor) and C75 (fatty acid synthase inhibitor) prevent lipid accumulation by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, the mechanism of action is not simply accounted for by inhibition of the enzymes alone. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a mediator of long chain fatty acid signaling to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- α (PPAR α ) in the nucleus, was found to bind TOFA and its activated CoA thioester, TOFyl-CoA, with high affinity while binding C75 and C75-CoA with lower affinity. Binding of TOFA and C75-CoA significantly altered L-FABP secondary structure. High (20 mM) but not physiological (6 mM) glucose conferred on both TOFA and C75 the ability to induce PPAR α transcription of the fatty acid β -oxidative enzymes CPT1A, CPT2, and ACOX1 in cultured primary hepatocytes from wild-type (WT) mice. However, L-FABP gene ablation abolished the effects of TOFA and C75 in the context of high glucose. These effects were not associated with an increased cellular level of unesterified fatty acids but rather by increased intracellular glucose. These findings suggested that L-FABP may function as an intracellular fatty acid synthesis inhibitor binding protein facilitating TOFA and C75-mediated induction of PPAR α in the context of high glucose at levels similar to those in uncontrolled diabetes.

  11. Comparative fatty acid composition of four Sargassum species (Fucales, Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang-Chun; Lu, Bao-Ren; Tseng, C. K.

    1995-12-01

    Fatty acid composition of four Sargassum species from Qingdao and Shidao, Shandong Province was investigated. 16:0 (palmitic acid) was the major saturated fatty acid. C18 and C20 were the main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid predominated among polyenoic acids in all the algal species examined, except for Sargassum sp. which had low concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid.

  12. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... approved emulsifiers in dry, whipped topping base. The fatty acids used in the production of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol...

  13. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... approved emulsifiers in dry, whipped topping base. The fatty acids used in the production of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol...

  14. Oleic acid transfer from microsomes to egg lecithin liposomes: participation of fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Catalá, A; Avanzati, B

    1983-11-01

    Oleic acid transfer from microsomes or mitochondria to egg lecithin liposomes was stimulated by fatty acid binding protein. By gel filtration, it could be demonstrated that this protein incorporates oleic acid into liposomes. Fatty acid binding protein transfer activity was higher using microsomes rather than mitochondria, which suggests a selective interaction with different kinds of membranes. Transfer of oleic acid by this soluble protein is greater than that of stearic acid. The results indicate that fatty acid binding protein may participate in the intracellular transport of fatty acids.

  15. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat. PMID:22489205

  17. Proximate composition and fatty acid analysis of Lablab purpureus (L.) legume seed: implicates to both protein and essential fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Shahdat; Ahmed, Rashed; Bhowmick, Sujan; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hashimoto, Michio

    2016-01-01

    The high mortality rate in Bangladesh is related to poverty, which results in protein malnutrition, essential fatty acid deficiency and lacks in adequate vitamins, minerals and calorie. Exploring new food items with improved dietary nutrition factors may, therefore, help to decrease the mortality rate in the poor countries like Bangladesh. Accordingly, the present study was a proximate composition and fatty acid analysis of L. purpureus seed-a legume seed which is given no careful attention locally, though it might be a good source of valuable nutrition factors for both animals and humans. The purpose of the study was, therefore, to generate awareness that L. purpureus could also act as a good source of food components essential for good health. Proximate analysis revealed that the seed powder contained 8.47 ± 0.52% moisture; 3.50 ± 0.0.07% ash; 1.02 ± 0.06% total fat; 23.95 ± 0.15% total protein; 1.21 ± 0.16% total dietary fiber; 61.86 ± 0.70% total carbohydrate and 352.4 ± 2.66 kcal/100 g energy. Phytic acid content (%) was 1.014 ± 0.048. Major fatty acid composition (%): the essential fatty acid linoleic acid (C18:2, ω-6) was 9.50 ± 0.68, while the linolenic acid (C18:3, ω-3) was 1.95 ± 0.18. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) were, respectively, 2.96 ± 0.19, 0.77 ± 0.04 and 1.10 ± 0.06. Lignoceric acid (C24:0) was 0.11 ± 0.007%. Monounsaturated palmitoleic acid (0.006 ± 0.0), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, C22:5, ω-3) and nervonic acid (0.002 ± 0.0) were present in trace amounts. Arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4, ω-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, ω-3) were not detected. The fatty acid profile, thus, suggests that essential omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (C18:3, ω-6) and omega-3 linolenic acid (C18:3, ω-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) present in L. purpureus seed. In addition, the seed contained high amount of proteins

  18. FATTY ACID DESATURASE4 of Arabidopsis encodes a protein distinct from characterized fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinpeng; Ajjawi, Imad; Manoli, Arthur; Sawin, Andrew; Xu, Changcheng; Froehlich, John E; Last, Robert L; Benning, Christoph

    2009-12-01

    Polar membrane glycerolipids occur in a mixture of molecular species defined by a polar head group and characteristic acyl groups esterified to a glycerol backbone. A molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol specific to chloroplasts of plants carries a Delta(3-trans) hexadecenoic acid in the sn-2 position of its core glyceryl moiety. The fad4-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana missing this particular phosphatidylglycerol molecular species lacks the necessary fatty acid desaturase, or a component thereof. The overwhelming majority of acyl groups associated with membrane lipids in plants contains double bonds with a cis configuration. However, FAD4 is unusual because it is involved in the formation of a trans double bond introduced close to the carboxyl group of palmitic acid, which is specifically esterified to the sn-2 glyceryl carbon of phosphatidylglycerol. As a first step towards the analysis of this unusual desaturase reaction, the FAD4 gene was identified by mapping of the FAD4 locus and coexpression analysis with known lipid genes. FAD4 encodes a predicted integral membrane protein that appears to be unrelated to classic membrane bound fatty acid desaturases based on overall sequence conservation. However, the FAD4 protein contains two histidine motifs resembling those of metalloproteins such as fatty acid desaturases. FAD4 is targeted to the plastid. Overexpression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis led to increased accumulation of the Delta(3-trans) hexadecanoyl group in phosphatidylglycerol relative to wild type. Taken together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that FAD4 is the founding member of a novel class of fatty acid desaturases.

  19. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  20. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  1. Production of Medium Chain Fatty Acids by Yarrowia lipolytica: Combining Molecular Design and TALEN to Engineer the Fatty Acid Synthase.

    PubMed

    Rigouin, Coraline; Gueroult, Marc; Croux, Christian; Dubois, Gwendoline; Borsenberger, Vinciane; Barbe, Sophie; Marty, Alain; Daboussi, Fayza; André, Isabelle; Bordes, Florence

    2017-10-20

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising organism for the production of lipids of biotechnological interest and particularly for biofuel. In this study, we engineered the key enzyme involved in lipid biosynthesis, the giant multifunctional fatty acid synthase (FAS), to shorten chain length of the synthesized fatty acids. Taking as starting point that the ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain of Yarrowia lipolytica FAS is directly involved in chain length specificity, we used molecular modeling to investigate molecular recognition of palmitic acid (C16 fatty acid) by the KS. This enabled to point out the key role of an isoleucine residue, I1220, from the fatty acid binding site, which could be targeted by mutagenesis. To address this challenge, TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases)-based genome editing technology was applied for the first time to Yarrowia lipolytica and proved to be very efficient for inducing targeted genome modifications. Among the generated FAS mutants, those having a bulky aromatic amino acid residue in place of the native isoleucine at position 1220 led to a significant increase of myristic acid (C14) production compared to parental wild-type KS. Particularly, the best performing mutant, I1220W, accumulates C14 at a level of 11.6% total fatty acids. Overall, this work illustrates how a combination of molecular modeling and genome-editing technology can offer novel opportunities to rationally engineer complex systems for synthetic biology.

  2. Effects of exogenous fatty acids and inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis on disaturated phosphatidylcholine production by fetal lung cells and adult type II cells.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, W M; Finkelstein, J N; Parkhurst, A B

    1989-05-01

    De novo fatty acid synthesis may be an important source of saturated fatty acids for fetal lung disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) production. To investigate the roles of de novo fatty acid synthesis and exogenous fatty acids, we incubated dispersed fetal lung cells and freshly isolated adult type II cells with exogenous palmitate and oleate and measured DSPC synthesis. Unlike adult type II cells, fetal lung cells did not increase DSPC synthesis when exogenous palmitate was available; adult type II cells increased DSPC synthesis by 70% in the presence of palmitate. Exogenous oleate decreased DSPC synthesis by 48% in fetal cells but not in adult type II cells. Incubation of fetal lung cells with TOFA [2-furancarboxylate, 5-(tetradecyloxy)-sodium], a metabolic inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis, decreased fatty acid synthesis by 65%. There was a simultaneous 56% inhibition of DSPC production, but no effect on protein, DNA, or glyceride-glycerol production, measured by precursor incorporation. The inhibition of DSPC synthesis associated with TOFA was partially prevented by exogenous palmitate but not oleate. Fetal cells prepared from explants that had been cultured in dexamethasone also had TOFA-associated inhibition of DSPC synthesis that was similar to non-dexamethasone-exposed cells. These studies suggest that under baseline conditions of low fatty acid availability, such as in the fetus, de novo fatty acid synthesis in fetal cells, but not in adult type II cells, provides sufficient saturated fatty acids to support maximal DSPC production. Inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis resulting in decreased DSPC production in fetal lung cells in conditions of low fatty acid availability suggests that fatty acid synthesis may be central to maintain DSPC synthesis in the fetus.

  3. Induction of cardiac Angptl4 by dietary fatty acids is mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta and protects against fatty acid-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Georgiadi, Anastasia; Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Degenhardt, Tatjana; Boekschoten, Mark V; van Bilsen, Marc; Desvergne, Beatrice; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-06-11

    Although dietary fatty acids are a major fuel for the heart, little is known about the direct effects of dietary fatty acids on gene regulation in the intact heart. To study the effect of dietary fatty acids on cardiac gene expression and explore the functional consequences. Oral administration of synthetic triglycerides composed of one single fatty acid altered cardiac expression of numerous genes, many of which are involved in the oxidative stress response. The gene most significantly and consistently upregulated by dietary fatty acids encoded Angiopoietin-like protein (Angptl)4, a circulating inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase expressed by cardiomyocytes. Induction of Angptl4 by the fatty acid linolenic acid was specifically abolished in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)beta/delta(-/-) and not PPARalpha(-/-) mice and was blunted on siRNA-mediated PPARbeta/delta knockdown in cultured cardiomyocytes. Consistent with these data, linolenic acid stimulated binding of PPARbeta/delta but not PPARalpha to the Angptl4 gene. Upregulation of Angptl4 resulted in decreased cardiac uptake of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids and decreased fatty acid-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, Angptl4 deletion led to enhanced oxidative stress in the heart, both after an acute oral fat load and after prolonged high fat feeding. Stimulation of cardiac Angptl4 gene expression by dietary fatty acids and via PPARbeta/delta is part of a feedback mechanism aimed at protecting the heart against lipid overload and consequently fatty acid-induced oxidative stress.

  4. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They...

  5. Study of UltraHigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to measure free fatty acids with out fatty acid ester preparation.

    PubMed

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Isaac, G; Rainville, P; Fountain, K; Taylor, L T

    2015-08-01

    Most lipids are best characterized by their fatty acids which may differ in (a) chain length, (b) degree of unsaturation, (c) configuration and position of the double bonds, and (d) the presence of other functionalities. Thus, a fast, simple, and quantitative analytical technique to determine naturally occurring free fatty acids (FFA) in different samples is very important. Just as for saponified acylglycerols, the determination of FFA's has generally been carried out by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The use of an open tubular capillary column coupled with a flame ionization or mass spectrometric detector provides for both high resolution and quantification of FFA's but only after conversion of all free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or pentafluorobenzyl esters. Unfortunately, volatilization of labile ester derivatives of mono- and poly-unsaturated FFA's can cause both thermal degradation and isomerization of the fatty acid during HRGC. The employment of a second generation instrument (here referred to as UltraHigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatograph, UHPSFC) with high precision for modified flow and repeated back pressure adjustment in conjunction with sub-2μm various bonded silica particles (coupled with evaporative light scattering, ELSD, and mass spectrometric, MS, detection) for separation and detection of the following mixtures is described: (a) 31 free fatty acids, (b) isomeric FFA's, and (c) lipophilic materials in two real world fish oil samples. Limits of detection for FFA's via UHPSFC/MS and UHPSFC/ELSD versus detection of FAME's via HRGC/MS are quantitatively compared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic Mapping of QTLs Controlling Fatty Acids Provided Insights into the Genetic Control of Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A.; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C.; Culbreath, Albert K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line ‘SunOleic 97R’ × low oleic line ‘NC94022’) and T-population (normal oleic line ‘Tifrunner’ × low oleic line ‘GT-C20’) were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition. PMID:25849082

  7. Camelina sativa cake improved unsaturated fatty acids in ewe's milk.

    PubMed

    Szumacher-Strabel, Malgorzata; Cieślak, Adam; Zmora, Pawel; Pers-Kamczyc, Emilia; Bielińska, Sylwia; Stanisz, Marek; Wójtowski, Jacek

    2011-08-30

    Camelina sativa cake (CSC), a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, in the case of ruminants, may improve the energy value of a diet and also increase the unsaturated fatty acid content in milk. Effects of basal diet (control), basal diet plus 30 g kg(-1) of CSC in dietary dry matter (DM), basal diet plus 60 g kg(-1) of CSC in dietary dry matter on milk production and the fatty acid composition of ewe's milk with particular emphasis on the monoenes and conjugated isomers of linoleic acid content were examined. Elevated concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids, the effect of an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids in the trans configuration, as well as the increased content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, resulted from CSC supplementation. Total saturated fatty acid concentration was decreased. Milk from CSC-supplemented ewes was characterized by increased levels of beneficial nutritional factors, including mono- and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and was also by lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Taking into consideration all the obtained results and recommended fat concentrations in a daily ruminant ration, we recommend supplementing a dairy ewe's diet with 30 g kg(-1) DM of CSC cake in practice. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Fatty Acid Profiles of Stipe and Blade from the Norwegian Brown Macroalgae Laminaria hyperborea with Special Reference to Acyl Glycerides, Polar Lipids, and Free Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Foseid, Lena; Devle, Hanne; Stenstrøm, Yngve; Naess-Andresen, Carl Fredrik; Ekeberg, Dag

    2017-01-01

    A thorough analysis of the fatty acid profiles of stipe and blade from the kelp species Laminaria hyperborea is presented. Lipid extracts were fractionated into neutral lipids, free fatty acids, and polar lipids, prior to derivatization and GC-MS analysis. A total of 42 fatty acids were identified and quantified, including the n -3 fatty acids α -linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. The fatty acid amounts are higher in blade than in stipe (7.42 mg/g dry weight and 2.57 mg/g dry weight, resp.). The highest amounts of n -3 fatty acids are found within the neutral lipid fractions with 590.6 ug/g dry weight and 100.9 ug/g dry weight for blade and stipe, respectively. The amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids are 3.4 times higher in blade than stipe. The blade had the highest PUFA/SFA ratio compared to stipe (1.02 versus 0.76) and the lowest n -6/ n -3 ratio (0.8 versus 3.5). This study highlights the compositional differences between the lipid fractions of stipe and blade from L. hyperborea . The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to saturated- and monounsaturated fatty acids is known to influence human health. In the pharmaceutical, food, and feed industries, this can be of importance for production of different health products.

  9. Fatty Acid Profiles of Stipe and Blade from the Norwegian Brown Macroalgae Laminaria hyperborea with Special Reference to Acyl Glycerides, Polar Lipids, and Free Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Foseid, Lena; Stenstrøm, Yngve; Naess-Andresen, Carl Fredrik; Ekeberg, Dag

    2017-01-01

    A thorough analysis of the fatty acid profiles of stipe and blade from the kelp species Laminaria hyperborea is presented. Lipid extracts were fractionated into neutral lipids, free fatty acids, and polar lipids, prior to derivatization and GC-MS analysis. A total of 42 fatty acids were identified and quantified, including the n-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. The fatty acid amounts are higher in blade than in stipe (7.42 mg/g dry weight and 2.57 mg/g dry weight, resp.). The highest amounts of n-3 fatty acids are found within the neutral lipid fractions with 590.6 ug/g dry weight and 100.9 ug/g dry weight for blade and stipe, respectively. The amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids are 3.4 times higher in blade than stipe. The blade had the highest PUFA/SFA ratio compared to stipe (1.02 versus 0.76) and the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio (0.8 versus 3.5). This study highlights the compositional differences between the lipid fractions of stipe and blade from L. hyperborea. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to saturated- and monounsaturated fatty acids is known to influence human health. In the pharmaceutical, food, and feed industries, this can be of importance for production of different health products. PMID:28713595

  10. 5-(Tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid and related hypolipidemic fatty acid-like alkyloxyarylcarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Parker, R A; Kariya, T; Grisar, J M; Petrow, V

    1977-06-01

    5-(Tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (91, RMI 14514) was found to lower blood lipids and to inhibit fatty acid synthesis with minimal effects on liver weight and liver fat content. This fatty acid-like compound represents a new class of hypolipidemic agent; it is effective in rats and monkeys. The compound resulted from discovery of hypolipidemic activity in certain beta-keto esters, postulation and confirmation of the corresponding benzoic acids as active metabolites, and systematic exploration of the structure--activity relationships.

  11. Differential regulation of placental amino acid transport by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-10-15

    Fatty acids are critical for normal fetal development but may also influence placental function. We have previously reported that oleic acid (OA) stimulates amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs). In other tissues, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on cellular signaling, for instance, palmitic acid (PA) but not OA reduces IκBα expression. We hypothesized that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially affect trophoblast amino acid transport and cellular signaling. To test this hypothesis, PHTs were cultured in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 50 μM), OA (100 μM), or PA (100 μM). DHA and OA were also combined to test whether DHA could counteract the OA stimulatory effect on amino acid transport. The effects of fatty acids were compared against a vehicle control. Amino acid transport was measured by isotope-labeled tracers. Activation of inflammatory-related signaling pathways and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were determined by Western blot analysis. Exposure of PHTs to DHA for 24 h reduced amino acid transport and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, STAT3, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein (rp)S6. In contrast, OA increased amino acid transport and phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR, S6 kinase 1, and rpS6. The combination of DHA with OA increased amino acid transport and rpS6 phosphorylation. PA did not affect amino acid transport but reduced IκBα expression. In conclusion, these fatty acids differentially regulated placental amino acid transport and cellular signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary fatty acids could alter the intrauterine environment by modifying placental function, thereby having long-lasting effects on the developing fetus. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kanobe, Charles; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.

    2015-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of “metabolic hijacking” by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor. PMID:26684003

  13. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    PubMed

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  14. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, C. P.; Álvares, T. S.; Gomes, L. S.; Torres, A. G.; Paschoalin, V. M. F.; Conte-Junior, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids), which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7g/100g fatty acids) contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31) that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0g/100g fatty acids) and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids) contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality. PMID:26444286

  15. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage.

    PubMed

    Vieira, C P; Álvares, T S; Gomes, L S; Torres, A G; Paschoalin, V M F; Conte-Junior, C A

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids), which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8 g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7 g/100g fatty acids) contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31) that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0 g/100g fatty acids) and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids) contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality.

  16. Ultrasonic-assisted incorporation of nano-encapsulated omega-3 fatty acids to enhance the fatty acid profile of pork meat.

    PubMed

    Ojha, K Shikha; Perussello, Camila A; García, Carlos Álvarez; Kerry, Joseph P; Pando, Daniel; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2017-10-01

    In this study, ultrasound was employed to enhance the diffusion of microencapsulated fatty acids into pork meat. Nanovesicles of fish oil composed of 42% EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and 16% DHA (docosahexanoic acid) were prepared using two different commercial Pronanosome preparations (Lipo-N and Lipo-CAT; which yield cationic and non-cationic nanovesicles, respectively). The thin film hydration (TFH) methodology was employed for encapsulation. Pork meat (Musculus semitendinosus) was submerged in the nanovesicles suspension and subjected to ultrasound (US) treatment at 25kHz for either 30 or 60min. Samples were analysed for fatty acid composition using gas chromatography-flame ionisation (GC-FID). The content of long-chain PUFAs, especially omega-3, was found to increase following the US treatment which was higher for Lipo-CAT compared to Lipo-N nanovesicles. Samples subjected to Lipo-N had higher atherogenic and thrombogenic indices, indicating higher levels of saturated fatty acids compared to the Lipo-CAT. The omega-6/omega-3 ratio in pork meat was significantly reduced following the US treatment, thus indicating an improved fatty acid profile of pork. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Symbiotic zooxanthellae provide the host-coral Montipora digitata with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Papina, M; Meziane, T; van Woesik, R

    2003-07-01

    We compared the fatty acid composition of the host-coral Montipora digitata with the fatty acid composition in the coral's endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). Fatty acids as methyl esters were determined using gas chromatography (GC) and verified by GC-mass spectrometry. We found the main difference between the fatty acids in the host and their symbionts were that zooxanthellae supported higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The presence of fatty acids specific to dinoflagellates (i.e. 18:4omega3, 22:5omega3 and 22:6omega3) in the host tissue suggests that zooxanthellae provide the coral host not only with saturated fatty acids, but also with diverse polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Protein-membrane interaction and fatty acid transfer from intestinal fatty acid-binding protein to membranes. Support for a multistep process.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Lockhart, Lisandro J; Laborde, Lisandro; Kahn, Peter C; Storch, Judith; Córsico, Betina

    2006-05-19

    Fatty acid transfer from intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP) to phospholipid membranes occurs during protein-membrane collisions. Electrostatic interactions involving the alpha-helical "portal" region of the protein have been shown to be of great importance. In the present study, the role of specific lysine residues in the alpha-helical region of IFABP was directly examined. A series of point mutants in rat IFABP was engineered in which the lysine positive charges in this domain were eliminated or reversed. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, we analyzed the rates and mechanism of fatty acid transfer from wild type and mutant proteins to acceptor membranes. Most of the alpha-helical domain mutants showed slower absolute fatty acid transfer rates to zwitterionic membranes, with substitution of one of the lysines of the alpha2 helix, Lys27, resulting in a particularly dramatic decrease in the fatty acid transfer rate. Sensitivity to negatively charged phospholipid membranes was also reduced, with charge reversal mutants in the alpha2 helix the most affected. The results support the hypothesis that the portal region undergoes a conformational change during protein-membrane interaction, which leads to release of the bound fatty acid to the membrane and that the alpha2 segment is of particular importance in the establishment of charge-charge interactions between IFABP and membranes. Cross-linking experiments with a phospholipid-photoactivable reagent underscored the importance of charge-charge interactions, showing that the physical interaction between wild-type intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and phospholipid membranes is enhanced by electrostatic interactions. Protein-membrane interactions were also found to be enhanced by the presence of ligand, suggesting different collisional complex structures for holo- and apo-IFABP.

  19. Studies on fatty acid-binding proteins. The detection and quantification of the protein from rat liver by using a fluorescent fatty acid analogue.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, T C; Wilton, D C

    1986-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding protein from rat liver is shown to bind the fluorescent fatty acid probe dansyl undecanoic acid. Binding is accompanied by a shift in the fluorescence emission maximum from 550 nm to 500 nm and a 60-fold fluorescence enhancement at 500 nm. These spectral properties have allowed the use of this probe to detect and quantify microgram amounts of liver fatty acid-binding protein during purification procedures. In conjunction with h.p.l.c. the method allows the rapid estimation of liver fatty acid-binding protein in biological samples. The validity of the method is demonstrated by measuring the concentration of fatty acid-binding protein in livers from control and hypolipidaemic-drug-treated rats. The dramatic diurnal rhythm previously reported for this protein [Dempsey (1984) Curr. Top. Cell. Regul. 24, 63-86] was not observed with this method. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3800946

  20. Abnormal fatty acids in Canadian children with autism.

    PubMed

    Jory, Joan

    2016-04-01

    Fatty acids are critical for pediatric neurodevelopment and are abnormal in autism, although prior studies have demonstrated conflicting results and methodological differences. To our knowledge, there are no published data on fatty acid in Canadian children with autism. The aim of this study was to investigate red blood cell and serum fatty acid status to identify whether abnormalities exist in Canadian children with autism, and to enhance future cross-study comparison. Eleven Canadian children with autism (3 girls, 8 boys; age 3.05 ± 0.79 y) and 15 controls (9 girls, 6 boys; age 3.87 ± 1.06 y) met inclusion criteria, which included prior Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, no recent medication or supplements, no specialty diets, and no recent illness. The children with autism demonstrated lower red blood cell docosahexaenoic acid (P < 0.0003), eicosapentaenoic acid (P < 0.03), arachidonic acid (P < 0.002), and ω-3/ω-6 ratios (P < 0.001). They also demonstrated lower serum docosahexaenoic acid (P < 0.02), arachidonic acid (P < 0.05), and linoleic acid (P < 0.02) levels. Fatty acids in both serum and red blood cells were abnormal in this small group of Canadian children with autism than in controls, underlining a need for larger age- and sex-matched investigations in this community. A potential role for fatty acid abnormalities within the complex epigenetic etiology of autism is proposed in relation to emerging understanding of relationships between cobalamin metabolism, gut microbiota, and propionic acid production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    St-Jules, David E; Watters, Corilee A; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Wilkens, Lynne R; Novotny, Rachel; Belt, Patricia; Lavine, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fish and omega-3 fatty acids are reported to be beneficial in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but no studies have assessed their relation to histological severity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the dietary intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids in children with biopsy-proven NAFLD, and examine their association with serological and histological indicators of disease. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of 223 children (6–18 years) that participated in the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children trial or the NAFLD Database study conducted by the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network. The distribution of fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake were determined from responses to the Block Brief 2000 Food Frequency Questionnaire, and analyzed for associations with serum alanine aminotransferase, histological features of fatty liver disease, and diagnosis of steatohepatitis after adjusting for demographic, anthropometric and dietary variables. Results The minority of subjects consumed the recommended eight ounces of fish per week (22/223 (10%)) and 200 mg of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids per day (12/223 (5%)). Lack of fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake was associated with greater portal (p=0.03 and p=0.10, respectively) and lobular inflammation (p=0.09 and p=0.004, respectively) after controlling for potential confounders. Discussion Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake were insufficient in children with NAFLD, which may increase susceptibility to hepatic inflammation. Patients with pediatric NAFLD should be encouraged to consume the recommended amount of fish per week. PMID:24177784

  2. Effects of dietary vitamin B6 supplementation on fillet fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of rainbow trout fed vegetable oil based diets.

    PubMed

    Senadheera, Shyamalie D; Turchini, Giovanni M; Thanuthong, Thanongsak; Francis, David S

    2012-03-07

    Fish oil replacement in aquaculture feeds results in major modifications to the fatty acid makeup of cultured fish. Therefore, in vivo fatty acid biosynthesis has been a topic of considerable research interest. Evidence suggests that pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) plays a role in fatty acid metabolism, and in particular, the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA has been demonstrated in mammals. However, there is little information on the effects of dietary pyridoxine availability in fish fed diets lacking LC-PUFA. This study demonstrates a relationship between dietary pyridoxine supplementation and fatty acid metabolism in rainbow trout. In particular, the dietary pyridoxine level was shown to modulate and positively stimulate the activity of the fatty acid elongase and Δ-6 and Δ-5 desaturase enzymes, deduced by the whole-body fatty acid balance method. This activity was insufficient to compensate for a diet lacking in LC-PUFA but does highlight potential strategies to maximize this activity in cultured fish, especially when fish oil is replaced with vegetable oils.

  3. Twice weekly intake of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) positively influences lipoprotein concentration and particle size in overweight men and women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background and Aims. The U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend twice weekly fish intake. Farmed Atlantic salmon is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids which have positive lipid modifying effects; however, it is unknown whether these responses are dose-dependent in the context of fish inta...

  4. Macrocyclic lactones: A versatile source for omega radiohalogenated fatty acid analogs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dougan, A.H.; Lyster, D.M.; Robertson, K.A.

    For each omega halogenated fatty acid there exists a potential omega hydroxy fatty acid and the corresponding macrocyclic lactone. The authors have utilized such lactones as starting materials for omega /sup 123/I fatty acid analogs intended for myocardial imaging. Macrocyclic musk lactones are industrially available; 120 analogs are described in the literature. The preparation requires saponification, tosylation, and radio-iodide substitution. Iodo-fatty acids are readily separated from tosylate fatty acids on TLC. While providing a secure source of 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid and 17-iodo-heptadecanoic acid, the scheme allows ready access to a large number of untried fatty acid analogs. Examples presented are 16-iodo-hexadecanoicmore » acid, 16-iodo-7-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-12-oxa-hexadecanoic acid, 15-iodo-pentadecanoic acid, and 15-iodo-12-keto-pentadecanoic acid. Metabolic studies are in progress in mice and dogs to assess the utility of these analogs for myocardial imaging.« less

  5. Trans-Fatty Acid-Stimulated Mammary Gland Growth in Ovariectomized Mice is Fatty Acid Type and Isomer Specific.

    PubMed

    Berryhill, Grace E; Miszewski, Susan G; Trott, Josephine F; Kraft, Jana; Lock, Adam L; Hovey, Russell C

    2017-03-01

    We previously reported that the trans-18:2 fatty acid trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12-CLA) stimulates mammary gland development independent of estrogen and its receptor. Given the negative consequences of dietary trans-fatty acids on various aspects of human health, we sought to establish whether other trans-fatty acids could similarly induce ovary-independent mammary gland growth in mice. Prepubertal BALB/cJ mice were ovariectomized at 21 days of age then were fed diets enriched with cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11-CLA), or mixtures of trans-18:1 fatty acids supplied by partially hydrogenated sunflower, safflower, or linseed oil. The resultant mammary phenotype was evaluated 3 weeks later and compared to the growth response elicited by t10,c12-CLA, or the defined control diet. Whereas partially hydrogenated safflower oil increased mammary gland weight, none of the partially hydrogenated vegetable oils promoted mammary ductal growth. Similarly, the c9,t11-CLA supplemented diet was without effect on mammary development. Taken together, our data emphasize a unique effect of t10,c12-CLA in stimulating estrogen-independent mammary gland growth manifest as increased mammary ductal area and elongation that was not recapitulated by c9,t11-CLA or the partially hydrogenated vegetable oil diets.

  6. Beta cell compensation for insulin resistance in Zucker fatty rats: increased lipolysis and fatty acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Nolan, C J; Leahy, J L; Delghingaro-Augusto, V; Moibi, J; Soni, K; Peyot, M-L; Fortier, M; Guay, C; Lamontagne, J; Barbeau, A; Przybytkowski, E; Joly, E; Masiello, P; Wang, S; Mitchell, G A; Prentki, M

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of fatty acid signalling in islet beta cell compensation for insulin resistance in the Zucker fatty fa/fa (ZF) rat, a genetic model of severe obesity, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance that does not develop diabetes. NEFA augmentation of insulin secretion and fatty acid metabolism were studied in isolated islets from ZF and Zucker lean (ZL) control rats. Exogenous palmitate markedly potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in ZF islets, allowing robust secretion at physiological glucose levels (5-8 mmol/l). Exogenous palmitate also synergised with glucagon-like peptide-1 and the cyclic AMP-raising agent forskolin to enhance GSIS in ZF islets only. In assessing islet fatty acid metabolism, we found increased glucose-responsive palmitate esterification and lipolysis processes in ZF islets, suggestive of enhanced triglyceride-fatty acid cycling. Interruption of glucose-stimulated lipolysis by the lipase inhibitor Orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin) blunted palmitate-augmented GSIS in ZF islets. Fatty acid oxidation was also higher at intermediate glucose levels in ZF islets and steatotic triglyceride accumulation was absent. The results highlight the potential importance of NEFA and glucoincretin enhancement of insulin secretion in beta cell compensation for insulin resistance. We propose that coordinated glucose-responsive fatty acid esterification and lipolysis processes, suggestive of triglyceride-fatty acid cycling, play a role in the coupling mechanisms of glucose-induced insulin secretion as well as in beta cell compensation and the hypersecretion of insulin in obesity.

  7. Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Fatty Acid Binding Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jun; Lücke, Christian; Chen, Zhongjing; Qiao, Ye; Klimtchuk, Elena; Hamilton, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a cytosolic protein most abundant in liver, is associated with intracellular transport of fatty acids, nuclear signaling, and regulation of intracellular lipolysis. Among the members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family, L-FABP is of particular interest as it can i), bind two fatty acid molecules simultaneously and ii), accommodate a variety of bulkier physiological ligands such as bilirubin and fatty acyl CoA. To better understand the promiscuous binding and transport properties of L-FABP, we investigated structure and dynamics of human L-FABP with and without bound ligands by means of heteronuclear NMR. The overall conformation of human L-FABP shows the typical β-clam motif. Binding of two oleic acid (OA) molecules does not alter the protein conformation substantially, but perturbs the chemical shift of certain backbone and side-chain protons that are involved in OA binding according to the structure of the human L-FABP/OA complex. Comparison of the human apo and holo L-FABP structures revealed no evidence for an “open-cap” conformation or a “swivel-back” mechanism of the K90 side chain upon ligand binding, as proposed for rat L-FABP. Instead, we postulate that the lipid binding process in L-FABP is associated with backbone dynamics. PMID:22713574

  8. Cellular fatty acid composition of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Erysipelothrix tonsillarum.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Tamura, Y; Endoh, Y S; Hara, N

    1994-04-01

    The cellular fatty acid compositions in 6 strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and 7 strains of Erysipelothrix tonsillarum were determined by gas chromatography. Fatty acids, ranging from C10 to C18, were detected in the test strains. The fatty acid profile was characterized by very high percentages of 18:1 (cis-9) (cis-9-octadecenoic acid; 72.4 to 82.1%) and 16:1 (hexadecenoic acid; 8.7 to 13.7%). The profiles of the E. rhusiopathiae and E. tonsillarum strains resembled each other, indicating that discrimination between E. rhusiopathiae and E. tonsillarum from qualitative or quantitative fatty acid differences is difficult.

  9. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  10. Spillover of dietary fatty acids and use of serum nonesterified fatty acids for the synthesis of VLDL-triacylglycerol under two different feeding regimens.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Brian R; Timlin, Maureen T; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2005-09-01

    The present study quantified dietary fatty acid flux in healthy men (n = 6) who were fed a liquid formula through a duodenal feeding tube (continuous feeding group) or who consumed the same formula in meals (meal feeding group). A triacylglycerol (TAG) stable isotope was added to the formula to determine the entry of dietary fatty acids into the serum and its clearance to the liver and resecretion into serum via VLDL. The contribution of dietary fatty acids to serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) was higher with meal feeding (24.4 +/- 2.6%) compared with continuous feeding (10.8 +/- 2.9%, P < 0.01) and, when multiplied by the NEFA concentration, resulted in similar absolute fatty acid spillover. Diet-derived NEFAs subsequently represented 10.6 +/- 1.2% and 4.7 +/- 1.3% of hepatic VLDL-TAG (meal feeding vs. continuous feeding, respectively, P = 0.004). Chylomicron remnant uptake by the liver contributed 9.3 +/- 1.9% of fatty acids to hepatic VLDL-TAG synthesis with meal feeding compared with continuous feeding (4.4 +/- 0.8%, P < 0.03). These data suggest that the extent of dietary fatty acid recycling via serum NEFAs and VLDL-TAG is determined by the rate of delivery of dietary fat to the intestine. The inefficient removal of dietary fat from the circulation may maintain VLDL-TAG production but may also result in prolonged postprandial lipemia.

  11. Analysis of fatty acid composition of anaerobic rumen fungi.

    PubMed

    Koppová, I; Novotná, Z; Strosová, L; Fliegerová, K

    2008-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of fresh mycelia of anaerobic rumen fungi was determined. The fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) of six strains belonging to four genera (Neocallimastix, Caecomyces, Orpinomyces, Anaeromyces) and one unknown strain were analyzed by gas chromatography. All studied fungi possess the same FAs but differences were found in their relative concentrations. The FA profile of anaerobic fungi comprises carbon chains of length ranging from 12 to 24; the most common fatty acids were stearic (C(18:0)), arachidic (C(20:0)), heneicosanoic (C(21:0)), behenic (C(22:0)), tricosanoic (C(23:0)) and lignoceric (C(24:0)) with relative amount representing >4% of total FA. Significant differences were determined for heptadecanoic, oleic, behenic and tricosanoic acids. Rumen anaerobic fungi can contain very long chain fatty acids; we found unsaturated fatty acids including cis-11-eicosenoic (C(20:1)), cis-11,14-eicosadienoic (C(20:2)), erucic (C(22:1n9)), cis-13,16-docosadienoic (C(22:2)) and nervonic (C(24:1)) acids in very small amounts but their presence seems to be unique for anaerobic fungi.

  12. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in...

  13. Fatty acids composition of Caenorhabditis elegans using accurate mass GCMS-QTOF

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Parise; Owopetu, Olufunmilayo; Adisa, Demilade; Nguyen, Thao; Anthony, Kevin; Ijoni-Animadu, David; Jamadar, Sakha; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia; Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    The free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a proven model organism for lipid metabolism research. Total lipids of C. elegans were extracted using chloroform, methanol 2:1(v/v). Fatty acids composition of the extracted total lipids were converted to their corresponding methyl esters (FAMEs) and analyzed by gas chromatography/accurate mass quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GCMS-QTOF) using both electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) techniques. 28 fatty acids consisting of 12 to 22 carbon atoms were identified, 65% of them were unsaturated. Fatty acids containing 12 to 17 carbons were mostly saturated with stearic acid (18:0) as the major constituent. Several branched-chain fatty acids were identified. Methyl-14-methylhexadecanoate (iso-17:0) was the major identified branched fatty acid. This is the first report to detect the intact molecular parent ions of the identified fatty acids using chemical ionization compared to electron ionization which produced fragmentations of the fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs). PMID:27166662

  14. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  15. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-12-16

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  16. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT)-1, but not GPAT4, incorporates newly synthesized fatty acids into triacylglycerol and diminishes fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Angela A; Cooper, Daniel E; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Muoio, Deborah M; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2013-09-20

    Four glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) isoforms, each encoded by a separate gene, catalyze the initial step in glycerolipid synthesis; in liver, the major isoforms are GPAT1 and GPAT4. To determine whether each of these hepatic isoforms performs a unique function in the metabolism of fatty acid, we measured the incorporation of de novo synthesized fatty acid or exogenous fatty acid into complex lipids in primary mouse hepatocytes from control, Gpat1(-/-), and Gpat4(-/-) mice. Although hepatocytes from each genotype incorporated a similar amount of exogenous fatty acid into triacylglycerol (TAG), only control and Gpat4(-/-) hepatocytes were able to incorporate de novo synthesized fatty acid into TAG. When compared with controls, Gpat1(-/-) hepatocytes oxidized twice as much exogenous fatty acid. To confirm these findings and to assess hepatic β-oxidation metabolites, we measured acylcarnitines in liver from mice after a 24-h fast and after a 24-h fast followed by 48 h of refeeding with a high sucrose diet to promote lipogenesis. Confirming the in vitro findings, the hepatic content of long-chain acylcarnitine in fasted Gpat1(-/-) mice was 3-fold higher than in controls. When compared with control and Gpat4(-/-) mice, after the fasting-refeeding protocol, Gpat1(-/-) hepatic TAG was depleted, and long-chain acylcarnitine content was 3.5-fold higher. Taken together, these data demonstrate that GPAT1, but not GPAT4, is required to incorporate de novo synthesized fatty acids into TAG and to divert them away from oxidation.

  17. Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of three Mediterranean cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Feist, Christian; Sagredos, Angelos

    2006-10-01

    Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in three commercially important cephalopods of the Mediterranean sea (cuttlefish, octopus and squid) were determined. The results of the proximate analysis showed that these species had very high protein:fat ratios similar to lean beef. Docosahexaenoic, palmitic and eicosipentaenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids among analyzed species. The amount of n-3 fatty acids was higher than that of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 fatty acids. Despite the fact that cephalopods contain small amounts of fat they were found quite rich in n-3 fatty acids. Finally, PDCAAS indicated that these organisms had a very good protein quality.

  18. Composition of Fatty Acids and Carbohydrates in Leptospira1

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Eiko; Ueta, Nobuo

    1972-01-01

    The fatty acid and monosaccharide composition of four pathogenic and two saprophytic strains of Leptospira was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. Among the fatty acids, palmitic acid was most abundant and constituted 30 to 50% of the total fatty acids. Even-numbered unsaturated acids including octadecenoic, hexadecenoic, octadecadienoic, and tetradecadienoic acids comprised 40 to 60% of the total fatty acids. Tetradecanoic acid was about 5% in saprophytic strains, but 1% or less in pathogenic strains. The amount of chloroform-methanol extract of L. biflexa strain Ancona was 14 to 20% of the dry weight of the cell. Tetradecadienoic acid was found in the chloroform-methanol insoluble fraction, suggesting the presence of the acid in a bound form. GC analysis of monosaccharides revealed the existence of arabinose, xylose, rhamnose, mannose, galactose, glucose, glucosamine, and muramic acid in the cells. Among the neutral sugars, glucose was a minor component and was especially low in pathogenic strains. Total pentose content was about two to three times greater than total hexose. PMID:5022167

  19. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty...

  20. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated fatty acid amide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxylated fatty acid amide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting under...

  2. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P < 0.05) from 27.6 ± 1.32b % to 31.7 ± 1.68a % and 2.15 ± 0.09b % to 2.79 ± 0.05a %, respectively, at T2 level. Incorporation of milk fat of T1 and T2 (modified fatty acids profile) in ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  3. Very Long Chain Fatty Acids Are Functionally Involved in Necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Laura R; Li, Nasi; Atilla-Gokcumen, G Ekin

    2017-12-21

    Necroptosis is a form of regulated cell death that is linked to various human diseases. Distinct membrane-related, thus lipid-dependent, alterations take place during necroptosis. However, little is known about the roles of specific lipids in this process. We used an untargeted LC-MS-based approach to reveal that distinct lipid species are regulated at the molecular level during necroptosis. We found that ceramides and very long chain fatty acids accumulate during this process. Intrigued by the specificity of very long chain fatty acid accumulation, we focused on characterizing their involvement during necroptosis. Biochemical characterizations suggested that activated fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation could be responsible for these accumulations. We further showed that inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis and depletion of very long chain fatty acids prevented loss of plasma membrane integrity and cell death, strongly suggesting that very long chain fatty acids are functionally involved in necroptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Why does brain metabolism not favor burning of fatty acids to provide energy? - Reflections on disadvantages of the use of free fatty acids as fuel for brain

    PubMed Central

    Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2013-01-01

    It is puzzling that hydrogen-rich fatty acids are used only poorly as fuel in the brain. The long-standing belief that a slow passage of fatty acids across the blood–brain barrier might be the reason. However, this has been corrected by experimental results. Otherwise, accumulated nonesterified fatty acids or their activated derivatives could exert detrimental activities on mitochondria, which might trigger the mitochondrial route of apoptosis. Here, we draw attention to three particular problems: (1) ATP generation linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids demands more oxygen than glucose, thereby enhancing the risk for neurons to become hypoxic; (2) β-oxidation of fatty acids generates superoxide, which, taken together with the poor anti-oxidative defense in neurons, causes severe oxidative stress; (3) the rate of ATP generation based on adipose tissue-derived fatty acids is slower than that using blood glucose as fuel. Thus, in periods of extended continuous and rapid neuronal firing, fatty acid oxidation cannot guarantee rapid ATP generation in neurons. We conjecture that the disadvantages connected with using fatty acids as fuel have created evolutionary pressure on lowering the expression of the β-oxidation enzyme equipment in brain mitochondria to avoid extensive fatty acid oxidation and to favor glucose oxidation in brain. PMID:23921897

  5. Why does brain metabolism not favor burning of fatty acids to provide energy? Reflections on disadvantages of the use of free fatty acids as fuel for brain.

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2013-10-01

    It is puzzling that hydrogen-rich fatty acids are used only poorly as fuel in the brain. The long-standing belief that a slow passage of fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier might be the reason. However, this has been corrected by experimental results. Otherwise, accumulated nonesterified fatty acids or their activated derivatives could exert detrimental activities on mitochondria, which might trigger the mitochondrial route of apoptosis. Here, we draw attention to three particular problems: (1) ATP generation linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids demands more oxygen than glucose, thereby enhancing the risk for neurons to become hypoxic; (2) β-oxidation of fatty acids generates superoxide, which, taken together with the poor anti-oxidative defense in neurons, causes severe oxidative stress; (3) the rate of ATP generation based on adipose tissue-derived fatty acids is slower than that using blood glucose as fuel. Thus, in periods of extended continuous and rapid neuronal firing, fatty acid oxidation cannot guarantee rapid ATP generation in neurons. We conjecture that the disadvantages connected with using fatty acids as fuel have created evolutionary pressure on lowering the expression of the β-oxidation enzyme equipment in brain mitochondria to avoid extensive fatty acid oxidation and to favor glucose oxidation in brain.

  6. Effect of fatty acids on self-assembly of soybean lecithin systems.

    PubMed

    Godoy, C A; Valiente, M; Pons, R; Montalvo, G

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing interest in natural formulations for drug administration and functional foods, it is desirable a good knowledge of the phase behavior of lecithin/fatty acid formulations. Phase structure and properties of ternary lecithin/fatty acids/water systems are studied at 37°C, making emphasis in regions with relatively low water and fatty acid content. The effect of fatty acid saturation degree on the phase microstructure is studied by comparing a fully saturated (palmitic acid, C16:0), monounsaturated (oleic acid, C18:1), and diunsaturated (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids. Phase determinations are based on a combination of polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Interestingly, unsaturated (oleic acid and linoleic acid) fatty acid destabilizes the lamellar bilayer. Slight differences are observed between the phase diagrams produced by the unsaturated ones: small lamellar, medium cubic and large hexagonal regions. A narrow isotropic fluid region also appears on the lecithin-fatty acid axis, up to 8wt% water. In contrast, a marked difference in phase microsctructure was observed between unsaturated and saturated systems in which the cubic and isotropic fluid phases are not formed. These differences are, probably, a consequence of the high Krafft point of the C16 saturated chains that imply rather rigid chains. However, unsaturated fatty acids result in more flexible tails. The frequent presence of, at least, one unsaturated chain in phospholipids makes it very likely a better mixing situation than in the case of more rigid chains. This swelling potential favors the formation of reverse hexagonal, cubic, and micellar phases. Both unsaturated fatty acid systems evolve by aging, with a reduction of the extension of reverse hexagonal phase and migration of the cubic phase to lower fatty acid and water contents. The kinetic stability of the systems seems to be controlled by the unsaturation of fatty acids. Copyright © 2015

  7. Fatty acid biosynthesis pathways in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1)

    DOE PAGES

    Demidenko, Aleksandr; Akberdin, Ilya R.; Allemann, Marco; ...

    2017-01-10

    Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane-based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1). Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fattymore » acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of FA transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These studies indicated that both fatty acid degradation and acetyl- and malonyl-CoA levels are bottlenecks for higher level fatty acid production. The best strain generated in this study synthesizes 111 ± 2 mg/gDCW of extractable fatty acids, which is ~20% more than the original strain. A candidate gene for FA-biosynthesis regulation, farE, was identified and studied. Its deletion resulted in drastic changes to the FA profile, leading to an increased pool of C18-fatty acid methyl ester. The FarE-regulon was further investigated by RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in farE-knockout mutants and farE-overexpressing strains. These gene profiles highlighted a novel set of enzymes and regulators involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. As a result, the gene expression and fatty acid profiles of the different farE-strains support the hypothesis that metabolic fluxes upstream of fatty acid biosynthesis restrict fatty acid production in the methanotroph.« less

  8. Fatty acid biosynthesis pathways in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Demidenko, Aleksandr; Akberdin, Ilya R.; Allemann, Marco

    Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane-based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1). Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fattymore » acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of FA transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These studies indicated that both fatty acid degradation and acetyl- and malonyl-CoA levels are bottlenecks for higher level fatty acid production. The best strain generated in this study synthesizes 111 ± 2 mg/gDCW of extractable fatty acids, which is ~20% more than the original strain. A candidate gene for FA-biosynthesis regulation, farE, was identified and studied. Its deletion resulted in drastic changes to the FA profile, leading to an increased pool of C18-fatty acid methyl ester. The FarE-regulon was further investigated by RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in farE-knockout mutants and farE-overexpressing strains. These gene profiles highlighted a novel set of enzymes and regulators involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. As a result, the gene expression and fatty acid profiles of the different farE-strains support the hypothesis that metabolic fluxes upstream of fatty acid biosynthesis restrict fatty acid production in the methanotroph.« less

  9. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  10. Differential metabolite levels in response to spawning-induced inappetence in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Rocco C; Smith, McKenzie L; Vermeersch, Kathleen A; Dove, Alistair D M; Styczynski, Mark P

    2015-03-01

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar undergo months-long inappetence during spawning, but it is not known whether this inappetence is a pathological state or one for which the fish are adapted. Recent work has shown that inappetent whale sharks can exhibit circulating metabolite profiles similar to ketosis known to occur in humans during starvation. In this work, metabolite profiling was used to explore differences in analyte profiles between a cohort of inappetent spawning run Atlantic salmon and captively reared animals that were fed up to and through the time of sampling. The two classes of animals were easily distinguished by their metabolite profiles. The sea-run fish had elevated ɷ-9 fatty acids relative to the domestic feeding animals, while other fatty acid concentrations were reduced. Sugar alcohols were generally elevated in inappetent animals, suggesting potentially novel metabolic responses or pathways in fish that feature these compounds. Compounds expected to indicate a pathological catabolic state were not more abundant in the sea-run fish, suggesting that the animals, while inappetent, were not stressed in an unnatural way. These findings demonstrate the power of discovery-based metabolomics for exploring biochemistry in poorly understood animal models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect: evaluating pharmacokinetic and brain fatty acid-related aspects in rodents.

    PubMed

    Laino, Carlos Horacio; Garcia, Pilar; Podestá, María Fernanda; Höcht, Christian; Slobodianik, Nora; Reinés, Analía

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that combined fluoxetine administration at antidepressant doses renders additive antidepressant effects, whereas non-antidepressant doses potentiate the omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate putative pharmacokinetic and brain omega-3 fatty acid-related aspects for fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect in rats. Coadministration of omega-3 fatty acids with a non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg day) failed to affect both brain fluoxetine concentration and norfluoxetine plasma concentration profile. Fluoxetine plasma concentrations remained below the sensitivity limit of the detection method. Either antidepressant (10 mg/kg day) or non-antidepressant (1 mg/kg day) doses of fluoxetine in combination with omega-3 fatty acids increased hippocampal docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 omega-3) levels. Although individual treatments had no effects on DPA concentration, DPA increase was higher when omega-3 were combined with the non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine. Chronic DPA administration exerted antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test while increasing hippocampal docosahexaenoic (22:6 omega-3) and DPA levels. Our results suggest no pharmacokinetic interaction and reveal specific hippocampal DPA changes after fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments in our experimental conditions. The DPA role in the synergistic effect of fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments will be for sure the focus of future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3316-3325, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. Diverse physiological effects of long-chain saturated fatty acids: implications for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Flock, Michael R; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the metabolism of long-chain saturated fatty acids and the ensuing effects on an array of metabolic events. Individual long-chain saturated fatty acids exhibit unique biological properties. Dietary saturated fat absorption varies depending on chain-length and the associated food matrix. The in-vivo metabolism of saturated fatty acids varies depending on the individual fatty acid and the nutritional state of the individual. A variety of fatty acid metabolites are formed, each with their own unique structure and properties that warrant further research. Replacing saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids improves the blood lipid profile and reduces cardiovascular disease risk, although the benefits depend on the specific saturated fatty acid(s) being replaced. Acknowledging the complexity of saturated fatty acid metabolism and associated metabolic events is important when assessing their effects on cardiovascular disease risk. Investigating the biological effects of saturated fatty acids will advance our understanding of how they affect cardiovascular disease risk.

  13. Fatty acid synthase inhibition in human breast cancer cells leads to malonyl-CoA-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Thupari, J N; Pinn, M L; Kuhajda, F P

    2001-07-13

    Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo without toxicity to proliferating normal cells. We have previously shown that FAS inhibition causes a rapid increase in malonyl-CoA levels identifying malonyl-CoA as a potential trigger of apoptosis. In this study we further investigated the role of malonyl-CoA during FAS inhibition. We have found that: [i] inhibition of FAS with cerulenin causes carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) inhibition and fatty acid oxidation inhibition in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells likely mediated by elevation of malonyl-CoA; [ii] cerulenin cytotoxicity is due to the nonphysiological state of increased malonyl-CoA, decreased fatty acid oxidation, and decreased fatty acid synthesis; and [iii] the cytotoxic effect of cerulenin can be mimicked by simultaneous inhibition of CPT-1, with etomoxir, and fatty acid synthesis with TOFA, an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitor. This study identifies CPT-1 and ACC as two new potential targets for cancer chemotherapy. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Phospholipid Fatty Acid Analysis: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, R. H.

    2008-12-01

    With their 1980 publication, Bobbie and White initiated the use of phospholipid fatty acids for the study of microbial communities. This method, integrated with a previously published biomass assay based on the colorimetric detection of orthophosphate liberated from phospholipids, provided the first quantitative method for determining microbial community structure. The method is based on a quantitative extraction of lipids from the sample matrix, isolation of the phospholipids, conversion of the phospholipid fatty acids to their corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (known by the acronym FAME) and the separation, identification and quantification of the FAME by gas chromatography. Early laboratory and field samples focused on correlating individual fatty acids to particular groups of microorganisms. Subsequent improvements to the methodology include reduced solvent volumes for extractions, improved sensitivity in the detection of orthophosphate and the use of solid phase extraction technology. Improvements in the field of gas chromatography also increased accessibility of the technique and it has been widely applied to water, sediment, soil and aerosol samples. Whole cell fatty acid analysis, a related but not equal technique, is currently used for phenotypic characterization in bacterial species descriptions and is the basis for a commercial, rapid bacterial identification system. In the early 1990ês application of multivariate statistical analysis, first cluster analysis and then principal component analysis, further improved the usefulness of the technique and allowed the development of a functional group approach to interpretation of phospholipid fatty acid profiles. Statistical techniques currently applied to the analysis of phospholipid fatty acid profiles include constrained ordinations and neutral networks. Using redundancy analysis, a form of constrained ordination, we have recently shown that both cation concentration and dissolved organic matter (DOM

  15. Frictional response of fatty acids on steel.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Rashmi R; Biswas, S K

    2009-05-15

    Self-assembled monolayers of fatty acids were formed on stainless steel by room-temperature solution deposition. The acids are covalently bound to the surface as carboxylate in a bidentate manner. To explore the effect of saturation in the carbon backbone on friction in sliding tribology, we study the response of saturated stearic acid (SA) and unsaturated linoleic acid (LA) as self-assembled monolayers using lateral force microscopy and nanotribometry and when the molecules are dispersed in hexadecane, using pin-on-disc tribometry. Over a very wide range (10 MPa-2.5 GPa) of contact pressures it is consistently demonstrated that the unsaturated linoleic acid molecules yield friction which is significantly lower than that of the saturated stearic acid. It is argued, using density functional theory predictions and XPS of slid track, that when the molecular backbone of unsaturated fatty acids are tilted and pressed strongly by a probe, in tribological contact, the high charge density of the double bond region of the backbone allows coupling with the steel substrate. The interaction yields a low friction carboxylate soap film on the substrate. The saturated fatty acid does not show this effect.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus utilizes host-derived lipoprotein particles as sources of exogenous fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Delekta, Phillip C; Shook, John C; Lydic, Todd A; Mulks, Martha H; Hammer, Neal D

    2018-03-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a threat to global health. Consequently, much effort has focused on the development of new antimicrobials that target novel aspects of S. aureus physiology. Fatty acids are required to maintain cell viability, and bacteria synthesize fatty acids using the type II fatty acid synthesis pathway (FASII). FASII is significantly different from human fatty acid synthesis, underscoring the therapeutic potential of inhibiting this pathway. However, many Gram-positive pathogens incorporate exogenous fatty acids, bypassing FASII inhibition and leaving the clinical potential of FASII inhibitors uncertain. Importantly, the source(s) of fatty acids available to pathogens within the host environment remains unclear. Fatty acids are transported throughout the body by lipoprotein particles in the form of triglycerides and esterified cholesterol. Thus, lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) represent a potentially rich source of exogenous fatty acids for S. aureus during infection. We sought to test the ability of LDLs to serve as a fatty acid source for S. aureus and show that cells cultured in the presence of human LDLs demonstrate increased tolerance to the FASII inhibitor, triclosan. Using mass spectrometry, we observed that host-derived fatty acids present in the LDLs are incorporated into the staphylococcal membrane and that tolerance to triclosan is facilitated by the fatty acid kinase A, FakA, and Geh, a triacylglycerol lipase. Finally, we demonstrate that human LDLs support the growth of S. aureus fatty acid auxotrophs. Together, these results suggest that human lipoprotein particles are a viable source of exogenous fatty acids for S. aureus during infection. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of bacterial fatty acid synthesis is a promising approach to combating infections caused by S. aureus and other human pathogens. However, S. aureus incorporates exogenous fatty acids into its phospholipid bilayer. Therefore, the

  17. Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hopeman, Margaret M; Riley, Joan K; Frolova, Antonina I; Jiang, Hui; Jungheim, Emily S

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids containing 2 or more double bonds, and they are classified by the location of the last double bond. Omega 3 (n-3) and omega 6 (n-6) PUFAs are obtained through food sources including fatty fish and seed/vegetable oils, respectively, and they are important to a number of physiologic processes including inflammation. Previous work demonstrates suppressive effects of n-3 PUFAs on endometriotic lesions in animal models and decreased risk of endometriosis among women with high n-3 PUFA intake. Thus, we sought to determine the relationship between circulating levels of PUFAs and endometriosis in women. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional study of serum PUFAs and clinical data from 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Serum PUFAs were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy and included n-3 PUFAs such as α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 PUFAs such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships between specific and total serum PUFAs and patient history of endometriosis. Women with high serum EPA levels were 82% less likely to have endometriosis compared to women with low EPA levels (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.78). © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Myocardial concentrations of fatty acids in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caren E; Freeman, Lisa M; Meydani, Mohsen; Rush, John E

    2005-09-01

    To compare myocardial concentrations of fatty acids in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with concentrations in control dogs. Myocardial tissues from 7 dogs with DCM and 16 control dogs. Myocardial tissues were homogenized, and total fatty acids were extracted and converted to methyl esters. Myocardial concentrations of fatty acids were analyzed by use of gas chromatography and reported as corrected percentages. The amount of docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4 n-6) was significantly higher in myocardial samples from dogs with DCM (range, 0.223% to 0.774%; median, 0.451%), compared with the amount in samples obtained from control dogs (range, 0.166% to 0.621%; median, 0.280%). There were no significant differences between DCM and control dogs for concentrations of any other myocardial fatty acids. Although concentrations of most myocardial fatty acids did not differ significantly between dogs with DCM and control dogs, the concentration of docosatetraenoic acid was significantly higher in dogs with DCM. Additional investigation in a larger population is warranted to determine whether this is a primary or secondary effect of the underlying disease and whether alterations in fatty acids may be a target for intervention in dogs with DCM.

  19. Fatty acid compositions of triglycerides and free fatty acids in sebum depend on amount of triglycerides, and do not differ in presence or absence of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-12-01

    To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferase (GPAT)-1, but Not GPAT4, Incorporates Newly Synthesized Fatty Acids into Triacylglycerol and Diminishes Fatty Acid Oxidation*

    PubMed Central

    Wendel, Angela A.; Cooper, Daniel E.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Coleman, Rosalind A.

    2013-01-01

    Four glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) isoforms, each encoded by a separate gene, catalyze the initial step in glycerolipid synthesis; in liver, the major isoforms are GPAT1 and GPAT4. To determine whether each of these hepatic isoforms performs a unique function in the metabolism of fatty acid, we measured the incorporation of de novo synthesized fatty acid or exogenous fatty acid into complex lipids in primary mouse hepatocytes from control, Gpat1−/−, and Gpat4−/− mice. Although hepatocytes from each genotype incorporated a similar amount of exogenous fatty acid into triacylglycerol (TAG), only control and Gpat4−/− hepatocytes were able to incorporate de novo synthesized fatty acid into TAG. When compared with controls, Gpat1−/− hepatocytes oxidized twice as much exogenous fatty acid. To confirm these findings and to assess hepatic β-oxidation metabolites, we measured acylcarnitines in liver from mice after a 24-h fast and after a 24-h fast followed by 48 h of refeeding with a high sucrose diet to promote lipogenesis. Confirming the in vitro findings, the hepatic content of long-chain acylcarnitine in fasted Gpat1−/− mice was 3-fold higher than in controls. When compared with control and Gpat4−/− mice, after the fasting-refeeding protocol, Gpat1−/− hepatic TAG was depleted, and long-chain acylcarnitine content was 3.5-fold higher. Taken together, these data demonstrate that GPAT1, but not GPAT4, is required to incorporate de novo synthesized fatty acids into TAG and to divert them away from oxidation. PMID:23908354

  1. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN P-88...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN P-88...

  3. [Interaction of free fatty acids with mitochondria during uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation].

    PubMed

    Samartsev, V N; Rybakova, S R; Dubinin, M V

    2013-01-01

    The activity of free saturated fatty acids (caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic) as inducers and regulators of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation with participation of ADP/ATP antiporter, aspartate/glutamate antiporter and cyclosporin A-sensitive structure was investigated in experiments on rat liver mitochondria. It is established that at equal uncoupling activity of fatty acids the regulatory effect is minimal for caprylic acid and raised with increasing the hydrophobicity of fatty acids reaching the maximum value for stearic acid. There exists the linear dependence of the regulatory effect value of fatty acids on fatty acids content in the hydrophobic region of the inner membrane. The model that describes the interaction of fatty acids with the hydrophobic region of the mitochondrial inner membrane preserving functional activity of organelles is developed. It is established that if molecules of various fatty acids being in the hydrophobic region of the membrane are equally effective as uncoupling regulators, their specific uncoupling activity is different. Caprylic acid, a short-chain fatty acid, possesses the highest uncoupling activity. As the acyl chain length increases, the specific uncoupling activity of fatty acids reduces exponentially. Under these conditions components of the uncoupling activity sensitive to glutamate and carboxyatractylate and glutamate and insensitive to these reagents (but sensitive to cyclosporin A) change approximately equally.

  4. Production of Fatty Acid-Derived Valuable Chemicals in Synthetic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Pratomo Juwono, Nina Kurniasih; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxy fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters, and fatty alka(e)nes, have a wide range of industrial applications including plastics, lubricants, and fuels. Currently, these chemicals are obtained mainly through chemical synthesis, which is complex and costly, and their availability from natural biological sources is extremely limited. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has provided a platform for effective production of these valuable biochemicals. Notably, synthetic biology-based metabolic engineering strategies have been extensively applied to refactor microorganisms for improved biochemical production. Here, we reviewed: (i) the current status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals, and (ii) the recent progress of synthetic biology approaches that assist metabolic engineering, such as mRNA secondary structure engineering, sensor-regulator system, regulatable expression system, ultrasensitive input/output control system, and computer science-based design of complex gene circuits. Furthermore, key challenges and strategies were discussed. Finally, we concluded that synthetic biology provides useful metabolic engineering strategies for economically viable production of fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals in engineered microbes. PMID:25566540

  5. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  6. The influence of placental metabolism on fatty acid transfer to the fetus[S

    PubMed Central

    Perazzolo, Simone; Hirschmugl, Birgit; Wadsack, Christian; Desoye, Gernot; Lewis, Rohan M.; Sengers, Bram G.

    2017-01-01

    The factors determining fatty acid transfer across the placenta are not fully understood. This study used a combined experimental and computational modeling approach to explore placental transfer of nonesterified fatty acids and identify the rate-determining processes. Isolated perfused human placenta was used to study the uptake and transfer of 13C-fatty acids and the release of endogenous fatty acids. Only 6.2 ± 0.8% of the maternal 13C-fatty acids taken up by the placenta was delivered to the fetal circulation. Of the unlabeled fatty acids released from endogenous lipid pools, 78 ± 5% was recovered in the maternal circulation and 22 ± 5% in the fetal circulation. Computational modeling indicated that fatty acid metabolism was necessary to explain the discrepancy between uptake and delivery of 13C-fatty acids. Without metabolism, the model overpredicts the fetal delivery of 13C-fatty acids 15-fold. Metabolic rate was predicted to be the main determinant of uptake from the maternal circulation. The microvillous membrane had a greater fatty acid transport capacity than the basal membrane. This study suggests that incorporation of fatty acids into placental lipid pools may modulate their transfer to the fetus. Future work needs to focus on the factors regulating fatty acid incorporation into lipid pools. PMID:27913585

  7. Engineering acyl carrier protein to enhance production of shortened fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueliang; Hicks, Wade M; Silver, Pamela A; Way, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an essential and ubiquitous component of microbial synthesis of fatty acids, the natural precursor to biofuels. Natural fatty acids usually contain long chains of 16 or more carbon atoms. Shorter carbon chains, with increased fuel volatility, are desired for internal combustion engines. Engineering the length specificity of key proteins in fatty acid metabolism, such as ACP, may enable microbial synthesis of these shorter chain fatty acids. We constructed a homology model of the Synechococcus elongatus ACP, showing a hydrophobic pocket harboring the growing acyl chain. Amino acids within the pocket were mutated to increase steric hindrance to the acyl chain. Certain mutant ACPs, when over-expressed in Escherichia coli, increased the proportion of shorter chain lipids; I75 W and I75Y showed the strongest effects. Expression of I75 W and I75Y mutant ACPs also increased production of lauric acid in E. coli that expressed the C12-specific acyl-ACP thioesterase from Cuphea palustris. We engineered the specificity of the ACP, an essential protein of fatty acid metabolism, to alter the E. coli lipid pool and enhance production of medium-chain fatty acids as biofuel precursors. These results indicate that modification of ACP itself could be combined with enzymes affecting length specificity in fatty acid synthesis to enhance production of commodity chemicals based on fatty acids.

  8. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids. PMID:26978518

  9. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    PubMed

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  10. The use of fatty acid esters to enhance free acid sophorolipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentations of Candida bombicola resulted in SL yields of 46 +/- 4 g/l, 42 +/- 7 g/l and 18 +/- 6 g/l from Me-Soy, Et-Soy, and Pro-Soy, respectively. Liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS) showed that Me-Soy resulted in 71% open-chain SLs with 59% of those molecules remaining esterified at the carboxyl end of the fatty acids. Et-Soy and Pro-Soy resulted in 43% and 80% open-chain free-acid SLs, respectively (containing linoleic acid and oleic acid as the principal fatty acid species linked to the sophorose sugar at the omega-1 position), with no evidence of residual esterification.

  11. Triglyceride accumulation protects against fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Listenberger, Laura L.; Han, Xianlin; Lewis, Sarah E.; Cases, Sylvaine; Farese, Robert V.; Ory, Daniel S.; Schaffer, Jean E.

    2003-01-01

    Excess lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues is associated with insulin resistance, pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and heart failure. Here, we demonstrate in cultured cells that the relative toxicity of two common dietary long chain fatty acids is related to channeling of these lipids to distinct cellular metabolic fates. Oleic acid supplementation leads to triglyceride accumulation and is well tolerated, whereas excess palmitic acid is poorly incorporated into triglyceride and causes apoptosis. Unsaturated fatty acids rescue palmitate-induced apoptosis by channeling palmitate into triglyceride pools and away from pathways leading to apoptosis. Moreover, in the setting of impaired triglyceride synthesis, oleate induces lipotoxicity. Our findings support a model of cellular lipid metabolism in which unsaturated fatty acids serve a protective function against lipotoxicity though promotion of triglyceride accumulation. PMID:12629214

  12. Free acetate production by rat hepatocytes during peroxisomal fatty acid and dicarboxylic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Leighton, F; Bergseth, S; Rørtveit, T; Christiansen, E N; Bremer, J

    1989-06-25

    The fate of the acetyl-CoA units released during peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation was studied in isolated hepatocytes from normal and peroxisome-proliferated rats. Ketogenesis and hydrogen peroxide generation were employed as indicators of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, respectively. Butyric and hexanoic acids were employed as mitochondrial substrates, 1, omega-dicarboxylic acids as predominantly peroxisomal substrates, and lauric acid as a substrate for both mitochondria and peroxisomes. Ketogenesis from dicarboxylic acids was either absent or very low in normal and peroxisome-proliferated hepatocytes, but free acetate release was detected at rates that could account for all the acetyl-CoA produced in peroxisomes by dicarboxylic and also by monocarboxylic acids. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation also led to free acetate generation but at low rates relative to ketogenesis. The origin of the acetate released was confirmed employing [1-14C]dodecanedioic acid. Thus, the activity of peroxisomes might contribute significantly to the free acetate generation known to occur during fatty acid oxidation in rats and possibly also in humans.

  13. FT-midIR determination of fatty acid profiles, including trans fatty acids, in bakery products after focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Jiménez, J; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2006-08-01

    A study of the feasibility of Fourier transform medium infrared spectroscopy (FT-midIR) for analytical determination of fatty acid profiles, including trans fatty acids, is presented. The training and validation sets-75% (102 samples) and 25% (36 samples) of the samples once the spectral outliers have been removed-to develop FT-midIR general equations, were built with samples from 140 commercial and home-made bakery products. The concentration of the analytes in the samples used for this study is within the typical range found in these kinds of products. Both sets were independent; thus, the validation set was only used for testing the equations. The criterion used for the selection of the validation set was samples with the highest number of neighbours and the most separation between them (H<0.6). Partial least squares regression and cross validation were used for multivariate calibration. The FT-midIR method does not require post-extraction manipulation and gives information about the fatty acid profile in two min. The 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:2 fatty acids can be determined with excellent precision and other fatty acids with good precision according to the Shenk criteria, R (2)>/=0.90, SEP=1-1.5 SEL and R (2)=0.70-0.89, SEP=2-3 SEL, respectively. The results obtained with the proposed method were compared with those provided by the conventional method based on GC-MS. At 95% significance level, the differences between the values obtained for the different fatty acids were within the experimental error.

  14. Effect of intravenous omega-3 fatty acid infusion and hemodialysis on fatty acid composition of free fatty acids and phospholipids in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Toft, Egon; Aardestrup, Inge; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Schmidt, Erik B

    2011-01-01

    Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have been reported to have decreased levels of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ω-3 PUFAs administered intravenously during HD, as well as the effect of HD treatment, on the fatty acid composition of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), plasma phospholipids, and platelet phospholipids. Forty-four HD patients were randomized to groups receiving either a single dose of a lipid emulsion containing 4.1 g of ω-3 PUFAs or placebo (saline) administered intravenously during HD. Blood was drawn immediately before (baseline) and after (4 hours) HD and before the next HD session (48 hours). Fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography. The increase in ω-3 FFAs was greater in the ω-3 PUFA group compared with the placebo group, whereas the increase in total FFAs was similar between the 2 groups. In the ω-3 PUFA group, ω-3 PUFAs in plasma phospholipids were higher after 48 hours than at baseline, and in platelet phospholipids, ω-3 PUFAs increased after 4 hours. In the placebo group, no changes were observed in ω-3 PUFAs in plasma and platelet phospholipids. Intravenous ω-3 PUFAs administered during HD caused a transient selective increase in ω-3 FFA concentration. Furthermore, ω-3 PUFAs were rapidly incorporated into platelets, and the content of ω-3 PUFAs in plasma phospholipids increased after 48 hours.

  15. Foliar Fatty Acids and Sterols of Soybean Field Fumigated with SO2

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Claus

    1981-01-01

    Sixty-day-old soybean plants were exposed in the field to 78.7 parts per one-hundred million of SO2 in an open-air fumigation system for 20 days. Leaves from the top one-fourth and bottom one-fourth of the plants were analyzed for chlorophyll, free fatty acids, fatty acid esters, polar lipid fatty acids, and sterols. Fumigated plants had a lower chlorophyll, free fatty acid, and polar lipid content, but a higher fatty acid ester content. Of the individual fatty acids, linoleic and linolenic acid increased with SO2 fumigation while palmitic acid decreased. SO2 fumigations had only a minor effect on leaf sterols. In general, the lower, more mature leaves showed a greater response to SO2 exposure. PMID:16662015

  16. Loss of macrophage fatty acid oxidation does not potentiate systemic metabolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Lee, Jieun; Choi, Joseph; Selen Alpergin, Ebru S.; Collins, Samuel L.; Horton, Maureen R.

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid oxidation in macrophages has been suggested to play a causative role in high-fat diet-induced metabolic dysfunction, particularly in the etiology of adipose-driven insulin resistance. To understand the contribution of macrophage fatty acid oxidation directly to metabolic dysfunction in high-fat diet-induced obesity, we generated mice with a myeloid-specific knockout of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2 Mϕ-KO), an obligate step in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation. While fatty acid oxidation was clearly induced upon IL-4 stimulation, fatty acid oxidation-deficient CPT2 Mϕ-KO bone marrow-derived macrophages displayed canonical markers of M2 polarization following IL-4 stimulation in vitro. In addition, loss of macrophage fatty acid oxidation in vivo did not alter the progression of high-fat diet-induced obesity, inflammation, macrophage polarization, oxidative stress, or glucose intolerance. These data suggest that although IL-4-stimulated alternatively activated macrophages upregulate fatty acid oxidation, fatty acid oxidation is dispensable for macrophage polarization and high-fat diet-induced metabolic dysfunction. Macrophage fatty acid oxidation likely plays a correlative, rather than causative, role in systemic metabolic dysfunction. PMID:28223293

  17. Imaging of intracellular fatty acids by scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Mari; Shindou, Hideo; Szyrwiel, Lukasz; Tokuoka, Suzumi M.; Hamano, Fumie; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Okamoto, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Kita, Yoshihiro; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Lobinski, Ryszard; Shimizu, Isao; Shimizu, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are taken up by cells and incorporated into complex lipids such as neutral lipids and glycerophospholipids. Glycerophospholipids are major constituents of cellular membranes. More than 1000 molecular species of glycerophospholipids differ in their polar head groups and fatty acid compositions. They are related to cellular functions and diseases and have been well analyzed by mass spectrometry. However, intracellular imaging of fatty acids and glycerophospholipids has not been successful due to insufficient resolution using conventional methods. Here, we developed a method for labeling fatty acids with bromine (Br) and applied scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SXFM) to obtain intracellular Br mapping data with submicrometer resolution. Mass spectrometry showed that cells took up Br-labeled fatty acids and metabolized them mainly into glycerophospholipids in CHO cells. Most Br signals observed by SXFM were in the perinuclear region. Higher resolution revealed a spot-like distribution of Br in the cytoplasm. The current method enabled successful visualization of intracellular Br-labeled fatty acids. Single-element labeling combined with SXFM technology facilitates the intracellular imaging of fatty acids, which provides a new tool to determine dynamic changes in fatty acids and their derivatives at the single-cell level.—Shimura, M., Shindou, H., Szyrwiel, L., Tokuoka, S. M., Hamano, F., Matsuyama, S., Okamoto, M., Matsunaga, A., Kita, Y., Ishizaka, Y., Yamauchi, K., Kohmura, Y., Lobinski, R., Shimizu, I., Shimizu, T. Imaging of intracellular fatty acids by scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy. PMID:27601443

  18. Suitability of Phytosterols Alongside Fatty Acids as Chemotaxonomic Biomarkers for Phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Sami J; Hiltunen, Minna; Vuorio, Kristiina; Peltomaa, Elina

    2016-01-01

    The composition and abundance of phytoplankton is an important factor defining ecological status of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Chemotaxonomic markers (e.g., pigments and fatty acids) are needed for monitoring changes in a phytoplankton community and to know the nutritional quality of seston for herbivorous zooplankton. Here we investigated the suitability of sterols along with fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers using multivariate statistics, by analyzing the sterol and fatty acid composition of 10 different phytoplankton classes including altogether 37 strains isolated from freshwater lakes. We were able to detect a total of 47 fatty acids and 29 sterols in our phytoplankton samples, which both differed statistically significantly between phytoplankton classes. Due to the high variation of fatty acid composition among Cyanophyceae, taxonomical differentiation increased when Cyanophyceae were excluded from statistical analysis. Sterol composition was more heterogeneous within class than fatty acids and did not improve separation of phytoplankton classes when used alongside fatty acids. However, we conclude that sterols can provide additional information on the abundance of specific genera within a class which can be generated by using fatty acids. For example, whereas high C16 ω-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) indicates the presence of Chlorophyceae, a simultaneous high amount of ergosterol could specify the presence of Chlamydomonas spp. (Chlorophyceae). Additionally, we found specific 4α-methyl sterols for distinct Dinophyceae genera, suggesting that 4α-methyl sterols can potentially separate freshwater dinoflagellates from each other.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids: cardiovascular benefits, sources and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lee, John H; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Harris, William S

    2009-12-01

    The evidence for the cardioprotective nature of omega-3 fatty acids is abundant, and currently available data indicate that patients with known coronary heart disease should consume at least 1 g daily of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from either oily fish or fish-oil supplements, and that individuals without disease should consume at least 250-500 mg daily. However, this area of research poses two questions. Firstly, which is the best source of omega-3 fatty acids-fish or fish-oil supplements? Secondly, are recommendations for omega-3 supplementation warranted in view of the rapid depletion of world fish stocks? The argument that eating fish is better than taking fish-oil supplements stems from the fact that several important nutrients, such as vitamin D, selenium, and antioxidants, are missing from the supplements. However, three major prevention trials have clearly indicated that omega-3 fatty acid capsules confer cardiovascular benefits and, therefore, that both are cardioprotective. Sustainable sources of omega-3 fatty acids will need to be identified if long-term cardiovascular risk reduction is to be achieved at the population level.

  20. Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-11

    dihydroxyacetone reductase involved in phosphatidic acid biosynthesis [111]. Therefore, altered glycerophospholipid metabolism, along with reduced...2007 Title of Dissertation: "Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation" APPROVAL SHEET Ernest Maynard, P .D. Department of...Fatty Acid Elongation" is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright owner. , /1:1 IJA"" 1< .IIVCf

  1. Determination of fatty acid profile in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Díaz, R; Torres, M A; Bravo, S; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acids are important in male reproductive function because they are associated with membrane fluidity, acrosome reaction, sperm motility and viability, but limited information exists about the fatty acid profile of ram semen. Our aim was to determine the fatty acid composition in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Sixty ejaculates were obtained from three ram (20 ejaculates/ram) using artificial vagina. Ram spermatozoa (RS) and seminal plasma (SP) were separated using centrifugation, and the fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Total lipids obtained in ram spermatozoa were 1.8% and 1.6% in seminal plasma. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) was proportionally major in SP (66.6%) that RS (49.9%). The highest proportions of SFA corresponded to C4:0 (RS = 16.3% and SP = 28.8%) and C16:0 (RS = 16.3% and PS = 20%). The most important unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 44.9% in RS and 31.5% in SP. The profile of fatty acid and their proportions showed differences between spermatozoa and seminal plasma. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Fatty acids are required for epidermal permeability barrier function.

    PubMed

    Mao-Qiang, M; Elias, P M; Feingold, K R

    1993-08-01

    The permeability barrier is mediated by a mixture of ceramides, sterols, and free fatty acids arranged as extracellular lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum. Whereas prior studies have shown that cholesterol and ceramides are required for normal barrier function, definitive evidence for the importance of nonessential fatty acids is not available. To determine whether epidermal fatty acid synthesis also is required for barrier homeostasis, we applied 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase, after disruption of the barrier by acetone or tape stripping. TOFA inhibits epidermal fatty acid by approximately 50% and significantly delays barrier recovery. Moreover, coadministration of palmitate with TOFA normalizes barrier recovery, indicating that the delay is due to a deficiency in bulk fatty acids. Furthermore, TOFA treatment also delays the return of lipids to the stratum corneum and results in abnormalities in the structure of lamellar bodies, the organelle which delivers lipid to the stratum corneum. In addition, the organization of secreted lamellar body material into lamellar bilayers within the stratum corneum interstices is disrupted by TOFA treatment. Finally, these abnormalities in lamellar body and stratum corneum membrane structure are corrected by coapplication of palmitate with TOFA. These results demonstrate a requirement for bulk fatty acids in barrier homeostasis. Thus, inhibiting the epidermal synthesis of any of the three key lipids that form the extracellular, lipid-enriched membranes of the stratum corneum results in an impairment in barrier homeostasis.

  3. Fatty acids are required for epidermal permeability barrier function.

    PubMed Central

    Mao-Qiang, M; Elias, P M; Feingold, K R

    1993-01-01

    The permeability barrier is mediated by a mixture of ceramides, sterols, and free fatty acids arranged as extracellular lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum. Whereas prior studies have shown that cholesterol and ceramides are required for normal barrier function, definitive evidence for the importance of nonessential fatty acids is not available. To determine whether epidermal fatty acid synthesis also is required for barrier homeostasis, we applied 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase, after disruption of the barrier by acetone or tape stripping. TOFA inhibits epidermal fatty acid by approximately 50% and significantly delays barrier recovery. Moreover, coadministration of palmitate with TOFA normalizes barrier recovery, indicating that the delay is due to a deficiency in bulk fatty acids. Furthermore, TOFA treatment also delays the return of lipids to the stratum corneum and results in abnormalities in the structure of lamellar bodies, the organelle which delivers lipid to the stratum corneum. In addition, the organization of secreted lamellar body material into lamellar bilayers within the stratum corneum interstices is disrupted by TOFA treatment. Finally, these abnormalities in lamellar body and stratum corneum membrane structure are corrected by coapplication of palmitate with TOFA. These results demonstrate a requirement for bulk fatty acids in barrier homeostasis. Thus, inhibiting the epidermal synthesis of any of the three key lipids that form the extracellular, lipid-enriched membranes of the stratum corneum results in an impairment in barrier homeostasis. Images PMID:8102380

  4. Can long chain n-3 fatty acids from feed be converted into very long chain n-3 fatty acids in fillets from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lušnic Polak, M.; Demšar, L.; Luzar, U.; Polak, T.

    2017-09-01

    The link between the basic chemical and fatty acid composition of trout feed on one hand and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) meat (fillet) was investigated.. The content of 52 fatty acids from feed and trout meat lipids was determined by in-situ transesterification and capillary column gas-liquid chromatography. On average, 100 g of trout feed contained 7.4 g of moisture, 47.7 g of proteins, 6.09 g of ash, 21.4 g of fat, and as for fatty acid composition, 47.8 wt. % were monounsaturated, 34.0 wt. % were polyunsaturated and 18.1 wt. % were saturated fatty acids, with the PS ratio 1.88, n-6/n-3 ratio 1.74, 0.80 wt. % of trans and 3.28 wt. % of very long chain n-3 fatty acids. On average, 100 g of trout meat contained 76.1 g of moisture, 21.4 g of proteins, 1.34 g of ash, 2.52 g of fat, and in the fatty acid composition 42.1 wt. % were monounsaturated, 38.2 wt. % were polyunsaturated and 18.9 wt. % were saturated fatty acids, with the PS ratio 2.02, n-6/n-3 ratio 0.98, 0.95 wt. % of trans and 13.25 wt. % of very long chain n-3 fatty acids.

  5. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL INTERACTION OF FATTY ACIDS WITH HUMAN LIVER FATTY ACID BINDING PROTEIN (L-FABP) T94A VARIANT

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Landrock, Danilo; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-01-01

    The human liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant, the most common in the FABP family, has been associated with elevated liver triglyceride (TG) levels. How this amino acid substitution elicits these effects is not known. This issue was addressed with human recombinant wild-type (WT, T94T) and T94A variant L-FABP proteins as well as cultured primary human hepatocytes expressing the respective proteins (genotyped as TT, TC, and CC). T94A substitution did not or only slightly alter L-FABP binding affinities for saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids (LCFA), nor did it change the affinity for intermediates in TG synthesis. Nevertheless, T94A substitution markedly altered the secondary structural response of L-FABP induced by binding LCFA or intermediates of TG synthesis. Finally, T94A substitution markedly diminished polyunsaturated fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) - regulated proteins such as L-FABP, fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5), and PPARα itself in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Thus, while T94A substitution did not alter the affinity of human L-FABP for LCFAs, it significantly altered human L-FABP structure and stability as well as conformational and functional response to these ligands. PMID:24628888

  6. Renal norepinephrine spillover during infusion of nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Roger J; Ngarmukos, Chardpra-Orn; Williams, David M; Supiano, Mark A

    2005-03-01

    Sympathetic activity and renal norepinephrine spillover are increased in obese individuals. We have reported that infusion of nonesterified fatty acids increases blood pressure in animals through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. In this study, we assessed the effect of increasing circulating nonesterified fatty acids on systemic and renal norepinephrine kinetics in healthy adults by infusing fat emulsion and heparin for 4 h. (3)H-norepinephrine was infused for 60 min before and again during the last hour of the fatty acid infusion to assess norepinephrine kinetics. Renal venous blood samples were obtained to calculate renal norepinephrine spillover. Nonesterified fatty acid levels increased threefold during the first hour and remained elevated throughout the study. Arterial and renal venous plasma norepinephrine levels fell by 15% and 20%, respectively, during the infusion (P < .05 for both). Kinetic analysis indicated that systemic release of norepinephrine into an extravascular compartment decreased from 11.6 +/- 1.1 to 10.0 +/- 1.3 nmol/min/m(2) (P = .067) and renal venous norepinephrine spillover decreased from 454 +/- 54 pmol/min (P = .055). These results indicate that nonesterified fatty acids do not have a direct stimulating effect on whole-body or renal sympathetic activity. It is possible that increased plasma levels of fatty acids serve as a signal to decrease sympathetic tone during the fasting state.

  7. Determination of fatty acid methyl esters derived from algae Scenedesmus dimorphus biomass by GC-MS with one-step esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of glycerolipids.

    PubMed

    Avula, Satya Girish Chandra; Belovich, Joanne M; Xu, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Algae can synthesize, accumulate and store large amounts of lipids in its cells, which holds immense potential as a renewable source of biodiesel. In this work, we have developed and validated a GC-MS method for quantitation of fatty acids and glycerolipids in forms of fatty acid methyl esters derived from algae biomass. Algae Scenedesmus dimorphus dry mass was pulverized by mortar and pestle, then extracted by the modified Folch method and fractionated into free fatty acids and glycerolipids on aminopropyl solid-phase extraction cartridges. Fatty acid methyl esters were produced by an optimized one-step esterification of fatty acids and transesterification of glycerolipids with boron trichloride/methanol. The matrix effect, recoveries and stability of fatty acids and glycerolipids in algal matrix were first evaluated by spiking stable isotopes of pentadecanoic-2,2-d 2 acid and glyceryl tri(hexadecanoate-2,2-d 2 ) as surrogate analytes and tridecanoic-2,2-d 2 acid as internal standard into algal matrix prior to sample extraction. Later, the method was validated in terms of lower limits of quantitation, linear calibration ranges, intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy using tridecanoic-2,2-d 2 acid as internal standard. The method developed has been applied to the quantitation of fatty acid methyl esters from free fatty acid and glycerolipid fractions of algae Scenedesmus dimorphus. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Combined effect of sesamin and α-lipoic acid on hepatic fatty acid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi; Azechi, Ayana; Kitade, Sayaka; Kunimatsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Natsuko; Nakajima, Chihiro

    2013-04-01

    Dietary sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamin) decreases fatty acid synthesis but increases fatty acid oxidation in rat liver. Dietary α-lipoic acid lowers hepatic fatty acid synthesis. These changes can account for the serum lipid-lowering effect of sesamin and α-lipoic acid. It is expected that the combination of these compounds in the diet potentially ameliorates lipid metabolism more than the individual compounds. We therefore studied the combined effect of sesamin and α-lipoic acid on lipid metabolism in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g/kg sesamin and containing 0 or 2.5 g/kg α-lipoic acid for 22 days. Sesamin and α-lipoic acid decreased serum lipid concentrations and the combination of these compounds further decreased the parameters in an additive fashion. These compounds reduced the hepatic concentration of triacylglycerol, the lignan being less effective in decreasing this value. The combination failed to cause a stronger decrease in hepatic triacylglycerol concentration. The combination of sesamin and α-lipoic acid decreased the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in an additive fashion. Sesamin strongly increased the parameters of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. α-Lipoic acid antagonized the stimulating effect of sesamin of fatty acid oxidation through reductions in the activity of some fatty acid oxidation enzymes and carnitine concentration in the liver. This may account for the failure to observe strong reductions in hepatic triacylglycerol concentration in rats given a diet containing both sesamin and α-lipoic acid.

  9. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  10. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  11. Phospholipid fatty acid composition of Gorgonia mariae and Gorgonia ventalina.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, Néstor M; Miranda, Carlos; Rodríguez, Abimael D

    2002-01-01

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of the Caribbean gorgonians Gorgonia mariae (Bayer) and Gorgonia ventalina (Linnaeus) is described for the first time. The main phospholipids identified were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylserine. The main fatty acids were 14:0, 16:0, 18:3(n-6), 18:4(n-3), 18:2(n-6), 20:4(n-6), 22:6(n-3), and 24:5(n-6). In both G. mariae and G. ventalina n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated over the n-3 family. In addition, the 7-methyl-6(E)-hexadecenoic acid was identified in both gorgonians. The occurrence of tetracosapolyenoic fatty acids in the genus Gorgonia is also reported for the first time.

  12. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides on tissue fatty acid profiles of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Fontana, L; Moreira, E; Torres, M I; Periago, J L; Sánchez de Medina, F; Gil, A

    1999-04-01

    The deficiency of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that occurs in plasma of patients with liver cirrhosis has been assessed in rats with severe steatosis and mild liver necrosis induced by repeated administration of low doses of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). The contribution of both dietary (n-3) long-chain PUFA and nucleotides to the recovery of the altered fatty acid profiles of tissue lipids of these rats has also been studied. Two groups of rats were used. The first was intraperitoneally injected 0.15 ml of a 10% (v/v) CCl(4)solution in paraffin per 100 g of body weight, three times a week for 9 weeks; the second received paraffin alone. After the treatment, six rats of each group were killed. Afterwards, the remaining controls were fed a semipurified diet (SPD) for 3 weeks, and the remaining rats in the CCl(4)group were divided into three new groups: the first was fed the SP diet; the second was fed the SP diet supplemented with 1% (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA diet); and the third was fed the SP diet supplemented with 250 mg nucleotides per 100 g diet (NT diet). Fatty acids of plasma, erythrocyte membranes and liver microsomes were analyzed. Decreases in linoleic and arachidonic acids in both total plasma lipids and liver microsomal phospholipids were the main findings due to CCl(4)treatment. The rats that received CCl(4)and the PUFA diet showed the lowest levels of (n-6) PUFA and the highest levels of (n-3) PUFA in liver microsomal phospholipids, as well as a significant increase of (n-3) PUFAs in total plasma lipids. The animals that received the NT diet showed no signs of fatty infiltration and exhibited the highest levels of (n-6) PUFAs in liver microsomal phospholipids. These results show that CCl(4)affects fatty acid metabolism which is accordingly reflected in altered tissue fatty acid profiles, and that balanced diets containing PUFA and nucleotides are important for the recovery of the damaged liver in rats. Copyright 1999 Harcourt

  13. Modulation of ATP-induced inward currents by docosahexaenoic acid and other fatty acids in rat nodose ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Eto, Kei; Arimura, Yukiko; Mizuguchi, Hiroko; Nishikawa, Masazumi; Noda, Mami; Ishibashi, Hitoshi

    2006-11-01

    The effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other fatty acids on P2X-receptor-mediated inward currents in rat nodose ganglion neurons were studied using the nystatin perforated patch-clamp technique. DHA accelerated the desensitization rate of the ATP-induced current. DHA showed use-dependent inhibition of the peak ATP-induced current. Other polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, displayed a similar use-dependent inhibition. The inhibitory effects of saturated fatty acids including palmitic acid and arachidic acid were weaker than those of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results suggest that fatty acids may modulate the P2X receptor-mediated response when the channel is in the open-state.

  14. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing. © 2015 FEBS.

  15. Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of new fatty acid amides.

    PubMed

    D'Oca, Caroline Da Ros Montes; Coelho, Tatiane; Marinho, Tamara Germani; Hack, Carolina Rosa Lopes; Duarte, Rodrigo da Costa; da Silva, Pedro Almeida; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes

    2010-09-01

    This work reports the synthesis of new fatty acid amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:1 (OH), and 18:2 fatty acids families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time the activity of these compounds as antituberculosis agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv, M. tuberculosis rifampicin resistance (ATCC 35338), and M. tuberculosis isoniazid resistance (ATCC 35822). The fatty acid amides derivate from ricinoleic acid were the most potent one among a series of tested compounds, with a MIC 6.25 microg/mL for resistance strains. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of thermal processing on the fatty acid profile of pork and lamb meat fed diet with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Janiszewski, Piotr; Grześkowiak, Eugenia; Lisiak, Dariusz; Borys, Bronisław; Borzuta, Karol; Pospiech, Edward; Poławska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The research was carried out on 32 crossbred pigs of Polish Large White × Danish Landrace with Duroc and 80 rams, crossbreds of the Prolific-Dairy Koludzka Sheep with the Ile de France, a meat sheep. The fodder for the animals was enriched with the unsaturated fatty acids originated mainly from linseed and rapeseed oils. The fatty acid profile was determined in cooked longissimus lumborum, roasted triceps brachii and raw ripened rump from pigs as well as in grilled lambs' legs and their corresponding raw materials. Roasting caused the most pronounced increase of the saturated fatty acids and decrease in the polyunsaturated fatty acids of heated pork muscles. The smallest changes were observed in grilled lamb legs. The heating processes applied in this study, in most cases, did not cause essential changes in the indices of pro-health properties of fatty acid, therefore meat in the majority fulfil the latest recommendations of EFSA and FAO/WHO according to human health.

  17. A branched-chain amino acid metabolite drives vascular fatty acid transport and causes insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cholsoon; Oh, Sungwhan F; Wada, Shogo; Rowe, Glenn C; Liu, Laura; Chan, Mun Chun; Rhee, James; Hoshino, Atsushi; Kim, Boa; Ibrahim, Ayon; Baca, Luisa G; Kim, Esl; Ghosh, Chandra C; Parikh, Samir M; Jiang, Aihua; Chu, Qingwei; Forman, Daniel E; Lecker, Stewart H; Krishnaiah, Saikumari; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Weljie, Aalim M; Baur, Joseph A; Kasper, Dennis L; Arany, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data implicate branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms that underlie this link remain unclear. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle stems from the excess accumulation of lipid species, a process that requires blood-borne lipids to initially traverse the blood vessel wall. How this trans-endothelial transport occurs and how it is regulated are not well understood. Here we leveraged PPARGC1a (also known as PGC-1α; encoded by Ppargc1a), a transcriptional coactivator that regulates broad programs of fatty acid consumption, to identify 3-hydroxyisobutyrate (3-HIB), a catabolic intermediate of the BCAA valine, as a new paracrine regulator of trans-endothelial fatty acid transport. We found that 3-HIB is secreted from muscle cells, activates endothelial fatty acid transport, stimulates muscle fatty acid uptake in vivo and promotes lipid accumulation in muscle, leading to insulin resistance in mice. Conversely, inhibiting the synthesis of 3-HIB in muscle cells blocks the ability of PGC-1α to promote endothelial fatty acid uptake. 3-HIB levels are elevated in muscle from db/db mice with diabetes and from human subjects with diabetes, as compared to those without diabetes. These data unveil a mechanism in which the metabolite 3-HIB, by regulating the trans-endothelial flux of fatty acids, links the regulation of fatty acid flux to BCAA catabolism, providing a mechanistic explanation for how increased BCAA catabolic flux can cause diabetes.

  18. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: dietary fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Innis, Sheila; Ammerican Dietetic Assocition; Dietitians of Canada

    2007-09-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) and Dietitians of Canada (DC) that dietary fat for the adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy and emphasize a reduction in saturated fatty acids and trans-fatty acids and an increase in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. ADA and DC recommend a food-based approach for achieving these fatty acid recommendations; that is, a dietary pattern high in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds, lean protein (ie, lean meats, poultry, and low-fat dairy products), fish (especially fatty fish high in n-3 fatty acids), and use of nonhydrogenated margarines and oils. Implicit to these recommendations for dietary fatty acids is that unsaturated fatty acids are the predominant fat source in the diet. These fatty acid recommendations are made in the context of a diet consistent with energy needs (ie, to promote a healthful body weight). ADA and DC recognize that scientific knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on human health is incomplete and take a prudent approach in recommending a reduction in those fatty acids that increase risk of disease, while promoting intake of those fatty acids that benefit health. Registered dietitians play a pivotal role in translating dietary recommendations for fat and fatty acids into healthful dietary patterns for different population groups.

  19. [Fatty acids in the species of several zygomycete taxa].

    PubMed

    Konova, I V; Galanina, L A; Kochkina, G A; Pan'kina, O I

    2002-01-01

    The composition of fatty acids synthesized de novo by thirty strains of zygomycetes from various taxa was studied. The qualitative fatty acid compositions of the fungal lipids were found to be virtually identical, but there were significant differences in the contents of individual acids. Highly active producers of essential C18 fatty acids, with their content exceeding 30-40% of total fatty acids, were discovered among the fungi of the families Mucoraceae, Pilobolaceae, and Radiomycetaceae. Linoleic acid was found to predominate in the fungi of the genera Radiomyces, Mycotypha, and Circinella, and linolenic acid (identified as its gamma-isomer by gas-liquid chromatography), in the fungi of the genera Absidia, Circinella, Pilaira, and Hesseltinella. The total yield (mg/l) of bioactive acids (C18:3, C18:2, C18:1) varied from 761.4 in Pilaira anomala to 3477.9 in Syncephalastrum racemosum; the total yield of essential acids, from 520.7 in Pilaira anomala to 1154.5 in Hesseltinella vesiculosa; of linoleic acid, from 279.7 in Pilaira anomala to 836.3 in Mycotypha indica; and of linolenic acid, from 120.8 in Mycotypha indica to 708.0 in Hesseltinella vesiculosa. The data on the efficient synthesis of these acids make the actively producing strains promising for biotechnological synthesis of commercially valuable lipids. Linderina pennispora VKM F-1219, a zygomycete of the family Kickxellaceae, which was earlier singled out into the order Kickxellales [12], was shown to differ from zygomycetes of the order Mucorales in having a high content of cis-9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic) acid, reaching 37.0% of the fatty acid total.

  20. Physicochemical properties and analysis of Malaysian palm fatty acid distilled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumaah, Majd Ahmed; Yusoff, Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad; Salimon, Jumat

    2018-04-01

    Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is cheap and valuable byproduct of edible oil processing industries. This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of Malaysian palm fatty acid distilled (PFAD). The physicochemical properties showed that the free fatty acid (FFA %), acid value, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, hydroxyl value, specific gravity at 28°C, moisture content, viscosity at 40°C and colour at 28°C values were 87.04± 0.1 %, 190.6± 1 mg/g, 53.3±0.2 mg/g, 210.37±0.8 mg/g, 1.5±0.1%, 47±0.2 mg/g, 0.87 g/ml, 0.63 %, 30 cSt and yellowish respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition in PFAD. The fatty acids were found to be comprised mostly with 48.9 % palmitic acid (C16:0), 37.4 % oleic acid (C18:1), 9.7 % linoleic acid (C18:2), 2.7 % stearic acid (C18:0) and 1.1 % myristic acid (C14:0). The analysis of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted with 99.2 % of FFA, while diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol were 0.69 and 0.062 % respectively.

  1. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely... conditions: (a) The additive consists of one or any mixture of two or more of the aluminum, calcium...

  2. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Melton, Elaina M.; Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY; Cerny, Ronald L.

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4,more » for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  3. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  4. Synthesis, chemical characterization, and economical feasibility of poly-phenolic-branched-chain fatty acids: Synthesis of poly-phenolic-branched-chain fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New poly-phenolic branched-chain fatty acid (poly-PBC-FA) products were synthesized from a combination of soybean fatty acids and phenolic materials through a highly efficient zeolite catalyzed arylation method. These poly-PBC-FAs are liquid at room temperature and do not have the unpleasant odor li...

  5. Endogenous red blood cell membrane fatty acids and sudden cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N; King, Irena B; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Knopp, Robert H; Mozaffarian, Dariush; McKnight, Barbara; Rea, Thomas D; Rice, Kenneth; Friedlander, Yechiel; Lumley, Thomas S; Raghunathan, Trivellore E; Copass, Michael K; Siscovick, David S

    2010-07-01

    Little is known of the associations of endogenous fatty acids with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We investigated the associations of SCA with red blood cell membrane fatty acids that are end products of de novo fatty acid synthesis: myristic acid (14:0), palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1 n7), vaccenic acid (18:1 n7), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1 n9), and a related fatty acid, cis-7 hexadecenoic acid (16:1 n9). We used data from a population-based case-control study where cases, aged 25 to 74 years, were out-of-hospital SCA patients attended by paramedics in Seattle, WA (n = 265). Controls, matched to cases by age, sex, and calendar year, were randomly identified from the community (n = 415). All participants were free of prior clinically diagnosed heart disease. We observed associations of higher red blood cell membrane levels of 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:1n-7, and 16:1n-9 with higher risk of SCA. In analyses adjusted for traditional SCA risk factors and trans- and n-3 fatty acids, a 1-SD-higher level of 16:0 was associated with 38% higher risk of SCA (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.70) and a 1-SD-higher level of 16:1n-9 with 88% higher risk (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.78). Several fatty acids that are end products of fatty acid synthesis are associated with SCA risk. Further work is needed to investigate if conditions that favor de novo fatty acid synthesis, such as high-carbohydrate/low-fat diets, might also increase the risk of SCA.

  6. Endogenous red blood cell membrane fatty acids and sudden cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; King, Irena B.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Knopp, Robert H.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; McKnight, Barbara; Rea, Thomas D; Rice, Kenneth; Friedlander, Yechiel; Lumley, Thomas S.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.; Copass, Michael K.; Siscovick, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of the associations of endogenous fatty acids with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We investigated the associations of SCA with red blood cell membrane fatty acids that are end products of de novo fatty acid synthesis: myristic acid (14:0), palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1 n7), vaccenic acid (18:1 n7), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1 n9) and a related fatty acid cis-7 hexadecenoic acid (16:1 n9). We used data from a population-based case-control study, where cases, aged 25-74 years, were out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest patients, attended by paramedics in Seattle, Washington (n=265). Controls, matched to cases by age, sex and calendar year, were randomly identified from the community (n=415). All participants were free of prior clinically-diagnosed heart disease. We observed associations of higher red blood cell membrane levels of 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:1n-7 and 16:1n-9 with higher risk of SCA. In analyses adjusted for traditional SCA risk factors and trans- and n-3 fatty acids, a one-standard-deviation-higher level of 16:0 was associated with 38% higher risk of SCA (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.70) and a one-standard deviation-higher level of 16:1n-9 with 88% higher risk (OR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.27-2.78). Several fatty acids that are end products of fatty acid synthesis are associated with SCA risk. Further work is needed to investigate if conditions that favor de novo fatty acid synthesis, such as high carbohydrate/low fat diets, might also increase the risk of SCA. PMID:20045147

  7. Importance of medium chain fatty acids in animal nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltić, B.; Starčević, M.; Đorđević, J.; Mrdović, B.; Marković, R.

    2017-09-01

    Fats in animal and human nutrition are a common subject of research. These studies most often pay attention to particular fat groups (saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated fats or fats grouped by the length of their fatty acid chains into short, medium or long chain fatty acids). Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have two main sources: milk and coconut oil. To date, research has shown these acids have positive effects on health, production, feed digestibility and lower body and muscle fats in broilers and swine. MCFAs possess antibacterial, anticoccidial and antiviral effects. Also, it has been proven that these acids act synergistically if they are used together with organic acids, essential oils, or probiotics. Nowadays, commercial MCFA products are available for use in animal nutrition as feed additives.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    PubMed Central

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J.; Galloway, Stuart D. R.; Hamilton, D. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. PMID:26610527

  9. Fatty acid utilization by young Wistar rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    PubMed

    Esteve, M; Rafecas, I; Fernández-López, J A; Remesar, X; Alemany, M

    1992-12-02

    The content and accretion of fatty acids in 30, 45 and 60-day old Wistar rats fed either reference chow or a cafeteria diet has been studied, together with their actual fatty acid intake during that period. Diet had a small overall effect on the pattern of deposition of fatty acids, but the deposition of fat was much higher in cafeteria rats. The fat-rich cafeteria diet allowed the direct incorporation of most fatty acids into lipid storage, whilst chow-feeding activated lipogenesis and the deposition of a shorter chain and more saturated type of fatty acids. During the second month of the rat's life, the elongation pathway as well as delta 9-desaturase became functional, thus helping to shape the pattern of fatty acids actually accrued. The 60-day rats showed a relative impairment in the operation of delta 5-desaturase, since their lipids had a higher C20:4/C20:3 ratio than those of the diet ingested. Cafeteria-diet feeding minimized this effect since the large supply of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids made the operation of the elongation-desaturase pathways practically unnecessary.

  10. N-3 fatty acids reduced trans fatty acids retention and increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain.

    PubMed

    Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída

    2017-09-01

    The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements: implications for daily intake of dioxins and PCBs.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, J A; Bazinet, T M; Arnason, T T; Kimpe, L E; Blais, J M; White, P A

    2010-11-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) rich oils derived primarily from fish are frequently consumed as supplements. Due to the tendency of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to accumulate in exposed organisms, n-3 PUFA supplements can contain sufficient POPs to present a risk to consumers. Here we investigated PCB concentrations and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity in 17 n-3 PUFA supplements available in Canada. PCBs ranged from <0.8 to 793 ng g(-1) oil, with salmon- and seal-derived products yielding the highest values. AhR agonist activity from a reporter gene assay ranged from 1.3 to 72.2 pg TEQ g(-1) oil, with salmon and tuna yielding the highest values. When consumed at the recommended doses and as a supplement to the average Canadian diet, seal-derived oil can contribute to exceedance of the tolerable daily intake of 20 ng PCBs kg-BW(-1)day(-1), and salmon-, tuna-, and sea herring-derived oils can contribute to exceedance of the tolerable daily intake limit of 2.3 pg TEQ kg-BW(-1)day(-1). The beneficial properties of fish and n-3 PUFA supplements, and the results of this study suggest that it is prudent to consume supplements derived from small, cold-water fatty fish. Further research will be necessary to draw firm conclusions. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of critical methods developed for fatty acid analysis: A review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhuona; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ning; Pu, Yiqiong; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acids are important nutritional substances and metabolites in living organisms. These acids are abundant in Chinese herbs, such as Brucea javanica, Notopterygium forbesii, Isatis tinctoria, Astragalus membranaceus, and Aconitum szechenyianum. This review illustrates the types of fatty acids and their significant roles in the human body. Many analytical methods are used for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of fatty acids. Some of the methods used to analyze fatty acids in more than 30 kinds of plants, drugs, and other samples are presented in this paper. These analytical methods include gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, near-infrared spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are described and compared. This review provides a valuable reference for establishing methods for fatty acid determination. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Basal omega-3 fatty acid status affects fatty acid and oxylipin responses to high-dose n3-HUFA in healthy volunteers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Baseline concentrations of highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (n3-HUFA) may influence the ability of dietary n3-HUFA to affect changes in concentrations of esterified fatty acids and their metabolites. This study evaluates the influence of basal n3-HUFA and n3-HUFA metabolite status ...

  14. Fatty acid constituents of Peganum harmala plant using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Tarek A A; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid contents of the Peganum harmala plant as a result of hexane extraction were analyzed using GC-MS. The saturated fatty acid composition of the harmal plant was tetradecanoic, pentadecanoic, tridecanoic, hexadecanoic, heptadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, while the saturated fatty acid derivatives were 12-methyl tetradecanoic, 5,9,13-trimethyl tetradecanoic and 2-methyl octadecanoic acids. The most abundant fatty acid was hexadecanoic with concentration 48.13% followed by octadecanoic with concentration 13.80%. There are four unsaturated fatty acids called (E)-9-dodecenoic, (Z)-9-hexadecenoic, (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic and (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic. The most abundant unsaturated fatty acid was (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic with concentration 14.79% followed by (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic with concentration 10.61%. Also, there are eight non-fatty acid compounds 1-octadecene, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, (E)-15-heptadecenal, oxacyclohexadecan-2 one, 1,2,2,6,8-pentamethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.1]dec-8-en-10-one, hexadecane-1,2-diol, n-heneicosane and eicosan-3-ol.

  15. Fatty acid constituents of Peganum harmala plant using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Tarek A.A.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid contents of the Peganum harmala plant as a result of hexane extraction were analyzed using GC–MS. The saturated fatty acid composition of the harmal plant was tetradecanoic, pentadecanoic, tridecanoic, hexadecanoic, heptadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, while the saturated fatty acid derivatives were 12-methyl tetradecanoic, 5,9,13-trimethyl tetradecanoic and 2-methyl octadecanoic acids. The most abundant fatty acid was hexadecanoic with concentration 48.13% followed by octadecanoic with concentration 13.80%. There are four unsaturated fatty acids called (E)-9-dodecenoic, (Z)-9-hexadecenoic, (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic and (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic. The most abundant unsaturated fatty acid was (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic with concentration 14.79% followed by (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic with concentration 10.61%. Also, there are eight non-fatty acid compounds 1-octadecene, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, (E)-15-heptadecenal, oxacyclohexadecan-2 one, 1,2,2,6,8-pentamethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.1]dec-8-en-10-one, hexadecane-1,2-diol, n-heneicosane and eicosan-3-ol. PMID:27081366

  16. Engineering the production of conjugated fatty acids in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The seeds of many non-domesticated plant species synthesize oils containing high amounts of a single unusual fatty acid, many of which have potential usage in industry. Despite the identification of enzymes for unusual oxidized fatty acid synthesis, the production of these fatty acids in engineered ...

  17. Fatty Acids Change the Conformation of Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1)*

    PubMed Central

    Divakaruni, Ajit S.; Humphrey, Dickon M.; Brand, Martin D.

    2012-01-01

    UCP1 catalyzes proton leak across the mitochondrial inner membrane to disengage substrate oxidation from ATP production. It is well established that UCP1 is activated by fatty acids and inhibited by purine nucleotides, but precisely how this regulation occurs remains unsettled. Although fatty acids can competitively overcome nucleotide inhibition in functional assays, fatty acids have little effect on purine nucleotide binding. Here, we present the first demonstration that fatty acids induce a conformational change in UCP1. Palmitate dramatically changed the binding kinetics of 2′/3′-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GDP, a fluorescently labeled nucleotide analog, for UCP1. Furthermore, palmitate accelerated the rate of enzymatic proteolysis of UCP1. The altered kinetics of both processes indicate that fatty acids change the conformation of UCP1, reconciling the apparent discrepancy between existing functional and ligand binding data. Our results provide a framework for how fatty acids and nucleotides compete to regulate the activity of UCP1. PMID:22952235

  18. Generation and esterification of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes in triacylglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Fazzari, Marco; Khoo, Nicholas; Woodcock, Steven R.; Li, Lihua; Freeman, Bruce A.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes (NO2-FA) are products of nitric oxide and nitrite-mediated unsaturated fatty acid nitration. These electrophilic products induce pleiotropic signaling actions that modulate metabolic and inflammatory responses in cell and animal models. The metabolism of NO2-FA includes reduction of the vinyl nitro moiety by prostaglandin reductase-1, mitochondrial β–oxidation and Michael addition with low molecular weight nucleophilic amino acids. Complex lipid reactions of fatty acid nitroalkenes are not well defined. Herein we report the detection and characterization of NO2-FA-containing triacylglycerides (NO2-FA-TAG) via mass spectrometry-based methods. In this regard, unsaturated fatty acids of dietary triacylglycerides are targets for nitration reactions during gastric acidification, where NO2-FA-TAG can be detected in rat plasma after oral administration of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). Furthermore, the characterization and profiling of these species, including the generation of beta oxidation and dehydrogenation products, could be detected in NO2-OA supplemented adipocytes. These data revealed that NO2-FA-TAG, formed by either the direct nitration of esterified unsaturated fatty acids or the incorporation of nitrated free fatty acids into triacylglycerides, contribute to the systemic distribution of these reactive electrophilic mediators and may serve as a depot for subsequent mobilization by lipases to in turn impact adipocyte homeostasis and tissue signaling events. PMID:26066303

  19. Incorporation of Exogenous Fatty Acids Protects Enterococcus faecalis from Membrane-Damaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Holly E.; Harp, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium of the mammalian intestine that can persist in soil and aquatic systems and can be a nosocomial pathogen to humans. It employs multiple stress adaptation strategies in order to survive such a wide range of environments. Within this study, we sought to elucidate whether membrane fatty acid composition changes are an important component for stress adaptation. We noted that E. faecalis OG1RF was capable of changing its membrane composition depending upon growth phase and temperature. The organism also readily incorporated fatty acids from bile, serum, and medium supplemented with individual fatty acids, often dramatically changing the membrane composition such that a single fatty acid was predominant. Growth in either low levels of bile or specific individual fatty acids was found to protect the organism from membrane challenges such as high bile exposure. In particular, we observed that when grown in low levels of bile, serum, or the host-derived fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid, E. faecalis was better able to survive the antibiotic daptomycin. Interestingly, the degree of membrane saturation did not appear to be important for protection from the stressors examined here; instead, it appears that a specific fatty acid or combination of fatty acids is critical for stress resistance. PMID:25128342

  20. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Shan-Wu

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants. PMID:28316988

  1. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Amjad Khan, Waleed; Chun-Mei, Hu; Khan, Nadeem; Iqbal, Amjad; Lyu, Shan-Wu; Shah, Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants.

  2. Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in 2015: The Impact of Novel Intravenous Lipid Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Leah; Meddings, Liisa; Alberda, Cathy; Wichansawakun, Sanit; Robbins, Sarah; Driscoll, David; Bistrian, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    The fatty acids, linoleic acid (18:2ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω-3), are essential to the human diet. When these essential fatty acids are not provided in sufficient quantities, essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) develops. This can be suggested clinically by abnormal liver function tests or biochemically by an elevated Mead acid and reduced linoleic acid and arachidonic acid level, which is manifested as an elevated triene/tetraene ratio of Mead acid/arachidonic acid. Clinical features of EFAD may present later. With the introduction of novel intravenous (IV) lipid emulsions in North America, the proportion of fatty acids provided, particularly the essential fatty acids, varies substantially. We describe a case series of 3 complicated obese patients who were administered parenteral nutrition (PN), primarily using ClinOleic 20%, an olive oil-based lipid emulsion with reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids, linoleic and α-linolenic, compared with more conventional soybean oil emulsions throughout their hospital admission. Essential fatty acid profiles were obtained for each of these patients to investigate EFAD as a potential cause of abnormal liver enzymes. Although the profiles revealed reduced linoleic acid and elevated Mead acid levels, this was not indicative of the development of essential fatty acid deficiency, as reflected in the more definitive measure of triene/tetraene ratio. Instead, although the serum fatty acid panel reflected the markedly lower but still adequate dietary linoleic acid content and greatly increased oleic acid content in the parenteral lipid emulsion, the triene/tetraene ratio remained well below the level, indicating EFAD in each of these patients. The availability and use of new IV lipid emulsions in PN should encourage the clinician to review lipid metabolism based on the quantity of fatty acids provided in specific parenteral lipid emulsions and the expected impact of these lipid emulsions (with quite different

  3. Overexpression of Human Fatty Acid Transport Protein 2/Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) Reveals Distinct Patterns of Trafficking of Exogenous Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4hr. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of

  4. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Melton, Elaina M; Cerny, Ronald L; DiRusso, Concetta C; Black, Paul N

    2013-11-01

    In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of

  5. Comparative effects of high oleic acid vs high mixed saturated fatty acid obesogenic diets upon PUFA metabolism in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets influences physiologic outcomes. There are scant data regarding how the content of non-essential fatty acids like monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) impact the metabolism of polyunsaturat...

  6. The natural diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 is an inhibitor of fungal delta-9 fatty acid desaturation with efficacy in a model of skin dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Philipp; Diefenbacher, Melanie; Greve, Katrine B V; Brianza, Federico; Folly, Christophe; Heider, Harald; Lone, Museer A; Long, Lisa; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Patrick; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Schneiter, Roger; Sorensen, Alexandra S

    2014-01-01

    Human fungal infections represent a therapeutic challenge. Although effective strategies for treatment are available, resistance is spreading, and many therapies have unacceptable side effects. A clear need for novel antifungal targets and molecules is thus emerging. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the plant-derived diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 as a novel antifungal compound. EV-086 has potent and broad-spectrum activity in vitro against Candida, Aspergillus, and Trichophyton spp., whereas activities against bacteria and human cell lines are very low. Chemical-genetic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants identified lipid metabolic processes and organelle organization and biogenesis as targets of EV-086. Pathway modeling suggested that EV-086 inhibits delta-9 fatty acid desaturation, an essential process in S. cerevisiae, depending on the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase OLE1. Delta-9 unsaturated fatty acids-but not saturated fatty acids-antagonized the EV-086-mediated growth inhibition, and transcription of the OLE1 gene was strongly upregulated in the presence of EV-086. EV-086 increased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl chains, respectively. Furthermore, EV-086 was rapidly taken up into the lipid fraction of the cell and incorporated into phospholipids. Together, these findings demonstrate that EV-086 is an inhibitor of delta-9 fatty acid desaturation and that the mechanism of inhibition might involve an EV-086-phospholipid. Finally, EV-086 showed efficacy in a guinea pig skin dermatophytosis model of topical Trichophyton infection, which demonstrates that delta-9 fatty acid desaturation is a valid antifungal target, at least for dermatophytoses.

  7. Downregulation of Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Trafficking in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Siobhán E.; Hodson, Leanne; Neville, Matthew J.; Dennis, A. Louise; Cheeseman, Jane; Humphreys, Sandy M.; Ruge, Toralph; Gilbert, Marjorie; Fielding, Barbara A.; Frayn, Keith N.; Karpe, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Lipotoxicity and ectopic fat deposition reduce insulin signaling. It is not clear whether excess fat deposition in nonadipose tissue arises from excessive fatty acid delivery from adipose tissue or from impaired adipose tissue storage of ingested fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To investigate this we used a whole-body integrative physiological approach with multiple and simultaneous stable-isotope fatty acid tracers to assess delivery and transport of endogenous and exogenous fatty acid in adipose tissue over a diurnal cycle in lean (n = 9) and abdominally obese men (n = 10). RESULTS Abdominally obese men had substantially (2.5-fold) greater adipose tissue mass than lean control subjects, but the rates of delivery of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were downregulated, resulting in normal systemic NEFA concentrations over a 24-h period. However, adipose tissue fat storage after meals was substantially depressed in the obese men. This was especially so for chylomicron-derived fatty acids, representing the direct storage pathway for dietary fat. Adipose tissue from the obese men showed a transcriptional signature consistent with this impaired fat storage function. CONCLUSIONS Enlargement of adipose tissue mass leads to an appropriate downregulation of systemic NEFA delivery with maintained plasma NEFA concentrations. However the implicit reduction in adipose tissue fatty acid uptake goes beyond this and shows a maladaptive response with a severely impaired pathway for direct dietary fat storage. This adipose tissue response to obesity may provide the pathophysiological basis for ectopic fat deposition and lipotoxicity. PMID:20943748

  8. Experimental study on thermal storage performance of binary mixtures of fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Quanying; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Chao; Liu, Sha; Sun, Xiangyu

    2018-02-01

    We selected five kinds of fatty acids including the capric acid, stearic acid, lauric acid, palmitic acid and myristic acid and mixed them to prepare10 kinds of binary mixtures of fatty acids according to the predetermined proportion,tested the phase change temperature and latent heat of mixtures by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). In order to find the fatty acid mixture which has suitable phase change temperature, the larger phase change latent heat and can be used for phase change wall. The results showed that the phase change temperature and latent heats of the binary mixtures of fatty acids decreased compared with the single component;The phase change temperature of the binary mixtures of fatty acids containing capric acid were lower, the range was roughly 20∼30°C,and latent heat is large,which are ideal phase change materials for phase change wall energy storage;The phase change temperature of the binary mixtures consisting of other fatty acids were still high,didn’t meet the temperature requirements of the wall energy storage.

  9. Lipidomics of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Karen A.; Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Lipid mediators are produced from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids through enzymatic and free radical-mediated reactions. When subject to oxygenation via cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, polyunsaturated fatty acids give rise to an array of metabolites including eicosanoids, docosanoids, and octadecanoids. These potent bioactive lipids are involved in many biochemical and signaling pathways, with inflammation being of particular importance. Moreover, because they are produced by more than one pathway and substrate, and are present in a variety of biological milieus, their analysis is not always possible with conventional assays. Liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry offers a versatile and sensitive approach for the analysis of bioactive lipids, allowing specific and accurate quantitation of multiple species present in the same sample. Here we explain the principles of this approach to mediator lipidomics and present detailed protocols for the assay of enzymatically produced oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids that can be tailored to answer biological questions or facilitate assessment of nutritional and pharmacological interventions. PMID:22940496

  10. Marine OMEGA-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mori, Trevor A

    2017-11-01

    Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA). The main dietary source of EPA and DHA for human consumption is fish, especially oily fish. There is considerable evidence that EPA and DHA are protective against cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), particularly in individuals with pre-existing disease. ω3 Fatty acids benefit multiple risk factors including blood pressure, blood vessel function, heart function and blood lipids, and they have antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. ω3 Fatty acids do not adversely interact with medications. Supplementation with ω3 fatty acids is recommended in individuals with elevated blood triglyceride levels and patients with coronary heart disease. A practical recommendation for the general population is to increase ω3 fatty acid intake by incorporating fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake. Health authorities recommend the general population should consume at least two oily fish meals per week. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Youhou; Sun, Yulin; Chen, Ziming; Fan, Sigang

    2016-01-01

    Fish maws are commonly recommended and consumed in Asia over many centuries because it is believed to have some traditional medical properties. This study highlights and provides new information on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws of Cynoscion acoupa, Congresox talabonoides and Sciades proops. The results indicated that fish maws were excellent protein sources and low in fat content. The proteins in fish maws were rich in functional amino acids (FAAs) and the ratio of FAAs and total amino acids in fish maws ranged from 0.68 to 0.69. Among species, croaker C. acoupa contained the most polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapntemacnioc acid, showing the lowest value of index of atherogenicity and index of thrombogenicity, showing the highest value of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio, which is the most desirable.

  12. Direct quantification of fatty acids in human milk by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Goeuriot, Sebastien; Giuffrida, Francesca; Thakkar, Sagar K; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2013-04-05

    Human milk provides the key nutrients necessary for the infants' growth and development. The fatty acid composition of human milk has been extensively studied over the last 20 years and the results obtained by analyzing the fatty acid profile followed by lipid extraction and expressing data as g per 100g of fatty acids. The main drawback is that normalizing data set does not give any information on the amount of fatty acid mother's milk and therefore the level of intake by the infant. The objective of the present study was to develop and validate a direct method to analyze the fatty acid content in liquid human milk samples. Hydrochloric acid in a solution of methanol was selected as the catalyst and methyl undecanoate (11:0) as the internal standard together with tritridecanoin (13:0 TAG) to monitor transesterification performance. The separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was performed using a 100 m highly polar capillary column and a certified calibration mixture used to calculate experimental response factors. The method is suitable to quantify fatty acids in human milk from a 250 μL sample and allow expression of the data in mg of fatty acids per deciliter of human milk as well as weight % of fatty acids. The method has been validated and show a good repeatability [CV(r)<15% and CV(r)<20% for the concentrations close to the LOQ] and a good intermediate reproducibility [CV(iR)<15% and CV(iR)<20% for the concentrations close to the LOQ]. The method was applied to analyze human milk samples obtained from 50 mothers 4 weeks post partum and the data are provided in absolute and relative quantity. These results show that the inter-individual variability of the fatty acid content in human milk is of prime importance and such information cannot be captured with normalized data sets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence of efficacy and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Scorletti, Eleonora; Byrne, Christopher D

    2018-03-22

    For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect: a) on bioactive metabolites involved in inflammatory pathways, and b) on alteration of nuclear transcription factor activities such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), involved in inflammatory pathways and liver lipid metabolism. Since the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) begins with the accumulation of liver lipid and progresses with inflammation and then several years later with development of fibrosis; it has been thought in patients with NAFLD omega-3 fatty acid treatment would be beneficial in treating liver lipid and possibly also in ameliorating inflammation. Meta-analyses (of predominantly dietary studies and small trials) have tended to support the assertion that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in decreasing liver lipid, but recent randomised controlled trials have produced conflicting data. These trials have suggested that omega-3 fatty acid might be beneficial in decreasing liver triglyceride (docosahexanoic acid also possibly being more effective than eicosapentanoic acid) but not in decreasing other features of steatohepatitis (or liver fibrosis). The purpose of this review is to discuss recent evidence regarding biological mechanisms by which long chain omega-3 fatty acids might act to ameliorate liver disease in NAFLD; to consider the recent evidence from randomised

  14. The influence of major dietary fatty acids on insulin secretion and action.

    PubMed

    López, Sergio; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Abia, Rocío; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2010-02-01

    To briefly summarize recent advances towards understanding the influence of major dietary fatty acids on beta-cell function and evaluate their implications for insulin resistance. Studies in humans have shown that beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity improve progressively in the postprandial period as the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) with respect to saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in dietary fats increases. However, cell-culture experiments have revealed a dichotomy in the ability of fatty acids to moderate hyperactivity of, and induce lipotoxicity in, beta-cells. There are also some novel findings regarding the ability of HDL to protect beta-cells against oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in vitro and of reconstituted HDL to attenuate insulin resistance in vivo. These findings raise new questions regarding the contribution of dietary fatty acids to insulin secretion and action. These new findings point to a critical role for major dietary fatty acids in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes, which appears to be of particular relevance during postprandial periods and mainly depends on the fatty acid type. This underscores the importance of dietary fatty acids in standard diabetes management.

  15. Towards an Understanding of Mesocestoides vogae Fatty Acid Binding Proteins’ Roles

    PubMed Central

    Alvite, Gabriela; Garrido, Natalia; Kun, Alejandra; Paulino, Margot; Esteves, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, MvFABPa and MvFABPb were identified in the parasite Mesocestoides vogae (Platyhelmithes, Cestoda). Fatty acid binding proteins are small intracellular proteins whose members exhibit great diversity. Proteins of this family have been identified in many organisms, of which Platyhelminthes are among the most primitive. These proteins have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo synthesis of fatty acids is absent. Fatty acids should be captured from the media needing an efficient transport system to uptake and distribute these molecules. While HLBPs could be involved in the shuttle of fatty acids to the surrounding host tissues and convey them into the parasite, FABPs could be responsible for the intracellular trafficking. In an effort to understand the role of MvFABPs in fatty acid transport of M. vogae larvae, we analysed the intracellular localization of both MvFABPs and the co-localization with in vivo uptake of fatty acid analogue BODIPY FL C16. Immunohistochemical studies on larvae sections using specific antibodies, showed a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution of each protein with some expression in nuclei and mitochondria. MvFABPs distribution was confirmed by mass spectrometry identification from 2D-electrophoresis of larvae subcellular fractions. This work is the first report showing intracellular distribution of MvFABPs as well as the co-localization of these proteins with the BODIPY FL C16 incorporated from the media. Our results suggest that fatty acid binding proteins could target fatty acids to cellular compartments including nuclei. In this sense, M. vogae FABPs could participate in several cellular processes fulfilling most of the functions attributed to vertebrate’s counterparts. PMID:25347286

  16. Role of fatty-acid synthesis in dendritic cell generation and function.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Adeel; Hemmert, Keith C; Ochi, Atsuo; Jamal, Mohsin; Henning, Justin R; Barilla, Rocky; Quesada, Juan P; Zambirinis, Constantinos P; Tang, Kerry; Ego-Osuala, Melvin; Rao, Raghavendra S; Greco, Stephanie; Deutsch, Michael; Narayan, Suchithra; Pachter, H Leon; Graffeo, Christopher S; Acehan, Devrim; Miller, George

    2013-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APCs that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. The role of fatty-acid synthesis in DC development and function is uncertain. We found that blockade of fatty-acid synthesis markedly decreases dendropoiesis in the liver and in primary and secondary lymphoid organs in mice. Human DC development from PBMC precursors was also diminished by blockade of fatty-acid synthesis. This was associated with higher rates of apoptosis in precursor cells and increased expression of cleaved caspase-3 and BCL-xL and downregulation of cyclin B1. Further, blockade of fatty-acid synthesis decreased DC expression of MHC class II, ICAM-1, B7-1, and B7-2 but increased their production of selected proinflammatory cytokines including IL-12 and MCP-1. Accordingly, inhibition of fatty-acid synthesis enhanced DC capacity to activate allogeneic as well as Ag-restricted CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and induce CTL responses. Further, blockade of fatty-acid synthesis increased DC expression of Notch ligands and enhanced their ability to activate NK cell immune phenotype and IFN-γ production. Because endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can augment the immunogenic function of APC, we postulated that this may account for the higher DC immunogenicity. We found that inhibition of fatty-acid synthesis resulted in elevated expression of numerous markers of ER stress in humans and mice and was associated with increased MAPK and Akt signaling. Further, lowering ER stress by 4-phenylbutyrate mitigated the enhanced immune stimulation associated with fatty-acid synthesis blockade. Our findings elucidate the role of fatty-acid synthesis in DC development and function and have implications to the design of DC vaccines for immunotherapy.

  17. Fatty acids bound to recombinant tear lipocalin and their role in structural stabilization.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Seiichi; Fujiwara, Kazuo; Ikeguchi, Masamichi

    2009-09-01

    A variant of human tear lipocalin was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the bound fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Five major fatty acids were identified as hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid, PA), cis-9-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid), 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, cis-11-octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid) and 11,12-methyleneoctadecanoic acid (lactobacillic acid). The composition of the bound fatty acids was similar to the fatty acid composition of E. coli extract, suggesting that the binding affinities are similar for these fatty acids. The urea-induced and thermal-unfolding transitions of the holoprotein (nondelipidated), apoprotein (delipidated) and PA-bound protein were observed by circular dichroism. Holoproteins and PA-bound proteins showed the same stability against urea and heat, and were more stable than apoprotein. These results show that each bound fatty acid stabilizes recombinant tear lipocalin to a similar extent.

  18. [Trans-fatty acids--effects on coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Karbowska, Joanna; Kochan, Zdzisław

    2011-07-01

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) are formed during the industrial process of hydrogenation of vegetable oils. The consumption of hydrogenated fats has increased significantly over the last few decades. In Poland, the average daily intake of TFA for adults was estimated to be 2.8 to 6.9 g; which greatly exceeds the recommended daily maximum of 2 g/day (less than 1% of total energy intake). Increasing trans-fatty acid intake has detrimental effects on the lipid profile: TFA raise total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and decrease HDL-cholesterol levels. Moreover, dietary trans-fatty acids may increase plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) and biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Several studies have demonstrated that a high intake of TFA is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. In addition, TFA consumption has been implicated as an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac arrest. It is therefore necessary to reduce the intake of hydrogenated fats rich in trans-fatty acids in order to minimize the adverse effects of TFA on health.

  19. Role of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipotoxicity in Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ibdah, Jamal A.

    2018-01-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), a catastrophic illness for both the mother and the unborn offspring, develops in the last trimester of pregnancy with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. AFLP is also recognized as an obstetric and medical emergency. Maternal AFLP is highly associated with a fetal homozygous mutation (1528G>C) in the gene that encodes for mitochondrial long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD). The mutation in LCHAD results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, such as 3-hydroxy myristic acid, 3-hydroxy palmitic acid and 3-hydroxy dicarboxylic acid in the placenta, which are then shunted to the maternal circulation leading to the development of acute liver injury observed in patients with AFLP. In this review, we will discuss the mechanistic role of increased 3-hydroxy fatty acid in causing lipotoxicity to the liver and in inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. Further, we also review the role of 3-hydroxy fatty acids in causing placental damage, pancreatic islet β-cell glucolipotoxicity, brain damage, and retinal epithelial cells lipoapoptosis in patients with LCHAD deficiency. PMID:29361796

  20. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibit biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Soichi; Akiyoshi, Yuko; O’Toole, George A.; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of food additives on biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Thirty-three potential food additives and 3 related compounds were added to the culture medium at concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1% (w/w), followed by inoculation and cultivation of five biofilm-forming bacterial strains for the evaluation of biofilm formation. Among the tested food additives, 21 showed inhibitory effects of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and in particular, sugar fatty acid esters showed significant anti-biofilm activity. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) exerted their inhibitory effect at the concentration of 0.001%(w/w), but bacterial growth was not affected at this low concentration. Activities of the sugar fatty acid esters positively correlated with the increase of the chain length of the fatty acid residues. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibited the initial attachment of the Staphylococcus aureus cells to the abiotic surface. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) also inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and Listeria monocytogenes at 0.01%(w/w), while the inhibition of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa required the addition of a far higher concentration (0.1%(w/w)) of the sugar fatty acid esters. PMID:20089325

  1. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Enhance the Lipid Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells by Modulating the Expression of Enzymes of Fatty Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haining; Li, Ran; Huang, Haiyong; Yao, Ru; Shen, Shengrong

    2018-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid are produced by fermentation by gut microbiota. In this paper, we investigate the effects of SCFA on 3T3-L1 cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The cells were treated with acetic acid, propionic acid, or butyric acid when cells were induced to differentiate into adipocytes. MTT assay was employed to detect the viability of 3T3-L1 cells. Oil Red O staining was used to visualize the lipid content in 3T3-L1 cells. A triglyceride assay kit was used to detect the triacylglycerol content in 3T3-L1 cells. qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the expression of metabolic enzymes. MTT results showed that safe concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were less than 6.4, 3.2, and 0.8 mM, respectively. Oil Red O staining and triacylglycerols detection results showed that treatment with acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid accelerated the 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. qRT-PCR and Western blot results showed that the expressions of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were significantly increased by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid treatment during adipose differentiation (p < 0.05). In conclusion, SCFA promoted lipid accumulation by modulating the expression of enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. © 2018 AOCS.

  2. Essential fatty acid supplementation in chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, A P; Green, A T; Thompson, R P

    1996-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids and polyunsaturated lecithin may improve biochemical and histological parameters in liver disease. Ten patients with serological and histological evidence of chronic hepatitis B received capsules of the polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich evening primrose oil in a dose of 4 g daily for 12 months, while a matched group received liquid paraffin capsules as a placebo. Compared to the placebo group, the patients receiving evening primrose oil showed no improvement in either biochemical or histological indices of liver damage, or in the rate of loss of circulating e antigen. Dietary, supplementation with this dose of essential fatty acids is unlikely to be of benefit in chronic hepatitis B.

  3. Tuning of acyl-ACP thioesterase activity directed for tailored fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanbin; Zhang, Yunxiu; Wang, Yayue; Liu, Jiao; Liu, Yinghui; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2018-04-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids have attracted significant attention as sources of biofuels in recent years. Acyl-ACP thioesterase, which is considered as the key enzyme to determine the carbon chain length, catalyzes the termination of de novo fatty acid synthesis. Although recombinant medium-chain acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) affects the fatty acid profile in heterologous cells, tailoring of the fatty acid composition merely by engineering a specific TE is still intractable. In this study, the activity of a C8-C10-specific thioesterase FatB2 from Cuphea hookeriana on C10-ACP was quantified twice as high as that on C8-ACP based on a synthetic C8-C16 acyl-ACP pool in vitro. Whereas in vivo, it was demonstrated that ChFatB2 preferred to accumulate C8 fatty acids with 84.9% composition in the ChFatB2-engineered E. coli strain. To achieve C10 fatty acid production, ChFatB2 was rationally tuned based on structural investigation and enzymatic analysis. An I198E mutant was identified to redistribute the C8-ACP flow, resulting in C10 fatty acid being produced as the principal component at 57.6% of total fatty acids in vivo. It was demonstrated that the activity of TE relative to β-ketoacyl-ACP synthases (KAS) directly determined the fatty acid composition. Our results provide a prospective strategy in tailoring fatty acid synthesis by tuning of TE activities based on TE-ACP interaction.

  4. Inhibition of telomerase by linear-chain fatty acids: a structural analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Masako; Ueno, Takamasa; Kasai, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hirotada; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Hayashi, Hideya; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we have found that mono-unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids in the cis configuration with C(18) hydrocarbon chains (i.e. oleic acid) strongly inhibited the activity of human telomerase in a cell-free enzymic assay, with an IC(50) value of 8.6 microM. Interestingly, fatty acids with hydrocarbon chain lengths below 16 or above 20 carbons substantially decreased the potency of inhibition of telomerase. Moreover, the cis-mono-unsaturated C(18) linear-chain fatty acid oleic acid was the strongest inhibitor of all the fatty acids tested. A kinetic study revealed that oleic acid competitively inhibited the activity of telomerase ( K (i)=3.06 microM) with respect to the telomerase substrate primer. The energy-minimized three-dimensional structure of the linear-chain fatty acid was calculated and modelled. A molecule width of 11.53-14.26 A (where 1 A=0.1 nm) in the C(16) to C(20) fatty acid structure was suggested to be important for telomerase inhibition. The three-dimensional structure of the telomerase active site (i.e. the substrate primer-binding site) appears to have a pocket that could bind oleic acid, with the pocket being 8.50 A long and 12.80 A wide. PMID:12121150

  5. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The liver plays a central role in whole body lipid metabolism and adapts rapidly to changes in dietary fat composition. This adaption involves changes in the expression of genes involved in glycolysis, de-novo lipogenesis, fatty acid elongation, desaturation and oxidation. This review brings together metabolic and molecular studies that help explain n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcription. Recent findings Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid regulates hepatic gene expression by targeting three major transcriptional regulatory networks: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and the carbohydrate regulatory element binding protein/Max-like factor X heterodimer. 22 : 6,n-3, the most prominent n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in tissues, is a weak activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Hepatic metabolism of 22 : 6,n-3, however, generates 20 : 5,n-3, a strong peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α activator. In contrast to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, 22 : 6,n-3 is the most potent fatty acid regulator of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-1. 22 : 6,n-3 suppresses sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression while enhancing degradation of nuclear sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 through 26S proteasome and Erk1/2-dependent mechanisms. Both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid suppress carbohydrate regulatory element binding protein and Max-like factor X nuclear abundance and interfere with glucose-regulated hepatic metabolism. Summary These studies have revealed unique mechanisms by which specific polyunsaturated fatty acids control peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and carbohydrate regulatory element binding protein/Max-like factor X function. As such, specific metabolic and signal transduction pathways contribute

  6. Dysregulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kyubok; Norris, Keith; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2013-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in hypertriglyceridemia which is largely due to impaired clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins occasioned by downregulation of lipoprotein lipase and very low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and of hepatic lipase and LDL receptor-related protein in the liver. However, data on the effect of CKD on fatty acid metabolism in the liver is limited and was investigated here. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to undergo 5/6 nephrectomy (CRF) or sham operation (control) and observed for 12 weeks. The animals were then euthanized and their liver tissue tested for nuclear translocation (activation) of carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol-responsive element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) which independently regulate the expression of key enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, i.e. fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) as well as nuclear Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) which regulates the expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and transport, i.e. L-FABP and CPT1A. In addition, the expression of ATP synthase α, ATP synthase β, glycogen synthase and diglyceride acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) and DGAT2 were determined. Compared with controls, the CKD rats exhibited hypertriglyceridemia, elevated plasma and liver tissue free fatty acids, increased nuclear ChREBP and reduced nuclear SREBP-1 and PPARα, upregulation of ACC and FAS and downregulation of L-FABP, CPT1A, ATP synthase α, glycogen synthase and DGAT in the liver tissue. Liver in animals with advanced CKD exhibits ChREBP-mediated upregulation of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis, downregulation of PPARα-regulated fatty acid oxidation system and reduction of DGAT resulting in reduced fatty acid incorporation in triglyceride.

  7. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5) and DHA (C22:6) and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae. PMID:22830315

  8. Combined effect of unsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids on the metabolic syndrome: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Fallah-ghohroudi, Arefeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-07-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the background intakes of total dietary fat, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulate the effects of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of 4,677 adults, aged 19 to 84 years. MetS was defined according to the ATP III criteria. Median intakes of SFA, MUFA and PUFA were 9.5, 9.6 and 5.6% of total energy. High SFA intakes were associated with higher prevalence of MetS, in both individuals with higher and lower median intakes of total fat, MUFA and PUFA. Our findings indicate that SFA intakes were positively associated with the prevalence of MetS, independent of total dietary fat, MUFA and PUFA intake.

  9. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in...

  10. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in...

  11. Plasma total and free fatty acids composition in human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, I Tavares; Cortez-Pinto, H; Fidalgo, G; Rodrigues, D; Camilo, M E

    2002-06-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the association of steatosis with an inflammatory response, is a novel liver disease of unknown pathogenesis and prognosis. Triacylglycerols and their precursors, the fatty acids, are the likely candidates to accumulate in the hepatocyte. Disturbed fatty acid metabolism can be involved in the pathogenesis of NASH but there is no information concerning its plasma fatty acid profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma total (esterified plus free) and free fatty acids concentrations to assess the association of NASH with plasma fatty acid accumulation. Overnight fasting blood samples from 22 biopsy-proven NASH patients and of 6 matched age healthy controls were studied. NASH patients had significantly higher concentration of total and free fatty acids than controls (P<0.05), higher total saturated and monounsaturated levels in both studied lipid fractions (P<0.05), mainly due to the increase of hexadecanoic, hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids. Absolute polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations were similar in both groups. The C20:4/C18:2 and the C18:1/C18:0 ratios as well as the peroxidability index were not significantly different. In overweight/obese patients NASH is associated with deranged fatty acid metabolism which may be involved in its pathogenesis and/or progression.

  12. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association between dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acids.

    PubMed

    König, D; Väisänen, S B; Bouchard, C; Halle, M; Lakka, T A; Baumstark, M W; Alen, M; Berg, A; Rauramaa, R

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the relation between (1) cardiorespiratory fitness and plasma saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and (2) the interactions between cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acid composition. Cross-sectional analysis. The subjects were randomly selected, 127 middle-aged Finnish men participating in the DNASCO exercise intervention study. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined spiroergometrically, dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients by 4-day food records and plasma fatty acids by gas chromatography. The subjects were divided into tertiles of aerobic fitness. Differences between fitness tertiles were not observed for dietary intake of total fat, and saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids (percent of total energy). In contrast, plasma saturated fatty acids were significantly lower (P <0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly higher (P <0.05) in the highest fitness tertile compared to the lowest tertile. Dietary saturated fat intake was positively associated with plasma saturated fatty acids (r=0.342; P <0.05) and inversely with plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids (r=-0.453; P <0.01) only in the lowest fitness tertile. In addition, a positive correlation between body mass index and plasma saturated fatty acids (r=0.516; P <0.01) as well as a negative correlation between body mass index and plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids (r=-0.516; P <0.01) was observed in the lowest tertile solely. Different levels in cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with different levels in plasma saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lead to modifications in the association between dietary and plasma fatty acids. These findings can perhaps be explained by a reduced hepatic fatty acid and lipoprotein synthesis as well as by an enhanced muscular lipid utilization, which are commonly seen in those who are physically active and who exhibit a higher level of fitness.

  14. Optimization of odd chain fatty acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Kyoung; Dulermo, Thierry; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2018-01-01

    Odd chain fatty acids (odd FAs) have a wide range of applications in therapeutic and nutritional industries, as well as in chemical industries including biofuel. Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast considered a preferred microorganism for the production of lipid-derived biofuels and chemicals. However, it naturally produces negligible amounts of odd chain fatty acids. The possibility of producing odd FAs using Y. lipolytica was investigated. Y. lipolytica wild-type strain was shown able to grow on weak acids; acetate, lactate, and propionate. Maximal growth rate on propionate reached 0.24 ± 0.01 h -1 at 2 g/L, and growth inhibition occurred at concentration above 10 g/L. Wild-type strain accumulated lipids ranging from 7.39 to 8.14% (w/w DCW) depending on the carbon source composition, and odd FAs represented only 0.01-0.12 g/L. We here proved that the deletion of the PHD1 gene improved odd FAs production, which reached a ratio of 46.82% to total lipids. When this modification was transferred to an obese strain, engineered for improving lipid accumulation, further increase odd FAs production reaching a total of 0.57 g/L was shown. Finally, a fed-batch co-feeding strategy was optimized for further increase odd FAs production, which generated 0.75 g/L, the best production described so far in Y. lipolytica . A Y. lipolytica strain able to accumulate high level of odd chain fatty acids, mainly heptadecenoic acid, has been successfully developed. In addition, a fed-batch co-feeding strategy was optimized to further improve lipid accumulation and odd chain fatty acid content. These lipids enriched in odd chain fatty acid can (1) improve the properties of the biodiesel generated from Y. lipolytica lipids and (2) be used as renewable source of odd chain fatty acid for industrial applications. This work paves the way for further improvements in odd chain fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compound production.

  15. CO2-limitation-inducible Green Recovery of fatty acids from cyanobacterial biomass

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Fallon, Sarah; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Using genetically modified cyanobacterial strains, we engineered a Green Recovery strategy to convert membrane lipids into fatty acids for economical and environmentally sustainable biofuel production. The Green Recovery strategy utilizes lipolytic enzymes under the control of promoters induced by CO2 limitation. Data indicate that strains of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 engineered for Green Recovery underwent degradation of membrane diacylglycerols upon CO2 limitation, leading to release of fatty acids into the culture medium. Recovered fatty acid yields of 36.1 × 10-12 mg/cell were measured in one of the engineered strains (SD239). Green Recovery can be incorporated into previously constructed fatty-acid-secretion strains, enabling fatty acid recovery from the remaining cyanobacterial biomass that will be generated during fatty acid biofuel production in photobioreactors. PMID:21482802

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: from molecules to man.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2017-10-15

    Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are capable of partly inhibiting many aspects of inflammation including leucocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonic acid, and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving mediators called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of EPA and DHA include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB so reducing expression of inflammatory genes and activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Animal experiments demonstrate benefit from EPA and DHA in a range of models of inflammatory conditions. Human trials demonstrate benefit of oral n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis and in stabilizing advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Intravenous n-3 fatty acids may have benefits in critically ill patients through reduced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving actions of EPA, DHA and their derivatives are of clinical relevance. © 2017 The Author

  17. The science of fatty acids and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Kevin L

    2015-05-01

    Inflammation is believed to play a central role in many of the chronic diseases that characterize modern society. In the past decade, our understanding of how dietary fats affect our immune system and subsequently our inflammatory status has grown considerably. There are compelling data showing that high-fat meals promote endotoxin [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] translocation into the bloodstream, stimulating innate immune cells and leading to a transient postprandial inflammatory response. The nature of this effect is influenced by the amount and type of fat consumed. The role of various dietary constituents, including fats, on gut microflora and subsequent health outcomes in the host is another exciting and novel area of inquiry. The impact of specific fatty acids on inflammation may be central to how dietary fats affect health. Three key fatty acid-inflammation interactions are briefly described. First, the evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids induce inflammation in part by mimicking the actions of LPS. Second, the often-repeated claim that dietary linoleic acid promotes inflammation was not supported in a recent systematic review of the evidence. Third, an explanation is offered for why omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are so much less anti-inflammatory in humans than in mice. The article closes with a cautionary tale from the genomic literature that illustrates why extrapolating the results from inflammation studies in mice to humans is problematic. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids in baked freshwater fish from south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, A D; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E

    1997-03-01

    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 17 baked freshwater fish from Brazil's southern region were determined. Analyses of fatty acids methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid, accouting for 50-70% of total saturated acids. Linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3) were the predominant polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). The data revealed that species such as barbado, corvina, pintado, and truta were good sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that most freshwater fish examined were good sources of PUFA-omega 3.

  19. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Male Ruminant Reproduction — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Van Tran, Len; Malla, Bilal Ahmad; Kumar, Sachin; Tyagi, Amrish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acids such as n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are critical nutrients, used to improve male reproductive performance through modification of fatty acid profile and maintenance of sperm membrane integrity, especially under cold shock or cryopreservation condition. Also, PUFA provide the precursors for prostaglandin synthesis and can modulate the expression patterns of many key enzymes involved in both prostaglandin and steroid metabolism. Many studies carried out on diets supplemented with PUFA have demonstrated their capability to sustain sperm motility, viability and fertility during chilling and freezing as well as improving testis development and spermatogenesis in a variety of livestock species. In addition to the type and quantity of dietary fatty acids, ways of addition of PUFA to diet or semen extender is very crucial as it has different effects on semen quality in male ruminants. Limitation of PUFA added to ruminant ration is due to biohydrogenation by rumen microorganisms, which causes conversion of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, leading to loss of PUFA quantity. Thus, many strategies for protecting PUFA from biohydrogenation in rumen have been developed over the years. This paper reviews four aspects of PUFA in light of previous research including rumen metabolism, biological roles, influence on reproduction, and strategies to use in male ruminants. PMID:26954196

  20. Soybean Seed Development: Fatty Acid and Phytohormone Metabolism and Their Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quoc Thien.; Kisiala, Anna; Andreas, Peter; Neil Emery, R.J.; Narine, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil utilization is determined by its fatty acid composition. In soybean and other grain crops, during the seed development oil accumulation is important trait for value in food or industrial applications. Seed development is relatively short and sensitive to unfavorable abiotic conditions. These stresses can lead to a numerous undesirable qualitative as well as quantitative changes in fatty acid production. Fatty acid manipulation which targets a higher content of a specific single fatty acid for food or industrial application has gained more attention. Despite several successes in modifying the ratio of endogenous fatty acids in most domesticated oilseed crops, numerous obstacles in FA manipulation of seed maturation are yet to be overcome. Remarkably, connections with plant hormones have not been well studied despite their critical roles in the regulation and promotion of a plethora of processes in plant growth and development. While activities of phytohormones during the reproductive phase have been partially clarified in seed physiology, the biological role of plant hormones in oil accumulation during seed development has not been investigated. In this review seed development and numerous effects of abiotic stresses are discussed. After describing fatty acid and phytohormone metabolism and their interactions, we postulate that the endogenous plant hormones play important roles in fatty acid production in soybean seeds. PMID:27252591

  1. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.

    2012-03-12

    Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase inmore » TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.« less

  2. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  3. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  4. Low omega-3 index values and monounsaturated fatty acid levels in early pregnancy: an analysis of maternal erythrocytes fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Axelle; Bernardy, Florence; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Dardenne, Nadia; Degée, Sylvie; Timmermans, Marie; Nisolle, Michelle; Guillaume, Michèle; Castronovo, Vincenzo

    2018-04-02

    It is unanimously recognized that the maternal nutritional status at the pregnancy onset influence both short-term and long-term health of the mother and offspring. Among several nutrients, LCPUFA, particularly from the omega-3 family, are of utmost importance. This study was carried out to determine fatty acids profile of maternal erythrocyte membranes in early pregnancy and to identify potential determinants impacting on this status. A cohort of 122 healthy women with a singleton pregnancy was included. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. Because of the lack of cutoff values, reference ranges were used to determine fatty acids categories. Of concern, our data revealed low monounsaturated and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status in most participants. More than 75% of Belgian pregnant women exhibited Pal, AO and EPA levels as well as IOM3 values below the laboratory reference ranges. Higher DHA concentrations and IOM3 values were found among foreign-nationality participants, non-smokers and physically active women. With regard to dietary factors, omega-3 supplements and diet seem to be complementary since DHA from supplements (but not from diet) and EPA from diet (but not from supplements) were found to be associated with higher concentrations of DHA and EPA, respectively. Our study presents evidence demonstrating that the fatty acid status of most early pregnant women is far from being optimal based on the admitted general reference values. Clinicians should be advice to carefully evaluate and improve this status to guarantee the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.

  5. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE COMPOSITION OF FATTY ACIDS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Allen G.; Ingraham, John L.

    1962-01-01

    Marr, Allen G. (University of California, Davis) and John L. Ingraham. Effect of temperature on composition of fatty acids in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 84:1260–1267. 1962.—Variations in the temperature of growth and in the composition of the medium alter the proportions of individual fatty acids in the lipids of Escherichia coli. As the temperature of growth is lowered, the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids) increases. The increase in content of unsaturated acids with a decrease in temperature of growth occurs in both minimal and complex media. Cells harvested in the stationary phase contained large amounts of cyclopropane fatty acids (methylenehexadecanoic and methylene octadecanoic acids) in comparison with cells harvested during exponential growth. Cells grown in a chemostat, limited by the concentration of ammonium salts, show a much higher content of saturated fatty acids (principally palmitic acid) than do cells harvested from an exponentially-growing batch culture in the same medium. Cells grown in a chemostat, limited by the concentration of glucose, show a slightly higher content of unsaturated fatty acids than cells from the corresponding batch culture. The results do not indicate a direct relation between fatty acid composition and minimal growth temperature. PMID:16561982

  6. Synthesis and release of fatty acids by human trophoblast cells in culture

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Coleman, R.A.; Haynes, E.B.

    1987-11-01

    In order to determine whether placental cells can synthesize and release fatty acids, trophoblast cells from term human placentas were established in monolayer culture. The cells continued to secrete placental lactogen and progesterone and maintained specific activities of critical enzymes of triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis for 24 to 72 hr in culture. Fatty acid was rapidly synthesized from (/sup 14/C)acetate and released by the cells. Palmitoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids were the major fatty acids synthesized from (/sup 14/C)acetate and released. Small amounts of lauric, myristic, and stearic acids were also identified. (/sup 14/C)acetate was also incorporated into cellular triacylglycerol,more » phospholipid, and cholesterol, but radiolabeled free fatty acid did not accumulate intracellularly. In a pulse-chase experiment, cellular glycerolipids were labeled with (1-/sup 14/C)oleate; trophoblast cells then released /sup 14/C-labeled fatty acid into the media as the cellular content of labeled phospholipid and triacylglycerol decreased without intracellular accumulation of free fatty acid. Twenty percent of the /sup 14/C-label lost from cellular glycerolipid could not be recovered as a chloroform-extractable product, suggesting that some of the hydrolyzed fatty acid had been oxidized. These data indicate that cultured placenta trophoblast cells can release fatty acids that have either been synthesized de novo or that have been hydrolyzed from cellular glycerolipids. Trophoblast cells in monolayer culture should provide an excellent model for molecular studies of placental fatty acid metabolism and release.« less

  7. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  8. Lipids and fatty acids in roasted chickens.

    PubMed

    Souza, S A; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; Souza, N E

    1999-09-01

    Total lipids from meat portions of breast, thigh, wing, side and back with and without skin from 10 roasted chickens were extracted with chloroform and methanol and gravimetrically determined, and their fatty acids were analysed as methyl esters by gaseous chromatography, using a flame ionization detector and capillary column. The main fatty acids found were: C16:0, C18:1 omega 9, and C18:2 omega 6. The average ratio observed between PUFA/SFA was of 0.98, mainly due to the great concentration of the C18:2 omega 6 fatty acid, with an average of 26.75%. Regarding to the lipids content, the skinless breast showed the lowest content, 0.78 g/100 g, while the back with skin was the one with the highest content, 12.13 g/100 g except for the pure skin, with 26.54 grams of lipids by 100 grams.

  9. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Morselli, Eugenia; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD) for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD.

  10. Engineering fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for sustainable biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Blatti, Jillian L; Michaud, Jennifer; Burkart, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel and other liquid fuels due to their fast growth rate, high lipid yields, and ability to grow in a broad range of environments. However, many microalgae achieve maximal lipid yields only under stress conditions hindering growth and providing compositions not ideal for biofuel applications. Metabolic engineering of algal fatty acid biosynthesis promises to create strains capable of economically producing fungible and sustainable biofuels. The algal fatty acid biosynthetic pathway has been deduced by homology to bacterial and plant systems, and much of our understanding is gleaned from basic studies in these systems. However, successful engineering of lipid metabolism in algae will necessitate a thorough characterization of the algal fatty acid synthase (FAS) including protein-protein interactions and regulation. This review describes recent efforts to engineer fatty acid biosynthesis toward optimizing microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Erythrocyte and platelet fatty acids in retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Stanzial, A M; Bonomi, L; Cobbe, C; Olivieri, O; Girelli, D; Trevisan, M T; Bassi, A; Ferrari, S; Corrocher, R

    1991-05-01

    The fatty acid composition and the glutathione-peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) of erythrocytes and platelets, the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) by platelets and the activity of the main systems of transmembrane cation transport in erythrocyte have been studied in 12 patients (5 males and 7 females) affected by retinitis pigmentosa (RP). A remarkable increase of saturated fatty acids (SFA), particularly of stearic acid (C18:0), has been noted in these patients. The reduced unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio (PUFA/SFA) observed in both erythrocytes and platelets and the decrease of arachidonic acid in platelets may depend by an active peroxidation process as documented by the increase of MDA. Platelet glutathione-peroxidase (PTL-GSH-PX) and plasma retinol were in the normal range, whereas erythrocyte glutathione-peroxidase (E-GSH-PX), MDA and plasma alfa-toco-pherol were increased in patients with RP. The activities of Na(+)-K+ pump, cotransport and Na(+)-Li+ countertransport were normal in RP erythrocytes.

  12. Fatty acids in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Focus on pentadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Wonbeak; Gjuka, Donjeta; Stevenson, Heather L; Song, Xiaoling; Shen, Hong; Yoo, Suk Young; Wang, Jing; Fallon, Michael; Ioannou, George N; Harrison, Stephen A; Beretta, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease and ranges from isolated steatosis to NASH. To determine whether circulating fatty acids could serve as diagnostic markers of NAFLD severity and whether specific fatty acids could contribute to the pathogenesis of NASH, we analyzed two independent NAFLD patient cohorts and used the methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) NASH mouse model. We identified six fatty acids that could serve as non-invasive markers of NASH in patients with NAFLD. Serum levels of 15:0, 17:0 and 16:1n7t negatively correlated with NAFLD activity scores and hepatocyte ballooning scores, while 18:1n7c serum levels strongly correlated with fibrosis stage and liver inflammation. Serum levels of 15:0 and 17:0 also negatively correlated with fasting glucose and AST, while 16:1n7c and 18:1n7c levels positively correlated with AST and ferritin, respectively. Inclusion of demographic and clinical parameters improved the performance of the fatty acid panels in detecting NASH in NAFLD patients. The panel [15:0, 16:1n7t, 18:1n7c, 22:5n3, age, ferritin and APRI] predicted intermediate or advanced fibrosis in NAFLD patients, with 82% sensitivity at 90% specificity [AUROC = 0.92]. 15:0 and 18:1n7c were further selected for functional studies in vivo. Mice treated with 15:0-supplemented MCD diet showed reduced AST levels and hepatic infiltration of ceroid-laden macrophages compared to MCD-treated mice, suggesting that 15:0 deficiency contributes to liver injury in NASH. In contrast, 18:1n7c-supplemented MCD diet didn't affect liver pathology. In conclusion, 15:0 may serve as a promising biomarker or therapeutic target in NASH, opening avenues for the integration of diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Role of Fatty-acid Synthesis in Dendritic Cell Generation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Adeel; Hemmert, Keith C.; Ochi, Atsuo; Jamal, Mohsin; Henning, Justin R.; Barilla, Rocky; Quesada, Juan P.; Zambirinis, Constantinos P.; Tang, Kerry; Ego-Osuala, Melvin; Rao, Raghavendra S.; Greco, Stephanie; Deutsch, Michael; Narayan, Suchithra; Pachter, H. Leon; Graffeo, Christopher S.; Acehan, Devrim; Miller, George

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. The role of fatty-acid synthesis in DC development and function is uncertain. We found that blockade of fatty-acid synthesis markedly decreases dendropoiesis in the liver and in primary and secondary lymphoid organs in mice. Human DC development from PBMC precursors was also diminished by blockade of fatty-acid synthesis. This was associated with higher rates of apoptosis in precursor cells and increased expression of Cleaved Caspase 3 and BCL-xL, and down-regulation of Cyclin B1. Further, blockade of fatty-acid synthesis decreased DC expression of MHCII, ICAM-1, B7-1, B7-2 but increased their production of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-12 and MCP-1. Accordingly, inhibition of fatty-acid synthesis enhanced DC capacityto activate allogeneic as well as antigen-restricted CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and induce CTL responses. Further, blockade of fatty-acid synthesis increased DC expression of Notch ligands and enhanced their ability to activate NK cell immune-phenotype and IFN-γ production. Since endoplasmic reticular (ER)-stress can augment the immunogenic function of APC, we postulated that this may account for the higher DC immunogenicity. We found that inhibition of fatty-acid synthesis resulted in elevated expression of numerous markers of ER stress in humans and mice and was associated with increased MAP kinase and Akt signaling. Further, lowering ER-stress by 4-phenylbutyrate mitigated the enhanced immune-stimulation associated with fatty-acid synthesis blockade. Our findings elucidate the role of fatty-acid synthesis in DC development and function and have implications to the design of DC vaccines for immunotherapy. PMID:23536633

  14. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    PubMed

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P < 0.05). CSFA increased the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in the ruminal fluid (P < 0.05), but alfalfa increased the concentration of valerate and isovalerate (P < 0.05). CSFA increased the concentration of ammonia nitrogen and the relative population of Streptococcus bovis in the rumen (P < 0.05) and inhibited the relative population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, methanogens, and protozoa (P < 0.05). Alfalfa instead of Leymus chinensis increased the relative population of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminobacter amylophilus in the rumen (P < 0.05) and reduced the relative population of the Ruminococcus albus and Megasphaera elsdenii (P < 0.05). Supplemental CSFA increased the concentration of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the plasma (P < 0.05). And it also altered the composition of fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P < 0.05) and increasing the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P < 0.05). The results showed that alfalfa and CSFA had interaction effect on the apparent digestibility of ether extracts, plasma triglyceride concentration, isobutyrate concentration, and Ruminococcus albus relative abundance in the rumen. It was concluded that alfalfa substituting Leymus chinensis

  15. Saturated fatty acids as possible important metabolites for epithelial ovarian cancer based on the free and esterified fatty acid profiles determined by GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui; Yang, Tongshu; Su, Hui; Ying, Li; Liu, Liyan; Sun, Changhao

    2016-09-26

    The aims were to investigate the serum free fatty acid (FFA) and esterified fatty acid (EFA) profiles and to identify biomarkers that can be used to identify patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) based on the metabolomics approach. We applied a targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics approach to serum samples from 40 EOC patients and 35 healthy controls for achieving the FFA and EFA profiles. These metabolite profiles were processed using multivariate analysis to obtain potential biomarkers. And then, some independent samples were chosen to validate these potential biomarkers. There were higher saturated fatty acids and lower unsaturated fatty acids in EOC patients when compared with the healthy controls. EFA (C16:0), EFA (C18:0) and FFA (C16:0) were identified as potential biomarkers that distinguished EOC from the healthy controls. The areas under the curve from the EFA (C16:0), EFA (C18:0) and FFA (C16:0) in validated study were 0.745, 0.701, 0.682, respectively. Our study provides useful information to bridge the gaps in our understanding to the fatty acids metabolic alterations associated with EOC, and this study has demonstrated saturated fatty acid biomarkers might be helpful for the detection and characterization of EOC patients.

  16. Is Bacterial Fatty Acid Synthesis a Valid Target for Antibacterial Drug Discovery?

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Joshua B.; Rock, Charles O.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of resistance against most current drugs emphasizes the need to develop new approaches to control bacterial pathogens, particularly Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial fatty acid synthesis is one such target that is being actively pursued by several research groups to develop anti-Staphylococcal agents. Recently, the wisdom of this approach has been challenged based on the ability of a Gram-positive bacterium to incorporate extracellular fatty acids and thus circumvent the inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis. The generality of this conclusion has been challenged, and there is enough diversity in the enzymes and regulation of fatty acid synthesis in bacteria to conclude that there isn’t a single organism that can be considered typical and representative of bacteria as a whole. We are left without a clear resolution to this ongoing debate and await new basic research to define the pathways for fatty acid uptake and that determine the biochemical and genetic mechanisms for the regulation of fatty acid synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. These crucial experiments will determine whether diversity in the control of this important pathway accounts for the apparently different responses of Gram-positive bacteria to the inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis in presence of extracellular fatty acid supplements. PMID:21862391

  17. Fatty acid profile of edible oils and fats consumed in India.

    PubMed

    Dorni, Charles; Sharma, Paras; Saikia, Gunendra; Longvah, T

    2018-01-01

    A total 320 samples of edible oils and fats (Oils-236; Vanaspati- 45; Ghee-39) were sampled from 107 sampling sites in India and were evaluated for their fatty acid profile. This is the first comprehensive report on fatty acids profile of fats & oil commonly consumed in India. Every variety of edible oil showed its own unique fatty acid profile with significant variation within each individual fatty acid. Pure safflower oil exhibited the highest total TPUFA (76.78%) while the highest TSFA was noticed for coconut oil (90.84%). High level of erucic acid in the range of 48.5 to 54.2% was observed in mustard oil.. Groundnut and rice bran oils showed TPUFA/TSFA ratio closer to WHO recommended value. Several vanaspati samples exhibited trans fatty acid beyond the permitted limit while trace amount of the same was also detected in ghee. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A diet high in α-linolenic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids attenuates hepatic steatosis and alters hepatic phospholipid fatty acid profile in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Danielle; Zahradka, Peter; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Clark, Jaime L; Taylor, Carla G

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of the plant-based n-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), a dietary precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for modulating hepatic steatosis. Rats were fed high fat (55% energy) diets containing high oleic canola oil, canola oil, a canola/flax oil blend (C/F, 3:1), safflower oil, soybean oil, or lard. After 12 weeks, C/F and weight-matched (WM) groups had 20% less liver lipid. Body mass, liver weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and molecular markers of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, desaturation and elongation did not account for this effect. The C/F group had the highest total n-3 and EPA in hepatic phospholipids (PL), as well as one of the highest DHA and lowest arachidonic acid (n-6) concentrations. In conclusion, the C/F diet with the highest content of the plant-based n-3 ALA attenuated hepatic steatosis and altered the hepatic PL fatty acid profile. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Clinical Relevance of Type II Fatty Acid Synthesis Bypass in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Guillemet, Mélanie; Soler, Charles; Morvan, Claire; Halpern, David; Pourcel, Christine; Vu Thien, Hoang; Lamberet, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The need for new antimicrobials to treat bacterial infections has led to the use of type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) enzymes as front-line targets. However, recent studies suggest that FASII inhibitors may not work against the opportunist pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, as environmental fatty acids favor emergence of multi-anti-FASII resistance. As fatty acids are abundant in the host and one FASII inhibitor, triclosan, is widespread, we investigated whether fatty acid pools impact resistance in clinical and veterinary S. aureus isolates. Simple addition of fatty acids to the screening medium led to a 50% increase in triclosan resistance, as tested in 700 isolates. Moreover, nonculturable triclosan-resistant fatty acid auxotrophs, which escape detection under routine conditions, were uncovered in primary patient samples. FASII bypass in selected isolates correlated with polymorphisms in the acc and fabD loci. We conclude that fatty-acid-dependent strategies to escape FASII inhibition are common among S. aureus isolates and correlate with anti-FASII resistance and emergence of nonculturable variants. PMID:28193654

  20. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Synergistic and/or additive effects on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FA). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. As well, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte fatty acid composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanic/Latino...

  1. Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Farahani, H.; Hasan, M.

    1992-02-01

    The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration wasmore » increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.« less

  2. ω3 fatty acid desaturases from microorganisms: structure, function, evolution, and biotechnological use.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxuan; Chen, Haiqin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2013-12-01

    The biosynthesis of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids involves an alternating process of fatty acid desaturation and elongation catalyzed by complex series of enzymes. ω3 desaturase plays an important role in converting ω6 fatty acids into ω3 fatty acids. Genes for this desaturase have been identified and characterized in a wide range of microorganisms, including cyanobacteria, yeasts, molds, and microalgae. Like all fatty acid desaturases, ω3 desaturase is structurally characterized by the presence of three highly conserved histidine-rich motifs; however, unlike some desaturases, it lacks a cytochrome b5-like domain. Understanding the structure, function, and evolution of ω3 desaturases, particularly their substrate specificities in the biosynthesis of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, lays the foundation for potential production of various ω3 fatty acids in transgenic microorganisms.

  3. n-3 fatty acids: role in neurogenesis and neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Crupi, R; Marino, A; Cuzzocrea, S

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential unsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) starting after the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. They are important nutrients but, unfortunately, mammals cannot synthesize them, whereby they must be obtained from food sources or from supplements. Amongst nutritionally important polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are highly concentrated in the brain and have anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. They are involved in many bodily processes and may reportedly lead to neuron protection in neurological diseases. aged or damaged neurons and in Alzheimer's disease. Their effect in cognitive and behavioral functions and in several neurological and psychiatric disorders has been also proven. The dentate gyrus (DG), a sub-region of hippocampus, is implicated in cognition and mood regulation. The hippocampus represents one of the two areas in the mammalian brain in which adult neurogenesis occurs. This process is associated with beneficial effects on cognition, mood and chronic pharmacological treatment. The exposure to n-3 fatty acids enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis associated with cognitive and behavioral processes, promotes synaptic plasticity by increasing long-term potentiation and modulates synaptic protein expression to stimulate the dendritic arborization and new spines formation. On this basis we review the effect of n-3 fatty acids on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Moreover their possible use as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases is pointed out.

  4. Total lipid and fatty acid composition of eight strains of marine diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Mai, Kang-Sen; Sun, Shi-Chun

    2000-12-01

    Fatty acid composition and total lipid content of 8 strains of marine diatoms ( Nitzschia frustrula, Nitzschia closterium, Nitzschia incerta, Navicula pelliculosa, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Synedra fragilaroides) were examined. The microalgae were grown under defined conditions and harvested at the late exponential phase. The major fatty acids in most strains were 14∶0 (1.0% 6.3%), 16∶0 (13.5 26.4%), 16∶1n-7 (21.1% 46.3%) and 20∶5n-3 (6.5% 19.5%). The polyunsaturated fatty acids 16∶2n-4, 16∶3n-4, 16∶4n-1 and 20∶4n-6 also comprised a significant proportion of the total fatty acids in some strains. The characteristic fatty acid composition of diatoms is readily distin