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Sample records for salmon louse lepeophtheirus

  1. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

    2012-06-19

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations.

  2. Identification of a sex-linked SNP marker in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) using RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephen N; Bekaert, Michaël; Taggart, John B; Christie, Hayden R L; Bassett, David I; Bron, James E; Skuce, Philip J; Gharbi, Karim; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Sturm, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837)) is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study's observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies.

  3. Differential modulation of resistance biomarkers in skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha by the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Braden, Laura M; Barker, Duane E; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile pink salmon larger than 0.7 g reject the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and are considered resistant to the infection. Robust innate defense responses in the skin contribute to the observed resistance. In contrast adult pink salmon captured at sea or shortly before spawning carry large numbers of the parasite, suggesting inability to control the infection. The purpose of this research is to better understand these apparently contradictory conclusions by comparing a suite of genetic and cellular markers of resistance to L. salmonis in the skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon. The expression of major histocompatibility factor II, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 was down-regulated in mature but not juvenile pink salmon. Similarly, skin at the site of parasite attachment in juvenile salmon was highly populated with MHIIβ(+) and IL-1β(+) cells that were either absent, or at reduced levels at similar sites in mature salmon. In addition, mucocyte density was relatively low in the skin of mature salmon, irrespective of louse infection. In juveniles, the higher mucocyte density decreased following louse attachment. We show that in mature pink salmon, genetic and histological responses in skin are depressed and speculate that salmonid defense against L. salmonis is modulated by maturation.

  4. Vector potential of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis in the transmission of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Jakob, E; Barker, D E; Garver, K A

    2011-12-06

    To better understand the role of vector transmission of aquatic viruses, we established an in vivo virus-parasite challenge specifically to address (1) whether Lepeophtheirus salmonis can acquire infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) after water bath exposure or via parasitizing infected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and if so, define the duration of this association and (2) whether L. salmonis can transmit IHNV to naive Atlantic salmon and whether this transmission requires attachment to the host. Salmon lice which were water bath-exposed to 1 x 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu) ml(-1) of IHNV for 1 h acquired the virus (2.1 x 10(4) pfu g(-1)) and remained IHNV-positive for 24 h post exposure. After parasitizing IHNV-infected hosts (viral titer in fish mucus 3.3 x 10(4) pfu ml(-1)) salmon lice acquired IHNV (3.4 x 10(3) pfu g(-1)) and remained virus-positive for 12 h. IHNV-positive salmon lice generated through water bath exposure or after parasitizing infected Atlantic salmon successfully transmitted IHNV, resulting in 76.5 and 86.6% of the exposed Atlantic salmon testing positive for IHNV, respectively. In a second experiment, only salmon lice that became IHNV-positive through water bath exposure transmitted IHNV to 20% of the naive fish, and no virus was transmitted when IHNV-infected salmon lice were cohabitated but restrained from attaching to naive fish. Under laboratory conditions, adult L. salmonis can acquire IHNV and transmit it to naive Atlantic salmon through parasitism. However, the ephemeral association of IHNV with L. salmonis indicates that the salmon louse act as a mechanical rather than a biological vector or reservoir.

  5. Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production, revealed using EST-sequencing and microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eichner, Christiane; Frost, Petter; Dysvik, Bjarte; Jonassen, Inge; Kristiansen, Bjørn; Nilsen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod feeding on skin, mucus and blood from salmonid hosts. Initial analysis of EST sequences from pre adult and adult stages of L. salmonis revealed a large proportion of novel transcripts. In order to link unknown transcripts to biological functions we have combined EST sequencing and microarray analysis to characterize female salmon louse transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production. Results EST sequence analysis shows that 43% of the ESTs have no significant hits in GenBank. Sequenced ESTs assembled into 556 contigs and 1614 singletons and whenever homologous genes were identified no clear correlation with homologous genes from any specific animal group was evident. Sequence comparison of 27 L. salmonis proteins with homologous proteins in humans, zebrafish, insects and crustaceans revealed an almost identical sequence identity with all species. Microarray analysis of maturing female adult salmon lice revealed two major transcription patterns; up-regulation during the final molting followed by down regulation and female specific up regulation during post molting growth and egg production. For a third minor group of ESTs transcription decreased during molting from pre-adult II to immature adults. Genes regulated during molting typically gave hits with cuticula proteins whilst transcripts up regulated during post molting growth were female specific, including two vitellogenins. Conclusion The copepod L.salmonis contains high a level of novel genes. Among analyzed L.salmonis proteins, sequence identities with homologous proteins in crustaceans are no higher than to homologous proteins in humans. Three distinct processes, molting, post molting growth and egg production correlate with transcriptional regulation of three groups of transcripts; two including genes related to growth, one including genes related to egg production. The function of the regulated transcripts is discussed in

  6. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Two Acetylcholinesterases from the Salmon Louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bakke, Marit Jørgensen; Nilsen, Frank; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important enzyme in cholinergic synapses. Most arthropods have two genes (ace1 and ace2), but only one encodes the predominant synaptic AChE, the main target for organophosphates. Resistance towards organophosphates is widespread in the marine arthropod Lepeophtheirus salmonis. To understand this trait, it is essential to characterize the gene(s) coding for AChE(s). The full length cDNA sequences encoding two AChEs in L. salmonis were molecularly characterized in this study. The two ace genes were highly similar (83.5% similarity at protein level). Alignment to the L. salmonis genome revealed that both genes were located close to each other (separated by just 26.4 kbp on the L. salmonis genome), resulting from a recent gene duplication. Both proteins had all the typical features of functional AChE and clustered together with AChE-type 1 proteins in other species, an observation that has not been described in other arthropods. We therefore concluded the presence of two versions of ace1 gene in L. salmonis, named ace1a and ace1b. Ace1a was predominantly expressed in different developmental stages compared to ace1b and was possibly active in the cephalothorax, indicating that ace1a is more likely to play the major role in cholinergic synaptic transmission. The study is essential to understand the role of AChEs in resistance against organophosphates in L. salmonis. PMID:25938836

  7. Local and systemic gene expression responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to infection with the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Skugor, Stanko; Glover, Kevin Alan; Nilsen, Frank; Krasnov, Aleksei

    2008-01-01

    Background The salmon louse (SL) is an ectoparasitic caligid crustacean infecting salmonid fishes in the marine environment. SL represents one of the major challenges for farming of salmonids, and veterinary intervention is necessary to combat infection. This study addressed gene expression responses of Atlantic salmon infected with SL, which may account for its high susceptibility. Results The effects of SL infection on gene expression in Atlantic salmon were studied throughout the infection period from copepodids at 3 days post infection (dpi) to adult lice (33 dpi). Gene expression was analyzed at three developmental stages in damaged and intact skin, spleen, head kidney and liver, using real-time qPCR and a salmonid cDNA microarray (SFA2). Rapid detection of parasites was indicated by the up-regulation of immunoglobulins in the spleen and head kidney and IL-1 receptor type 1, CD4, beta-2-microglobulin, IL-12β, CD8α and arginase 1 in the intact skin of infected fish. Most immune responses decreased at 22 dpi, however, a second activation was observed at 33 dpi. The observed pattern of gene expression in damaged skin suggested the development of inflammation with signs of Th2-like responses. Involvement of T cells in responses to SL was witnessed with up-regulation of CD4, CD8α and programmed death ligand 1. Signs of hyporesponsive immune cells were seen. Cellular stress was prevalent in damaged skin as seen by highly significant up-regulation of heat shock proteins, other chaperones and mitochondrial proteins. Induction of the major components of extracellular matrix, TGF-β and IL-10 was observed only at the adult stage of SL. Taken together with up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), this classifies the wounds afflicted by SL as chronic. Overall, the gene expression changes suggest a combination of chronic stress, impaired healing and immunomodulation. Steady increase of MMP expression in all tissues except liver was a remarkable feature of SL

  8. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B.; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E.; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:26418738

  9. Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R

    2013-03-01

    The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice.

  10. A screening of multiple classes of pharmaceutical compounds for effect on preadult salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Aaen, S M; Horsberg, T E

    2016-10-01

    The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, is the major obstacle facing a sustainable future for farmers of salmonids in the North Atlantic Ocean. Medicinal compounds have been the most utilized tool to prevent salmon lice infestation; however, the active compounds have become less effective or considered environmentally unfriendly in the past years. Novel medicinal compounds are thus highly desired. In two experiment series, 26 medicinal compounds were screened for their efficacy against salmon lice, in a 30-min exposure and 24-h exposure, respectively. Pyriprole, imidacloprid, cartap and spinetoram were effective at 50 mg L(-1) in the short-time exposure. In the 24-h exposure, pyriprole, propoxur, cartap, imidacloprid, fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen, nitenpyram, spinetoram, spiromesifen and diflubenzuron induced a high level of immobilization at 5 mg L(-1) . The EC50 values of the effective compounds were calculated in further titration studies for both exposure periods. Several physiological and biochemical pathways were discovered as possible targets for medicinal intervention against the salmon louse.

  11. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  12. The abundance and distribution of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) on pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon in coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Simon R M; Hargreaves, N Brent

    2007-12-01

    In total, 23,750 specimens of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, were collected from 3,907 juvenile pink and 3,941 chum salmon caught within the Broughton Archipelago during a 2-yr survey. The prevalence on pink salmon was significantly higher than on chum salmon in 2004 (62.3% and 58.6%, respectively) and in 2005 (26.4% and 23.1%, respectively). The mean abundance on chum salmon was significantly higher than on pink salmon in 2004 (7.0 +/- 0.3 and 2.8 +/- 0.2, respectively), whereas in 2005 the mean abundance did not differ between species (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 0.5 +/- 0.0, respectively). The mean intensity on chum salmon was significantly higher than on pink salmon in 2004 (12.0 +/- 0.4 and 4.5 +/- 0.2, respectively) and in 2005 (2.5 +/- 0.2 and 1.7 +/- 0.1, respectively). The prevalence, intensity, and abundance of L. salmonis were significantly higher on salmon belonging to both host species in 2004 compared with 2005. In both years, a majority of pink and chum salmon had 2 or fewer lice. In general, a decline in abundance of L. salmonis over the 3 collection periods in each year coincided with an increased percentage of motile developmental stages. The abundance was lowest on fish collected from zones in which the seawater surface salinity was also lowest. Seawater surface temperature was higher and salinity was lower in 2004 compared with 2005. The spatial and temporal trends in the abundance of L. salmonis in relation to host size, infestation rates, and seawater salinity and temperature, evident in both years, must be considered in future studies assessing the role of farmed salmon in the epizootiology of this parasite on juvenile salmon in this area.

  13. Contrasting expression of immune genes in scaled and scaleless skin of Atlantic salmon infected with young stages of Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Holm, H Jodaa; Skugor, S; Bjelland, A K; Radunovic, S; Wadsworth, S; Koppang, E O; Evensen, Ø

    2017-02-01

    Atlantic salmon skin tissues with and without scales were taken from two preferred sites of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) attachment, behind the dorsal fin (scaled) and from the top of the head (scaleless), respectively. Tissues were profiled by qPCR of 32 genes to study responses to copepodids, 4 days post infection (dpi), and during the moult of copepodids to the chalimus stage, at 8 dpi. Basal/constitutive differences were found for many immune-related genes between the two skin sites; e.g., mannose binding protein C was over 100 fold higher expressed in the scaled skin from the back in comparison to the skin without scales from the head. With lice-infection, at 4 dpi most genes in both tissues showed lower values than in the non-infected control. By 8 dpi, the majority of responses increased towards the control levels, including cytokines of Th1, Th17 and Th2 pathways. Immunohistochemistry of three immune factors revealed an even distribution of MHC class II positive cells throughout epidermis, including the top layer of keratinocytes, marked compartmentalization of Mx(+) and CD8α(+) cells close to stratum basale, and an increase in numbers of CD8α(+) cells in response to infection. In conclusion, suppression of immune genes during the copepodid stage likely sets off a beneficial situation for the parasite. At the moult to chalimus stage 8 dpi, only few genes surpassed the non-infected control levels, including CD8α. The gene expression pattern was reflected in the increased number of CD8α expressing cells, thus revealing a relatively minor activation of skin T-cell defenses in Atlantic salmon in response to L. salmonis infection.

  14. Iron metabolism modulation in Atlantic salmon infested with the sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi: A matter of nutritional immunity?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Sea lice are copepodid ectoparasites that produce high economic losses and environmental issues, thus impacting the salmon aquaculture worldwide. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from Northern and Southern Hemispheres are primarily parasitized by Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi, respectively. To cope L. salmonis infestation, studies suggest that Atlantic salmon can restrict iron availability as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. However, no molecular studies of iron regulation from salmonids infected with C. rogercresseyi have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in the regulation of iron metabolism in Atlantic salmon infested with L. salmonis or C. rogercresseyi. For comparisons, skin and head kidney were profiled using qPCR of 15 genes related to iron regulation in Atlantic salmons infected with each sea louse species in Norway and Chile, respectively. Prior to infestation, no significant differences were observed between fish group. However, genes involved in iron transport and Heme biosynthesis were highly upregulated in Atlantic salmon infested with L. salmonis. Interestingly, hepcidin and Heme oxygenase, a component of the Heme degradation pathway, were upregulated during C. rogercresseyi infestation. Oxidative stress related genes were also evaluated, showing higher transcription activity in the head kidney than in the skin of Atlantic salmon infested with L. salmonis. These comparative results suggest pathogen-specific responses in infected Atlantic salmon, where iron metabolism is primarily regulated during the infestation with L. salmonis than C. rogercresseyi. Feeding behavior, for instance haematophagy, of the infesting sea lice species in relation to iron modulation is discussed.

  15. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Stephanie J.; Connors, Brendan M.; Krkošek, Martin; Irvine, James R.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host–parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations. PMID:24352951

  16. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed

    Peacock, Stephanie J; Connors, Brendan M; Krkosek, Martin; Irvine, James R; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-02-07

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host-parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations.

  17. Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) showing varying emamectin benzoate susceptibilities differ in neuronal acetylcholine receptor and GABA-gated chloride channel mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Caligid copepods, also called sea lice, are fish ectoparasites, some species of which cause significant problems in the mariculture of salmon, where the annual cost of infection is in excess of €300 million globally. At present, caligid control on farms is mainly achieved using medicinal treatments. However, the continued use of a restricted number of medicine actives potentially favours the development of drug resistance. Here, we report transcriptional changes in a laboratory strain of the caligid Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) that is moderately (~7-fold) resistant to the avermectin compound emamectin benzoate (EMB), a component of the anti-salmon louse agent SLICE® (Merck Animal Health). Results Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) was used to enrich transcripts differentially expressed between EMB-resistant (PT) and drug-susceptible (S) laboratory strains of L. salmonis. SSH libraries were subjected to 454 sequencing. Further L. salmonis transcript sequences were available as expressed sequence tags (EST) from GenBank. Contiguous sequences were generated from both SSH and EST sequences and annotated. Transcriptional responses in PT and S salmon lice were investigated using custom 15 K oligonucleotide microarrays designed using the above sequence resources. In the absence of EMB exposure, 359 targets differed in transcript abundance between the two strains, these genes being enriched for functions such as calcium ion binding, chitin metabolism and muscle structure. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (GABA-Cl) and neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits showed significantly lower transcript levels in PT lice compared to S lice. Using RT-qPCR, the decrease in mRNA levels was estimated at ~1.4-fold for GABA-Cl and ~2.8-fold for nAChR. Salmon lice from the PT strain showed few transcriptional responses following acute exposure (1 or 3 h) to 200 μg L-1 of EMB, a drug concentration tolerated by PT lice, but

  18. Mechanism behind Resistance against the Organophosphate Azamethiphos in Salmon Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Helgesen, Kari Olli; Bakke, Marit Jørgensen; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target for organophosphates (OP). Several mutations have been reported in AChE to be associated with the reduced sensitivity against OP in various arthropods. However, to the best of our knowledge, no such reports are available for Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to determine the association of AChE(s) gene(s) with resistance against OP. We screened the AChE genes (L. salmonis ace1a and ace1b) in two salmon lice populations: one sensitive (n=5) and the other resistant (n=5) for azamethiphos, a commonly used OP in salmon farming. The screening led to the identification of a missense mutation Phe362Tyr in L. salmonis ace1a, (corresponding to Phe331 in Torpedo californica AChE) in all the samples of the resistant population. We confirmed the potential role of the mutation, with reduced sensitivity against azamethiphos in L. salmonis, by screening for Phe362Tyr in 2 sensitive and 5 resistant strains. The significantly higher frequency of the mutant allele (362Tyr) in the resistant strains clearly indicated the possible association of Phe362Tyr mutation in L. salmonis ace1a with resistance towards azamethiphos. The 3D modelling, short term survival experiments and enzymatic assays further supported the imperative role of Phe362Tyr in reduced sensitivity of L. salmonis for azamethiphos. Based on all these observations, the present study, for the first time, presents the mechanism of resistance in L. salmonis against azamethiphos. In addition, we developed a rapid diagnostic tool for the high throughput screening of Phe362Tyr mutation using High Resolution Melt analysis. PMID:25893248

  19. Sexual maturation and administration of 17β-estradiol and testosterone induce complex gene expression changes in skin and increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to ectoparasite salmon louse.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Aleksei; Wesmajervi Breiland, Mette S; Hatlen, Bjarne; Afanasyev, Sergey; Skugor, Stanko

    2015-02-01

    The crustacean ectoparasitic salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a major problem of Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Northern hemisphere. Host-pathogen interactions in this system are highly complex. Resistance to the parasite involves variations in genetic background, nutrition, properties of skin, and status of the endocrine and immune systems. This study addressed the relationship between sex hormones and lice infection. Field observation revealed a sharp reduction of lice prevalence during sexual maturation with no difference between male and female fish. To determine if higher resistance against lice was related to sex hormones, post-smolt salmon were administered control feed and feeds containing 17β-estradiol (20 mg/kg) and testosterone (25 mg/kg) during a 3-week pre-challenge period. After challenge with lice, counts were reduced 2-fold and 1.5-fold in fish that received 17β-estradiol and testosterone, respectively. Gene expression analyses were performed from skin of salmon collected in the field trial and from the controlled lab experiment at three time points (end of feeding-before challenge, 3 days post challenge (dpc) and 16 dpc) using oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR. Differential expression was observed in genes associated with diverse biological processes. Both studies revealed similar changes of several antibacterial acute phase proteins; of note was induction of cathelicidin and down-regulation of a defensin gene. Treatment with hormones revealed their ability to modulate T helper cell (Th)-mediated immunity in skin. Enhanced protection achieved by 17β-estradiol administration might in part be due to the skewing of Th responses away from the prototypic anti-parasitic Th2 immunity and towards the more effective Th1 responses. Multiple genes involved in wound healing, differentiation and remodelling of skin tissue were stimulated during maturation but suppressed with sex hormones. Such opposite regulation suggested that these processes

  20. Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Poley, Jordan D; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Jantzen, Johanna R; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance. PMID:25685190

  1. Effects of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis on temporal changes in cortisol, sex steroids, growth and reproductive investment in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Tveiten, H; Bjørn, P A; Johnsen, H K; Finstad, B; McKinley, R S

    2010-06-01

    Groups of mature (5+ year old) Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus held in sea water were exposed for 34 days to either a high (mean +/-s.e. 0.15 +/- 0.01 sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis g(-1) fish mass) (HI), medium (0.07 +/- 0.00 sea lice g(-1) fish mass) (MI) or no [control (C)] sea-lice infection during early stages of gonad development (June to July). Infection with sea lice resulted in increased plasma cortisol concentrations and this was related to intensity of infection; females tended to have higher cortisol concentrations than males at high infection intensities (HI group: female c. 130 ng ml(-1); male c. 80 ng ml(-1)). Plasma osmolality (C c. 330, MI c. 350 and HI c. 415 mOsm) and chloride concentrations (C c. 135, MI c. 155 and HI c. 190 mM) increased significantly with infection intensity, indicating osmoregulatory problems in infected fish. A strong positive relationship between plasma osmolality and cortisol concentration was recorded. Plasma sex-steroid concentrations were influenced negatively by sea-lice infection, particularly in the HI group, and were inversely related to plasma cortisol concentrations. The most heavily infected fish postponed the initiation of reproductive development until exposed to fresh water and timing of ovulation tended to be delayed in these fish. Growth rate and condition were negatively influenced by sea-lice infection and growth rate was inversely related to plasma cortisol concentrations. Sea-lice infection resulted in mortality among females in the HI group, and the proportion of maturing females was lower in the MI group (46%) than in the controls (85%). Egg production in the MI and HI groups was c. 50 and 30% of the C group. Egg size, embryonic survival and fry mass did not differ across groups. Sea lice influence reproductive development and egg production in S. alpinus, and consequently these parasites may influence populations via sublethal effects on broodfish, affecting growth and condition, and their

  2. Ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) affect behavior and brain serotonergic activity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): Perspectives on animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Øverli, Øyvind; Nordgreen, Janicke; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Janczak, Andrew M; Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida B; Horsberg, Tor E

    2014-06-10

    Scientific research and public debate on the welfare of animals in human custody is increasing at present. Fish are in this context mentioned with particular attention to the high numbers of individuals reared in aquaculture. Research on fish has also contributed to the understanding of individual variation in the ability to cope with stress and disease. One mediator of such variation is the brain serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system, which conveys physiological and behavioral responses to stress and sub-optimal rearing conditions. Here we study links between the 5-HT response, melanin-based skin pigmentation, and behavior in laboratory-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) experimentally infested with ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Lice numbers were more variable in less pigmented fish, while the neurochemical response to ectoparastic lice-increased levels of the main 5-HT catabolite 5-HIAA in the brain stem-did not differ between pigmentation groups. A strong depression of growth and locomotor activity was seen in all infested fish but less pigmented fish grew better than fish with more skin melanization regardless of infestation status. The observed combination of neurochemical and behavioral effects clearly suggest that animal welfare concerns can be added to the list of negative effects of ectoparasitic sea lice.

  3. Large scale modelling of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infection pressure based on lice monitoring data from Norwegian salmonid farms.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Anja B; Jimenez, Daniel; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Grøntvedt, Randi; Stien, Audun; Jansen, Peder A

    2014-12-01

    Infection by parasitic sea lice is a substantial problem in industrial scale salmon farming. To control the problem, Norwegian salmonid farms are not permitted to exceed a threshold level of infection on their fish, and farms are required to monitor and report lice levels on a weekly basis to ensure compliance with the regulation. In the present study, we combine the monitoring data with a deterministic model for salmon lice population dynamics to estimate farm production of infectious lice stages. Furthermore, we use an empirical estimate of the relative risk of salmon lice transmission between farms, that depend on inter-farm distances, to estimate the external infection pressure at a farm site, i.e. the infection pressure from infective salmon lice of neighbouring farm origin. Finally, we test whether our estimates of infection pressure from neighbouring farms as well as internal within farm infection pressure, predicts subsequent development of infection in cohorts of farmed salmonids in their initial phase of marine production. We find that estimated external infection pressure is a main predictor of salmon lice population dynamics in newly stocked cohorts of salmonids. Our results emphasize the importance of keeping the production of infectious lice stages at low levels within local networks of salmon farms. Our model can easily be implemented for real time estimation of infection pressure at the national scale, utilizing the masses of data generated through the compulsory lice monitoring in salmon farms. The implementation of such a system should give the salmon industry greater predictability with respect to salmon lice infection levels, and aid the decision making process when the development of new farm sites are planned.

  4. Gene expression in Atlantic salmon skin in response to infection with the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, cortisol implant, and their combination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Results Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9°C. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and lice equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13). Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Conclusions These results suggest that

  5. Differential rejection of salmon lice by pink and chum salmon: disease consequences and expression of proinflammatory genes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Simon R M; Fast, Mark D; Johnson, Stewart C; Groman, David B

    2007-05-09

    The consequences of high (735 copepodids fish-1) and low (243 copepodids fish-1) level exposures of size-matched juvenile pink and chum salmon to Lepeophtheirus salmonis copepodids were examined. At both levels of exposure the prevalence and abundance of L. salmonis was significantly higher on chum salmon. In addition, the weight of exposed chum salmon following the high exposure was significantly less than that of unexposed chum salmon. At both exposures, the haematocrit of exposed chum salmon was significantly less than that of unexposed chum. Neither weight nor haematocrit of pink salmon was affected by exposures at these levels. Despite the presence of microscopic inflammatory lesions associated with attachment of L. salmonis on the epithelium of gill and fin of both salmon species, there were no mortalities following either exposure. A transient cortisol response was observed in chum salmon 21 d after low exposure. An earlier and quantitatively higher expression of the proinflammatory genes interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor alpha-1 (TNFalpha-1) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in fin and head kidney of pink salmon suggested a mechanism of more rapid louse rejection in this species. Together, these observations indicate a relatively enhanced innate resistance to L. salmonis in the juvenile pink salmon compared with the juvenile chum salmon.

  6. Characterisation of iron regulatory protein 1A and 1B in the blood-feeding copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Tröße, Christiane; Kongshaug, Heidi; Dondrup, Michael; Nilsen, Frank

    2015-10-01

    During its parasitic life stages, the marine ectoparasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis ingests large amounts of host blood, which contains high amounts of iron. Iron is an essential micronutrient, but also toxic in high dosages, and blood-feeding parasites like the salmon louse must thus possess an efficient system to handle the excess iron. Iron regulatory protein 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) are known to play crucial roles in this process, by regulating several proteins involved in iron transport and storage, depending on the cellular iron concentration. To gain knowledge about the regulation of the iron metabolism in salmon lice, two IRP homologues (LsIRP1A and LsIRP1B) were identified by sequence and predicted structure similarity to known IRPs in other species. In situ hybridisation revealed that LsIRP1A and LsIRP1B mRNAs were expressed in the ovaries, oviducts and vitellogenic oocytes of adult females. Transcription levels of LsIRP1A and LsIRP1B mRNAs did not differ significantly between the different developmental stages of the salmon louse. Adults in the absence of blood as a feed source had decreased levels of LsIRP1A, but not LsIRP1B mRNA. RNA binding experiments indicated the presence of functioning IRP in salmon lice. In order to explore the biological functions of LsIRP1A and LsIRP1B, the mRNAs of both proteins were knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) in preadult females. The knockdown was confirmed by qRT-PCR. LsIRP1B knockdown lice produced less offspring than control lice due to slightly shorter egg strings and had decreased levels of transcripts involved in egg development. Knockdown of both LsIRP1A and LsIRP1B caused increased expression of a salmon louse Ferritin (LsFer). These results confirm that salmon lice have two IRP1 homologues, LsIRP1A and LsIRP1B, and might suggest a function in cellular iron regulation in the reproductive organs and eggs.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of the couch potato (CPO) protein reveals an expression pattern associated with early development in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Nuñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska

    2014-02-15

    The couch potato (CPO) protein is a key biomolecule involved in regulating diapause through the RNA-binding process of the peripheral and central nervous systems in insects and also recently discovered in a few crustacean species. As such, ectoparasitic copepods are interesting model species that have no evidence of developmental arrest. The present study is the first to report on the cloning of a putative CPO gene from the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (CrCPO), as identified by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. In addition, the transcription expression in larvae and adults was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. The CrCPO cDNA sequence showed 3261 base pairs (bp), consisting of 713bp of 5' UTR, 1741bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 807bp encoding for 268 amino acids. The highly conserved RNA binding regions RNP2 (LFVSGL) and RNP1 (SPVGFVTF), as well the dimerization site (LEF), were also found. Furthermore, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the untranslated regions and one located in the coding region were detected. Gene transcription analysis revealed that CrCPO has ubiquitous expression across larval stages and in adult individuals, with the highest expression from nauplius to copepodid stages. The present study suggests a putative biological function of CrCPO associated with the development of the nervous system in salmon lice and contributes molecular evidence for candidate genes related to host-parasite interactions.

  8. Morphology and pathology of the ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci ('lobster louse') in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Emma C; Pope, Edward C; Vogan, Claire L; Roberts, Emily C; Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2011-09-01

    Ectoparasitic copepods have been reported in a wide range of aquatic animals, including crustacean shellfish. However, with the exception of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, our knowledge of such parasites in commercial species is rudimentary. The current study examines the morphology and pathology of the parasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse') in its host, the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Lobsters were sampled from waters surrounding Lundy Island (Bristol Channel, UK) and all individuals collected were found to harbour female adult N. astaci in their gills, with a mean of 47·3 parasites/lobster. The majority of N. astaci were found in the basal region of pleurobranch gills. The parasite was found to attach to gill filaments via its oral sucker, maxillae and maxillipeds, and to feed on host haemolymph (blood) through a funnel-like feeding channel. It caused varying degrees of damage to the host gill, including occlusion of gill filaments and disruption to the vascular system in the central axis. Although there was evidence of extensive host response (haemocytic infiltration) to the parasite, it was displaced from the parasite attachment site and thus was observed in the central gill axis below. The region of gill filament immediately underlying the parasite feeding channel was devoid of such activity suggesting that the parasite interferes with the cellular defence and haemostatic mechanisms of the lobster in order to maintain invasion of the host.

  9. Parasitism perturbs the mucosal microbiome of Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn, M. S.; Leadbeater, S.; Garcia, C.; Sylvain, F.-E.; Custodio, M.; Ang, K. P.; Powell, F.; Carvalho, G. R.; Creer, S.; Elliot, J.; Derome, N.

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between parasite, host and host-associated microbiota are increasingly understood as important determinants of disease progression and morbidity. Salmon lice, including the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis and related species, are perhaps the most important problem facing Atlantic Salmon aquaculture after feed sustainability. Salmon lice parasitize the surface of the fish, feeding off mucus, scales and underlying tissue. Secondary bacterial infections are a major source of associated morbidity. In this study we tracked the diversity and composition of Salmo salar skin surface microbiota throughout a complete L. salmonis infection cycle among 800 post-smolts as compared to healthy controls. Among infected fish we observed a significant reduction in microbial richness (Chao1, P = 0.0136), raised diversity (Shannon, P < 7.86e-06) as well as highly significant destabilisation of microbial community composition (Pairwise Unifrac, beta-diversity, P < 1.86e-05; P = 0.0132) by comparison to controls. While undetectable on an individual level, network analysis of microbial taxa on infected fish revealed the association of multiple pathogenic genera (Vibrio, Flavobacterium, Tenacibaculum, Pseudomonas) with high louse burdens. We discuss our findings in the context of ecological theory and colonisation resistance, in addition to the role microbiota in driving primary and secondary pathology in the host. PMID:28266549

  10. Disease Resistance in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): Coinfection of the Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, José A.; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabaño, María J.; Neira, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. Methodology In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. Main Findings C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23±0.07; h2LC = 0.17±0.08; h2HC = 0.24±0.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99±0.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = −0.14±0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32±0.34). Conclusions/Significance C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon

  11. How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J

    2009-10-07

    Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry euro300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management.

  12. How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry €300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management. PMID:19586950

  13. Addition of a selective breeding program for resistance to sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer 1838) to existing lines of Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L., at the USDA's National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sea lice are likely the single most economically costly pathogen that has faced the salmon farming industry over the past 40 years. The most recent economic estimates put the annual cost of sea lice at just under $500 million USD in 2006. This is likely an underestimate of the current costs to indus...

  14. Louse flies on birds of Baja California.

    PubMed

    Tella, J L; Rodríguez-Estrella, R; Blanco, G

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  15. What's eating you? Pediculus humanus (head louse and body louse).

    PubMed

    Elston, D M

    1999-05-01

    Head lice remain a common problem worldwide. As resistance to available therapeutic agents can emerge rapidly, there is a need for continued research to find new and better agents. Until better agents are available, clinicians may find that rotational therapy, using different agents, may help to slow the emergence of resistance. Physical modalities, such as mechanical nit and louse removal and occlusive agents to asphyxiate the lice, should not be ignored, especially in light of our limited therapeutic armamentarium. All therapeutic agents are doomed to failure if infestation is allowed to recur. Classmates, playmates, and family members of infested children should be inspected for head lice. Efforts should be directed at fomite control and nit removal. Louse infestation must be addressed as a community-wide problem. Body lice remain important vectors of disease. War, natural disaster, and poverty favor the spread of body lice. As we work to solve these seemingly eternal problems, we must develop better agents to treat infestation and prevent the spread of body lice.

  16. The life of a head louse.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian

    When children return to school after the summer holiday, cases of head lice appear to increase. Ian Burgess describes the life cycle of the head louse and dispels some of the myths about transmission of this insect. A second article discusses the detection and treatment of head lice.

  17. Atlantic salmon infected with salmon lice are more susceptible to new lice infections.

    PubMed

    Ugelvik, M S; Mo, T; Mennerat, A; Skorping, A

    2017-03-01

    Aggregation is commonly observed for macroparasites, but its adaptive value remains unclear. Heavy infestations intensities may lead to a decrease in some fitness-related traits of parasites (e.g. parasite fecundity or survival). However, to a dioecious parasite, increased aggregation could also increase the chance of finding individuals of the opposite sex. In a laboratory experiment, we tested if previous experience with salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) affected susceptibility of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to later exposure to the same parasite species. We found that currently infected fish got higher intensities of new lice than naive fish. This suggests that hosts already carrying parasites are more susceptible to new lice infections. For this dioecious parasite, such positive density dependence might be adaptive, ensuring successful reproduction under conditions of low lice densities by increasing the probability of both sexes infecting the same host.

  18. Effective treatment of head louse with pediculicides.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y

    2006-05-01

    Of the pediculicides on the market, most are not 100% ovicidal and don't have a residual activity of more than 2 days. Therefore, at least 2 treatments are necessary to control the entire louse population. In order for a pediculicide to be effective it should kill all active stages of the louse after a single treatment. Otherwise remaining lice will continue laying eggs and the following treatments will not be fully effective, at least against the eggs. However, there is no general consensus as to when the second treatment should be conducted. Taking into consideration that head louse eggs hatch between 5 to 11 days, it is suggested that a second treatment should be administered 10 days after the beginning of the treatment. This might also explain why most of the clinical trials that were conducted by treating the patients twice with an interval of 6, 7, or 8 days showed a poor efficacy, and clinical trials where the pediculicide was applied with an interval of 10 days showed an efficacy level of more than 90%.

  19. Human louse-transmitted infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Badiaga, S; Brouqui, P

    2012-04-01

    Several of the infectious diseases associated with human lice are life-threatening, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever, which are caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Bartonella quintana, respectively. Although these diseases have been known for several centuries, they remain a major public health concern in populations living in poor-hygiene conditions because of war, social disruption, severe poverty, or gaps in public health management. Poor-hygiene conditions favour a higher prevalence of body lice, which are the main vectors for these diseases. Trench fever has been reported in both developing and developed countries in populations living in poor conditions, such as homeless individuals. In contrast, outbreaks of epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever have occurred in jails and refugee camps in developing countries. However, reports of a significantly high seroprevalence for epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever in the homeless populations of developed countries suggest that these populations remain at high risk for outbreaks of these diseases. Additionally, experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated that the body louse can transmit other emerging or re-emerging pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Yersinia pestis. Therefore, a strict survey of louse-borne diseases and the implementation of efficient delousing strategies in these populations should be public health priorities.

  20. Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A; Volpe, John P

    2005-04-07

    Marine salmon farming has been correlated with parasitic sea lice infestations and concurrent declines of wild salmonids. Here, we report a quantitative analysis of how a single salmon farm altered the natural transmission dynamics of sea lice to juvenile Pacific salmon. We studied infections of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) as they passed an isolated salmon farm during their seaward migration down two long and narrow corridors. Our calculations suggest the infection pressure imposed by the farm was four orders of magnitude greater than ambient levels, resulting in a maximum infection pressure near the farm that was 73 times greater than ambient levels and exceeded ambient levels for 30 km along the two wild salmon migration corridors. The farm-produced cohort of lice parasitizing the wild juvenile hosts reached reproductive maturity and produced a second generation of lice that re-infected the juvenile salmon. This raises the infection pressure from the farm by an additional order of magnitude, with a composite infection pressure that exceeds ambient levels for 75 km of the two migration routes. Amplified sea lice infestations due to salmon farms are a potential limiting factor to wild salmonid conservation.

  1. Deltamethrin resistance in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxhall and Bravo) in Chile: bioassay results and usage data for antiparasitic agents with references to Norwegian conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgesen, K O; Bravo, S; Sevatdal, S; Mendoza, J; Horsberg, T E

    2014-10-01

    The sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi is a major threat to Chilean salmonid farming. Pyrethroids have been used for anticaligus treatments since 2007, but have shown reduced effect, most likely due to resistance development. Pyrethroid resistance is also a known problem in Lepeophtheirus salmonis in the Northern Hemisphere. This study describes the development of deltamethrin resistance in C. rogercresseyi based on bioassays and usage data for pyrethroids in Chilean aquaculture. These results were compared to bioassays from L. salmonis from Norway and to Norwegian usage data. Available deltamethrin bioassay results from 2007 and 2008, as well as bioassays from Norway, were collected and remodelled. Bioassays were performed on field-collected sea lice in region X in Chile in 2012 and 2013. Bioassays from 2007 were performed prior to the introduction of pyrethroids to the Chilean market. Both the results from 2008 and 2012 showed an increased resistance. Increased pyrethroid resistance was also indicated by the increased use of pyrethroids in Chilean aquaculture compared with the production of salmonids. A similar trend was seen in the Norwegian usage data. The bioassay results from Chile from 2012 and 2013 also indicated a difference in the susceptibility to deltamethrin between male and female caligus.

  2. Scratching an ancient itch: an Eocene bird louse fossil.

    PubMed Central

    Wappler, Torsten; Smith, Vincent S; Dalgleish, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    Out of the 30 extant orders of insects, all but one, the parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera), have a confirmed fossil record. Here, we report the discovery of what appears to be the first bird louse fossil: an exceptionally well-preserved specimen collected from the crater of the Eckfeld maar near Manderscheid, Germany. The 44-million-year-old specimen shows close phylogenetic affinities with modern feather louse ectoparasites of aquatic birds. Preservation of feather remnants in the specimen's foregut confirms its association as a bird ectoparasite. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the specimen and palaeoecological data, we suggest that this louse was the parasite of a large ancestor to modern Anseriformes (swans, geese and ducks) or Charadriiformes (shorebirds). The crown group position of this fossil in the phylogeny of lice confirms the group's long coevolutionary history with birds and points to an early origin for lice, perhaps inherited from early-feathered theropod dinosaurs. PMID:15503987

  3. Prevalence and clustering of louse infestation in Queensland sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Ward, M P; Armstrong, R T

    1999-04-12

    Information provided by wool growers in Queensland, Australia between 1995 and 1997 was used to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of louse (Bovicola ovis) infestation in sheep flocks. The estimated prevalence of louse-infested flocks was 40% (95% confidence interval, 35-46%). Although the prevalence of infestation was higher in western regions (41-50%) compared to the south region of Queensland (31%), the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Significant (P = 0.02) clustering of infested flocks was detected in the south region where two foci were apparent. We conclude that Queensland sheep flocks have a moderate prevalence of louse infestation, and that clustering of infestation is not strong. The control of lice is an industry-wide issue that needs to be addressed by most wool growers in Queensland.

  4. Prediction of the peptidomes of Tigriopus californicus and Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-05-15

    Transcriptome mining is a powerful method for crustacean peptide discovery, especially when large sequence datasets are available and an appropriate reference is extant. Recently, a 206,041-sequence transcriptome for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was mined for peptide-encoding transcripts, with ones for 17 families/subfamilies identified. Here, the deduced Calanus pre/preprohormones were used as templates for peptide discovery in the copepods Tigriopus californicus and Lepeophtheirus salmonis; large transcriptome shotgun assembly datasets are publicly accessible for both species. Sixty-five Tigriopus and 17 Lepeophtheirus transcripts, encompassing 22 and 13 distinct peptide families/subfamilies, respectively, were identified, with the structures of 161 and 70 unique mature peptides predicted from the deduced precursors. The identified peptides included members of the allatostatin A, allatostatin C, bursicon α, bursicon β, CAPA/periviscerokinin/pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, FLRFamide, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, and tachykinin-related peptide families, most of which possess novel structures, though isoforms from other copepods are known. Of particular note was the discovery of novel isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatotropin, corazonin, eclosion hormone and intocin, peptide families previously unidentified in copepods. In addition, Tigriopus precursors for two previously unknown peptide groups were discovered, one encoding GSEFLamides and the other DXXRLamides; precursors for the novel FXGGXamide family were identified from both Tigriopus and Lepeophtheirus. These data not only greatly expand the catalog of known copepod peptides, but also provide strong foundations for future functional studies of peptidergic signaling in members of this ecologically important crustacean subclass.

  5. Salmon Mapper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the web application to assist pesticide users' with an understanding of the spatial extent of certain pesticide use limitations to protect endangered or threatened salmon and steelhead in California, Oregon and Washington.

  6. A model for studying isolation mechanisms in parasite populations: the genus Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda, Caligidae).

    PubMed

    De Meeus, T; Renaud, F; Gabrion, C

    1990-05-01

    In the Mediterranean, the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus thompsoni Baird, 1850 specifically infests turbot (Psetta maxima L., 1758), whereas L. europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut, and Gabrion, 1988 infests brill (Scophthalmus rhombus L., 1758) and flounder (Platichthys flesus L., 1758). Experimental infestation of turbot by copepods from each of the three fish species showed an absence of any physiological incompatibility preventing natural development of the two parasite species, at least on one host species, i.e., the turbot. Moreover, interspecific hybrids were obtained experimentally, which implies that 1) there is no strict genetic barrier between the two species and 2) the natural prezygotic isolation results from a choice of the most favorable habitat. We discuss the origin and possible consequences of the presence, in the Mediterranean, of L. europaensis on brill and flounder, two hosts separated by their taxonomic status and ecobiology.

  7. Utilization of the human louse genome to study insecticide resistance and innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. Marshall; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Si Hyeock; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2015-01-01

    Since sequencing the human body louse genome, substantial advances have occurred in the utilization of the information gathered from louse genomes and transcriptomes. Comparatively, the body louse genome contains far fewer genes involved in environmental response, such as xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune response. Additionally, the body louse maintains a primary bacterial endosymbiont, Candidatus Riesia pediculicola, and a number of bacterial pathogens that it vectors, which have genomes that are also reduced in size. Thus, human louse genomes offer unique information and tools for use in advancing our understanding of coevolution among vectors, endosymbionts and pathogens. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the extent of pediculicide resistance, the availability of new pediculicides and information establishing this organism as an efficient model to study how xenobiotic metabolism, which is involved in insecticide resistance, is induced and how insects modify their innate immune response upon bacterial challenge resulting in enhanced vector competence. PMID:25987230

  8. Salmon's Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…

  9. Prohibitin-2 gene reveals sex-related differences in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Farlora, Rodolfo; Nuñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-06-10

    Prohibitins are evolutionarily conserved proteins present in multiple cellular compartments, and are involved in diverse cellular processes, including steroid hormone transcription and gametogenesis. In the present study, we report for the first time the characterization of the prohibitin-2 (Phb2) gene in the sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi. The CrPhb2 cDNA showed a total length of 1406 bp, which contained a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 894 base pairs (bp) encoding for 298 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignments of prohibitin proteins from other arthropods revealed a high degree of amino acid sequence conservation. In silico Illumina read counts and RT-qPCR analyses showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels exhibiting a 1.7-fold (RT-qPCR) increase in adult females compared with adult males. A total of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, three were located in the 5' UTR of the Phb2 messenger and six in the ORF, but no mutations associated with sex were found. These results contribute to expand the present knowledge of the reproduction-related genes in C. rogercresseyi, and may be useful in future experiments aimed at controlling the impacts of sea lice in fish farming.

  10. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  11. Uncovering iron regulation with species-specific transcriptome patterns in Atlantic and coho salmon during a Caligus rogercresseyi infestation.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Boltaña, S; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2017-01-11

    Salmon species cultured in Chile evidence different levels of susceptibility to the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. These differences have mainly been associated with specific immune responses. Moreover, iron regulation seems to be an important mechanism to confer immunity during the host infestation. This response called nutritional immunity has been described in bacterial infections, despite that no comprehensive studies involving in marine ectoparasites infestation have been reported. With this aim, we analysed the transcriptome profiles of Atlantic and coho salmon infected with C. rogercresseyi to evidence modulation of the iron metabolism as a proxy of nutritional immune responses. Whole transcriptome sequencing was performed in samples of skin and head kidney from Atlantic and coho salmon infected with sea lice. RNA-seq analyses revealed significant upregulation of transcripts in both salmon species at 7 and 14 dpi in skin and head kidney, respectively. However, iron regulation transcripts were differentially modulated, evidencing species-specific expression profiles. Genes related to heme degradation and iron transport such as hepcidin, transferrin and haptoglobin were primary upregulated in Atlantic salmon; meanwhile, in coho salmon, genes associated with heme biosynthesis were strongly transcribed. In summary, Atlantic salmon, which are more susceptible to infestation, presented molecular mechanisms to deplete cellular iron availability, suggesting putative mechanisms of nutritional immunity. In contrast, resistant coho salmon were less affected by sea lice, mainly activating pro-inflammatory mechanisms to cope with infestation.

  12. Lousy mums: patterns of vertical transmission of an amphibious louse.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, M S; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we document patterns of vertical transmission of the amphibious louse Antarctophthirus microchir (Echinophthiriidae) in pups of South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, from Patagonia. Vertical transmission is fundamental for the long-term stability of A. microchir populations because only pups stay long enough (1 month) on land for the louse to reproduce. A total of 72 pups ≤7 days old from a single rookery were captured and examined for lice. Infection parameters and population structure of A. microchir did not differ among pups collected at the beginning, middle, and end of the reproductive season, suggesting that patterns of early vertical transmission are not affected by the increase of rookery size during this period. Over 60% of 1-day-old pups were infected with A. microchir, and recruitment increased in pups up to 3 days old and then leveled off. In 1-day-old pups, significantly more adults than nymphs were found, but the pattern was reversed in older pups. The number of first-stage nymphs was significantly smaller than that of second- and third-stage nymphs, as it was the number of males vs. females, particularly in 1-day-old pups. Three non-exclusive hypotheses could account for these patterns, i.e., recruitment merely reflects the population structure of A. microchir is cows; the relative ability of lice to pass from cows onto pups increases in advanced instars; and/or natural selection favors transmission of adults, especially females, because they accrue greater fitness. The importance of latter hypothesis should not be underestimated in a species with a tight reproductive schedule.

  13. Pyrethroid tolerance in the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F; Wall, R

    2012-08-13

    Equine pediculosis is a significant health and welfare issue, particularly in elderly and chronically debilitated animals. Currently infestation is controlled predominantly using topically applied pyrethroid insecticides, allowing limited scope for the rotation of drugs and increasing the risk of selection for resistance. Here the insecticidal efficacies of two pyrethroid-based products against the louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys were examined in vitro. The products were cypermethrin (Deosect™, Pfizer Ltd., 5% (w/v) cypermethrin, cutaneous spray) and permethrin (Switch™, VetPlus Ltd., 4% (w/v) permethrin, pour-on). The pyrethroid efficacy was contrasted with that of the organophosphate diazinon, since the louse populations examined were unlikely to have had prior exposure to this compound. The efficacy of diluted pure permethrin, the excipient, butyl dioxitol and the synergist piperonyl butoxide in the presence of the pyrethroids, were also considered. At the concentrations recommended for animal application, neither 4% (w/v) permethrin, nor 0.1% (w/v) cypermethrin had any significant effect on the mortality of B. ocellatus and neither induced significantly more mortality than an acetone-only control. In contrast, 0.04% diazinon caused 70% mortality within 4h and 100% mortality after 24h exposure. The addition of a potential pyrethroid synergist, piperonyl butoxide, in combination with cypermethrin and permethrin, resulted in no significant increase in mortality. It is concluded that the population of lice tested display a high level of pyrethroid tolerance which is likely to reflect the development of resistance. Twenty-four hours after routine treatment of 10 donkeys with a pour-on permethrin product (Switch™, VetPlus Ltd., 4% (w/v) permethrin, pour-on) hair tufts taken from their flanks were not significantly insecticidal compared with hair from the midline application site, implying a low level of insecticide distribution

  14. [The mathematical modelling of the processes in the natural multiplication of human lice (exemplified by the head louse population].

    PubMed

    Boev, B V; Barabash, V K; Tarasevich, I V

    1991-01-01

    Methods of mathematical modelling and prediction of louse propagation processes in the natural habitation medium are presented. Theoretical and experimental data on head louse ecology served the basis for the elaboration of a mathematical model predicting the population dynamics. The model structure corresponds to 3 stages of louse development cycle (eggs, larva, lice) and parameters corresponding to natural characteristics of louse propagation process: mean lifespan of each individual during each phase of the cycle, age, fertility and so forth. The model helped to study some properties of the population, assess maximum rate of head louse population growth, detect threshold effects, establish the effects of coefficients, limiting the number of louse per unit of the body surface. The model made it possible to formulate necessary data (distribution functions) for the creation of the mathematical model of Pediculosis.

  15. Parasites and hepatic lesions among pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), during early seawater residence.

    PubMed

    Saksida, S M; Marty, G D; Jones, S R M; Manchester, H A; Diamond, C L; Bidulka, J; St-Hilaire, S

    2012-02-01

    Juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), in the Broughton Archipelago region of western Canada were surveyed over 2 years for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi), gross and microscopic lesions and evidence of infections with viruses and bacteria. The 1071 fish examined had an approximate ocean residence time no longer than 3 months. A high prevalence of degenerative liver lesions, renal myxosporean parasites and a low prevalence of skin lesions and sea lice were observed. No indications of viral or bacterial diseases were detected in either year. The monthly prevalence of sea lice in 2007 (18-51%) was higher than in 2008 (1-26%), and the infestation density exceeded the lethal threshold in only two fish. Degenerative hepatic lesions and renal myxosporean parasites occurred in approximately 40% of the pink salmon examined in June of both years, and the peak monthly prevalence of hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was greater in 2007 (32%, in May) than in 2008 (12%, in June). Logistic regression analysis found skin lesions and hepatocellular hydropic degeneration significantly associated with sea lice. Most parasites and lesions occurred during both years, but the prevalence was often higher in 2007. Fish weight was 35% less in June 2007 than in June 2008, but condition factor was not different. Further research is required to monitor inter-annual variations and aetiology of the liver lesions and to assess their potential role on pink salmon survival.

  16. Sea lice infestations on juvenile chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada, from 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Krkosek, Martin; Jones, Simon R M; Revie, Crawford W

    2013-07-22

    Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta were sampled by beach or purse seine to assess levels of sea lice infestation in the Knight Inlet and Broughton Archipelago regions of coastal British Columbia, Canada, during the months of March to July from 2003 to 2012. Beach seine data were analyzed for sea lice infestation that was described in terms of prevalence, abundance, intensity, and intensity per unit length. The median annual prevalence for chum was 30%, ranging from 14% (in 2008 and 2009) to 73% (in 2004), while for pink salmon, the median was 27% and ranged from 10% (in 2011) to 68% (in 2004). Annual abundance varied from 0.2 to 5 sea lice per fish with a median of 0.47 for chum and from 0.1 to 3 lice (median 0.42) for pink salmon. Annual infestation followed broadly similar trends for both chum and pink salmon. However, the abundance and intensity of Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi, the 2 main sea lice species of interest, were significantly greater on chum than on pink salmon in around half of the years studied. Logistic regression with random effect was used to model prevalence of sea lice infestation for the combined beach and purse seine data. The model suggested inter-annual variation as well as a spatial clustering effect on the prevalence of sea lice infestation in both chum and pink salmon. Fish length had an effect on prevalence, although the nature of this effect differed according to host species.

  17. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to ...

  18. It's a Salmon's Life!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

  19. Louse- and flea-borne rickettsioses: biological and genomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Sobral, Bruno S.; Azad, Abdu F.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to 15 or more validated and/or proposed tick-borne spotted fever group species, only three named medically important rickettsial species are associated with insects. These insect-borne rickettsiae are comprised of two highly pathogenic species, Rickettsia prowazekii (the agent of epidemic typhus) and R. typhi (the agent of murine typhus), as well as R. felis, a species with unconfirmed pathogenicity. Rickettsial association with obligate hematophagous insects such as the human body louse (R. prowazekii transmitted by Pediculus h. humanus) and several flea species (R. typhi and R. felis, as well as R. prowazekii in sylvatic form) provides rickettsiae the potential for further multiplications, longer transmission cycles and rapid spread among susceptible human populations. Both human body lice and fleas are intermittent feeders capable of multiple blood meals per generation, facilitating the efficient transmission of rickettsiae to several disparate hosts within urban/rural ecosystems. While taking into consideration the existing knowledge of rickettsial biology and genomic attributes, we have analyzed and summarized the interacting features that are unique to both the rickettsiae and their vector fleas and lice. Furthermore, factors that underlie rickettsial changing ecology, where native mammalian populations are involved in the maintenance of rickettsial cycle and transmission, are discussed. PMID:19036234

  20. Using Agent-Based Modelling to Predict the Role of Wild Refugia in the Evolution of Resistance of Sea Lice to Chemotherapeutants.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Gregor F; Groner, Maya L; Fast, Mark D; Gettinby, George; Revie, Crawford W

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge for Atlantic salmon farming in the northern hemisphere is infestation by the sea louse parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis. The most frequent method of controlling these sea louse infestations is through the use of chemical treatments. However, most major salmon farming areas have observed resistance to common chemotherapeutants. In terrestrial environments, many strategies employed to manage the evolution of resistance involve the use of refugia, where a portion of the population is left untreated to maintain susceptibility. While refugia have not been deliberately used in Atlantic salmon farming, wild salmon populations that migrate close to salmon farms may act as natural refugia. In this paper we describe an agent-based model that explores the influence of different sizes of wild salmon populations on resistance evolution in sea lice on a salmon farm. Using the model, we demonstrate that wild salmon populations can act as refugia that limit the evolution of resistance in the sea louse populations. Additionally, we demonstrate that an increase in the size of the population of wild salmon results in an increased effect in slowing the evolution of resistance. We explore the effect of a population fitness cost associated with resistance, finding that in some cases it substantially reduces the speed of evolution to chemical treatments.

  1. Control of the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus in donkeys, using essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2013-12-01

    Infestations by lice can be a significant clinical and welfare issue in the management of large animals. The limited range of commercial pediculicides available and the development of resistance have led to the need to explore alternative louse management approaches. The results of in vitro and in vivo trials undertaken to control populations of the donkey chewing louse, Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) using the essential oils of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) are reported here. Results of contact and vapour bioassays showed that 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oils resulted in > 80% louse mortality after 2 h of exposure. On farms, separate groups of 10 donkeys sprayed with 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oil as part of their usual grooming regime showed significant reductions in louse numbers compared with a control group (0.2% polysorbate 80 in water). These findings indicate that tea tree and lavender essential oils can provide clinically useful levels of control of B. ocellatus when used as part of a grooming routine and suggest that with further development could form the basis of an easy to apply and valuable component of a louse management programme for donkeys.

  2. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo

    PubMed Central

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area. PMID:26451147

  3. Field efficacy of eprinomectin against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys.

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galietti, Alfredo; Mariani, Ugo; Di Loria, Antonio; Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; Guccione, Jacopo; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPR) against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on fifteen animals. On day 0, donkeys received EPR pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended cattle dose. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. EPR was completely effective (100%) from day 7, until the end of the study. Clinically no adverse reactions were observed in any of donkeys treated. EPR was considered to be 100% effective against H. asini. This is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of EPR against a natural louse infestation in donkeys.

  4. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo.

    PubMed

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area.

  5. Genome sequences of the human body louse and its primary endosymbiont provide insights into the permanent parasitic lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Kirkness, Ewen F.; Haas, Brian J.; Sun, Weilin; Braig, Henk R.; Perotti, M. Alejandra; Clark, John M.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Robertson, Hugh M.; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Elhaik, Eran; Gerlach, Daniel; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.; Elsik, Christine G.; Graur, Dan; Hill, Catherine A.; Veenstra, Jan A.; Walenz, Brian; Tubío, José Manuel C.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Rozas, Julio; Johnston, J. Spencer; Reese, Justin T.; Popadic, Aleksandar; Tojo, Marta; Raoult, Didier; Reed, David L.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Kraus, Emily; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Margam, Venu M.; Li, Hong-Mei; Meyer, Jason M.; Johnson, Reed M.; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; VanZee, Janice Pagel; Alvarez-Ponce, David; Vieira, Filipe G.; Aguadé, Montserrat; Guirao-Rico, Sara; Anzola, Juan M.; Yoon, Kyong S.; Strycharz, Joseph P.; Unger, Maria F.; Christley, Scott; Lobo, Neil F.; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Wang, NaiKuan; Dasch, Gregory A.; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Madey, Greg; Hannick, Linda I.; Bidwell, Shelby; Joardar, Vinita; Caler, Elisabet; Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C.; Cameron, Stephen; Bruggner, Robert V.; Regier, Allison; Johnson, Justin; Viswanathan, Lakshmi; Utterback, Terry R.; Sutton, Granger G.; Lawson, Daniel; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Venter, J. Craig; Strausberg, Robert L.; Collins, Frank H.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2010-01-01

    As an obligatory parasite of humans, the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) is an important vector for human diseases, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Here, we present genome sequences of the body louse and its primary bacterial endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola. The body louse has the smallest known insect genome, spanning 108 Mb. Despite its status as an obligate parasite, it retains a remarkably complete basal insect repertoire of 10,773 protein-coding genes and 57 microRNAs. Representing hemimetabolous insects, the genome of the body louse thus provides a reference for studies of holometabolous insects. Compared with other insect genomes, the body louse genome contains significantly fewer genes associated with environmental sensing and response, including odorant and gustatory receptors and detoxifying enzymes. The unique architecture of the 18 minicircular mitochondrial chromosomes of the body louse may be linked to the loss of the gene encoding the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein. The genome of the obligatory louse endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola encodes less than 600 genes on a short, linear chromosome and a circular plasmid. The plasmid harbors a unique arrangement of genes required for the synthesis of pantothenate, an essential vitamin deficient in the louse diet. The human body louse, its primary endosymbiont, and the bacterial pathogens that it vectors all possess genomes reduced in size compared with their free-living close relatives. Thus, the body louse genome project offers unique information and tools to use in advancing understanding of coevolution among vectors, symbionts, and pathogens. PMID:20566863

  6. Uncovering deep mysteries: the underwater life of an amphibious louse.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Maria Soledad; Aznar, F Javier; Crespo, Enrique A; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2014-12-01

    Despite the incredible success of insects in colonizing almost every habitat, they remain virtually absent in one major environment--the open sea. A variety of hypotheses have been raised to explain why just a few insect species are present in the ocean, but none of them appears to be fully explanatory. Lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are ectoparasites on different species of pinnipeds and river otters, i.e. they have amphibious hosts, who regularly perform long excursions into the open sea reaching depths of hundreds of meters (thousands of feets). Consequently, lice must be able to support not only changes in their surrounding media, but also extreme variations in hydrostatic pressure as well as breathing in a low oxygen atmosphere. In order to shed some light on the way lice can survive during the diving excursions of their hosts, we have performed a series of experiments to test the survival capability of different instars of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) from South American sea lions Otaria flavescens, when submerged into seawater. These experiments were aimed at analyzing: (a) immersion tolerance along the louse life; (b) lice's ability to obtain oxygen from seawater; (c) physiological responses and mechanisms involved in survival underwater. Our experiments showed that the forms present in non-diving pups--i.e. eggs and first-instar nymphs--were unable to tolerate immersion in water, while following instars and adults, all usually found in diving hosts, supported it very well. Furthermore, as long as the level of oxygen dissolved in water was higher, the lice survival capability underwater increased, and the recovery period after returning to air declined. These results are discussed in relation to host ecology, host exploitation and lice functional morphology.

  7. [Cosmus Conrad Cuno (1652-1745) on a human ectoparasite: the head louse].

    PubMed

    Müller, G H

    1979-07-01

    Cosmus Conrad Cuno, a less well known optician and inventor of microscopes from the second half of the 17th century, published in 1734 at Augsburg his Observationes durch dessen verfertigte Microscopia where along with various observations he communicated salient details pertaining to the biology of the head louse.

  8. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions.

  9. Genotyping of Human Lice Suggests Multiple Emergences of Body Lice from Local Head Louse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Ortiz, Gabriel; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Gimenez, Gregory; Reed, David L.; Pittendrigh, Barry; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus) does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. Methods and Findings By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa (where a large body louse outbreak has been observed) and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. Conclusions We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice), to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in human populations

  10. Saving the Salmon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprangers, Donald

    2004-01-01

    In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require…

  11. Host behaviour drives parasite genetics at multiple geographic scales: population genetics of the chewing louse, Thomomydoecus minor.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sheree E; Spradling, Theresa A; Demastes, James W; Calhoun, Courtney S

    2015-08-01

    Pocket gophers and their symbiotic chewing lice form a host-parasite assemblage known for a high degree of cophylogeny, thought to be driven by life history parameters of both host and parasite that make host switching difficult. However, little work to date has focused on determining whether these life histories actually impact louse populations at the very fine scale of louse infrapopulations (individuals on a single host) at the same or at nearby host localities. We used microsatellite and mtDNA sequence data to make comparisons of chewing-louse (Thomomydoecus minor) population subdivision over time and over geographic space where there are different potential amounts of host interaction surrounding a zone of contact between two hybridizing pocket-gopher subspecies. We found that chewing lice had high levels of population isolation consistent with a paucity of horizontal transmission even at the very fine geographic scale of a single alfalfa field. We also found marked genetic discontinuity in louse populations corresponding with host subspecies and little, if any, admixture in the louse genetic groups even though the lice are closely related. The correlation of louse infrapopulation differentiation with host interaction at multiple scales, including across a discontinuity in pocket-gopher habitat, suggests that host behaviour is the primary driver of parasite genetics. This observation makes sense in light of the life histories of both chewing lice and pocket gophers and provides a powerful explanation for the well-documented pattern of parallel cladogenesis in pocket gophers and chewing lice.

  12. The control of sea lice in Atlantic salmon by selective breeding.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Karim; Matthews, Louise; Bron, James; Roberts, Ron; Tinch, Alan; Stear, Michael

    2015-09-06

    Sea lice threaten the welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon and the sustainability of fish farming across the world. Chemical treatments are the major method of control but drug resistance means that alternatives are urgently needed. Selective breeding can be a cheap and effective alternative. Here, we combine experimental trials and diagnostics to provide a practical protocol for quantifying resistance to sea lice. We then combined quantitative genetics with epidemiological modelling to make the first prediction of the response to selection, quantified in terms of reduced need for chemical treatments. We infected over 1400 young fish with Lepeophtheirus salmonis, the most important species in the Northern Hemisphere. Mechanisms of resistance were expressed early in infection. Consequently, the number of lice per fish and the ranking of families were very similar at 7 and 17 days post infection, providing a stable window for assessing susceptibility to infection. The heritability of lice numbers within this time window was moderately high at 0.3, confirming that selective breeding is viable. We combined an epidemiological model of sea lice infection and control on a salmon farm with genetic variation in susceptibility among individuals. We simulated 10 generations of selective breeding and examined the frequency of treatments needed to control infection. Our model predicted that substantially fewer chemical treatments are needed to control lice outbreaks in selected populations and chemical treatment could be unnecessary after 10 generations of selection. Selective breeding for sea lice resistance should reduce the impact of sea lice on fish health and thus substantially improve the sustainability of Atlantic salmon production.

  13. The control of sea lice in Atlantic salmon by selective breeding

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Karim; Matthews, Louise; Bron, James; Roberts, Ron; Tinch, Alan; Stear, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sea lice threaten the welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon and the sustainability of fish farming across the world. Chemical treatments are the major method of control but drug resistance means that alternatives are urgently needed. Selective breeding can be a cheap and effective alternative. Here, we combine experimental trials and diagnostics to provide a practical protocol for quantifying resistance to sea lice. We then combined quantitative genetics with epidemiological modelling to make the first prediction of the response to selection, quantified in terms of reduced need for chemical treatments. We infected over 1400 young fish with Lepeophtheirus salmonis, the most important species in the Northern Hemisphere. Mechanisms of resistance were expressed early in infection. Consequently, the number of lice per fish and the ranking of families were very similar at 7 and 17 days post infection, providing a stable window for assessing susceptibility to infection. The heritability of lice numbers within this time window was moderately high at 0.3, confirming that selective breeding is viable. We combined an epidemiological model of sea lice infection and control on a salmon farm with genetic variation in susceptibility among individuals. We simulated 10 generations of selective breeding and examined the frequency of treatments needed to control infection. Our model predicted that substantially fewer chemical treatments are needed to control lice outbreaks in selected populations and chemical treatment could be unnecessary after 10 generations of selection. Selective breeding for sea lice resistance should reduce the impact of sea lice on fish health and thus substantially improve the sustainability of Atlantic salmon production. PMID:26289656

  14. Bio-ecology of the louse, Upupicola upupae, infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, G P; Ahmad, Aftab; Rashmi, Archna; Arya, Gaurav; Bansal, Nayanci; Saxena, A K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The population characteristics of the louse, Upupicola upupae (Shrank) (Mallophaga: Philopteridae: Ishnocera), infesting the Common Hoopae, Upupa epops L. (Aves: Upupiformes), were recorded during 2007-08 in District Rampur, Uttar Pradesh India. The pattern of frequency distribution of the louse conformed to the negative binomial model. The lice and its nits were reared in vitro at 35 ± 1° C, 75-82 % RH, on a feather diet. The data obtained was used to construct the life table and to determine the intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.035 female/day), the net reproductive rate was 3.67 female eggs/female, the generation time was 37 days, and the doubling time of the population was 19 days. The chaetotaxy of the three nymphal instars has also been noted to record their diagnostic characteristics. Information on egg morphology and antennal sensilla is also presented.

  15. Bio-Ecology of the Louse, Upupicola upupae, Infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, G. P; Ahmad, Aftab; Rashmi, Archna; Arya, Gaurav; Bansal, Nayanci; Saxena, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The population characteristics of the louse, Upupicola upupae (Shrank) (Mallophaga: Philopteridae: Ishnocera), infesting the Common Hoopae, Upupa epops L. (Aves: Upupiformes), were recorded during 2007–08 in District Rampur, Uttar Pradesh India. The pattern of frequency distribution of the louse conformed to the negative binomial model. The lice and its nits were reared in vitro at 35 ± 1° C, 75–82 % RH, on a feather diet. The data obtained was used to construct the life table and to determine the intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.035 female/day), the net reproductive rate was 3.67 female eggs/female, the generation time was 37 days, and the doubling time of the population was 19 days. The chaetotaxy of the three nymphal instars has also been noted to record their diagnostic characteristics. Information on egg morphology and antennal sensilla is also presented. PMID:21861650

  16. Do nit removal formulations and other treatments loosen head louse eggs and nits from hair?

    PubMed

    Burgess, I F

    2010-03-01

    Eggs of the head louse, Pediculus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), are difficult to remove because the female louse fixes them to hairs using a proteinaceous secretion that hardens within seconds. The persistent eggshells are harmless but unsightly and are often mistaken for an active infestation. Combing with a fine comb (nit comb) does not readily remove the eggs or empty eggshells because of the resilience of the fixative and both folk remedies and medical products have claimed to facilitate their removal. Measurement of the force required to initiate sliding of the egg fixative using a slip-peel tester was unable to detect evidence that any of three products which claimed to have egg-loosening properties (Step 2 Nit Removal System, Clear Lice Egg Remover, RID Lice Egg Loosener Gel) had any activity or exerted any effect on the egg fixative beyond the lubricating effects conveyed by water or conventional hair conditioner.

  17. A new species and an annotated world list of the sucking louse genus Neohaematopinus (Anoplura: Polyplacidae).

    PubMed

    Durden, L A

    1991-09-01

    A new species of sucking louse, Neohaematopinus sundasciuri, collected from the tree squirrel, Sundasciurus juvencus, is described from Palawan Island, Philippines. An updated world list of the genus Neohaematopinus is presented; this documents descriptive citations, known hosts, and geographical distributions with interpretive annotations for each of the 32 species now included in the genus. The geographical distributions of Neohaematopinus sciuri and N. sciurinus are discussed.

  18. Treatment of head louse infestation with 4% dimeticone lotion: randomised controlled equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian F; Brown, Christine M; Lee, Peter N

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4% dimeticone lotion for treatment of head louse infestation. Design Randomised controlled equivalence trial. Setting Community, with home visits. Participants 214 young people aged 4 to 18 years and 39 adults with active head louse infestation. Interventions Two applications seven days apart of either 4.0% dimeticone lotion, applied for eight hours or overnight, or 0.5% phenothrin liquid, applied for 12 hours or overnight. Outcome measures Cure of infestation (no evidence of head lice after second treatment) or reinfestation after cure. Results Cure or reinfestation after cure occurred in 89 of 127 (70%) participants treated with dimeticone and 94 of 125 (75%) treated with phenothrin (difference -5%, 95% confidence interval -16% to 6%). Per protocol analysis showed that 84 of 121 (69%) participants were cured with dimeticone and 90 of 116 (78%) were cured with phenothrin. Irritant reactions occurred significantly less with dimeticone (3/127, 2%) than with phenothrin (11/125, 9%; difference -6%, -12% to -1%). Per protocol this was 3 of 121 (3%) participants treated with dimeticone and 10 of 116 (9%) treated with phenothrin (difference -6%, -12% to -0.3%). Conclusion Dimeticone lotion cures head louse infestation. Dimeticone seems less irritant than existing treatments and has a physical action on lice that should not be affected by resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. PMID:15951310

  19. Identification and Functional Expression of a Glutamate- and Avermectin-Gated Chloride Channel from Caligus rogercresseyi, a Southern Hemisphere Sea Louse Affecting Farmed Fish

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Marabolí, Vanessa; González-Nilo, F. Danilo; Teulon, Jacques; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Cid, L. Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic sea lice represent a major sanitary threat to marine salmonid aquaculture, an industry accounting for 7% of world fish production. Caligus rogercresseyi is the principal sea louse species infesting farmed salmon and trout in the southern hemisphere. Most effective control of Caligus has been obtained with macrocyclic lactones (MLs) ivermectin and emamectin. These drugs target glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) and act as irreversible non-competitive agonists causing neuronal inhibition, paralysis and death of the parasite. Here we report the cloning of a full-length CrGluClα receptor from Caligus rogercresseyi. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiological assays show that CrGluClα is activated by glutamate and mediates chloride currents blocked by the ligand-gated anion channel inhibitor picrotoxin. Both ivermectin and emamectin activate CrGluClα in the absence of glutamate. The effects are irreversible and occur with an EC50 value of around 200 nM, being cooperative (nH = 2) for ivermectin but not for emamectin. Using the three-dimensional structure of a GluClα from Caenorabditis elegans, the only available for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, we have constructed a homology model for CrGluClα. Docking and molecular dynamics calculations reveal the way in which ivermectin and emamectin interact with CrGluClα. Both drugs intercalate between transmembrane domains M1 and M3 of neighbouring subunits of a pentameric structure. The structure displays three H-bonds involved in this interaction, but despite similarity in structure only of two these are conserved from the C. elegans crystal binding site. Our data strongly suggest that CrGluClα is an important target for avermectins used in the treatment of sea louse infestation in farmed salmonids and open the way for ascertaining a possible mechanism of increasing resistance to MLs in aquaculture industry. Molecular modeling could help in the design of new, more efficient

  20. Dispersal of Udonella australis (Monogenea: Udonellidae) between caligid copepods Caligus rogercresseyi and Lepeophtheirus mugiloidis on Chilean rock cod.

    PubMed

    Marin, Sandra L; Carvajal, Juan; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2007-04-01

    Udonella australis is a platyhelminth that lives on the surface of the ectoparasite copepods Caligus rogercresseyi and Lepeophtheirus mugiloidis, which coexist on the Chilean rock cod Eleginops maclovinus. The absence of a planktonic oncomiracidium stage in the life cycle of udonellids may limit their dispersal ability. However, the high prevalence and intensity of U. australis on C. rogercresseyi suggest they have developed dispersal strategies to compensate for the lack of a free-living larval stage. The goals of this study were to determine the main dispersal mechanisms of U. australis in 1 copepod species and to compare the dispersal ability of U. australis between 2 different copepod species. Chilean rock cods were infected with female (without udonellids) and male (with and without udonellids) C. rogercresseyi. Other fishes were also infected with this copepod (with U. australis) and with L. mugiloidis (without U. australis). The dispersal of udonellids among copepods occurs through both intraspecific and interspecific processes. The main dispersal mechanism appears to be copepod mating; contact between same-sex individuals is less important. Intraspecific dispersal seems to be more dependent on the number of udonellids per fish than on copepod abundance, as observed for interspecific dispersal.

  1. PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

  2. First report of family infestation with pubic louse (Pthirus pubis; Insecta: Anoplura: Pthiridae) in Iran--a case report.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, R; Limoee, M; Ahaki, A R

    2013-03-01

    The sucking lice including the head, body and pubic louse infest humans and so they are of high hygienic importance. Pubic lice are transmitted during sexual contact in adults. Thus, infestation of children with pubis louse is very rare. A case of infestation with pubic louse (Pthirus pubis) in a family in Kashan was seen. On examination of family members, the parasites were collected and observed under the light microscope. Infestation of eyelashes with P. pubis lice was confirmed. Since this parasite can be observed on the skin, infestation with this louse has always been one of the concerns of human communities. Pthiriasis has frequently been reported in many parts of the world; however, there are few reports on this infestation in Iran, especially familial infestation with this louse. Hence, this article could be the first report on the familial infestation with P. pubis in Iran and it can be suggested that infestation with pubic lice occurs in sporadic form in all over the country.

  3. Transcriptome immunomodulation of in-feed additives in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar infested with sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Pino-Marambio, Jorge; Wadsworth, Simon; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-11-01

    One of the most significant threats to the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry is the ectoparasitic sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. To cope with sea lice infestations, functional diets have become an important component in strengthening the host immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate molecular mechanisms activated through immunostimulation by in-feed plant-derived additives in Atlantic salmon infected with sea lice. Herein, a transcriptome-wide sequencing analysis was performed from skin and head kidney tissues, evidencing that the immune response genes were the most variable after the challenge, especially in the head kidney, while other genes involved in metabolism were highly expressed individuals fed with the immunostimulants. Interestingly, defensive enzymes such as Cytochrome p450 and serpins were down-regulated in infested individuals, especially in skin tissue. Additionally, MHC-I and MHC-II genes were differentially expressed after the incorporation of the in-feed additives, giving some cues about the protection mechanisms of plant-derived compound as immunostimulants for infested salmons. This is the first published study that evaluates the transcriptomic response of sea lice-infested Atlantic salmon fed with in-feed additives.

  4. Host specificity and genealogy of the louse Polyplax serrata on field mice, Apodemus species: a case of parasite duplication or colonisation?

    PubMed

    Stefka, Jan; Hypsa, Václav

    2008-05-01

    The genealogy, population structure and population dynamics of the sucking louse Polyplax serrata were analysed across four host species of the genus Apodemus. An analysis of 126 sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I using phylogenetic approaches and haplotype networking revealed a clear structure of European samples, forming three distinct and genetically distant clades with different host specificities. Although a clear connection was detected between the host and parasite genealogies/phylogenies, a uniform pattern of co-speciation was not found. For example, a dramatic shift in the degree of host specificity was demonstrated for two related louse lineages living in sympatry and sharing one of their host species. While one of the louse lineages frequently parasitised two different host taxa (Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis), the other louse lineage was strictly specific to A. flavicollis. The estimate of divergence time between the two louse lineages indicates that they may have arisen due to parasite duplication on A. flavicollis.

  5. Can head louse repellents really work? Field studies of piperonal 2% spray

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christine M.; Burgess, Nazma A.; Kaufman, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Background. Many families find regular checking of children’s heads for head louse infestation too onerous and would prefer to be able to prevent infestation by use of a topical application that deters lice from infesting the head. Identification in the laboratory of a repellent activity for piperonal provided the basis for developing a spray product to repel lice. Methods. A proof of principle field study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, compared the effect of using 2% piperonal spray with that of a placebo in 105 children and adults from three communities with infestation levels close to 100%. All participants were treated for infestation and subsequent incidence of reinfestation monitored daily by investigators. A second randomised, controlled, double blind, study in North London, UK, evaluated the effect of the product in normal use. One hundred and sixty-three children from schools with a high level (20–25%) of infestation were treated and confirmed louse free and randomly divided between 2% piperonal, a placebo spray, and a control group for up to 22 weeks. Parents applied the spray and monitored for infestation. Regular investigator visits confirmed the parental monitoring and replenished supplies of spray. Results. In Dhaka, over 18 days there were only 4 infestations in the piperonal group and 8 in the placebo group. This difference was not significant (p = 0.312). In North London, there were 41 cases of infestation over the course of the study. Although there were fewer infestations in the piperonal group, analysis of time to first infestation showed a no significant (p = 0.4368) difference between groups. Conclusion. Routine use of 2% piperonal spray in communities with a high prevalence of head louse infestation may provide some protection from infestation. However, the difference between use of the product and no active intervention was sufficiently small that regular checking for presence of lice is likely to be a more practical and cost effective approach

  6. Two Bacterial Genera, Sodalis and Rickettsia, Associated with the Seal Louse Proechinophthirus fluctus (Phthiraptera: Anoplura)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Julie M.; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema; Sweet, Andrew D.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Reed, David L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Roughly 10% to 15% of insect species host heritable symbiotic bacteria known as endosymbionts. The lice parasitizing mammals rely on endosymbionts to provide essential vitamins absent in their blood meals. Here, we describe two bacterial associates from a louse, Proechinophthirus fluctus, which is an obligate ectoparasite of a marine mammal. One of these is a heritable endosymbiont that is not closely related to endosymbionts of other mammalian lice. Rather, it is more closely related to endosymbionts of the genus Sodalis associated with spittlebugs and feather-chewing bird lice. Localization and vertical transmission of this endosymbiont are also more similar to those of bird lice than to those of other mammalian lice. The endosymbiont genome appears to be degrading in symbiosis; however, it is considerably larger than the genomes of other mammalian louse endosymbionts. These patterns suggest the possibility that this Sodalis endosymbiont might be recently acquired, replacing a now-extinct, ancient endosymbiont. From the same lice, we also identified an abundant bacterium belonging to the genus Rickettsia that is closely related to Rickettsia ricketsii, a human pathogen vectored by ticks. No obvious masses of the Rickettsia bacterium were observed in louse tissues, nor did we find any evidence of vertical transmission, so the nature of its association remains unclear. IMPORTANCE Many insects are host to heritable symbiotic bacteria. These heritable bacteria have been identified from numerous species of parasitic lice. It appears that novel symbioses have formed between lice and bacteria many times, with new bacterial symbionts potentially replacing existing ones. However, little was known about the symbionts of lice parasitizing marine mammals. Here, we identified a heritable bacterial symbiont in lice parasitizing northern fur seals. This bacterial symbiont appears to have been recently acquired by the lice. The findings reported here provide insights

  7. Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

    2010-01-01

    Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

  8. Louse-borne bacterial pathogens in lice (Phthiraptera) of rodents and cattle from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Szumlas, Daniel E; Moriarity, John R; Loftis, Amanda D; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-04-01

    We collected 1,023 lice, representing 5 species, from rats and domestic cattle throughout 13 governorates in Egypt and tested these lice for Anaplasma marginale, Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Borrelia recurrentis, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia spp. by PCR amplification and sequencing. Five different louse-borne bacterial agents were detected in lice from rodents or cattle, including "Bartonella rattimassiliensis", "B. phoceensis", and Bartonella sp. near Bartonella tribocorum, Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia typhi. More lice from governorates bordering the Mediterranean and Red Seas contained pathogens. Our data indicate that lice of urban and domestic animals harbor pathogenic or potentially pathogenic bacterial agents throughout Egypt.

  9. Louse-borne relapsing fever in Finland in two asylum seekers from Somalia.

    PubMed

    Hytönen, Jukka; Khawaja, Tamim; Grönroos, Juha O; Jalava, Anna; Meri, Seppo; Oksi, Jarmo

    2017-01-01

    We report two cases of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in young Somali asylum seekers having recently arrived to Finland. They had sought medical attention for a febrile illness. Blood smears were examined for suspected malaria, but instead, spirochete shaped bacteria were observed. The bacteria were confirmed as Borrelia recurrentis by PCR and sequencing. The patients survived, but their treatment was complicated by Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. We conclude that LBRF must be considered as a diagnostic option in febrile refugees also in the northernmost parts of Europe.

  10. Genomic prediction in an admixed population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Ødegård, Jørgen; Moen, Thomas; Santi, Nina; Korsvoll, Sven A.; Kjøglum, Sissel; Meuwissen, Theo H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reliability of genomic selection (GS) models was tested in an admixed population of Atlantic salmon, originating from crossing of several wild subpopulations. The models included ordinary genomic BLUP models (GBLUP), using genome-wide SNP markers of varying densities (1–220 k), a genomic identity-by-descent model (IBD-GS), using linkage analysis of sparse genome-wide markers, as well as a classical pedigree-based model. Reliabilities of the models were compared through 5-fold cross-validation. The traits studied were salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) resistance (LR), measured as (log) density on the skin and fillet color (FC), with respective estimated heritabilities of 0.14 and 0.43. All genomic models outperformed the classical pedigree-based model, for both traits and at all marker densities. However, the relative improvement differed considerably between traits, models and marker densities. For the highly heritable FC, the IBD-GS had similar reliability as GBLUP at high marker densities (>22 k). In contrast, for the lowly heritable LR, IBD-GS was clearly inferior to GBLUP, irrespective of marker density. Hence, GBLUP was robust to marker density for the lowly heritable LR, but sensitive to marker density for the highly heritable FC. We hypothesize that this phenomenon may be explained by historical admixture of different founder populations, expected to reduce short-range lice density (LD) and induce long-range LD. The relative importance of LD/relationship information is expected to decrease/increase with increasing heritability of the trait. Still, using the ordinary GBLUP, the typical long-range LD of an admixed population may be effectively captured by sparse markers, while efficient utilization of relationship information may require denser markers (e.g., 22 k or more). PMID:25484890

  11. Transcriptional responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to deltamethrin, alone or in combination with azamethiphos.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Ørnsrud, Robin; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Steine, Nils; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen

    2014-05-01

    Recently, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fish farmers have applied a combination of deltamethrin and azamethiphos in high-concentration and short-duration immersion treatment to improve protection against sea-lice (Lepeophtheirus sp.). In this work we aimed to study the effects of deltamethrin, alone or in combination with azamethiphos, on the transcription of stress and detoxification marker genes. Atlantic salmon kept at 12°C (one group was also kept at 4-5°C) were treated with deltamethrin alone or in combination with azamethiphos for a total of 40min, and gill and liver tissue harvested for transcriptional analysis 2 and 24h post treatment. No lethality was observed during the experiment. The result showed that deltamethrin, alone or in combination with azamethiphos, affected the transcriptional levels of several oxidative stress markers, including MnSOD (SOD2) and HSP70 (HSPA8) in the liver, and GPX1, CAT, MnSOD, HSP70 and GSTP1 in the gills. Significant responses for CASP3B, BCLX, IGFBP1B and ATP1A1 (Na-K-ATPase a1b) by some of the treatments suggest that the pharmaceutical drugs may affect apoptosis, growth and ion regulation mechanisms. In fish kept at 4-5°C, different effects were observed, suggesting a temperature-dependent response. In conclusion, the observed responses indicate that short-term exposure to deltamethrin has a profound effect on transcription of the evaluated markers in gills and liver of fish. Co-treatment with azamethiphos appears to have small mitigating effects on the transcriptional response caused by deltamethrin exposure alone.

  12. Selective breeding program for sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer 1838) at the USDA's National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sea lice are likely the most economically costly pathogen that has faced the salmon farming industry over the past 40 years. Recent economic estimates put the annual cost of sea lice at $742 million USD in 2012. With the rise of resistance to multiple drugs used to treat sea lice, there has been a s...

  13. Role of Endotoxin in the Pathogenesis of Louse-borne Relapsing Fever and in the Mechanism of the Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction Following Treatment of Louse-borne Relapsing Fever

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever is an acute febrile illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia recurrentis and transmitted to man by infected body lice...shown to contain lipopolysaccharide (46), but extracted spirochetal lipopolysaccharides contained no pyrogenic activity for rabbits (47). Borreliae have...investigators. Mergenhagen et al extracted lipopolysaccharides from Borrelia vincentii, B. buccalis, and small oral treponemes and found them to be

  14. Identification of Different Bartonella Species in the Cattle Tail Louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in Cattle Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  15. Arrestant Effect of Human Scalp Components on Head Louse (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, Isabel; Ceferino Toloza, Ariel; Gonzalez-Audino, Paola; Inés Picollo, María

    2016-12-23

    Relevant evidence has shown that parasites process host-related information using chemical, visual, tactile, or auditory cues. However, the cues that are involved in the host-parasite interaction between Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767) and humans have not been identified yet. In this work, we studied the effect of human scalp components on the behavior of adult head lice. Filter paper segments were rubbed on volunteers' scalps and then placed in the experimental arena, where adult head lice were individually tested. The movement of the insects was recorded for each arena using the software EthoVision. Average movement parameters were calculated for the treatments in the bioassays such as total distance, velocity, number of times a head louse crossed between zones of the arena, and time in each zone of the arena. We found that scalp components induced head lice to decrease average locomotor activity and to remain arrested on the treated paper. The effect of the ageing of human scalp samples in the response of head lice was not statistically significant (i.e., human scalp samples of 4, 18, 40, and 60 h of ageing did not elicit a significant change in head louse behavior). When we analyzed the effect of the sex in the response of head lice to human scalp samples, males demonstrated significant differences. Our results showed for the first time the effect of host components conditioning head lice behavior. We discuss the role of these components in the dynamic of head lice infestation.

  16. Chlorpyrifos for control of the short-nosed cattle louse, Haematopinus eurysternus (Nitzsch) (Anoplura, Haematopinidae) during winter.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M A; Schaalje, G B

    1985-01-01

    Two groups (A and C) of range cows were treated in February with chlorpyrifos (16 mL Dursban 44/cow) for the control of heavy infestations of the short-nosed cattle louse. Group A was treated in 1977 and group C in 1979 and each treated group was compared with a separate untreated group. Some of the treated cows were identified as carriers of louse infestation (subgroups A1 and C1), while others were noncarriers (subgroups A2 and C2). The maximum level of reduction in louse populations was 99% at week 4 posttreatment in subgroup A1, 99% from weeks 2-16 posttreatment in subgroup A2, 92% at week 3 posttreatment in subgroup C1 and 100% at weeks 15-17 in subgroup C2. Clinically, the treated cows, which were anemic at the time of treatment, recovered from anemia during the posttreatment period of 25 weeks for group A and 17 weeks for group C. Remission of anemia also occurred in the two untreated groups, possibly because of natural summer decline in louse population. The treatment had no effect on the whole blood cholinesterase of the cows and the treated cows showed no signs of organophosphorous toxicity. PMID:2416414

  17. Presence and effects of the dog louse Trichodectes canis (Mallophaga, Trichodectidae) on wolves and coyotes from Minnesota and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Thiel, R.P.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The dog louse was found on 19 wolves (Canis lupus) and six coyotes (C. latrans) from Minnesota and Wisconsin during the July-February, 1973 through 1983, period. No evidence was found that lice had any serious effect on wolf survival.

  18. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  19. Aniakchak sockeye salmon investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamon, Troy R.; Pavey, Scott A.; Miller, Joe L.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve provides unusual and dramatic landscapes shaped by numerous volcanic eruptions, a massive flood, enormous landslides, and ongoing geological change. The focal point of the monument is Aniakchak Caldera, a restless volcano that embodies the instability of the Alaska Peninsula. This geological instability creates a dynamic and challenging environment for the biological occupants of Aniakchak and unparalleled opportunities for scientists to measure the adaptability of organisms and ecosystems to change. The sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) is one member of the Aniakchak ecosystem that has managed to adapt to geologic upheaval and is now thriving in the park. Aside from just surviving in the harsh environment, these salmon are also noteworthy for providing essential marinederived nutrients to plants and animals and as a source of food for historic and present day people in the region.

  20. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  1. SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  2. WILD SALMON RESTORATION: IS IT WORTH IT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...

  3. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1954-01-01

    A variety of bacteria has been found responsible for outbreaks of disease in salmon in sea water. The most important of these is a species of Vibrio. Tuberculosis has been found in adult chinook salmon and the evidence indicates that the disease was contracted at sea.

  4. Diphyllobothriasis after eating raw salmon.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J W; Bass, J W; Demers, D M; Myers, G B

    1997-07-01

    An 11-year-old boy in Hawaii passed mucus and a moving object in his stool. The object was identified as a segment of the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium species which is not indigenous to Hawaii. Diphyllobothrium ova were also found in the stool. The only raw fish he recalled eating in previous months were tuna sushi and lomi-lomi salmon which usually contains raw but previously frozen salmon. Of these two fish, only salmon which is not native to Hawaiian waters, has been incriminated as a significant source of diphyllobothrium fish tapeworm infection. Freezing kills this parasite, however, we speculate that the raw fish in the lomi-lomi salmon that our patient had eaten had not been pre-frozen or was not adequately pre-frozen. Eating raw salmon without certainty that it has been adequately pre-frozen carries the risk of diphyllobothriasis or fish tapeworm infection.

  5. Arbovirus of Marine Mammals: a New Alphavirus Isolated from the Elephant Seal Louse, Lepidophthirus macrorhini

    PubMed Central

    La Linn, May; Gardner, Joy; Warrilow, David; Darnell, Grant A.; McMahon, Clive R.; Field, Ian; Hyatt, Alex D.; Slade, Robert W.; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    A novel alphavirus was isolated from the louse Lepidophthirus macrorhini, collected from southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, on Macquarie Island, Australia. The virus displayed classic alphavirus ultrastructure and appeared to be serologically different from known Australasian alphaviruses. Nearly all Macquarie Island elephant seals tested had neutralizing antibodies against the virus, but no virus-associated pathology has been identified. Antarctic Division personnel who have worked extensively with elephant seals showed no serological evidence of exposure to the virus. Sequence analysis illustrated that the southern elephant seal (SES) virus segregates with the Semliki Forest group of Australasian alphaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of known alphaviruses suggests that alphaviruses might be grouped according to their enzootic vertebrate host class. The SES virus represents the first arbovirus of marine mammals and illustrates that alphaviruses can inhabit Antarctica and that alphaviruses can be transmitted by lice. PMID:11287559

  6. Transmission ratio distortion in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    McMeniman, C J; Barker, S C

    2006-01-01

    We studied inheritance at three microsatellite loci in eight F, and two F2 families of the body (clothes) louse of humans, Pediculus humanus. The alleles of heterozygous female-parents were always inherited in a Mendelian fashion in these families. Alleles from heterozygous male-parents, however, were inherited in two different ways: (i) in a Mendelian fashion and (ii) in a non-Mendelian fashion, where males passed to their offspring only one of their two alleles, that is, 100% nonrandom transmission. In male body lice, where there was non-Mendelian inheritance, the paternally inherited set of alleles was eliminated. We interpret this pattern of inheritance as evidence for extreme transmission ratio distortion of paternal alleles in this species.

  7. A remarkable new genus and a new species of chewing louse (Phthiraptera, Ischnocera, Philopteridae) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Michel P.; Cicchino, Armando C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus of chewing louse as Bobdalgleishia, and its type species Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus sp. n. (Phthiraptera) belonging to the Brueelia-complex (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) are described. Adults of the new species are fully described, illustrated and compared morphologically with the type species of Motmotnirmus Mey & Barker, 2014, which is its closest relative. The type host of Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus is a subspecies of the great jacamar Jacamerops aureus ridgwayi Todd, 1943, an endemic Amazonian bird distributed in northern Brazil, and the type locality is the State of Pará. Bobdalgleishia is a remarkable genus with unique morphological and chaetotaxic characters which readily separate it from other members of the Brueelia-complex, in particular by having the first two marginal temporal and ocular setae very long. PMID:26798280

  8. Comparisons of host specificity in feather louse genera (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) parasitizing gulls (Aves: Laridae: Larus).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Ayaka; Yao, Izumi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    Data from gene sequences and morphological structures were collected for the gull feather lice, Saemundssonia lari, Quadraceps punctatus, and Q. ornatus, parasitizing Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus. Saemundssonia lari was collected from both gull species, and no detectable morphological and genetic differences were found between lice collected from the two different hosts. In contrast, Q. punctatus was only collected from L. crassirostris, whereas Q. ornatus was only collected from L. schistisagus. The two Quadraceps species were genetically highly divergent, and body-size differences corresponding to the gull's body size (Harrison's rule) were also detected between them. Both Quadraceps species were collected from the interbarb of the remex or rectrix, and a match in body size between the louse and the interbarb space may be important in escape from host preening defenses. In contrast, Saemundssonia is a head louse, inhabiting the finer feathers of the head and neck, which the bird cannot preen. A close match to host body size may be less important for lice in the head microhabitat. The differences in the pattern of host-specificity between Saemundssonia and Quadraceps on the two focal host species of this study were probably due to their different microhabitat preferences. More broadly, comparisons of the gene sequences of S. lari and Q. punctatus to those from other gull hosts showed that genetically almost undifferentiated populations of both species were distributed on wide range of gull species. Frequent interspecific hybridization of gulls is one possible factor that may allow these lice to maintain gene flow across multiple host species.

  9. Bovicola tibialis (Phthiraptera:Trichodectidae): occurrence of an exotic chewing louse on cervids in North America.

    PubMed

    Mertins, James W; Mortenson, Jack A; Bernatowicz, Jeffrey A; Hall, P Briggs

    2011-01-01

    Through a recent (2003-2007) survey of ectoparasites on hoofed mammals in western North America, a literature review, and examination of archived museum specimens, we found that the exotic deer-chewing louse, Bovicola tibialis (Piaget), is a long-term, widespread resident in the region. The earliest known collection was from Salt Spring Island, Canada, in 1941. We found these lice on the typical host, that is, introduced European fallow deer (Dama dama L.), and on Asian chital (Axis axis [Erxleben] ), native Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus [Richardson] ), and Rocky Mountain mule deer (O. h. hemionus [Rafinesque]) x black-tailed deer hybrids. Chital and the hybrid deer are new host records. All identified hosts were known to be or probably were exposed to fallow deer. Geographic records include southwestern British Columbia, Canada; Marin and Mendocino Counties, California; Deschutes, Lincoln, and Linn Counties, Oregon; Yakima and Kittitas Counties, Washington; Curry County, New Mexico; and circumstantially, at least, Kerr County, Texas. All but the Canadian and Mendocino County records are new. Bovicola tibialis displays a number of noteworthy similarities to another exotic deer-chewing louse already established in the region, that is, Damalinia (Cervicola) sp., which is associated with a severe hair-loss syndrome in black-tailed deer. We discuss longstanding problems with proper identification of B. tibialis, the probability that it occurs even more widely in the United States, and the prospects for it to cause health problems for North American deer. Additional information gathered since our active survey establishes further new distribution and host records for B. tibialis.

  10. SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  11. Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-04

    The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

  12. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Guanaco Louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps: Insights into the Ancestral Mitochondrial Karyotype of Sucking Lice (Anoplura, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Barker, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been reported in 11 species of sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) that infest humans, chimpanzees, pigs, horses, and rodents. There is substantial variation among these lice in mt karyotype: the number of minichromosomes of a species ranges from 9 to 20; the number of genes in a minichromosome ranges from 1 to 8; gene arrangement in a minichromosome differs between species, even in the same genus. We sequenced the mt genome of the guanaco louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps, to help establish the ancestral mt karyotype for sucking lice and understand how fragmented mt genomes evolved. The guanaco louse has 12 mt minichromosomes; each minichromosome has 2–5 genes and a non-coding region. The guanaco louse shares many features with rodent lice in mt karyotype, more than with other sucking lice. The guanaco louse, however, is more closely related phylogenetically to human lice, chimpanzee lice, pig lice, and horse lice than to rodent lice. By parsimony analysis of shared features in mt karyotype, we infer that the most recent common ancestor of sucking lice, which lived ∼75 Ma, had 11 minichromosomes; each minichromosome had 1–6 genes and a non-coding region. As sucking lice diverged, split of mt minichromosomes occurred many times in the lineages leading to the lice of humans, chimpanzees, and rodents whereas merger of minichromosomes occurred in the lineage leading to the lice of pigs and horses. Together, splits and mergers of minichromosomes created a very complex and dynamic mt genome organization in the sucking lice. PMID:28164215

  13. First record of chewing louse Heterodoxus spiniger (Insecta, Phthiraptera, Boopidae) on stray dogs from northern region of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sultan, K; Khalafalla, R E

    2014-06-01

    Heterodoxus spiniger is a rare chewing louse; infest dogs and occasionally cats with expanding geographical distribution. This preliminary report is aimed to record infestation of stray dogs in Kafr El-Sheikh city, Egypt by H. spiniger. Two dogs out of 10 were naturally infected with H. spiniger. This report is the first to demonstrate H. spiniger infestation on dogs in northern regions of Nile-delta of Egypt.

  14. Comparison of manual and semi-automatic DNA extraction protocols for the barcoding characterization of hematophagous louse flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-López, Rafael; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Gangoso, Laura; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-06-01

    The barcoding of life initiative provides a universal molecular tool to distinguish animal species based on the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the subunit 1 of the cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene. Obtaining good quality DNA for barcoding purposes is a limiting factor, especially in studies conducted on small-sized samples or those requiring the maintenance of the organism as a voucher. In this study, we compared the number of positive amplifications and the quality of the sequences obtained using DNA extraction methods that also differ in their economic costs and time requirements and we applied them for the genetic characterization of louse flies. Four DNA extraction methods were studied: chloroform/isoamyl alcohol, HotShot procedure, Qiagen DNeasy(®) Tissue and Blood Kit and DNA Kit Maxwell(®) 16LEV. All the louse flies were morphologically identified as Ornithophila gestroi and a single COI-based haplotype was identified. The number of positive amplifications did not differ significantly among DNA extraction procedures. However, the quality of the sequences was significantly lower for the case of the chloroform/isoamyl alcohol procedure with respect to the rest of methods tested here. These results may be useful for the genetic characterization of louse flies, leaving most of the remaining insect as a voucher.

  15. Sockeye salmon evolution, ecology, and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann

    2007-01-01

    This collection of articles and photographs gives managers a good idea of recent research into what the sockeye salmon is and does, covering such topics as the vulnerability and value of sockeye salmon ecotypes, their homing ability, using new technologies to monitor reproduction, DNA and a founder event in the Lake Clark sockeye salmon, marine-derived nutrients, the exploitation of large prey, dynamic lake spawning migrations by females, variability of sockeye salmon residence, expression profiling using cDNA microarray technology, learning from stable isotropic records of native otolith hatcheries, the amount of data needed to manage sockeye salmon and estimating salmon "escapement." 

  16. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook... River salmon (except reaches above impassable natural falls, and Dworshak and Hells Canyon...

  17. Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C.R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

  18. An Extraordinary Host-Specific Sex Ratio in an Avian Louse (Phthiraptera: Insecta)--Chemical Distortion?

    PubMed

    Douglas, H D; Malenke, J R

    2015-08-01

    Distortions of sex ratios and sexual traits from synthetic chemicals have been well documented; however, there is little evidence for such phenomena associated with naturally occurring chemical exposures. We reasoned that chemical secretions of vertebrates could contribute to skewed sex ratios in ectoparasitic insects due to differences in susceptibility among the sexes. For example, among ectoparasitic lice the female is generally the larger sex. Smaller males may be more susceptible to chemical effects. We studied sex ratios of lice on two sympatric species of colonial seabirds. Crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) secrete a strong smelling citrus-like odorant composed of aldehydes while a closely related congener the least auklet (Aethia pusilla) lacks these compounds. Each auklet hosts three species of lice, two of which are shared in common. We found that the sex ratio of one louse species, Quadraceps aethereus (Giebel), was highly skewed on crested auklets 1:69 (males: females), yet close to unity on least auklets (1:0.97). We suggest that a host-specific effect contributes to this difference, such as the crested auklet's chemical odorant.

  19. Use of temperature and water immersion to control the human body louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Friger, M; Cohen, R

    2006-07-01

    Physical methods such as high and low temperatures were used in the past for the control of human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Anoplura: Pediculidae). In the current study, the minimum time necessary to kill all lice after exposing them to temperatures other than those described in the literature, the mortality of lice after immersing them in water, and the survival of lice whose legs were amputated were studied. All lice died after 6 d at 6 degrees C, after 11 d at 24 degrees C, and after 9 d at 31 degrees C. At -17 degrees C, all lice were dead after 35 min, whereas at -70 degrees C, all lice were dead after 1 min. All lice died after immersion in water within 19 h. The differences in mortality were significant but borderline between controls and lice whose two legs were amputated immediately or 24 h after feeding (3.3 versus 13.3% and 8.3 versus 21.7%). For lice whose leg was amputated 48 h after feeding, significant differences were found between controls and lice with one amputated leg (13.3 versus 48.3%), between controls and lice with two amputated legs (13.3 versus 68.3%), and between lice with one and two amputated legs (48.3 versus 68.3%).

  20. Salmon lice increase the age of returning Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Vollset, Knut Wiik; Barlaup, Bjørn Torgeir; Skoglund, Helge; Normann, Eirik Straume; Skilbrei, Ove Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The global increase in the production of domestic farmed fish in open net pens has created concerns about the resilience of wild populations owing to shifts in host–parasite systems in coastal ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of increased parasite abundance on life-history traits in wild fish populations. Here, we report the results of two separate studies in which 379 779 hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts were treated (or not) against salmon lice, marked and released. Adults were later recaptured, and we specifically tested whether the age distribution of the returning spawners was affected by the treatment. The estimates of parasite-induced mortality were 31.9% and 0.6% in the River Vosso and River Dale stock experiments, respectively. Age of returning salmon was on average higher in treated versus untreated fish. The percentages of fish returning after one winter at sea were 37.5% and 29.9% for the treated and untreated groups, respectively. We conclude that salmon lice increase the age of returning salmon, either by affecting their age at maturity or by disproportionately increasing mortality in fish that mature early. PMID:24478199

  1. Identification of the sex chromosome pair in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Phillips, R B; DeKoning, J; Morasch, M R; Park, L K; Devlin, R H

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a probe to the male-specific GH-Y (growth hormone pseudogene) was used to identify the Y chromosome in the karyotypes of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The sex chromosome pair is a small acrocentric chromosome pair in chum salmon and the smallest metacentric chromosome pair in pink salmon. Both of these chromosome pairs are morphologically different from the sex chromosome pairs in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The 5S rRNA genes are on multiple chromosome pairs including the sex chromosome pair in chum salmon, but at the centromeres of two autosomal metacentric pairs in pink salmon. The sex chromosome pairs and the chromosomal locations of the 5S rDNA appear to be different in all five of the North American Pacific salmon species and rainbow trout. The implications of these results for evolution of sex chromosomes in salmonids are discussed.

  2. Impact of the botanical insecticide Neem Azal on survival and reproduction of the biting louse Damalinia limbata on angora goats.

    PubMed

    Habluetzel, Annette; Carnevali, Fiorella; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Grana, Lucia; Attili, Anna Rita; Archilei, Francesca; Antonini, Marco; Valbonesi, Alessandro; Abbadessa, Valerio; Esposito, Fulvio; van der Esch, Stephen Andrew

    2007-03-31

    Secondary metabolites present in the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae), exhibit a wide range of biological activities in insects. However, few studies have been undertaken to assess the potential of neem products as insecticides for the control of ectoparasites of domestic animals. This study was undertaken to estimate the efficacy of Neem Azal, an azadirachtin-rich extract of neem seeds, in controlling Damalinia limbata (Phthiraptera) louse infestation of angora goats. The study was conducted on a fibre animal farm situated in Central Italy. Groups of 11-12 goats were treated with Neem Azal at an azadirachtin concentration of 650ppm or 125ppm, with Neguvon or were left untreated. Their louse burden was assessed fortnightly to monthly for 22 weeks. A reduction in louse densities of 76-96% was observed from week 2 to week 18 after treatment with the neem solution containing azadirachtin at a concentration of 650ppm. At the lower test concentration (125ppm) a reduction of 60-92% could be recorded from week 2 to week 14. Neem Azal was found to reduce the survival of both adult and nymph stages of D. limbata and to interfere with oviposition and oogenesis of female lice. A decrease in oviposition was observed in neem exposed female lice and the examination of their ovaries revealed morphological alterations in both vitellogenic and previtellogenic ovarioles at the follicular and germinal level. Since neem compounds target different life stages and physiological processes of D. limbata, the development of insecticide resistance by biting lice exposed to neem-based insecticides appears unlikely. For this reason and for its prolonged activity, which in principle allows angora goats to be protected for a large part of the mohair production cycle, neem-based insecticides may have a potential interest for mohair producing breeders.

  3. Heartworm (Acanthocheilonema spirocauda) and seal louse (Echinophthirius horridus) infections in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the North and Baltic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Kristina; Schwanke, Eva; Hahn, Kerstin; Wohlsein, Peter; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-07-01

    The seal louse (Echinophthirius [E.] horridus) and the heartworm (Acanthocheilonema [A.] spirocauda) are parasites of harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). Little is known about the role of the seal louse as a potential vector and its role for the development and transmission of heartworm larvae to their final host, the harbour seal. The life-cycle of the heartworm is still not fully understood. For the presented study, findings of 1191 stranded harbour seals collected along the North- and Baltic Sea coast between 1996 and 2013 were examined. 4.4% (n = 53) of these harbour seals were infected with adult heartworms and 3.4% (n = 40) harbour seals carried seal lice. The highest prevalence and level of infection with adult heartworms (A. spirocauda) (9.3%) and seal lice (E. horridus) (8.9%) were found on yearling harbour seals (7-18 months) compared to neonate and adult seals. Investigating seal lice (n = 35) for larval heartworm stages one larvae was encountered in an ethanol-fixated seal louse. During a health monitoring survey of live harbour seals, 109 animals were captured and examined during spring and autumn between 2008 and 2014. Blood samples were taken and microfilariae were discovered in blood smears in 41% (n = 45) of the examined harbour seals. Yearling seals (n = 21) showed higher prevalence (86%) and level of infection with microfilariae than adults. Microfilariae were identified as A. spirocauda by sequencing the species-specific COI gene in 24 blood samples. The high prevalence of microfilariae of A. spirocauda in blood samples (41%) is in contrast to the low prevalence of mature infections/adult specimens in stranded seals (4.4%) investigated. Although rare parasites of seals, the recent increase in prevalence of heartworm and seal lice in stranded seals and the relatively high occurrence of microfilaria in the free-ranging population underscore the importance of further studies investigating the immunology of infections and their transmission pathways, as

  4. A Novel Animal Model of Borrelia recurrentis Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever Borreliosis Using Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Christer; Lundqvist, Jenny; van Rooijen, Nico; Bergström, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) borreliosis is caused by Borrelia recurrentis, and it is a deadly although treatable disease that is endemic in the Horn of Africa but has epidemic potential. Research on LBRF has been severely hampered because successful infection with B. recurrentis has been achieved only in primates (i.e., not in other laboratory or domestic animals). Here, we present the first non-primate animal model of LBRF, using SCID (-B, -T cells) and SCID BEIGE (-B, -T, -NK cells) immunocompromised mice. These animals were infected with B. recurrentis A11 or A17, or with B. duttonii 1120K3 as controls. B. recurrentis caused a relatively mild but persistent infection in SCID and SCID BEIGE mice, but did not proliferate in NUDE (-T) and BALB/c (wild-type) mice. B. duttonii was infectious but not lethal in all animals. These findings demonstrate that the immune response can limit relapsing fever even in the absence of humoral defense mechanisms. To study the significance of phagocytic cells in this context, we induced systemic depletion of such cells in the experimental mice by injecting them with clodronate liposomes, which resulted in uncontrolled B. duttonii growth and a one-hundred-fold increase in B. recurrentis titers in blood. This observation highlights the role of macrophages and other phagocytes in controlling relapsing fever infection. B. recurrentis evolved from B. duttonii to become a primate-specific pathogen that has lost the ability to infect immunocompetent rodents, probably through genetic degeneration. Here, we describe a novel animal model of B. recurrentis based on B- and T-cell-deficient mice, which we believe will be very valuable in future research on LBRF. Our study also reveals the importance of B-cells and phagocytes in controlling relapsing fever infection. PMID:19787030

  5. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  6. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  7. [An outbreak of epidemic louse-borne typhus in Tokyo 1914: a study on the prevention of epidemics].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mikio

    2002-12-01

    In 1914, the third year of the Taisho era, a period of democracy and prosperity of Japan, Tokyo was attached by an outbreak of epidemic louse-borne typhus. The number of patients was 4,119 and number of deaths was 778 (mortality rate of 18.9%) in Tokyo and 7,309 patients had been suffering from typhus fever that year in Japan. Many possible causes of the outbreak were suspected by the Health Authority of the Home Office, but these were not confirmed. One of the most likely reasons is the poor and congested living conditions of seasonal construction workers. Laborers had moved from the northwest region of Japan where typhus fever had developed occasionally in those days. Some of the laborers probably brought pathogenic germs with lice. The main preventive method for epidemic louse-borne typhus was isolation of patients and disinfecting of the areas. Kitasato Shibasaburou proposed the improvement of residential conditions of workers to prevent the prevalence of disease, but the proposal was not accepted because of financial reasons of the government. Recurrence of the outbreak did not occur in the following years. However, a huge outbreak of typhus fever with 32,366 patients and 3,351 deaths, was documented in 1946, amidst the disordered conditions of Japan after World War II.

  8. Abrocomaphthirus hoplai, a new genus and species of sucking louse from Chile and its relevance to zoogeography.

    PubMed

    Durden, L A; Webb, J P

    1999-10-01

    Both sexes of Abrocomaphthirus hoplai, new genus and new species (Anoplura: Polyplacidae), are described and illustrated. The endemic Chilean chinchilla rat Abrocoma bennetti Waterhouse (Rodentia: Abrocomidae) is the type host. The definition of the family Polyplacidae is amended to accommodate the new genus. Polyplax longa (Werneck), also referred to in the literature as Neohaematopinus longus Werneck, is reassigned to Abrocomaphthirus. The host of A. longus comb.n., is Abrocoma cinerea Thomas, another chinchilla rat, which inhabits parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru. The erection of Abrocomaphthirus as a distinct genus has important zoogeographical and evolutionary implications. The tenuous anomaly of P. longa being the sole native representative of the genus Polyplax in South America, possibly with African affinities, is now refuted. Instead, partial colonization of the neotropics by native species of both Polyplax and Neohaematopinus appears to have been relatively recent and from North America. The phylogenetic affinities of Abrocomaphthirus are unknown, but it appears to be closely related to other, more ancient, native South American polyplacid louse genera, such as Cuyana, Eulinognathus, Galeophthirus, and Lagidiophthirus. Arguments are presented in support of an ancestral zoogeographical link to Africa for these louse genera.

  9. Residual and ovicidal efficacy of essential oil-based formulations in vitro against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Sands, B; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils have shown good experimental potential as novel veterinary ectoparasiticides. However, if they are to be used as veterinary products, they must be available in formulations that are suitable for practical application against specific ectoparasites. Here, the efficacies of formulations containing 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oil, in combination with two emulsifiers [a surfactant, 5% (w/v) N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt (SLS), and a soluble polymer, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)], with or without 10% coconut oil, were tested in contact bioassays against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Residual activity was quantified in open and closed containers; ovicidal efficacy was also examined. Exposure to either of 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oils with SLS or PVP resulted in louse mortality of 100%, but when coconut oil was included as an excipient, significantly lower efficacy was recorded. However, the formulations became significantly less effective after 2 h in open containers and 40 h in closed containers. The results confirm that the residual activity of essential oils is relatively transitory and the addition of 10% coconut oil does not prolong the period of insecticidal activity by slowing essential oil evaporation. Too short a period of residual activity is likely to be a significant impediment to the effective practical use of essential oils. However, unlike many synthetic pediculicides, the essential oils tested here were highly ovicidal, which suggests that prolonged residual activity may not be essential to kill newly hatched nymphs after treatment.

  10. WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

  11. PNW WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

  12. Transcriptome survey of the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Farlora, Rodolfo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to identify and analyze the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the ectoparasite copepod Caligus rogercresseyi. Massive transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed during the infectious copepodid larval stage, during the attached chalimus larval stage, and also in female and male adults. Thirty genes were selected for describing the pathways, and these were annotated for proteins or enzymes involved in lipid digestion, absorption, and transport; fatty acid degradation; the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies; and steroid and ecdysteroid syntheses. Differential expression of these genes was analyzed by ontogenic stage and discussed considering each stage's feeding habits and energetic needs. Copepodids showed a low expression of fatty acid digestion genes, reflected by a non-feeding behavior, and the upregulation of genes involved in steroid biosynthesis, which was consistent with a pathway for cholesterol synthesis during ecdysis. The chalimus stage showed an upregulation of genes related to fatty acid digestion, absorption, and transport, as well as to fatty acid degradation and the synthesis of ketone bodies, therefore suggesting that lipids ingested from the mucus and skin of the host fish are metabolized as important sources of energy. Adult females also showed a pattern of high lipid metabolism for energy supply and mobilization in relation to reproduction and vitellogenesis. Adult females and males revealed different lipid metabolism patterns that reflected different energetic needs. This study reports for the first time the probable lipid metabolic pathways involved in the energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis of C. rogercresseyi.

  13. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730, originally issued August 10, 1981.\\1\\ The project is... Hydroelectric Project of 5 Megawatts or Less and Dismissing Application for Preliminary Permit. 2. Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC is now the exemptee of the Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730....

  14. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  15. Installation Restoration Program. Stage 1. King Salmon Airport , King Salmon, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-29

    Salmon Age Distribution 11-6 2-2 Surface Water Flow Data 11-12 2-3 Climatic Data for King Salmon Air Force Station 11-21 3-1 Number of Analyses by...stock of migratory and resident sport and commercial game fish. The Naknek River drainage supports one of the largest sockeye salmon runs in the world...Between 1977 and 1981, the Naknek River system received an average annual return of 1.4 million sockeye salmon . Drain- age from the King Salmon

  16. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  17. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  18. Heritability of resistance to infestation with the body louse, Bovicola ovis, in Romney sheep bred for differences in resistance or resilience to gastro-intestinal nematode parasites.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, A; Morris, C A; Green, R S; Wheeler, M; Shu, D; Bisset, S A; Vlassoff, A

    2007-12-01

    The inheritance of resistance to louse infestation and the related allergic skin disease, cockle, was examined in Romney lambs. The lambs used in the study were the 2001- and 2004-born progeny of four experimental breeding lines ("Resistant", "Susceptible", "Resilient" and "Control") developed as part of a long-term study of the genetics of host resistance (maintenance of low faecal egg count (FEC) under nematode challenge) or resilience (maintenance of health and productivity under nematode challenge irrespective of FEC) to nematode parasites in sheep. Between 13 and 22 progeny (equally distributed between males and females, where possible) from each of five sires in each line were selected each year for this trial. All lambs (n=701) were examined for lice (Bovicola ovis) before artificial infestation; in 2001 the lambs were free of natural infestation, whilst in 2004 naturally acquired infestation was evident. In November 2001 and May 2002, approximately 60 B. ovis were transferred to each lamb, followed by monitoring at approximately 2-monthly intervals until August 2002. Similar procedures, but with fewer monitoring times, were repeated on the 2004 lambs. Overall, lambs in the Control line were significantly more susceptible to louse infestation and cockle compared with those in the other three lines (P<0.001). Least squares-means (SEM) of log-transformed louse score for the control, resistant, susceptible and resilient lines, respectively, were 2.178 (0.045), 1.499 (0.050), 1.618 (0.050) and 1.587 (0.044), and for cockle score were 1.36 (0.05), 0.76 (0.05), 0.95 (0.05) and 0.78 (0.05). From all progeny together, the heritability of log-transformed louse score was 0.22 (Standard Error (SE) 0.06) in autumn and 0.34 (SE 0.08) in winter, with a value of 0.44 (SE 0.09) when these data were combined. These estimates were similar to those obtained for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in these breeding lines, using log-transformed FECs. Heritability estimates

  19. Isolation, pure culture, and characterization of "Candidatus Arsenophonus arthropodicus," an intracellular secondary endosymbiont from the hippoboscid louse fly Pseudolynchia canariensis.

    PubMed

    Dale, Colin; Beeton, Michael; Harbison, Christopher; Jones, Tait; Pontes, Mauricio

    2006-04-01

    Members of the genus Arsenophonus comprise a large group of bacterial endosymbionts that are widely distributed in arthropods of medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. At present, little is known about the role of these bacteria in arthropods, because few representatives have been isolated and cultured in the laboratory. In the current study, we describe the isolation and pure culture of an Arsenophonus endosymbiont from the hippoboscid louse fly Pseudolynchia canariensis. We propose provisional nomenclature for this bacterium in the genus Arsenophonus as "Candidatus Arsenophonus arthropodicus." Phylogenetic analyses indicate that "Candidatus Arsenophonus arthropodicus" is closely related to the Arsenophonus endosymbionts found in psyllids, whiteflies, aphids, and mealybugs. The pure culture of this endosymbiont offers new opportunities to examine the role of Arsenophonus in insects. To this end, we describe methods for the culture of "Candidatus Arsenophonus arthropodicus" in an insect cell line and the transformation of this bacterium with a broad-host-range plasmid.

  20. Tocopheryl acetate 20% spray for elimination of head louse infestation: a randomised controlled trial comparing with 1% permethrin creme rinse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tocopheryl acetate is viscous oily fluid used in a range of preparations for skin and scalp care in Italy. Observational and in vitro data have suggested a high level of efficacy against head louse infestation. The purpose of this investigation was to confirm the activity of tocopheryl acetate in a clinical setting in comparison with a standard widely used preparation. Methods A spray formulation containing tocopheryl acetate 20% in cyclomethicone was compared with permethrin 1% creme rinse for treatment of head louse infestation in a randomised, assessor blind, trial. Forty-five people were treated on two occasions 7 days apart. The spray was applied to dry hair for 20 minutes then washed. Participants treated with permethrin washed their hair and towel dried it before treatment for 10 minutes. Assessments were made by dry detection combing 1, 6, 9, and 14 days after first treatment. Results The tocopheryl acetate 20% spray was significantly (p = 0.033) more effective than permethrin 1%, using intention to treat worst case analysis, in which there were 13/23 (56.5%) successful treatments for tocopheryl acetate compared with 5/22 (22.7%) for permethrin. After unprecedented issues of re-infestation within households had been taken into account the underlying cure rate was 17/23 (73.9%) for tocopheryl acetate compared with 5/22 (22.7%), Odds Ratio 9.63 (95% CI, 2.46 to 37.68) (p < 0.001). Conclusions The tocopheryl acetate spray was significantly more effective than the permethrin product, was cosmetically acceptable, and not affected by current problems with resistance. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45553737. PMID:24004959

  1. [Louse-borne-relapsing-fever in refugees from the Horn of Africa; a case series of 25 patients].

    PubMed

    Seilmaier, M; Guggemos, W; Wieser, A; Fingerle, V; Balzer, L; Fenzl, T; Hoch, M; von Both, U; Schmidt, H U; Wendtner, C M; Strobel, E

    2016-07-01

    Background | Relapsing fever is divided into tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF) and louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF). This report describes 25 refugees from East Africa who were diagnosed to suffer from LBRF within a period of 6 month only at a single hospital in Munich / Germany. Material & Methods | The aim was to point out common clinical features as well as laboratory findings and clinical symptoms before and after initiation of treatment in 25 patients with louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF) who were diagnosed and treated at Klinikum München Schwabing from August 2015 to January 2016. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest case series of LBRF in the western world for decades. Main focus of the investigation was put on clinical aspects. Results | All 25 patients suffered from acute onset of high fever with chills, headache and severe prostration. Laboratory analysis showed high CRP and a marked thrombocytopenia. A Giemsa blood stain was procured immediately in order to look for malaria. In the blood smear spirochetes with typical shape and aspect of borrelia species could be detected.The further PCR analysis confirmed infection with Borrelia recurrentis. Treatment with Doxycycline was started forthwith. The condition improved already on the second day after treatment was started and all were restored to health in less than a week. Apart from a mild to moderate Jarisch-Herxheimer-reaction we didn`t see any side effects of the therapy. Conclusion | LBRF has to be taken into account in feverish patients who come as refugees from East-Africa. It seems that our patients belong to a cluster which probably has its origin in Libya and more patients are to be expected in the near future. As LBRF might cause outbreaks in refugee camps it is pivotal to be aware of this emerging infectious disease in refugees from East-Africa.

  2. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  3. 78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... airspace at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation... the surface, at the Salmon VOR/DME navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to accommodate IFR aircraft under... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Salmon VOR/DME,...

  4. THE FOUR NATIONS OF SALMON WORLD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

  5. SALMON: A WORLD AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

  6. 150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

  7. A survey of wild marine fish identifies a potential origin of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse, Labridae, used as cleaner fish on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms.

    PubMed

    Wallace, I S; Donald, K; Munro, L A; Murray, W; Pert, C C; Stagg, H; Hall, M; Bain, N

    2015-06-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from five species of wrasse (Labridae) used as biological controls for parasitic sea lice predominantly, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms in Shetland. As part of the epidemiological investigation, 1400 wild marine fish were caught and screened in pools of 10 for VHSV using virus isolation. Eleven pools (8%) were confirmed VHSV positive from: grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus L.; Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L.; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson); plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L.; sprat, Sprattus sprattus L. and whiting, Merlangius merlangus L. The isolation of VHSV from grey gurnard is the first documented report in this species. Nucleic acid sequencing of the partial nucleocapsid (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes was carried out for viral characterization. Sequence analysis confirmed that all wild isolates were genotype III the same as the wrasse and there was a close genetic similarity between the isolates from wild fish and wrasse on the farms. Infection from these local wild marine fish is the most likely source of VHSV isolated from wrasse on the fish farms.

  8. Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

  9. Insect juvenile hormone mimics against the short-nosed cattle louse, Haematopinus eurysternus Denny (Anoplura), and their effect on warbles of Hypoderma sp. Latr. (Diptera:Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Meleney, W P; Roberts, I H

    1975-10-01

    Insect juvenile hormone mimics (IJH) at 0.1 and 0.01% were used as sprays for control of the short-nosed cattle louse, Haematopinus eurysternus Denny, on 11 heavily infested Hereford cows. A significant reduction of lice occurred although eradication was achieved in only one case. Severe reactions, apparently associated with the death or failure of complete development of cattle grub larvae, Hypoderma sp. Latr., were seen in the IJH-treated cows.

  10. Modification of antityphus antibodies on passage through the gut of the human body louse with discussion of some epidemiologic and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Wisseman, C L; Boese, J L; Waddell, A D; Silverman, D J

    1975-01-01

    Evidence is presented to indicate that proteolytic and perhaps other enzymes of the louse midgut, essential to the nutrition of the louse, perform molecular dissection on the antirickettsial antibodies present in the blood of a typhus-immune host that selectively destroys, along with other functions, the portion of the antibody that determines the only known function by which antirickettsial antibodies may operate in host defense mechanisms, namely, opsonization of rickettsiae for enhanced ingestion by professional phagocytes and subsequent destruction. The epidemiologic significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the progressive destruction of cells that produce digestive enzymes of the louse midgut that occurs with progressive rickettsial infection, and the possibility of a negative feedback mechanism in transmission is introduced. Speculations that involve evolutionary concepts of both convergent and divergent varieties with respect to rickettsiae, potentially operational in a system that consists of an obligate blood-sucking arthropod vector and a vertebrate host capable of adaptive responses to both vector and rickettsial agent, are presented.

  11. Distribution and persistence of the anti sea-lice drug teflubenzuron in wild fauna and sediments around a salmon farm, following a standard treatment.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Ole B; Lunestad, Bjørn T; Hannisdal, Rita; Bannister, Raymond; Olsen, Siri; Tjensvoll, Tore; Farestveit, Eva; Ervik, Arne

    2015-03-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) is a challenge in the farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To treat an infestation, different insecticides are used like the orally administered chitin synthetase inhibitor teflubenzuron. The concentrations and distribution of teflubenzuron were measured in water, organic particles, marine sediment and biota caught in the vicinity of a fish farm following a standard medication. Low concentrations were found in water samples whereas the organic waste from the farm, collected by sediment traps had concentrations higher than the medicated feed. Most of the organic waste was distributed to the bottom close to the farm but organic particles containing teflubenzuron were collected 1100 m from the farm. The sediment under the farm consisted of 5 to 10% organic material and therefore the concentration of teflubenzuron was much lower than in the organic waste. Teflubenzuron was persistent in the sediment with a stipulated halflife of 170 days. Sediment consuming polychaetes had high but decreasing concentrations of teflubenzuron throughout the experimental period, reflecting the decrease of teflubenzuron in the sediment. During medication most wild fauna contained teflubenzuron residues and where polychaetes and saith had highest concentrations. Eight months later only polychaetes and some crustaceans contained drug residues. What dosages that induce mortality in various crustaceans following short or long-term exposure is not known but the results indicate that the concentrations in defined individuals of king crab, shrimp, squat lobster and Norway lobster were high enough shortly after medication to induce mortality if moulting was imminent. Considering food safety, saith and the brown meat of crustaceans contained at first sampling concentrations of teflubenzuron higher than the MRL-value set for Atlantic salmon. The concentrations were, however, moderate and the amount of saith fillet or brown meat of crustaceans to be

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Thomas E.

    1983-01-01

    The coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) is native to the northern Pacific Ocean, spawning and rearing in streams from Monterey Bay, California, to Point Hope, Alaska, and southward along the Asiatic coast to Japan. Its center of abundance in North America is from Oregon to Alaska (Briggs 1953; Godfrey 1965; Hart 1973; Scott and Crossman 1973). Coho salmon have been successfully introduced into the Great Lakes and reservoirs and lakes throughout the United States to provide put-and-grow sport fishing (Scott and Crossman 1973; Wigglesworth and Rawson 1974). No subspecies of coho salmon have been described (Godfrey 1965).

  13. Retention of mercury by salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.

    1970-01-01

    Consuming fish that have been exposed repeatedly to mercury derivatives is a potential public health hazard because fish can accumulate and retain mercury in their tissues (Rucker, 1968). Concern has been expressed in the United States because mercurials have been used extensively in industry and as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in fish hatcheries. Rucker and Amend (1969) showed that yearling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to mercurials accumulated excessive amounts of mercury in many tissues. Further, Rucker and Amend (1969) concluded that wild fish that ate mercury-contaminated fish also could contain high mercury levels. Although mercury was eliminated from most tissues within several months, substantial levels remained in the kidney for more than 33 weeks after the last exposure. Since high levels of mercury can be retained in the kidney for an undetermined time, it is possible that returning adult salmon exposed to mercurials as juveniles could constitute a potential hazard to public health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such fish contained high residual levels of mercury.

  14. Salmon habitat assessment for conservation planning in the lower White Salmon River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardiman, Jill M.; Allen, M. Brady

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, Condit Dam was removed from the White Salmon River, Washington. Since dam removal, there has been interest among scientists (State and Federal), Tribes, non-profit organizations, and the general public in assessing Pacific salmon habitat and use in the White Salmon River for conservation planning and potential fishery management actions. The study area extended from the lower 6 miles of the White Salmon River to the confluence with the Columbia River, including the former reservoir area. The Mid-Columbia Fisheries Enhancement Group received a grant to initiate efforts to plan for salmon habitat protection in the lower 6 river miles of the White Salmon River. As part of efforts by the Mid-Columbia Fisheries Enhancement Group to conduct conservation planning, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used current and historical habitat information to assist in the planning process. The USGS compiled existing georeferenced habitat data into a Geographic Information System to identify areas of high quality habitat for salmon, potential areas for restoration/improvement, and areas that could be threatened. The primary sources of georeferenced data for this project include a lidar flight contracted by PacifiCorp, bathymetry from USGS, and fall Chinook salmon redd surveys from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Redd observations provided support that the study area is a migratory corridor for salmon and steelhead and that the lowest 2–3 miles had the highest concentration of documented fall Chinook salmon redds. The study area has potential for restoration/conservation areas to improve/conserve salmon habitat.

  15. Classroom-Community Salmon Enhancement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard-Gray, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program in the Bellevue (Washington) public schools in which elementary and middle school teachers and students raise coho and Chinook salmon in the classroom and later release them into a nearby stream. (TW)

  16. THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  17. Etiology of sockeye salmon "virus" disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1959-01-01

    Violent epizootics among hatchery reared sockeye salmon fingerLings ( Oncorhynchus nerka) caused by a filterable agent have occurred. In 1954, one source of this infectious, filterable agent was found to be adult sockeye viscera used in the diet for the fingerlings. The results of observations on an epizootic in 1958 indicate that the infection may be transmitted to fingerlings from a water supply to which adult sockeye salmon have access.

  18. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  19. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  20. Geomorphology and the Restoration Ecology of Salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2005-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic influences on watershed processes affect the distribution and abundance of salmon across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from differences in species use and density between individual pools and riffles to regional patterns of threatened, endangered, and extinct runs. The specific impacts of human activities (e.g., mining, logging, and urbanization) vary among regions and watersheds, as well as between different channel reaches in the same watershed. Understanding of both disturbance history and key biophysical processes are important for diagnosing the nature and causes of differences between historical and contemporary fluvial and watershed conditions based on evaluation of both historical and spatial contexts. In order to be most effective, the contribution of geomorphologic insight to salmon recovery efforts requires both assessment protocols commensurate with providing adequate knowledge of historical and spatial context, and experienced practitioners well versed in adapting general theory to local settings. The historical record of salmon management in Europe, New England and the Pacific Northwest indicates that there is substantial need to incorporate geomorphic insights on the effects of changes in watershed processes on salmon habitat and salmon abundance into salmon recovery efforts.

  1. Salmon fibrin glue in rats: antibody studies.

    PubMed

    Laidmäe, Ivo; Belozjorova, Jevgenia; Sawyer, Evelyn S; Janmey, Paul A; Uibo, Raivo

    2012-01-01

    Fibrin sealants and topical thrombin preparations are often used for haemostatic and sealing applications in clinical practice. Some of these preparations contain coagulation factors from bovine sources. To minimize the risk of infection and immunogenicity connected with mammalian blood products, proteins derived from the plasma of farmed Atlantic salmon have been considered as an alternative to these mammalian sources. The purpose of this study is to characterize the immunogenicity of salmon fibrin glue in an animal model focusing on crossreactivity of IgG antibodies to host endogenous counterparts. After two immunizations with salmon fibrin glue, rats developed antibodies of IgG and IgM type to both fibrin glue components. Weak crossreactivity to endogenous fibrinogen and thrombin was seen in a subset of rats after the second application of salmon proteins. Coagulation tests showed that salmon fibrin application has no effect on coagulation profiles in mammalian hosts, consistent with previous reports that found no evidence of significant crossreactivity with host proteins. These studies support the potential suitability of salmon fibrin glue for the development of preparations with clinical impact. Before human use can be considered, however, additional data about safety of this preparation in other animal models, including large animal studies, should be obtained.

  2. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Predation by fallfish (Semotilus corporalis) on Pacific salmon eggs in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Nack, C.C.; Chalupnicki, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Fallfish (Semotilus corporalis) are the largest native cyprinid in the northeastern United States and are the most abundant native species in the Salmon River, New York. The Salmon River is a high-quality spawning and nursery river for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migrating from Lake Ontario. Because of the large number of Pacific salmon spawning in the river in the fall extensive redd superimposition occurs resulting in salmonid eggs being available on the substrate. We examined the fall diet of 647 fallfish in 2007 and 2008 to determine the extent of predation on Pacific salmon eggs. The contribution of eggs in the diet significantly increased once fallfish attained a size of 100 mm total length. The largest size category of fallfish examined (≥150 mm) had the highest proportion (86.1%) of salmon eggs in their diet. The contribution of Zooplankton and chironomids in the diet of fallfish decreased with fish size. Except for the two largest groups of fallfish examined (i.e., 100–149 mm and ≥150 mm) diet overlap among size groups was low. The high contribution in the diet during the fall and high caloric value of Pacific salmon eggs could increase growth and survival of this species in the Salmon River.

  4. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  5. Inactivation of SAM-methyltransferase is the mechanism of attenuation of a historic louse borne typhus vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Bin; Weinstock, George; Walker, David H; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Louse borne typhus (also called epidemic typhus) was one of man's major scourges, and epidemics of the disease can be reignited when social, economic, or political systems are disrupted. The fear of a bioterrorist attack using the etiologic agent of typhus, Rickettsia prowazekii, was a reality. An attenuated typhus vaccine, R. prowazekii Madrid E strain, was observed to revert to virulence as demonstrated by isolation of the virulent revertant Evir strain from animals which were inoculated with Madrid E strain. The mechanism of the mutation in R. prowazekii that affects the virulence of the vaccine was not known. We sequenced the genome of the virulent revertant Evir strain and compared its genome sequence with the genome sequences of its parental strain, Madrid E. We found that only a single nucleotide in the entire genome was different between the vaccine strain Madrid E and its virulent revertant strain Evir. The mutation is a single nucleotide insertion in the methyltransferase gene (also known as PR028) in the vaccine strain that inactivated the gene. We also confirmed that the vaccine strain E did not cause fever in guinea pigs and the virulent revertant strain Evir caused fever in guinea pigs. We concluded that a single nucleotide insertion in the methyltransferase gene of R. prowazekii attenuated the R. prowazekii vaccine strain E. This suggested that an irreversible insertion or deletion mutation in the methyl transferase gene of R. prowazekii is required for Madrid E to be considered a safe vaccine.

  6. Evidence of a Louse-Borne Outbreak Involving Typhus in Douai, 1710-1712 during the War of Spanish Succession

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Hieu, Tung; Aboudharam, Gérard; Signoli, Michel; Rigeade, Catherine; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background The new field of paleomicrobiology allows past outbreaks to be identified by testing dental pulp of human remains with PCR. Methods We identified a mass grave in Douai, France dating from the early XVIIIth century. This city was besieged during the European war of Spanish succession. We tested dental pulp from 1192 teeth (including 40 from Douai) by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for R. prowazekii and B. quintana. We also used ultra-sensitive suicide PCR to detect R. prowazekii and genotyped positive samples. Results and Discussion In the Douai remains, we identified one case of B. quintana infection (by qPCR) and R. prowazekii (by suicide PCR) in 6/21 individuals (29%). The R. prowazekii was genotype B, a genotype previously found in a Spanish isolate obtained in the first part of the XXth century. Conclusion Louse-borne outbreaks were raging during the XVIIIth century; our results support the hypothesis that typhus was imported into Europe by Spanish soldiers from America. PMID:21060879

  7. Ovicidal response of NYDA formulations on the human head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) using a hair tuft bioassay.

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Lao, Alice R; Alves, Anna-Maria; Clark, J Marshall

    2012-03-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer's instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5-8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments.

  8. Decreased detoxification genes and genome size make the human body louse an efficient model to study xenobiotic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Kang, Jae Soon; Min, Jee Sun; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Strycharz, Joseph P.; Johnson, Reed; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Margam, Venu M.; Sun, Weilin; Li, Hong-Mei; Xie, Jun; Wu, Jing; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Berenbaum, May R.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Clark, J. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, has one of the smallest insect genomes, containing ~10,775 annotated genes (Kirkness et al. 2010). Annotation of detoxification [cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), esterase (Est), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC transporter)] genes revealed that they are dramatically reduced in P. h. humanus compared to other insects except for Apis mellifera. There are 37 P450, 13 GST and 17 Est genes present in P. h. humanus, approximately half of that found in Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. The number of putatively functional ABC transporter genes in P. h. humanus and A. mellifera are the same (36) but both have fewer than An. gambiae (44) or D. melanogaster (65). The reduction of detoxification genes in P. h. humanus may be due to their simple life history, where they do not encounter a wide variety of xenobiotics. Neuronal component genes are highly conserved across different insect species as expected due to their critical function. Although reduced in number, P. h. humanus still retains at least a minimum repertoire of genes known to confer metabolic or toxicokinetic resistance to xenobiotics (e.g., Cyp3 clade P450s, Delta GSTs, B clade Ests and B/C subfamily ABC transporters), suggestive of its high potential for resistance development. PMID:20561088

  9. Neem seed extract shampoo, Wash Away Louse, an effective plant agent against Sarcoptes scabiei mites infesting dogs in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Sobhy, Hassan; Semmler, Margit

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of water-free neem seed extract shampoo Wash Away Louse, provided by Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany), was investigated against Sarcoptes scabiei infesting dogs in Egypt. Ten naturally infested dogs were collected from different areas in the Nile delta. The occurrence of lesions, hair loss, and skin inflammation were regarded as signs of infestation and proved by detection of adult parasites and their developmental stages in scrapings of infested lesions. Adequate amount of the provided shampoo was applied topically and spread on the infested areas daily for 14 successive days. Scraping examinations were used to follow up the healing process. At day 7 of application, four dogs were completely free of mites as was proven by the disappearance of adults and/or any developmental stages of mites. The remaining six dogs showed a clear decrease in mite counts. By the end of the treatment (after 14 days), only a small number of mites were found in two dogs, while eight dogs were completely cured as was proven by mite counts and disappearance of clinical signs. No remarkable signs of side effects or adverse reactions were observed throughout the study.

  10. Population genetics of bisexual and unisexual populations of the scaly-winged bark louse Echmepteryx hageni (Insecta: Psocoptera).

    PubMed

    Shreve, Scott M; Johnson, Kevin P

    2014-10-01

    The scaly-winged bark louse, Echmepteryx hageni, exhibits a unique pattern of co-existence of apparently differnt reproductive modes. Unisexuality is widespread in eastern North America, while sexual populations are restricted to isolated rock out-croppings in southern Illinois and eastern Kentucky. Three of the four nuclear loci examined show greater genetic diversity in the unisexual form compared to the sexual form of E. hageni, in accordance with the pattern previously shown in mitochondrial genetic data. Neutrality tests of the nuclear loci indicate a consistent signal of demographic expansion in asexual populations, but not in sexual populations. There was evidence of inbreeding in the isolated sexual populations at three of the nuclear loci, and one locus had signs of gene specific balancing selection. However, there is no significant genetic differentiation between bisexual and unisexual populations, possibly due to the greater effective population size of nuclear loci relative to mitochondrial loci. The mitochondrial differentiation of E. hageni populations in the northwestern part of their range (Minnesota and Wisconsin) was also not reflected in the nuclear data. We present three hypotheses that may explain the disparity in observed nuclear and mitochondrial genetic diversity between the reproductive forms of E. hageni.

  11. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

  12. Salmon 2100: Some recovery strategies that just might work

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not ...

  13. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable.

  14. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it... and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  15. 75 FR 14135 - Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC16 Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund AGENCY... Salmon Recovery Funding (PCSRF), as authorized in the Northern Boundary and Transboundary Rivers... development of Federal-state-tribal-local partnerships in salmon recovery and conservation by providing...

  16. 77 FR 60631 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 300 RIN 0648-XC222 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon... publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The orders were issued by the Fraser River Panel (Panel) of the...

  17. POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

  18. Comparative diets of subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario could potentially be negatively affected by the presence of non-native salmonids that are naturalized in the basin. Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have been spawning successfully in Lake Ontario tributaries for over 40 years and their juveniles will reside in streams with juvenile Atlantic salmon for one year. This study sought to examine interspecific diet associations between these species, and to compare diets to the composition of the benthos and drift in three Lake Ontario tributaries. Aquatic insects, mainly ephemeropterans and chironomids were the major prey consumed by subyearling Atlantic salmon whereas terrestrial invertebrates made up only 3.7% of the diet. Ephemeropterans and chironomids were the primary aquatic taxa consumed by subyearling coho salmon but, as a group, terrestrial invertebrates (41.8%) were the major prey. In sympatry, Atlantic salmon fed more actively from the benthos whereas the diet of coho salmon was more similar to the drift. The different feeding pattern of each species resulted in low interspecific diet similarity. There is likely little competition between these species for food in Lake Ontario tributaries as juveniles.

  19. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National... Conservation and Management Act (MSA) to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management... available on the Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site ( http://www.pcouncil.org/ ). FOR...

  20. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management...

  1. Detection of a Knockdown Resistance Mutation Associated with Permethrin Resistance in the Body Louse Pediculus humanus corporis by Use of Melting Curve Analysis Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Drali, Rezak; Benkouiten, Samir; Badiaga, Sékéné; Bitam, Idir

    2012-01-01

    Louse-borne diseases are prevalent in the homeless, and body louse eradication has thus far been unsuccessful in this population. We aim to develop a rapid and robust genotyping method usable in large field-based clinical studies to monitor permethrin resistance in the human body louse Pediculus humanus corporis. We assessed a melting curve analysis genotyping method based on real-time PCR using hybridization probes to detect the M815I-T917I-L920F knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in the paraorthologous voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) α subunit gene, which is associated with permethrin resistance. The 908-bp DNA fragment of the VSSC gene, encoding the α subunit of the sodium channel and encompassing the three mutation sites, was PCR sequenced from 65 lice collected from a homeless population. We noted a high prevalence of the 3 indicated mutations in the body lice collected from homeless people (100% for the M815I and L920F mutations and 56.73% for the T917I mutation). These results were confirmed by melting curve analysis genotyping, which had a calculated sensitivity of 100% for the M815I and T917I mutations and of 98% for the L920F mutation. The specificity was 100% for M815I and L920F and 96% for T917I. Melting curve analysis genotyping is a fast, sensitive, and specific tool that is fully compatible with the analysis of a large number of samples in epidemiological surveys, allowing the simultaneous genotyping of 96 samples in just over an hour (75 min). Thus, it is perfectly suited for the epidemiological monitoring of permethrin resistance in human body lice in large-scale clinical studies. PMID:22573588

  2. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48 h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  3. History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1973-01-01

    This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

  4. Louse-borne relapsing fever profile at Felegehiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Louse- borne relapsing fever is an acute febrile illness caused by Borrelia recurrentis and is transmitted by body lice, Pediculus humanus corporis. The disease has occurred as epidemic in different parts of the country.Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was conducted to assess the LBRF profile for the last four years. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on patients with LBRF admitted from 2009–2012 at Felegehiwot referral hospital. The diagnosis was based on both clinical and laboratory methods. Patients with strong clinical suspicion of LBRF and positive for Borrelia species in their blood was diagnosed as LBRF cases. Data was collected from all patients with LBRF- like symptoms in their registration book. Data was checked for completeness, coded and analysed using SPSS version 16. P < 0.05 was considered significant for comparison. Results Of the 4559 patients admitted with LBRF- like symptoms, 4178 (91.6%) were males and 381 (8.4%) were females. Most of the patients (74.2%) were within age groups 11–20 years. The majority of patients (94.4%) were from urban residence. The overall prevalence of LBRF was 225 (4.9%) and the highest prevalence 171 (5.1%) was observed in age groups of 11–20 years. The association between seasonal variation and prevalence of LBRF showed that more patients with positive for Borrelia species were recorded in dry 27 (9.7%) than wet 198 (4.6%) seasons (P < 0.001). Finally, a trend in prevalence of LBRF for the last four years showed that the highest numbers of cases were documented in 2010. Conclusion The overall prevalence of LBRF was high and the highest prevalence was observed in young age groups. Moreover, most of the patients with LBRF were from urban dwellers. Therefore, health education should be delivered towards LBRF prevention in the city. PMID:24742342

  5. Teratological hermaphroditism in the chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1957-01-01

    The anomalous condition of hermaphroditism appears to be no less rare in fish than in other normally dioecious animals. Previous records of bisexuality' in the Pacific salmons, Oncorhynchus spp., are few in number despite the intensive study accorded this group. Rutter (1902) reported the condition in two king salmon (O. tshawytscha); Crawford (1927) reported the condition in a silver salmon (O. kisutch); and Gibbs (1956) described a bisexual steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and briefly noted another instance of hermaphroditism in the king salmon. We wish to record an example of this anomaly in the chum salmon (O. keta).

  6. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; Xiao, Jie; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Lu, Jun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation, and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  7. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; ...

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation,more » and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.« less

  8. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  9. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems. PMID:25630763

  10. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z D; Carlson, T J; Li, H; Xiao, J; Myjak, M J; Lu, J; Martinez, J J; Woodley, C M; Weiland, M A; Eppard, M B

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  11. Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

  12. Time-Delayed Subsidies: Interspecies Population Effects in Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle C.; Reynolds, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species. PMID:24911974

  13. Evaluation of a chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in both the laboratory and the field. Chinook salmon in laboratory tanks were fed alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), the predominant food of chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. Food consumption and growth by chinook salmon during the experiment were measured. To estimate the efficiency with which chinook salmon retain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from their food in the laboratory, PCB concentrations of the alewife and of the chinook salmon at both the beginning and end of the experiment were determined. Based on our laboratory evaluation, the bioenergetics model was furnishing unbiased estimates of food consumption by chinook salmon. Additionally, from the laboratory experiment, we calculated that chinook salmon retained 75% of the PCBs contained within their food. In an earlier study, assimilation rate of PCBs to chinook salmon from their food in Lake Michigan was estimated at 53%, thereby suggesting that the model was substantially overestimating food consumption by chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. However, we concluded that field performance of the model could not be accurately assessed because PCB assimilation efficiency is dependent on feeding rate, and feeding rate of chinook salmon was likely much lower in our laboratory tanks than in Lake Michigan.

  14. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  15. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  16. The Genome of Borrelia recurrentis, the Agent of Deadly Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever, Is a Degraded Subset of Tick-Borne Borrelia duttonii

    PubMed Central

    Lescot, Magali; Audic, Stéphane; Robert, Catherine; Nguyen, Thi Tien; Blanc, Guillaume; Cutler, Sally J.; Wincker, Patrick; Couloux, Arnaud; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to understand how a tick-borne pathogen adapts to the body louse, we sequenced and compared the genomes of the recurrent fever agents Borrelia recurrentis and B. duttonii. The 1,242,163–1,574,910-bp fragmented genomes of B. recurrentis and B. duttonii contain a unique 23-kb linear plasmid. This linear plasmid exhibits a large polyT track within the promoter region of an intact variable large protein gene and a telomere resolvase that is unique to Borrelia. The genome content is characterized by several repeat families, including antigenic lipoproteins. B. recurrentis exhibited a 20.4% genome size reduction and appeared to be a strain of B. duttonii, with a decaying genome, possibly due to the accumulation of genomic errors induced by the loss of recA and mutS. Accompanying this were increases in the number of impaired genes and a reduction in coding capacity, including surface-exposed lipoproteins and putative virulence factors. Analysis of the reconstructed ancestral sequence compared to B. duttonii and B. recurrentis was consistent with the accelerated evolution observed in B. recurrentis. Vector specialization of louse-borne pathogens responsible for major epidemics was associated with rapid genome reduction. The correlation between gene loss and increased virulence of B. recurrentis parallels that of Rickettsia prowazekii, with both species being genomic subsets of less-virulent strains. PMID:18787695

  17. Some Practical Considerations in the Control of Louse-borne Typhus Fever in Great Britain in the Light of Experience in Russia, Poland, Rumania and China

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Melville D.

    1941-01-01

    This paper deals with some aspects of the control of louse-borne typhus fever. The epidemic form is associated with famine and overcrowding. In producing an epidemic in a hitherto endemic area malnutrition is of greater importance than over-crowding; another factor which brings this about is widespread movement of civil or military population thus bringing non-immunes into a district where typhus is endemic. Endemic typhus usually occurs in the early months of the year, whilst the epidemic form may appear at any time. Conditions under which epidemic typhus occurs favour the outbreak of other diseases so that an uncomplicated case is rarely seen. Louse-borne typhus fever lasts from twelve to sixteen days. The incubation period is usually twelve to fourteen days, though it may be from five to twenty-one days. The onset is sudden, but is often preceded by malaise and a rise of temperature. Two common initial symptoms are acute frontal or occipital headache and bronchitis. The first sign may be mental confusion or delirium. Acute delirium is usually present after the first week. PMID:19992447

  18. Dietary calcein marking of brook trout, Atlantic salmon, yellow perch, and coho salmon scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ostrowski, C.S.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7-10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93-98% in Atlantic salmon, 60% in yellow perch, and 0% in coho salmon. However, when coho salmon were fed 5.25 g calcein/kg feed, 100% marking was observed 7-10 d postmarking. Brook trout were successfully marked twice with distinct bands when fed calcein 5 months apart. Brook trout scale pixel luminosity increased as dietary calcein increased in experiment 2. For the second calcein mark, scale pixel luminosity from brook trout fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed was numerically higher (P < 0.08) than scales from fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed. Mean pixel luminosity of calcein-marked Atlantic salmon scales was 57.7 for fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed and 55.2 for fish fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed. Although feed acceptance presented a problem in yellow perch, these experiments provide evidence that dietary calcein is a viable tool for marking fish for stock identification. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  19. Basis of acoustic discrimination of Chinook salmon from other salmons by echolocating Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Horne, John K; Jones, Christopher

    2010-10-01

    The "resident" ecotype of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the waters of British Columbia and Washington State have a strong preference for Chinook salmon even in months when Chinook comprise less than about 10% of the salmon population. The foraging behavior of killer whales suggests that they depend on echolocation to detect and recognize their prey. In order to determine possible cues in echoes from salmon species, a series of backscatter measurements were made at the Applied Physics Laboratory (Univ. of Wash.) Facility on Lake Union, on three different salmon species using simulated killer whale echolocation signals. The fish were attached to a monofilament net panel and rotated while echoes were collected, digitized and stored on a laptop computer. Three transducer depths were used; same depth, 22° and 45° above the horizontal plane of the fish. Echoes were collected from five Chinook, three coho and one sockeye salmon. Radiograph images of all specimens were obtained to examine the swimbladder shape and orientation. The results show that echo structure from similar length but different species of salmon were different and probably recognizable by foraging killer whales.

  20. Estuarine Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Western Alaska: a Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Hillgruber, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, large declines in numbers of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha returning to the Arctic-YukonKuskokwim (AYK) region (Alaska, USA) illuminated the need for an improved understanding of the variables controlling salmon abundance at all life stages. In addressing questions about salmon abundance, large gaps in our knowledge of basic salmon life history and the critical early marine life stage were revealed. In this paper, results from studies conducted on the estuarine ecology of juvenile salmon in western Alaska are summarized and compared, emphasizing timing and distribution during outmigration, environmental conditions, age and growth, feeding, and energy content of salmon smolts. In western Alaska, water temperature dramatically changes with season, ranging from 0°C after ice melt in late spring/early summer to 19°C in July. Juvenile salmon were found in AYK estuaries from early May until August or September, but to date no information is available on their residence duration or survival probability. Chum salmon were the most abundant juvenile salmon reported, ranging in percent catch from <0.1% to 4.7% and most research effort has focused on this species. Abundances of Chinook salmon, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and pink salmon O. gorbuscha varied among estuaries, while coho salmon O. kisutch juveniles were consistently rare, never amounting to more than 0.8% of the catch. Dietary composition of juvenile salmon was highly variable and a shift was commonly reported from epibenthic and neustonic prey in lower salinity water to pelagic prey in higher salinity water. Gaps in the knowledge of AYK salmon estuarine ecology are still evident. For example, data on outmigration patterns and residence timing and duration, rearing conditions and their effect on diet, growth, and survival are often completely lacking or available only for few selected years and sites. Filling gaps in knowledge concerning salmon

  1. SALMON RECOVERY: CATEGORIZING AGENTS, DRIVERS, AND DELUSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the southern region of western North America, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline was induced by an extensively studied combination of causal agents. The public appears to support reversing the downward trajectory for wild sal...

  2. Dams and Salmon: A Northwest Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Michael; Tromley, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an experiential exercise in which participants assume the roles of various stakeholder groups in the controversy surrounding possible dam removal to revive northwestern U. S. salmon populations. The role-play (a) increases environmental awareness in the context of the competing interests various stakeholders have in our…

  3. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  4. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  5. SCIENCE, POLICY, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  6. Yukon River King Salmon - Ichthyophonus Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-lethal sampling of adult spawning Chinook salmon for Ichthyophonus was developed using known infected fish and live returning spawners. The method consisted of taking punch biopsies of skin and muscle and culturing the biopsy tissue in vitro. A 100% correlation was made between known infected fish and cultured biopsy tissue. 

  7. Salmon recovery planning using the VELMA model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a set of tools to provide decision support for community-based salmon recovery planning in Pacific Northwest watersheds. This seminar describes how these tools are being integrated and applied in collaboration with Puget Sound tribes and community stakeholders to add...

  8. Wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho: Some recovery strategies that just might work

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify salmon recovery options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project doe...

  9. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, Rachel E.; Allen, Jennifer M.; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability. PMID:26339539

  10. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Levi, Taal; Wheat, Rachel E; Allen, Jennifer M; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability.

  11. Juvenile Salmon Usage of the Skeena River Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S.; Moore, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2–8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations

  12. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    PubMed

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  13. 1,2-Octanediol, a Novel Surfactant, for Treating Head Louse Infestation: Identification of Activity, Formulation, and Randomised, Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian F.; Lee, Peter N.; Kay, Katrina; Jones, Ruth; Brunton, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in developing physically active pediculicides has identified new active substances. The objective was to evaluate a new treatment for clinical efficacy. Methods and Findings We describe the selection of 1,2-octanediol as a potential pediculicide. Clinical studies were community based. The main outcome measure was no live lice, after two treatments, with follow up visits over 14 days. Study 1 was a proof of concept with 18/20 (90%) participants cured. Study 2 was a multicentre, parallel, randomised, observer-blind study (520 participants) that compared 0.5% malathion liquid with 1,2-octanediol lotion (20% alcohol) applied 2–2.5 hours or 8 hours/overnight. 1,2-octanediol lotion was significantly (p<0.0005) more effective with success for 124/175 (70.9%) RR = 1.50 (97.5% CI, 1.22 to 1.85) for 2–2.5 hours, and 153/174 (87.9%) RR = 1.86 (97.5% CI, 1.54 to 2.26) for 8 hours/overnight compared with 81/171 (47.4%) for malathion. Study 3, a two centre, parallel, randomised, observer-blind study (121 participants), compared 1,2-octanediol lotion, 2–2.5 hours with 1,2-octanediol alcohol free mousse applied for 2–2.5 hours or 8 hours/overnight. The mousse applied for 8 hours/overnight cured 31/40 (77.5%), compared with 24/40 (60.0%) for lotion (RR = 1.29, 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.75; NNT = 5.7) but mousse applied for 2–2.5 hours 17/41 (41.5%) was less effective than lotion (RR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.08). Adverse events were more common using 1,2-octanediol lotion at both 2–2.5 hours (12.0%, p = 0.001) and 8 hours/overnight (14.9%, p<0.0005), compared with 0.5% malathion (2.3%). Similar reactions were more frequent (p<0.045) using lotion compared with mousse. Conclusions 1,2-octanediol was found to eliminate head louse infestation. It is believed to disrupt the insect's cuticular lipid, resulting in dehydration. The alcohol free mousse is more acceptable exhibiting significantly fewer adverse reactions. Trial registrations

  14. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Hydrologic unit name Hydrologic unit number Sockeye salmon Spring/summer chinook salmon Fall chinook salmon Hells Canyon 17060101 17060101 Imnaha 17060102 17060102...

  15. Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish “use” these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

  16. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) EFH includes all streams, estuaries, marine waters, and other water bodies occupied or historically accessible to pink salmon within Washington State,...

  17. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) EFH includes all streams, estuaries, marine waters, and other water bodies occupied or historically accessible to pink salmon within Washington State,...

  18. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) EFH includes all streams, estuaries, marine waters, and other water bodies occupied or historically accessible to pink salmon within Washington State,...

  19. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) EFH includes all streams, estuaries, marine waters, and other water bodies occupied or historically accessible to pink salmon within Washington State,...

  20. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, D.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  1. Concentrations of trace elements in Pacific and Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforova, N. K.; Tsygankov, V. Yu.; Boyarova, M. D.; Lukyanova, O. N.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were analyzed in the two most abundant species of Pacific salmon, chum and pink salmon, caught in the Kuril Islands at the end of July, 2013. The concentrations of toxic elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cd) in males and females of these species are below the maximum permissible concentrations for seafood. It was found that farmed filleted Atlantic salmon are dominated by Zn and Cu, while muscles of wild salmon are dominated by Pb. Observed differences are obviously related to peculiar environmental geochemical conditions: anthropogenic impact for Atlantic salmon grown in coastal waters and the influence of the natural factors volcanism and upwelling for wild salmon from the Kuril waters.

  2. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  3. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at King Salmon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is conducting preliminary environmental assessments at most of its present or former facilities in Alaska. Information about environmental conditions at King Salmon, Alaska are presented in this report. This report gives an overview of the geology, hydro- logy, and climate of the King Salmon area and describes general geohydrologic conditions. A thick alluvial aquifer underlies King Salmon and both ground water and surface water are plentiful in the area.

  4. Effect of inclusion of salmon roe on characteristics of salmon baby food products.

    PubMed

    DeSantos, F A; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S

    2010-05-01

    Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree + chunks, puree + pink row, puree + pink row + chunks, puree + red row, puree + red roe + chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristics were determined. Samples containing roe were lighter and less red (by approximately 3 to 4 a* units) than formulations without roe regardless of the type of roe added. Visual pink color followed the same trend. Formulations with roe, both pink and sockeye, were almost twice as fibrous as formulations without roe. Salmon flavor was stronger in samples containing roe from sockeye salmon. In the 2nd study, retort processed samples were stored at room temperature for 6 mo. Sweaty odor decreased over storage time. Visual cream-brown color correlated with L*, a*, b*, and chroma values (r =-0.80, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.84, respectively). TBARS values of all samples were < 0.35 mg MDA/kg and declined after month 0 indicating that these products were oxidatively stable. Overall, adding roe to these products lightened them and increased fibrous texture. Samples containing sockeye salmon roe had stronger salmon flavor. Once retort processed, these products were quite stable in terms of color, odor, and TBARS. Potential nutrient contributions of this type of product to the infant diet warrant additional research.

  5. Does increased intake of salmon increase markers of oxidative stress in pregnant women? The salmon in pregnancy study.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Cruz E; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Mesa, María Dolores; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Vlachava, Maria; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Diaper, Norma D; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Gil, Angel; Basu, Samar

    2011-12-01

    The Salmon in Pregnancy Study provided two meals of salmon per week to pregnant women from week 20 of gestation; the control group maintained their habitual diet low in oily fish. Salmon is a rich source of marine n-3 fatty acids. Since marine n-3 fatty acids may increase oxidative stress, we investigated whether increased salmon consumption could affect markers of oxidative stress in mid and late pregnancy. Urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and plasma lipid peroxide concentrations did not change from week 20 to 38 of pregnancy and were not altered by increased consumption of salmon. Thus, increased intake of salmon during pregnancy does not increase oxidative stress, as judged by the markers of oxidative damage to lipids and DNA measured herein.

  6. Diphyllobothrium latum infection after eating domestic salmon flesh.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Suhk, H C; Pai, K S; Shin, H J; Jung, S Y; Han, E T; Chai, J Y

    2001-12-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum infection in human is not common in Korea and only thirty seven cases have been reported since 1921. We report two cases of fish tapeworm infection after ingestion of raw cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) caught in the domestic river. Among four family members who ate together raw salmon flesh six months ago, just two, mother and daughter, were infected. It is our expectation that the salmon associated tapeworm infections would be enlisted as one of the major parasitic problems with the growing consumption of salmon in Korea.

  7. Diphyllobothrium latum infection after eating domestic salmon flesh

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Suhk, Hyo-Chung; Shin, Ho-Jun; Jung, Suk-Yul; Han, Eun-Taek; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2001-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum infection in human is not common in Korea and only thirty seven cases have been reported since 1921. We report two cases of fish tapeworm infection after Ingestion of raw cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) caught in the domestic river. Among four family members who ate together raw salmon flesh six months ago, just two, mother and daughter, were infected. It is our expectation that the salmon associated tapeworm infections would be enlisted as one of the major parasitic problems with the growing consumption of salmon in Korea. PMID:11775333

  8. Chronic oral DDT toxicity in juvenile coho and chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhler, Donald R.; Rasmusson, Mary E.; Shanks, W.E.

    1969-01-01

    Technical and p,p′-DDT was incorporated into test diets and fed to juvenile chinook and coho salmon for periods as long as 95 days. Pure p,p′-DDT was slightly more toxic to young salmon than was the technical DDT mixture. Chinook salmon appeared to be 2–3 times more sensitive to a given concentration of DDT in the diet than were coho salmon. The size of the fish greatly influenced toxicity, smaller younger fish being more susceptible to a given diet than larger older fish. The dose of DDT accumulated within the median survival time ranged from 27–73 mg/kg for chinook salmon and from 56–72 mg/kg for coho salmon. The extrapolated 90-dose LD50 (Hayes, 1967) for young chinook and coho salmon were 0.0275 and 0.064 mg/kg/day, respectively. Liver size decreased on prolonged feeding with DDT, and carcass lipid content was increased. A severe surface ulceration of the nose region appeared in coho salmon fed DDT over long periods. In addition, an interesting localized degeneration of the distal convoluted tubule was observed in the kidney of coho salmon receiving DDT.

  9. Interspecific habitat associations of juvenile salmonids in Lake Ontario tributaries: implications for Atlantic salmon restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Diel variation in habitat use of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), subyearling coho salmon (O. kisutch), yearling steelhead (O. mykiss), and yearling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was examined during the spring in two tributaries of Lake Ontario. A total of 1318 habitat observations were made on juvenile salmonids including 367 on steelhead, 351 on Chinook salmon, 333 on Atlantic salmon, and 261 on coho salmon. Steelhead exhibited the most diel variation in habitat use and Chinook the least. Juvenile salmonids were generally associated with more cover and larger substrate during the day in both streams. Interspecific differences in habitat use in both streams occurred with Atlantic salmon (fast velocities) and coho salmon (pools) using the least similar habitat. Chinook salmon and Atlantic salmon used similar habitat in both streams. These findings should help guide future management actions specific to habitat protection and restoration of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries.

  10. Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon resulting from interbreeding with escaped farmed salmon: complexities in hybrid fitness

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J; Cook, Adam M; Eddington, James D; Bentzen, Paul; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Interbreeding between artificially-selected and wild organisms can have negative fitness consequences for the latter. In the Northwest Atlantic, farmed Atlantic salmon recurrently escape into the wild and enter rivers where small, declining populations of wild salmon breed. Most farmed salmon in the region derive from an ancestral source population that occupies a nonacidified river (pH 6.0–6.5). Yet many wild populations with which escaped farmed salmon might interbreed inhabit acidified rivers (pH 4.6–5.2). Using common garden experimentation, and examining two early-life history stages across two generations of interbreeding, we showed that wild salmon populations inhabiting acidified rivers had higher survival at acidified pH than farmed salmon or F1 farmed-wild hybrids. In contrast, however, there was limited evidence for reduced performance in backcrosses, and F2 farmed-wild hybrids performed better or equally well to wild salmon. Wild salmon also survived or grew better at nonacidified than acidified pH, and wild and farmed salmon survived equally well at nonacidified pH. Thus, for acid tolerance and the stages examined, we found some evidence both for and against the theory that repeated farmed-wild interbreeding may reduce adaptive genetic variation in the wild and thereby negatively affect the persistence of depleted wild populations. PMID:25567731

  11. SALMON-TRINITY ALPS WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotz, Preston E.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness in the Klamath Mountains province occupies an area of about 648 sq mi in parts of Trinity, Siskiyou, and Humboldt Counties, northwestern California. As a result of field studies it was determined that the Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness has an area with substantiated potential for gold resources in known lode deposits. Small amounts of quicksilver have been produced from one mine but there is little promise for the discovery of additional mercury resources. Geochemical sampling showed that anomalously high amounts of several other metals occur in a few places, but there is little promise for the discovery of energy or mineral resources other than mercury and gold.

  12. New host/parasite record for very rare chewing louse Cuculotogaster arabicus (Clay, 1938) (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) on endemic mountain partridges of Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Mohamed Gamal El-Den; Alahmed, Azzam; Shobrak, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    The endemic avifauna of Arabia is unique and characteristic through the whole region. Little is known about these birds and their ectoparasites. The Arabian partridge Alectoris melanocephala (Rüppell, 1835) and Philby's partridge Alectoris philbyi Lowe, 1934 are two endemic species which are distributed through the Sarawat Mountains in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Captive breeding population of these birds were examined for chewing lice at the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) near Ta'if. Only one rare species of louse, Cuculotogaster arabicus (Clay 1938), was found to infest these birds. The occurrence of such species is considered a first record of the genus Cuculotogaster from Saudi Arabia, and the association of C. arabicus with Philby's partridge is considered a new host/parasite association. The clear diagnostic characters, high definition photos, and drawing of male genitalia are available through this paper.

  13. Clinical trial showing superiority of a coconut and anise spray over permethrin 0.43% lotion for head louse infestation, ISRCTN96469780.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian F; Brunton, Elizabeth R; Burgess, Nazma A

    2010-01-01

    Permethrin is the most widely used pediculicide, but evidence of resistance from several countries and anecdotal reports from Germany suggest that permethrin lotion is now less effective. We designed a randomized, controlled, parallel group trial involving 100 participants with active head louse infestation to investigate the activity of a coconut and anise spray and to see whether permethrin lotion is still effective, using two applications of product 9 days apart. The spray was significantly more successful (41/50, 82.0%) cures compared with permethrin (21/50, 42.0%; p < 0.0001, difference 40.0%, 95% confidence interval of 22.5% to 57.5%). Per-protocol success was 83.3% and 44.7%, respectively. Thirty-three people reported irritant reactions following alcohol contact with excoriated skin. We concluded that, although permethrin lotion is still effective for some people, the coconut and anise spray can be a significantly more effective alternative treatment.

  14. White-spot disease of salmon fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazuranich, J.J.; Nielson, W.E.

    1959-01-01

     White-spot disease, sometimes referred to as coagulated-yolk disease, has been associated with excessive mortalities occurring among the fry and early fingerling stages of the fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytacha) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Stations at Carson, Cook, Underwood, and Willard, Washington. This disease of eggs and fry should not be confused with the "white-spot" infection that is caused in fingerlings by members of the protozoan genus Ichthyophthirius.

  15. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    of assessment used to implement the ESA. The loss or endangerment of an ESU is considered significant to the evolutionary persistence of a species ...Sound Species Assessment1 1992 2002 Chinook salmon Total 29 27 Critical 4 5 Depressed 8 14 Healthy 10 4 Unknown 7 3 Not Rated 0 1 Extinct 0...Critical 1 1 Depressed 14 19 Healthy 16 8 Unknown 29 31 Not Rated 0 1 Extinct 0 0 Species Assessment1 1992 2002 Table 2 continued/ Within Puget

  16. Salmon Spawning Effects on Streambed Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, T. H.; Buffington, J. M.; Yager, E.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Female salmon build nests ("redds") in streambeds to protect their eggs from predation and damage by bed scour. During spawning, streambed material is mixed, fine sediment is winnowed downstream, and sediment is moved into a tailspill mound resembling the shape of a dune. Redd surfaces are coarser and better sorted than unspawned beds, which is thought to increase redd stability because larger grains are heavier and harder to move and sorting leads to higher friction angles for grain mobility. However, spawning also loosens sediment and creates topography that accelerates flow, both of which may increase particle mobility. We address factors controlling the relative stability of redds and unspawned beds using simulated salmon redds and water worked ("unspawned") beds composed of mixed-grain surfaces in a laboratory flume. Results show that simulated spawning lowered packing resistance to particle mobility on redds by an average of 32-39% compared to unspawned beds. Reductions in packing were sufficient to counter the higher inherent stability of relatively coarse, well sorted grains on redds, overall reducing critical shear stress by 8-20% relative to unspawned beds. In addition, boundary shear stress was 13-41% higher on redds due to flow convergence over the tailspill structure. Finally, redd instability relative to unspawned beds was observed in visual measurements of grain mobility, where bed-averaged shear stress was 22% lower at incipient motion and 29% lower at the discharge that mobilized all grain sizes on redds. Results of these complementary observations, along with sediment mass transport rates being nearly five times higher on a redd than an unspawned bed, indicate that redds are unstable compared to unspawned beds. Given these findings, further research is needed to investigate linkages between spawning disturbance and streambed mobility that may affect salmon reproduction in streams, and to assess whether a certain level of bed disturbance from

  17. Chinook salmon foraging patterns in a changing Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Claramunt, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Since Pacific salmon stocking began in Lake Michigan, managers have attempted to maintain salmon abundance at high levels within what can be sustained by available prey fishes, primarily Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are the primary apex predators in pelagic Lake Michigan and patterns in their prey selection (by species and size) may strongly influence pelagic prey fish communities in any given year. In 1994–1996, there were larger Alewives, relatively more abundant alternative prey species, fewer Chinook Salmon, and fewer invasive species in Lake Michigan than in 2009–2010. The years 2009–2010 were instead characterized by smaller, leaner Alewives, fewer alternative prey species, higher abundance of Chinook Salmon, a firmly established nonnative benthic community, and reduced abundance of Diporeia, an important food of Lake Michigan prey fish. We characterized Chinook Salmon diets, prey species selectivity, and prey size selectivity between 1994–1996 and 2009–2010 time periods. In 1994–1996, Alewife as prey represented a smaller percentage of Chinook Salmon diets than in 2009–2010, when alewife comprised over 90% of Chinook Salmon diets, possibly due to declines in alternative prey fish populations. The size of Alewives eaten by Chinook Salmon also decreased between these two time periods. For the largest Chinook Salmon in 2009–2010, the average size of Alewife prey was nearly 50 mm total length shorter than in 1994–1996. We suggest that changes in the Lake Michigan food web, such as the decline in Diporeia, may have contributed to the relatively low abundance of large Alewives during the late 2000s by heightening the effect of predation from top predators like Chinook Salmon, which have retained a preference for Alewife and now forage with greater frequency on smaller Alewives.

  18. Integrating Salmon Recovery, Clean Water Act Compliance ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    "The South Fork Nooksack River (SFNR) is an important tributary to the Nooksack River, Bellingham Bay, and the Salish Sea. The South Fork Nooksack River comprises one of the 22 independent populations of spring Chinook in the Puget Sound Chinook Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU), which are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The population is considered essential for recovery of the ESU. The SFNR has suffered from legacy impacts, temperature exceedances and fine sediment, due to forestry, agriculture, flood control, and transportation facilities. The temperature exceedances threaten spring Chinook salmon survival and as such under the Clean Water Act, this pollution must be addressed through a total maximum daily load (TMDL) regulatory program. Further, climate change is projected to cumulatively add to the existing legacy impacts. Millions of dollars are spent on salmon habitat restoration in the SFNR that primarily addresses these legacy impacts, but few if any restoration actions take climate change into direct consideration. The Nooksack Indian Tribe and USEPA-ORD jointly completed a climate change pilot research project that addresses legacy impacts, ESA recovery actions, CWA regulatory compliance, and salmon habitat restoration in one comprehensive project. The project evaluates how land use impacts, including altered hydrology, stream temperature, sediment dynamics, and flooding of adjacent river floodplains, combined with pr

  19. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  20. Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  1. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  2. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  3. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  4. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 4

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  5. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  6. 77 FR 12800 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Revocation of Antidumping and... chilled Atlantic salmon (``salmon'') from Norway would not be likely to lead to the continuation or... initiated and the ITC instituted sunset reviews of the AD and CVD orders on salmon from Norway, pursuant...

  7. 78 FR 45478 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    .../Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument... route domestic airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface at the Salmon VOR/DME... controlled airspace at the Salmon VOR/ DME, Salmon, ID. This proposal will be subject to an...

  8. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review). Issued: February 17, 2012....

  9. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Tapeworm Larvae in Salmon from North America.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Oros, Mikuláš; Ferguson, Jayde; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-02-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is reemerging because of global importation and increased popularity of eating raw fish. We detected Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense plerocercoids in the musculature of wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Alaska, USA. Therefore, salmon from the American and Asian Pacific coasts and elsewhere pose potential dangers for persons who eat these fish raw.

  10. RESTORING SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: LEGACIES, CHOICES, AND TRAJECTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general policy goal of protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's fou...

  11. Indirect benefits for female salmon from mating with brown trout.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana G F; Beall, Edward; Morán, Paloma; Martinez, Jose L; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    By genetic analysis of 1625 samples from 10 south European rivers, we have found that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar hybridize with sympatric brown trout S. trutta in the wild and provide the female in most heterospecific crosses. Hybrids exhibit reduced fertility and could be considered a wasted reproductive effort by salmon females. In 7 experiments involving salmon females, large brown trout males, and small salmon male sneakers, reproductive success of Atlantic salmon females mating with brown trout males was not significantly different from that of 5 experiments of females mating with conspecific males because small Atlantic salmon sneakers fertilized most ova (mean 93%) in salmon x trout matings. Although egg retention tended to be higher in heterospecific than in conspecific crosses (mean 5.7% vs. 20.5% respectively), mean offspring survival was 24.4% and 30.3%, respectively (t = 1.5 x 10(-8), not significant). Brown trout males taking on a courting role may benefit late-maturing females in absence or scarcity of anadromous salmon males because they play a protective role against disturbances from other fishes (including cannibal sneakers).

  12. Histopathology of fish. II. The salmon-poisoning fluk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1956-01-01

    THE SALMON-POISONING FLUKE is misnamed as far as the fish culturist is concerned, for the disease affects dogs, not fish. There is considerable evidence, however, that fish may also suffer from the complex chain of events leading from snail to dying dog. Histological studies indicate that young salmon and trout may be severely damaged by the encysted stage of the fluke.

  13. ESTIMATING THE SIZE OF HISTORICAL COASTAL OREGON SALMON RUNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing the abundance of salmon in Oregon's rivers and streams is a high priority public policy objective. Salmon runs have been reduced from pre-development conditions (typically defined as prior to the 1850s), but it is unclear by how much. Considerable public and private ...

  14. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: IN SEARCH OF A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds...

  15. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: THE MOST LIKELY FUTURE AND SOME ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of...

  16. SALMON AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: TROUBLESOME QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest and California, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. In response to requirements of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, the Canadian Species at Risk Act, and ...

  17. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Across the Pacific Northwest region of North America, many runs of wild (in contrast to hatchery-bred) salmon have declined and some have been extirpated. Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, socially divisive, and ...

  18. Novel air-based system transfers large salmon during harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April of 2015, near the end of our last harvest of 4-6 kg Atlantic salmon, we evaluated an exciting new fish transport technology from Whooshh Innovations (Bellevue, WA) that uses air to move live Atlantic salmon from our growout tank to a finishing/purging tank. The Whooshh system uses a combina...

  19. Spawning salmon and the phenology of emergence in stream insects

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jonathan W.; Schindler, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Phenological dynamics are controlled by environmental factors, disturbance regimes and species interactions that alter growth or mortality risk. Ecosystem engineers can be a key source of disturbance, yet their effects on the phenologies of co-occurring organisms are virtually unexplored. We investigated how the abundance of a dominant ecosystem engineer, spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), alters the emergence phenology of stream insects. In streams with high densities of salmon, peak insect emergence occurred in early July, immediately prior to salmon spawning. By contrast, peak insect emergence in streams with low densities of salmon was weeks later and more protracted. The emergence of specific taxa was also significantly related to salmon density. A common rearing experiment revealed that differences in emergence timing are maintained in the absence of spawning salmon. We hypothesize that these patterns are probably driven by predictable and severe disturbance from nest-digging salmon driving local adaptation and being a trait filter of insect emergence. Thus, salmon regulate the timing and duration of aquatic insect emergence, a cross-ecosystem flux from streams to riparian systems. PMID:20129980

  20. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Tapeworm Larvae in Salmon from North America

    PubMed Central

    Oros, Mikuláš; Ferguson, Jayde; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is reemerging because of global importation and increased popularity of eating raw fish. We detected Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense plerocercoids in the musculature of wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Alaska, USA. Therefore, salmon from the American and Asian Pacific coasts and elsewhere pose potential dangers for persons who eat these fish raw. PMID:28098540

  1. Stabilizing Smoked Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) Tissue after Extraction of Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska salmon oils are rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are prized by the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the tissue that remains after oil extraction does not have an established market. Discarded salmon tissues were preserved using a combination of smoke-processing and acid...

  2. Stabilizing PUFA-rich oils from salmon heads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Alaska, discarded salmon heads represent a food-grade source of valuable long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, these highly unsaturated marine oils are susceptible to oxidation. This research explored smoke-processing as a technology to reduce oxidation of salmon oil during...

  3. Listen to Our Salmon: Forests, Rivers and Oceans are Connected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Andrea; Brown, Rod

    1998-01-01

    A university-based researcher and a grade seven teacher collaborated to plan a science curriculum that would help elementary school students discover the world of salmon and understand its life cycle. Describes key components of the salmon-enhancement program and river-health project. A student's record of hatching chum fry in the classroom is…

  4. PACIFIC SALMON FISHERIES OF THE WORLD: STATUS, PROSPECTS, AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific have declined significantly from historic levels, but not as dramatically as have Atlantic salmon. Hatchery production has been used to maintain some runs in the southern region of the range (e.g., Japan, Kor...

  5. Preserving Salmon Byproducts through Smoke-Processing Prior to Ensilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmon is an important fishery in Alaska and accounts for about 9% of the annual catch. Processing these fish results in valuable byproducts that contain oils with high concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Previous research demonstrated that when discarded salmon head...

  6. A critical life stage of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: behaviour and survival during the smolt and initial post-smolt migration.

    PubMed

    Thorstad, E B; Whoriskey, F; Uglem, I; Moore, A; Rikardsen, A H; Finstad, B

    2012-07-01

    The anadromous life cycle of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar involves long migrations to novel environments and challenging physiological transformations when moving between salt-free and salt-rich waters. In this article, (1) environmental factors affecting the migration behaviour and survival of smolts and post-smolts during the river, estuarine and early marine phases, (2) how behavioural patterns are linked to survival and (3) how anthropogenic factors affect migration and survival are synthesized and reviewed based on published literature. The timing of the smolt migration is important in determining marine survival. The timing varies among rivers, most likely as a consequence of local adaptations, to ensure sea entry during optimal periods. Smolts and post-smolts swim actively and fast during migration, but in areas with strong currents, their own movements may be overridden by current-induced transport. Progression rates during the early marine migration vary between 0.4 and 3.0 body lengths s(-1) relative to the ground. Reported mortality is 0.3-7.0% (median 2.3) km(-1) during downriver migration, 0.6-36% (median 6.0) km(-1) in estuaries and 0.3-3.4% (median 1.4) km(-1) in coastal areas. Estuaries and river mouths are the sites of the highest mortalities, with predation being a common cause. The mortality rates varied more among studies in estuaries than in rivers and marine areas, which probably reflects the huge variation among estuaries in their characteristics. Behaviour and survival during migration may also be affected by pollution, fish farming, sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis, hydropower development and other anthropogenic activities that may be directly lethal, delay migration or have indirect effects by inhibiting migration. Total mortality reported during early marine migration (up to 5-230 km from the river mouths) in the studies available to date varies between 8 and 71%. Hence, the early marine migration is a life stage with high mortalities, due

  7. Why aren't there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, D.L.; Behnke, R.J.; Gephard, S.R.; McCormick, S.D.; Reeves, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    Numbers of wild anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have declined demonstrably throughout their native range. The current status of runs on rivers historically supporting salmon indicate widespread declines and extirpations in Europe and North America primarily in southern portions of the range. Many of these declines or extirpations can be attributed to the construction of mainstem dams, pollution (including acid rain), and total dewatering of streams. Purported effects on declines during the 1960s through the 1990s include overfishing, and more recently, changing ocean conditions, and intensive aquaculture. Most factors affecting salmon numbers do not act singly, but rather in concert, which masks the relative contribution of each factor. Salmon researchers and managers should not look for a single culprit in declining numbers of salmon, but rather, seek solutions through rigorous data gathering and testing of multiple effects integrated across space and time.

  8. Habitat use by subyearling Chinook and coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The habitat use of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was examined in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. A total of 1781 habitat observations were made on Chinook salmon (698) and coho salmon (1083). During both spring and fall, subyearling coho salmon used pool habitat with abundant cover. During spring, principal component analysis revealed that water depth was the most important variable governing subyearling Chinook salmon habitat use. Substrate materials used by Chinook salmon in the spring and coho salmon in the fall were significantly smaller than were present on average within the study reaches. When the two species occurred sympatrically during spring they exhibited similar habitat selection. Although the habitat used by coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries was consistent with observations of habitat use in their native range, higher water velocities were less important to Chinook salmon than has previously been reported.

  9. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  10. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). (a) Requirements....

  11. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). (a) Requirements....

  12. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). (a) Requirements....

  13. THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT: OPTIONS TO PROTECT, RESTORE, ANE ENHANCE SALMON ALONG THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  14. Microbial ecology of the salmon necrobiome: evidence salmon carrion decomposition influences aquatic and terrestrial insect microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric

    2016-05-01

    Carrion decomposition is driven by complex relationships that affect necrobiome community (i.e. all organisms and their genes associated with a dead animal) interactions, such as insect species arrival time to carrion and microbial succession. Little is understood about how microbial communities interact with invertebrates at the aquatic-terrestrial habitat interface. The first objective of the study was to characterize internal microbial communities using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons for aquatic insects (three mayfly species) in streams with salmon carcasses compared with those in streams without salmon carcasses. The second objective was to assess the epinecrotic microbial communities of decomposing salmon carcasses (Oncorhynchus keta) compared with those of terrestrial necrophagous insects (Calliphora terraenovae larvae and adults) associated with the carcasses. There was a significant difference in the internal microbiomes of mayflies collected in salmon carcass-bearing streams and in non-carcass streams, while the developmental stage of blow flies was the governing factor in structuring necrophagous insect internal microbiota. Furthermore, the necrophagous internal microbiome was influenced by the resource on which the larvae developed, and changes in the adult microbiome varied temporally. Overall, these carrion subsidy-driven networks respond to resource pulses with bottom-up effects on consumer microbial structure, as revealed by shifting communities over space and time.

  15. Salmon Farming and Salmon People: Identity and Environment in the Leggatt Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Dorothee

    2003-01-01

    In October of 2001, the Leggatt Inquiry into salmon farming traveled to four small communities (Port Hardy, Tofino, Alert Bay, and Campbell River) close to the centers of operation for the finfish aquaculture industry in British Columbia. In doing so, it gave local people, particularly First Nations people, an opportunity to speak about salmon…

  16. Salmon Futures: Stakeholder-driven salmon management scenarios under changing environmental conditions on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trammell, E. J.; Krupa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the adaptive capacity of individuals within natural resource management agencies is a key component of assessing the vulnerability of salmon to future environmental change. We seek to explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula by exploring the drivers and implications of different salmon allocation scenarios through participatory workshops with managers. We present here the initial results from the first workshop, which explores the various drivers responsible for changes in salmon allocation. Ranging from global to local, and biophysical to socioeconomic, these drivers are also linked to specific actors in the region. These complex interactions comprise the Kenai Peninsula's social-ecological system and determine its ability to react to change. Using a stakeholder-driven scenario framework, we aim to: 1) explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies in the region by exploring and exposing managers to different but logically coherent salmon allocation scenarios; 2) build stakeholder confidence in the science of environmental change on the Kenai Peninsula; and 3) develop a decision support tool that helps regional resource managers better understand their changing environment. We utilize and present the scenario framework as a platform for integrating hydrologic, landscape, and cultural change information into actionable decisions, crafted by the stakeholders, so that landscape change on the Kenai becomes more coordinated.

  17. Antibody against infectious salmon anaemia virus among feral Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Archived sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that returned to the Penobscot River (Maine), Merrimack River (Massachusetts), and Connecticut River (in Massachusetts) from 1995 to 2002 were analysed for antibodies against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up to 60 samples were archived per river system per year. In a given year, the number of fish sampled by ELISA for ISAV antibodies in the Penobscot River ranged from 2.9 to 11.2, and the range of salmon sampled in the Merrimack River and the Connecticut River was 31.3-100 and 20.0-67.5, respectively. Archived sera were not available for the 1995 and 2002 year classes from the Connecticut River. In all, 1141 samples were processed; 14 serum samples tested positive for antibodies to ISAV. In the Penobscot River, serum from one fish tested positive in each of the 1995 and 1999 year-class returns, and sera from two fish tested positive in the 1998 returns. In the Merrimack River, sera from four fish tested positive in each of the 1996 and 1997 returns, and sera from two fish were positive in the 2002 return. None of the archived sera from Atlantic salmon that returned to the Connecticut River tested positive. ?? 2009 United States Government, Department of the Interior.

  18. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A.

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon and chum salmon detected by restriction enzyme analysis of polymerase chain reaction products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.; Spearman, R.; Wilmot, R.; Patton, J.; Bickman, J.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon from drainages in the Yukon River, the Kenai River, and Oregon and California rivers; and chum salmon from the Yukon River and vancouver Island, and Washington rivers. For each species, three different portions of the mtDNA molecule were amplified seperately using the polymerase chain reaction and then digested with at least 19 restrictions enzymes. Intraspecific sequence divergences between haplotypes were less than 0.01 base subsitution per nucleotide. Nine chum salmon haplotypes were identified. Yukon River chum salmon stocks displayed more haplotypes (8) occurred in all areas. Seven chinook salmon haplotypes were identified. Four haplotypes occurred in the Yukon and Kenai rviers and four occured in the Oregon/California, with only one haplotype shared between the regions. Sample sizes were too small to quantify the degree of stock seperation among drainages, but the patterns of variation that we observed suggest utility of the technique in genetic stock identification.

  20. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  1. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  2. Searching for a life history approach to salmon escapement management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E.E.; Symmes, E.W.; Margraf, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    A number of Pacific salmon populations have already been lost and many others throughout the range are in various states of decline. Recent research has documented that Pacific salmon carcasses serve as a key delivery vector of marine-derived nutrients into the freshwater portions of their ecosystems. This nutrient supply plays a critical biological feedback role in salmon sustainability by supporting juvenile salmon production. We first demonstrate how nutrient feedback potential to juvenile production may be unaccounted for in spawner-recruit models of populations under long-term exploitation. We then present a heuristic, life history-based, spreadsheet survival model that incorporates salmon carcass-driven nutrient feedback to the freshwater components of the salmon ecosystem. The productivity of a hypothetical coho salmon population was simulated using rates from the literature for survival from spawner to egg, egg to fry, fry to smolt, and smolt to adult. The effects of climate variation and nutrient feedback on survival were incorporated, as were density-dependent effects of the numbers of spawners and fry on freshwater survival of eggs and juveniles. The unexploited equilibrium population was subjected to 100 years of 20, 40, 60, and 80% harvest. Each harvest scenario greater than 20% brought the population to a reduced steady state, regardless of generous compensatory survival at low population sizes. Increasing harvest reduced the positive effects of nutrient contributions to population growth. Salmon researchers should further explore this modeling approach for establishing escapement goals. Given the importance of nutrient feedback, managers should strive for generous escapements that support nutrient rebuilding, as well as egg deposition, to ensure strong future salmon production.

  3. A virus disease of sockeye salmon: Interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, S.W.; Guenther, R.W.; Rucker, R.R.

    1954-01-01

    Since 1951 a disease, usually occurring in late spring or early summer, has caused severe losses in 3- to 12-month-old fingerling sockeye salmon in hatcheries in the State of Washington. The disease is characterized by an explosive outbreak, mortality usually 80 percent or greater, and a residual spinal deformity in a small percentage of the surviving fish, and its specificity for the one species of salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. (The anadromous strain of this species is commonly known as sockeye, blueback, or red salmon, while the fresh-water strain is called kokanee or silver trout.) The etiological agent is believed to be a virus.

  4. Temporal signal processing of dolphin biosonar echoes from salmon prey.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Ou, Hui Helen

    2014-08-01

    Killer whales project short broadband biosonar clicks. The broadband nature of the clicks provides good temporal resolution of echo highlights and allows for the discriminations of salmon prey. The echoes contain many highlights as the signals reflect off different surfaces and parts of the fish body and swim bladder. The temporal characteristics of echoes from salmon are highly aspect dependent and six temporal parameters were used in a support vector machine to discriminate between species. Results suggest that killer whales can classify salmon based on their echoes and provide some insight as to which features might enable the classification.

  5. Salmon calcitonin: a review of current and future therapeutic indications.

    PubMed

    Chesnut, C H; Azria, M; Silverman, S; Engelhardt, M; Olson, M; Mindeholm, L

    2008-04-01

    Salmon calcitonin, available as a therapeutic agent for more than 30 years, demonstrates clinical utility in the treatment of such metabolic bone diseases as osteoporosis and Paget's disease, and potentially in the treatment of osteoarthritis. This review considers the physiology and pharmacology of salmon calcitonin, the evidence based research demonstrating efficacy and safety of this medication in postmenopausal osteoporosis with potentially an effect on bone quality to explain its abilities to reduce the risk of spine fracture, the development of an oral salmon calcitonin preparation, and the therapeutic rationale for this preparation's chondroprotective effect in osteoarthritis.

  6. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  7. Immunoglobulin isotypes in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Hordvik, Ivar

    2015-02-27

    There are three major immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes in salmonid fish: IgM, IgD and IgT, defined by the heavy chains μ, δ and τ, respectively. As a result of whole genome duplication in the ancestor of the salmonid fish family, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) possess two highly similar Ig heavy chain gene complexes (A and B), comprising two μ genes, two δ genes, three intact τ genes and five τ pseudogenes. The μA and μB genes correspond to two distinct sub-populations of serum IgM. The IgM-B sub-variant has a characteristic extra cysteine near the C-terminal part of the heavy chain and exhibits a higher degree of polymer disulfide cross-linking compared to IgM-A. The IgM-B:IgM-A ratio in serum is typically 60:40, but skewed ratios are also observed. The IgT isotype appears to be specialized to mucosal immune responses in salmonid fish. The concentration of IgT in serum is 100 to 1000 times lower than IgM. Secreted forms of IgD have been detected in rainbow trout, but not yet in Atlantic salmon.

  8. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  9. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 43 appendices for the Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries'' report. This study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall Chinook Salmon from the Columbia River.

  10. Factors influencing the long-term dynamics of larval sea lice density at east and west coast locations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Harte, Anna J; Bowman, Alan S; Salama, Nabeil K G; Pert, Campbell C

    2017-03-21

    Sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) are marine copepods that parasitize finfish, and in cases of high infestation can result in severe epithelial damage and mortality. In Scotland, 2 species of sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, pose a significant economic burden to the marine Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry and potentially impact wild salmonids. The purpose of this study was to determine how the density of pelagic sea lice is affected by external variables, in order to improve our understanding of sea lice dynamics. Long-term data from 2 sampling sites on the east and west coasts of Scotland were modelled independently in conjunction with environmental and anthropogenic variables. Statistical analysis identified that at the east coast site, the most influential factor affecting lice density was salinity. On the west coast, salinity, rainfall and farmed salmon production year were most influential. Molecular and morphological techniques also showed that the individuals recorded on the east coast were C. elongatus, a generalist copepod parasite, whereas only the salmonid-specific L. salmonis were found on the west. These results reiterate the role of environmental factors in influencing sea lice dynamics, and that salmonids are the primary hosts of sea lice on the west coast, but there could be non-salmonid host species as well as salmonid species influencing east coast sea lice densities.

  11. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    PubMed

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product.

  12. Predation of Karluk River sockeye salmon by coho salmon and char

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, J.D.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Emlen, J.M.; Wilmot, R.L.; Finn, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The number of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in Alaska's Karluk River (Fig. 1) declined from millions to thousands during the early part of the present century. Rounsefell (1958) discussed alternative explanations for the decline including a general loss offertility ofthe system as the number of salmon carcasses declined, competition, overfishing, subtle changes in climate, and predation; he concluded that the combined effect of predation and fishing was the most probable explanation. Later, Van Cleave and Bevan (1973) suggested that the weir constructed in the river each year to facilitate counting the fish as they entered the system was the most probable cause ofthe decline. Itprevented free movement of both adults and juveniles in the river. All of these hypotheses remain as potential explanations for the decline

  13. Surveillance for infectious salmon anaemia virus HPR0 in marine Atlantic salmon farms across Scotland.

    PubMed

    McBeath, Alastair J A; Bain, Nicola; Snow, Michael

    2009-12-03

    Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a serious and commercially important pathogen of Atlantic salmon. Multiple viruses have been defined based on a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein encoded by genomic segment 6. The viruses causing disease outbreaks in farms to date all have deletions in this region with respect to a putative ancestral variant with a longer HPR (HPR0). The presence of HPR0 nucleic acid has been detected in many countries including Scotland, where it has mostly been associated with healthy wild and farmed fish. Pathogenic ISAVs appear to have been derived from HPR0 ancestors on multiple independent occasions, which suggests that the presence of HPR0 could represent a risk factor in the re-emergence of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) disease. In order to better understand this potential risk factor, anonymous samples of gill and heart tissues from marine Atlantic salmon farms throughout Scotland were collected and screened for the presence of ISAV RNA. Since it has not been possible to isolate HPR0 in conventional ISA-permissive cell cultures, a sensitive real-time RT-PCR method was employed for the detection of viral RNA. DNA sequencing was carried out on the positive samples to determine their HPR sequence. ISAV RNA was detected in 6 samples originating from 4 different locations and sequence analysis indicated the viruses were of the HPR0 type. Full length segment 6 sequence analysis of 1 positive sample indicated that it was most similar to a European genotype sequence previously obtained from North America.

  14. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  15. Costs of climate change: Economic value of Yakima River salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Shankle, S.A.; Scott, M.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Chatters, J.C.

    1992-07-01

    This work resulted from a continuing multidisciplinary analysis of species preservation and global change. The paper explores the economic cost of a potential regional warming as it affects one Pacific Northwest natural resource, the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshcawytscha). Climate change and planned habitat improvements impact the production and economic value of soling chinook salmon of the Yakima River tributary of the Columbia River in eastern Washington. The paper presents a derivation of the total economic value of a chinook salmon, which includes the summation of the existence, commercial, recreational, and capital values of the fish. When currently available commercial, recreational, existence, and capital values for chinook salmon were applied to estimated population changes, the estimated change in the economic value per fish associated with reduction of one fish run proved significant.

  16. Nonnative salmon alter nitrification in Great Lakes tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-05-01

    Nonnative species can affect the biogeochemistry of an ecosystem. For instance, Pacific salmon have been introduced for sport fishing in many streams and lakes beyond their native range, and their introduction may be altering nitrogen cycling in those ecosystems.

  17. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: FORECASTING THEIR STATUS IN 2100

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  18. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: CHASING AN ILLUSION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon "stocks" (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population) have declined and some have been e...

  19. Effective climate refugia for salmon in a changing world

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change threatens to create fundamental shifts in in the distributions and abundances of endothermic organisms such as cold-water salmon and trout species (salmonids). Recently published projected declines in salmonid distributions under future climates range from modest t...

  20. FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: SCIENCE AND POLICY IN ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  1. SALMON RECOVERY: DEFENDING REALITY, DELUSIONS, AND OTHER ASSORTED TRUTHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are professional fisheries scientists collectively guilty of encouraging delusions about the possibilities for restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest? Do they perpetuate the fantasy that the Pacific Northwest will (or could, absent pervasive life-style changes) support w...

  2. Climate refugia for salmon in a changing world

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change threatens to create fundamental shifts in in the distributions and abundances of endothermic organisms such as cold-water salmon and trout species (salmonids). Recently published projected declines in salmonid distributions under future climates range from modest t...

  3. Survey of three bacterial louse-associated diseases among rural Andean communities in Peru: prevalence of epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever.

    PubMed

    Raoult, D; Birtles, R J; Montoya, M; Perez, E; Tissot-Dupont, H; Roux, V; Guerra, H

    1999-08-01

    Typhus and other louse-transmitted bacterial infections in Peruvian sierra communities are known to occur but have not recently been assessed. In this study, 194 of 1,280 inhabitants of four villages in Calca Province in the Urubamba Valley were included. Thirty-nine (20%) of the 194 volunteers had antibodies to Rickettsia prowazekii, whereas 24 (12%) had antibodies to Bartonella quintana and 2 against Borrelia recurrentis. There was a significant correlation between the presence of infesting ectoparasites and antibodies to R. prowazekii, as well as between antibodies to R. prowazekii and ectoparasite infestation and fever in the previous 6 months. The proportion of inhabitants infested with ectoparasites was significantly higher in the highest-altitude village than in the other three villages. Two volunteers' antibody levels suggested a recent typhus infection, but only B. quintana DNA was amplified from lice. Epidemic typhus remains extant in the area, and B. quintana infections were encountered and documented for the first time in South America.

  4. Detailed surface morphology of the 'lobster louse' copepod, Nicothoë astaci, a haematophagous gill parasite of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Davies, Charlotte E; Thomas, Gethin R; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Wootton, Emma C; Penny, Mark W; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-10-01

    The ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse'), infests the gills of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. There have been limited studies on this haematophagous species; therefore knowledge of this parasite is rudimentary. The current study examines the surface morphology of this parasitic copepod, detached from the host, concentrating on adaptations of the suctorial mouthpart, the oral disc. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed structural adaptations that facilitate attachment of these parasites to the gill filaments of their lobster host. The aperture of the feeding channel, through which host haemolymph is drawn, is only ca. 5μm in diameter. The edge of the oral disc is lined with numerous setae, whilst the surface of the disc is covered with large numbers of small (<1μm in diameter) teeth-like structures, which presumably pierce through, and grip, the cuticle lining of the host's gill. Overall, these structures are thought to provide a 'vacuum seal' to assist in pumping of blood, via peristalsis, into the alimentary canal of the copepod host.

  5. The sympatric occurrence of two genetically divergent lineages of sucking louse, Polyplax arvicanthis (Phthiraptera: Anoplura), on the four-striped mouse genus, Rhabdomys (Rodentia: Muridae).

    PubMed

    du Toit, Nina; Matthee, Sonja; Matthee, Conrad A

    2013-04-01

    Within southern Africa, the widely distributed four-striped mouse genus (Rhabdomys) is parasitized by, amongst others, the specific ectoparasitic sucking louse, Polyplax arvicanthis. Given the presence of significant geographically structured genetic divergence in Rhabdomys, and the propensity of parasites to harbour cryptic diversity, the molecular systematics of P. arvicanthis was investigated. Representatives of P. arvicanthis were sampled from Rhabdomys at 16 localities throughout southern Africa. Parsimony and Bayesian gene trees were constructed for the mitochondrial COI, 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and nuclear CAD genes. Our findings support the existence of 2 genetic groups within P. arvicanthis separated by at least 25% COI sequence divergence, which is comparable to that observed among recognized Polyplax species. We therefore propose that these 2 genetic lineages probably represent distinct species and that the apparent absence of clear morphological differences may point to cryptic speciation. The 2 taxa have sympatric distributions throughout most of the sampled host range and also occasionally occur sympatrically on the same host individual. The co-occurrence of these genetically distinct lineages probably resulted from parasite duplication via host-associated allopatric divergence and subsequent reciprocal range expansions of the 2 parasite taxa throughout southern Africa.

  6. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Chávez-Mardones, Jaqueline; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids. PMID:27187362

  7. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Chávez-Mardones, Jaqueline; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-05-12

    The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids.

  8. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  9. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  10. The administration of sulfonamide drugs to adult salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.

    1968-01-01

    Mass treatment is the most convenient way to combat fish diseases. For example, drugs can be administered per os in diets, or chemicals can be added to the water. These methods are mostly ineffective in treating systemic infections of adult salmon because mature salmon do not feed, and many fish diseases cannot be controlled by chemical baths. Thus, effective treatment would require administering drugs to each individual.

  11. Projected impacts of climate change on salmon habitat restoration.

    PubMed

    Battin, James; Wiley, Matthew W; Ruckelshaus, Mary H; Palmer, Richard N; Korb, Elizabeth; Bartz, Krista K; Imaki, Hiroo

    2007-04-17

    Throughout the world, efforts are under way to restore watersheds, but restoration planning rarely accounts for future climate change. Using a series of linked models of climate, land cover, hydrology, and salmon population dynamics, we investigated the impacts of climate change on the effectiveness of proposed habitat restoration efforts designed to recover depleted Chinook salmon populations in a Pacific Northwest river basin. Model results indicate a large negative impact of climate change on freshwater salmon habitat. Habitat restoration and protection can help to mitigate these effects and may allow populations to increase in the face of climate change. The habitat deterioration associated with climate change will, however, make salmon recovery targets much more difficult to attain. Because the negative impacts of climate change in this basin are projected to be most pronounced in relatively pristine, high-elevation streams where little restoration is possible, climate change and habitat restoration together are likely to cause a spatial shift in salmon abundance. River basins that span the current snow line appear especially vulnerable to climate change, and salmon recovery plans that enhance lower-elevation habitats are likely to be more successful over the next 50 years than those that target the higher-elevation basins likely to experience the greatest snow-rain transition.

  12. Comparative diets of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) have established naturalized populations throughout the Great Lakes. Young-of-year of these species occur sympatrically for about one month in Lake Ontario tributaries. This study examined the diets of subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead relative to available food in the Salmon River, New York. Terrestrial invertebrates and trichopterans were the major prey of Chinook salmon, whereas steelhead fed primarily on baetid nymphs and chironomid larvae. Diet overlap was low (0.45) between the species. The diet of Chinook was closely associated to the composition of the drift (0.88). Steelhead diet drew equally from the drift and benthos during the first year of the study, but more closely matched the benthos during the second year. Differences in prey selection, perhaps associated with differences in fish size, in addition to apparent differences in feeding mode (drift versus benthic), likely reduce competitive interactions between these species.

  13. Marine-derived nutrients, bioturbation, and ecosystem metabolism: reconsidering the role of salmon in streams.

    PubMed

    Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Schindler, Daniel E

    2011-02-01

    In coastal areas of the North Pacific Ocean, annual returns of spawning salmon provide a substantial influx of nutrients and organic matter to streams and are generally believed to enhance the productivity of recipient ecosystems. Loss of this subsidy from areas with diminished salmon runs has been hypothesized to limit ecosystem productivity in juvenile salmon rearing habitats (lakes and streams), thereby reinforcing population declines. Using five to seven years of data from an Alaskan stream supporting moderate salmon densities, we show that salmon predictably increased stream water nutrient concentrations, which were on average 190% (nitrogen) and 390% (phosphorus) pre-salmon values, and that primary producers incorporated some of these nutrients into tissues. However, benthic algal biomass declined by an order of magnitude despite increased nutrients. We also measured changes in stream ecosystem metabolic properties, including gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), from three salmon streams by analyzing diel measurements of oxygen concentrations and stable isotopic ratios (delta O-O2) within a Bayesian statistical model of oxygen dynamics. Our results do not support a shift toward higher primary productivity with the return of salmon, as is expected from a nutrient fertilization mechanism. Rather, net ecosystem metabolism switched from approximately net autotrophic (GPP > or = ER) to a strongly net heterotrophic state (GPP < ER) in response to bioturbation of benthic habitats by salmon. Following the seasonal arrival of salmon, GPP declined to <12% of pre-salmon rates, while ER increased by over threefold. Metabolism by live salmon could not account for the observed increase in ER early in the salmon run, suggesting salmon nutrients and disturbance enhanced in situ heterotrophic respiration. Salmon also changed the physical properties of the stream, increasing air-water gas exchange by nearly 10-fold during peak spawning. We suggest

  14. Diphyllobothriasis Associated with Eating Raw Pacific Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Minoru; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet. PMID:19523283

  15. Diphyllobothriasis associated with eating raw pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Arizono, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2009-06-01

    The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet.

  16. Contamination of salmon fillets and processing plants with spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Møretrø, Trond; Moen, Birgitte; Heir, Even; Hansen, Anlaug Å; Langsrud, Solveig

    2016-11-21

    The processing environment of salmon processing plants represents a potential major source of bacteria causing spoilage of fresh salmon. In this study, we have identified major contamination routes of important spoilage associated species within the genera Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Photobacterium in pre-rigor processing of salmon. Bacterial counts and culture-independent 16S rRNA gene analysis on salmon fillet from seven processing plants showed higher levels of Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. in industrially processed fillets compared to salmon processed under strict hygienic conditions. Higher levels of Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. were found on fillets produced early on the production day compared to later processed fillets. The levels of Photobacterium spp. were not dependent on the processing method or time of processing. In follow-up studies of two plants, bacterial isolates (n=2101) from the in-plant processing environments (sanitized equipment/machines and seawater) and from salmon collected at different sites in the production were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Pseudomonas spp. dominated in equipment/machines after sanitation with 72 and 91% of samples from the two plants being Pseudomonas-positive. The phylogenetic analyses, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, showed 48 unique sequence profiles of Pseudomonas of which two were dominant. Only six profiles were found on both machines and in fillets in both plants. Shewanella spp. were found on machines after sanitation in the slaughter department while Photobacterium spp. were not detected after sanitation in any parts of the plants. Shewanella spp. and Photobacterium spp. were found on salmon in the slaughter departments. Shewanella was frequently present in seawater tanks used for bleeding/short term storage. In conclusion, this study provides new knowledge on the processing environment as a source of contamination of salmon fillets with Pseudomonas spp. and

  17. Net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan coho salmon from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Elliott, Robert F.; Schmidt, Larry J.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Bouchard, Patrick M.; Holey, Mark E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden accumulated by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Laurentian Great Lakes is from their food. We used diet information, PCB determinations in both coho salmon and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiency with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain PCBs from their food. Our estimate was the most reliable estimate to date because (a) the coho salmon and prey fish sampled during our study were sampled in spring, summer, and fall from various locations throughout the lake, (b) detailed measurements were made on the PCB concentrations of both coho salmon and prey fish over wide ranges in fish size, and (c) coho salmon diet was analyzed in detail from April through November over a wide range of salmon size from numerous locations throughout the lake. We estimated that coho salmon from Lake Michigan retain 50% of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  18. THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not ...

  19. Sushi Lovers, Beware: Tapeworm Now Found in U.S. Salmon

    MedlinePlus

    ... confirmed that the tapeworm is present in wild pink salmon from the Alaskan Pacific. The findings are ... species, caught off the Alaskan coast. Samples of pink salmon were found to harbor Japanese broad tapeworm ...

  20. Assessing sufficiency of thermal riverscapes for resilient salmon and steelhead populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resilient salmon populations require river networks that provide water temperature regimes sufficient to support a diversity of salmonid life histories across space and time. Efforts to protect, enhance and restore watershed thermal regimes for salmon may target specific location...

  1. Net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan coho salmon from their prey

    SciTech Connect

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Desorcie, T.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Elliott, R.F.; Bouchard, P.M.; Holey, M.E.

    1998-10-15

    Most of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden accumulated by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Laurentian Great Lakes is from their food. The authors used diet information, PCB determinations in both coho salmon and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiency with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain PCBs from their food. The estimate was the most reliable estimate to date because (a) the coho salmon and prey fish sampled during the study were sampled in spring, summer, and fall from various locations throughout the lake, (b) detailed measurements were made on the PCB concentrations of both coho salmon and prey fish over wide ranges in fish size, and (c) coho salmon diet was analyzed in detail from April through November over a wide range of salmon size from numerous locations throughout the lake. The authors estimated that coho salmon from Lake Michigan retain 50%$ of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  2. 76 FR 54216 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA671 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's Salmon Technical Team (STT), Scientific...

  3. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  4. WILD SALMON IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA; THE HISTORICAL AND POLICY CONTEXT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly all of the participants in the Salmon 2100 Project concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, ...

  5. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  6. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Ellison, Stephen C; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  7. Salmon redd identification using environmental DNA (eDNA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Laramie, Matthew B.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionThe purpose of this project was to develop a technique to use environmental DNA (eDNA) to distinguish between redds made by Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and redds made by Coho salmon (O. kisutch) and to distinguish utilized redds from test/abandoned redds or scours that have the appearance of redds. The project had two phases:Phase 1. Develop, test, and optimize a molecular assay for detecting and identifying Coho salmon DNA and differentiating it from Chinook salmon DNA.Phase 2. Demonstrate the efficacy of the technique.Collect and preserve water samples from the interstitial spaces of 10 known redds (as identified by expert observers) of each species and 10 gravel patches that do not include a redd of either species.Collect control samples from the water column adjacent to each redd to establish background eDNA levels.Analyze the samples using the developed molecular assays for Coho salmon (phase I) and Chinook salmon (Laramie and others, 2015).Evaluate whether samples collected from Chinook and Coho redds have significantly higher levels of eDNA of the respective species than background levels (that is, from gravel, water column).Evaluate whether samples collected from the interstitial spaces of gravel patches that are not redds are similar to background eDNA levels.The Sandy River is a large tributary of the Columbia River. The Sandy River meets the Columbia River approximately 23 km upstream of Portland, Oregon. The Sandy River Basin provides overlapping spawning habitat for both Chinook and Coho salmon.Samples provided by Portland Water Bureau for analysis were collected from the Bull Run River, Sixes Creek, Still Creek, Arrah Wanna Side Channel, and Side Channel 18.

  8. Salmon as biogeomorphic agents in gravel-bed rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Spawning salmon have been known to affect streambed texture, influence sediment transport, and play an important geomorphological role in streams by digging nests or redds. We examined the impact of salmon and floods on channel morphology, bed material dispersion and yield, bed surface texture and stability, fine sediment dynamics and nutrient retention of small gravel bed streams in British Columbia, Canada. Channel morphology and dynamics of a large number of streams in British Columbia are partially or wholly affected by fish bioturbation. The scale of the impact is controlled by the salmon species, population density, and channel size and characteristics. Sediment transport measurements show that salmon play a significant role in erosion and deposition within the channel by promoting vertical and longitudinal mixing of the substrate, as well as by changing the relative mobility of the gravel on the bed. The action of salmon bioturbation promotes distinctive bedforms and packing of sediment grains. In streams with dense populations of sockeye or chum salmon the whole surface of spawning reaches may be modified, as bars are excavated and pools are filled. For chinook salmon the organization of spawning bedforms ranges from scattered mounds or ‘gravel pile-ups’ to well-ordered dunes. Such dunes extend for hundreds of meters to kilometres along the river bed. They exhibit amplitudes of more than one metre and wavelengths of 10 to 15 m. Our conclusion that mass-spawning fish can dominate sediment transport in mountain drainage basins has fundamental implications for understanding channel morphology, aquatic ecosystem dynamics, stream responses to environmental change, and river restoration programs.

  9. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Ellison, Stephen; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  10. Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David

    2014-03-01

    We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

  11. Norwegian Salmon Goes to Market: The Case of the Austevoll Seafood Cluster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phyne, John; Hovgaard, Gestur; Hansen, Gard

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the globalisation of the farmed salmon commodity chain upon farmed salmon production in the western Norwegian municipality of Austevoll. On the basis of field research conducted in 2002 and 2003, we conclude that salmon farming in Austevoll has responded to the challenges of "buyer-driven" food chains by…

  12. 76 FR 70062 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... orders of the Commission's Fraser River Panel for U.S. sockeye and pink salmon fisheries in the Fraser... and pink salmon Tribal and non-Tribal commercial fishing unless opened by Panel orders that are...

  13. Selection responses for caracass weight in four Atlantic Salmon year classes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, aquaculture is one of the most successful global aquaculture enterprises, and has wide acceptance as a main food item by American consumers. US production of Atlantic salmon is concentrated in Maine and Washington. The initial focus of the USDA applied Atlantic salmon b...

  14. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 77 FR 19004 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National... Salmon Fishery. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before 5 p.m. EST April 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Send... Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (see FOR FURTHER...

  19. 76 FR 61985 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... industry fee system to repay a $23,476,500 loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery... Paul Marx, Chief, Financial Services Division, NMFS, Attn.: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon...

  20. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 77 FR 41754 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... seine salmon fishery. NMFS conducted a referendum to approve the reduction loan repayment fees of $13... Division, NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD...

  3. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...-2008-N-0119] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for.... standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the permit holder to continue to... the standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon that was submitted by Yardarm Knot Fisheries,...

  8. Characterization of a Value-Added Salmon Product: Infant/Toddler Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Santos, Felicia Ann

    2009-01-01

    Salmon are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids. These are important in the human diet and especially for young children in the first two years of life. Wild Alaskan salmon was utilized in a novel way by development and investigation of basic baby food product formulations from sockeye and pink salmon. Thus, physical and sensory properties of baby…

  9. 76 FR 43650 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Collection; Infectious Salmon Anemia; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... with regulations for the payment of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia. DATES: We will consider...: For information on regulations for the payment of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia,...

  10. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. MODELING THE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AND NATIVE MICROFLORA IN SMOKED SALMON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smoked salmon contaminated with L. monocytogenes has been implicated in foodborne listeriosis. The objectives of this study were to model the growth characteristics and examine the growth relationship of L. monocytogenes and native microflora in smoked salmon. Smoked salmon samples with a native m...

  16. The Lummi Indians and the Canadian/American Pacific Salmon Treaty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxberger, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Explores the probable impact of the 1985 international Pacific Salmon Treaty on the Lummi tribe's catch of Fraser River salmon and economic well-being. Discusses the 1974 Boldt Decision, which allocated half of Washington State's salmon catch to treaty tribes, and contradictions in the federal government's conception of international treaties. (SV)

  17. 77 FR 25915 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 120424023-1023-01] RIN 0648-XA921 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (Salmon...

  18. 78 FR 25865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC438 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... ``framework'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (Salmon...

  19. Comparison of phenothrin mousse, phenothrin lotion, and wet-combing for treatment of head louse infestation in the UK: a pragmatic randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian F.; Brown, Christine M.; Nair, Pat

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation of effectiveness of an alternative pediculicide dosage form, we recruited 228 children and 50 adult participants from Bedfordshire, UK, to a randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial comparing two insecticide products with mechanical removal of lice as a control group.  Participants using insecticide were treated with either the investigative 0.5% phenothrin mousse, for 30 minutes, or 0.2% phenothrin lotion, for 2 hours as the reference product.  Both treatments were applied only once, followed by shampoo washing.  Those treated by wet-combing with conditioner were combed 4 times over 12 days.  Parents/carers carried out the treatments to mimic normal consumer use.  The outcome measure was the absence of lice, 14 days after treatment for the insecticides, and up to 14 days after completion of combing.  Intention to treat analysis of the outcomes for 275 participants showed success for phenothrin mousse in 21/105 (20.0%), in 23/107 (21.5%) for phenothrin lotion, and in 12/63 (19.1%) for wet-combing.  People receiving mousse were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.81) times more likely to still have lice after treatment compared with those treated with lotion. The group of participants who received the wet combing treatment were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.61 to 2.11) times more likely to still have lice after the treatment.  None of the treatments was significantly (p < 0.05) more effective than any other. This study was carried out in an area where moderate resistance to phenothrin was demonstrated after the study by using a bioassay.  Analysis of post treatment assessments found that failure of insecticides to kill louse eggs had influenced the outcome. PMID:25254106

  20. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  1. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  2. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  3. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  4. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  5. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  6. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  7. Wild Steelhead Studies, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holubetz, Terry B; Leth, Brian D.

    1997-05-01

    To enumerate chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss adult escapements, weirs were operated in Marsh, Chamberlain, West Fork Chamberlain, and Running creeks. Beginning in late July 1994, a juvenile trap was installed in Running Creek to estimate juvenile outmigrants. Plans have been completed to install a weir in Rush Creek to enumerate steelhead adult escapement beginning in spring 1995. Design and agreements are being developed for Johnson Creek and Captain John Creek. Data collected in 1993 and 1994 indicate that spring chinook salmon and group-B steelhead populations and truly nearing extinction levels. For example, no adult salmon or steelhead were passed above the West Fork Chamberlain Creek weir in 1984, and only 6 steelhead and 16 chinook salmon were passed into the important spawning area on upper Marsh Creek. Group-A steelhead are considerably below desirable production levels, but in much better status than group-B stocks. Production of both group-A and group-B steelhead is being limited by low spawning escapements. Studies have not been initiated on wild summer chinook salmon stocks.

  8. Preferred stream discharges for salmon spawning and rearing in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Stream discharges preferred by salmon for spawning were determined from relationships between discharge and spawnable area at 84 study reaches on 28 streams in Washington. Preferred discharges for spawning were found statistically equivalent for chinook, pink, and chum salmon. Regression equations developed for estimating discharges preferred by these species for spawning at other stream sites had standard errors of estimate of 40 percent where a relationship with toe-of-bank channel width was used, and 55 percent where basin drainage area was used. Similarly, equations for estimating the preferred discharge for spawning by sockeye and coho salmon (also statistically equivalent) had standard errors of 48 percent using channel width and 61 percent using drainage area. In general, the discharges preferred for spawning by salmon ranged in magnitude from about 0.3 to 11 times the median monthly mean discharges for September and October and about 0.1 to 6 times the median monthly means for November and December--the four months when spawning is greatest. Stream discharges preferred by salmon for rearing were determined from relationships between discharge and wetted perimeter at the study reaches. Those discharges ranged from about 0.7 to 4 times the median monthly mean discharge for September, when low flows are usually most limiting on the rearing capacity of streams. Equations developed for estimating preferred rearing discharges at other stream sites had standard errors of 57 percent using channel width and 81 percent using drainage area. (Woodard-USGS).

  9. Optimum cooking conditions for shrimp and Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Brookmire, Lauren; Mallikarjunan, P; Jahncke, M; Grisso, R

    2013-02-01

    The quality and safety of a cooked food product depends on many variables, including the cooking method and time-temperature combinations employed. The overall heating profile of the food can be useful in predicting the quality changes and microbial inactivation occurring during cooking. Mathematical modeling can be used to attain the complex heating profile of a food product during cooking. Studies were performed to monitor the product heating profile during the baking and boiling of shrimp and the baking and pan-frying of salmon. Product color, texture, moisture content, mass loss, and pressed juice were evaluated during the cooking processes as the products reached the internal temperature recommended by the FDA. Studies were also performed on the inactivation of Salmonella cocktails in shrimp and salmon. To effectively predict inactivation during cooking, the Bigelow, Fermi distribution, and Weibull distribution models were applied to the Salmonella thermal inactivation data. Minimum cooking temperatures necessary to destroy Salmonella in shrimp and salmon were determined. The heating profiles of the 2 products were modeled using the finite difference method. Temperature data directly from the modeled heating profiles were then used in the kinetic modeling of quality change and Salmonella inactivation during cooking. The optimum cooking times for a 3-log reduction of Salmonella and maintaining 95% of quality attributes are 100, 233, 159, 378, 1132, and 399 s for boiling extra jumbo shrimp, baking extra jumbo shrimp, boiling colossal shrimp, baking colossal shrimp, baking Atlantic salmon, and pan frying Atlantic Salmon, respectively.

  10. [Exogenous Sr2+ sedimentation on otolith of chum salmon embryos].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Wei; Zhan, Pei-rong; Wang, Ji-long; Li, Pei-lun

    2015-10-01

    To explore the exogenous Sr2+ sedimentation on otolith of chum salmon embryos, chum salmon embryos were exposed to culture water contained Sr2+ at Sr2+ concentration of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg . L-1 for 48 h to imitate Sr2+ sedimentation. After a culturing period of 12 d and 100 d, the otoliths of the chum salmon were taken to detect exogenous Sr2+ sedimentation with electro-probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The results showed that obvious deep red strontium signatures were produced in the otolith of chum salmon at different concentrations of Sr2+. The mean and extreme values of peak strontium area were not stable for the same Sr2+ dose, but the lowest of all the peak values was 35.1 times as much as that of control. Overall, the strontium value increased with the increase of Sr2+concentration. The strontium peak had no signs of abating after a culture period of 100 d. The results also showed that strontium was gradually deposited in the otolith, and had obvious hysteresis to immersion. Strontium sedimentation could also return to a normal level after the peak. These characteristics accorded exactly with the requirement of discharge tag technology, which indicated that exogenous Sr2+ was suitable in the marking of salmon otolith.

  11. Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim Salmon Research and Restoration Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim Sustainable Salmon Initiative (AYK SSI) is an innovative partnership between public and private institutions which provides a forum for non-governmental organizations and state and federal agencies to cooperatively identify and address salmon research and restoration needs. The affected region encompasses over 40% of the State of Alaska; the AYK region includes the watersheds of the Norton Sound region up to and including the village of Shishmaref, the Yukon River Watershed within Alaska, and the Kuskokwim River Watershed (including the coastal watersheds north of Cape Newenham), plus the Bering Sea marine ecosystem. The AYK SSI is a response to disastrously low salmon returns to western Alaska in the late 1990s and early 2000s, which created numerous hardships for the people and communities that depend heavily on the salmon fishery. Some stocks in the region have been in a decline for more than a decade and a half, leading to severe restrictions on commercial and subsistence fisheries. The first step for the AYK SSI has been to collaboratively develop and implement a comprehensive research plan to understand the causes of the declines and recoveries of AYK salmon.

  12. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone affect redd site selection of chum salmon and fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Hanrahan, Timothy P. ); Arntzen, Evan V. ); McMichael, Geoffrey A. ); Murray, Christopher J. ); Chien, Yi-Ju )

    2002-11-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha spawned at different locations in the vicinity of Ives Island, Washington, a side channel to the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. We hypothesized that measurements of water depth, substrate size, and water velocity alone would not explain the separation in spawning areas and began a 2-year investigation of physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone. We found that chum salmon spawned in upwelling water that was significantly warmer than the surrounding river water. In contrast, fall chinook salmon constructed redds at downwelling sites where there was no difference in temperature between the river and its bed. Understanding the specific features that are important for chum salmon and fall chinook salmon redd site selection at Ives Island will be useful to resource managers attempting to maximize available spawning habitat for these species within the constraints imposed by other water resource needs.

  14. GABAergic anxiolytic drug in water increases migration behaviour in salmon

    PubMed Central

    Hellström, Gustav; Klaminder, Jonatan; Finn, Fia; Persson, Lo; Alanärä, Anders; Jonsson, Micael; Fick, Jerker; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to a dilute concentration of a GABAA receptor agonist (oxazepam) increased migration intensity compared with untreated smolt. These results implicate that salmon migration may be affected by human-induced changes in water chemical properties, such as acidification and pharmaceutical residues in wastewater effluent, via alterations in the GABAA receptor function. PMID:27922016

  15. GABAergic anxiolytic drug in water increases migration behaviour in salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellström, Gustav; Klaminder, Jonatan; Finn, Fia; Persson, Lo; Alanärä, Anders; Jonsson, Micael; Fick, Jerker; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to a dilute concentration of a GABAA receptor agonist (oxazepam) increased migration intensity compared with untreated smolt. These results implicate that salmon migration may be affected by human-induced changes in water chemical properties, such as acidification and pharmaceutical residues in wastewater effluent, via alterations in the GABAA receptor function.

  16. Historical rise of waterpower initiated the collapse of salmon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenders, H. J. R.; Chamuleau, T. P. M.; Hendriks, A. J.; Lauwerier, R. C. G. M.; Leuven, R. S. E. W.; Verberk, W. C. E. P.

    2016-07-01

    The collapse of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks throughout North-Western Europe is generally ascribed to large-scale river regulation, water pollution and over-fishing in the 19th and 20th century. However, other causes have rarely been quantified, especially those acting before the 19th century. By analysing historical fishery, market and tax statistics, independently confirmed by archaeozoological records, we demonstrate that populations declined by up to 90% during the transitional period between the Early Middle Ages (c. 450–900 AD) and Early Modern Times (c. 1600 AD). These dramatic declines coincided with improvements in watermill technology and their geographical expansion across Europe. Our extrapolations suggest that historical Atlantic salmon runs must have once been very abundant indeed. The historical perspective presented here contributes to a better understanding of the primary factors that led to major declines in salmon populations. Such understanding provides an essential basis for the effective ecological rehabilitation of freshwater ecosystems.

  17. Historical rise of waterpower initiated the collapse of salmon stocks

    PubMed Central

    Lenders, H. J. R.; Chamuleau, T. P. M.; Hendriks, A. J.; Lauwerier, R. C. G. M.; Leuven, R. S. E. W.; Verberk, W. C. E. P.

    2016-01-01

    The collapse of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks throughout North-Western Europe is generally ascribed to large-scale river regulation, water pollution and over-fishing in the 19th and 20th century. However, other causes have rarely been quantified, especially those acting before the 19th century. By analysing historical fishery, market and tax statistics, independently confirmed by archaeozoological records, we demonstrate that populations declined by up to 90% during the transitional period between the Early Middle Ages (c. 450–900 AD) and Early Modern Times (c. 1600 AD). These dramatic declines coincided with improvements in watermill technology and their geographical expansion across Europe. Our extrapolations suggest that historical Atlantic salmon runs must have once been very abundant indeed. The historical perspective presented here contributes to a better understanding of the primary factors that led to major declines in salmon populations. Such understanding provides an essential basis for the effective ecological rehabilitation of freshwater ecosystems. PMID:27435118

  18. Scientific considerations for generic synthetic salmon calcitonin nasal spray products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sau L; Yu, Lawrence X; Cai, Bing; Johnsons, Gibbes R; Rosenberg, Amy S; Cherney, Barry W; Guo, Wei; Raw, Andre S

    2011-03-01

    Under the Abbreviated New Drug Application pathway, a proposed generic salmon calcitonin nasal spray is required to demonstrate pharmaceutical equivalence and bioequivalence to the brand-name counterpart or the reference listed drug. This review discusses two important aspects of pharmaceutical equivalence for this synthetic peptide nasal spray product. The first aspect is drug substance sameness, in which a proposed generic salmon calcitonin product is required to demonstrate that it contains the same active ingredient as that in the brand-name counterpart. The second aspect is comparability in product- and process-related factors that may influence immunogenicity (i.e., peptide-related impurities, aggregates, formulation, and leachates from the container/closure system). The comparability of these factors helps to ensure the product safety, particularly with respect to immunogenicity. This review also highlights the key features of in vitro and/or in vivo studies for establishing bioequivalence for a solution nasal spray containing a systemically acting salmon calcitonin.

  19. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to <10% of their historical abundance, with subsequent declines of marine derived nutrients once provided by large salmon runs. We explored whether low densities (<0.001 spawners/m2) of naturally spawning Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) can affect ecosystem metabolism. We measured gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) continuously before, during, and after salmon spawning. We compared downstream reaches with low densities of spawning salmon to upstream reaches with fewer or no spawners in 3 mid-sized (4th-order) rivers in northern Washington. In addition, we measured chemical, physical, and biological factors that may be important in controlling rates of GPP and ER. We observed that low densities of spawning salmon can increase GPP by 46% during spawning, but values quickly return to those observed before spawning. No difference in ER was observed between up- and downstream reaches. Based on our results, salmon density, temperature, and the proximity to salmon redds were the most important factors controlling rates of GPP, whereas temperature was most important for ER. These results suggest that even at low spawning densities, salmon can stimulate basal resources that may propagate up the food web. Understanding how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  20. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  1. Intestinal morphology of the wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Løkka, Guro; Austbø, Lars; Falk, Knut; Bjerkås, Inge; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2013-08-01

    The worldwide-industrialized production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) has increased dramatically during the last decades, followed by diseases related to the on-going domestication process as a growing concern. Even though the gastrointestinal tract seems to be a target for different disorders in farmed fish, a description of the normal intestinal status in healthy, wild salmon is warranted. Here, we provide such information in addition to suggesting a referable anatomical standardization for the intestine. In this study, two groups of wild Atlantic salmon were investigated, consisting of post smolts on feed caught in the sea and of sexually mature, starved individuals sampled from a river. The two groups represent different stages in the anadromous salmon life cycle, which also are part of the production cycle of farmed salmon. Selected regions of gastrointestinal tract were subjected to morphological investigations including immunohistochemical, scanning electron microscopic, and morphometric analyses. A morphology-based nomenclature was established, defining the cardiac part of the stomach and five different regions of the Atlantic salmon intestine, including pyloric caeca, first segment of the mid-intestine with pyloric caeca, first segment of the mid-intestine posterior to pyloric caeca, second segment of the mid-intestine and posterior intestinal segment. In each of the above described regions, for both groups of fish, morphometrical measurements and regional histological investigations were performed with regards to magnitude and direction of mucosal folding as well as the composition of the intestinal wall. Additionally, immunohistochemistry showing cells positive for cytokeratins, α-actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, in addition to alkaline phosphatase reactivity in the segments is presented.

  2. IBSEM: An Individual-Based Atlantic Salmon Population Model.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Marco; Heino, Mikko; Gilbey, John; Araki, Hitoshi; Svåsand, Terje; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    Ecology and genetics can influence the fate of individuals and populations in multiple ways. However, to date, few studies consider them when modelling the evolutionary trajectory of populations faced with admixture with non-local populations. For the Atlantic salmon, a model incorporating these elements is urgently needed because many populations are challenged with gene-flow from non-local and domesticated conspecifics. We developed an Individual-Based Salmon Eco-genetic Model (IBSEM) to simulate the demographic and population genetic change of an Atlantic salmon population through its entire life-cycle. Processes such as growth, mortality, and maturation are simulated through stochastic procedures, which take into account environmental variables as well as the genotype of the individuals. IBSEM is based upon detailed empirical data from salmon biology, and parameterized to reproduce the environmental conditions and the characteristics of a wild population inhabiting a Norwegian river. Simulations demonstrated that the model consistently and reliably reproduces the characteristics of the population. Moreover, in absence of farmed escapees, the modelled populations reach an evolutionary equilibrium that is similar to our definition of a 'wild' genotype. We assessed the sensitivity of the model in the face of assumptions made on the fitness differences between farm and wild salmon, and evaluated the role of straying as a buffering mechanism against the intrusion of farm genes into wild populations. These results demonstrate that IBSEM is able to capture the evolutionary forces shaping the life history of wild salmon and is therefore able to model the response of populations under environmental and genetic stressors.

  3. IBSEM: An Individual-Based Atlantic Salmon Population Model

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, Marco; Heino, Mikko; Gilbey, John; Araki, Hitoshi; Svåsand, Terje; Glover, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Ecology and genetics can influence the fate of individuals and populations in multiple ways. However, to date, few studies consider them when modelling the evolutionary trajectory of populations faced with admixture with non-local populations. For the Atlantic salmon, a model incorporating these elements is urgently needed because many populations are challenged with gene-flow from non-local and domesticated conspecifics. We developed an Individual-Based Salmon Eco-genetic Model (IBSEM) to simulate the demographic and population genetic change of an Atlantic salmon population through its entire life-cycle. Processes such as growth, mortality, and maturation are simulated through stochastic procedures, which take into account environmental variables as well as the genotype of the individuals. IBSEM is based upon detailed empirical data from salmon biology, and parameterized to reproduce the environmental conditions and the characteristics of a wild population inhabiting a Norwegian river. Simulations demonstrated that the model consistently and reliably reproduces the characteristics of the population. Moreover, in absence of farmed escapees, the modelled populations reach an evolutionary equilibrium that is similar to our definition of a ‘wild’ genotype. We assessed the sensitivity of the model in the face of assumptions made on the fitness differences between farm and wild salmon, and evaluated the role of straying as a buffering mechanism against the intrusion of farm genes into wild populations. These results demonstrate that IBSEM is able to capture the evolutionary forces shaping the life history of wild salmon and is therefore able to model the response of populations under environmental and genetic stressors. PMID:26383256

  4. Early human use of anadromous salmon in North America at 11,500 y ago

    PubMed Central

    Halffman, Carrin M.; Potter, Ben A.; McKinney, Holly J.; Finney, Bruce P.; Rodrigues, Antonia T.; Yang, Dongya Y.; Kemp, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon represented a critical resource for prehistoric foragers along the North Pacific Rim, and continue to be economically and culturally important; however, the origins of salmon exploitation remain unresolved. Here we report 11,500-y-old salmon associated with a cooking hearth and human burials from the Upward Sun River Site, near the modern extreme edge of salmon habitat in central Alaska. This represents the earliest known human use of salmon in North America. Ancient DNA analyses establish the species as Oncorhynchus keta (chum salmon), and stable isotope analyses indicate anadromy, suggesting that salmon runs were established by at least the terminal Pleistocene. The early use of this resource has important implications for Paleoindian land use, economy, and expansions into northwest North America. PMID:26392548

  5. Early human use of anadromous salmon in North America at 11,500 y ago.

    PubMed

    Halffman, Carrin M; Potter, Ben A; McKinney, Holly J; Finney, Bruce P; Rodrigues, Antonia T; Yang, Dongya Y; Kemp, Brian M

    2015-10-06

    Salmon represented a critical resource for prehistoric foragers along the North Pacific Rim, and continue to be economically and culturally important; however, the origins of salmon exploitation remain unresolved. Here we report 11,500-y-old salmon associated with a cooking hearth and human burials from the Upward Sun River Site, near the modern extreme edge of salmon habitat in central Alaska. This represents the earliest known human use of salmon in North America. Ancient DNA analyses establish the species as Oncorhynchus keta (chum salmon), and stable isotope analyses indicate anadromy, suggesting that salmon runs were established by at least the terminal Pleistocene. The early use of this resource has important implications for Paleoindian land use, economy, and expansions into northwest North America.

  6. SALMON RIVER BREAKS PRIMITIVE AREA AND VICINITY, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Tuchek, Ernest T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Salmon River Breaks Primitive Area and vicinity in Idaho confirmed a substantiated gold resource potential in placer deposits along the Salmon River but determined that large-scale mining of the deposits probably would not be feasible. Except for demonstrated fluorspar resources at the Big Squaw Creek deposit, no other mineral resources were found in the area. The geologic environment, geochemical findings, and geophysical data all suggest little likelihood for the occurrence of additional mineral resources in the area. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  7. A top-down survival mechanism during early marine residency explains coho salmon year-class strength in southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCroix, Jacob J.; Wertheimer, Alex C.; Orsi, Joseph A.; Sturdevant, Molly V.; Fergusson, Emily A.; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2009-12-01

    Coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) are a vital component in the southeast Alaska marine ecosystem and are an important regional fishery resource; consequently, understanding mechanisms affecting their year-class strength is necessary from both scientific and management perspectives. We examined correlations among juvenile coho salmon indices, associated biophysical variables, and adult coho salmon harvest data from southeast Alaska over the years 1997-2006. We found no relationship between summer indices of juvenile coho salmon growth, condition, or abundance with subsequent harvest of adult coho salmon in the region. However, using stepwise regression, we found that variation in adult coho salmon harvest was largely explained by indices of juvenile pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) abundance (67%) and zooplankton abundance (24%). To determine if high juvenile pink salmon abundance indicates favorable "bottom-up" lower trophic level environmental conditions for juvenile coho salmon, we plotted abundance of juvenile pink salmon against growth and condition of juvenile coho salmon. No change in growth or condition of juvenile coho salmon was observed in relation to the abundance index for juvenile pink salmon. Therefore, we hypothesize that coho salmon year-class strength in southeast Alaska is influenced by a "top-down" predator control mechanism that results from more abundant juvenile pink salmon, which serve as a predator buffer during early marine residency.

  8. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, D.J.; Wipfli, M.S.; Stricker, C.A.; Heintz, R.A.; Rinella, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  9. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.; Rinella, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  10. Salmon and steelhead in the White Salmon River after the removal of Condit Dam–Planning efforts and recolonization results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Brady; Engle, Rod O; Zendt, Joseph S; Shrier, Frank C; Wilson, Jeremy T; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and completely removed in 2012. This action opened habitat to migratory fish for the first time in 100 years. The White Salmon Working Group was formed to create plans for fish salvage in preparation for fish recolonization and to prescribe the actions necessary to restore anadromous salmonid populations in the White Salmon River after Condit Dam removal. Studies conducted by work group members and others served to inform management decisions. Management options for individual species were considered, including natural recolonization, introduction of a neighboring stock, hatchery supplementation, and monitoring natural recolonization for some time period to assess the need for hatchery supplementation. Monitoring to date indicates that multiple species and stocks of anadromous salmonids are finding and spawning in the now accessible and recovering habitat.

  11. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2015-12-01

    Salmon are a valuable cultural and economic resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  12. Stream flow, salmon and beaver dams: roles in the structuring of stream fish communities within an anadromous salmon dominated stream.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sean C; Cunjak, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    The current paradigm of fish community distribution is one of a downstream increase in species richness by addition, but this concept is based on a small number of streams from the mid-west and southern United States, which are dominated by cyprinids. Further, the measure of species richness traditionally used, without including evenness, may not be providing an accurate reflection of the fish community. We hypothesize that in streams dominated by anadromous salmonids, fish community diversity will be affected by the presence of the anadromous species, and therefore be influenced by those factors affecting the salmonid population. Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick, Canada, provides a long-term data set to evaluate fish community diversity upstream and downstream of an obstruction (North American beaver Castor canadensis dam complex), which affects distribution of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The Shannon Weiner diversity index and community evenness were calculated for sample sites distributed throughout the brook and over 15 years. Fish community diversity was greatest upstream of the beaver dams and in the absence of Atlantic salmon. The salmon appear to depress the evenness of the community but do not affect species richness. The community upstream of the beaver dams changes due to replacement of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus by salmon, rather than addition, when access is provided. Within Catamaran Brook, location of beaver dams and autumn streamflow interact to govern adult Atlantic salmon spawner distribution, which then dictates juvenile production and effects on fish community. These communities in an anadromous Atlantic salmon dominated stream do not follow the species richness gradient pattern shown in cyprinid-dominated streams and an alternative model for stream fish community distribution in streams dominated by anadromous salmonids is presented. This alternative model suggests that community distribution may be a function of semipermeable obstructions

  13. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  14. Genetic Structure of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus Keta) Populations in the Lower Columbia River: Are Chum Salmon in Cascade Tributaries Remnant Populations?

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Maureen P.; Pichahchy, A.E.; Von Bargen, J.F.; Young, S.F.

    2004-09-01

    Prior to the 1950's, the lower Columbia River drainage supported a run of over a million chum salmon composed of at least 16 populations. By the late 1950's, over-fishing and habitat destruction had decreased the run to as little as a few hundred fish. With the exception of Grays River in the coastal region of the Columbia River and an aggregation of chum salmon spawning in creeks and the mainstem near Bonneville Dam in the Columbia Gorge region, most populations were considered extinct. However, over the years, WDFW biologists detected chum salmon spawning in tributaries originating in the Cascade Range: the Cowlitz, Lewis, and Washougal rivers. Further, chum salmon in the Cowlitz River appeared to have summer and fall run-timings. To assess whether Cascade spawners were strays from Grays River and Gorge regions or remnants of former populations, chum salmon from the Coastal, Cascade and Gorge regions were characterized genetically at 17 microsatellite loci. With the exception of Washougal River chum salmon, which grouped strongly with the Gorge genetic group, significant heterogeneity in genotype distributions were detected between regions and genotype distributions overlapped among collections within regions. In a neighbor-joining consensus tree, regional groups occupied branches with over 77% bootstrap support. In assignment tests, over 63% of individuals were correctly assigned back to region of origin although an average of 29% assigned to river of origin. Genetic distinction of Cascade region chum salmon was similar to distinction of Coastal and Gorge chum salmon and the Cascade region chum salmon had twice the number of private regional alleles. Further, the Cowlitz River supports the only summer chum salmon run in the Columbia River drainage. We propose that chum salmon in the Cascade region are remnants of original populations. We attribute the strong divergence between regional groups to diverse ecological conditions in each region, which promoted

  15. Investigation of selected persistent organic pollutants in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), salmon aquaculture feed, and fish oil components of the feed.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul

    2002-07-01

    There is extensive literature documenting the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment, but relatively little data are available on contamination pathways in aquaculture systems such as that for farmed salmon. In recent years,the salmon industry has grown significantly in Europe. This study reports on the determination of a wide range of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in farmed and wild European Atlantic salmon fish, aquaculture feeds, and fish oils used to supplement the feeds. The study confirms previous reports of relatively high concentrations of PCBs and indicates moderate concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PBDEs in farmed Scottish and European salmon. Concentrations of the selected persistent organic pollutants varied among the samples: PCBs (salmon, 145-460 ng/g lipid; salmon feeds, 76-1153 ng/g lipid; fish oils, 9-253 ng/g lipid), S DDTs (salmon, 5-250 ng/g lipid; salmon feeds, 34-52 ng/g lipid; fish oils, 11-218 ng/g lipid), and PBDEs (salmon, 1-85 ng/g lipid: salmon feeds, 8-24 ng/g lipid; fish oils, ND-13 ng/g lipid). Comparison of the samples for all groups of contaminants, except for HCHs, showed an increase in concentration in the order fish oil < feed < salmon. Homologue profiles were similar, with an increase in contribution of hepta- and octa-PCBs in the fish, and profiles of DDTs were similar in all three types of samples. With a constant contribution to the total PCB content, the ICES 7 PCBs appear to be reliable predictors of the PCB contamination profile through all the samples. For PBDEs, BDE 47 dominated the profiles, with no significant difference in the PBDE profiles for the three matrixes. Samples with higher PCB contents generally showed higher levels of the pesticide residues, but this was not the case with the PBDEs, indicating the existence of different pollution sources.

  16. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains reports on subprojects involving the determining of alternatives to enhance salmonid habitat on patented land in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, coordination activities for habitat projects occurring on streams within fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribes, and habitat and fish inventories in the Salmon River. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports. (ACR)

  17. Evolutionary history of Pacific salmon in dynamic environments

    PubMed Central

    Waples, Robin S; Pess, George R; Beechie, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary evolution of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) is best viewed in the context of the evolutionary history of the species and the dynamic ecosystems they inhabit. Speciation was complete by the late Miocene, leaving c. six million years for intraspecific diversification. Following the most recent glacial maximum, large areas became available for recolonization. Current intraspecific diversity is thus the product of recent evolution overlaid onto divergent historical lineages forged during recurrent episodes of Pleistocene glaciation. In northwestern North America, dominant habitat features have been relatively stable for the past 5000 years, but salmon ecosystems remain dynamic because of disturbance regimes (volcanic eruptions, landslides, wildfires, floods, variations in marine and freshwater productivity) that occur on a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These disturbances both create selective pressures for adaptive responses by salmon and inhibit long-term divergence by periodically extirpating local populations and creating episodic dispersal events that erode emerging differences. Recent anthropogenic changes are replicated pervasively across the landscape and interrupt processes that allow natural habitat recovery. If anthropogenic changes can be shaped to produce disturbance regimes that more closely mimic (in both space and time) those under which the species evolved, Pacific salmon should be well-equipped to deal with future challenges, just as they have throughout their evolutionary history. PMID:25567626

  18. 29. At Willard, Little Salmon Creek. Site of former dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. At Willard, Little Salmon Creek. Site of former dam and water supply pond for Broughton flume. View from downstream of intake, dam wind wall to right, lower wall of overflow chute in left foreground (contains pipes and small dam, possibly for water pumping). West 320 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  19. Stabilizing Oils from Smoked Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smoking of meats and fish is one of the earliest preservation technologies developed by humans. In this study, the smoking process was evaluated as a method for reducing oxidation of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) oils and also maintaining the quality of oil in aged fish prior to oil extractio...

  20. FACTS, FANTASIES, AND FORECASTS: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the far western contiguous United States (California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho), many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline has taken place over the past 150 years, but there have been decades when the numbers increased. Overall...

  1. Bacteriophage significantly reduces Listeria monocytogenes on raw salmon fillet tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have demonstrated the antilisterial activity of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) bacteriophage LISTEX P100 (phage P100) on the surface of raw salmon fillet tissue against Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 4b. In a broth model system, phage P100 completely inhibited L. monocytogenes gro...

  2. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SALMON RECOVERY: AN IRRECONCILABLE CONFLICT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the southern region of western North America, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline was induced by an extensively studied and reasonably well understood combination of causal agents. The public appears to support reversing the d...

  3. Alternative mating strategies in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vazquez, E; Moran, P; Martinez, J L; Perez, J; de Gaudemar, B; Beall, E

    2001-01-01

    By screening variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci, multiple paternity within clutches has been found in wild populations of southern European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta). For Atlantic salmon, we determined the relative contribution of alternative male phenotypes to the next generation. Individual males that are morphologically juvenile yet sexually mature fertilized a large proportion of eggs, and they thereby contributed to an increase of genetic variability in wild populations via (1) balancing the sex ratio, (2) increasing outbreeding, and (3) enlarging the effective population size, in part a consequence of (1) and (2). In addition, these precocious males ensured that interspecific spawns involving Atlantic salmon females and brown trout males (a fairly common occurrence in southern Europe where the two species are sympatric) resulted mostly in Atlantic salmon progeny. For brown trout, preliminary genetic results indicated that multiple paternity, when present, was not due to alternative mating strategies by males, but rather to successive fertilizations by adult suitors.

  4. Diel spawning behavior of chum salmon in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Skalicky, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study during 2003 in a side channel of the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam to describe the diel spawning behavior of wild chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. We collected observational data on 14 pairs of chum salmon using a dual-frequency identification sonar. Spawners of both genders were observed chasing intruders during nighttime and daytime as nests were constructed. Regardless of diel period, females were engaged in digging to both construct nests and cover eggs, and courting males exhibited the prespawning behavior of tail-crossing. We observed a total of 13 spawning events, of which 9 occurred at night and 4 occurred during the day. Once chum salmon begin nest construction, visual cues are apparently not required for courtship, nest defense, and spawning. To enhance successful spawning, flows from Bonneville Dam during the spawning season were reduced during the day but were sometimes increased at night to pass water and meet power demand (i.e., reverse loading), the assumption being that chum salmon are inactive at night. Our findings show that this assumption was violated. Therefore, reverse loading may disrupt the complex prespawning behavior that occurs both during the day and at night, as well as attract spawners to areas that were dewatered during the day.

  5. Rapid counting of nematoda in salmon by peptic digestion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Joseph A.; Chakravarti, Diptiman; Uzmann, Joseph R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1958-01-01

    The population of Anisakis sp., larvae in chum salmon appears to be concentrated in the ventral section of the fish, that is, below the lateral line, which ಟ್ಗ that only the ventral quarters of the fish need to be examined for estimating infection intensity.

  6. Rapid counting of nematoda in salmon by peptic digestion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Joseph A.; Chakravarti, Diptiman; Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1961-01-01

    The population of Anisakis sp., larvae in chum salmon appears to be concentrated in the ventral section of the fish, that is, below the lateral line, which ಟ್ಗ that only the ventral quarters of the fish need to be examined for estimating infection intensity.

  7. Evolutionary consequences of fishing and their implications for salmon

    PubMed Central

    Hard, Jeffrey J; Gross, Mart R; Heino, Mikko; Hilborn, Ray; Kope, Robert G; Law, Richard; Reynolds, John D

    2008-01-01

    We review the evidence for fisheries-induced evolution in anadromous salmonids. Salmon are exposed to a variety of fishing gears and intensities as immature or maturing individuals. We evaluate the evidence that fishing is causing evolutionary changes to traits including body size, migration timing and age of maturation, and we discuss the implications for fisheries and conservation. Few studies have fully evaluated the ingredients of fisheries-induced evolution: selection intensity, genetic variability, correlation among traits under selection, and response to selection. Most studies are limited in their ability to separate genetic responses from phenotypic plasticity, and environmental change complicates interpretation. However, strong evidence for selection intensity and for genetic variability in salmon fitness traits indicates that fishing can cause detectable evolution within ten or fewer generations. Evolutionary issues are therefore meaningful considerations in salmon fishery management. Evolutionary biologists have rarely been involved in the development of salmon fishing policy, yet evolutionary biology is relevant to the long-term success of fisheries. Future management might consider fishing policy to (i) allow experimental testing of evolutionary responses to exploitation and (ii) improve the long-term sustainability of the fishery by mitigating unfavorable evolutionary responses to fishing. We provide suggestions for how this might be done. PMID:25567639

  8. Setting the stage for a sustainable Pacific salmon fisheries strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, Donald D.; Steward, Cleveland R.; Knudsen, E. Eric; Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, Cleveland R.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Williams, Jack E.; Reiser, Dudley W.

    1999-01-01

    Salmon and steelhead Oncorhynchus spp., have been keystone species for ecosystems and human cultures of the North American Pacific coast for cons. Yet, in the past century, many populations have been greatly diminished and some are now extinct-the result of a combination of factors, including habitat loss and degradation, overfishing, natural variability in salmon production, negative effects of artificial propagation, and weaknesses in institutional and regulatory structures. We argue that a major shift is required, from the egocentric environmental approach (wherein each part of the ecosystem is managed as a unit) to the ecocentric ecosystem approach (wherein all parts are integrated for management). A management framework is proposed that contains-for each management unit such as a watershed-four elements: management goals; management objectives, ecosystem indicators; and a coordinated action plan. We also describe the Sustainable Fisheries Strategy, a consultative process for developing an ecosystem-based approach toward achieving sustainable Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and fisheries. This book is one of three important underpinnings of the Strategy; the other two are the Strategy itself and a manual being developed to guide community-based programs embracing the principles of sustainable fisheries. This book contains important historical perspectives as well as numerous innovative ideas for moving toward ecosystem-oriented, sustainable management of Pacific salmon and steelhead.

  9. Okanogan Focus Watershed Salmon Creek : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, Hilary

    1999-11-01

    During FY 1999 the Colville Tribes and the Okanogan Irrigation District (OID) agreed to study the feasibility of restoring and enhancing anadromous fish populations in Salmon Creek while maintaining the ability of the district to continue full water service delivery to it members.

  10. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  11. Halogenated contaminants in farmed salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, S P J; van Velzen, M J M; Swart, C P; van der Veen, I; Traag, W A; de Boer, J

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations than omnivorous species. (ii) Contaminant concentrations generally decreased per species in the following order of salmon > trout > tilapia approximately equal to pangasius approximately equal to shrimp. (iii) Most contaminant concentrations decreased in the following order of PCBs approximately equal to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) > hexachlorobenzene approximately equal to pentachlorobenzene approximately equal to dieldrin approximately equal to PBDEs approximately equal to alpha-HBCD approximately equal to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ) [PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs]. (iv) Contaminant concentrations were very low (mostly <1 ng/g wet weight) and far below the European and Dutch legislative limits. (v) Contaminant concentrations in farmed shrimp, pangasius, and tilapia were lower than those in wild fish, whereas contaminant concentrations in farmed salmon and trout were higher than those in lean wild marine fish. From the five species investigated, salmon is predominantly responsible (97%) for human exposure to the sum of the investigated contaminants. The contribution of trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp is small (3%) because contaminant concentrations and consumption volumes were much lower.

  12. Adaptive potential of a Pacific salmon challenged by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Nicolas J.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Heath, John W.; Neff, Bryan D.

    2015-02-01

    Pacific salmon provide critical sustenance for millions of people worldwide and have far-reaching impacts on the productivity of ecosystems. Rising temperatures now threaten the persistence of these important fishes, yet it remains unknown whether populations can adapt. Here, we provide the first evidence that a Pacific salmon has both physiological and genetic capacities to increase its thermal tolerance in response to rising temperatures. In juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a 4 °C increase in developmental temperature was associated with a 2 °C increase in key measures of the thermal performance of cardiac function. Moreover, additive genetic effects significantly influenced several measures of cardiac capacity, indicative of heritable variation on which selection can act. However, a lack of both plasticity and genetic variation was found for the arrhythmic temperature of the heart, constraining this upper thermal limit to a maximum of 24.5 +/- 2.2 °C. Linking this constraint on thermal tolerance with present-day river temperatures and projected warming scenarios, we predict a 17% chance of catastrophic loss in the population by 2100 based on the average warming projection, with this chance increasing to 98% in the maximum warming scenario. Climate change mitigation is thus necessary to ensure the future viability of Pacific salmon populations.

  13. Basis for managing the harvest of Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Phelps, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of estimated spawner-recruit relations for populations of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from British Columbia to California, harvest fractions of 60-70% may be reasonable for stocks for which the productivities are not known. Care should be taken to detect and to avoid excessive harvest from stocks with low productivity.

  14. Antisomatostatin-induced growth acceleration in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Mayer, I; McLean, E; Kieffer, T J; Souza, L M; Donaldson, E M

    1994-10-01

    Since somatostatin (SRIF) inhibits the release of growth hormone (GH), its immunoneutralization may provide an alternative to GH therapy as a means of enhancing somatic growth in fish. The present study examined the feasibility of accelerating growth in juvenile chinook salmon by means of antiSRIF administration. Yearling salmon of Nicola River stock (BC, Canada) were injected intraperitoneally every 5 days, for a total of 40 days, with either SRIF (1 μg g-1 body wt.), antiSRIF (SOMA-10, 1 μg g(-1)), recombinant bovine GH (rbGH, 2.5 μg g(-1)), recombinant porcine GH (rpGH, 2.5 μg g(-1)) or saline (controls). No significant differences were observed in length, weight or final condition factor (k) between the SRIF-treated and control fish over the experimental period. However, the fish treated with the antiSRIF were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) longer and heavier than the control salmon after 25 and 30 days respectively. Furthermore, antiSRIF treatment caused a lowering in k when compared to the control salmon. Fish injected with rbGH or rpGH were significantly longer and heavier than all other groups (p ≤ 0.05), after only 5 days. GH treated groups also returned higher k when compared against all other treatments (p ≤ 0.05). No differences were observed in growth between the two rGH treatments over the experimental period.

  15. Integrated decision support tools for Puget Sound salmon recovery planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a set of tools to provide decision support for community-based salmon recovery planning in Salish Sea watersheds. Here we describe how these tools are being integrated and applied in collaboration with Puget Sound tribes and community stakeholders to address restora...

  16. Cycles, stochasticity and density dependence in pink salmon population dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Krkošek, Martin; Hilborn, Ray; Peterman, Randall M.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Complex dynamics of animal populations often involve deterministic and stochastic components. A fascinating example is the variation in magnitude of 2-year cycles in abundances of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) stocks along the North Pacific rim. Pink salmon have a 2-year anadromous and semelparous life cycle, resulting in odd- and even-year lineages that occupy the same habitats but are reproductively isolated in time. One lineage is often much more abundant than the other in a given river, and there are phase switches in dominance between odd- and even-year lines. In some regions, the weak line is absent and in others both lines are abundant. Our analysis of 33 stocks indicates that these patterns probably result from stochastic perturbations of damped oscillations owing to density-dependent mortality caused by interactions between lineages. Possible mechanisms are cannibalism, disease transmission, food depletion and habitat degradation by which one lineage affects the other, although no mechanism has been well-studied. Our results provide comprehensive empirical estimates of lagged density-dependent mortality in salmon populations and suggest that a combination of stochasticity and density dependence drives cyclical dynamics of pink salmon stocks. PMID:21147806

  17. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe - a kinetic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in unsalted and salted (3%) salmon roe. Growth curves, developed using inoculated samples incubated at constant temperatures between 5 and 30 degrees C, were analyzed by curve-fitting to the Huang and Baran...

  18. Managing Pacific salmon escapements: The gaps between theory and reality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E. Eric; Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, Cleveland R.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Williams, Jack E.; Reiser, Dudley W.

    1999-01-01

    There are myriad challenges to estimating intrinsic production capacity for Pacific salmon populations that are heavily exploited and/or suffering from habitat alteration. Likewise, it is difficult to determine whether perceived decreases in production are due to harvest, habitat, or hatchery influences, natural variation, or some combination of all four. There are dramatic gaps between the true nature of the salmon spawner/recruit relationship and the theoretical basis for describing and understanding the relationship. Importantly, there are also extensive practical difficulties associated with gathering and interpreting accurate escapement and run-size information and applying it to population management. Paradoxically, certain aspects of salmon management may well be contributing to losses in abundance and biodiversity, including harvesting salmon in mixed population fisheries, grouping populations into management units subject to a common harvest rate, and fully exploiting all available hatchery fish at the expense of wild fish escapements. Information on U.S. Pacific salmon escapement goal-setting methods, escapement data collection methods and estimation types, and the degree to which stocks are subjected to mixed stock fisheries was summarized and categorized for 1,025 known management units consisting of 9,430 known populations. Using criteria developed in this study, only 1% of U.S. escapement goals are by methods rated as excellent. Escapement goals for 16% of management units were rated as good. Over 60% of escapement goals have been set by methods rated as either fair or poor and 22% of management units have no escapement goals at all. Of the 9,430 populations for which any information was available, 6,614 (70%) had sufficient information to categorize the method by which escapement data are collected. Of those, data collection methods were rated as excellent for 1%, good for 1%, fair for 2%, and poor for 52%. Escapement estimates are not made for 44

  19. Recovery and Separation of Rare Earth Elements Using Salmon Milt

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yoshio; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Miyaji, Asami; Watanabe, Yusuke; Fan, Qiaohui; Honma, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Recycling rare earth elements (REEs) used in advanced materials such as Nd magnets is important for the efficient use of REE resources when the supply of several REEs is limited. In this work, the feasibility of using salmon milt for REE recovery and separation was examined, along with the identification of the binding site of REEs in salmon milt. Results showed that (i) salmon milt has a sufficiently high affinity to adsorb REEs and (ii) the adsorption capacity of the milt is 1.04 mEq/g, which is comparable with that of commercial cation exchange resin. Heavier REEs have higher affinity for milt. A comparison of stability constants and adsorption patterns of REEs discussed in the literature suggests that the phosphate is responsible for the adsorption of REE in milt. The results were supported by dysprosium (Dy) and lutetium (Lu) LIII-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The REE-P shell was identified for the second neighboring atom, which shows the importance of the phosphate site as REE binding sites. The comparison of REE adsorption pattern and EXAFS results between the milt system and other adsorbent systems (cellulose phosphate, Ln-resin, bacteria, and DNA-filter hybrid) revealed that the coordination number of phosphate is correlated with the slope of the REE pattern. The separation column loaded with milt was tested to separate REE for the practical use of salmon milt for the recovery and separation of REE. However, water did not flow through the column possibly because of the hydrophobicity of the milt. Thus, sequential adsorption–desorption approach using a batch-type method was applied for the separation of REE. As an example of the practical applications of REE separation, Nd and Fe(III) were successfully separated from a synthetic solution of Nd magnet waste by a batch-type method using salmon milt. PMID:25490035

  20. Bacteriophage significantly reduces Listeria monocytogenes on raw salmon fillet tissue.

    PubMed

    Soni, Kamlesh A; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated the antilisterial activity of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) bacteriophage LISTEX P100 (phage P100) on the surface of raw salmon fillet tissue against Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 4b. In a broth model system, phage P100 completely inhibited L. monocytogenes growth at 4 degrees Celsius for 12 days, at 10 degrees Celsius for 8 days, and at 30 degrees Celsius for 4 days, at all three phage concentrations of 10(4), 10(6), and 10(8) PFU/ml. On raw salmon fillet tissue, a higher phage concentration of 10(8) PFU/g was required to yield 1.8-, 2.5-, and 3.5-log CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes from its initial loads of 2, 3, and 4.5 log CFU/g at 4 or 22 degrees Celsius. Over the 10 days of storage at 4 degrees Celsius, L. monocytogenes growth was inhibited by phage P100 on the raw salmon fillet tissue to as low as 0.3 log CFU/g versus normal growth of 2.6 log CFU/g in the absence of phage. Phage P100 remained stable on the raw salmon fillet tissue over a 10-day storage period, with only a marginal loss of 0.6 log PFU/g from an initial phage treatment of 8 log PFU/g. These findings illustrate that the GRAS bacteriophage LISTEX P100 is listericidal on raw salmon fillets and is useful in quantitatively reducing L. monocytogenes.

  1. Deepening Thermocline Displaces Salmon Catch On The Oregon Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. S.; Lawson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Establishing a linkage between fish stock distributions and physical oceanography at a fine scale provides insights into the dynamic nature of near-shore ocean habitats. Characterization of habitat preferences adds to our understanding of the ecosystem, and may improve forecasts of distribution for harvest management. The Project CROOS (Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon) Chinook salmon catch data set represents an unprecedented high-resolution record of catch location and depth, with associated in-situ temperature measurements and stock identification derived from genetic data. Here we connect this data set with physical ocean observations to gain understanding of how circulation affects salmon catch distributions. The CROOS observations were combined with remote and in situ observations of temperature, as well as a data assimilative regional ocean model that incorporates satellite and HF radar data. Across the CROOS data set, catch is primarily located within the upwelling front over the seamounts and reef structures associated with Heceta and Stonewall Banks along the shelf break. In late September of 2014 the anomalously warm "blob" began to arrive on the Oregon coast coincident with a strong downwelling event. At this time the thermocline deepened from 20 to 40 m, associated with a deepening of salmon catch depth. A cold "bulb" of water over Heceta Bank may have provided a thermal refuge for salmon during the initial onshore movement of the anomalously warm water. These observations suggest that a warming ocean, and regional warming events in particular, will have large effects on fish distributions at local and regional scales, in turn impacting fisheries.

  2. Salmon DNA Accelerates Bone Regeneration by Inducing Osteoblast Migration

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ayako; Kajiya, Hiroshi; Mori, Nana; Sato, Hironobu; Fukushima, Tadao; Kido, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    The initial step of bone regeneration requires the migration of osteogenic cells to defective sites. Our previous studies suggest that a salmon DNA-based scaffold can promote the bone regeneration of calvarial defects in rats. We speculate that the salmon DNA may possess osteoinductive properties, including the homing of migrating osteogenic cells. In the present study, we investigated the influence of the salmon DNA on osteoblastic differentiation and induction of osteoblast migration using MG63 cells (human preosteoblasts) in vitro. Moreover, we analyzed the bone regeneration of a critical-sized in vivo calvarial bone defect (CSD) model in rats. The salmon DNA enhanced both mRNA and protein expression of the osteogenesis-related factors, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase, and osterix (OSX) in the MG63 cells, compared with the cultivation using osteogenic induction medium alone. From the histochemical and immunohistochemical assays using frozen sections of the bone defects from animals that were implanted with DNA disks, many cells were found to express aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, one of the markers for mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, OSX was observed in the replaced connective tissue of the bone defects. These findings indicate that the DNA induced the migration and accumulation of osteogenic cells to the regenerative tissue. Furthermore, an in vitro transwell migration assay showed that the addition of DNA enhanced an induction of osteoblast migration, compared with the medium alone. The implantation of the DNA disks promoted bone regeneration in the CSD of rats, compared with that of collagen disks. These results indicate that the salmon DNA enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and induction of migration, resulting in the facilitation of bone regeneration. PMID:28060874

  3. Differential incorporation of natural spawners vs. artificially planted salmon carcasses in a stream food web: Evidence from delta 15N of juvenile coho salmon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Placement of salmon carcasses is a common restoration technique in Oregon and Washington streams, with the goal of improving food resources and productivity of juvenile salmon. To explore the effectiveness of this restoration technique, we measured the δ15N of juvenile coho salmo...

  4. Does the use of salmon frames as bait for lobster/crab creel fishing significantly increase the risk of disease in farmed salmon in Scotland?

    PubMed

    Murray, Alexander G

    2015-07-01

    Salmon farming is an important economic activity, and employer, particularly for remoter areas of Scotland; crustacean fisheries are also significant small businesses in these areas. Salmon frames (the head and spine that remain after evisceration and filleting) are sometimes used to bait the creel pots used to catch lobsters and crabs. These frames may contain pathogens that could potentially be spread to salmon farms in the vicinity of creel fisheries. Therefore, an analysis has been carried out for key pathogens of farmed salmon to assess the risks associated with this process. Infection of farms via creel bait requires that: (1) pathogens are present in salmon at harvest; (2) they are not removed from the salmon that used for bait during processing; (3) they transmit from creel pot baits to salmon farms. This last step is critical and leads to most of the uncertainty in results. Risk were assessed for 7 viruses, 3 bacteria, and 3 eukaryotic parasites of importance to salmon farming. A potentially significant risk was identified in association with disease control programmes if fish were filleted at a secondary processor; such a situation should arise only rarely. A very low risk, per event, was identified from imports, however, because of large numbers of Norwegian imports processed in the UK this risk is always present. Risks were at worst of low (disease control) or very low (imports) probability and are significant only because of the magnitude of consequences.

  5. Using Phylogenetic Analysis to Detect Market Substitution of Atlantic Salmon for Pacific Salmon: An Introductory Biology Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Erica; Gogarten, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    We describe a laboratory exercise developed for the cell and molecular biology quarter of a year-long majors' undergraduate introductory biology sequence. In an analysis of salmon samples collected by students in their local stores and restaurants, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to detect market substitution of Atlantic salmon…

  6. 78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... trollers, and 438-495 charter boats. Based on Pacific Coast Fisheries Information Network (PacFIN) data, a... biological opinions that address the impacts of the Council managed salmon fisheries on listed salmonids as... fisheries were not likely to jeopardize SRKW (biological opinion dated May 5, 2009). Pursuant to...

  7. Effects of dam removal on Tule Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the White Salmon River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Engle, Rod; Barton, Gary J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Warren, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric dams ever removed in the USA. Breached in a single explosive event in October 2011, hundreds-of-thousands of cubic metres of sediment washed down the White Salmon River onto spawning grounds of a threatened species, Columbia River tule fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We investigated over a 3-year period (2010–2012) how dam breaching affected channel morphology, river hydraulics, sediment composition and tule fall Chinook salmon (hereafter ‘tule salmon’) spawning habitat in the lower 1.7 km of the White Salmon River (project area). As expected, dam breaching dramatically affected channel morphology and spawning habitat due to a large load of sediment released from Northwestern Lake. Forty-two per cent of the project area that was previously covered in water was converted into islands or new shoreline, while a large pool near the mouth filled with sediments and a delta formed at the mouth. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model revealed that pool area decreased 68.7% in the project area, while glides and riffles increased 659% and 530%, respectively. A spatially explicit habitat model found the mean probability of spawning habitat increased 46.2% after dam breaching due to an increase in glides and riffles. Shifting channels and bank instability continue to negatively affect some spawning habitat as sediments continue to wash downstream from former Northwestern Lake, but 300 m of new spawning habitat (river kilometre 0.6 to 0.9) that formed immediately post-breach has persisted into 2015. Less than 10% of tule salmon have spawned upstream of the former dam site to date, but the run sizes appear healthy and stable. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist on gonadotropin levels in Masu salmon and Sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Ikuta, Kazumasa; Kitamura, Shoji

    2007-09-01

    The salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) is considered to be involved in gonadal maturation via gonadotropin (GTH) secretion in salmonid fishes. However, there is no direct evidence for endogenous sGnRH-stimulated GTH secretion in salmonids. In this study, to clarify whether endogenous sGnRH stimulates GTH secretion, we examined the effects of the mammalian GnRH (mGnRH) antagonist [Ac-Delta(3)-Pro(1), 4FD-Phe(2), D-Trp(3,6)]-mGnRH on luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in 0-year-old masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou and sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. First, the effects of the GnRH antagonist on LH release were examined in 0-year-old precocious male masu salmon. GnRH antagonist treatment for 3 hr significantly inhibited an increase in plasma LH levels that was artificially induced by exogenous sGnRH administration, indicating that the GnRH antagonist is effective in inhibiting LH release from the pituitary. Subsequently, we examined the effect of the GnRH antagonist on LH synthesis in 0-year-old immature sockeye salmon that were pretreated with exogenous testosterone for 42 days to increase the pituitary LH contents; the testosterone treatment did not affect the plasma LH levels. GnRH antagonist treatment slightly but significantly inhibited an increase in the testosterone-stimulated pituitary LH content levels. However, no significant differences in the plasma LH levels were observed between the GnRH antagonist-treated and control groups. These results suggest that endogenous sGnRH is involved in LH secretion in salmonid fishes.

  9. Low virulent infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV-HPR0) is prevalent and geographically structured in Norwegian salmon farming.

    PubMed

    Lyngstad, Trude M; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Hjortaas, Monika J; Devold, Magnus; Aspehaug, Vidar; Larssen, Rolf B; Jansen, Peder A

    2012-11-19

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a severe disease in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that has caused epidemic outbreaks in most salmon-producing countries worldwide. The disease is caused by virulent ISA virus (ISAV). Low virulent variants of the virus, characterised by a full-length sequence in the highly polymorphic region of segment 6 in the virus genome, have been reported with increasing frequencies. These variants of the virus, termed HPR0, have been proposed to be ancestors of virulent ISAV. We examined this idea through studies of the phylogeographic and environmental distribution of ISAV-HPR0, as well as phylogeographic associations between virulent ISAV and ISAV-HPR0. Samples from 232 fish groups were screened for ISAV. Real-time RT-PCR was used for detection of ISAV, and the ISAV haemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene was characterised for positive samples. A Mantel test was used to test phylogeographic associations between pairs of ISAV-HPR0 HE gene sequences. A rank test was used to test associations between HE gene sequences from virulent ISAV and ISAV-HPR0. ISAV-HPR0 was detected in fish groups both in freshwater and marine environments, and in juveniles, on-grown marine salmon and broodstock salmon. Genetic and geographic distances between pairs of ISAV-HPR0 HE gene sequences were positively correlated, suggesting that the population of ISAV-HPR0 is geographically structured. Finally, we found a spatial association between fish groups with virulent ISAV (n = 21) and fish groups with ISAV-HPR0 (n = 27), supporting the hypothesis that ISAV-HPR0 may undergo a transition to virulent ISAV.

  10. Interspecific competition in tributaries: Prospectus for restoring Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Wedge, Leslie R.

    1999-01-01

    Historically, Lake Ontario may have supported the world's largest freshwater population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). However, by the late 1800's, salmon were virtually extinct in the lake due to the damming of tributaries, overharvest, deforestation, and pollution. Of these factors, the building of dams on tributaries, which precluded access by the salmon to natal spawning streams, was probably the most detrimental. Since the extirpation of Atlantic salmon in the Lake Ontario watershed over a century ago, considerable change has occurred throughout the lake and tributary ecosystem. The changes within the ecosystem that may have the most profound effect on Atlantic salmon restoration include the presence of exotic species, including other salmonines, and reduced habitat quality, especially in tributaries. These changes must be taken into account when considering Atlantic salmon restoration.

  11. Thyrotropic activity of salmon pituitary glycoprotein hormones in the Hawaiian parrotfish thyroid in vitro.

    PubMed

    Swanson, P; Grau, E G; Helms, L M; Dickhoff, W W

    1988-02-01

    The thyrotropic activities of salmon pituitary extract, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (GTH), and glycoprotein fractions obtained during purification of salmon TSH and GTH were measured using the parrotfish thyroid culture system. Purified salmon TSH was approximately 1,000 times more potent than bovine TSH in stimulating thyroxine release into the culture medium. Most of the forms of salmon GTH had no thyrotropic activity. One of the forms of salmon GTH (GTH-F) and three chromatofocusing fractions (CF-B, -C, and -E) that were devoid of activity in the coho salmon in vivo had some thyrotropic activity in the parrotfish thyroid culture. Whether the activity of these fractions was due to contamination with TSH, less potent forms of TSH, or inherent thyrotropic activity of a form of GTH is discussed. These results indicate that the parrotfish thyroid culture system can be used to detect thyrotropic activity of fractions obtained during the purification of teleost TSH.

  12. Wild Steelhead and introduced spring Chinook Salmon in the Wind River, Washington: Overlapping populations and interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, I.G.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated interactions of introduced juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with wild juvenile steelhead O. mykiss in the upper Wind River watershed (rkm 24.6 to rkm 43.8), Washington. Our objective was to determine if the presence of introduced spring Chinook salmon influenced populations of wild juvenile steelhead and if other biotic or abiotic factors influenced distribution and populations of these species. We snorkeled to assess distribution and abundance in one to six stream reaches per year during 2001 through 2007. Juvenile steelhead were found in each sampled reach each year, but juvenile Chinook salmon were not. The upstream extent of distribution of juvenile Chinook salmon varied from rkm 29.7 to 42.5. Our analyses suggest that juvenile Chinook salmon distribution was much influenced by flow during the spawning season. Low flow appeared to limit access of escaped adult Chinook salmon to upper stream reaches. Abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was also influenced by base flow during the previous year, with base flow occurring post spawn in late August or early September. There were no relationships between juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and number of Chinook salmon spawners, magnitude of winter flow that might scour redds, or abundance of juvenile steelhead. Abundance of age-0 steelhead was influenced primarily by the number of steelhead spawners the previous year, and abundance of age-1 steelhead was influenced primarily by abundance of age-0 steelhead the previous year. Juvenile steelhead abundance did not show a relationship with base or peak flows, nor with number of escaped Chinook salmon adults during the previous year. We did not detect a negative influence of the relatively low abundance of progeny of escaped Chinook salmon on juvenile steelhead abundance. This low abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was persistent throughout our study and is likely a result of hatchery management and habitat conditions. Should one or

  13. Effects of introduced fishes on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow pacific northwest lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.D.; Divens, M.; Meyer, W.

    2005-01-01

    Declines in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. have been blamed on hydropower, overfishing, ocean conditions, and land use practices; however, less is known about the impacts of introduced fish. Most of the hundreds of lakes and ponds in the Pacific Northwest contain introduced fishes, and many of these water bodies are also important for salmon production, especially of coho salmon O. kisutch. Over 2 years, we examined the predation impacts of 10 common introduced fishes (brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus, black crappie Pomoxis nigro-maculatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, green sunfish L. cyanellus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, rainbow trout O. mykiss, warmouth L. gulosus, and yellow perch Perca flavescens) and two native fishes (cutthroat trout O. clarkii and prickly sculpin Cottus asper) on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow Pacific Northwest lakes, all located in different watersheds. Of these species, largemouth bass were responsible for an average of 98% of the predation on coho salmon in all lakes, but the total impact to each run varied among lakes and years. Very few coho salmon were eaten by black crappies, brown bullheads, cutthroat trout, prickly sculpin, or yellow perch, whereas other species were not observed to eat coho salmon. Juvenile coho salmon growth in all lakes was higher than in nearby streams. Therefore, food competition between coho salmon and introduced fishes in lakes was probably not limiting coho salmon populations. Largemouth bass are widespread and are present in 85% of lowland warmwater public-access lakes in Washington (n = 421), 84% of those in Oregon (n = 179), and 74% of those in the eight northwesternmost counties in California (n = 19). Future research would help to identify the impact of largemouth bass predation across the region and prioritize lakes where impacts are most severe. Nevertheless, attempts to transplant or increase largemouth bass

  14. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Coho Salmon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Effects of loqqinq on the habitat behavioral ecology of juvenile coho of coho salmon and cutthroat trout salmon in stream channels. J. Fish. in coastal...SEnvironmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and UT! CW Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) EET SCOHO SALMON E CE 2Y -N o SCoastal Ecology Group SFish and...organisms, principally fish, of sport, commercial, or ecological importance. The profiles are designed to provide coastal managers, engineers, and

  15. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest), Chum Salmon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    harvests in Washington State during (Figure 3). The total commercial the 1930’s and 1940’s (J. Ames, pers. salmon catch north of Bristol Bay , comm...white tips on pelvic and and Korea (Bakkala 1970; Hart 1973). anal fins, which distinguish them from The major rivers of the Pacific sockeye salmon ...Figure 3. Average percentages of the streams. Pacific Coast State and Province commercial harvest of chum salmon , THE FISHERY 1920-79 (modification

  16. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout

  17. Hey! A Louse Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... patience to do this (maybe read a good book while it's being done), it works just as well. Because they need to feed a few times a day, l ice can 't live more than a day or two off of a person's head. To be on the safe side, your parents may: vacuum carpets and furniture wash ...

  18. Hey! A Louse Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a sesame seed, and are tan to gray in color. Lice need to suck a tiny bit of blood to survive, and they sometimes live on people's heads and lay eggs in the hair , on the back of the neck, or behind ...

  19. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South

  20. Development of a Conceptual Chum Salmon Emergence Model for Ives Island

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Bott, Yi-Ju; Nabelek, Marc A.

    2011-02-09

    The objective of the study described herein was to develop a conceptual model of chum salmon emergence that was based on empirical water temperature of the riverbed and river in specific locations where chum salmon spawn in the Ives Island area. The conceptual model was developed using water temperature data that have been collected in the past and are currently being collected in the Ives Island area. The model will be useful to system operators who need to estimate the complete distribution of chum salmon emergence (first emergence through final emergence) in order to balance chum salmon redd protection and power system operation.

  1. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms, and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Brown, Richard S. ); Cullinan, Valerie I. ); Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A. )

    2003-10-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rates of adult spring Chinook salmon and compared these values to other species of Pacific salmon. Our results indicated that adult salmon achieve their maximum level of oxygen consumption at about their upper critical swim speed. It is also at this speed that the majority of the energy supplied to the swimming fish switches from red muscle (powered by aerobic metabolism) to white muscle (powered by anaerobic metabolism). Determining the swimming performance of adult salmon will assist managers in developing fishways and other means to safely pass fish over hydroelectric dams and other man-made structures.

  2. Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 annual inspection, sampling, measurement, and maintenance activities performed at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Salmon site1). The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities with the results of sample analyses. The Salmon site consists of 1,470 acres. The site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 10 miles west of Purvis, Mississippi, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi.

  3. [Interregional differentiation of chum salmon from Sakhalin and South Kurils infered from microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, K I; Rubtsova, G A; Shitova, M V; Malinina, T V; Zhivotovskiĭ, L A

    2008-07-01

    Variability at ten microsatellite loci was examined in wild and hatchery populations of chum salmon from the Sakhalin Island and Southern Kuril Islands, Iturup and Kunashir. Substantial genetic differences between Sakhalin and South Kurils chum salmon (the differentiation theta reached 6.0%) were revealed. Statistically significant differences between chum salmon from Iturup and that from Kunashir were demonstrated, as well as between the chum salmon populations from different rivers within the islands. It was shown that in different types of population comparisons, required different marker sets most informative were.

  4. Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Elisabeth J.; Beauchamp, David A.; Buckley, Raymond M.

    2005-07-01

    Puget Sound could differentially represent either a simple migration corridor or an important rearing environment during the potentially critical early marine residence period for different species of Pacific salmon. Recent declines in various stocks of Puget Sound salmon could reflect degraded rearing conditions or changes in temporal-spatial utilization patterns by juvenile salmon in Puget Sound, and these patterns could vary between habitats and regions of Puget Sound in response to different environmental conditions or hatchery practices. In April-September 2001 and 2002, we evaluated spatial and temporal differences in distribution and size structure among juvenile chum, pink, coho, and chinook salmon at delta and nearshore habitats in a northern and southern region of Puget Sound, Washington. Water was consistently warmer (8-18.8 °C) and less saline (0.0-27.7) in the northern (N) than in the southern region (S: 9.5-14.6 °C, 13.0-30.4). Salinities were lower and water temperatures more variable in delta sites than exposed nearshore marine sites. Peak densities of juvenile salmon coincided at delta and nearshore sites within sampling regions but differed between regions. Nearshore densities were highest during April-June with pink and chum salmon generally preceding chinook and coho salmon, and peak catch rates of most species occurred in May. A second, late pulse of chinook salmon also occurred during July at northern sites. Juvenile chinook salmon were predominantly of hatchery origin in the southern region (98%), and of mixed origin in the northern region (44% marked hatchery fish) during 2002. The lengths of chinook and chum salmon in nearshore regions increased steadily through time, whereas pink and coho salmon varied inconsistently. Mean sizes of juvenile salmon were slightly but consistently smaller at delta than nearshore sites and at northern versus southern sites. Hatchery chinook salmon were slightly larger than their unmarked counterparts

  5. Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, E.J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Buckley, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Puget Sound could differentially represent either a simple migration corridor or an important rearing environment during the potentially critical early marine residence period for different species of Pacific salmon. Recent declines in various stocks of Puget Sound salmon could reflect degraded rearing conditions or changes in temporal-spatial utilization patterns by juvenile salmon in Puget Sound, and these patterns could vary between habitats and regions of Puget Sound in response to different environmental conditions or hatchery practices. In April-September 2001 and 2002, we evaluated spatial and temporal differences in distribution and size structure among juvenile chum, pink, coho, and chinook salmon at delta and nearshore habitats in a northern and southern region of Puget Sound, Washington. Water was consistently warmer (8-18.8??C) and less saline (0.0-27.7) in the northern (N) than in the southern region (S: 9.5-14.6??C, 13.0-30.4). Salinities were lower and water temperatures more variable in delta sites than exposed nearshore marine sites. Peak densities of juvenile salmon coincided at delta and nearshore sites within sampling regions but differed between regions. Nearshore densities were highest during April-June with pink and chum salmon generally preceding chinook and coho salmon, and peak catch rates of most species occurred in May. A second, late pulse of chinook salmon also occurred during July at northern sites. Juvenile chinook salmon were predominantly of hatchery origin in the southern region (98%), and of mixed origin in the northern region (44% marked hatchery fish) during 2002. The lengths of chinook and chum salmon in nearshore regions increased steadily through time, whereas pink and coho salmon varied inconsistently. Mean sizes of juvenile salmon were slightly but consistently smaller at delta than nearshore sites and at northern versus southern sites. Hatchery chinook salmon were slightly larger than their unmarked counterparts. Extended

  6. Impacts of Climatic Change and Fishing on Pacific Salmon Abundance Over the Past 300 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Bruce P.; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Sweetman, Jon; Douglas, Marianne S. V.; Smol, John P.

    2000-10-01

    The effects of climate variability on Pacific salmon abundance are uncertain because historical records are short and are complicated by commercial harvesting and habitat alteration. We use lake sediment records of δ15N and biological indicators to reconstruct sockeye salmon abundance in the Bristol Bay and Kodiak Island regions of Alaska over the past 300 years. Marked shifts in populations occurred over decades during this period, and some pronounced changes appear to be related to climatic change. Variations in salmon returns due to climate or harvesting can have strong impacts on sockeye nursery lake productivity in systems where adult salmon carcasses are important nutrient sources.

  7. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Off Alaska; Chinook ] Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  8. Gene-expression signatures of Atlantic salmon's plastic life cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered a surprisingly large gene set that was differentially regulated-at similar magnitudes, yet in opposite direction-in both life history transitions. We suggest that this co-variation is not a consequence of many independent cellular and molecular switches in the same direction but rather represents the molecular equivalent of a physiological shift orchestrated by one or very few master regulators. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relative yield of two transferrin phenotypes in coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, John D.; Johnson, A. Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    Experimental groups of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of transferring types AA and AC were compared to determine relative growth and survival before release, yields from the fishery, and returns of fish to the hatchery as 2- and 3-yr-olds. In the hatchery, growth was faster and survival higher in the AA than in the AC types. However, yields of AA and AC types were equal, although the yield of AC types as 3-yr-olds was greater than that of AA types because more of the AA males matured in 2 years. We concluded that it would be futile to attempt to increase the yield of coho salmon by maximizing the frequency of biochemical phenotypes that display only a temporary advantage over other types.

  10. The return on the blueback salmon to the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Frederick S.

    1948-01-01

    THE year 1941 was a crucial one for the blueback salmon of the Columbia River. During that year, one brood came closer to extinction than was realized by more than a few individuals. The immediate causes were not overfishing, hydroelectric power development, or irrigation—although these factors continued to exert their long-standing effects. The direct causes can be attributed to an “act of God” plus—in large measure--lack of knowledge concerning the basic principles of effective artificial propagation. With the security and assurance provided by subsequent developments, those concerned with the Columbia River blueback salmon may be interested in a brief recapitulation of events that transpired during the early 1940s. This particular piece of fishery history bears upon the problems of the immediate future on the Columbia River.

  11. Mortality of seabirds in high-seas salmon gillnets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ainley, D.G.; DeGange, A.R.; Jones, L.L.; Beach, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1952, the Japanese have operated a large salmon driftnet.fishery in the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. This fishery is divided into two components: the high-seas mothership fleet, which consists of several processing ships and their numerous, smaller catcher boats that remain at sea during the entire fishing season, and the land-based fleet, which consists of independent fishing boats that catch and store their own fish and return to Japan at more frequent intervals (Sanger 1976; Fredin et al. 2 ). A similar fishery in the North Atlantic between 1965 and 1976 was responsible for the deaths of large numbers of the thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, and significant reductions in its breeding populations (Tull et al. 1972). Recent work in the North Pacific and Bering Sea by Sana (1978) and King et al. (1979) indicated that large numbers of seabirds are killed annually in the Japanese salmon fishery also.

  12. Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon.

    PubMed Central

    McGinnity, Philip; Prodöhl, Paulo; Ferguson, Andy; Hynes, Rosaleen; Maoiléidigh, Niall O; Baker, Natalie; Cotter, Deirdre; O'Hea, Brendan; Cooke, Declan; Rogan, Ger; Taggart, John; Cross, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two-generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F(1) and F(2) hybrids and BC(1) backcrosses to wild and farm salmon. Offspring of farm and "hybrids" (i.e. all F(1), F(2) and BC(1) groups) showed reduced survival compared with wild salmon but grew faster as juveniles and displaced wild parr, which as a group were significantly smaller. Where suitable habitat for these emigrant parr is absent, this competition would result in reduced wild smolt production. In the experimental conditions, where emigrants survived downstream, the relative estimated lifetime success ranged from 2% (farm) to 89% (BC(1) wild) of that of wild salmon, indicating additive genetic variation for survival. Wild salmon primarily returned to fresh water after one sea winter (1SW) but farm and 'hybrids' produced proportionately more 2SW salmon. However, lower overall survival means that this would result in reduced recruitment despite increased 2SW fecundity. We thus demonstrate that interaction of farm with wild salmon results in lowered fitness, with repeated escapes causing cumulative fitness depression and potentially an extinction vortex in vulnerable populations. PMID:14667333

  13. Diversity and linkage disequilibrium in farmed Tasmanian Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Kijas, J; Elliot, N; Kube, P; Evans, B; Botwright, N; King, H; Primmer, C R; Verbyla, K

    2017-04-01

    Farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a globally important production species, including in Australia where breeding and selection has been in progress since the 1960s. The recent development of SNP genotyping platforms means genome-wide association and genomic prediction can now be implemented to speed genetic gain. As a precursor, this study collected genotypes at 218 132 SNPs in 777 fish from a Tasmanian breeding population to assess levels of genetic diversity, the strength of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and imputation accuracy. Genetic diversity in Tasmanian Atlantic salmon was lower than observed within European populations when compared using four diversity metrics. The distribution of allele frequencies also showed a clear difference, with the Tasmanian animals carrying an excess of low minor allele frequency variants. The strength of observed LD was high at short distances (<25 kb) and remained above background for marker pairs separated by large chromosomal distances (hundreds of kb), in sharp contrast to the European Atlantic salmon tested. Genotypes were used to evaluate the accuracy of imputation from low density (0.5 to 5 K) up to increased density SNP sets (78 K). This revealed high imputation accuracies (0.89-0.97), suggesting that the use of low density SNP sets will be a successful approach for genomic prediction in this population. The long-range LD, comparatively low genetic diversity and high imputation accuracy in Tasmanian salmon is consistent with known aspects of their population history, which involved a small founding population and an absence of subsequent introgression. The findings of this study represent an important first step towards the design of methods to apply genomics in this economically important population.

  14. Sperm traits in farmed and wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Camarillo-Sepulveda, N; Hamoutene, D; Lush, L; Burt, K; Volkoff, H; Fleming, I A

    2016-02-01

    Differences in sperm metabolism and morphology between wild and non-local farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar were assessed by measuring metabolic enzyme activities and length of sperm flagella. No differences were observed between wild and farmed S. salar sperm with regards to cell counts or any of the biochemical variables assessed. Flagella of sperm cells were significantly longer in wild than farmed S. salar; however, this did not result in higher energy levels or different fertilization rates.

  15. Telemetry link for an automatic salmon migration monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, H. A.; Freyman, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The antenna and transmitter described in this report were designed for integration into the remote acoustic assessment system for detection of sockeye salmon in the Bristol Bay region of the Bering Sea. The assessment system configuration consists of an upward directed sonar buoy anchored 150 ft below the surface and attached by cable to a spar buoy tethered some 300 ft laterally. The spar buoy contains a telemetry transmitter, power supply, data processing electronics, an antenna and a beacon light.

  16. The relative stability of salmon redds and unspawned streambeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, Todd H.; Buffington, John M.; Yager, Elowyn M.; Hassan, Marwan A.; Fremier, Alexander K.

    2015-08-01

    Where female salmon build nests ("redds"), streambed material is mixed, fine sediment is winnowed, and bed material is moved into a tailspill mound resembling the shape of a dune. Completed redd surfaces are coarser and better sorted than unspawned beds, which is thought to increase redd stability because larger grains are heavier and harder to move, and sorting increases friction angles for mobility. However, spawning also loosens sediment and creates topography that accelerates flow, which can increase particle mobility. We address these factors controlling the relative stability of redds and unspawned beds in flume experiments where redds were constructed with a dynamic technique that mimics the nesting behavior of female salmon. Although redds exhibited relatively coarse surfaces, measured entrainment forces indicate particle loosening by spawning lowered grain resistance to motion by 12-37% on average compared to unspawned beds. In addition, for the same discharges, boundary shear stress was 13-41% higher on a redd due to flow convergence on the tailspill. Visual measurements of particle entrainment further indicated redd instability, as bed-average shear stress was 22% lower at incipient motion and 29% lower at the discharge that mobilized all grain sizes on a redd. Overall, results demonstrate that redds are unstable compared to unspawned beds, which increases the risk of scour for buried eggs but may facilitate fine sediment flushing and improve the quality of spawning gravels for future generations of spawners. Therefore, managing salmon returns to increase streambed disturbance may be an effective tool for reducing sedimentation impacts on salmon reproduction.

  17. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    SciTech Connect

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  18. Abundance, Timing of Migration, and Egg-to-Smolt Survival of Juvenile Chum Salmon, Kwethluk River, Alaska, 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.; ,; Gillikin, Daniel; ,

    2010-01-01

    To better understand and partition mortality among life stages of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), we used inclined-plane traps to monitor the migration of juveniles in the Kwethluk River, Alaska in 2007 and 2008. The migration of juvenile chum salmon peaked in mid-May and catch rates were greatest when water levels were rising. Movement of chum salmon was diurnal with highest catch rates occurring during the hours of low light (that is, 22:00 to 10:00). Trap efficiency ranged from 0.37 to 4.04 percent (overall efficiency = 1.94 percent). Total abundance of juvenile chum salmon was estimated to be 2.0 million fish in 2007 and 2.9 million fish in 2008. On the basis of the estimate of chum salmon females passing the Kwethluk River weir and age-specific fecundity, we estimated the potential egg deposition (PED) upstream of the weir and trapping site. Egg-to-smolt survival, calculated by dividing the estimate of juvenile chum salmon emigrating past the weir site by the estimate of PED, was 4.6 percent in 2007 and 5.2 percent in 2008. In addition to chum salmon, Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), as well as ten other fish species, were captured in the traps. As with chum salmon, catch of these species increased during periods of increasing discharge and peaked during hours of low light. This study successfully determined the characteristics of juvenile salmon migrations and estimated egg-to-smolt survival for chum salmon. This is the first estimate of survival for any juvenile salmon in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region of Alaska and demonstrates an approach that can help to partition mortality between freshwater and marine life stages, information critical to understanding the dynamics of salmon in this region.

  19. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Malick, Michael J; Cox, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time.

  20. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug; Griswold, Robert G.

    2004-06-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU); The Tribe's long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through their Integrated Fish and Wildlife Program. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2004 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit Lake; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Fishhook Creek; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye salmon and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between

  1. Flesh quality of market-size farmed and wild British Columbia salmon.

    PubMed

    Ikonomou, M G; Higgs, D A; Gibbs, M; Oakes, J; Skura, B; McKinley, S; Balfry, S K; Jones, S; Withler, R; Dubetz, C

    2007-01-15

    This study compared the flesh quality of farmed and wild sources of British Columbia (BC) salmon with respect to concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans and their associated toxic equivalents, total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and selected fatty acids of known importance for human health viz., omega-3 (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs) and (n-6) fatty acids. Skinned fillets from known sources of farmed Atlantic, coho, and chinook salmon (n = 110) and wild coho, chinook, chum, sockeye, and pink salmon (n = 91) were examined. Atlantic salmon contained higher PCB concentrations (means, 28-38 ng/g) than farmed coho or chinook salmon, and levels in these latter species were similar to those in wild counterparts (means, 2.8-13.7 ng/g). PCB levels in Atlantic salmon flesh were, nevertheless, 53-71-fold less than the level of concern for human consumption of fish, i.e., 2000 ng/g as established by Health Canada and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA). Similarly, THg and MeHg levels in all samples were well below the Health Canada guideline (0.5 microg/g) and the US-FDA action level (1.0 microg/g). On average, THg in farmed salmon (0.021 microg/g) was similar to or lower than wild salmon (0.013-0.077 microg/g). Atlantic salmon were a richer source (mean, 2.34 g/100 g fillet) of n-3 HUFAs than the other farmed and wild sources of salmon examined (means, 0.39-1.17 g/100 g). The present findings support the recommended weekly consumption guidelines for oily fish species (includes all BC salmon sources) for cardio-protective benefits as made by the American Heart Association and the UK Food Standards Agency.

  2. Salmon contributions to dissolved organic matter and nutrient loads in a coastal stream in Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, E.; Fellman, J. B.; Edwards, R. T.

    2005-12-01

    In southeastern Alaska, spawning salmon can have a substantial effect on the water quality of coastal watersheds because salmon move large quantities of marine nutrients into terrestrial freshwater streams. We are measuring the effects of salmon on loads of inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in Peterson Creek near Juneau, Alaska. Peterson Creek receives sizable runs of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbushca) and chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon during the late summer (mid-August through mid-September). To test the effects of salmon on water quality, samples were collected above and below a barrier waterfall on Peterson Creek. During salmon spawning, concentrations of ammonium (NH4+) were up to two orders of magnitude higher at the downstream salmon-influenced site, while soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) increased by more than an order of magnitude at the downstream site. For the entire salmon spawning period, concentrations of NH4+, SRP, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were significantly higher at the downstream site compared to the upstream site, however nitrate (NO3-) concentrations were not significantly different between sites. Characterization of DOC samples using fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the DOC leached from salmon had a large protein component compared to DOC at the upstream site which was dominated by humic material. These results suggest that salmon provide a pulse of inorganic N and P as well as labile DOC to surface waters during the spawning period. Concurrent measurements of discharge will allow us to assess the importance of salmon-derived nutrients in the seasonal nutrient budget of Peterson Creek.

  3. Interannual variability in stock abundance and body size of Pacific salmon in the central Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Y.; Azumaya, T.; Fukuwaka, M.; Davis, N.

    2002-10-01

    Variability in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and mean body size was examined for pink, chum and sockeye salmon collected with research gillnets in the central Bering Sea in July from 1972 to 2000. The CPUEs for all three species showed significant increasing trends, but with large interannual variability. The CPUE of pink salmon was higher in odd years than in even years, and abruptly increased in the odd years post-1989. Chum salmon also showed odd/even year fluctuations, which were out-of-phase with those of pink salmon. Sockeye salmon showed no biennial such fluctuations. The CPUEs of chum and sockeye salmon were higher during 1979-1984 and 1992-1998, but lower during 1985-1991, especially for younger age group such as ocean age 2 and 3. Data for sea surface temperature (SST) and abundances of chum and sockeye salmon during four periods (1972-1976, 1977-1984, 1985-1990, and 1991-2000) indicated a portion of chum and sockeye salmon were distributed in the northern Gulf of Alaska in 1985-1990, when SST in the Gulf of Alaska was low. However, the fish were more abundant in the Bering Sea in 1977-1984 and 1991-2000 when SST was relatively high in the Gulf of Alaska. Body size of pink salmon showed a significant decreasing trend. Chum and sockeye salmon also showed significant decreasing trends in body size at ocean age 3 and older ages, but not at ocean age 2. Significant negative relationships between CPUE and body size were found within species. No significant correlations were found between an Aleutian low pressure index (ALPI) with CPUE and body size, but the increases in CPUE around the late 1970s and early 1990s may be partly be the result of shifts in the distributions of chum and sockeye salmon caused by SST changes related to the regime shift in 1977 and 1989 identified by the ALPI.

  4. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  5. Using Grizzly Bears to Assess Harvest-Ecosystem Tradeoffs in Salmon Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    MacDuffee, Misty; Mangel, Marc; Paquet, Paul; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for “salmon ecosystem” function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC), Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem) equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a generalizable

  6. Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries.

    PubMed

    Levi, Taal; Darimont, Chris T; Macduffee, Misty; Mangel, Marc; Paquet, Paul; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for "salmon ecosystem" function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC), Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem) equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a generalizable method

  7. Responses of pink salmon to CO2-induced aquatic acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Michelle; Hamilton, Trevor J.; Eom, Junho; Lyall, Emily M.; Gallup, Joshua; Jiang, Amy; Lee, Jason; Close, David A.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification negatively affects many marine species and is predicted to cause widespread changes to marine ecosystems. Similarly, freshwater ecosystems may potentially be affected by climate-change-related acidification; however, this has received far less attention. Freshwater fish represent 40% of all fishes, and salmon, which rear and spawn in freshwater, are of immense ecosystem, economical and cultural importance. In this study, we investigate the impacts of CO2-induced acidification during the development of pink salmon, in freshwater and following early seawater entry. At this critical and sensitive life stage, we show dose-dependent reductions in growth, yolk-to-tissue conversion and maximal O2 uptake capacity; as well as significant alterations in olfactory responses, anti-predator behaviour and anxiety under projected future increases in CO2 levels. These data indicate that future populations of pink salmon may be at risk without mitigation and highlight the need for further studies on the impact of CO2-induced acidification on freshwater systems.

  8. Genetic assessment of a summer chum salmon metapopulation in recovery.

    PubMed

    Small, Maureen P; Johnson, Thom H; Bowman, Cherril; Martinez, Edith

    2014-02-01

    Programs to rebuild imperiled wild fish populations often include hatchery-born fish derived from wild populations to supplement natural spawner abundance. These programs require monitoring to determine their demographic, biological, and genetic effects. In 1990s in Washington State, the Summer Chum Salmon Conservation Initiative developed a recovery program for the threatened Hood Canal summer chum salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) (the metapopulation) that used in-river spawners (wild fish) for each respective supplementation broodstock in six tributaries. Returning spawners (wild-born and hatchery-born) composed subsequent broodstocks, and tributary-specific supplementation was limited to three generations. We assessed impacts of the programs on neutral genetic diversity in this metapopulation using 16 microsatellite loci and a thirty-year dataset spanning before and after supplementation, roughly eight generations. Following supplementation, differentiation among subpopulations decreased (but not significantly) and isolation by distance patterns remained unchanged. There was no decline in genetic diversity in wild-born fish, but hatchery-born fish sampled in the same spawning areas had significantly lower genetic diversity and unequal family representation. Despite potential for negative effects from supplementation programs, few were detected in wild-born fish. We hypothesize that chum salmon natural history makes them less vulnerable to negative impacts from hatchery supplementation.

  9. Analysis of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation, 1990 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William H.; Coley, Travis C.; Burge, Howard L.

    1990-09-01

    Supplementation or planting salmon and steelhead into various locations in the Columbia River drainage has occurred for over 100 years. All life stages, from eggs to adults, have been used by fishery managers in attempts to establish, rebuild, or maintain anadromous runs. This report summarizes and evaluates results of past and current supplementation of salmon and steelhead. Conclusions and recommendations are made concerning supplementation. Hatchery rearing conditions and stocking methods can affect post released survival of hatchery fish. Stress was considered by many biologists to be a key factor in survival of stocked anadromous fish. Smolts were the most common life stage released and size of smolts correlated positively with survival. Success of hatchery stockings of eggs and presmolts was found to be better if they are put into productive, underseeded habitats. Stocking time, method, species stocked, and environmental conditions of the receiving waters, including other fish species present, are factors to consider in supplementation programs. The unpublished supplementation literature was reviewed primarily by the authors of this report. Direct contact was made in person or by telephone and data compiled on a computer database. Areas covered included Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Alaska, California, British Columbia, and the New England states working with Atlantic salmon. Over 300 projects were reviewed and entered into a computer database. The database information is contained in Appendix A of this report. 6 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs.

  10. Naked DNA vaccination of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar against IHNV.

    PubMed

    Traxler, G S; Anderson, E; LaPatra, S E; Richard, J; Shewmaker, B; Kurath, G

    1999-11-30

    A naked plasmid DNA encoding the glycoprotein (pCMV4-G) of a 1976 isolate of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) obtained from steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss was used to vaccinate Atlantic salmon Salmo salar against IHNV. Eight weeks post-vaccination the fish were challenged with a strain of IHNV originally isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon undergoing an epizootic. Fish injected with the glycoprotein-encoding plasmid were significantly (p < 0.05) protected against IHNV by both immersion and cohabitation challenge. Survivors of the first challenges were pooled and re-challenged by immersion 12 wk after the initial challenge. Significant (p < 0.05) protection was observed in all of the previously challenged groups including those receiving the complete vaccine. Fish injected with the glycoprotein-encoding plasmid produced low levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies prior to the first challenge. Neutralizing antibodies increased in all groups after exposure to the IHNV. Passive transfer of pooled sera from pCMV4-G vaccinates and IHN survivors provided relative survivals of 40 to 100% compared to fish injected with sera collected from fish immunized with control vaccines or left unhandled. In this study, DNA vaccination effectively protected Atlantic salmon smolts against challenges with IHNV.

  11. Mineral resource appraisal of the Salmon National Forest, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Rick; Close, Terry; McHugh, Ed

    1998-01-01

    The Salmon National Forest administers 1,776,994 net acres of mountainous terrain located in east-central Idaho. Most of the Forest is in Lemhi County; only a small portion falls within Idaho and Valley Counties. Approximately 426,114 acres of the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness extends into the western part of the Forest and mineral entry is severely restricted. Because of its location within the Salmon River drainage, the Forest also is subject to numerous issues surrounding restoration of anadromous fish runs. Mineral production from the Salmon National Forest began during 1866 when placer gold was discovered in Leesburg Basin. Hardrock mining quickly spread throughout the Forest and many deposits containing a wide range of commodities were discovered and developed. Although early records are sketchy, production is estimated to include 940,000 ounces gold, 654,000 ounces silver, 61.9 million pounds copper, 8.9 million pounds lead, 13.9 million pounds cobalt, 208,000 pounds zinc, and 37,000 tons fluorite mill feed. Mineral resources are large, diverse, and occur in many deposit types including exhalative, stockwork, disseminated, vein, replacement, sedimentary, skarn, breccia pipe, porphyry, and placer. The largest cobalt resource in the United States occurs in the Blackbird Mining District. Other resources include gold, silver, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphate, manganese, iron, fluorite, uranium, thorium, rare earth oxides, and barite.

  12. Glucose metabolic gene expression in growth hormone transgenic coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Panserat, Stéphane; Kamalam, Biju Sam; Fournier, Jeanne; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Woodward, Krista; Devlin, Robert H

    2014-04-01

    Salmonids are generally known to be glucose intolerant. However, previous studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) transgenic coho salmon display modified nutritional regulation of glycolysis and lipogenesis compared to non-transgenic fish, suggesting the potential for better use of glucose in GH transgenic fish. To examine this in detail, GH transgenic and non-transgenic coho salmon were subjected to glucose tolerance test and subsequent metabolic assessments. After intra-peritoneal injection of 250mg/kg glucose, we analysed post-injection kinetics of glycaemia and expression of several key target genes highly involved in glucose homeostasis in muscle and liver tissues. Our data show no significant differences in plasma glucose levels during peak hyperglycaemia (3-6h after injection), demonstrating a similar glucose tolerance between transgenic and non transgenic. However, and unrelated to the hyperglycaemic episode, GH transgenic fish return to a slightly lower basal glycaemia values 24h after injection. Correspondingly, GH transgenic fish exhibited higher mRNA levels of glucokinase (GK) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in liver, and glucose transporter (GLUT4) in muscle. These data suggest that these metabolic actors may be involved in different glucose use in GH transgenic fish, which would be expected to influence the glucose challenge response. Overall, our data demonstrate that GH transgenic coho salmon may be a pertinent animal model for further study of glucose metabolism in carnivorous fish.

  13. Proteomic analysis of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Villarroel, Marsha; Rosengrave, Patrice; Carne, Alan; Kleffmann, Torsten; Lokman, P Mark; Gemmell, Neil J

    2014-01-01

    The ovarian, or coelomic, fluid that is released with the egg mass of many fishes is increasingly found to play an important role in several biological processes crucial for reproductive success. These include maintenance of oocyte fertility and developmental competence, prolonging of sperm motility, and enhancing sperm swimming speed. Here we examined if and how the proteome of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid varied among females and then sought to examine the composition of this fluid. Ovarian fluid in chinook salmon was analyzed using 1D SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS tryptic digest screened against Mascot and Sequest databases. We found marked differences in the number and concentrations of proteins in salmon ovarian fluid across different females. A total of 174 proteins were identified in ovarian fluid, 47 of which were represented by six or more peptides, belonging to one of six Gene Ontology pathways. The response to chemical stimulus and response to hypoxia pathways were best represented, accounting for 26 of the 174 proteins. The current data set provides a resource that furthers our understanding of those factors that influence successful egg production and fertilisation in salmonids and other species.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Ovarian Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Villarroel, Marsha; Rosengrave, Patrice; Carne, Alan; Kleffmann, Torsten; Lokman, P. Mark; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2014-01-01

    The ovarian, or coelomic, fluid that is released with the egg mass of many fishes is increasingly found to play an important role in several biological processes crucial for reproductive success. These include maintenance of oocyte fertility and developmental competence, prolonging of sperm motility, and enhancing sperm swimming speed. Here we examined if and how the proteome of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid varied among females and then sought to examine the composition of this fluid. Ovarian fluid in chinook salmon was analyzed using 1D SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS tryptic digest screened against Mascot and Sequest databases. We found marked differences in the number and concentrations of proteins in salmon ovarian fluid across different females. A total of 174 proteins were identified in ovarian fluid, 47 of which were represented by six or more peptides, belonging to one of six Gene Ontology pathways. The response to chemical stimulus and response to hypoxia pathways were best represented, accounting for 26 of the 174 proteins. The current data set provides a resource that furthers our understanding of those factors that influence successful egg production and fertilisation in salmonids and other species. PMID:25089903

  15. Dynamic in-lake spawning migrations by female sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, D.B.; Woody, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Precise homing by salmon to natal habitats is considered the primary mechanism in the evolution of population-specific traits, yet few studies have focused on this final phase of their spawning migration. We radio tagged 157 female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as they entered Lake Clark, Alaska, and tracked them every 1-10 days to their spawning locations. Contrary to past research, no specific shoreline migration pattern was observed (e.g., clockwise) nor did fish enter a tributary unless they spawned in that tributary. Tributary spawning fish migrated faster (mean = 4.7 km??day-1, SD = 2.7, vs. 1.6 km??day-1, SD = 2.1) and more directly (mean linearity = 0.8, SD = 0.2, vs. 0.4, SD = 0.2) than Lake Clark beach spawning fish. Although radio-tagged salmon migrated to within 5 km of their final spawning location in an average of 21.2 days (SD = 13.2), some fish migrated five times the distance necessary and over 50 days to reach their spawning destination. These results demonstrate the dynamic nature of this final phase of migration and support studies indicating a higher degree of homing precision by tributary spawning fish. ?? Journal compilation 2007 Blackwell Munksgaard No claim to original US government works.

  16. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin and heparin from farmed Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Flengsrud, Ragnar

    2016-04-01

    The heparin disaccharides detected in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) gills and intestines have, with one exception, been reported in porcine heparin. The relative amounts of disaccharides appear to be very different in the two species. Two chondroitin disaccharides with a proposed essential role in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) development and differentiation are detected in farmed Atlantic salmon. In addition, most of the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate and heparin disaccharides detected here have been reported in zebrafish, in support of the claims of the heparin presence in fish. The same chondroitin/dermatan disaccharides were detected in the bones of bony fishes. The rare disaccharide UA2S-GalNAc that was found in trace amounts in all 5 bony fishes was found in relative high amounts in gills and in significant amounts in intestines. The rare heparin disaccharide UA2S-GlcN was in relative highest amounts both in gills and intestines. In context with our previous reports, this communication suggests that glycosaminoglycans in farmed Atlantic salmon heparin need further studies in order to clarify structure and function.

  17. First detection, isolation and molecular characterization of infectious salmon anaemia virus associated with clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Marcos G; Aedo, Alejandra; Kibenge, Molly JT; Groman, David B; Yason, Carmencita V; Grothusen, Horts; Lisperguer, Angelica; Calbucura, Marlene; Avendaño, Fernando; Imilán, Marcelo; Jarpa, Miguel; Kibenge, Frederick SB

    2008-01-01

    Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chiloé in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chiloé Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I) of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cell line

  18. Effects of Marine Mammals on Columbia River Salmon Listed under the Endangered Species Act : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 3 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Donn L.

    1993-06-01

    Most research on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in recent years has been directed to downstream migrant salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) losses at dams. Comparatively little attentions has been given to adult losses. Recently an estimated 378,4000 adult salmon and steelhead (O. mykiss) were unaccounted-for from Bonneville Dam to terminal areas upstream. It is now apparent that some of this loss was due to delayed mortality from wounded by marine mammals. This report reviews the recent literature to define predatory effects of marine mammals on Columbia River salmon.

  19. 76 FR 38698 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing Duty Order and Antidumping Duty Order on Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY... the antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead...

  20. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology.

  1. 77 FR 60101 - Boundary Establishment for White Salmon Wild and Scenic River “Lower Segment”, Gifford Pinchot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Boundary Establishment for White Salmon Wild and Scenic River... of the White Salmon Wild and Scenic River ``Lower Segment'' to Congress. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Salmon Wild and Scenic River ``Lower Segment'' boundary is available for review at the following...

  2. 75 FR 52601 - Food Labeling; Labeling of Food Made From AquAdvantage Salmon; Public Hearing; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ...Advantage Salmon; Public Hearing; Request for Comments; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of... From AquAdvantage Salmon; Public Hearing; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... (FDA) is announcing a public hearing regarding the labeling of food derived from AquAdvantage Salmon,...

  3. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  4. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  5. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  7. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  8. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  9. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  10. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226.210... Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho...

  11. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226.210... Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho...

  12. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226.210... Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho...

  13. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon during Barge Transport

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Skalski, J. R.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-12-01

    To mitigate for fish losses related to passage through the Federal Columbia River Power System, an extensive fish transportation program using barges and trucks to move fish around and downstream of dams and reservoirs was implemented in 1981. Population modeling and other analyses to support Pacific salmon recovery efforts have assumed that the survival of juvenile salmonids during the transportation experience was 98%. To estimate survival during barge transport from Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to a release area downstream of Bonneville Dam, a distance of 470 km, we used a novel adaptation of a release-recapture model with acoustic-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts. A total of 1,494 yearling Chinook salmon were surgically implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponders (PIT) and divided into three groups. The three tagged groups consisted of; (1) a group which was released into the raceway with the population of fish which were later loaded into transportation barges (R{sub B}), (2) a group which was held in a net-pen suspended within the general barge population until 5-6 h prior to barge evacuation, at which time they were confirmed to be alive and then released into the general barge population (R{sub A}), and (3) to validate a model assumption, a group which was euthanized and released into the barge population 2-8 h prior to barge evacuation (R{sub D}). Six replicates of these groups were loaded onto fish transport barges that departed Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River between 29 April and 13 May, 2010. Acoustic receiver arrays between 70 and 220 km downstream of the barge evacuation site were used to detect tagged fish and served as the basis for estimation of survival within the barge. Tag-life-corrected estimates of reach survival were calculated for barged and control fish in each of the six replicate trials. The ratio of survival from

  14. From the viral perspective: infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) transcriptome during the infective process in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Miranda, Diego; Cabrejos, María Eugenia; Yañez, José Manuel; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    The infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is a severe disease that mainly affects the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. Although several transcriptional studies have aimed to understand Salmon-ISAV interaction through the evaluation of host-gene transcription, none of them has focused their attention upon the viral transcriptional dynamics. For this purpose, RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR analyses were conducted in gills, liver and head-kidney of S. salar challenged by cohabitation with ISAV. Results evidence the time and tissue transcript patterns involved in the viral expression and how the transcription levels of ISAV segments are directly linked with the protein abundance found in other virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family. In addition, RT-qPCR result evidenced that quantification of ISAV through amplification of segment 3 would result in a more sensitive approach for detection and quantification of ISAV. This study offers a more comprehensive approach regarding the ISAV infective process and gives novel knowledge for its molecular detection.

  15. Hybrids between chum Oncorhynchus keta and pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha salmon: age, growth and morphology and effects on salmon production.

    PubMed

    Zhivotovsky, L A; Tochilina, T G; Shaikhaev, E G; Pogodin, V P; Malinina, T V; Gharrett, A J

    2016-10-01

    Mature hybrids between chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, which were identified by an intermediate colour pattern, were caught at the Kurilsky Hatchery, Iturup Island, Russia. Most of them were female and 3 years old (a partial freshwater year and 2 marine years), which is intermediate between the ages of maturity of the parental species. The hybrids exceed both parental species in the rate of growth, are large in size and robust and might successfully compete for mating in the wild or be chosen for artificial reproduction. The ratio of the scale length over width, R, is oblate (R < 1), whereas scales of the parental species are prolate (R > 1). From scale analyses, the c.v. in body size of hybrid females at the second marine year is twice that of O. keta, which suggests developmental instability in the hybrid. A dynamic model predicted that continuing hybridization at a low rate does not produce a substantial hybrid load due to selection against advanced-generation hybrids and backcrosses. A high hybridization rate, however, may be an additional risk for genetic management and should be taken into account in programmes of artificial reproduction of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., although such hybrids might have commercial use in confined production systems.

  16. Ca. Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Salmon Gill Pox Virus transmit horizontally in Atlantic salmon held in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Wiik-Nielsen, J; Gjessing, M; Solheim, H T; Litlabø, A; Gjevre, A-G; Kristoffersen, A B; Powell, M D; Colquhoun, D J

    2017-03-06

    Elucidation of the role of infectious agents putatively involved in gill disease is commonly hampered by the lack of culture systems for these organisms. In this study, a farmed population of Atlantic salmon pre-smolts, displaying proliferative gill disease with associated Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Atlantic salmon gill pox virus (SGPV) infections, was identified. A subpopulation of the diseased fish was used as a source of waterborne infection towards a population of naïve Atlantic salmon pre-smolts. Ca. B. cysticola infection became established in exposed naïve fish at high prevalence within the first month of exposure and the bacterial load increased over the study period. Ca. P. salmonis and SGPV infections were identified only at low prevalence in exposed fish during the trial. Although clinically healthy, at termination of the trial the exposed, naïve fish displayed histologically visible pathological changes typified by epithelial hyperplasia and subepithelial inflammation with associated bacterial inclusions, confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization to contain Ca. B. cysticola. The results strongly suggest that Ca. B. cysticola infections transmit directly from fish to fish and that the bacterium is directly associated with the pathological changes observed in the exposed, previously naïve fish.

  17. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2000-04-01

    This report is separated into 2 chapters. The chapters are (1) Progress toward determining the spawning distribution of supplemented fall chinook salmon in the Snake River in 1999; and (2) Fall chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in the Snake River, 1999.

  18. Effect of temperature and salt on thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a potentially fatal foodborne pathogen that can be found in ready-to-eat seafood products, such as fresh salmon roe. Once contaminated, salmon roe must be decontaminated prior to human consumption. This study was conducted to determine the thermal inactivation kinetics of...

  19. 75 FR 32370 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway SUMMARY: On August 5, 2009, the Department of Commerce (Department... Norway and preliminarily determined that Nordic Group AS is the successor-in-interest to Nordic Group...

  20. THE WEST COAST IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...