Science.gov

Sample records for salmon spawning gravels

  1. Bedform morphology of salmon spawning areas in a large gravel-bed river

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-05-01

    While the importance of river channel morphology to salmon spawning habitat is increasingly recognized, quantitative measures of the relationships between channel morphology and habitat use are lacking. Such quantitative measures are necessary as management and regulatory agencies within the Pacific Northwestern region of the USA, and elsewhere, seek to quantify potential spawning habitat and develop recovery goals for declining salmon populations. The objective of this study was to determine if fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas in the Snake River, Idaho, USA, were correlated with specific bed form types at the pool-riffle scale. A bed form differencing technique was used to objectively quantify the longitudinal riverbed profile into four distinct pool-riffle units that were independent of discharge. The vertical location of thalweg points within these units was quantified with a riffle proximity index. Chinook salmon spawning areas were mapped and correlated with the pool-riffle units through the use of cross-tabulation tables. The results indicate that 84% of fall Chinook salmon spawning areas were correlated with riffles (Chi-square=152.1, df=3, p<0.001), with 53% of those areas located on the upstream side of riffle crests. The majority of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning occurred at a vertical location within 80% of the nearest riffle crest elevation. The analyses of bed form morphology will assist regional fish mangers in quantifying existing and potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, and will provide a quantitative framework for evaluating general ecological implications of channel morphology in large gravel-bed rivers.

  2. Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

    2007-01-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at

  3. Identifying and Quantifying Sources of Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Gravel to the Snake River in Hells Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welcker, C. W.; Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Snake River in Hells Canyon supports a growing population of spawning Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) immediately downstream of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) of hydroelectric dams for the last 60 years. The long-term survival of this salmon run depends on the input of spawning gravel (25-150 mm) from local tributaries balancing the losses of spawning gravel through attrition and export out of the reach between the HCC and the Salmon River confluence. We are working to quantify the gravel input of these local tributaries at different time-scales and put this into the context of historical supply and transport. Long-term total sediment production rates of these tributaries estimated through various methods have varied by over 2 orders of magnitude, but we have recently completed 10Be work to constrain these estimates. We are measuring the change in storage of Fall Chinook spawning-size gravel through repeat multibeam echosounder surveys of the riverbed. The limited amount of repeat data collected to date has shown complex patterns of change in the riverbed. One possible driver of this complexity is the episodic and spatially variable nature of sediment inputs from these tributaries. We are attempting to quantify the frequency of the debris flows or floods capable of transporting spawning gravel through digitizing historic imagery of the last 60 years to determine the recurrence interval. We are measuring the magnitude of these events by surveying tributary fans pre and post-event to measure the sediment volume and particle size produced by specific events. These floods and debris flows are driven by extreme rainfall or snowmelt events, so we have also reconstructed historical meteorological conditions to identify the triggering conditions for transport, and identify the areas where snowmelt or rainfall is the more likely trigger. We are currently testing whether the unique bedrock geology of Hells Canyon can be used as a tracer to identify the

  4. Flume Experiments on the Influence of Salmon Spawning Density on Grain Stability and Bedload Transport in Gravel-bed Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Salmon spawning in streams involves the female salmon digging a pit in the bed where she deposits eggs for fertilization before covering them with gravel excavated from the next pit upstream. Sequences of pit excavation and filling winnow fines, loosen sediment, and move bed material into a tailspill mound resembling the shape of a dune. Research suggests salmonid nests (redds) destabilize streambeds by reducing friction between loosened grains and converging flow that elevates shear stress on redd topography. However, bed stability may be enhanced by form drag from redds in clusters that lower shear stress on the granular bed, but this effect will vary with the proportion of the bed surface that is occupied by redds (P). I used simulated redds and water-worked ("unspawned") beds in a laboratory flume to evaluate these competing influences on grain stability and bedload transport rates with P=0.12, 0.34, and 0.41. Results indicate that competence (largest-grain) and reference transport rate estimates of critical conditions for particle entrainment inversely relate to P. Bedload transport increased as exponential functions of P and excess boundary shear stress. Therefore, redd form drag did not overcome the destabilizing effects of spawning. Instead, grain mobility and bedload transport increased with P because larger areas of the bed were composed of relatively loose, unstable grains and redd topography that experienced elevated shear stress. Consequently, the presence of redds in fish-bearing streams likely reduces the effects of sedimentation from landscape disturbance on stream habitats that salmon use for reproduction.

  5. Effects of river discharge on hyporheic exchange flows in salmon spawning areas of a large gravel-bed river

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2008-01-01

    The flow magnitude and timing from hydroelectric dams in the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States is managed in part for the benefit of salmon. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of current Hells Canyon Dam discharge operations on hydrologic exchange flows between the river and riverbed in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. Interactions between river water and pore water within the upper 1 m of the riverbed were quantified through the use of self-contained temperature and water level data loggers suspended inside of piezometers. The data were recorded at 20 min intervals over a period of 200 days when the mean daily discharge was 218–605 m3 s–1, with hourly stage changes as large as 1.9 m. Differences in head pressure between the river and riverbed were small, often within ±2 cm. Measured temperature gradients in the riverbed indicated significant interactions between the surface and subsurface water. Neither hydraulic nor temperature gradients at most sites were significantly affected by either short- or long-term changes in discharge operations from Hells Canyon Dam. Only 2 out of 14 study sites exhibited acute flux reversals between the river and riverbed resulting from short-term, large magnitude changes in discharge. The findings suggest small-scale piezometric head differences play a minor role in the hydrologic exchange between the river and riverbed at the study sites. The processes controlling hydrologic exchange at the study sites are likely to be bedform-induced advective pumping, turbulence at the riverbed surface, and large-scale hydraulic gradients along the longitudinal profile of the riverbed. By incorporating the knowledge of hydrologic exchange processes into water management planning, regional agencies will be better prepared to manage the limited water resources among competing priorities that include salmon recovery, flood control, irrigation supply, hydropower production, and

  6. Fine scale variability of hyporheic hydrochemistry in salmon spawning gravels with contrasting groundwater-surface water interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcolm, I. A.; Soulsby, C.; Youngson, A. F.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2009-02-01

    There is increasing realisation of the importance of groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interactions in understanding freshwater ecology. A study that assessed the influence of local GW-SW interactions on shallow (<250 mm) hyporheic water quality at two contrasting salmon spawning locations in Scotland, UK is reported. At a groundwater-dominated site, continuous logging sensors revealed that hyporheic dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations changed rapidly in response to changing hydrological conditions. Low volume (25 ml) spot samples revealed fine-scale spatial variability (<0.05 m) consistent with a vertically shifting boundary layer between source waters. At a surface-water-dominated location, hyporheic water was typically characterised by high DO and electrical conductivity values, characteristic of surface water. Small reductions in DO at this site are hypothesised to be associated with short residence hyporheic discharge. A comparison between in-situ (logging DO sensor data) and ex-situ (small volume sampling) methods revealed good agreement, potentially allowing deployment of the two methods in stratified sampling programmes. This study demonstrates that hyporheic water quality varies over fine spatial and temporal scales and that future studies need to design sampling strategies that consider the scales appropriate to both the ecology and the hyporheic processes of interest.

  7. Deschutes River Spawning Gravel Study, Volume I, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1985-09-01

    Spawning habitat in the Deschutes River was inventoried, gravel permeability and composition were sampled at selected gravel bars, historical flow records for the Deschutes were analyzed, salmon and trout utilization of spawning habitat was examined, and potential methods of enhancing spawning habitat in the river were explored. Some changes in river conditions since the mid-1960's were identified, including a reduction in spawning habitat immediately downstream from the hydroelectric complex. The 1964 flood was identified as a factor which profoundly affected spawning habitat in the river, and which greatly complicated efforts to identify recent changes which could be attributed to the hydrocomplex. A baseline on present gravel quality at both chinook and steelhead spawning areas in the river was established using a freeze-core methodology. Recommendations are made for enhancing spawning habitat in the Deschutes River, if it is independently determined that spawning habitat is presently limiting populations of summer steelhead or fall chinook in the river. 53 refs., 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. Modification of fluvial gravel size by spawning salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Kondolf, G.M. ); Sale, M.J. ); Wolman, M.G. )

    1993-07-01

    Salmonids (salmon and trout) winnow fine sediment from streambed gravels during construction of the nest or [open quotes]redd[close quotes] used for spawning and incubation of fertilized eggs. The gravels and interstitial fine sediments excavated during this process are exposed to currents and differently transported: Gravels move a short distance, while the fine sediments are swept further downstream from the redd. To quantify the resultant modification of particle size distributions in redds, the authors sampled redds and adjacent undisturbed gravels to document changes in size distributions. These data were compiled with previously published observations to analyze the general nature of size modification during spawning. The final percentage finer than 1 mm in the gravels, P1[sub f], is related to the initial percentage finer than 1 mm, P1[sub i], by the equation P1[sub f] = 0.63 P1[sub i]. Hydraulic variables (water surface slope, mean column velocity, depth, shear stress, unit stream power) explained little of the variance and did not appear in the optimal models. Because fisheries biologists are called upon to evaluate gravels as potential spawning sites, these findings should prove useful in such evaluations. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Salmon as biogeomorphic agents in gravel-bed rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Spawning salmon have been known to affect streambed texture, influence sediment transport, and play an important geomorphological role in streams by digging nests or redds. We examined the impact of salmon and floods on channel morphology, bed material dispersion and yield, bed surface texture and stability, fine sediment dynamics and nutrient retention of small gravel bed streams in British Columbia, Canada. Channel morphology and dynamics of a large number of streams in British Columbia are partially or wholly affected by fish bioturbation. The scale of the impact is controlled by the salmon species, population density, and channel size and characteristics. Sediment transport measurements show that salmon play a significant role in erosion and deposition within the channel by promoting vertical and longitudinal mixing of the substrate, as well as by changing the relative mobility of the gravel on the bed. The action of salmon bioturbation promotes distinctive bedforms and packing of sediment grains. In streams with dense populations of sockeye or chum salmon the whole surface of spawning reaches may be modified, as bars are excavated and pools are filled. For chinook salmon the organization of spawning bedforms ranges from scattered mounds or ‘gravel pile-ups’ to well-ordered dunes. Such dunes extend for hundreds of meters to kilometres along the river bed. They exhibit amplitudes of more than one metre and wavelengths of 10 to 15 m. Our conclusion that mass-spawning fish can dominate sediment transport in mountain drainage basins has fundamental implications for understanding channel morphology, aquatic ecosystem dynamics, stream responses to environmental change, and river restoration programs.

  10. Deschutes River Spawning Gravel Study, Volume II, Appendices I-XIV, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1985-09-01

    Spawning habitat in the Deschutes River was inventoried, gravel permeability and composition were sampled at selected gravel bars, historical flow records for the Deschutes were analyzed, salmon and trout utilization of spawning habitat was examined, and potential methods of enhancing spawning habitat in the river were explored. Some changes in river conditions since the mid-1960's were identified, including a reduction in spawning habitat immediately downstream from the hydroelectric complex. The 1964 flood was identified as a factor which profoundly affected spawning habitat in the river, and which greatly complicated efforts to identify recent changes which could be attributed to the hydrocomplex. A baseline on present gravel quality at both chinook and steelhead spawning areas in the river was established using a freeze-core methodology. Recommendations are made for enhancing spawning habitat in the Deschutes River, if it is independently determined that spawning habitat is presently limiting populations of summer steelhead or fall chinook in the river. Volume II contains appendices to the study.

  11. Salmon Spawning Effects on Streambed Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, T. H.; Buffington, J. M.; Yager, E.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Female salmon build nests ("redds") in streambeds to protect their eggs from predation and damage by bed scour. During spawning, streambed material is mixed, fine sediment is winnowed downstream, and sediment is moved into a tailspill mound resembling the shape of a dune. Redd surfaces are coarser and better sorted than unspawned beds, which is thought to increase redd stability because larger grains are heavier and harder to move and sorting leads to higher friction angles for grain mobility. However, spawning also loosens sediment and creates topography that accelerates flow, both of which may increase particle mobility. We address factors controlling the relative stability of redds and unspawned beds using simulated salmon redds and water worked ("unspawned") beds composed of mixed-grain surfaces in a laboratory flume. Results show that simulated spawning lowered packing resistance to particle mobility on redds by an average of 32-39% compared to unspawned beds. Reductions in packing were sufficient to counter the higher inherent stability of relatively coarse, well sorted grains on redds, overall reducing critical shear stress by 8-20% relative to unspawned beds. In addition, boundary shear stress was 13-41% higher on redds due to flow convergence over the tailspill structure. Finally, redd instability relative to unspawned beds was observed in visual measurements of grain mobility, where bed-averaged shear stress was 22% lower at incipient motion and 29% lower at the discharge that mobilized all grain sizes on redds. Results of these complementary observations, along with sediment mass transport rates being nearly five times higher on a redd than an unspawned bed, indicate that redds are unstable compared to unspawned beds. Given these findings, further research is needed to investigate linkages between spawning disturbance and streambed mobility that may affect salmon reproduction in streams, and to assess whether a certain level of bed disturbance from

  12. Selection of spawning sites by coho salmon in a northern California stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, K.E.; Wilzbach, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the relative importance of various factors contributing to spawning site use by a population of threatened coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Freshwater Creek, California, and created a predictive model of spawning habitat selection based on logistic regression analysis. We excluded sampling sites that previous studies had established as unsuitable on the basis of depth and substrate criteria and asked why fish chose particular locations and not others in seemingly suitable habitat. We evaluated surface water velocity, depth, substrate size composition, gravel inflow rates, vertical hydraulic gradient, geomorphic channel units, hyporheic water physicochemistry, cover, and proximity to other redds not in sampling sites during the 2004-2005 spawning season. In univariate comparisons with unused sites, coho salmon selected sites with a smaller median particle diameter, a larger percentage of gravel-pebble substrate, and higher gravel inflow rates. Based on multivariate logistic regression, the probability of a site's being used for spawning was best modeled as a positive function of the gravel-pebble fraction of the substrate, location at a pool or run tail, and the presence of existing redds in close proximity to the site. This model explained 38% of the variation in the data and was a better predictor of spawning habitat use than a more traditional model based on depth, velocity, and substrate. Our results highlight the potential importance of social behavior in contributing to habitat selection by spawning salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  13. High Variance within Salmonid Spawning Gravels at Restoration Sites Creates More Suitable Habitat within the Hyporheic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janes, M. K.; Heffernan, J. E.; Rosenberry, J. W.; Horner, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Lower American River has historically provided natural spawning habitat for approximately one third of Northern California's salmon population. However, since the construction of Folsom and Nimbus Dams, downstream reaches have become sediment starved and periodic high outflow from the dam has caused channel armoring and incision, thereby degrading the natural spawning habitat. Restoration work on spawning sites in the Lower American River has consisted primarily of importing gravel to create riffles during periods of moderate flow. This is an effort to mitigate armoring of the riverbed and to rehabilitate salmonid spawning habitat by providing suitable grain size for all stages of spawning (redd construction, incubation, and emergence). Since restoration activities began, all rehabilitated sites have not been equally used for spawning. This study attempts to examine and compare the physical properties of each site in order to ascertain which characteristics create more suitable rehabilitated habitat. To do this, we compared restored areas to pre-restoration conditions through the assessment of three main aspects of the restored spawning habitat; grain size and its natural mobility, water flow in the surface and subsurface, and intragravel water quality. We found that some augmentation sites are more heterogeneous than others, and this correlates with higher spawning use. Most spawning was at fin height, and salmonids tend to use sites with higher depth variance (surface features) and higher variance in flow directions and velocities. With time, salmonids alter the spawning sites, creating small ridges and valleys perpendicular to flow. This creates more variable subsurface flow and generates hyporheic flow through the new gravel. This may have an effect on spawning as the more seasoned additions have a higher frequency of spawning than the newer augmentations. In order to efficiently rehabilitate a site and expedite the "seasoning process", creating variance

  14. Evidence of Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Spawning Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2000-04-01

    Fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by Washington Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in 1993 (Hymer 1997). Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and Ives island. Limited spawning ground surveys were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce Islands during 1994-1997 and based on these surveys it was believed that fall chinook salmon successfully spawned in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1,800 to 5,200 fish (Hymer 1997). Recently, chum salmon were also documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon O. kisutch were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999. There are several ongoing investigations to define the physical habitat characteristics associated with fall chinook and chum salmon spawning areas downstream of Bonneville Dam. A major concern is to determine what flows (i.e. surface elevations) are necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Our objective was to locate deepwater spawning locations in the main Columbia River channel and to collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at the site. This objective is consistent with the high priority that the Northwest Power Planning Council's Independent Advisory Board and the salmon managers have placed on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

  15. Characteristics of fall chum salmon spawning habitat on a mainstem river in Interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) are the most abundant species of salmon spawning in the Yukon River drainage system, and they support important personal use, subsistence, and commercial fisheries. Chum salmon returning to the Tanana River in Interior Alaska are a significant contribution to the overall abundance of Yukon River chum salmon and an improved understanding of habitat use is needed to improve conservation of this important resource. We characterized spawning habitat of chum salmon using the mainstem Tanana River as part of a larger study to document spawning distributions and habitat use in this river. Areas of spawning activity were located using radiotelemetry and aerial helicopter surveys. At 11 spawning sites in the mainstem Tanana River, we recorded inter-gravel and surface-water temperatures and vertical hydraulic gradient (an indication of the direction of water flux) in substrate adjacent to salmon redds. At all locations, vertical hydraulic gradient adjacent to redds was positive, indicating that water was upwelling through the gravel. Inter-gravel temperatures adjacent to redds generally were warmer than surface water at most locations and were more stable than surface-water temperature. Inter-gravel water temperature adjacent to redds ranged from 2.6 to 5.8 degrees Celsius, whereas surface-water temperature ranged from greater than 0 to 5.5 degrees Celsius. Some sites were affected more by extremes in air temperature than others. At these sites, inter-gravel water temperature profiles were variable (with ranges similar to those observed in surface water), suggesting that even though upwelling habitats provide a stable thermal incubation environment, eggs and embryos still may be affected by extremes in air temperature. Fine sand and silt covered redds at multiple sites and were evidence of increased river flow during the winter months, which may be a potential source of increased mortality during egg-to-fry development. This study provides

  16. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan; Mueller, Robert; Murray, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and tule fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by WDFW biologists in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and near Ives Island. Limited surveys of spawning ground were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands from 1994 through 1997. Based on those surveys, it is believed that fall Chinook salmon are spawning successfully in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1800 to 5200 fish. Chum salmon also have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon were listed as threatened under the ESA in March 1999. At present there is a need to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning

  17. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam, Annual Report October 2005 - September 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2007-09-21

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and tule fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by WDFW biologists in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and near Ives Island. Limited surveys of spawning ground were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands from 1994 through 1997. Based on those surveys, it is believed that fall Chinook salmon are spawning successfully in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1800 to 5200 fish. Chum salmon also have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon were listed as threatened under the ESA in March 1999. At present there is a need to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning

  18. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Spawning Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2002-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated studies to identify potential fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat and assess the extent of spawning in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in the fall of 1999. This report provides results from 2001, the third year of our effort. The main objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the area. The secondary objective was to map any chum salmon redds located in the deeper sections near Hamilton Slough. River flows during the spawning surveys in 2001 were lower than in 1999 and 2000. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 9, 2001. The location of the spawning area was similar to that of 1999 and 2000. One difference was the majority of redds were found in deeper water (>1.5 m) and closer to the shoreline adjacent to Pierce Island. Because of the low river flows during the fall of 2001, only a handful of redds were found using the boat-deployed video system within Hamilton Slough. No chum salmon (O. keta) redds were found in areas surveyed during 2000. (Note: surveys were limited to deeper sections of Hamilton Slough and near the main river channel.) An estimated 717 fall chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding 1.5 m ({approx} 125 kcfs) were documented in 2001. These estimates are expanded from the number of redds found within a predefined survey area. Fall chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.5-4.6 m and were located in a general area of {approx} 4.9 ha. Fall chinook salmon redds were constructed in gravels ranging from 3.2-13.4 cm in diameter and water velocities of 0.29-0.70 m/s.

  19. Preferred stream discharges for salmon spawning and rearing in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Stream discharges preferred by salmon for spawning were determined from relationships between discharge and spawnable area at 84 study reaches on 28 streams in Washington. Preferred discharges for spawning were found statistically equivalent for chinook, pink, and chum salmon. Regression equations developed for estimating discharges preferred by these species for spawning at other stream sites had standard errors of estimate of 40 percent where a relationship with toe-of-bank channel width was used, and 55 percent where basin drainage area was used. Similarly, equations for estimating the preferred discharge for spawning by sockeye and coho salmon (also statistically equivalent) had standard errors of 48 percent using channel width and 61 percent using drainage area. In general, the discharges preferred for spawning by salmon ranged in magnitude from about 0.3 to 11 times the median monthly mean discharges for September and October and about 0.1 to 6 times the median monthly means for November and December--the four months when spawning is greatest. Stream discharges preferred by salmon for rearing were determined from relationships between discharge and wetted perimeter at the study reaches. Those discharges ranged from about 0.7 to 4 times the median monthly mean discharge for September, when low flows are usually most limiting on the rearing capacity of streams. Equations developed for estimating preferred rearing discharges at other stream sites had standard errors of 57 percent using channel width and 81 percent using drainage area. (Woodard-USGS).

  20. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  1. Dynamic in-lake spawning migrations by female sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, D.B.; Woody, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Precise homing by salmon to natal habitats is considered the primary mechanism in the evolution of population-specific traits, yet few studies have focused on this final phase of their spawning migration. We radio tagged 157 female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as they entered Lake Clark, Alaska, and tracked them every 1-10 days to their spawning locations. Contrary to past research, no specific shoreline migration pattern was observed (e.g., clockwise) nor did fish enter a tributary unless they spawned in that tributary. Tributary spawning fish migrated faster (mean = 4.7 km??day-1, SD = 2.7, vs. 1.6 km??day-1, SD = 2.1) and more directly (mean linearity = 0.8, SD = 0.2, vs. 0.4, SD = 0.2) than Lake Clark beach spawning fish. Although radio-tagged salmon migrated to within 5 km of their final spawning location in an average of 21.2 days (SD = 13.2), some fish migrated five times the distance necessary and over 50 days to reach their spawning destination. These results demonstrate the dynamic nature of this final phase of migration and support studies indicating a higher degree of homing precision by tributary spawning fish. ?? Journal compilation 2007 Blackwell Munksgaard No claim to original US government works.

  2. Spawning salmon and the phenology of emergence in stream insects

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jonathan W.; Schindler, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Phenological dynamics are controlled by environmental factors, disturbance regimes and species interactions that alter growth or mortality risk. Ecosystem engineers can be a key source of disturbance, yet their effects on the phenologies of co-occurring organisms are virtually unexplored. We investigated how the abundance of a dominant ecosystem engineer, spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), alters the emergence phenology of stream insects. In streams with high densities of salmon, peak insect emergence occurred in early July, immediately prior to salmon spawning. By contrast, peak insect emergence in streams with low densities of salmon was weeks later and more protracted. The emergence of specific taxa was also significantly related to salmon density. A common rearing experiment revealed that differences in emergence timing are maintained in the absence of spawning salmon. We hypothesize that these patterns are probably driven by predictable and severe disturbance from nest-digging salmon driving local adaptation and being a trait filter of insect emergence. Thus, salmon regulate the timing and duration of aquatic insect emergence, a cross-ecosystem flux from streams to riparian systems. PMID:20129980

  3. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2001-10-01

    Fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by Washington Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in 1993 (Hymer 1997). Known spawning areas included gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and Ives Island. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1,800 to 5,200 fish (Hymer 1997), and 554 fish in 1998 (Van der Naald et al. 1999). These estimates were based on carcass surveys and visual observation of redds by boat near the shoreline. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted underwater video surveys in the fall of 1999 and 2000 to determine the extent of the fall chinook salmon spawning and to estimate the number of redds occurring in deeper water. Estimates of redds occurring in water depths exceeding 2.2 m at 143,000 cubic feet per second (kcfs) were 499 in 1999 (Mueller and Dauble 1999) and 567 redds >2.2 m at 127 kcfs in 2000 (this study). The majority of the redds found were confined near the main river channel adjacent to Pierce Island. Chum salmon (O. keta) also have been documented using the mouth of Hamilton Creek and portions of Hamilton Slough for spawning. The majority of chum salmon were found to spawn in shallow water at the mouth of Hamilton Creek adjacent to Ives Island. Estimates of the natural chum salmon spawning population for 1998 were 226 (Van der Naald et al. 1999). Chum salmon spawning near Ives Island are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU), and are included in the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) listing in March 1999. Our main objective of this study was to locate deep water spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel and to collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites. The secondary objective was to map any chum salmon redds located in the deep sections of

  4. Diel spawning behavior of chum salmon in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Skalicky, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study during 2003 in a side channel of the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam to describe the diel spawning behavior of wild chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. We collected observational data on 14 pairs of chum salmon using a dual-frequency identification sonar. Spawners of both genders were observed chasing intruders during nighttime and daytime as nests were constructed. Regardless of diel period, females were engaged in digging to both construct nests and cover eggs, and courting males exhibited the prespawning behavior of tail-crossing. We observed a total of 13 spawning events, of which 9 occurred at night and 4 occurred during the day. Once chum salmon begin nest construction, visual cues are apparently not required for courtship, nest defense, and spawning. To enhance successful spawning, flows from Bonneville Dam during the spawning season were reduced during the day but were sometimes increased at night to pass water and meet power demand (i.e., reverse loading), the assumption being that chum salmon are inactive at night. Our findings show that this assumption was violated. Therefore, reverse loading may disrupt the complex prespawning behavior that occurs both during the day and at night, as well as attract spawners to areas that were dewatered during the day.

  5. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning below the Four Lowermost Columbia River Dams, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David; Currie, Andrea

    2006-02-01

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) project aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by biologists from the WDFW in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and Ives Island. Limited spawning ground surveys were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands during 1994 through 1997. Based on these surveys, fall Chinook salmon were believed to be spawning successfully in this area. In addition, chum salmon have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 1999, BPA Project No. 1999-003 was initiated by the WDFW, ODFW, and the USFWS to characterize the variables associated with physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations and to better understand the effects of hydropower project operations on spawning and incubation. Pacific Northwest National

  6. Spatial variability of Chinook salmon spawning distribution and habitat preferences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated physical habitat conditions associated with the spawning sites of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and the interannual consistency of spawning distribution across multiple spatial scales using a combination of spatially continuous and discrete sampling methods. We conducted a census of aquatic habitat in 76 km of the upper main-stem Yakima River in Washington and evaluated spawning site distribution using redd survey data from 2004 to 2008. Interannual reoccupation of spawning areas was high, ranging from an average Pearson’s correlation of 0.62 to 0.98 in channel subunits and 10-km reaches, respectively. Annual variance in the interannual correlation of spawning distribution was highest in channel units and subunits, but it was low at reach scales. In 13 of 15 models developed for individual years (2004–2008) and reach lengths (800 m, 3 km, 6 km), stream power and depth were the primary predictors of redd abundance. Multiple channels and overhead cover were patchy but were important secondary and tertiary predictors of reach-scale spawning site selection. Within channel units and subunits, pool tails and thermal variability, which may be associated with hyporheic exchange, were important predictors of spawning. We identified spawning habitat preferences within reaches and channel units that are relevant for salmonid habitat restoration planning. We also identified a threshold (i.e., 2-km reaches) beyond which interannual spawning distribution was markedly consistent, which may be informative for prioritizing habitat restoration or conservation. Management actions may be improved through enhanced understanding of spawning habitat preferences and the consistency with which Chinook Salmon reoccupy spawning areas at different spatial scales.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Macroinvertebrates in Spawning and Non-Spawning Habitats during a Salmon Run in Southeast Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Emily Y.; Merritt, Richard W.; Cummins, Kenneth W.; Benbow, M. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Spawning salmon create patches of disturbance through redd digging which can reduce macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass in spawning habitat. We asked whether displaced invertebrates use non-spawning habitats as refugia in streams. Our study explored how the spatial and temporal distribution of macroinvertebrates changed during a pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) spawning run and compared macroinvertebrates in spawning (riffle) and non-spawning (refugia) habitats in an Alaskan stream. Potential refugia included: pools, stream margins and the hyporheic zone, and we also sampled invertebrate drift. We predicted that macroinvertebrates would decline in riffles and increase in drift and refugia habitats during salmon spawning. We observed a reduction in the density, biomass and taxonomic richness of macroinvertebrates in riffles during spawning. There was no change in pool and margin invertebrate communities, except insect biomass declined in pools during the spawning period. Macroinvertebrate density was greater in the hyporheic zone and macroinvertebrate density and richness increased in the drift during spawning. We observed significant invertebrate declines within spawning habitat; however in non-spawning habitat, there were less pronounced changes in invertebrate density and richness. The results observed may be due to spawning-related disturbances, insect phenology, or other variables. We propose that certain in-stream habitats could be important for the persistence of macroinvertebrates during salmon spawning in a Southeast Alaskan stream. PMID:22745724

  8. Habitat quality of historic Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning locations and implications for incubation survival: part 1, substrate quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated substrate quality at two historic fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning sites in the Snake River, Idaho, USA. The primary objective of this evaluation was to measure sediment permeability within these areas to determine the potential quality of the habitat in the event that anadromous salmonids are reintroduced to the upper Snake River. Riverbed sediments within the two sites in the upper Snake River were sampled using freeze cores and hydraulic slug tests. Sediment grain size distributions at both sites were typical of gravel-bed rivers with the surface layer coarser than the underlying substrate, suggesting the riverbed surface was armored. Despite the armored nature of the bed, the size of the largest material present on the riverbed surface was well within the size limit of material capable of being excavated by spawning fall Chinook salmon. The percentage of fines was low, suggesting good quality substrate for incubating salmon embryos. Geometric mean particle sizes found in this study compared to a 55% to 80% survival to emergence based on literature values. Hydraulic slug tests showed moderate to high hydraulic conductivity and were comparable to values from current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River and the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Predicted estimates of mean egg survival at both sites (48% and 74%) equaled or exceeded estimates from fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach and the Hanford Reach.

  9. Reproductive Potential of Salmon Spawning Substrates Inferred from Grain Size and Fish Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, C. S.; Sklar, L. S.; Overstreet, B. T.; Wooster, J. K.; Bellugi, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    The river restoration industry spends millions of dollars every year on improving salmon spawning in riverbeds where sediment is too big for fish to move and thus use during redd building. However, few studies have addressed the question of how big is too big in salmon spawning substrates. Hence managers have had little quantitative basis for gauging the amount of spawning habitat in coarse-bedded rivers. Moreover, the scientific framework has remained weak for restoration projects that seek to improve spawning conditions. To overcome these limitations, we developed a physically based, field-calibrated model for the fraction of the bed that is fine-grained enough to support spawning by fish of a given size. Model inputs are fish length and easy-to-measure indices of bed-surface grain size. Model outputs include the number of redds and eggs the substrate can accommodate when flow depth, temperature, and other environmental factors are not limiting. The mechanistic framework of the model captures the biophysical limits on sediment movement and the space limitations on redd building and egg deposition in riverbeds. We explored the parameter space of the model and found a previously unrecognized tradeoff in salmon size: bigger fish can move larger sediment and thus use more riverbed area for spawning; they also tend to have higher fecundity, and so can deposit more eggs per redd; however, because redd area increases with fish length, the number of eggs a substrate can accommodate is highest for moderate-sized fish. One implication of this tradeoff is that differences in grain size may help regulate river-to-river differences in salmon size. Thus, our model suggests that population diversity and, by extension, species resilience are linked to lithologic, geomorphic, and climatic factors that determine grain size in rivers. We cast the model into easy-to-use look-up tables, charts, and computer applications, including a JavaScript app that works on tablets and mobile

  10. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to <10% of their historical abundance, with subsequent declines of marine derived nutrients once provided by large salmon runs. We explored whether low densities (<0.001 spawners/m2) of naturally spawning Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) can affect ecosystem metabolism. We measured gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) continuously before, during, and after salmon spawning. We compared downstream reaches with low densities of spawning salmon to upstream reaches with fewer or no spawners in 3 mid-sized (4th-order) rivers in northern Washington. In addition, we measured chemical, physical, and biological factors that may be important in controlling rates of GPP and ER. We observed that low densities of spawning salmon can increase GPP by 46% during spawning, but values quickly return to those observed before spawning. No difference in ER was observed between up- and downstream reaches. Based on our results, salmon density, temperature, and the proximity to salmon redds were the most important factors controlling rates of GPP, whereas temperature was most important for ER. These results suggest that even at low spawning densities, salmon can stimulate basal resources that may propagate up the food web. Understanding how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  11. Salmon spawning migration: metabolic shifts and environmental triggers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristina M; Schulze, Angela D; Ginther, Norma; Li, Shaorong; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P; Hinch, Scott G

    2009-06-01

    A large-scale functional genomics study revealed shifting metabolic processes in white muscle during the final 1300 km migration of wild sockeye salmon to their spawning grounds in the Fraser River, British Columbia. In 2006, Lower Adams stock sockeye salmon ceased feeding after passing the Queen Charlotte Islands, 850 km from the Fraser River. Enhanced protein turnover and reduced transcription of actin, muscle contractile and heme-related proteins were early starvation responses in saltwater. Arrival to the estuarine environment triggered massive protein turnover through induction of proteasomal and lysosomal proteolysis and protein biosynthesis, and a shift from anaerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. Response to entry into freshwater was modest, with up-regulation of heat shock proteins and nitric oxide biosynthesis. High river temperatures resulted in a strong defense/immune response and high mortalities in 50% of fish. Arrival to the spawning grounds triggered further up-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and proteolysis, down-regulation of protein biosynthesis and helicase activity, and continued down-regulation of muscle proteins and most glycolytic enzymes. However, sharp up-regulation of PFK-I indicated induction of glycolytic potential at the spawning grounds. The identification of potential environmental cues triggering genome-wide transcriptional shifts in white muscle associated with migration and the strong activation of proteasomal proteolysis were both novel findings.

  12. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2000-04-01

    This report is separated into 2 chapters. The chapters are (1) Progress toward determining the spawning distribution of supplemented fall chinook salmon in the Snake River in 1999; and (2) Fall chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in the Snake River, 1999.

  13. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A.

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  14. Fine-scale natal homing and localized movement as shaped by sex and spawning habitat in chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neville, Helen; Isaak, Daniel; Dunham, J.B.; Thurow, Russel; Rieman, B.

    2006-01-01

    Natal homing is a hallmark of the life history of salmonid fishes, but the spatial scale of homing within local, naturally reproducing salmon populations is still poorly understood. Accurate homing (paired with restricted movement) should lead to the existence of fine-scale genetic structuring due to the spatial clustering of related individuals on spawning grounds. Thus, we explored the spatial resolution of natal homing using genetic associations among individual Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an interconnected stream network. We also investigated the relationship between genetic patterns and two factors hypothesized to influence natal homing and localized movements at finer scales in this species, localized patterns in the distribution of spawning gravels and sex. Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed that spawning locations in both sub-basins of our study site were spatially clumped, but the upper sub-basin generally had a larger spatial extent and continuity of redd locations than the lower sub-basin, where the distribution of redds and associated habitat conditions were more patchy. Male genotypes were not autocorrelated at any spatial scale in either sub-basin. Female genotypes showed significant spatial autocorrelation and genetic patterns for females varied in the direction predicted between the two sub-basins, with much stronger autocorrelation in the sub-basin with less continuity in spawning gravels. The patterns observed here support predictions about differential constraints and breeding tactics between the two sexes and the potential for fine-scale habitat structure to influence the precision of natal homing and localized movements of individual Chinook salmon on their breeding grounds.

  15. Measuring nighttime spawning behavior of chum salmon using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    The striking body coloration and morphology that Pacific salmon display during spawning coupled with elaborate courtship behaviors suggest that visual cues are important during their reproductive period. To date, virtually all existing information on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning behavior has been derived from studies conducted during the daytime, and has contributed to the assumption that salmon do not spawn at night. We tested this assumption using a new technology - a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) - to describe and measure nighttime spawning behavior of wild chum salmon in the Columbia River. The DIDSON produces detailed, video-like images using sound, which enabled us to collect behavioral information at night in complete darkness. The display of DIDSON images enabled fish movements and behaviors to be spatially quantified. We collected continuous observational data on 14 pairs of chum salmon in a natural spawning channel during the daytime and nighttime. Spawners of both genders were observed chasing intruders during nighttime and daytime as nests were constructed. Regardless of diel period, females were engaged in digging to both construct nests and cover eggs, and courting males exhibited the pre-spawning behavior of tail crossing. We observed a total of 13 spawning events, of which nine occurred at night and four occurred during the day. The behaviors we observed at night suggest the assumption that chum salmon do not spawn at night is false. Once chum salmon begin nest construction, visual cues are apparently not required for courtship, nest defense, and spawning. We speculate that non-visual cues (e.g. tactile and auditory) enable chum salmon to carry out most spawning behaviors at night. Our findings have implications for how nighttime flows from hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River are managed for power production and protection of imperiled salmon stocks.

  16. Does small-bodied salmon spawning activity enhance streambed mobility?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Tonina, Daniele; Buxton, Todd H.

    2015-09-01

    Female salmonids bury and lay their eggs in streambeds by digging a pit, which is then covered with sediment from a second pit that is dug immediately upstream. The spawning process alters streambed topography, winnows fine sediment, and mixes sediment in the active layer. The resulting egg nests (redds) contain coarser and looser sediments than those of unspawned streambed areas, and display a dune-like shape with an amplitude and length that vary with fish size, substrate conditions, and flow conditions. Redds increase local bed surface roughness (<10-1 channel width, W), but may reduce the size of macro bedforms by eroding reach-scale topography (100-101W). Research has suggested that spawning may increase flow resistance due to redd form drag, resulting in lower grain shear stress and less particle mobility. Spawning, also prevents streambed armoring by mixing surface and subsurface material, potentially increasing particle mobility. Here we use two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with detailed prespawning and postspawning bathymetries and field observations to test the effect of spawning by small-bodied salmonids on sediment transport. Our results show that topographical roughness from small salmon redds has negligible effects on shear stress at the reach-unit scale, and limited effects at the local scale. Conversely, results indicate sediment mixing reduces armoring and enhances sediment mobility, which increases potential bed load transport by subsequent floods. River restoration in fish-bearing streams should take into consideration the effects of redd excavation on channel stability. This is particularly important for streams that historically supported salmonids and are the focus of habitat restoration actions.

  17. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2003-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys to identify fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas located in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in the fall of 2002. This report documents the number and extent of chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce Islands of the Columbia River, and is the fourth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The main objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds located in the deeper sections near below Hamilton Creek. There was a significant increase in the number of fall chinook salmon redds found in the locations surveyed during the 2002 surveys when compared to previous surveys by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A total of 192 redds were found in two general locations adjacent to Pierce Island (river km 228.5) encompassing an area of approximately 9.31 ha. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 15, 2002. An estimated 1,768 fall chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding {approx}1.m ({approx} 125 kcfs) were documented in 2002. This estimate is the expanded number based on the number of redds found within the pre-defined survey area. Fall chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 0.9 to 8.5 m and were constructed in gravel to large cobble ranging in size from 4.83 to 13.4 cm in diameter. No chum salmon redds were found in areas surveyed during 2002, although several carcasses were found at the mouth of Woodward Creek and in the deeper sections below Hamilton Creek.

  18. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  19. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam Annual Report October 2006 - September 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.; Murray, Katherine J.; Bott, Yi-Ju

    2008-08-08

    From 1999 through 2007, the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Bonneville Power Administration funded a project to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning areas, and the flows necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Data were collected to ensure that established flow guidelines are appropriate and provide adequate protection for the species of concern. The projects objectives are consistent with the high priority placed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Independent Scientific Advisory Board and the salmon managers on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Because of the influence of mainstem habitat on salmon production, there is a continued need to better understand the physical habitat variables used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations and the effects of hydropower project operations on spawning and incubation. During FY 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory focused on (1) locating and mapping deep-water fall Chinook salmon and chum salmon spawning areas, (2) investigating the interaction between groundwater and surface water near fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning areas, and (3) providing in-season hyporheic temperature and water surface elevation data to assist state agencies with emergence timing and redd dewatering estimates. This report documents the studies and tasks performed by PNNL during FY 2007. Chapter 1 provides a description of the searches conducted for deepwater redds-adjacent to Pierce and Ives islands for fall Chinook salmon and near the Interstate 205 bridge for chum salmon. The chapter also provides data on redd location, information about habitat associations, and estimates of total spawning populations. Chapter 2 documents the collection of data on riverbed and river temperatures and water surface elevations, from the onset of spawning to the

  20. Pattern of shoreline spawning by sockeye salmon in a glacially turbid lake: evidence for subpopulation differentiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, C.V.; Finn, J.E.; Holland-Bartels, L.

    1995-01-01

    Alaskan sockeye salmon typically spawn in lake tributaries during summer (early run) and along clear-water lake shorelines and outlet rivers during fall (late run). Production at the glacially turbid Tustumena Lake and its outlet, the Kasilof River (south-central Alaska), was thought to be limited to a single run of sockeye salmon that spawned in the lake's clear-water tributaries. However, up to 40% of the returning sockeye salmon enumerated by sonar as they entered the lake could not be accounted for during lake tributary surveys, which suggested either substantial counting errors or that a large number of fish spawned in the lake itself. Lake shoreline spawning had not been documented in a glacially turbid system. We determined the distribution and pattern of sockeye salmon spawning in the Tustumena Lake system from 1989 to 1991 based on fish collected and radiotagged in the Kasilof River. Spawning areas and time were determined for 324 of 413 sockeye salmon tracked upstream into the lake after release. Of these, 224 fish spawned in tributaries by mid-August and 100 spawned along shoreline areas of the lake during late August. In an additional effort, a distinct late run was discovered that spawned in the Kasilof River at the end of September. Between tributary and shoreline spawners, run and spawning time distributions were significantly different. The number of shoreline spawners was relatively stable and independent of annual escapement levels during the study, which suggests that the shoreline spawning component is distinct and not surplus production from an undifferentiated run. Since Tustumena Lake has been fully deglaciated for only about 2,000 years and is still significantly influenced by glacier meltwater, this diversification of spawning populations is probably a relatively recent and ongoing event.

  1. Sediment transport and resulting deposition in spawning gravels, north coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisle, Thomas E.

    1989-06-01

    Incubating salmonid eggs in streambeds are often threatened by deposition of fine sediment within the gravel. To relate sedimentation of spawning gravel beds to sediment transport, infiltration of fine sediment (<2 mm in diameter) into clean gravel beds, bed material size distributions, scour-fill depths, and sediment transport during 10 storm flow events were measured in three streams of north coastal California. Although suspended sediment comprised most (75-94%) of the clastic load during storm flows, bed load material (0.25-2 mm) accounted for most (70-78%) of the fine sediment accumulated in experimental gravel implanted in the streambeds. Sand trapped in the interstices of the top several centimeters formed a seal that impeded deeper deposition of very fine sand and finer material. The seal was responsible at least in part for a decrease in the rate of fine-sediment accumulation with increasing cumulative bed load transport. Areas of the streambeds commonly scoured or filled 0.1 m or more during storm flows, and thus scour and fill commonly created a sandy layer at least as thick as the seal formed by sediment infiltration. Scour could erode eggs laid in the bed and expose deeper levels of the bed to infiltration by fine sediment, but at the same time could allow fine sediment to be winnowed away. Great temporal and spatial variation in sedimentation in these streams suggests that individual storms of moderate size pose a threat to eggs in many but not all areas selected by fish for spawning.

  2. The influence of high magnitude/ low frequency flood events on the spawning habitat of Atlantic salmon in the headwaters of a Scottish stream.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, H.; Gibbins, C.; Soulsby, C.; Webb, J.

    2002-12-01

    In upland salmonid spawning streams, a large proportion of sediment supply is generated in steep headwater reaches during low frequency, high magnitude flood events. These events are integral in dictating channel morphology in these streams. Previous work on a number of Scottish upland streams has suggested that material introduced to the channel during these events is the dominant source of salmonid spawning-calibre sediment and, being important in dictating channel morphology through-out the system, key in controlling the distribution of fish habitats. In headwater reaches, salmonid spawning habitat tends to be limited by the quantity and distribution of suitable sediments, the hydraulics of such locations tending to transport gravel-sized material downstream. Data collected on the Allt a' Ghlinne Bhig (an upland tributary of the River Tay, Scotland) has shown that headwater accumulations of gravel as a result of episodic sediment input during large flood events can provide important spawning habitat, although such features are intrinsically unstable. Uptake of these habitats may be disproportionately important to juvenile production. The stream morphology and discharge associated with over 400 incidents of Atlantic salmon spawning were recorded over three consecutive seasons (2000, 2001 and 2002). Two high magnitude flood events in September 2001 and July 2002 resulted in major sediment input to the headwaters, heavily modifying the character of the channel and producing many substantial accumulations of gravel. In the season prior to these events (2000), no spawning was observed in these locations. During the subsequent surveys (2001 and 2002), a significant number of spawning incidents were observed in the headwaters, potentially providing stock to uptake habitat in these important headwater areas. Although stream discharge during the spawning period is known to affect access to headwater reaches, flows between the three study periods were not significantly

  3. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    1999-03-01

    In 1998 data was collected on the spawning distribution of the first adult fall chinook salmon to return from releases of yearling hatchery fish upriver of Lower Granite Dam. Yearling fish were released at three locations with the intent of distributing spawning throughout the existing habitat. The project was designed to use radio-telemetry to determine if the use of multiple release sites resulted in widespread spawning.

  4. Effects of dam removal on Tule Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the White Salmon River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Engle, Rod; Barton, Gary J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Warren, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric dams ever removed in the USA. Breached in a single explosive event in October 2011, hundreds-of-thousands of cubic metres of sediment washed down the White Salmon River onto spawning grounds of a threatened species, Columbia River tule fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We investigated over a 3-year period (2010–2012) how dam breaching affected channel morphology, river hydraulics, sediment composition and tule fall Chinook salmon (hereafter ‘tule salmon’) spawning habitat in the lower 1.7 km of the White Salmon River (project area). As expected, dam breaching dramatically affected channel morphology and spawning habitat due to a large load of sediment released from Northwestern Lake. Forty-two per cent of the project area that was previously covered in water was converted into islands or new shoreline, while a large pool near the mouth filled with sediments and a delta formed at the mouth. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model revealed that pool area decreased 68.7% in the project area, while glides and riffles increased 659% and 530%, respectively. A spatially explicit habitat model found the mean probability of spawning habitat increased 46.2% after dam breaching due to an increase in glides and riffles. Shifting channels and bank instability continue to negatively affect some spawning habitat as sediments continue to wash downstream from former Northwestern Lake, but 300 m of new spawning habitat (river kilometre 0.6 to 0.9) that formed immediately post-breach has persisted into 2015. Less than 10% of tule salmon have spawned upstream of the former dam site to date, but the run sizes appear healthy and stable. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.P.

    2009-01-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-038-00, Evaluate the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, began in FY04 (15 December 2003) and continues into FY06. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during FY04 and FY05. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). This project evaluates the restoration potential of mainstem habitats for fall Chinook salmon. The studies address two research questions: 'Are there sections not currently used by spawning fall Chinook salmon within the impounded lower Snake River that possess the physical characteristics for potentially suitable fall Chinook spawning habitat?' and 'Can hydrosystem operations affecting these sections be adjusted such that the sections closely resemble the physical characteristics of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in similar physical settings?' Efforts are focused at two study sites: (1) the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Columbia River confluence, and (2) the Lower Granite Dam tailrace. Our previous studies indicated that these two areas have the highest potential for restoring Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The study sites will be evaluated under existing structural configurations at the dams (i.e., without partial removal of a dam structure), and alternative operational scenarios (e.g., varying forebay/tailwater elevations). The areas studied represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We are using a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats is the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Escapement

  6. Redd site selection and spawning habitat use by fall chinook salmon: The importance of geomorphic features in large rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R. |; Dauble, D.D.

    1998-09-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional connectivity between rivers and groundwater within the hyporheic zone can be used to improve the definition of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat. Information exists on the microhabitat characteristics that define suitable salmon spawning habitat. However, traditional spawning habitat models that use these characteristics to predict available spawning habitat are restricted because they can not account for the heterogeneous nature of rivers. The authors present a conceptual spawning habitat model for fall chinook salmon that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Two case studies based on empirical data from fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River are presented to illustrate important aspects of the conceptual model. The authors suggest that traditional habitat models and the conceptual model be combined to predict the limits of suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. This approach can incorporate quantitative measures of river channel morphology, including general descriptors of geomorphic features at different spatial scales, in order to understand the processes influencing redd site selection and spawning habitat use. This information is needed in order to protect existing salmon spawning habitat in large rivers, as well as to recover habitat already lost.

  7. Effect of Spawning Salmon on Seasonal Changes in Structure and Function of the Macroinvertebrate Community of Kennedy Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honea, J. M.; Gara, R. I.

    2005-05-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that spawning salmon affect macroinvertebrates negatively and positively-the former due to the disturbance of redd excavation and the latter due to nutrients released during spawning and salmon carcass decomposition. To test this hypothesis, I monitored changes for five seasons in density, biomass, and salmon-derived carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the benthic macroinvertebrates of a small stream with a large run of chum salmon (Oncorhyncus keta). Stable isotope analysis showed that the macroinvertebrates contained salmon-derived C and N year around, as indicated by the results of pre-spawning samples: 20-41% salmon-derived C and 25-50% salmon-derived N, representing 22% of total macroinvertebrate biomass. Near the end of the spawning run, all macroinvertebrates sampled showed increases in salmon-derived C (41-68%) and N (51-87%) incorporated into their tissues; however, the total macroinvertebrate biomass decreased due to redd excavation. The percentage of salmon-derived C and N in macroinvertebrates remained high 3 months after spawning (49-88% and 60-97%, respectively). Because total macroinvertebrate biomass also increased, this period had the highest salmon-derived macroinvertebrate biomass (2.71 g m-2). Six months after spawning, there were no detectable differences in total macroinvertebrate biomass between reaches with and without salmon.

  8. Organohalogen concentrations and feeding status in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of the Baltic Sea during the spawning run.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Pekka J; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koistinen, Jaana; Pöyhönen, Outi; Ikonen, Erkki; Keinänen, Marja

    2014-01-15

    Changes in the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Baltic salmon muscle were studied during the spawning migration from the southern Baltic Sea to rivers flowing into the northern Gulf of Bothnia and during the spawning period. The aim was to obtain information to facilitate the arrangement of salmon fisheries such that the human dioxin intake is taken into account. The EC maximum allowable total toxic equivalent concentration (WHO-TEQPCDD/F+PCB) was exceeded in the muscle of the majority of the migrating salmon, except in the Baltic Proper. The fresh-weight-based concentrations of all toxicant groups in salmon tended to be the lowest in the Baltic Proper and the Northern Quark, and all toxicant concentrations, except PCDDs and PCDFs, were significantly higher in the spawning salmon than in the salmon caught during the spawning run. The fat content of the salmon muscle decreased by 60% during the spawning run, and the lipid-based total toxicant concentrations were consequently 4.2-6.2 times higher during the spawning period than during the spawning migration. However, the toxicants were concentrated just before spawning, and thus there is no essential difference related to whether the salmon are caught in the sea or the recreational river fishery.

  9. Predator avoidance during reproduction: diel movements by spawning sockeye salmon between stream and lake habitats.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kale T; Schindler, Daniel E; Cline, Timothy J; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Macias, Daniel; Ciepiela, Lindsy R; Hilborn, Ray

    2014-11-01

    Daily movements of mobile organisms between habitats in response to changing trade-offs between predation risk and foraging gains are well established; however, less in known about whether similar tactics are used during reproduction, a time period when many organisms are particularly vulnerable to predators. We investigated the reproductive behaviour of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and the activity of their principal predator, brown bears (Ursus arctos), on streams in south-western Alaska. Specifically, we continuously monitored movements of salmon between lake habitat, where salmon are invulnerable to bears, and three small streams, where salmon spawn and are highly vulnerable to bears. We conducted our study across 2 years that offered a distinct contrast in bear activity and predation rates. Diel movements by adult sockeye salmon between stream and lake habitat were observed in 51.3% ± 17.7% (mean ± SD) of individuals among years and sites. Fish that moved tended to hold in the lake for most of the day and then migrated into spawning streams during the night, coincident with when bear activity on streams tended to be lowest. Additionally, cyclic movements between lakes and spawning streams were concentrated earlier in the spawning season. Individuals that exhibited diel movements had longer average reproductive life spans than those who made only one directed movement into a stream. However, the relative effect was dependent on the timing of bear predation, which varied between years. When predation pressure primarily occurred early in the spawning run (i.e., during the height of the diel movements), movers lived 120-310% longer than non-movers. If predation pressure was concentrated later in the spawning run (i.e. when most movements had ceased), movers only lived 10-60% longer. Our results suggest a dynamic trade-off in reproductive strategies of sockeye salmon; adults must be in the stream to reproduce, but must also avoid predation long

  10. Data Mining on Large Data Set for Predicting Salmon Spawning Habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, YuLong; Murray, Christopher J.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.

    2008-07-01

    Hydraulic properties related to river flow affect salmon spawning habitat. Accurate prediction of salmon spawning habitat and understanding the influential properties on the spawning behavior are of great interest for hydroelectric dam management. Previous research predicted salmon spawning habitat through deriving river specific spawning suitability indices and employing a function estimate method like logistic regression on several static river flow related properties and had some success. The objective of this study was two-fold. First dynamic river flow properties associated with upstream dam operation were successfully derived from a huge set of time series of both water velocity and water depth for about one fifth of a million habitat cells through principal component analysis (PCA) using nonlinear iterative partial least squares (NIPLAS). The inclusion of dynamic variables in the models greatly improved the model prediction. Secondly, nine machine learning methods were applied to the data and it was found that decision tree and rule induction methods were generally outperformed usually used logistic regression. Specifically random forest, an advanced decision tree algorithm, provided unanimous better results. Over-prediction problem in previous studies were greatly alleviated.

  11. Optimal reproduction in salmon spawning substrates linked to grain size and fish length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, Clifford S.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Overstreet, Brandon T.; Wooster, John K.

    2014-02-01

    Millions of dollars are spent annually on revitalizing salmon spawning in riverbeds where redd building by female salmon is inhibited by sediment that is too big for fish to move. Yet the conditions necessary for productive spawning remain unclear. There is no gauge for quantifying how grain size influences the reproductive potential of coarse-bedded rivers. Hence, managers lack a quantitative basis for optimizing spawning habitat restoration for reproductive value. To overcome this limitation, we studied spawning by Chinook, sockeye, and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, O. nerka, and O. gorbuscha) in creeks and rivers of California and the Pacific Northwest. Our analysis shows that coarse substrates have been substantially undervalued as spawning habitat in previous work. We present a field-calibrated approach for estimating the number of redds and eggs a substrate can accommodate from measurements of grain size and fish length. Bigger fish can move larger sediment and thus use more riverbed area for spawning. They also tend to have higher fecundity, and so can deposit more eggs per redd. However, because redd area increases with fish length, the number of eggs a substrate can accommodate is maximized for moderate-sized fish. This previously unrecognized tradeoff raises the possibility that differences in grain size help regulate river-to-river differences in salmon size. Thus, population diversity and species resilience may be linked to lithologic, geomorphic, and climatic factors that determine grain size in rivers. Our approach provides a tool for managing grain-size distributions in support of optimal reproductive potential and species resilience.

  12. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Activity Versus Daylight and Flow in the Tailrace of a Large Hydroelectric Dam

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vucelick, Jessica A.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-05-01

    We deployed an acoustic system during the fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning season in 2001 to determine whether fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in a hydroelectric dam tailrace area was affected by daylight or river flow dynamics. The system was deployed following a randomized study design to record fall Chinook salmon spawning activity during day and night periods in two index areas downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington, USA. One index area was a deepwater spawning area located (river kilometer (rkm) 663) in 9 to 11 m of water. The other index site was a moderate depth mid-channel bar, where water depths ranged from 2.5 to 6 m. The acoustic system was used to collect spawning activity data during free-drifts in a boat through the index areas. Spawning activity was defined as digs per minute from underwater sound recordings. Fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in the Wanapum Dam tailrace was influenced by daylight and river discharge. Results showed there was a substantial amount of spawning activity occurring during both daylight and darkness. However, there was significantly more spawning activity during daylight than at night in both index areas. Spawning activity was also affected by flow. Project discharge had a pronounced non-linear effect on spawning activity. Spawning activity was generally highest at project discharges between 1,700 and 2266 m3 sec-1 in both spawning areas, with reduced activity as discharge increased to between 3,400 and 4,250 m3 sec-1. We concluded that fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in highly variable environments was affected more by flow (and velocity) than by daylight.

  13. Benzocaine as a fish anesthetic: efficacy and safety for spawning-phase salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The anesthetic benzocaine was tested for efficacy and safety for spawning-phase chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at federal fish hatcheries. Tests were conducted in the existing hatchery water supplies (soft water; temperatures, 10–13 °C. Crystalline benzocaine was dissolved in ethanol (1 g/30 mL), and aliquots of that stock solution were added to the water in test tanks. Benzocaine concentrations of 25–30 mg/L anesthetized most fish in less than 3.5 min, and most fish recovered in less than 10 min after 15 min of exposure. Safety margins were narrow; both species tolerated 30 mg/L for about 20 min, but 25 min of exposure caused deaths. For 15 min exposures, concentrations of 35 mg/L for chinook salmon and 40 mg/L for Atlantic salmon were lethal.

  14. Use of Aerial Photography to Monitor Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, Richard H.; Dauble, Dennis D. ); Geist, David R. )

    2002-11-01

    This paper compares two methods for enumerating salmon redds and their application to monitoring spawning activity. Aerial photographs of fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River were digitized and mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques in 1994 and 1995 as part of an annual assessment of the population. The number of visible redds from these photographs were compared to counts obtained from visual surveys with fixed wing aircraft. The proportion of the total redds within each of five general survey areas was similar for the two monitoring techniques. However, the total number of redds based on aerial photographs was 2.2 and 3.0 times higher than those observed during visual surveys for 1994 and 1995, respectively. The divergence in redd counts was most evident near peak spawning activity when the number of redds within individual spawning clusters exceeded 500. Aerial photography improved our ability to monitor numbers of visible salmon redds and to quantify habitat use.

  15. Effects of habitat quality and ambient hyporheic flows on salmon spawning site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjankar, Rohan; Tonina, Daniele; Marzadri, Alessandra; McKean, Jim; Isaak, Daniel J.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the role of stream hydrologic and morphologic variables on the selection of spawning sites by salmonid fishes at high resolution across broad scales is needed for effective habitat restoration and protection. Here we used remotely sensed meter-scale channel bathymetry for a 13.5 km reach of Chinook salmon spawning stream in central Idaho to describe habitat quality and set boundary conditions for a two-dimensional surface water model coupled with a three-dimensional hyporheic flux model. Metrics describing ambient hyporheic flow intensity and habitat quality, which is quantified as a function of stream hydraulics and morphology, were compared to the locations of nests built by female salmon. Nest locations were predicted most accurately by habitat quality followed by channel morphology (i.e., riffles location). As a lesser degree than habitat quality, water surface curvature was also a good indicator of spawning location because its intensity can identify riffle morphology. The ambient hyporheic flow predicted at meter-scale resolution was not a strong predictor of redd site selection. Furthermore, the study suggests direct morphological measurements obtained from easily measured channel bathymetry data could enable effective and rapid assessments of salmon spawning channels across broad areas.

  16. Laboratory evidence for short and long-term damage to pink salmon incubating in oiled gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Heintz, R.; Rice, S.; Wiedmer, M.

    1995-12-31

    Pink salmon, incubating in gravel contaminated with crude oil, demonstrated immediate and delayed responses in the laboratory at doses consistent with the concentrations observed in oiled streams in Prince William Sound. The authors incubated pink salmon embryos in a simulated intertidal environment with gravel contaminated by oil from the Exxon Valdez. During the incubation and emergence periods the authors quantified dose-response curves for characters affected directly by the oil. After emergence, fish were coded wire tagged and released, or cultured in netpens. Delayed responses have been observed among the cultured fish, and further observations will be made when coded wire tagged fish return in September 1995. The experiments have demonstrated that eggs need not contact oiled gravel to experience increased mortality, and doses as low as 17 ppb tPAH in water can have delayed effects on growth. A comparison of sediment tPAH concentrations from streams in Prince William Sound with these laboratory data suggests that many 1989 brood pink salmon were exposed to deleterious quantities of oil.

  17. Seasonal changes in CRF-I and urotensin I transcript levels in masu salmon: correlation with cortisol secretion during spawning.

    PubMed

    Westring, Christian G; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Ueda, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa; Dores, Robert M; Sher, Anna A; Danielson, Phillip B

    2008-01-01

    Pacific salmon employ a semelparous reproductive strategy where sexual maturation is followed by rapid senescence and death. Cortisol overproduction has been implicated as the central physiologic event responsible for the post-spawning demise of these fish. Cortisol homeostasis is regulated through the action of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. These include corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin-I (UI). In the present study, masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) were assayed for changes in the levels CRF-I and UI mRNA transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results were compared to plasma cortisol levels in juvenile, adult, and spawning masu salmon to identify specific regulatory factors that appear to be functionally associated with changes in cortisol levels. Intramuscular implantation of GnRH analog (GnRHa) capsules was also used to determine whether GnRH influences stress hormone levels. In both male and female masu salmon, spawning fish experienced a 5- to 7-fold increase in plasma cortisol levels relative to juvenile non-spawning salmon. Changes in CRF-I mRNA levels were characterized by 1-2 distinctive short-term surges in adult masu salmon. Conversely, seasonal changes in UI mRNA levels displayed broad and sustained increases during the pre-spawning and spawning periods. The increases in UI mRNA levels were positively correlated (R(2)=0.21 male and 0.26 female, p<0.0001) with levels of plasma cortisol in the pre-spawning and spawning periods. Despite the importance of GnRH in sexual maturation and reproduction, the administration of GnRHa to test animals failed to produce broad changes in CRF-I, UI or plasma cortisol levels. These findings suggest a more direct role for UI than for CRF-I in the regulation of cortisol levels in spawning Pacific salmon.

  18. Redd Site Selection and Spawning Habitat Use by Fall Chinook Salmon, Hanford Reach, Columbia River : Final Report 1995 - 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1995 through 1998 on identifying the spawning habitat requirements of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The project investigated whether traditional spawning habitat models could be improved in order to make better predictions of available habitat for fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. Results suggest models could be improved if they used spawning area-specific, rather than river-specific, spawning characteristics; incorporated hyporheic discharge measurements; and gave further consideration to the geomorphic features that are present in the unconstrained segments of large alluvial rivers. Ultimately the recovery of endangered fall chinook salmon will depend on how well we are able to recreate the characteristics once common in alluvial floodplains of large rivers. The results from this research can be used to better define the relationship between these physical habitat characteristics and fall chinook salmon spawning site selection, and provide more efficient use of limited recovery resources. This report is divided into four chapters which were presented in the author's doctoral dissertation which he completed through the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University. Each of the chapters has been published in peer reviewed journals or is currently under review. Chapter one is a conceptual spawning habitat model that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Chapter two describes the comparison of the physical factors associated with fall chinook salmon redd clusters located at two sites within the Reach. Spatial point pattern analysis of redds showed that redd clusters averaged approximately 10 hectares in area and their locations were consistent from year to

  19. Tradeoffs between homing and habitat quality for spawning site selection by hatchery-origin Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Spawning site selection by female salmon is based on complex and poorly understood tradeoffs between the homing instinct and the availability of appropriate habitat for successful reproduction. Previous studies have shown that hatchery-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released from different acclimation sites return with varying degrees of fidelity to these areas. To investigate the possibility that homing fidelity is associated with aquatic habitat conditions, we quantified physical habitat throughout 165 km in the upper Yakima River basin (Washington, USA) and mapped redd and carcass locations from 2004 to 2008. Principal components analysis identified differences in substrate, cover, stream width, and gradient among reaches surrounding acclimation sites, and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that these differences in habitat characteristics were associated with spatial patterns of spawning (p < 0.01). These analyses indicated that female salmon may forego spawning near their acclimation area if the surrounding habitat is unsuitable. Evaluating the spatial context of acclimation areas in relation to surrounding habitat may provide essential information for effectively managing supplementation programs and prioritizing restoration actions.

  20. Variation in responses to spawning Pacific salmon among three south-eastern Alaska streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaloner, D.T.; Lamberti, G.A.; Merritt, R.W.; Mitchell, N.L.; Ostrom, P.H.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    1. Pacific salmon are thought to stimulate the productivity of the fresh waters in which they spawn by fertilising them with marine-derived nutrients (MDN). We compared the influence of salmon spawners on surface streamwater chemistry and benthic biota among three southeastern Alaska streams. Within each stream, reaches up- and downstream of barriers to salmon migration were sampled during or soon after spawners entered the streams. 2. Within streams, concentrations of dissolved ammonium and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), abundance of epilithon (chlorophyll a and ash-free dry mass) and biomass of chironomids were significantly higher in reaches with salmon spawners. In contrast, biomass of the mayflies Epeorus spp. and Rhithrogena spp. was significantly higher in reaches lacking spawners. 3. Among streams, significant differences were found in concentrations of dissolved ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate and SRP, abundance of epilithon, and the biomass of chironomids and Rhithrogena. These differences did not appear to reflect differences among streams in spawner density, nor the changes in water chemistry resulting from salmon spawners. 4. Our results suggest that the 'enrichment' effect of salmon spawners (e.g. increased streamwater nutrient concentrations) was balanced by other concurrent effects of spawners on streams (e.g. sediment disturbance). Furthermore, the collective effect of spawners on lotic ecosystems is likely to be constrained by conditions unique to individual streams, such as temperature, background water chemistry and light attenuation.

  1. Rearing in Seawater Mesocosms Improves the Spawning Performance of Growth Hormone Transgenic and Wild-Type Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Leggatt, Rosalind A.; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E.; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are

  2. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Leggatt, Rosalind A; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are

  3. A spatial model to assess the effects of hydropower operations on Columbia River fall Chinook Salmon spawning habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Anglin, Donald R.; Haeseker, Steven L.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Schaller, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Priest Rapids Dam on the Columbia River produces large daily and hourly streamflow fluctuations throughout the Hanford Reach during the period when fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are selecting spawning habitat, constructing redds, and actively engaged in spawning. Concern over the detrimental effects of these fluctuations prompted us to quantify the effects of variable flows on the amount and persistence of fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach. Specifically, our goal was to develop a management tool capable of quantifying the effects of current and alternative hydrographs on predicted spawning habitat in a spatially explicit manner. Toward this goal, we modeled the water velocities and depths that fall Chinook salmon experienced during the 2004 spawning season, plus what they would probably have experienced under several alternative (i.e., synthetic) hydrographs, using both one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic models. To estimate spawning habitat under existing or alternative hydrographs, we used cell-based modeling and logistic regression to construct and compare numerous spatial habitat models. We found that fall Chinook salmon were more likely to spawn at locations where velocities were persistently greater than 1 m/s and in areas where fluctuating water velocities were reduced. Simulations of alternative dam operations indicate that the quantity of spawning habitat is expected to increase as streamflow fluctuations are reduced during the spawning season. The spatial habitat models that we developed provide management agencies with a quantitative tool for predicting, in a spatially explicit manner, the effects of different flow regimes on fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach. In addition to characterizing temporally varying habitat conditions, our research describes an analytical approach that could be applied in other highly variable aquatic systems.

  4. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2001-08-01

    From 1997 to 2000, we collected data on the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon above Lower Granite Dam as part of a five-year evaluation of three acclimation/release facilities: Pittsburgh Landing, Captain John, and Big Canyon Creek. The use of multiple facilities is intended to distribute spawning throughout the habitat normally used in the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and our study was designed to determine if this is achieved. In the Snake River, spawning normally occurs throughout a 100 mile reach. Pittsburgh Landing is located within the upper half of this reach, and Captain John is located within the lower half. In the Clearwater River, most spawning occurs within the lower 41 miles and the Big Canyon Creek facility is located therein. Our approach for determining spawning distribution was to first trap returning fish at Lower Granite Dam, identify their origin (all yearling fish were externally marked before they were released), and use radio tags and redd searches to determine where they spawned. Thus far we radio tagged 203 adult fish that were initially released at the acclimation sites. We confirmed the spawning location of 74 of these fish, 42 from releases at Pittsburgh Landing, seven from Captain John, and 25 from releases at the Big Canyon Creek facility. All of the fish from Pittsburgh Landing spawned in the Snake River, 86% within the upper half of the Snake River study area, and 14% in the lower half. Of the adult fish from Captain John, roughly 71% spawned in the lower half of the Snake River study area, 14% spawned in the upper half, and 14% spawned in the Clearwater River. Of the adult fish from releases at Big Canyon Creek, 80% spawned in the Clearwater River and 20% spawned in the Snake River (four in the lower half and one in the upper half). To augment the study, we determined the spawning locations of 16 adult fish that were directly released as subyearlings at or near the three acclimation sites. Ten of the fish were from

  5. The pre-spawning migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in a large lacustrine catchment.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, R J; Allen, M

    2016-09-01

    The movements of adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar were determined as they migrated to spawning habitats in a large lacustrine catchment, Lough Neagh, in Northern Ireland. The minimum average ground speed of S. salar through the lake was 2·1 km day(-1) and the mean residence time was 11 days. Tagged S. salar tended to actively migrate through the lake which represented a transitory habitat for adult S. salar. Migration time from the release site, through the lake, to a spawning tributary decreased during the migratory period. During the 4 year study period between 20·5 and 41·6% of tagged S. salar which entered the lake each year, explored at least one other channel before ascending the final spawning tributary. Exploratory behaviour was more likely in S. salar which spawned in the tributaries furthest from the sea. Exploratory behaviour was also more likely to occur during periods of reduced discharge in the natal stream. The fishery management implications of complex pre-spawning behaviour in a mixed stock lacustrine system, are discussed.

  6. Comparative mapping reveals quantitative trait loci that affect spawning time in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    PubMed Central

    Araneda, Cristian; Díaz, Nelson F.; Gomez, Gilda; López, María Eugenia; Iturra, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Spawning time in salmonids is a sex-limited quantitative trait that can be modified by selection. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), various quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect the expression of this trait have been discovered. In this study, we describe four microsatellite loci associated with two possible spawning time QTL regions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The four loci were identified in females from two populations (early and late spawners) produced by divergent selection from the same base population. Three of the loci (OmyFGT34TUF, One2ASC and One19ASC) that were strongly associated with spawning time in coho salmon (p < 0.0002) were previously associated with QTL for the same trait in rainbow trout; a fourth loci (Oki10) with a suggestive association (p = 0.00035) mapped 10 cM from locus OmyFGT34TUF in rainbow trout. The changes in allelic frequency observed after three generations of selection were greater than expected because of genetic drift. This work shows that comparing information from closely-related species is a valid strategy for identifying QTLs for marker-assisted selection in species whose genomes are poorly characterized or lack a saturated genetic map. PMID:22888302

  7. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  8. Spawning salmon disrupt trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Background As a cross-boundary resource subsidy, spawning salmon can strongly affect consumer and ecosystem ecology. Here we examine whether this marine resource can influence a terrestrial wolf-deer (Canis lupus-Odocoileus hemionus) predator-prey system in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Data on resource availability and resource use among eight wolf groups for three seasons over four years allow us to evaluate competing hypotheses that describe salmon as either an alternate resource, consumed in areas where deer are scarce, or as a targeted resource, consumed as a positive function of its availability. Faecal (n = 2203 wolf scats) and isotopic analyses (n = 60 wolf hair samples) provide independent data sets, also allowing us to examine how consistent these common techniques are in estimating foraging behaviour. Results At the population level during spring and summer, deer remains occurred in roughly 90 and 95% of faeces respectively. When salmon become available in autumn, however, the population showed a pronounced dietary shift in which deer consumption among groups was negatively correlated (r = -0.77, P < 0.001) with consumption of salmon, which occurred in 40% of all faeces and up to 70% of faeces for some groups. This dietary shift as detected by faecal analysis was correlated with seasonal shifts in δ13C isotopic signatures (r = 0.78; P = 0.008), which were calculated by intra-hair comparisons between segments grown during summer and fall. The magnitude of this seasonal isotopic shift, our proxy for salmon use, was related primarily to estimates of salmon availability, not deer availability, among wolf groups. Conclusion Concordance of faecal and isotopic data suggests our intra-hair isotopic methodology provides an accurate proxy for salmon consumption, and might reliably track seasonal dietary shifts in other consumer-resource systems. Use of salmon by wolves as a function of its abundance and the adaptive explanations we provide suggest a long

  9. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1996-08-01

    Spawning ground surveys were conducted in 1994 as part of a five year study of Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawyacha begun in 1991. Observations of fall chinook salmon spawning in the Snake River were limited to infrequent aerial red counts in the years prior to 1987. From 1987-1990, red counts were made on a limited basis by an interagency team and reported by the Washington Department of Fisheries. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and other cooperating agencies and organizations, expanded the scope of spawning ground surveys to include: (1) additional aerial surveys to improve red counts and provide data on the timing of spawning; (2) the validation (ground truthing) of red counts from aerial surveys to improve count accuracy; (3) underwater searches to locate reds in water too deep to allow detection from the air; and (4) bathymetric mapping of spawning sites for characterizing spawning habitat. This document is the 1994 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon. The studies were undertaken because of the growing concern about the declining salmon population in the Snake River basin.

  10. A model of the effects of flow fluctuations on fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat availability in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Murray, Christopher J.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Xie, YuLong

    2008-12-01

    Previously we reported that about 30% to 60% of the area predicted to be used by fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for spawning in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River did not contain redds. One explanation for the overprediction of habitat was that our model did not incorporate streamflow fluctuation. Daily fluctuation in flow caused by load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Priest Rapids Dam, situated at the upper end of the Hanford Reach, changes the hydraulic characteristics to which fish respond in selecting redd sites. The purpose of the study described here was to examine the effect of flow changes on spawning habitat modeling and, in particular, to look at the connection between spawning and the variability and persistence of habitat variables caused by rapid changes in flow resulting from load-following operations at Priest Rapids Dam. We found that spawning habitat use by fall Chinook salmon was consistent with previous fall Chinook salmon studies in the Reach. Dynamic variables that were based on hourly time series were used to account for the variability in habitat as a result of flow fluctuations. The analysis showed that the proportion of velocities that fell within the range of 1.0 to 2.5 m/s differed significantly between locations that were predicted to be spawning by the logistic regression model where spawning actually occurred and locations that were predicted to be spawning where spawning did not occur. However, the resulting sequential logistic regression model that incorporated the dynamic variables did not provide significant improvement in the percentage of errors for areas predicted to be spawning; the model’s overprediction errors still ranged from 63% to 78%. We suggest that while flow fluctuation may affect spawning habitat and individual fish behavior, the high correlation between time-averaged velocities and the proportion of hourly velocities that fell within the most

  11. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1994-12-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered fall chinook salmon necessitates knowledge of the factors limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which affect spawning of the fish in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing seward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs. The spawning was generally a November event in 1993, with some activity in late Oct. and early Dec. Spawning habitat availability was assessed by applying hydraulic and habitat models to known fall chinook salmon spawning sites. Juveniles were seined and PIT tagged in the free-flowing Snake River, and in the Columbia River in he Hanford Reach and in McNary Reservoir. Subyearling fish were marked at McNary Dam to relate river flow and migration patterns of juveniles to adult returns. Hydroacoustic surveys were conducted on McNary and John Day reservoirs and in net pens.

  12. Differential metabolite levels in response to spawning-induced inappetence in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Rocco C; Smith, McKenzie L; Vermeersch, Kathleen A; Dove, Alistair D M; Styczynski, Mark P

    2015-03-01

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar undergo months-long inappetence during spawning, but it is not known whether this inappetence is a pathological state or one for which the fish are adapted. Recent work has shown that inappetent whale sharks can exhibit circulating metabolite profiles similar to ketosis known to occur in humans during starvation. In this work, metabolite profiling was used to explore differences in analyte profiles between a cohort of inappetent spawning run Atlantic salmon and captively reared animals that were fed up to and through the time of sampling. The two classes of animals were easily distinguished by their metabolite profiles. The sea-run fish had elevated ɷ-9 fatty acids relative to the domestic feeding animals, while other fatty acid concentrations were reduced. Sugar alcohols were generally elevated in inappetent animals, suggesting potentially novel metabolic responses or pathways in fish that feature these compounds. Compounds expected to indicate a pathological catabolic state were not more abundant in the sea-run fish, suggesting that the animals, while inappetent, were not stressed in an unnatural way. These findings demonstrate the power of discovery-based metabolomics for exploring biochemistry in poorly understood animal models.

  13. Distribution, persistence, and hydrologic characteristics of salmon spawning habitats in clearwater side channels of the Matanuska River, southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.; McTeague, Monica L.; Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2011-01-01

    Turbid, glacially influenced rivers are often considered to be poor salmon spawning and rearing habitats and, consequently, little is known about salmon habitats that do occur within rivers of this type. To better understand salmon spawning habitats in the Matanuska River of southcentral Alaska, the distribution and characteristics of clearwater side-channel spawning habitats were determined and compared to spawning habitats in tributaries. More than 100 kilometers of clearwater side channels within the braided mainstem of the Matanuska River were mapped for 2006 from aerial images and ground-based surveys. In reaches selected for historical analysis, side channel locations shifted appreciably between 1949 and 2006, but the relative abundance of clearwater side channels was fairly stable during the same period. Geospatial analysis of side channel distribution shows side channels typically positioned along abandoned bars at the braid plain margin rather than on bars between mainstem channels, and shows a strong correlation of channel abundance with braid plain width. Physical and geomorphic characteristics of the channel and chemical character of the water measured at 19 side channel sites, 6 tributary sites, 4 spring sites, and 5 mainstem channel sites showed conditions suitable for salmon spawning in side channels and tributaries, and a correlation of side channel characteristics with the respective tributary or groundwater source water. Autumn-through-spring monitoring of intergravel water temperatures adjacent to salmon redds (nests) in three side channels and two tributaries indicate adequate accumulated thermal units for incubation and emergence of salmon in side channels and relatively low accumulated thermal units in tributaries.

  14. Ecological relationship between freshwater sculpins (Genus cottus) and beach-spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Iliamna Lake, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, C.J.; Brown, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction between two sculpin species, Cottus cognatus and Cottus aleuticus, and island beach spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) was examined in Iliamna Lake, Alaska. We conclude that sculpins actively move to specific spawning beaches and that the initiation of their movements precedes the start of spawning. Sculpin predation on sockeye eggs is positively dependent on sculpin size and on the state of the eggs (fresh versus water hardened), with the largest sculpins able to consume nearly 50 fresh eggs at a single feeding and 130 over a 7-day period. The number of sculpins in sockeye nests is greatest at the beginning of the spawning run, lowest in the middle, and high again at the end, with peak numbers of over 100 sculpins per nest (1 m2). We discuss the results in terms of energy flow of marine-derived nutrients into an oligotrophic system and in terms of the coevolution of sockeye spawning behavior and the predatory behavior of sculpins.

  15. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done

  16. Quantifying the behavioral response of spawning chum salmon to elevated discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Haskell, C.A.; Kock, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta that spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River, USA, are periodically subjected to elevated discharges that may alter spawning behaviour. We investigated behavioural responses of spawning chum salmon to increased water velocities associated with experimental increases in tailwater elevation using acoustic telemetry and a dual-frequency identification sonar. Chum salmon primarily remained near their redds at base tailwater elevations (3.5 m above mean sea level), but displayed different movement and behavioural responses as elevations were increased to either 4.1 or 4.7m for 8-h periods. When velocities remained suitable (<0.8m s-1) during elevated-tailwater tests, female chum salmon remained near their redds but exhibited reduced digging activity as water velocities increased. However, when velocities exceeded 0.8m s-1, the females that remained on their redds exhibited increased swimming activity and digging virtually ceased. Female and male chum salmon that left their redds when velocities became unsuitable moved mean distances ranging from 32 to 58 m to occupy suitable velocities, but returned to their redds after tailwaters returned to base levels. Spawning events (i.e. egg deposition) were observed for five of nine pairs of chum salmon following tests indicating any disruptions to normal behaviour caused by elevated tailwaters were likely temporary. We believe a chum salmon's decision to either remain on, or leave, its redd during periods of unsuitably high water velocities reflects time invested in the redd and the associated energetic costs it is willing to incur. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effects of hydropeaking on the spawning behaviour of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta.

    PubMed

    Vollset, K W; Skoglund, H; Wiers, T; Barlaup, B T

    2016-06-01

    An in situ camera set-up was used to study the spawning activity of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta throughout two consecutive seasons in a spawning area affected by hydropower-related pulse flows due to hydropeaking. The purpose was to test whether the flow variation discouraged spawning in shallow areas or motivated spawning into areas with elevated risk of incubation mortality. There were more S. salar observed on the spawning ground during days with high discharge. The presence of S. salar in the spawning grounds was not affected by the hydropeaking cycles of the preceding night. Female S. salar were observed preparing nests within the first hour after water discharge had increased to levels suitable for spawning. In contrast, the number of S. trutta was not correlated with flow and nest preparation was also observed at a discharge corresponding to the lowest discharge levels during a hydropeaking cycle. Survival was generally high in nests excavated the following winter, with only 5·4% suffering mortality due to dewatering. The results suggest that S. salar may respond rapidly to variable-flow conditions and utilize short windows with suitable flows for spawning. Smaller S. trutta may utilize low-flow conditions to spawn in areas that are not habitable by larger S. salar during low flow.

  18. Evaluation of fall chinook salmon spawning adjacent to the In-Situ Redox Manipulation treatability test site, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.P.; Geist, D.R.

    1998-10-02

    The In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) experiment is being evaluated as a potential method to remove contaminants from groundwater adjacent to the Columbia River near the 100-D Area. The ISRM experiment involves using sodium dithionate (Na{sub 2}O{sub 6}S{sub 2}) to precipitate chromate from the groundwater. The treatment will likely create anoxic conditions in the groundwater down-gradient of the ISRM treatability test site; however, the spatial extent of this anoxic plume is not exactly known. Surveys were conducted in November 1997, following the peak spawning of fall chinook salmon. Aerial surveys documented 210 redds (spawning nests) near the downstream island in locations consistent with previous surveys. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented fall chinook spawning in the vicinity of the ISRM treatability test site. Based on measurements of depth, velocity, and substrate, less than 1% of the study area contained suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat, indicating low potential for fall chinook salmon to spawn in the vicinity of the ISRM experiment.

  19. Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam : Annual Report October 2007-September 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, E.V.

    2009-07-14

    The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations - a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezometers. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet. During our overall monitoring period (October 2007 through June 2008), mean temperature in chum spawning areas was nearly 2 C warmer within the riverbed than in the overlying river. During chum salmon spawning (mid-November 2007 through December2007), mean riverbed temperature in the Ives Island area was 14.5 C, more than 5 C higher than in the river, where mean temperature was 9.4 C. During the incubation period (January 2008 through mid-May 2008), riverbed temperature was approximately 3 C greater than in the overlying river (10.5 C and 7.2 C, respectively). Chum salmon preferentially select spawning locations where riverbed temperatures are elevated; consequently the incubation time of alevin is shortened before they emerge in the spring.

  20. Density-dependent habitat selection of spawning Chinook salmon: broad-scale evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Falcy, Matthew R

    2015-03-01

    An extensive body of theory suggests that density-dependent habitat selection drives many fundamental ecological processes. The ideal free distribution and the ideal despotic distribution make contrasting predictions about the effect of total population size on relative abundances among habitats. Empirical assessment of these habitat selection models is uncommon because data must be collected over large temporal and spatial scales. I ask whether fluctuation in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawner population size through time leads to different relative densities over space. Twenty-six years of monitoring data on spawning Chinook salmon across the entire coast of Oregon, USA, were used to evaluate models that make contrasting statements about the interactions of a latent population abundance parameter with physical habitat characteristics. There is strong information-theoretic support for models that include terms that allow the spatial variation in density to change as population size changes through time. Analysis of the best model reveals nonlinear isodars, which suggests a 'despotic' or 'preemptive' distribution of individuals across habitats, indicating that dominant or early-arriving individuals exclude others from breeding sites. This finding has implications for genetic dynamics, population dynamics and conservation metrics of these highly valued fish. The novel application of modelling techniques used here to assess mechanisms of habitat selection from observational data can be used in the emerging field of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

  1. Genetic characterization of naturally spawned Snake River fall-run Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, A.R.; Blankenship, H.L.; Connor, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    We sampled juvenile Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to genetically characterize the endangered Snake River fall-run population. Juveniles from fall and spring–summer lineages coexisted in our sampling areas but were differentiated by large allozyme allele frequency differences. We sorted juveniles by multilocus genotypes into putative fall and spring lineage subsamples and determined lineage composition using maximum likelihood estimation methods. Paired sMEP-1* and PGK-2* genotypes—encoding malic enzyme (NADP+) and phosphoglycerate kinase, respectively—were very effective for sorting juveniles by lineage, and subsamples estimated to be 100% fall lineage were obtained in four annual samples. We examined genetic relationships of these fall lineage juveniles with adjacent populations from the Columbia River and from Lyons Ferry Hatchery, which was established to perpetuate the Snake River fall-run population. Our samples of naturally produced Snake River fall lineage juveniles were most closely aligned with Lyons Ferry Hatchery samples. Although fall-run strays of Columbia River hatchery origin found on spawning grounds threaten the genetic integrity of the Snake River population, juvenile samples (a) showed distinctive patterns of allelic diversity, (b) were differentiated from Columbia River populations, and (c) substantiate earlier conclusions that this population is an important genetic resource. This first characterization of naturally produced Snake River fall chinook salmon provides a baseline for monitoring and recovery planning.

  2. Population Estimates for Chum Salmon Spawning in the Mainstem Columbia River, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rawding, Dan; Hillson, Todd D.

    2003-11-15

    Accurate and precise population estimates of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning in the mainstem Columbia River are needed to provide a basis for informed water allocation decisions, to determine the status of chum salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and to evaluate the contribution of the Duncan Creek re-introduction program to mainstem spawners. Currently, mark-recapture experiments using the Jolly-Seber model provide the only framework for this type of estimation. In 2002, a study was initiated to estimate mainstem Columbia River chum salmon populations using seining data collected while capturing broodstock as part of the Duncan Creek re-introduction. The five assumptions of the Jolly-Seber model were examined using hypothesis testing within a statistical framework, including goodness of fit tests and secondary experiments. We used POPAN 6, an integrated computer system for the analysis of capture-recapture data, to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of standard model parameters, derived estimates, and their precision. A more parsimonious final model was selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Final chum salmon escapement estimates and (standard error) from seining data for the Ives Island, Multnomah, and I-205 sites are 3,179 (150), 1,269 (216), and 3,468 (180), respectively. The Ives Island estimate is likely lower than the total escapement because only the largest two of four spawning sites were sampled. The accuracy and precision of these estimates would improve if seining was conducted twice per week instead of weekly, and by incorporating carcass recoveries into the analysis. Population estimates derived from seining mark-recapture data were compared to those obtained using the current mainstem Columbia River salmon escapement methodologies. The Jolly-Seber population estimate from carcass tagging in the Ives Island area was 4,232 adults with a standard error of 79. This population estimate appears reasonable and precise but batch

  3. Appearance and quantification of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during their spawning migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Jenes, C.K.; Pascho, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The incidence and amount of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus was determined in 10 organs and body fluids from each of 100 female sockeye salmon(Oncorhynchus nerka) before, during, and after their spawning migration into freshwater. Virus was found in high concentrations only in fish sampled during and after spawning. Infection rates increased from nil to 100 percent within 2 weeks. In spawning fish, incidences of IHN virus were high in all organs and fluids except brain and serum, and the highest concentrations were in the pyloric caeca and lower gut. Immediately before spawning, IHN virus was found most frequently in the gills, less frequently in the pyloric caeca and spleen, and rarely in other organs.

  4. Influence of river level on temperature and hydraulic gradients in chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas downstream of Bonneville Dam, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Murray, Christopher J.; McGrath, Kathy; Bott, Yi-Ju; Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2008-02-01

    Chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon segregate spatially during spawning in the Ives Island side channel of the lower Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam. Previous research during one spawning season (2000) suggested that these species selected spawning habitats based on differences in hyporheic temperature and vertical hydraulic gradient (VHG) with the river. In this study, we confirmed the spatial segregation of spawning based on hyporheic characteristics over four years (2001–2004) and examined the effects of load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Bonneville Dam on hyporheic function and characteristics. We found that during the study period, hyporheic temperature and VHG in chum salmon spawning areas were highly variable during periods of load-following operation when river levels fluctuated. In contrast, hyporheic water temperature and VHG within chum spawning areas fluctuated less when river levels were not changing due to load-following operation. Variable temperature and VHG could affect chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning segregation and incubation success by altering the cues each species uses to select redd sites. Alterations in site selection would result in a breakdown in the spatial segregation of spawning between chum and fall Chinook salmon, which would expose earlier spawning fall Chinook eggs to a greater risk of dislodgement from later spawning chum salmon. Additional research will be required to fully assess the effects of load-following operations on the hyporheic environment and spawning and incubation success of chum and fall Chinook salmon downstream from Bonneville Dam.

  5. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  6. An estimate of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat and redd capacity upstream of a migration barrier in the upper Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Geist, David R.

    2004-02-01

    Chief Joseph Dam on the Columbia River is the upstream terminus for anadromous fish, due to its lack of fish passage facilities. Management agencies are currently evaluating the feasibility of reintroducing anadromous fish upriver of Chief Joseph Dam. We evaluated the physical characteristics of potential fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat in the upper section of Chief Joseph Reservoir. The objective of this study was to estimate the quantity and location of potential spawning habitat, and secondly to determine the redd capacity of the area based on spawning habitat characteristics. We used a geomorphic approach to first identify specific segments with the highest potential for spawning. The suitability of these segments for spawning was then estimated through the use of empirical physical data and modeled hydraulic data. We estimated 5% (48.7 ha) of the study area contains potentially suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. Potential spawning habitat is primarily limited by water too deep and secondly by water velocities too low, the combination of which results in 20% (9.6 ha) of the potential spawning habitat being characterized as high quality. Estimates of redd capacity within potential spawning habitat range from 207? 1599 redds, based on proportional use of potential habitat and varying amounts of channelbed used by spawning salmon. The results of our study provide fisheries managers significant insight into one component of the complex issue of reintroducing anadromous fish to the Columbia River upstream of Chief Joseph Dam.

  7. Chinook salmon use of spawning patches: Relative roles of habitat quality, size, and connectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaak, D.J.; Thurow, R.F.; Rieman, B.E.; Dunham, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Declines in many native fish populations have led to reassessments of management goals and shifted priorities from consumptive uses to species preservation. As management has shifted, relevant environmental characteristics have evolved from traditional metrics that described local habitat quality to characterizations of habitat size and connectivity. Despite the implications this shift has for how habitats may be prioritized for conservation, it has been rare to assess the relative importance of these habitat components. We used an information-theoretic approach to select the best models from sets of logistic regressions that linked habitat quality, size, and connectivity to the occurrence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) nests. Spawning distributions were censused annually from 1995 to 2004, and data were complemented with field measurements that described habitat quality in 43 suitable spawning patches across a stream network that drained 1150 km 2 in central Idaho. Results indicated that the most plausible models were dominated by measures of habitat size and connectivity, whereas habitat quality was of minor importance. Connectivity was the strongest predictor of nest occurrence, but connectivity interacted with habitat size, which became relatively more important when populations were reduced. Comparison of observed nest distributions to null model predictions confirmed that the habitat size association was driven by a biological mechanism when populations were small, but this association may have been an area-related sampling artifact at higher abundances. The implications for habitat management are that the size and connectivity of existing habitat networks should be maintained whenever possible. In situations where habitat restoration is occurring, expansion of existing areas or creation of new habitats in key areas that increase connectivity may be beneficial. Information about habitat size and connectivity also could be used to strategically

  8. Comparisons of spawning areas and times for two runs of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Kenai River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, C.V.; Wilmot, R.L.; Wangaard, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    From 1979 to 1982,188 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were tagged with radio transmitters to locate spawning areas in the glacial Kenai River, southcentral Alaska. Results confirmed that an early run entered the river in May and June and spawned in tributaries, and a late run entered the river from late June through August and spawned in the main stem. Spawning peaked during August in tributaries influenced by lakes, but during July in other tributaries. Lakes may have increased fall and winter temperatures of downstream waters, enabling successful reproduction for later spawning fish within these tributaries. This hypothesis assumes that hatching and emergence can be completed in a shorter time in lake-influenced waters. The time of upstream migration and spawning (mid- to late August) of the late run is unique among chinook stocks in Cook Inlet. This behavior may have developed only because two large lakes (Kenai and Skilak) directly influence the main-stem Kenai River. If run timing is genetically controlled, and if the various components of the two runs are isolated stocks that have adapted to predictable stream temperatures, there are implications for stock transplantation programs and for any activities of man that alter stream temperatures.

  9. Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-02-01

    In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

  10. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat near Ives and Pierce Islands in the Columbia River, Progress Report 1999-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, Rodney; Tiffan, Kenneth; Rondorf, Dennis

    2003-09-01

    The area around Ives Island below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River supports spawning populations of chum and fall chinook salmon. Because this area is sensitive to water level fluctuations caused by changes in discharge from Bonneville Dam and from tidal cycles, we initiated a study to quantify flow-dependent changes in available spawning habitat for chum and fall chinook salmon. We conducted surveys to characterize the substrates available in the Ives Island study area. Detailed bathymetry was also obtained to serve as a foundation for two-dimension hydrodynamic modeling, which was used to estimate water velocities, depths, and wetted area over a range of simulated flows. Habitat surveys were conducted and logistic regression was used to identify physical habitat variables that were important in determining the presence of chum and fall chinook salmon redds. The physical habitat data were analyzed using the logistic regression models to create probability coverages for the presence of redds in a Geographic Information System. There was generally good agreement between chum and fall chinook salmon redd locations and areas where we predicted suitable spawning habitat. We found that at Columbia River discharges less than 120 kcfs, an important chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek could only be supported by discharge from Hamilton Creek. Chum salmon did not appear to spawn in proportion to habitat availability, however our predictive model did not include all variables known to be important to chum salmon redd-site selection. Fall chinook salmon spawning habitat was less sensitive to flow and the main channel of the Columbia River along Pierce Island was predicted to contain sufficient habitat at all modeled flows.

  11. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T. P.; Geist, D. R.; Arntzen, E. V.; Abernethy, C. S.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  12. Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam -- Annual Report -- October 2007-September 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.

    2009-07-14

    The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations----a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezo¬meters. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet.

  13. Movements of adult chinook salmon during spawning migration in a metals-contaminated system, Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, J.N.; Woodward, D.F.; Farag, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Spawning migration of adult male chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was monitored by radio telemetry to determine their response to the presence of metals contamination in the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho. The North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River is relatively free of metals contamination and was used as a control. In all, 45 Chinook salmon were transported from their natal stream. Wolf Lodge Creek, tagged with radio transmitters, and released in the Coeur d'Alene River 2 km downstream of the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River. Fixed telemetry receivers were used to monitor the upstream movement of the tagged chinook salmon through the confluence area for 3 weeks after release. During this period, general water quality and metals concentrations were monitored in the study area. Of the 23 chinook salmon observed to move upstream from the release site and through the confluence area, the majority (16 fish, 70%) moved up the North Fork, and only 7 fish (30%) moved up the South Fork, where greater metals concentrations were observed. Our results agree with laboratory findings and suggest that natural fish populations will avoid tributaries with high metals contamination.

  14. Effect of Ichthyophonus on blood plasma chemistry of spawning Chinook salmon and their resulting offspring in a Yukon River tributary.

    PubMed

    Floyd-Rump, T P; Horstmann-Dehn, L A; Atkinson, S; Skaugstad, C

    2017-01-24

    Ichthyophonus is a protozoan parasite of Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In this study, we determined whether spawning Chinook salmon in the Yukon River drainage exhibited a measurable stress response (i.e. elevated plasma cortisol concentrations) and detectable changes in selected blood plasma chemistry parameters when infected with Ichthyophonus. The resulting alevin were also analyzed for any differences in blood plasma chemistry caused by parental infection with Ichthyophonus. In 2010, 2011, and 2012, spawning adult Chinook salmon were collected from the Salcha River, Alaska, USA, and the prevalence of Ichthyophonus in these fish was 7.8, 6.3, and 8.3%, respectively. Fish with no clinical signs of Ichthyophonus and Ichthyophonus-positive parents were cross-fertilized to investigate potential second-generation effects as a result of Ichthyophonus infection. We found no significant difference in cortisol concentrations in blood plasma between Ichthyophonus-positive and -negative adults or between alevin from Ichthyophonus-positive and -negative parents. There were no significant differences in blood plasma parameters (e.g. alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, glucose) of Ichthyophonus-negative and -positive adults, with the exception of aspartate aminotransferase, which was significantly higher in plasma of Ichthyophonus-negative adults. All clinical chemistry parameters for alevin resulting from both Ichthyophonus-negative and -positive parents were not significantly different. Based on this study, which has a limited sample size and low prevalence of Ichthyophonus, offspring of Chinook salmon appear to suffer no disadvantage as a result of Ichthyophonus infection in their parents on the Salcha River.

  15. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  16. Are Landscape Hierarchies of Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange Patterning Important in Spawning Site Selection by Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.,)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. D.; Soulsby, C.; Malcolm, I. A.; Gibbins, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Atlantic salmon's (Salmo salar L.,) native Scottish, headwater spawning grounds, can be viewed as dynamic hot spots of biological productivity set within a hierarchical landscape sculpted by complex physico-chemical processes. Traditionally controls on female spawning site selection, have mainly been attributed to the sedimentary and hydraulic characteristics of available spawning habitat. In the UK, the influence of physico-chemical landscape hierarchies on spawning site selection is poorly understood. This study aims to provide a preliminary insight into the importance stream hydrochemistry has at different hierarchical scales, on spawning site selection by Atlantic salmon in a Scottish braided river system. During the 2005 and 2006 spawning seasons, intensive surveys of dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, trace metals and continuous temperature monitoring were undertaken under high and low flow conditions, in the surface water network of the floodplain reaches. Using GPS data within a GIS framework, these data were related to the locations utilised by spawning fish surveyed on a daily basis in each year. Results indicated that patterns of groundwater - surface water exchange were spatially and temporally dynamic, occurring at a range of scales across the channel floodplain system. A hierarchy of channel types could be differentiated on the basis of contrasting surface water quality and source water characteristics. These included channels dominated by soures such as groundwater, hillslope drainage and main-stem river water. Although most channels contained good hydraulic and sedimentary conditions, spawning was concentrated in those locations which displayed strong chemical groundwater signatures. In 2005: 64 % and 2006: 44 % spawning occurred in groundwater channel types. This study suggests that GW-SW interaction hierarchies may play an important role in determining site selection by spawning Atlantic salmon and sea trout.

  17. Using remotely sensed imagery and GIS to monitor and research salmon spawning: A case study of the Hanford Reach fall chinook (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha)

    SciTech Connect

    RH Visser

    2000-03-16

    The alteration of ecological systems has greatly reduced salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, for example, is a component of the last ecosystem in eastern Washington State that supports a relatively healthy population of fall chinook salmon ([Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], Huntington et al. 1996). This population of fall chinook may function as a metapopulation for the Mid-Columbia region (ISG 1996). Metapopulations can seed or re-colonize unused habitat through the mechanism of straying (spawning in non-natal areas) and may be critical to the salmon recovery process if lost or degraded habitat is restored (i.e., the Snake, Upper Columbia, and Yakima rivers). For these reasons, the Hanford Reach fall chinook salmon population is extremely important for preservation of the species in the Columbia River Basin. Because this population is important to the region, non-intrusive techniques of analysis are essential for researching and monitoring population trends and spawning activities.

  18. A simple method for in situ monitoring of water temperature in substrates used by spawning salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial water temperature within spawning habitats of salmonids may differ from surface-water temperature depending on intragravel flow paths, geomorphic setting, or presence of groundwater. Because survival and developmental timing of salmon are partly controlled by temperature, monitoring temperature within gravels used by spawning salmonids is required to adequately describe the environment experienced by incubating eggs and embryos. Here we describe a simple method of deploying electronic data loggers within gravel substrates with minimal alteration of the natural gravel structure and composition. Using data collected in spawning sites used by summer and fall chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from two streams within the Yukon River watershed, we compare contrasting thermal regimes to demonstrate the utility of this method.

  19. Activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis is increased prior to the onset of spawning migration of chum salmon.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Takeshi A; Sato, Shunpei; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Makino, Keita; Hu, Weiwei; Jodo, Aya; Davis, Nancy D; Dickey, Jon T; Ban, Masatoshi; Ando, Hironori; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Azumaya, Tomonori; Swanson, Penny; Urano, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    The activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis (PG axis) in pre-migratory and homing chum salmon was examined because endocrine mechanisms underlying the onset of spawning migration remain unknown. Pre-migratory fish were caught in the central Bering Sea in June, July and September 2001, 2002 and 2003, and in the Gulf of Alaska in February 2006. They were classified into immature and maturing adults on the basis of gonadal development. The maturing adults commenced spawning migration to coastal areas by the end of summer, because almost all fish in the Bering Sea were immature in September. In the pituitaries of maturing adults, the copy numbers of FSHbeta mRNA and the FSH content were 2.5- to 100-fold those of the immature fish. Similarly, the amounts of LHbeta mRNA and LH content in the maturing adults were 100- to 1000-fold those of immature fish. The plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and estradiol were higher than 10 nmol l(-1) in maturing adults, but lower than 1.0 nmol l(-1) in immature fish. The increase in the activity of the PG-axis components had already initiated in the maturing adults while they were still in the Gulf of Alaska in winter. In the homing adults, the pituitary contents and the plasma levels of gonadotropins and plasma sex steroid hormones peaked during upstream migration from the coast to the natal hatchery. The present results thus indicate that the seasonal increase in the activity of the PG axis is an important endocrine event that is inseparable from initiation of spawning migration of chum salmon.

  20. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2005-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys to identify fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas located in deep water (greater than 1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in fall 2004. This report documents the number and extent of Chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce Islands of the Columbia River and is the sixth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The main objectives of this study were to find deepwater spawning locations of fall Chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The primary search area was adjacent to the upper portion of Pierce Island, and the secondary search zone was downstream of this area near the lower portion of Pierce Island. A secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds in the deeper sections downstream of Hamilton Creek (slough zone search area). Fall Chinook salmon redd numbers were down slightly from the record number found during 2003. The number of fall Chinook redds found in the Ives-Pierce Island complex (river km 228.5) during 2004 was 293, which does not include the number of shallow water redds found by visual observation by boat by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The redds encompassed an area of 14.6 ha occurring adjacent to the lower part of Ives Island and Pierce Island. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 16, 2004. An expanded redd count based on percentage video coverage in the primary and secondary search zones was 3,198 fall Chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding approximately 1.0 m (approximately 125 kcfs) with an estimated spawning population of 10,800. Fall Chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.07 to 7.6 m and were constructed predominantly of medium cobbles ranging in size from 7

  1. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is the 1991 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. In April 1992, Snake River fall chinook salmon were listed as ``threatened`` under the Endangered Species Act. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon can not be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  2. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific

  3. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary Dams; 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Spellman, Bryant; Clark, Roy

    2001-10-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1999 to 30 September 2000. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates.

  4. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2004-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys in fall 2003 to identify spawning areas for fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam. This report documents the number and extent of Chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce islands of the Columbia River, and is the fifth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The primary objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall Chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds in the deeper sections near below Hamilton Creek. Results from the 2003 study show a continuing trend upward in the number of fall Chinook salmon redds found within the survey zones. The number of fall Chinook redds found in the Ives Pierce Island complex (river km 228.5) has increased by a factor of five since the surveys began in 1999. The total number of redds found during 2003 was 336, which compares to 192 in 2002, 43 in 2001, 76 in 2000, and 64 in 1999. The redds encompassed an area of 13.7 ha occurring adjacent to the lower part of Ives Island and Pierce Island. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 24, 2003. An expanded redd count based on percentage of video coverage in the primary and secondary search zones was 3,218 fall Chinook salmon redds in water exceeding 1 m deep and flowing at about 125 kcfs. Fall Chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.07 to 7.6 m and were constructed predominantly of medium cobbles ranging from 7.6 to 15.2 cm in diameter. Two chum salmon redds were found in a small location downstream from Hamilton Creek in water depths of approximately 1 m. No salmon redds were found in other areas searched, including near

  5. Synchronous cycling of Ichthyophoniasis with Chinook salmon density revealed during the annual Yukon River spawning migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuray, Stanley; Kocan, Richard; Hershberger, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Yukon River declined by more than 57% between 2003 and 2010, probably the result of a combination of anthropogenic and environmental factors. One possible contributor to this decline is Ichthyophonus, a mesomycetozoan parasite that has previously been implicated in significant losses of fish, including Chinook salmon. A multiyear epidemiological study of ichthyophoniasis in the Yukon River revealed that disease prevalence and Chinook salmon population abundance increased and decreased simultaneously (i.e., were concordant) from 1999 to 2010. The two values rose and fell synchronously 91% of the time for female Chinook salmon and 82% of the time for males; however, there was no significant correlation between Ichthyophonus prevalence and population abundance. This synchronicity might be explained by a single factor, such as a prey item that is critical to Chinook salmon survival as well as a source of Ichthyophonus infection. The host–parasite relationship between Ichthyophonus and migrating Chinook salmon from 2004 to 2010 was similar to that reported for the previous 5 years. During 2004–2010, overall disease prevalence was significantly higher among females (21%) than among males (8%), increased linearly with fish length for both males and females, and increased in both sexes as the fish progressed upriver. These regularly occurring features of host–parasite dynamics confirm a stable base of transmission for Ichthyophonus. However, from 2003 to 2010, disease prevalence decreased from 30% to just 8% in males and from 45% to 9% in females, paralleling a similar decline in Chinook salmon abundance during the same period. These findings may help clarify questions regarding the complex host–parasite dynamics that occur in marine species such as herrings Clupea spp., which have less well-defined population structures.

  6. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Brooks, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 a total of 253 adult fall chinook and 113 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 221 fall chinook and 109 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 190. The peak redd count for chum was 262. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 24 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 24 November. There were estimated to be a total of 1,533 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2003. The study area's 2003 chum population was estimated to be 688 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2003 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on January 6, 2004 and ended 28 April 2004, with peak emergence occurring 13 April. 2003 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 22 February and continued through 15 April 2004. Peak chum emergence took place 25 March. A total of 25,433 juvenile chinook and 4,864 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 20 January and 28 June 2004 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2004 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2003 all of the fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis, juvenile emergence timing

  7. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Brooks, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 a total of 364 adult fall chinook and 472 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 290 fall chinook and 403 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 214. The peak redd count for chum was 776. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 15 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 6 December. There were estimated to be a total of 1,881 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2002. The study area's 2002 chum population was estimated to be 4,232 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2002 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on February 3 2003 and ended 7 May 2003, with peak emergence occurring 20 April. 2002 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 27 January and continued through 6 April 2003. Peak chum emergence took place 1 March. A total of 10,925 juvenile chinook and 1,577 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 24 January and 21 July 2003 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2003 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2002 and 2003 the majority of fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock of fall chinook. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis

  8. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Groves, P.A.

    2008-11-25

    Redd counts are routinely used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2007; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches counted upstream of Lower Granite Dam into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2007 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and Idaho Power Company.

  9. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

    2006-10-01

    Redd counts are routinely used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2005; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2005 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and Idaho Power Company.

  10. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

    2005-10-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2004; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2004 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

  11. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, B.D.

    2004-08-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2003; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2003 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 199801003, 199801004, 199403400, 198335003), Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

  12. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

    2003-09-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2001; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2002 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 1998-01-003 and 1994-03-400) and the Idaho Power Company.

  13. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River, 1992 : Annual Report FY 92-93.

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen Wesley

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results for the second year (1992) of a three year study. The goals of the study were as follows: (1) to determine the source (s) of interdam losses of adult fall chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), as well as upstream of LGR; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, and to assist with redd habitat mapping and carcass recovery (for genetic stock profile analysis). Radio telemetry was used as the method of addressing project goals. Unmarked (not adipose clipped) adult fall chinook salmon were trapped and radio tagged at IHR and LGR dams as they ascended the Snake River during their spawning migration. They used aerial and ground mobile radio tracking to determine the movements of these fish. They examined movements of all radio tagged salmon upstream of LGR Dam. That provided us with a sample of 17 radio tagged fish tagged at IHR and 20 tagged at LGR. They estimate a combined fall back rate at LGR of 37.1% (13 fish). Another 10.8--13.5% were `lost` or prespawning mortalities. They identified two potential spawning locations that would not have been detected from the aerial spawning surveys. One site was upstream of Troy on the Grande Ronde River and the other was in the upper Snake River.

  14. Elevation of the plasma level of insulin-like growth factor-I with reproductive maturation prior to initiation of spawning migration of chum salmon.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Takeshi A; Makino, Keita; Ban, Masatoshi; Ando, Hironori; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Azumaya, Tomonori; Swanson, Penny; Urano, Akihisa

    2009-04-01

    When, where, and how oceanic chum salmon initiate spawning migration is unknown although gonadal development and elevation of the activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis (PG-axis) are essential. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a somatotropic signal that interacts with the PG-axis for gametogenesis. We thus examined the plasma level of IGF-I in immature and maturing chum salmon in the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska. The maturing adults which had maturing gonads left the Bering Sea for the natal river by the end of summer, because almost all fish were immature in September. The plasma level of IGF-I and corresponding body size in the maturing adults were two- to threefold that of immature fish. The plasma IGF-I level correlated positively with the pituitary contents of follicle-stimulating hormone and the plasma levels of 11-ketotestosterone and estradiol-17beta. Therefore, the plasma level of IGF-I increased with elevation of the PG-axis activity prior to the initiation of spawning migration from the Bering Sea. Circulatory IGF-I from visceral organs may inform the status of body growth to the PG-axis for gonadal development that is inseparable from decision of chum salmon whether to initiate homing behavior from the Bering Sea or not to initiate spawning migration by the coming spawning season.

  15. The abiotic environment of the interstitial of a small Swiss river in the foothills of the Alps and its influence on gravel spawning brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Yael; Michel, Christian; Holm, Patricia; Alewell, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The hyporheic zone can be characterized by multiple abiotic parameters (e.g. bulk density, texture, temperature, oxygen, ammonium, nitrate) which are all influenced directly or indirectly by the exchange processes between surface water and groundwater. These processes can vary both in time and space and are mainly driven by river discharge, ground water level and flow patterns. The input of fine sediment particles can change water-riverbed interactions through river bed clogging potentially affecting the embryonal development and survival of gravel spawning fish, such as brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). With our investigations we aim to understand these complex interactions spatially and temporally on a relevant small scale, i.e. within individual artificial brown trout redds. We designed an experimental field setup to directly investigate i) the influence of the abiotic river and redd environment on brown trout embryo development and ii) the hydrological dynamics affecting the abiotic environment in artificial brown trout. Additionally, our setup allows investigating the temporal dynamics of i) fine-sediment infiltration into the artificial redds and ii) embryo survival to two distinct developmental stages (i.e. eyed stage and hatch) The experiment was conducted in three sites of a typical Swiss river (Enziwigger, Canton of Luzern) with a strongly modified morphology. Individual sites represented a high, medium and low fine-sediment load. In each site, six artificial redds (18 in total) were built and data were collected during the entire incubation phase. Redds were located in places where natural spawning of brown trout is present. We adapted multiple established methods to the smaller scale of our river to study the dynamics of the most relevant abiotic parameters potentially affecting embryo development: Oxygen content and temperature was monitored continuously in different depths, fine sediment (bedload, suspended sediment load and its input in the river bed

  16. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2004-09-24

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures

  17. Recurrent Die-Offs of Adult Coho Salmon Returning to Spawn in Puget Sound Lowland Urban Streams

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Myers, Mark S.; McCarthy, Sarah G.; Labenia, Jana S.; McIntyre, Jenifer K.; Ylitalo, Gina M.; Rhodes, Linda D.; Laetz, Cathy A.; Stehr, Carla M.; French, Barbara L.; McMillan, Bill; Wilson, Dean; Reed, Laura; Lynch, Katherine D.; Damm, Steve; Davis, Jay W.; Collier, Tracy K.

    2011-01-01

    Several Seattle-area streams in Puget Sound were the focus of habitat restoration projects in the 1990s. Post-project effectiveness monitoring surveys revealed anomalous behaviors among adult coho salmon returning to spawn in restored reaches. These included erratic surface swimming, gaping, fin splaying, and loss of orientation and equilibrium. Affected fish died within hours, and female carcasses generally showed high rates (>90%) of egg retention. Beginning in the fall of 2002, systematic spawner surveys were conducted to 1) assess the severity of the adult die-offs, 2) compare spawner mortality in urban vs. non-urban streams, and 3) identify water quality and spawner condition factors that might be associated with the recurrent fish kills. The forensic investigation focused on conventional water quality parameters (e.g., dissolved oxygen, temperature, ammonia), fish condition, pathogen exposure and disease status, and exposures to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and current use pesticides. Daily surveys of a representative urban stream (Longfellow Creek) from 2002–2009 revealed premature spawner mortality rates that ranged from 60–100% of each fall run. The comparable rate in a non-urban stream was <1% (Fortson Creek, surveyed in 2002). Conventional water quality, pesticide exposure, disease, and spawner condition showed no relationship to the syndrome. Coho salmon did show evidence of exposure to metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, both of which commonly originate from motor vehicles in urban landscapes. The weight of evidence suggests that freshwater-transitional coho are particularly vulnerable to an as-yet unidentified toxic contaminant (or contaminant mixture) in urban runoff. Stormwater may therefore place important constraints on efforts to conserve and recover coho populations in urban and urbanizing watersheds throughout the western United States. PMID:22194802

  18. Conceptual Spawning Habitat Model to Aid in ESA Recovery Plans for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a spawning habitat model that can be used to determine the physical habitat factors that are necessary to define the production potential for fall chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Columbia River's Hanford Reach and Snake River. This project addresses RPA 155 in the NMFS 2000 Biological Opinion: Action 155: BPA, working with BOR, the Corps, EPA, and USGS, shall develop a program to: (1) Identify mainstem habitat sampling reaches, survey conditions, describe cause-and-effect relationships, and identify research needs; (2) Develop improvement plans for all mainstem reaches; and (3) Initiate improvements in three mainstem reaches. During FY 2003 we continued to collect and analyze information on fall chinook salmon spawning habitat characteristics in the Hanford Reach that will be used to address RPA 155, i.e., items 1-3 above. For example, in FY 2003: (1) We continued to survey spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach and develop a 2-dimensional hydraulic and habitat model that will be capable of predicting suitability of fall chinook salmon habitat in the Hanford Reach; (2) Monitor how hydro operations altered the physical and chemical characteristics of the river and the hyporheic zone within fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach; (3) Published a paper on the impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon (Dauble et al. 2003). This paper was made possible with data collected on this project; (4) Continued to analyze data collected in previous years that will ultimately be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships and identify research needs that will assist managers in the improvement of fall chinook habitat quality in main-stem reaches. During FY 2004 we plan to: (1) Complete preliminary reporting and submit papers based on the results of the project through FY 2004. Although we have proposed additional analysis of data be

  19. Expression of GnRH genes is elevated in discrete brain loci of chum salmon before initiation of homing behavior and during spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Takeshi A; Makino, Keita; Ando, Hironori; Ban, Masatoshi; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Azumaya, Tomonori; Urano, Akihisa

    2010-09-15

    Our previous studies suggested the importance of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) for initiation of spawning migration of chum salmon, although supporting evidence had been not available from oceanic fish. In farmed masu salmon, the amounts of salmon GnRH (sGnRH) mRNAs in the forebrain increased in the pre-pubertal stage from winter through spring, followed by a decrease toward summer. We thus hypothesized that gene expression for GnRHs in oceanic chum salmon changes similarly, and examined this hypothesis using brain samples from winter chum salmon in the Gulf of Alaska and summer fish in the Bering Sea. They were classified into sexually immature and maturing adults, which had maturing gonads and left the Bering Sea for the natal river by the end of summer. The absolute amounts of GnRH mRNAs were determined by real-time PCRs. The amounts of sGnRH mRNA in the maturing winter adults were significantly larger than those in the maturing summer adults. The amounts of sGnRH and chicken GnRH mRNAs then peaked during upstream migration from the coast to the natal hatchery. Such changes were observed in various brain loci including the olfactory bulb, terminal nerve, ventral telencephalon, nucleus preopticus parvocellularis anterioris, nucleus preopticus magnocellularis and midbrain tegmentum. These results suggest that sGnRH neurons change their activity for gonadal maturation prior to initiation of homing behavior from the Bering Sea. The present study provides the first evidence to support a possible involvement of neuropeptides in the onset of spawning migration.

  20. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    2002-09-17

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations. (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (9

  1. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Sockeye Salmon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Bristol Bay sockeye spawning in them at Pick Creek and found egg concentrations 6-9 inches below the gravel surface. Spawning occurs between August...nursery lakes approach 4 to 7 ’C in sockeye fishery, and non- Bristol Bay stocks were found 6 to have a similar distribution in areas of the...will lead to method for Bristol Bay , Alaska, salmon and the nonlinear increases in both marine survival and an earlier age of method is recommended

  2. Suitability criteria analyzed at the spatial scale of redd clusters improved estimates of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat use in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Jones, Julia; Murray, Christopher J. ); Dauble, Dennis D. )

    1999-12-01

    We improved our predictions of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) habitat use by analyzing spawning habitat at the spatial scale of redd clusters. Spatial point pattern analyses indicated that redd clusters in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River, were consistent in their location from 1994 to 1995. Redd densities were 16.1 and 8.9 redds?ha-1 in 1994 and 1995, respectively, and individual redds within clusters were usually less than 30 m apart. Pattern analysis also showed strong evidence that redds were uniformly distributed within the clusters where inter-redd distances ranged from 2 to 5 m. Redd clusters were found to occur predominantly where water velocity was between 1.4 to 2 m?s-1, water depth was 2 to 4 m, and lateral slope of the riverbed was less than 4%. This habitat use represented a narrower range of use than previously reported for adult fall chinook salmon. Logistic regression analysis determined that water velocity and lateral slope were the most significant predictors of redd cluster location over a range of river discharges. Over-estimates of available spawning habitat lead to non-achievable goals for protecting and restoring critical salmonid habitat. Better predictions of spawning habitat may be possible if cluster-specific characteristics are used.

  3. Changes in the plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I from the onset of spawning migration through upstream migration in chum salmon.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Takeshi A; Makino, Keita; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Beckman, Brian R; Ban, Masatoshi; Ando, Hironori; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Azumaya, Tomonori; Swanson, Penny; Urano, Akihisa

    2010-01-15

    An increase in activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis (PG-axis) and gonadal development are essential for the onset of spawning migration of chum salmon from the Bering Sea. In the Bering Sea, fish with larger body sizes initiated gonadal development and commenced spawning migration to the natal river by the end of summer. We thus hypothesized that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a somatotropic signal that interacts with the PG-axis, can be one of such factors responsible for the onset of migration, and examined changes in plasma levels and hepatic expression of IGF-I gene in oceanic and homing chum salmon in 2001-2003. The plasma IGF-I levels and corresponding body sizes in maturing adults, which had developing gonads, were significantly higher than those in immature fish in all years examined. Such increase in the plasma IGF-I levels in maturing fish was observed even in the Gulf of Alaska during February 2006, while coincident increase was not observed in the hepatic amounts of IGF-I mRNA. In autumn, the plasma IGF-I levels in homing adults decreased during upstream migration in the Ishikari River-Ishikari bay water system in Hokkaido, Japan. In conclusion, the plasma IGF-I levels increased with gonadal development when chum salmon migrated from the winter Gulf of Alaska to the summer Bering Sea. Circulating IGF-I may interact with the PG-axis and promote gonadal development that is inseparable from the onset of spawning migration. Circulating IGF-I levels were thereafter lowered in accordance with final maturation during upstream migration in the breeding season.

  4. Effects of hydropower operations on spawning habitat, rearing habitat, and standing/entrapment mortality of fall Chinook salmon in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anglin, Donald R.; Haeseker, Steven L.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Schaller, Howard; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Hatten, James R.; Hoffarth, Paul; Nugent, John; Benner, David; Yoshinaka, Marv

    2006-01-01

    This report describes research conducted primarily in 2003 and 2004 to evaluate the effects of upstream dam operations on spawning and rearing conditions for fall Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Results from habitat modeling tasks which continued in 2005 and 2006 are also included in this report. This study is focused on the effects of streamflows and streamflow fluctuations on 1) entrapment and entrapment mortality of juveniles, 2) adult spawning habitat, and 3) juvenile rearing habitat. An independent peer review was conducted on the draft version of this report utilizing three reviewers, each with different areas of expertise and different levels of knowledge regarding hydrodynamic modeling, fall Chinook biology, life history, and habitat requirements, and fishery issues relating to hydropower development and operations. Peer review comments have been incorporated into this final version.

  5. PROFILE: Hungry Water: Effects of Dams and Gravel Mining on River Channels

    PubMed

    Kondolf

    1997-07-01

    / Rivers transport sediment from eroding uplands to depositional areas near sea level. If the continuity of sediment transport is interrupted by dams or removal of sediment from the channel by gravel mining, the flow may become sediment-starved (hungry water) and prone to erode the channel bed and banks, producing channel incision (downcutting), coarsening of bed material, and loss of spawning gravels for salmon and trout (as smaller gravels are transported without replacement from upstream). Gravel is artificially added to the River Rhine to prevent further incision and to many other rivers in attempts to restore spawning habitat. It is possible to pass incoming sediment through some small reservoirs, thereby maintaining the continuity of sediment transport through the system. Damming and mining have reduced sediment delivery from rivers to many coastal areas, leading to accelerated beach erosion. Sand and gravel are mined for construction aggregate from river channel and floodplains. In-channel mining commonly causes incision, which may propagate up- and downstream of the mine, undermining bridges, inducing channel instability, and lowering alluvial water tables. Floodplain gravel pits have the potential to become wildlife habitat upon reclamation, but may be captured by the active channel and thereby become instream pits. Management of sand and gravel in rivers must be done on a regional basis, restoring the continuity of sediment transport where possible and encouraging alternatives to river-derived aggregate sources.KEY WORDS: Dams; Aquatic habitat; Sediment transport; Erosion; Sedimentation; Gravel mining

  6. Historical analysis of sockeye salmon growth among populations affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill and large spawning escapements. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project 86048-BAA: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Rogers, D.E.

    1998-12-01

    Adult sockeye salmon scales, which provide an index of annual salmon growth in fresh and marine waters during 1965--1997, were measured to examine the effects on growth and adult returns of large spawning escapements influenced by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Scale growth in freshwater was significantly reduced by the large 1989 spawning escapements in the Kenai River system, Red Lake, and Akalura Lake, but not in Chignik Lake. These data suggest that sockeye growth in freshwater may be less stable following the large escapement. Furthermore, the observations of large escapement adversely affecting growth of adjacent brood years of salmon has important implications for stock-recruitment modeling. In Prince William Sound, Coghill Lake sockeye salmon that migrated through oil-contaminated waters did not exhibit noticeably reduced marine growth, but a model was developed that might explain low adult returns in recent years.

  7. Design of a groundwater model to determine the feasibility of extending an artificial salmon-spawning stream: case study for Marx Creek, near Hyder, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, T. P.; Lachmar, T. E.

    2013-09-01

    Marx Creek is a groundwater-fed, artificial salmon-spawning stream near Hyder, Alaska. The purpose of this project was to develop a groundwater flow model to predict baseflow to a proposed 450-m extension of Marx Creek. To accomplish this purpose, water levels were monitored in 20 monitor wells and discharge measurements were recorded from Marx Creek. These data were used to create a three-dimensional groundwater flow model using Visual MODFLOW. Three predictive simulations were run after the model was calibrated to groundwater levels and stream discharge measurements. The proposed extension was added to the calibrated model during the first simulation, resulting in simulated baseflow to the extension stream exceeding simulated baseflow to the existing Marx Creek by 39 %. Sections of Marx Creek were removed from the model during the second simulation, resulting in a 5 % increase in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. A 32-cm reduction in the water table was simulated during the third simulation, resulting in an 18 % decrease in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. These modeling results were used by Tongass National Forest personnel to determine that baseflow to the proposed extension would likely be sufficient to provide habitat conducive to salmon spawning. The extension stream was constructed and portions of Marx Creek were decommissioned during the summer of 2008. It was observed that there is comparable or greater discharge in the extension stream than there was in the decommissioned sections of Marx Creek, although neither discharge nor stream stage measurements have yet been collected.

  8. Monitoring the Reproductive Success of Naturally Spawning Hatchery and Natural Spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J.; Williamson, Kevin S.

    2009-05-28

    We investigated differences in the statistical power to assign parentage between an artificially propagated and wild salmon population. The propagated fish were derived from the wild population, and are used to supplement its abundance. Levels of genetic variation were similar between the propagated and wild groups at 11 microsatellite loci, and exclusion probabilities were >0.999999 for both groups. The ability to unambiguously identify a pair of parents for each sampled progeny was much lower than expected, however. Simulations demonstrated that the proportion of cases the most likely pair of parents were the true parents was lower for propagated parents than for wild parents. There was a clear relationship between parentage assignment ability and the degree of linkage disequilibrium, the estimated effective number of breeders that produced the parents, and the size of the largest family within the potential parents. If a stringent threshold for parentage assignment was used, estimates of relative fitness were biased downward for the propagated fish. The bias appeared to be largely eliminated by either fractionally assigning progeny among parents in proportion to their likelihood of parentage, or by assigning progeny to the most likely set of parents without using a statistical threshold. We used a DNA-based parentage analysis to measure the relative reproductive success of hatchery- and natural-origin spring Chinook salmon in the natural environment. Both male and female hatchery-origin fish produced far fewer juvenile progeny per parent when spawning naturally than did natural origin fish. Differences in age structure, spawning location, weight and run timing were responsible for some of the difference in fitness. Male size and age had a large influence on fitness, with larger and older males producing more offspring than smaller or younger individuals. Female size had a significant effect on fitness, but the effect was much smaller than the effect of size on

  9. Hungry water: Effects of dams and gravel mining on river channels

    SciTech Connect

    Kondolf, G.M.

    1997-07-01

    Rivers transport sediment from eroding uplands to depositional areas near sea level. If the continuity of sediment transport is interrupted by dams or removal of sediment from the channel by gravel mining, the flow may become sediment-starved (hungry water) and prone to erode the channel bed and banks, producing channel incision (downcutting), coarsening of bed material, and loss of spawning gravels for salmon and trout (as smaller gravels are transported without replacement from upstream), Gravel is artificially added to the River Rhine to prevent further incision and to many other rivers in attempts to restore spawning habitat. It is possible to pass incoming sediment through some small reservoirs, thereby maintaining the continuity of sediment transport through the system. Damming and mining have reduced sediment delivery from rivers to many coastal areas, leading to accelerated beach erosion. Sand and gravel are mined for construction aggregate from river channel and floodplains. In-channel mining commonly causes incision, which may propagate up- and downstream of the mine, undermining bridges, inducing channel instability, and lowering alluvial water tables. Floodplain gravel pits have the potential to become wildlife habitat upon reclamation, but may be captured by the active channel and thereby become instream pits. Management of sand and gravel in rivers must be done on a regional basis, restoring the continuity of sediment transport where possible and encouraging alternatives to river-derived aggregate sources. 80 refs., 17 figs.

  10. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  11. Bathymetry, morphology, and lakebed geologic characteristics of potential Kokanee salmon spawning habitat in Lake Pend Oreille, Bayview and Lakeview quadrangles, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Dux, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are a keystone species in Lake Pend Oreille in northern Idaho, historically supporting a high-yield recreational fishery and serving as the primary prey for the threatened native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the Gerrard-strain rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). After 1965, the kokanee population rapidly declined and has remained at a low level of abundance. Lake Pend Oreille is one of the deepest lakes in the United States, the largest lake in Idaho, and home to the U.S. Navy Acoustic Research Detachment Base. The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho Department of Fish and Game are mapping the bathymetry, morphology, and the lakebed geologic units and embeddedness of potential kokanee salmon spawning habitat in Lake Pend Oreille. Relations between lake morphology, lakebed geologic units, and substrate embeddedness are characterized for the shore zone, rise zone, and open water in bays and the main stem of the lake. This detailed knowledge of physical habitat along the shoreline of Lake Pend Oreille is necessary to better evaluate and develop kokanee recovery actions.

  12. Modelling the Future Hydroclimatology of the Lower Fraser River and its Impacts on the Spawning Migration Survival of Sockeye Salmon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, M. J.; Ferrari, M. R.; Miller, J. R.; Patterson, D. A.; Russell, G. L.; Farrell, A.P.; Hinch, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Short episodic high temperature events can be lethal for migrating adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We downscaled temperatures for the Fraser River, British Columbia to evaluate the impact of climate warming on the frequency of exceeding thermal thresholds associated with salmon migratory success. Alarmingly, a modest 1.0 C increase in average summer water temperature over 100 years (1981-2000 to 2081-2100) tripled the number of days per year exceeding critical salmonid thermal thresholds (i.e. 19.0 C). Refined thresholds for two populations (Gates Creek and Weaver Creek) of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were defined using physiological constraint models based on aerobic scope. While extreme temperatures leading to complete aerobic collapse remained unlikely under our warming scenario, both populations were increasingly forced to migrate upriver at reduced levels of aerobic performance (e.g. in 80% of future simulations, => 90% of salmon encountered temperatures exceeding population specific thermal optima for maximum aerobic scope; T(sub opt)) = 16.3 C for Gates Creek and T(sub sopt)=14.5 C for Weaver Creek). Assuming recent changes to river entry timing persist, we also predicted dramatic increases in the probability of freshwater mortality for Weaver Creek salmon due to reductions in aerobic, and general physiological, performance (e.g. in 42% of future simulations =>50% of Weaver Creek fish exceeded temperature thresholds associated with 0 - 60% of maximum aerobic scope). Potential for adaptation via directional selection on run-timing was more evident for the Weaver Creek population. Early entry Weaver Creek fish experienced 25% (range: 15 - 31%) more suboptimal temperatures than late entrants, compared with an 8% difference (range: 0 - 17%) between early and late Gates Creek fish. Our results emphasize the need to consider daily temperature variability in association with population-specific differences in behaviour and physiological

  13. Froude Number is the Single Most Important Hydraulic Parameter for Salmonid Spawning Habitat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, E.; Moir, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Many gravel-bed rivers exhibit historic straightening or embanking, reducing river complexity and the available habitat for key species such as salmon. A defensible method for predicting salmonid spawning habitat is an important tool for anyone engaged in assessing a river restoration. Most empirical methods to predict spawning habitat use lookup tables of depth, velocity and substrate. However, natural site selection is different: salmon must pick a location where they can successfully build a redd, and where eggs have a sufficient survival rate. Also, using dimensional variables, such as depth and velocity, is problematic: spawning occurs in rivers of differing size, depth and velocity range. Non-dimensional variables have proven useful in other branches of fluid dynamics, and instream habitat is no different. Empirical river data has a high correlation between observed salmon redds and Froude number, without insight into why. Here we present a physics based model of spawning and bedform evolution, which shows that Froude number is indeed a rational choice for characterizing the bedform, substrate, and flow necessary for spawning. It is familiar for Froude to characterize surface waves, but Froude also characterizes longitudinal bedform in a mobile bed river. We postulate that these bedforms and their hydraulics perform two roles in salmonid spawning: allowing transport of clasts during redd building, and oxygenating eggs. We present an example of this Froude number and substrate based habitat characterization on a Scottish river for which we have detailed topography at several stages during river restoration and subsequent evolution of natural processes. We show changes to the channel Froude regime as a result of natural process and validate habitat predictions against redds observed during 2014 and 2015 spawning seasons, also relating this data to the Froude regime in other, nearby, rivers. We discuss the use of the Froude spectrum in providing an indicator of

  14. A preliminary investigation of the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing contributions from eroding channel banks to the siltation of salmonid spawning gravels across the south west UK.

    PubMed

    Collins, Adrian L; Walling, Desmond E; McMellin, Grant K; Zhang, Yusheng; Gray, Janina; McGonigle, Daniel; Cherrington, Ross

    2010-06-01

    The low productivity of salmonids in many river systems across the UK is testament to their intolerance of water quality perturbations including those associated with excessive sedimentation. Catchment and fishery managers concerned with combating such issues require reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem to target management and on the efficacy of the mitigation options being implemented. In recognition of the latter requirement, a pre- and post-remediation sediment sourcing survey was used to examine the potential for using sediment tracing to assemble preliminary information on the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing sediment contributions from eroding channel banks to salmonid spawning gravels in the Rivers Camel, Fal, Lynher, Plym, Tamar and Tavy in the south west of the UK. Respective estimates of the overall mean proportion (+/-95% confidence limits) of the interstitial sediment input to salmonid spawning gravels originating from eroding channel banks during the pre- (1999-2000) and post-remediation (2008-2009) study periods were computed at 97+/-1% vs. 69+/-1%, 94+/-1% vs. 91+/-1%, 12+/-1% vs. 10+/-1%, 92+/-1% vs. 34+/-1%, 31+/-1% vs. 16+/-1% and 90+/-1% vs. 66+/-1%. Whilst the study demonstrates the potential utility of the fingerprinting approach for helping to assemble important information on the efficacy of bank fencing as a sediment source control measure at catchment scale, a number of limitations of the work and some suggestions for improving experimental design are discussed. Equivalent data are urgently required for many sediment mitigation options to help inform the development of water quality policy packages designed to protect aquatic ecosystems.

  15. The influence of life history trade-offs and the size of the incubation gravels on egg size variation in sockeye salmon Onchorhynchus nerka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, Thomas P; Hendry , Andrew P.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    1995-01-01

    Egg size is a critical life history trait, reflecting female investment and affecting off- spring fitness. We investigated several factors which may influence variation in egg weight for sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Comparisons were based on col- lections from 18 Alaskan populations, among which adult migration distance and ju- venile rearing habitat were similar but the size composition of incubation gravels was different. Among populations, most of the variation in egg weight could be explained by a positive correlation with different measures of the size composition of incubation gravels (Pearson's r = 0.45-0.91). In contrast, egg weight was poorly correlated with female body length and with female snout length, a morphological feature used during intra-sexual competition. Within each of the Alaskan populations, however, egg weight and snout length were positively correlated with female body length and hence with each other. A positive association between snout length and egg weight was still evident even after the effects of covariance with body size were removed using resid- uals analysis: for all of the fish pooled and within 6 of the 16 populations. A signifi- cant relationship was not detected in the other populations but the trend was neverthe- less positive in 8 of the other 10. Examination of reproductive traits (gonad weight, egg weight, egg number, snout length and hump size) within another population iden- tified a trade-off between egg weight and egg number for females of a given body length. In contrast, positive correlations between reproductive traits were more com- mon, suggesting that energy-rich individuals produce large eggs and large secondary sexual characteristics rather than sacrificing one for the other.

  16. Bed Mobility on the Deschutes River, Oregon: Tracer Gravel Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.; Williams, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Deschutes River, drainage area 20,250 km2 near Madras, Oregon, is a gravel-bedded river, impounded since 1957 by three dams in the Pelton-Round Butte hydroelectric project, operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Salmon spawning has declined in the reach below the dams since their construction, so possible project effects on spawning habitat are an issue of concern in relicensing of the project. Consultants to PGE applied the Parker bedload transport function to several sites below the hydroelectric dams; they concluded that the entrainment threshold flow was 340 m3s-1, and that the bed had been mobile only 25 days in the 72-year period of record from 1925-1996. However, their model was not calibrated with any actual field data of bed mobility or bedload transport, and the calculations were for full bed mobility, ignoring potentially significant bedload transport that might occur at a condition of partial mobility. To redress that lack of field data, we placed tracer gravels in the bed at three sites below the dams. In 2002 tracer gravels moved at one of the three sites after a flow of 150 m3s-1 (128-mm stones moved up to 1 m). The minor movement suggests that the bed is just beginning to move at 150 m3s-1, but indicates that the previously assumed entrainment threshold of 340 m3s-1 is too high.

  17. The effect of catch-and-release angling at high water temperatures on behaviour and survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar during spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Havn, T B; Uglem, I; Solem, Ø; Cooke, S J; Whoriskey, F G; Thorstad, E B

    2015-08-01

    In this study, behaviour and survival following catch-and-release (C&R) angling was investigated in wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (n = 75) angled on sport fishing gear in the River Otra in southern Norway at water temperatures of 16.3-21.1 °C. Salmo salar were tagged externally with radio transmitters and immediately released back into the river to simulate a realistic C&R situation. The majority of S. salar (91%) survived C&R. Most S. salar that were present in the River Otra during the spawning period 3-4 months later were located at known spawning grounds. Downstream movements (median furthest position: 0.5 km, range: 0.1-11.0 km) during the first 4 days after release were recorded for 72% of S. salar, presumably stress-induced fallback associated with C&R. Individuals that fell back spent a median of 15 days before commencing their first upstream movement after release, and 34 days before they returned to or were located above their release site. Mortality appeared to be somewhat elevated at the higher end of the temperature range (14% at 18-21 °C), although sample sizes were low. In conclusion, C&R at water temperatures up to 18 °C had small behavioural consequences and was associated with low mortality (7%). Nevertheless, low levels of mortality occur due to C&R angling and these losses should be accounted for by management authorities in rivers where C&R is practised. Refinement of best practices for C&R may help to reduce mortality, particularly at warmer temperatures.

  18. Contemporary ocean warming and freshwater conditions are related to later sea age at maturity in Atlantic salmon spawning in Norwegian rivers

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Storvik,, Geir O; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Atlantic salmon populations are reported to be declining throughout its range, raising major management concerns. Variation in adult fish abundance may be due to variation in survival, growth, and timing of life history decisions. Given the complex life history, utilizing highly divergent habitats, the reasons for declines may be multiple and difficult to disentangle. Using recreational angling data of two sea age groups, one-sea-winter (1SW) and two-sea-winter (2SW) fish originated from the same smolt year class, we show that sea age at maturity of the returns has increased in 59 Norwegian rivers over the cohorts 1991–2005. By means of linear mixed-effects models we found that the proportion of 1SW fish spawning in Norway has decreased concomitant with the increasing sea surface temperature experienced by the fish in autumn during their first year at sea. Furthermore, the decrease in the proportion of 1SW fish was influenced by freshwater conditions as measured by water discharge during summer months 1 year ahead of seaward migration. These results suggest that part of the variability in age at maturity can be explained by the large-scale changes occurring in the north-eastern Atlantic pelagic food web affecting postsmolt growth, and by differences in river conditions influencing presmolt growth rate and later upstream migration. PMID:23139878

  19. Contemporary ocean warming and freshwater conditions are related to later sea age at maturity in Atlantic salmon spawning in Norwegian rivers.

    PubMed

    Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J; L'abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Storvik, Geir O; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2012-09-01

    Atlantic salmon populations are reported to be declining throughout its range, raising major management concerns. Variation in adult fish abundance may be due to variation in survival, growth, and timing of life history decisions. Given the complex life history, utilizing highly divergent habitats, the reasons for declines may be multiple and difficult to disentangle. Using recreational angling data of two sea age groups, one-sea-winter (1SW) and two-sea-winter (2SW) fish originated from the same smolt year class, we show that sea age at maturity of the returns has increased in 59 Norwegian rivers over the cohorts 1991-2005. By means of linear mixed-effects models we found that the proportion of 1SW fish spawning in Norway has decreased concomitant with the increasing sea surface temperature experienced by the fish in autumn during their first year at sea. Furthermore, the decrease in the proportion of 1SW fish was influenced by freshwater conditions as measured by water discharge during summer months 1 year ahead of seaward migration. These results suggest that part of the variability in age at maturity can be explained by the large-scale changes occurring in the north-eastern Atlantic pelagic food web affecting postsmolt growth, and by differences in river conditions influencing presmolt growth rate and later upstream migration.

  20. Salmon redd identification using environmental DNA (eDNA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Laramie, Matthew B.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionThe purpose of this project was to develop a technique to use environmental DNA (eDNA) to distinguish between redds made by Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and redds made by Coho salmon (O. kisutch) and to distinguish utilized redds from test/abandoned redds or scours that have the appearance of redds. The project had two phases:Phase 1. Develop, test, and optimize a molecular assay for detecting and identifying Coho salmon DNA and differentiating it from Chinook salmon DNA.Phase 2. Demonstrate the efficacy of the technique.Collect and preserve water samples from the interstitial spaces of 10 known redds (as identified by expert observers) of each species and 10 gravel patches that do not include a redd of either species.Collect control samples from the water column adjacent to each redd to establish background eDNA levels.Analyze the samples using the developed molecular assays for Coho salmon (phase I) and Chinook salmon (Laramie and others, 2015).Evaluate whether samples collected from Chinook and Coho redds have significantly higher levels of eDNA of the respective species than background levels (that is, from gravel, water column).Evaluate whether samples collected from the interstitial spaces of gravel patches that are not redds are similar to background eDNA levels.The Sandy River is a large tributary of the Columbia River. The Sandy River meets the Columbia River approximately 23 km upstream of Portland, Oregon. The Sandy River Basin provides overlapping spawning habitat for both Chinook and Coho salmon.Samples provided by Portland Water Bureau for analysis were collected from the Bull Run River, Sixes Creek, Still Creek, Arrah Wanna Side Channel, and Side Channel 18.

  1. A remote-sensing, GIS-based approach to identify, characterize, and model spawning habitat for fall-run chum salmon in a sub-arctic, glacially fed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirth, Lisa; Rosenberger, Amanda; Prakash, Anupma; Gens, Rudiger; Margraf, F. Joseph; Hamazaki, Toshihide

    2012-01-01

    At northern limits of a species’ distribution, fish habitat requirements are often linked to thermal preferences, and the presence of overwintering habitat. However, logistical challenges and hydrologic processes typical of glacial systems could compromize the identification of these habitats, particularly in large river environments. Our goal was to identify and characterize spawning habitat for fall-run chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and model habitat selection from spatial distributions of tagged individuals in the Tanana River, Alaska using an approach that combined ground surveys with remote sensing. Models included braiding, sinuosity, ice-free water surface area (indicating groundwater influence), and persistent ice-free water (i.e., consistent presence of ice-free water for a 12-year period according to satellite imagery). Candidate models containing persistent ice-free water were selected as most likely, highlighting the utility of remote sensing for monitoring and identifying salmon habitat in remote areas. A combination of ground and remote surveys revealed spatial and temporal thermal characteristics of these habitats that could have strong biological implications. Persistent ice-free sites identified using synthetic aperture radar appear to serve as core areas for spawning fall chum salmon, and the importance of stability through time suggests a legacy of successful reproductive effort for this homing species. These features would not be captured with a one-visit traditional survey but rather required remote-sensing monitoring of the sites through time.

  2. Impact of naturally spawning captive-bred Atlantic salmon on wild populations: depressed recruitment and increased risk of climate-mediated extinction.

    PubMed

    McGinnity, Philip; Jennings, Eleanor; DeEyto, Elvira; Allott, Norman; Samuelsson, Patrick; Rogan, Gerard; Whelan, Ken; Cross, Tom

    2009-10-22

    The assessment report of the 4th International Panel on Climate Change confirms that global warming is strongly affecting biological systems and that 20-30% of species risk extinction from projected future increases in temperature. It is essential that any measures taken to conserve individual species and their constituent populations against climate-mediated declines are appropriate. The release of captive bred animals to augment wild populations is a widespread management strategy for many species but has proven controversial. Using a regression model based on a 37-year study of wild and sea ranched Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) spawning together in the wild, we show that the escape of captive bred animals into the wild can substantially depress recruitment and more specifically disrupt the capacity of natural populations to adapt to higher winter water temperatures associated with climate variability. We speculate the mechanisms underlying this seasonal response and suggest that an explanation based on bio-energetic processes with physiological responses synchronized by photoperiod is plausible. Furthermore, we predict, by running the model forward using projected future climate scenarios, that these cultured fish substantially increase the risk of extinction for the studied population within 20 generations. In contrast, we show that positive outcomes to climate change are possible if captive bred animals are prevented from breeding in the wild. Rather than imposing an additional genetic load on wild populations by releasing maladapted captive bred animals, we propose that conservation efforts should focus on optimizing conditions for adaptation to occur by reducing exploitation and protecting critical habitats. Our findings are likely to hold true for most poikilothermic species where captive breeding programmes are used in population management.

  3. Comparison of two fluorescent antibody techniques (FATS) for detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum in coelomic fluid of spawning chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; McKibben, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Two versions of the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) were compared for detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum in coelomic fluid samples from naturally infected spawning chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. For the membrane filtration-FAT (MF-FAT), trypsin-treated samples were passed through 0.2 ??m polycarbonate filters to concentrate bacteria for direct enumeration by immunofluorescence microscopy. For the smear-FAT (S-FAT), samples were centrifuged at 8800 x g for 10 min and the pelleted material was smeared on slides for immunofluorescence staining Detected prevalences of Renibacterium salmoninarum were 1.8 to 3.4 times higher by the MF-FAT than by the S-FAT: differences were significant at p ??? 0.0002. The S-FAT consistently detected R. salmoninarum only in samples with calculated bacterial concentrations ??? 2.4 x 103 cells ml-1 by MF-FAT testing. Increasing the area examined on a filter or slide from 50 to 100 microscope fields at 1000x magnification resulted in the detection of a maximum of 4% additional positive samples by the MF-FAT and 7% additional positive samples by the S-FAT. In individual samples for which bacterial counts were obtained by both the MF-FAT and the S-FAT, the counts averaged from 47 times (??30 SD) to 175 times (??165 SD) higher by the MF-FAT. Centrifugation of samples at 10000 x g for 10 min resulted in a 4-fold increase in mean bacterial counts by the S-FAT compared with a 10-min centrifugation at 2000 x g, but the highest calculated bacterial concentration obtained by S-FAT testing was more than 6-fold lower than that obtained for the same sample by MF-FAT testing. Because of its greater sensitivity, the MF-FAT is preferable to the S-FAT for use in critical situations requiring the detection of low numbers of R. salmoninarum.

  4. The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program : Variation (Status and Trend) of Fine Sediment in Spawning Gravel within the Entiat River Subbasin : July 2008 - October 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Pierre

    2009-01-29

    The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP - BPA project No.2003-017-00) has been created as a cost effective means of developing protocols and new technologies, novel indicators, sample designs, analytical, data management and communication tools and skills, and restoration experiments that support the development of a region-wide Research, Monitoring and Evaluation (RME) program to assess the status of anadromous salmonid populations, their tributary habitat and restoration and management actions. The most straightforward approach to developing a regional-scale monitoring and evaluation program would be to increase standardization among status and trend monitoring programs. However, the diversity of species and their habitat, as well as the overwhelming uncertainty surrounding indicators, metrics, and data interpretation methods, requires the testing of multiple approaches. Thus, the approach ISEMP has adopted is to develop a broad template that may differ in the details among subbasins, but one that will ultimately lead to the formation of a unified RME process for the management of anadromous salmonid populations and habitat across the Columbia River Basin. ISEMP has been initiated in three pilot subbasins, the Wenatchee/Entiat, John Day, and Salmon. To balance replicating experimental approaches with the goal of developing monitoring and evaluation tools that apply as broadly as possible across the Pacific Northwest, these subbasins were chosen as representative of a wide range of potential challenges and conditions, e.g., differing fish species composition and life histories, ecoregions, institutional settings, and existing data. ISEMP has constructed a framework that builds on current status and trend monitoring infrastructures in these pilot subbasins, but challenges current programs by testing alternative monitoring approaches. In addition, the ISEMP is: (1) Collecting information over a hierarchy of spatial scales, allowing for a

  5. Gravel packer

    SciTech Connect

    Zunkel, G.D.; Bolin, M.L.

    1987-01-27

    A retrievable gravel packer is described for placing a gravel pack in a wellbore about a gravel screen disposed therebelow across a producing formation comprising: a gravel packer assembly; a packer element disposed on the exterior of the assembly; J-slot means in the assembly for selectively maintaining the packer element in an unset mode; ratchet means in the assembly for releasably locking the packer element in a set mode; an intake passage in the assembly for receiving fluid from a tubing string in the well bore above and secured to the gravel packer; a return passage for receiving fluid from the interior of the gravel screen; a circulation passage extending from the exterior of the gravel packer below the packer element to the intake passage; closeable crossover means to receive fluid from the return passage and guide the received fluid from the return passage to the exterior of the assembly above the packer element; first check valve means for preventing back flow to the intake passage from the interior of the gravel screen; second check valve means adapted to selectively open the intake passage to the circulation passage in response to a positive pressure differential between the exterior of the gravel packer and the intake passage; and check valve release means for inactivating the second check valve means in response to a fluid pressure buildup in the intake passage thereabove.

  6. Gravel packer

    SciTech Connect

    Zunkel, G.D.

    1986-01-06

    A retrievable gravel packer is described for placing a gravel pack in a wellbore about a gravel screen disposed therebelow across a producing formation comprising: a gravel packer assembly; a packer element disposed on the exterior of the assembly; means in the assembly for selectively maintaining the packer element in an unset mode; means in the assembly for releasably locking the packer element in a set mode; an intake passage in the assembly for receiving fluid from a tubing string in the well bore above and secured to the gravel packer; a return passage in the assembly for receiving fluid from the interior of the gravel screen; a circulation passage extending from the exterior of the gravel packer assembly below the packer element to the intake passage; closeable crossover means to receive fluid from the return passage and guide the received fluid from the return passage to the exterior of the assembly above the packer element; relief ports between the intake passage and the return passage; first valve means for closing the intake passage from the circulation passage; second valve means for opening communication through the relief ports; a check ball at the lower end of the gravel packer; and check ball release means for selectively releasing the check ball from the gravel packer.

  7. Gravel packer

    SciTech Connect

    Zunkel, G.D.

    1987-01-13

    A gravel packer is described for placing a gravel pack in a wellbore about a gravel screen disposed therebelow across a producing formation comprising: a gravel packer assembly; a packer element disposed on the exterior of the assembly; ratchet means in the assembly for releasably locking the packer element in a set mode; an intake passage in the assembly for receiving fluid from a tubing string in the well bore and secured to the gravel packer; a return passage in the assembly for receiving fluid from the interior of the gravel screen; a circulation passage in assembly extending from the exterior of the gravel packer below the packer element to the intake passage; closeable crossover means associated with the assembly to receive fluid from the return passage and guide the received fluid from the return passage to the exterior of the assembly above the packer element; first check valve means in the assembly for preventing flow to the gravel screen through the return passage; second check valve means in the assembly adapted to selectively permit flow from the return passage to the intake passage in response to a positive pressure differential between the return pass and the intake passage; and J-slot means for selectively disconnecting the crossover means from the packer assembly.

  8. Mainstem Clearwater River Study: Assessment for Salmonid Spawning, Incubation, and Rearing.

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, William P.

    1989-01-01

    Chinook salmon reproduced naturally in the Clearwater River until damming of the lower mainstem in 1927 impeded upstream spawning migrations and decimated the populations. Removal of the Washington Water Power Dam in 1973 reopened upriver passage. This study was initiated to determine the feasibility of re-introducing chinook salmon into the lower mainstem Clearwater River based on the temperature and flow regimes, water quality, substrate, and invertebrate production since the completion of Dworshak Dam in 1972. Temperature data obtained from the United States Geological Survey gaging stations at Peck and Spalding, Idaho, were used to calculate average minimum and maximum water temperature on a daily, monthly and yearly basis. The coldest and warmest (absolute minimum and maximum) temperatures that have occurred in the past 15 years were also identified. Our analysis indicates that average lower mainstem Clearwater River water temperatures are suitable for all life stages of chinook salmon, and also for steelhead trout rearing. In some years absolute maximum water temperatures in late summer may postpone adult staging and spawning. Absolute minimum temperatures have been recorded that could decrease overwinter survival of summer chinook juveniles and fall chinook eggs depending on the quality of winter hiding cover and the prevalence of intra-gravel freezing in the lower mainstem Clearwater River.

  9. Spawning redfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin have succeeded in spawning redfish continuously for 16 months, according to Connie Arnold, head of the university's mariculture program. The scientists witnessed the 138th separate spawn in November. Their work makes year-round spawning possible and, with it, the development of a fully productive mariculture industry, Arnold said. A severe decline in the redfish population off the Texas coast this year prompted the banning of commercial redfish harvesting for 2 years.

  10. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    2003-04-01

    In 2001 a total of 309 adult fall chinook and 264 chum were sampled in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 48. The peak redd count for chum was 181. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 16 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 26 November. There were estimated to be a total of 721 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2001. The 2001 chum population below Bonneville Dam was estimated to be 532 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2001 brood chinook emergence began on 11 March 2002 and ended 18 May 2002, with peak emergence occurring 26 April. 2001 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 29 January and continued through 31 March 2002. Peak chum emergence took place 25 February. A total of 5,487 juvenile chinook and 678 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 22 January and 30 July 2002 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place from mid June through early July 2002 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2001 and 2002 the majority of fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning bright stock of fall chinook. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration

  11. The relative stability of salmon redds and unspawned streambeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, Todd H.; Buffington, John M.; Yager, Elowyn M.; Hassan, Marwan A.; Fremier, Alexander K.

    2015-08-01

    Where female salmon build nests ("redds"), streambed material is mixed, fine sediment is winnowed, and bed material is moved into a tailspill mound resembling the shape of a dune. Completed redd surfaces are coarser and better sorted than unspawned beds, which is thought to increase redd stability because larger grains are heavier and harder to move, and sorting increases friction angles for mobility. However, spawning also loosens sediment and creates topography that accelerates flow, which can increase particle mobility. We address these factors controlling the relative stability of redds and unspawned beds in flume experiments where redds were constructed with a dynamic technique that mimics the nesting behavior of female salmon. Although redds exhibited relatively coarse surfaces, measured entrainment forces indicate particle loosening by spawning lowered grain resistance to motion by 12-37% on average compared to unspawned beds. In addition, for the same discharges, boundary shear stress was 13-41% higher on a redd due to flow convergence on the tailspill. Visual measurements of particle entrainment further indicated redd instability, as bed-average shear stress was 22% lower at incipient motion and 29% lower at the discharge that mobilized all grain sizes on a redd. Overall, results demonstrate that redds are unstable compared to unspawned beds, which increases the risk of scour for buried eggs but may facilitate fine sediment flushing and improve the quality of spawning gravels for future generations of spawners. Therefore, managing salmon returns to increase streambed disturbance may be an effective tool for reducing sedimentation impacts on salmon reproduction.

  12. Timing matters: species-specific interactions between spawning time, substrate quality, and recruitment success in three salmonid species

    PubMed Central

    Sternecker, Katharina; Denic, Marco; Geist, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Substratum quality and oxygen supply to the interstitial zone are crucial for the reproductive success of salmonid fishes. At present, degradation of spawning grounds due to fine sediment deposition and colmation are recognized as main factors for reproductive failure. In addition, changes in water temperatures due to climate change, damming, and cooling water inlets are predicted to reduce hatching success. We tested the hypothesis that the biological effects of habitat degradation depend strongly on the species-specific spawning seasons and life-history strategies (e.g., fall- vs. spring-spawners, migratory vs. resident species) and assessed temperature as an important species-specific factor for hatching success within river substratum. We studied the species-specific differences in their responses to such disturbances using egg-to-fry survival of Danube Salmon (Hucho hucho), resident brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), and migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta lacustris) as biological endpoint. The egg incubation and hatching success of the salmonids and their dependence on temperature and stream substratum quality were compared. Hatching rates of Danube salmon were lower than of brown trout, probably due to higher oxygen demands and increased interstitial respiration in spring. Increases in maximum water temperature reduced hatching rates of resident and migratory brown trout (both fall-spawners) but were positively correlated with hatching rates of Danube salmon (a spring-spawner). Significantly longer incubation periods of resident and migratory brown trout coincided with relatively low stream substratum quality at the end of the egg incubation. Danube salmon seem to avoid low oxygen concentrations in the hyporheic zone by faster egg development favored by higher water temperatures. Consequently, the prediction of effects of temperature changes and altered stream substratum properties on gravel-spawning fishes and biological communities should consider the

  13. Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

    2010-01-01

    Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

  14. Sockeye salmon evolution, ecology, and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann

    2007-01-01

    This collection of articles and photographs gives managers a good idea of recent research into what the sockeye salmon is and does, covering such topics as the vulnerability and value of sockeye salmon ecotypes, their homing ability, using new technologies to monitor reproduction, DNA and a founder event in the Lake Clark sockeye salmon, marine-derived nutrients, the exploitation of large prey, dynamic lake spawning migrations by females, variability of sockeye salmon residence, expression profiling using cDNA microarray technology, learning from stable isotropic records of native otolith hatcheries, the amount of data needed to manage sockeye salmon and estimating salmon "escapement." 

  15. Hatching Time and Alevin Growth Prior to the Onset of Exogenous Feeding in Farmed, Wild and Hybrid Norwegian Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Monica Favnebøe; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2014-01-01

    The onset of exogenous feeding, when juveniles emerge from the gravel, is a critical event for salmonids where early emergence and large size provide a competitive advantage in the wild. Studying 131 farmed, hybrid and wild Norwegian Atlantic salmon families, originating from four wild populations and two commercial strains, we investigated whether approximately 10 generations of selection for faster growth has also resulted in increased somatic growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding. In addition, we tested whether relaxed selection in farms has allowed for alterations in hatching time between farmed and wild salmon. Across three cohorts, wild salmon families hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, while hybrid families displayed intermediate hatching times. While the observed differences were small, i.e., 1–15 degree-days (0–3 days, as water temperatures were c. 5–6°C), these data suggest additive genetic variation for hatching time. Alevin length prior to exogenous feeding was positively related to egg size. After removal of egg size effects, no systematic differences in alevin length were observed between the wild and farmed salmon families. While these results indicate additive genetic variation for egg development timing, and wild salmon families consistently hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, these differences were so small they are unlikely to significantly influence early life history competition of farmed and wild salmon in the natural environment. This is especially the case given that the timing of spawning among females can vary by several weeks in some rivers. The general lack of difference in size between farmed and wild alevins, strongly suggest that the documented differences in somatic growth rate between wild and farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon under hatchery conditions are first detectable after the onset of exogenous feeding. PMID:25438050

  16. Hatching time and alevin growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding in farmed, wild and hybrid Norwegian Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Monica Favnebøe; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2014-01-01

    The onset of exogenous feeding, when juveniles emerge from the gravel, is a critical event for salmonids where early emergence and large size provide a competitive advantage in the wild. Studying 131 farmed, hybrid and wild Norwegian Atlantic salmon families, originating from four wild populations and two commercial strains, we investigated whether approximately 10 generations of selection for faster growth has also resulted in increased somatic growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding. In addition, we tested whether relaxed selection in farms has allowed for alterations in hatching time between farmed and wild salmon. Across three cohorts, wild salmon families hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, while hybrid families displayed intermediate hatching times. While the observed differences were small, i.e., 1-15 degree-days (0-3 days, as water temperatures were c. 5-6°C), these data suggest additive genetic variation for hatching time. Alevin length prior to exogenous feeding was positively related to egg size. After removal of egg size effects, no systematic differences in alevin length were observed between the wild and farmed salmon families. While these results indicate additive genetic variation for egg development timing, and wild salmon families consistently hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, these differences were so small they are unlikely to significantly influence early life history competition of farmed and wild salmon in the natural environment. This is especially the case given that the timing of spawning among females can vary by several weeks in some rivers. The general lack of difference in size between farmed and wild alevins, strongly suggest that the documented differences in somatic growth rate between wild and farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon under hatchery conditions are first detectable after the onset of exogenous feeding.

  17. Channel dynamics and habitat complexity in a meandering, gravel-bed river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L. R.; Legleiter, C. J.; Pecquerie, L.; Dunne, T.

    2009-12-01

    River channel dynamics play an important role in creating and maintaining diverse habitat conditions for multiple life stages of aquatic organisms. As a result, many river restoration projects seek to re-establish ecosystems in which an enhanced degree of habitat complexity is sustained through natural fluvial processes of flow, sediment transport, and channel change. Few field cases have effectively quantified the evolution of channel morphology and habitat complexity in restored rivers, however, and the outcomes of restoration actions remain difficult to predict. Our objective was to quantify the extent to which morphology, flow complexity and salmonid spawning and rearing habitat develop from the simplified initial conditions commonly observed in re-configured meandering channels. Using a time-series of topographic data, we measured rates of morphologic change in a recently restored gravel-bed reach of the Merced River, California, USA. We constructed two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models to quantify how the evolving morphology influenced hydraulic conditions, flow complexity and suitability for Chinook salmon spawning and rearing. Following two large flood events, point bar development led to order-of-magnitude increases in modeled flow complexity, as quantified via the metrics of kinetic energy gradient, vorticity and hydraulic strain. On a bend-averaged scale, morphologic changes produced up to a two-fold increase in flow circulation, indicating a direct linkage between geomorphic processes and the development of habitat complexity at both the local (1.0 m2 grid cell) and meander wavelength scale. Habitat modeling indicated that the availability of Chinook salmon spawning habitat has increased over time, whereas the majority of the reach provides low-medium quality rearing habitat for juvenile salmonids, primarily due to a lack of low velocity refuge zones. These results demonstrate the ability of geomorphic processes to increase flow complexity and

  18. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2002-10-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 spawners present day (Johnson et al. 1997). Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline in this species in the Columbia River. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of chum salmon (Johnson et al. 1997). This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River chum as outlined in the Hatchery Genetic Management Plan (HGMP) for the Grays River project has four main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of Lower Columbia River chum salmon exist in Lower Columbia River tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans that would involve habitat restoration including the creation of spawning refugias, supplementation if necessary and a habitat and fish monitoring and evaluation plan. If chum have been extirpated from previously utilized streams, develop re-introduction plans that utilize appropriate genetic donor stock(s) of Lower Columbia River chum salmon and integrate habitat improvement and fry-to-adult survival evaluations. Third, reduce the extinction risk to Grays River chum salmon population by randomly capturing adults in the basin for use in a supplementation program and reintroduction of Lower Columbia River chum salmon into the Chinook River basin. The

  19. The timing of scour and fill in a gravel-bedded river measured with buried accelerometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Konrad, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    A device that measures the timing of streambed scour and the duration of sediment mobilization at specific depths of a streambed was developed using data-logging accelerometers placed within the gravel substrate of the Cedar River, Washington, USA. Each accelerometer recorded its orientation every 20 min and remained stable until the surrounding gravel matrix mobilized as sediment was transported downstream and scour reached the level of the accelerometer. The accelerometer scour monitors were deployed at 26 locations in salmon-spawning habitat during the 2010–2011 flood season to record when the streambed was scoured to the depth of typical egg-pocket deposition. Scour was recorded at one location during a moderate high-flow event (65 m3/s; 1.25–1.5-year recurrence interval) and at 17 locations during a larger high-flow event (159 m3/s; 7-year recurrence interval). Accelerometer scour monitors recorded periods of intermittent sediment mobilization and stability within a high-flow event providing insight into the duration of scour. Most scour was recorded during the rising limb and at the peak of a flood hydrograph, though some scour occurred during sustained high flows following the peak of the flood hydrograph.

  20. Spawning habitat selection of hickory shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the spawning habitat selectivity of hickory shad Alosa mediocris, an anadromous species on the Atlantic coast of North America. Using plankton tows and artificial substrates (spawning pads), we collected hickory shad eggs in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, to identify spawning timing, temperature, and microhabitat use. Hickory shad eggs were collected by both sampling gears in March and April. The results from this and three other studies in North Carolina indicate that spawning peaks at water temperatures between 12.0??C and 14.9??C and that approximately 90% occurs between 11.0??C and 18.9??C. Hickory shad eggs were collected in run and riffle habitats. Water velocity and substrate were significantly different at spawning pads with eggs than at those without eggs, suggesting that these are important microhabitat factors for spawning. Hickory shad eggs were usually collected in velocities of at least 0.1 m/s and on all substrates except those dominated by silt. Eggs were most abundant on gravel, cobble, and boulder substrates. Hickory shad spawned further upstream in years when water discharge rates at Roanoke Rapids were approximately average during March and April (2005 and 2007), as compared with a severe drought year (2006), suggesting that water flows may affect not only spawning site selection but also the quantity and quality of spawning habitat available at a macrohabitat scale. Using our field data and a Bayesian approach to resource selection analysis, we developed a preliminary habitat suitability model for hickory shad. This Bayesian approach provides an objective framework for updating the model as future studies of hickory shad spawning habitat are conducted. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  1. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to

  2. Lake sturgeon spawning on artificial habitat in the St Lawrence River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; LaPan, S.R.; Klindt, R.M.; Schiavone, A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1996, lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) spawning was documented for the third consecutive year on an artificially placed gravel bed in the St Lawrence River. Two distinct spawning periods were observed in 1996. Spawning initially commenced on 17 June, when water temperature reached 15°C. A second spawning event was documented from 28 June to 1 July (16°C). Sturgeon egg densities were monitored in three transects on egg trays, on the gravel surface, and within interstitial spaces in the gravel. Counts of developing eggs in the gravel bed during both spawning periods were used to estimate a total of 275 000 eggs on the study area (0.075 ha). Average egg density was highest in the transect with the highest water velocities. Lake sturgeon fry were first observed in the gravel on 24 June (15.5°C), and first emergence from the gravel was documented on 28 June. Hatching following the second spawning event commenced on 3 July. Based on assessment of average embryo viability (61.6%) and egg-to-emergent fry survival (17.6%) an estimate of about 171 000 sturgeon eggs hatched, producing over 49 000 emergent fry. Current velocity, substrate particle size, depth of substrate, and maintenance of sediment-free interstitial spaces are important considerations in planning future spawning habitat enhancement projects.

  3. Time-Delayed Subsidies: Interspecies Population Effects in Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle C.; Reynolds, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species. PMID:24911974

  4. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2003-10-15

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present day spawners. Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline of Columbia River chum salmon. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Currently, only two main populations are recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning has been documented in most lower Columbia River tributaries. The first is located in the Grays River (RKm 34) (Grays population), a tributary of the Columbia, and the second is a group of spawners that utilize the Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks (Lower Gorge population). A possible third population of mainstem spawners, found in the fall of 1999, were located spawning above the I-205 bridge (approximately RKm 182), this aggregation is referred to as the Woods Landing/Rivershore population or the I-205 group. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum as outlined in Hatchery Genetic Management Plans (HGMP) has three main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of LCR chum salmon exist in LCR tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans involving habitat restoration including the creation of

  5. Preferred and observed conditions for sockeye salmon in Ozette Lake and its tributaries, Clallam County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Dion, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Ozette River and Ozette Lake and its tributaries in Washington have many of the water-quality and stream-hydraulic characteristics that are generally supportive of good sockeye salmon production. Ozette Lake is a large, deep lake and a natural rearing area and for young sockeye. In the summer of 1976 water temperatures preferred for the growth of young sockeye (45-68 degrees Fahrenheit) occurred between about 200 feet of depth and the water surface, or generally in the zone of steep temperature gradient. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in excess of 8.0 milligrams per liter at all depths throughout the year provided an adequate supply of oxygen for sockeye production. In comparison with eight other sockeye-producing lakes in Washington and Alaska, the concentrations of zooplankton in Ozette Lake appear adequate to support the rearing of sockeye salmon. In Big River and Umbrella Creek, tributaries to Ozette Lake, the streambed areas with gravels suitable for spawning were calculated to be about 39,000 and 31 ,000 square yards, respectively. If those areas were completely utilized they would accomodate about 13,000 and 10,000 spawning sockeye females, respectively. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone affect redd site selection of chum salmon and fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Hanrahan, Timothy P. ); Arntzen, Evan V. ); McMichael, Geoffrey A. ); Murray, Christopher J. ); Chien, Yi-Ju )

    2002-11-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha spawned at different locations in the vicinity of Ives Island, Washington, a side channel to the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. We hypothesized that measurements of water depth, substrate size, and water velocity alone would not explain the separation in spawning areas and began a 2-year investigation of physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone. We found that chum salmon spawned in upwelling water that was significantly warmer than the surrounding river water. In contrast, fall chinook salmon constructed redds at downwelling sites where there was no difference in temperature between the river and its bed. Understanding the specific features that are important for chum salmon and fall chinook salmon redd site selection at Ives Island will be useful to resource managers attempting to maximize available spawning habitat for these species within the constraints imposed by other water resource needs.

  7. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, domestic production of industrial sand and gravel was about 31 Mt, a 5% increase from 2004. This increase was bouyed by robust construction and petroleum sectors of the US economy. Based on estimated world production figures, the United States was the world's leading producer and consumer of industrial sand and gravel. In the short term, local shortages of industrial sand and gravel will continue to increase.

  8. Isolation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus from a leech (Piscicola salmositica) and a copepod (Salmincola sp.), ectoparasites of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Klaybor, D.; Batts, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    ectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus was isolated from freshwater leeches Piscicola salmositica and copepods Salmincola sp. removed from the gills of spawning sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. This is the first report of the isolation of IHN virus from an animal other than salmonid fishes. High levels of IHN virus were also found in leeches taken from the bottom gravel of the spawning area. The prevalence of IHN virus in samples of individual leeches was as high as 100 "/o and the virus was isolated from 95 % of pooled samples of copepods. The highest level of virus was 8.7 X lo5 pfu (plaque forming units) g-' in the copepod and 1.5 X 10"fu g-' in the leech. The level of virus in leeches removed from fish gills was sometimes higher than the level of virus in the gill tissue itself. Virus persisted for at least 16 d in leeches held in the laboratory without feeding. Transmission of IHN virus by leeches probably increases the infection rate of spawning sockeye salmon.

  9. Is hyporheic flow an indicator for salmonid spawning site selection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjankar, R. M.; Tonina, D.; Marzadri, A.; McKean, J. A.; Isaak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have investigated the role of hydraulic variables in the selection of spawning sites by salmonids. Some recent studies suggest that the intensity of the ambient hyporheic flow, that present without a salmon egg pocket, is a cue for spawning site selection, but others have argued against it. We tested this hypothesis by using a unique dataset of field surveyed spawning site locations and an unprecedented meter-scale resolution bathymetry of a 13.5 km long reach of Bear Valley Creek (Idaho, USA), an important Chinook salmon spawning stream. We used a two-dimensional surface water model to quantify stream hydraulics and a three-dimensional hyporheic model to quantify the hyporheic flows. Our results show that the intensity of ambient hyporheic flows is not a statistically significant variable for spawning site selection. Conversely, the intensity of the water surface curvature and the habitat quality, quantified as a function of stream hydraulics and morphology, are the most important variables for salmonid spawning site selection. KEY WORDS: Salmonid spawning habitat, pool-riffle system, habitat quality, surface water curvature, hyporheic flow

  10. Consolidatable gravel pack method

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.; Surles, B.W.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for forming a consolidated gravel pack in a washed-out cavity adjacent to a producing well penetrating a subterranean oil formation comprising the steps of: (a) forming a quantity of resin coated gravel comprising granular mineral particles including gravel, the gravel particles being coated with a resin fluid containing a polymerizable oligomer of furfuryl alcohol resin, a catalyst comprising an oil soluble, very slightly water soluble organic acid and an ester of a weak organic acid to consume water produced by the polymerization of resin, the polymer coated gravel comprising a sticky solid material; (b) preparing an aqueous saline carrier fluid comprising water which is from 70 to 100% saturated with sodium chloride; (c) suspending the resin-coated gravel in the carrier fluid, forming a fluid mixture of resin-coated gravel and carrier fluid; (d) introducing the fluid mixture comprising the resin coated gravel particles suspended in the aqueous saline carrier fluid into the washed-out cavity of the formation adjacent to the producing well and shutting in the well for sufficient period of time to allow polymerization of the resin, forming the permeable gravel pack in the washed-out cavity of the formation.

  11. Analysis of spawning behavior, habitat, and season of the federally threatened Etheostoma scotti, Cherokee darter (Osteichthyes: Percidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, C.M.; Porter, B.A.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Etheostoma scotti (Cherokee darter) is a member of the subgenus Ulocentra and a federally threatened endemic to the Etowah River system, GA. Field observations of spawning behavior of the Cherokee darter were made at five stream sites to identify spawning season and habitat over two field seasons. Cherokee darters primarily spawn in pool habitats between mid-March and early June, at temperatures between 11 and 18 ?C. Egg deposition was typically on large gravel substrate, but ranged from gravel to bedrock in size and included woody debris. Spawning occurred in a variety of depths (0.09-0.59 m) and velocities (0-0.68 m/s).

  12. Knowledge representation and qualitative simulation of salmon redd functioning. Part II: qualitative model of redds.

    PubMed

    Guerrin, F; Dumas, J

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes a qualitative model of the functioning of salmon redds (spawning areas of salmon) and its impact on mortality rates of early stages. For this, we use Qsim, a qualitative simulator, which appeared adequate for representing available qualitative knowledge of freshwater ecology experts (see Part I of this paper). Since the number of relevant variables was relatively large, it appeared necessary to decompose the model into two parts, corresponding to processes occurring at separate time-scales. A qualitative clock allows us to submit the simulation of salmon developmental stages to the calculation of accumulated daily temperatures (degree-days), according to the clock ticks and a water temperature regime set by the user. Therefore, this introduces some way of real-time dating and duration in a purely qualitative model. Simulating both sub-models, either separately or by means of alternate transitions, allows us to generate the evolutions of variables of interest, such as the mortality rates according to two factors (flow of oxygenated water and plugging of gravel interstices near the bed surface), under various scenarios.

  13. Prepacking perforations improves gravel packs

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.E.; Pace, J.R. )

    1990-05-21

    Productivity can be increased by prepacking perforations with gravel before a major gravel pack is pumped. The main gravel-pack treatment follows immediately after the prepack. This procedure can increase perforation permeability due to a more complete gravel fill of the perforation. The gravel pack prevents perforations from collapsing or filling with formation sand.

  14. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  15. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2011 was about 30 Mt (33 million st), increasing slightly compared with 2010. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  16. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2010 was about 26.5 Mt (29.2 million st), a 6-percent increased from 2009. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as sand for container glass, golf course sand, recreational sand, specialty glass and water filtration, showed increased demand in 2010.

  17. How Well Can We Predict Salmonid Spawning Habitat with LiDAR?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, A.; Finnegan, N. J.; Hayes, S.

    2013-12-01

    Suitable salmonid spawning habitat is, to a great extent, determined by physical, landscape driven characteristics such as channel morphology and grain size. Identifying reaches with high-quality spawning habitat is essential to restoration efforts in areas where salmonid species are endangered or threatened. While both predictions of suitable habitat and observations of utilized habitat are common in the literature, they are rarely combined. Here we exploit a unique combination of high-resolution LiDAR data and seven years of 387 individually surveyed Coho and Steelhead redds in Scott Creek, a 77 km2 un-glaciated coastal California drainage in the Santa Cruz Mountains, to both make and test predictions of spawning habitat. Using a threshold channel assumption, we predict grain size throughout Scott Creek via a shear stress model that incorporates channel width, instead of height, using Manning's equation (Snyder et al., 2013). Slope and drainage area are computed from a LiDAR-derived DEM, and channel width is calculated via hydraulic modeling. Our results for median grain size predictions closely match median grain sizes (D50) measured in the field, with the majority of sites having predicted D50's within a factor of two of the observed values, especially for reaches with D50 > 0.02m. This success suggests that the threshold model used to predict grain size is appropriate for un-glaciated alluvial channel systems. However, it appears that grain size alone is not a strong predictor of salmon spawning. Reaches with a high (>0.1m) average predicted D50 do have lower redd densities, as expected based on spawning gravel sizes in the literature. However, reaches with lower (<0.1m) predicted D50 have a wide range of redd densities, suggesting that reach-average grain size alone cannot explain spawning site selection in the finer-grained reaches of Scott Creek. We turn to analysis of bedform morphology in order to explain the variation in redd density in the low

  18. Reconditioning contaminated gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, H.; Bowers, J.S.; Cadwell, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a portable screening system that will recondition radioactively contaminated gravel in the field. The separation technique employed by this system removes dirt, contaminated debris, and other fine particles from gravel. At LLNL, gravel is used in conjunction with the experimental testing of explosives to reduce shock wave propagation. The gravel surrounds the experimental device and buffers the energy generated from the explosion. During an explosion, some of the gravel is broken down into small particles and mixed with contaminants. Contaminants in the used gravel originate from metal sheathing and other parts comprising, the experimental device. These contaminants may consist of radionuclides and metals that are considered hazardous by the State of California when disposed. This paper describes the process that conveys contaminated material into the screener system, sprays the material with recycled water or other mild cleaning chemicals, and separates particles based on size. Particles greater than a specified size are discharged out of the screener separator and recycled back into use, thereby reducing the amount of mixed waste generated and minimizing the need for new gravel. The fines or silt are flushed out of the separator with the water and are removed from the water and consolidated into a drum with the use of a hydrocyclone separator and drum decant system. Because the water in the spray system is recycled, minimal makeup water is needed. The system monitors pH and total dissolved solids.

  19. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  20. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  1. Hydrologic Alterations from Climate Change Inform Assessment of Ecological Risk to Pacific Salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Wobus, Cameron; Prucha, Robert; Albert, David; Woll, Christine; Loinaz, Maria; Jones, Russell

    2015-01-01

    We developed an integrated hydrologic model of the upper Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds in the Bristol Bay region of southwestern Alaska, a region under substantial development pressure from large-scale copper mining. We incorporated climate change scenarios into this model to evaluate how hydrologic regimes and stream temperatures might change in a future climate, and to summarize indicators of hydrologic alteration that are relevant to salmon habitat ecology and life history. Model simulations project substantial changes in mean winter flow, peak flow dates, and water temperature by 2100. In particular, we find that annual hydrographs will no longer be dominated by a single spring thaw event, but will instead be characterized by numerous high flow events throughout the winter. Stream temperatures increase in all future scenarios, although these temperature increases are moderated relative to air temperatures by cool baseflow inputs during the summer months. Projected changes to flow and stream temperature could influence salmon through alterations in the suitability of spawning gravels, changes in the duration of incubation, increased growth during juvenile stages, and increased exposure to chronic and acute temperature stress. These climate-modulated changes represent a shifting baseline in salmon habitat quality and quantity in the future, and an important consideration to adequately assess the types and magnitude of risks associated with proposed large-scale mining in the region. PMID:26645380

  2. Hydrologic Alterations from Climate Change Inform Assessment of Ecological Risk to Pacific Salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Wobus, Cameron; Prucha, Robert; Albert, David; Woll, Christine; Loinaz, Maria; Jones, Russell; Travers, Constance

    2015-01-01

    We developed an integrated hydrologic model of the upper Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds in the Bristol Bay region of southwestern Alaska, a region under substantial development pressure from large-scale copper mining. We incorporated climate change scenarios into this model to evaluate how hydrologic regimes and stream temperatures might change in a future climate, and to summarize indicators of hydrologic alteration that are relevant to salmon habitat ecology and life history. Model simulations project substantial changes in mean winter flow, peak flow dates, and water temperature by 2100. In particular, we find that annual hydrographs will no longer be dominated by a single spring thaw event, but will instead be characterized by numerous high flow events throughout the winter. Stream temperatures increase in all future scenarios, although these temperature increases are moderated relative to air temperatures by cool baseflow inputs during the summer months. Projected changes to flow and stream temperature could influence salmon through alterations in the suitability of spawning gravels, changes in the duration of incubation, increased growth during juvenile stages, and increased exposure to chronic and acute temperature stress. These climate-modulated changes represent a shifting baseline in salmon habitat quality and quantity in the future, and an important consideration to adequately assess the types and magnitude of risks associated with proposed large-scale mining in the region.

  3. Geomorphic and Salmon Habitat Response to Dam Removal with Minimal Constraints to Channel Evolution, Wa'atch Creek, Western Washington, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, A. C.; Shellberg, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    Dam removal has become an important component of aquatic ecosystem restoration, but studies documenting the physical and ecological response to dam removal across a range of human modified hydroclimatic and physiographic settings are still lacking. This research documents channel geomorphic response and fine sediment storage in salmon spawning gravels after removing two derelict dams (largest 6m) from Wa’atch Creek, located in the temperate coastal-marine zone of the Pacific Northwest, USA. After removing dam sheet pile and earthen fill, natural river processes including sediment flushing were allowed occur. Technical engineering solutions were avoided, unlike comparably sized dam removals in western Washington that over-engineered channel stability. However, two-hundred large-logs (LWD) were placed unanchored below the dam sites and throughout the reservoir before drawdown to sort and store sediment and provide future habitat complexity. Initial sedimentation impacts were severe following dam removal, temporarily smothering the bed of the creek with a fine sediment slurry (fluid mud) from dam to delta, killing aquatic biota, and covering spawning gravels with inhospitable levels of fine sediment. Subsequently, several large floods within the first year (max 10-yr recurrence interval) flushed the channel sediment slurry and over half (11,000 m^3) of the fine sediment stored in the reservoir out to sea. Coarse sediment aggraded immediately below the dam where wood was placed in the channel, while channel incision occurred through the reservoir and into tributaries, both diminishing away from the disturbance center. Channel changes were greatest immediately following removal due to high stream power, steep energy slope and saturated unconsolidated alluvium. The rate of change in sediment volume diminished over time (2003 to 2008) due to sediment consolidation, vegetation colonization, and a reduction in energy slope. After reservoir and channel flushing, fine

  4. Climate Change Alters Future Hydrologic Regimes in an Alaskan Salmon Stronghold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobus, C. W.; Prucha, R. H.; Albert, D.; Jones, R.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change poses risks to salmon due to changes in both stream temperature and the seasonal distribution of flows. A number of studies have documented these potential effects in the Pacific Northwest, where changes in seasonal snowpack and summer flows have been well documented. We use an integrated hydrologic model and a suite of climate simulations to simulate baseline and future hydrologic conditions in two headwater streams draining into Bristol Bay, Alaska. Under current conditions, approximately 70% of winter storms occur when the air temperature is at or below freezing. These climate conditions are sufficient to build up a winter snowpack that creates a reliable spring freshet each spring. By 2050, model simulations indicate that as little as 30% of winter storms occur when air temperatures are below freezing, and this number decreases to as little as 10% by 2100. As a result of these projected changes in climate, the simulated hydrographs for future scenarios are substantially altered relative to baseline conditions. Rather than being dominated by a single large snowmelt freshet, our models project that the spring freshet is substantially reduced by 2050, and completely lost by 2100. Reliable high flows in the spring are instead replaced by a series of smaller runoff events throughout the winter. These hydrologic changes are likely to have cascading effects on this ecosystem, potentially affecting the timing of salmon runs, the quality of spawning gravels, and perhaps the survival of some sub-populations of salmonids. The future of Bristol Bay salmon will depend in part on how quickly these species can adapt to changing hydrologic conditions. Given the global importance of Bristol Bay salmon, management strategies that minimize additional stressors could also be important for ensuring the long-term sustainability of the resource.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Thomas E.

    1983-01-01

    The coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) is native to the northern Pacific Ocean, spawning and rearing in streams from Monterey Bay, California, to Point Hope, Alaska, and southward along the Asiatic coast to Japan. Its center of abundance in North America is from Oregon to Alaska (Briggs 1953; Godfrey 1965; Hart 1973; Scott and Crossman 1973). Coho salmon have been successfully introduced into the Great Lakes and reservoirs and lakes throughout the United States to provide put-and-grow sport fishing (Scott and Crossman 1973; Wigglesworth and Rawson 1974). No subspecies of coho salmon have been described (Godfrey 1965).

  6. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, Rachel E.; Allen, Jennifer M.; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability. PMID:26339539

  7. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Levi, Taal; Wheat, Rachel E; Allen, Jennifer M; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability.

  8. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2009 was about 27 Mt (30 million st), declining by 10 percent compared with 2008. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as foundry and glassmaking sand, may have declined by a factor greater than 10 percent in 2009. U.S. apparent consumption was 24.7 Mt (27.2 million st) in 2009, down by 10 percent from the previous year, and imports declined to 83 kt (91,000 st).

  9. SpawnNet

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-23

    SpawnNet provides a networking interface similar to Linux sockets that runs natively on High-performance network interfaces. It is intended to be used to bootstrap parallel jobs and communication libraries like MPI.

  10. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  11. Predation by fallfish (Semotilus corporalis) on Pacific salmon eggs in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Nack, C.C.; Chalupnicki, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Fallfish (Semotilus corporalis) are the largest native cyprinid in the northeastern United States and are the most abundant native species in the Salmon River, New York. The Salmon River is a high-quality spawning and nursery river for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migrating from Lake Ontario. Because of the large number of Pacific salmon spawning in the river in the fall extensive redd superimposition occurs resulting in salmonid eggs being available on the substrate. We examined the fall diet of 647 fallfish in 2007 and 2008 to determine the extent of predation on Pacific salmon eggs. The contribution of eggs in the diet significantly increased once fallfish attained a size of 100 mm total length. The largest size category of fallfish examined (≥150 mm) had the highest proportion (86.1%) of salmon eggs in their diet. The contribution of Zooplankton and chironomids in the diet of fallfish decreased with fish size. Except for the two largest groups of fallfish examined (i.e., 100–149 mm and ≥150 mm) diet overlap among size groups was low. The high contribution in the diet during the fall and high caloric value of Pacific salmon eggs could increase growth and survival of this species in the Salmon River.

  12. Yukon River King Salmon - Ichthyophonus Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-lethal sampling of adult spawning Chinook salmon for Ichthyophonus was developed using known infected fish and live returning spawners. The method consisted of taking punch biopsies of skin and muscle and culturing the biopsy tissue in vitro. A 100% correlation was made between known infected fish and cultured biopsy tissue. 

  13. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, D.J.; Wipfli, M.S.; Stricker, C.A.; Heintz, R.A.; Rinella, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  14. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.; Rinella, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  15. Rates of Gravel Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. From a kinematics standpoint, few studies are available to inform on the streamwise and vertical rates of sediment dispersion in natural channels. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify dispersion rates over 19 flood seasons. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2500 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1989 and 1992 in four generations. To quantify gravel dispersion over distances up to 2.6 km, observations are taken from 11 recoveries. Over 280 floods capable of moving bedload occurred during this period, with five exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. Streamwise dispersion is quantified by virtual velocity, while dispersion into the streambed is quantified by a vertical burial rate. The temporal trend in streamwise dispersion rates is described by a power function. Initial virtual velocities decline rapidly from around 1.4 m/hr to approach an asymptote value of about 0.2 m/hr. The rapid change corresponds to a significant increase in the proportion of buried tracers due to vertical mixing. Initial burial rates reflect the magnitude of the first flood after tracer deployment and range from 0.07 to 0.46 cm/hr depending on tracer generation. Burial rates converge to about 0.06 cm/hr after the fourth flood season and then gradually decline to about 0.01 cm/hr. Thus, the rate of streamwise dispersion exceeds that of vertical dispersion by three orders of magnitude when the movement of sediment routinely activated by floods is considered.

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hyporheic Zone Affect Redd Site Selection of Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon, Columbia River.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.

    2001-10-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) may historically have been the most abundant species of Columbia River salmon, contributing as much as 50% of the total biomass of all salmon in the Pacific Ocean prior to the 1940's (Neave 1961). By the 1950's, however, run sizes to the Columbia River dropped dramatically and in 1999 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Columbia River chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; NMFS 1999). Habitat degradation, water diversions, harvest, and artificial propagation are the major human-induced factors that have contributed to the species decline (NMFS 1998). Columbia River chum salmon spawn exclusively in the lower river below Bonneville Dam, including an area near Ives Island. The Ives Island chum salmon are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU) for this species, and are included in the ESA listing. In addition to chum salmon, fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) also spawn at Ives Island. Spawning surveys conducted at Ives Island over the last several years show that chum and fall chinook salmon spawned in clusters in different locations (US Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data). The presence of redd clusters suggested that fish were selecting specific habitat features within the study area (Geist and Dauble 1998). Understanding the specific features of these spawning areas is needed to quantify the amount of habitat available to each species so that minimum flows can be set to protect fish and maintain high quality habitat.

  17. Quantity, structure, and habitat selection of natural spawning reefs by walleyes in a north temperate lake: A multiscale analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Joshua K.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Spawning habitat, the cornerstone of self-sustaining, naturally reproducing walleyeSander vitreus populations, has received limited quantitative research. Our goal was to quantitatively describe the structure and quantity of natural walleye spawning habitat and evaluate potential selection of habitat in Big Crooked Lake, Wisconsin. In 2004 and 2005, we located and delineated walleye egg deposition polygons through visual snorkel and scuba surveys. We also delineated recently deposited, adhesive egg patches daily along one spawning reef in 2005. To determine habitat selection, we quantified and compared spawning and lakewide available habitat at different scales. In both years, walleyes used similar spawning habitat, including three geomorphic types: linear shorelines, a point bar, and an island. Walleyes used only 14% of the entire lake shoreline and 39% of the shoreline comprised of gravel (6.4–76.0 mm), cobble (76.1–149.9 mm), or coarser substrates for spawning in 2005, indicating selection of specific spawning habitat. Lakewide, walleyes spawned close to shore (outer egg deposition polygon boundary mean distance = 2.7 m), in shallow water (outer egg deposition polygon boundary mean depth = 0.3 m), and over gravel substrate (percent coverage mean = 64.3) having low embeddedness (mean = 1.30). Our best nearshore (0–13-m) resource selection function predicted an increase in the relative probability of egg deposition with the increasing abundance of gravel, cobble, and rubble (150.0–303.9-mm) substrates and a decrease with increasing distance from shore and water depth (89.9% overall correct classification). Adhesive egg patches confirmed that walleyes actively chose nearshore, shallow-water, and coarse-substrate spawning habitat. The quantitative habitat information and predictive models will assist biologists in developing walleye spawning reef protection strategies and potentially aid in designing and evaluating artificial spawning reefs.

  18. Effects of emergence time and early social rearing environment on behaviour of Atlantic salmon: consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Martin H; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D M; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life

  19. Effects of Emergence Time and Early Social Rearing Environment on Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon: Consequences for Juvenile Fitness and Smolt Migration

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martin H.; Johnsson, Jörgen I.; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life

  20. Migratory salmonid redd habitat characteristics in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; McKenna, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Non-native migratory salmonids ascend tributaries to spawn in all the Great Lakes. In Lake Ontario, these species include Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), steelhead (O. mykiss), and brown trout (Salmo trutta). Although successful natural reproduction has been documented for many of these species, little research has been conducted on their spawning habitat. We examined the spawning habitat of these four species in the Salmon River, New York. Differences in fish size among the species were significantly correlated with spawning site selection. In the Salmon River, the larger species spawned in deeper areas with larger size substrate and made the largest redds. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified redds by species 64–100% of the time. The size of substrate materials below Lighthouse Hill Dam is within the preferred ranges for spawning for these four species indicating that river armoring has not negatively impacted salmonid production. Intra-specific and inter-specific competition for spawning sites may influence redd site selection for smaller salmonids and could be an impediment for Atlantic salmon (S. salar) restoration.

  1. Interactions between brown bears and chum salmon at McNeil River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peirce, Joshua M.; Otis, Edward O.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Follmann, Erich H.

    2013-01-01

    Predation on returning runs of adult salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can have a large influence on their spawning success. At McNeil River State Game Sanctuary (MRSGS), Alaska, brown bears (Ursus arctos) congregate in high numbers annually along the lower McNeil River to prey upon returning adult chum salmon (O. keta). Low chum salmon escapements into McNeil River since the late 1990s have been proposed as a potential factor contributing to concurrent declines in bear numbers. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of bear predation on chum salmon in McNeil River, especially on pre-spawning fish, and use those data to adjust the escapement goal for the river. In 2005 and 2006, 105 chum salmon were radiotagged at the river mouth and tracked to determine cause and location of death. Below the falls, predators consumed 99% of tagged fish, killing 59% of them before they spawned. Subsequently, the escapement goal was nearly doubled to account for this pre-spawning mortality and to ensure enough salmon to sustain both predators and prey. This approach to integrated fish and wildlife management at MRSGS can serve as a model for other systems where current salmon escapement goals may not account for pre-spawning mortality.

  2. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Coho salmon. [Oncorhynchus kisutch

    SciTech Connect

    Laufle, J.C.; Pauley, G.B.; Shepard, M.F.

    1986-04-01

    The coho is anadromous, swimming upstream from the ocean in fall to spawn. The fry hatch in the spring and outmigrate 1 to 2 years later. They usually spend two growing seasons at sea. They require clear, cold, well-oxygenated (<4 mg/l) stream water (1 m/sec) for spawning and rearing, with a gravel substrate, adequate cover, and a food supply of insects, crustaceans, and fishes for the young. All populations of coho salmon are limited by the amount of suitable rearing area available. They are sought after in both sport and commercial fisheries, and are very sensitive, especially the early life stages in streams, to such human-made impacts as siltation, pollution, removal of cover, and barriers to migration. Current management objectives of the State of Washington are toward MSH (maximum susstained harvest), with the treaty Indian tribes under the Boldt Decision (United States vs State of Washington) having a legal right to 50% of the catchable allocation.

  3. Salmon as drivers of physical and biological disturbance in river channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, S. J.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2012-04-01

    Large migrations across landscapes and ecosystem boundaries combined with disturbances of riverine spawning habitats through nest construction indicate the huge potential that Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus sp.) have to disturb and alter regional energy flow. Nutrients derived from ocean-reared dead and decaying salmon are released into surrounding aquatic ecosystems fertilizing the water column, recently disturbed by increased suspended sediments due to nest construction. These opposing forces of disturbance and fertilization on spawning habitat have been demonstrated to impact local geomorphic and ecological cycles within salmon streams. An often cited, yet not fully tested, hypothesis is that this pulse of nutrients provided by decaying salmon can shift freshwater habitats to higher production levels. This hypothesis, however, remains contested and uncertain. Fine sediments are increasingly being recognized as important delivery and storage vectors for marine-derived nutrients (MDNs) in spawning streams. The temporal and spatial significance of these sediment vectors on gravelbed storage of MDN have not been quantified thereby restricting our ability to estimate the impact of gravelbed storage of MDNs on the riverine habitats. The objectives of this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of sediment deposition and retention in an active spawning area and ii) determine the contribution of MDN associated with the fine sediment storage. The Horsefly River spawning channel (HFC), an artificial salmon stock enhancement stream, was used to examine the biogeomorphic impacts of salmon spawning. We organized the HFC in an upstream-downstream paired treatment approach where the upstream enclosure was kept free of salmon and the downstream enclosure was loaded with actively spawning salmon. We used the difference in suspended sediment concentration between the salmon enclosure and the control enclosure to determine the contribution of salmon nest construction to suspended

  4. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  5. Marine-derived nutrients, bioturbation, and ecosystem metabolism: reconsidering the role of salmon in streams.

    PubMed

    Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Schindler, Daniel E

    2011-02-01

    In coastal areas of the North Pacific Ocean, annual returns of spawning salmon provide a substantial influx of nutrients and organic matter to streams and are generally believed to enhance the productivity of recipient ecosystems. Loss of this subsidy from areas with diminished salmon runs has been hypothesized to limit ecosystem productivity in juvenile salmon rearing habitats (lakes and streams), thereby reinforcing population declines. Using five to seven years of data from an Alaskan stream supporting moderate salmon densities, we show that salmon predictably increased stream water nutrient concentrations, which were on average 190% (nitrogen) and 390% (phosphorus) pre-salmon values, and that primary producers incorporated some of these nutrients into tissues. However, benthic algal biomass declined by an order of magnitude despite increased nutrients. We also measured changes in stream ecosystem metabolic properties, including gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), from three salmon streams by analyzing diel measurements of oxygen concentrations and stable isotopic ratios (delta O-O2) within a Bayesian statistical model of oxygen dynamics. Our results do not support a shift toward higher primary productivity with the return of salmon, as is expected from a nutrient fertilization mechanism. Rather, net ecosystem metabolism switched from approximately net autotrophic (GPP > or = ER) to a strongly net heterotrophic state (GPP < ER) in response to bioturbation of benthic habitats by salmon. Following the seasonal arrival of salmon, GPP declined to <12% of pre-salmon rates, while ER increased by over threefold. Metabolism by live salmon could not account for the observed increase in ER early in the salmon run, suggesting salmon nutrients and disturbance enhanced in situ heterotrophic respiration. Salmon also changed the physical properties of the stream, increasing air-water gas exchange by nearly 10-fold during peak spawning. We suggest

  6. History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1973-01-01

    This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

  7. Riding the crimson tide: mobile terrestrial consumers track phenological variation in spawning of an anadromous fish.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Bentley, Kale T; Jankowski, Kathijo; Lisi, Peter J; Payne, Laura X

    2013-06-23

    When resources are spatially and temporally variable, consumers can increase their foraging success by moving to track ephemeral feeding opportunities as these shift across the landscape; the best examples derive from herbivore-plant systems, where grazers migrate to capitalize on the seasonal waves of vegetation growth. We evaluated whether analogous processes occur in watersheds supporting spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), asking whether seasonal activities of predators and scavengers shift spatial distributions to capitalize on asynchronous spawning among populations of salmon. Both glaucous-winged gulls and coastal brown bears showed distinct shifts in their spatial distributions over the course of the summer, reflecting the shifting distribution of spawning sockeye salmon, which was associated with variation in water temperature among spawning sites. By tracking the spatial and temporal variation in the phenology of their principal prey, consumers substantially extended their foraging opportunity on a superabundant, yet locally ephemeral, resource. Ecosystem-based fishery management efforts that seek to balance trade-offs between fisheries and ecosystem processes supported by salmon should, therefore, assess the importance of life-history variation, particularly in phenological traits, for maintaining important ecosystem functions, such as providing marine-derived resources for terrestrial predators and scavengers.

  8. Riding the crimson tide: mobile terrestrial consumers track phenological variation in spawning of an anadromous fish

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Daniel E.; Armstrong, Jonathan B.; Bentley, Kale T.; Jankowski, KathiJo; Lisi, Peter J.; Payne, Laura X.

    2013-01-01

    When resources are spatially and temporally variable, consumers can increase their foraging success by moving to track ephemeral feeding opportunities as these shift across the landscape; the best examples derive from herbivore–plant systems, where grazers migrate to capitalize on the seasonal waves of vegetation growth. We evaluated whether analogous processes occur in watersheds supporting spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), asking whether seasonal activities of predators and scavengers shift spatial distributions to capitalize on asynchronous spawning among populations of salmon. Both glaucous-winged gulls and coastal brown bears showed distinct shifts in their spatial distributions over the course of the summer, reflecting the shifting distribution of spawning sockeye salmon, which was associated with variation in water temperature among spawning sites. By tracking the spatial and temporal variation in the phenology of their principal prey, consumers substantially extended their foraging opportunity on a superabundant, yet locally ephemeral, resource. Ecosystem-based fishery management efforts that seek to balance trade-offs between fisheries and ecosystem processes supported by salmon should, therefore, assess the importance of life-history variation, particularly in phenological traits, for maintaining important ecosystem functions, such as providing marine-derived resources for terrestrial predators and scavengers. PMID:23554279

  9. Trends in spawning populations of Pacific anadromous salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konkel, G.W.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Annual escapement records for 1968-1984 for five species of Pacific salmon-chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho (O. kisutch), sockeye (O. nerka), pink (O. gorbuscha), and chum (O. keta)—and steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) were obtained from published and unpublished sources and organized in a computer database. More than 25,500 escapement records were obtained for more than 1,100 locations throughout Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Escapement trends for naturally reproducing populations for which data were available for at least 7 years from 1968 to 1984 and at least 4 years from 1975 to 1984 were analyzed by linear regression. Significant trends were observed in about 30% of the 886 populations examined. Trends were summarized by species for three geographic regions in Alaska and four in the Pacific Northwest (including California). For chinook, sockeye, and pink salmon, trends were predominantly increasing in the Alaska regions and either lacking or predominantly decreasing in most of the Pacific Northwest regions; for coho and chum salmon, trends were predominantly decreasing in one or more Alaska regions as well as in most of the Pacific Northwest regions. For steelhead, too few populations were examined to enable us to characterize trends throughout their range. Among the 657 salmonid populations excluded from the trend analysis because the data sets were incomplete, 13 (of which 2 were in Alaska) declined to zero during the period of analysis. For coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon and steelhead, major data gaps were revealed by a comparison of the geographic distribution of escapement records with the spawning distribution of the species. For chinook salmon, escapement records were more geographically representative of the spawning distribution.

  10. Numerical simulation of gravel packing

    SciTech Connect

    Winterfeld, P.H.; Schroeder, D.E. Jr. )

    1992-08-01

    To obtain maximum productivity from unconsolidated formations where sand control is required, it is important to understand the mechanics of gravel packing. This paper describes a finite-element, numerical simulator that can predict gravel placement in the perforations and annulus of a wellbore. The equations for the simulator include mass and momentum conservation. Wellbore geometry, physical properties, and fluid and gravel-pack properties are simulator input. Experiments in a 100-ft full-scale wellbore model for three gravel-packing configurations have been successfully simulated. These configurations are a circulating pack with a washpipe, a squeeze pack, and a circulating/squeeze pack with a washpipe and a lower telltale screen. The low cost, speed, and extrapolation capabilities of the numerical simulator will greatly enhance our ability to predict gravel placement in a wellbore.

  11. Influence of habitat characteristics on shore-spawning kokanee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlock, Steven L.; Quist, Michael; Dux, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and kokanee (lacustrine Sockeye Salmon) commonly spawn in both lentic and lotic environments; however, the habitat requirements of shore spawners are virtually unknown relative to those of stream spawners. A laboratory experiment and an in situ incubation study were conducted to better understand the influence of habitat characteristics on the shoreline incubation success of kokanee. The laboratory experiment assessed kokanee intragravel survival, fry emergence, and fry condition in response to eight substrate treatments. The in situ study, conducted at three major shoreline spawning sites in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, evaluated the effect of depth, substrate composition, dissolved oxygen, shoreline slope, and groundwater on intragravel survival. Substrate size composition was generally a poor predictor of survival in both the laboratory experiment and in situ study; although, fry condition and counts of emerged fry in the laboratory were lowest for the substrate treatment that had the highest proportion of fine sediment. Results of the in situ study suggest that groundwater flow plays an important role in enhancing intragravel survival in habitats generally considered unsuitable for spawning.

  12. Salmon Mapper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the web application to assist pesticide users' with an understanding of the spatial extent of certain pesticide use limitations to protect endangered or threatened salmon and steelhead in California, Oregon and Washington.

  13. Passive acoustic monitoring to detect spawning in large-bodied catostomids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straight, Carrie A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Documenting timing, locations, and intensity of spawning can provide valuable information for conservation and management of imperiled fishes. However, deep, turbid or turbulent water, or occurrence of spawning at night, can severely limit direct observations. We have developed and tested the use of passive acoustics to detect distinctive acoustic signatures associated with spawning events of two large-bodied catostomid species (River Redhorse Moxostoma carinatum and Robust Redhorse Moxostoma robustum) in river systems in north Georgia. We deployed a hydrophone with a recording unit at four different locations on four different dates when we could both record and observe spawning activity. Recordings captured 494 spawning events that we acoustically characterized using dominant frequency, 95% frequency, relative power, and duration. We similarly characterized 46 randomly selected ambient river noises. Dominant frequency did not differ between redhorse species and ranged from 172.3 to 14,987.1 Hz. Duration of spawning events ranged from 0.65 to 11.07 s, River Redhorse having longer durations than Robust Redhorse. Observed spawning events had significantly higher dominant and 95% frequencies than ambient river noises. We additionally tested software designed to automate acoustic detection. The automated detection configurations correctly identified 80–82% of known spawning events, and falsely indentified spawns 6–7% of the time when none occurred. These rates were combined over all recordings; rates were more variable among individual recordings. Longer spawning events were more likely to be detected. Combined with sufficient visual observations to ascertain species identities and to estimate detection error rates, passive acoustic recording provides a useful tool to study spawning frequency of large-bodied fishes that displace gravel during egg deposition, including several species of imperiled catostomids.

  14. Salmon contributions to dissolved organic matter and nutrient loads in a coastal stream in Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, E.; Fellman, J. B.; Edwards, R. T.

    2005-12-01

    In southeastern Alaska, spawning salmon can have a substantial effect on the water quality of coastal watersheds because salmon move large quantities of marine nutrients into terrestrial freshwater streams. We are measuring the effects of salmon on loads of inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in Peterson Creek near Juneau, Alaska. Peterson Creek receives sizable runs of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbushca) and chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon during the late summer (mid-August through mid-September). To test the effects of salmon on water quality, samples were collected above and below a barrier waterfall on Peterson Creek. During salmon spawning, concentrations of ammonium (NH4+) were up to two orders of magnitude higher at the downstream salmon-influenced site, while soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) increased by more than an order of magnitude at the downstream site. For the entire salmon spawning period, concentrations of NH4+, SRP, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were significantly higher at the downstream site compared to the upstream site, however nitrate (NO3-) concentrations were not significantly different between sites. Characterization of DOC samples using fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the DOC leached from salmon had a large protein component compared to DOC at the upstream site which was dominated by humic material. These results suggest that salmon provide a pulse of inorganic N and P as well as labile DOC to surface waters during the spawning period. Concurrent measurements of discharge will allow us to assess the importance of salmon-derived nutrients in the seasonal nutrient budget of Peterson Creek.

  15. Using a semi-natural stream to produce young sturgeons for conservation stocking: Maintaining natural selection during spawning and rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.; Kieffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Young sturgeons used for conservation stocking are presently produced using the same methods used for commercial culture. To determine if young sturgeons could be produced without relaxing natural selection factors, we developed a semi-natural stream where we annually studied mating of wild shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) observed movement of gametes released freely during spawning, and estimated the number of larvae produced by various densities of spawned eggs. The stream had a bottom area of 18.8m2, a rubble-gravel bottom, and a mean bottom current at 0.6 depth during spawning of 48cms-1 (range, 17-126cms-1). Wild adults successfully spawned in the stream each year for 7years (2002-2008). Some females and males were more successful during spawning than others, suggesting an unequal fitness during spawning among wild individuals, which is different than the controlled spawning fitness of individuals in hatcheries. Male and female gametes spawned naturally must connect quickly in the fast current or fail, a selection factor absent in hatcheries. The number of larvae produced was inversely related to spawned egg densitym-2 (R2=0.65) and the maximum number of larvae produced was 8000-16000 (425-851larvaem-2 of bottom). Artificial spawning streams have the potential to contribute to sturgeon restoration. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  16. Effects of flow fluctuations on the spawning habitat of a riverine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Isely, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Shallow-water, lithophilic spawning fishes are among the most vulnerable to anthropogenic fluctuations in water levels. We monitored water levels and environmental conditions at the nest sites of Moxostoma robustum (Robust Redhorse) on a main-channel gravel bar in the Savannah River, GA-SC During the course of the 2005 spawning season, over 50% of the observed nest sites were either completely dewatered or left in near zero-flow conditions for several days. This occurred on two separate occasions, once early during the spawning season and then again near its conclusion. We hypothesize the habitat preferences of spawning Robust Redhorse leave them vulnerable to water-level fluctuations, and this phenomenon may be widespread in regulated river systems.

  17. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  18. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Comparative diets of subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario could potentially be negatively affected by the presence of non-native salmonids that are naturalized in the basin. Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have been spawning successfully in Lake Ontario tributaries for over 40 years and their juveniles will reside in streams with juvenile Atlantic salmon for one year. This study sought to examine interspecific diet associations between these species, and to compare diets to the composition of the benthos and drift in three Lake Ontario tributaries. Aquatic insects, mainly ephemeropterans and chironomids were the major prey consumed by subyearling Atlantic salmon whereas terrestrial invertebrates made up only 3.7% of the diet. Ephemeropterans and chironomids were the primary aquatic taxa consumed by subyearling coho salmon but, as a group, terrestrial invertebrates (41.8%) were the major prey. In sympatry, Atlantic salmon fed more actively from the benthos whereas the diet of coho salmon was more similar to the drift. The different feeding pattern of each species resulted in low interspecific diet similarity. There is likely little competition between these species for food in Lake Ontario tributaries as juveniles.

  20. Method for gravel packing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.G.

    1990-08-07

    This patent describes a method for gravel packing a well that penetrates an unconsolidated or poorly consolidated subterranean oil or gas reservoir. It comprises: providing a borehole casing through the reservoir; perforating the casing at preselected intervals therealong to form at least one set of longitudinal, perforation tunnels adjacent a substantial portion of the reservoir; locating a sand screen inside the casing and in juxtaposition with the perforation tunnels, an annulus being formed between the sand screen and the casing; positioning a conduit in juxtaposition with the sand screen extending substantially the length of the sand screen and having its upper extremity open to fluids; injecting a fluid slurry containing gravel down through the annulus and conduit whereby the fluid portion of the slurry is forced out of the annulus through the perforation tunnels into the reservoir and the gravel portion of the slurry deposited in the annulus and forced into the perforation tunnels into the formation; sizing the cross-sectional area of the conduit and the annulus so that if gravel forms a bridge in a portion of the annulus thereby blocking the flow of fluid slurry through the the annulus, fluid slurry containing gravel will continue to flow through the conduit and into the annulus around the gravel bridge; and terminating the injection of the slurry.

  1. Spatial and temporal segregation of spawning habitat by catostomids in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Isely, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Spawning aggregations of five species of catostomids were observed on the two mid-channel gravel bars of the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina, in 2004 and 2005 to assess the degree of spatial and temporal overlap in the use of this habitat and determine the habitat preferences leading to segregation. Spawning catostomids showed a considerable amount of temporal overlap in their use of these mid-channel gravel bars. The observed temporal overlap was consistent between 2004 and 2005 and corresponded to temperatures at which species were present. The distribution of catostomids was not uniform at the upstream gravel bar. Carpsuckers Carpiodes sp., spotted sucker Minytrema melanops and robust redhorse Moxostoma robustum both demonstrated some spatial overlap with notchlip redhorse Moxostoma collapsum; however, their overall distributions were different from one another. Northern hogsucker Hypentelium nigricans was present across the gravel bars, apparently as an egg predator. Spawning catostomids segregated based on flow, depth, slope and substratum size. Whether due to limited habitat availability or changes in the timing of reproduction due to altered cues, temporal and spatial overlap occurs between spawning catostomids despite the apparent partitioning of available spawning habitat. It is unclear, however, if this overlap results in excessive mortality in the early life-history stages of these species. Results suggest spatial overlap among catostomid species was minimized due to species spawning in areas within a narrow range of conditions. Intraspecific interactions such as nest site superimposition or disturbance may be a concern. ?? 2007 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running in even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Comparing life history characteristics of Lake Michigan’s naturalized and stocked Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerns, Janice A; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David; Claramunt, Randall M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Michigan supports popular fisheries for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that have been sustained by stocking since the late 1960s. Natural recruitment of Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan has increased in the past few decades and currently contributes more than 50% of Chinook Salmon recruits. We hypothesized that selective forces differ for naturalized populations born in the wild and hatchery populations, resulting in divergent life history characteristics with implications for Chinook Salmon population production and the Lake Michigan fishery. First, we conducted a historical analysis to determine if life history characteristics changed through time as the Chinook Salmon population became increasingly naturalized. Next, we conducted a 2-year field study of naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook Salmon spawning populations to quantify differences in fecundity, egg size, timing of spawning, and size at maturity. In general, our results did not indicate significant life history divergence between naturalized and hatchery-stocked Chinook Salmon populations in Lake Michigan. Although historical changes in adult sex ratio were correlated with the proportion of naturalized individuals, changes in weight at maturity were better explained by density-dependent factors. The field study revealed no divergence in fecundity, timing of spawning, or size at maturity, and only small differences in egg size (hatchery > naturalized). For the near future, our results suggest that the limited life history differences observed between Chinook Salmon of naturalized and hatchery origin will not lead to large differences in characteristics important to the dynamics of the population or fishery.

  4. Influence of breeding habitat on bear predation and age at maturity and sexual dimorphism of sockeye salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, Thomas P; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Bishop, Susan; Overberg, Kristi; Rogers, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Age structure and morphology differ among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations. Sexual selection and reproductive capacity (fecundity and egg size) generally favor large (old), deep-bodied fish. We hypothesized that natural selection from physical access to spawning grounds and size-biased predation by bears, Ursus spp., opposes such large, deep-bodied salmon. Accordingly, size and shape of salmon should vary predictably among spawning habitats. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the age composition and body depth of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, and the intensity of predation in a range of breeding habitats in southwestern Alaska. Stream width was positively correlated with age at maturity and negatively correlated with predation level. However, salmon spawning on lake beaches were not consistently old, indicating that different factors affect age in riverine- and beach-spawning populations. Body depths of male and female salmon were positively correlated with water depth across all sites, as predicted. However, the mouths of some streams were so shallow that they might select against large or deep-bodied salmon, even in the absence of bear predation. Taken together, the results indicated that habitat has direct and indirect effects (via predation) on life history and morphology of mature salmon.

  5. STABLE ISOTOPE STUDIES ON THE USE OF MARINE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS BY COHO SALMON JUVENILES IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greatly reduced spawning runs of anadromous salmon in streams of the Pacific Northwest (USA) have led to concerns about the effects of reduced marine derived nutrients (MDN's) on sustaining over-wintering juvenile salmon in those streams. In response to these concerns, state a...

  6. Survival and spawning of gill-net-marked red salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip R.; Abegglen, Carl E.

    1955-01-01

    The investigations conducted on sea lampreys in aquariums were concerned with the duration of the parasitic phase of life, feeding, growth, and the interrelations between predator and host fish. Observations on lampreys reared from metamorphosis to maturity were made at the Fish and Wildlife Service Laboratory at Hammond Bay, Michigan. Most of the experimental lampreys were mature and ripe after 14 to 18 months of parasitic life. They exhibited signs of irreversible physical degeneration which precedes death. Three specimens were immature after 14, 18, and 26 months in aquariums, thus indicating that under certain conditions, lampreys may extend their parasitic phase. The feeding activity, growth, and shrinkage in size of aquarium specimens were considered typical of lampreys in the Great Lakes, although the wild lampreys achieve greater average size. Female lampreys made more attacks, fed more, killed more fish, and grew larger than males. They also shrank proportionately more in length and weight as they approached sexual maturity, but their terminal average size was slightly larger than that of males. It is estimated that the average fish-kill by a wild lamprey exceeds, and could be approximately double, the 18.5 pounds of fish killed by a laboratory lamprey. The rate and extent of fish destruction depended on the size, sex, and stage in the parasitic phase of the lampreys, and on the species and size of the fish. There was an increase in the number of fish killed as the lampreys grew, and the fish were killed more quickly. Attacks made by experimental lampreys at any stage of their parasitic phase up to full maturity, and on any part of a prey fish except fins, usually resulted in death to the host. Some fish which survived lamprey attacks succumbed to fungus infections of the wounds. A small number of trout recovered from attacks, and their wounds healed.

  7. Development of a Conceptual Chum Salmon Emergence Model for Ives Island

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Bott, Yi-Ju; Nabelek, Marc A.

    2011-02-09

    The objective of the study described herein was to develop a conceptual model of chum salmon emergence that was based on empirical water temperature of the riverbed and river in specific locations where chum salmon spawn in the Ives Island area. The conceptual model was developed using water temperature data that have been collected in the past and are currently being collected in the Ives Island area. The model will be useful to system operators who need to estimate the complete distribution of chum salmon emergence (first emergence through final emergence) in order to balance chum salmon redd protection and power system operation.

  8. Identification of American shad spawning sites and habitat use in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined spawning site selection and habitat use by American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina, to inform future management in this flow-regulated river. American shad eggs were collected in plankton tows, and the origin (spawning site) of each egg was estimated; relocations of radio-tagged adults on spawning grounds illustrated habitat use and movement in relation to changes in water discharge rates. Most spawning was estimated to occur in the Piedmont physiographic region within a 25-river-kilometer (rkm) section just below the lowermost dam in the system; however, some spawning also occurred downstream in the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region has a higher gradient and is predicted to have slightly higher current velocities and shallower depths, on average, than the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region is dominated by large substrates (e.g., boulders and gravel), whereas the Coastal Plain is dominated by sand. Sampling at night (the primary spawning period) resulted in the collection of young eggs (≤1.5 h old) that more precisely identified the spawning sites. In the Piedmont region, most radio-tagged American shad remained in discrete areas (average linear range = 3.6 rkm) during the spawning season and generally occupied water velocities between 0.20 and 0.69 m/s, depths between 1.0 and 2.9 m, and substrates dominated by boulder or bedrock and gravel. Tagged adults made only small-scale movements with changes in water discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that the upstream extent of migration and an area of concentrated spawning occur just below the lowermost dam. If upstream areas have similar habitat, facilitating upstream access for American shad could increase the spawning habitat available and increase the population's size.

  9. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, Brian P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Colvin, Michael E.; Benda, Susan E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  10. Salmon's Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…

  11. Method for staged placement of gravel packs

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.E.

    1990-04-10

    This patent describes a process for gravel packing in a wellbore annulus including a well screen and perforations extending into a producing formation. It comprises: providing an initial gravel pack carrier fluid at below formation fracturing pressure and having a gravel loading of up to about five pounds gravel per gallon of carrier fluid within the wellbore annulus, providing additional amounts of carrier fluid at below fracturing pressure and having gravel loadings which are successively higher than a preceding and the initial gravel loading to the wellbore annulus and continually increasing the gravel loading in the carrier fluid to a range of ten to twenty pounds of gravel per gallon of carrier fluid until the gravel packing of the wellbore annulus is completed.

  12. Designing gravel pack for uranium ISL wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ber, A. A.; Minaev, K. M.; Ber, L. M.; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes the improvement of gravel packing technique applied for the production wells. The authors have suggested new design of gravel pack for gravel packing of productive formations. The issue is currently topical because gravel packing at drillhole ISL is less time- and money-consuming. The subject of the research is gravel pack design and content. The purpose defined by the authors is to design the gravel pack and to suggest the composition of gravel cement agent. As a result of the research, the authors have described different designs of the gravel pack, its optimal shape, as well as a choice and justification of cement agents, a hold cover of the gravel pack, and suggested the methods of experimental research.

  13. Kootenai river velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection - A mystery unraveled?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paragamian, V.L.; McDonald, R.; Nelson, G.J.; Barton, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0-246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a 'short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam

  14. Modelling the effect of fine sediment on salmonid spawning habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, Ian; Sear, David; Collins, Adrian; Jones, Iwan; Naden, Pam

    2013-04-01

    Diffuse fine sediment delivery to rivers is recognised as a widespread problem in the UK. Furthermore, projections suggest that sediment pressures may increase in the future due to both climate change and land use changes. This fine sediment infiltrates into the bed and clogs up salmonid spawning gravels. Fine sediment has been found to reduce survival rates of salmonid eggs in both field and laboratory experiments, with the main hypotheses used to explain this being (a) fine sediment reduces gravel permeability and intra-gravel flow velocities; (b) intra-gravel O2 concentrations decrease due to reduced supply and increased consumption by organic sediments; and (c) clay particles block the exchange of O2 across the egg membrane. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically based numerical model which stimulates the effect of fine sediment intrusion on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. The first 2 hypotheses above are represented, while the third is not yet included. Field observations from the River Ithon, Wales, have been used to calibrate the model using sediment accumulation data. The model was then used to assess the impact of varying sediment inputs upon the sediment intrusion rates, abiotic redd characteristics and fish egg survival rates. Results indicate that egg survival is highly sensitive to the discharge and the suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles, rather than silt and clay. This can be explained by the increased likelihood of blocking of intra-gravel pores by larger sand particles, which reduce intra-gravel flow velocities and the supply of oxygen rich water. A doubling of the sand concentration results in a 51% increase in red infilling, which causes a 24% reduction in the average intra-gravel flow velocity. A corresponding 20% decrease of the average O2 concentration is evident which

  15. Spawning ecology of finespotted Snake River cutthroat trout in spring streams of the Salt River valley, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyce, M.P.; Hubert, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    We studied spawning ecology of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) in streams that originate as springs along the Salt River, a Snake River tributary in western Wyoming. We assessed (1) relative numbers of upstream-migrant and resident adults present during the spawning period in spring streams, (2) influence of habitat modification on use of spring streams for spawning, and (3) habitat features used for spawning in spring streams. Four spring streams were studied, 2 with substantial modification to enhance trout habitat and 2 with little or no modification. Modifications consisted primarily of constructing alternating pools and gravel-cobble riffles. Only a small portion of adult fish in spring streams during the spawning period had migrated upstream from the Salt River between March and the middle of June. Larger numbers of adult fish and more redds were observed in the 2 modified streams compared with the 2 streams with little or no modification. Most spawning occurred on constructed riffles with small gravel and over a narrow range of depths and velocities. Cutthroat trout, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and their hybrids were observed in 1 stream with habitat modifications, indicating that measures to halt invasion by rainbow trout, as well as habitat improvement, are needed to preserve this native trout within the Salt River valley.

  16. Potential Effects of Sediment Erosion on Chum Salmon Redds in the Grays River, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Katie

    2007-11-01

    Riverbed scour can negatively impact buried salmon eggs, especially during strong flood events. An analysis of predicted scour depth was conducted so that it could be compared with known chum spawning areas and depths in the Grays River, Southwest Washington. Field data and hydraulic models were analyzed for several variables used in calculating scour depth. The resulting model predicted that only 2.6% of the Grays River watershed should be scoured at the 90th percentile flows. The maximum scour depth estimated by the calculations was 49.6 mm. This is not deep enough to affect chum salmon eggs that are usually buried at depths of 150-350 mm. Predicted scour locations were also compared with known spawning locations and scour did not occur in the same areas as chum spawning. Thus, scour during the 90th percentile flows in the Grays River should not have any impact on chum salmon eggs.

  17. Gravel Roads: Maintenance and Design Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This manual was developed with a major emphasis on the maintenance of gravel roads, including some basic design elements. The purpose of the manual is to provide clear and helpful information for doing a better job of maintaining gravel roads.

  18. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  19. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  20. Spawning and rearing behavior of bull trout in a headwaterlake ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lora B. Tennant,; Gresswell, Bob; Guy, Christopher S.; Michael H. Meeuwig,

    2015-01-01

    Numerous life histories have been documented for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations that occupy small, headwater lake ecosystems and migrate short distances to natal tributaries to spawn are likely common; however, much of the research on potamodromous bull trout has focused on describing the spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout populations that occupy large rivers and lakes and make long distance spawning migrations to natal headwater streams. This study describes the spawning and rearing characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage, Glacier National Park, USA, a small headwater lake ecosystem. Many spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage are similar to potamodromous bull trout that migrate long distances. For example, subadult bull trout distribution was positively associated with slow-water habitat unit types and maximum wetted width, and negatively associated with increased stream gradient. Bull trout spawning also occurred when water temperatures were between 5 and 9 °C, and redds were generally located in stream segments with low stream gradient and abundant gravel and cobble substrates. However, this study also elucidated characteristics of bull trout biology that are not well documented in the literature, but may be relatively widespread and have important implications regarding general characteristics of bull trout ecology, use of available habitat by bull trout, and persistence of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in small headwater lake ecosystems.

  1. Habitat selection and spawning success of walleye in a tributary to Owasco Lake, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2010-01-01

    Walleyes Sander vitreus are stocked into Owasco Lake, New York, to provide a sport fishery, but the population must be sustained by annual hatchery supplementation despite the presence of appropriate habitat. Therefore, we evaluated walleye spawning success in Dutch Hollow Brook, a tributary of Owasco Lake, to determine whether early survival limited recruitment. Spawning success during spring 2006 and 2007 was evaluated by estimating egg densities from samples collected in the lower 725 m of the stream. Environmental variables were also recorded to characterize the selected spawning habitat. Drift nets were set downstream of the spawning section to assess egg survival and larval drift. We estimated that 162,596 larvae hatched in 2006. For 2007, we estimated that 360,026 eggs were deposited, with a hatch of 127,500 larvae and hatching success of 35.4%. Egg density was significantly correlated to percent cover, substrate type, and depth : velocity ratio. Two sections had significantly higher egg deposition than other areas. Adult spawning walleyes selected shallow, slow habitats with some cover and gravel substrate in the accessible reaches of Dutch Hollow Brook. Our results show that walleyes found suitable spawning habitat in Dutch Hollow Brook and that egg and larval development does not appear to limit natural reproduction.

  2. Interspecific competition in tributaries: Prospectus for restoring Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Wedge, Leslie R.

    1999-01-01

    Historically, Lake Ontario may have supported the world's largest freshwater population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). However, by the late 1800's, salmon were virtually extinct in the lake due to the damming of tributaries, overharvest, deforestation, and pollution. Of these factors, the building of dams on tributaries, which precluded access by the salmon to natal spawning streams, was probably the most detrimental. Since the extirpation of Atlantic salmon in the Lake Ontario watershed over a century ago, considerable change has occurred throughout the lake and tributary ecosystem. The changes within the ecosystem that may have the most profound effect on Atlantic salmon restoration include the presence of exotic species, including other salmonines, and reduced habitat quality, especially in tributaries. These changes must be taken into account when considering Atlantic salmon restoration.

  3. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  4. Expression of hormone genes and osmoregulation in homing chum salmon: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Makino, Keita; Onuma, Takeshi A; Kitahashi, Takashi; Ando, Hironori; Ban, Masatoshi; Urano, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    Pacific salmon migrate from ocean through the natal river for spawning. Information on expression of genes encoding osmoregulatory hormones and migratory behavior is important for understanding of molecular events that underlie osmoregulation of homing salmon. In the present article, regulation of gene expression for osmoregulatory hormones in pre-spawning salmon was briefly reviewed with special reference to neurohypophysial hormone, vasotocin (VT), and pituitary hormones, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL). Thereafter, we introduced recent data on migratory behavior from SW to FW environment. In pre-spawning chum salmon, the hypothalamic VT mRNA levels increased in the males, while decreased in the females with loss of salinity tolerance when they were kept in SW. The amounts of GH mRNA in the pituitary decreased during ocean migration prior to entrance into FW. Hypo-osmotic stimulation by SW-to-FW transfer did not significantly affect the amount of PRL mRNA, but it was elevated in both SW and FW environments along with progress in final maturation. Behaviorally, homing chum salmon continued vertical movement between SW and FW layers in the mouth of the natal river for about 12h prior to upstream migration. Pre-spawning chum salmon in an aquarium, which allowed fish free access to SW and FW, showed that individuals with the lower plasma testosterone (T) and higher estradiol-17beta (E2) levels spent longer time in FW when compared with the SW fish. Taken together, neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie salt and water homeostasis and migratory behavior from SW to FW may be under the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in pre-spawning salmon.

  5. Genetic Structure of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus Keta) Populations in the Lower Columbia River: Are Chum Salmon in Cascade Tributaries Remnant Populations?

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Maureen P.; Pichahchy, A.E.; Von Bargen, J.F.; Young, S.F.

    2004-09-01

    Prior to the 1950's, the lower Columbia River drainage supported a run of over a million chum salmon composed of at least 16 populations. By the late 1950's, over-fishing and habitat destruction had decreased the run to as little as a few hundred fish. With the exception of Grays River in the coastal region of the Columbia River and an aggregation of chum salmon spawning in creeks and the mainstem near Bonneville Dam in the Columbia Gorge region, most populations were considered extinct. However, over the years, WDFW biologists detected chum salmon spawning in tributaries originating in the Cascade Range: the Cowlitz, Lewis, and Washougal rivers. Further, chum salmon in the Cowlitz River appeared to have summer and fall run-timings. To assess whether Cascade spawners were strays from Grays River and Gorge regions or remnants of former populations, chum salmon from the Coastal, Cascade and Gorge regions were characterized genetically at 17 microsatellite loci. With the exception of Washougal River chum salmon, which grouped strongly with the Gorge genetic group, significant heterogeneity in genotype distributions were detected between regions and genotype distributions overlapped among collections within regions. In a neighbor-joining consensus tree, regional groups occupied branches with over 77% bootstrap support. In assignment tests, over 63% of individuals were correctly assigned back to region of origin although an average of 29% assigned to river of origin. Genetic distinction of Cascade region chum salmon was similar to distinction of Coastal and Gorge chum salmon and the Cascade region chum salmon had twice the number of private regional alleles. Further, the Cowlitz River supports the only summer chum salmon run in the Columbia River drainage. We propose that chum salmon in the Cascade region are remnants of original populations. We attribute the strong divergence between regional groups to diverse ecological conditions in each region, which promoted

  6. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier than the first fish arrival at Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999

  7. Interactions between fine-grained sediment delivery, river bed deposition and salmonid spawning success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, I.; Sear, D. A.; Collins, A. L.; Jones, J. I.; Naden, P. S.

    2015-03-01

    Salmonids clean river bed gravels to lay their eggs. However, during the incubation period fine sediment infiltrates the bed. This has been found to limit the success of salmonid spawning, as fine sediment reduces gravel permeability resulting in intra-gravel flow velocities and O2 concentrations decreasing. The success of salmonid spawning is therefore a function of the coincidence of fine sediment delivery and the development of the salmonid eggs. The presence of fine sediment also exerts sub-lethal effects on the rate of egg development with a negative feedback slowing and extending the incubation process meaning the eggs are in the gravels for longer and susceptible to more potential sediment delivery events. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically-based numerical model which simulates the effect of fine sediment deposition on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. This model is used to investigate the interactions and feedbacks between the timing and concentrations of suspended sediment delivery events, and the deposition of fine sediment within the gravel bed, and the consequences of this on the rate of egg development and survival. The model simulations suggest that egg survival is highly sensitive to suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles. The magnitude, frequency and specific timing of sediment delivery events effects egg survival rates. The modelling framework is also used to investigate the impact of the rate of gravel infilling by sediment. The hypotheses of continual, discrete event and non-linear decline in the rate of infilling are investigated.

  8. Wild Steelhead and introduced spring Chinook Salmon in the Wind River, Washington: Overlapping populations and interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, I.G.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated interactions of introduced juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with wild juvenile steelhead O. mykiss in the upper Wind River watershed (rkm 24.6 to rkm 43.8), Washington. Our objective was to determine if the presence of introduced spring Chinook salmon influenced populations of wild juvenile steelhead and if other biotic or abiotic factors influenced distribution and populations of these species. We snorkeled to assess distribution and abundance in one to six stream reaches per year during 2001 through 2007. Juvenile steelhead were found in each sampled reach each year, but juvenile Chinook salmon were not. The upstream extent of distribution of juvenile Chinook salmon varied from rkm 29.7 to 42.5. Our analyses suggest that juvenile Chinook salmon distribution was much influenced by flow during the spawning season. Low flow appeared to limit access of escaped adult Chinook salmon to upper stream reaches. Abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was also influenced by base flow during the previous year, with base flow occurring post spawn in late August or early September. There were no relationships between juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and number of Chinook salmon spawners, magnitude of winter flow that might scour redds, or abundance of juvenile steelhead. Abundance of age-0 steelhead was influenced primarily by the number of steelhead spawners the previous year, and abundance of age-1 steelhead was influenced primarily by abundance of age-0 steelhead the previous year. Juvenile steelhead abundance did not show a relationship with base or peak flows, nor with number of escaped Chinook salmon adults during the previous year. We did not detect a negative influence of the relatively low abundance of progeny of escaped Chinook salmon on juvenile steelhead abundance. This low abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was persistent throughout our study and is likely a result of hatchery management and habitat conditions. Should one or

  9. Geomorphic Effects of Boulder Placement on Gravel Capture and Retention in a Regulated Reach of the North Umpqua River, OR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallman, J.; Braudrick, C.; Pedersen, D.; Cui, Y.; Sklar, L.; Dietrich, B.; Real de Asua, R.

    2004-12-01

    Hydroelectric projects in the mountainous western Cascades often occur in steep, confined channels where salmonid spawning habitat is limited to gravel deposits forced by planform curvature, channel width changes, and flow separation associated with large bedrock and boulder obstructions. The paucity of gravel deposition in steepland channels may be exacerbated in regulated rivers where sediment trapping by impoundments reduces coarse sediment supply to downstream reaches. Placing boulders to capture and retain gravel may be an effective approach to enhancing spawning habitat in these settings. To better understand the potential use of boulders as a tool for enhancing spawning habitat, three experimental designs were tested in a 0.6-mile bypass reach of the North Umpqua River, OR. The bedrock-confined study reach has an average slope of 0.013 and plane-bed morphology with coarse cobble substrate, abundant marginal boulders, and small associated patches of sand and gravel. Experiments involved (1) placement of boulder clusters, (2) gravel augmentation and placement of boulder clusters, and (3) gravel augmentation alone. Boulder clusters were designed to promote scour and deposition during floods with a 5-10 year recurrence interval. Boulders were typically placed obliquely upstream at locations where existing hydraulics favored gravel deposition. Monitoring from 2002 to 2004 occurred prior to implementation, immediately following implementation, and following winter high flows. Sites were monitored using high-density topographic surveys, low-altitude aerial photography, facies mapping, pebble counts, scour cores and chains, and marked rocks. Stage heights were monitored using pressure transducers at the upstream and downstream ends of the study reach, and flood recurrence interval was assessed using a nearby USGS gauge. The arrangement of boulder clusters was modified after the first year of monitoring to improve gravel capture and retention. Peak flow during the

  10. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  11. Spatial consistency of chinook salmon redd distribution within and among years in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Katherine J.C.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Henning, Julie A.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the spawning patterns of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington, using a unique set of fine- and coarse-scale temporal and spatial data collected during biweekly aerial surveys conducted in 1991–2009 (500 m to 28 km resolution) and 2008–2009 (100–500 m resolution). Redd locations were mapped from a helicopter during 2008 and 2009 with a hand-held GPS synchronized with in-flight audio recordings. We examined spatial patterns of Chinook Salmon redd reoccupation among and within years in relation to segment-scale geomorphic features. Chinook Salmon spawned in the same sections each year with little variation among years. On a coarse scale, 5 years (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2009) were compared for reoccupation. Redd locations were highly correlated among years. Comparisons on a fine scale (500 m) between 2008 and 2009 also revealed a high degree of consistency among redd locations. On a finer temporal scale, we observed that Chinook Salmon spawned in the same sections during the first and last week. Redds were clustered in both 2008 and 2009. Regression analysis with a generalized linear model at the 500-m scale indicated that river kilometer and channel bifurcation were positively associated with redd density, whereas sinuosity was negatively associated with redd density. Collecting data on specific redd locations with a GPS during aerial surveys was logistically feasible and cost effective and greatly enhanced the spatial precision of Chinook Salmon spawning surveys.

  12. Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1987-1989 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes research activities conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) from July 1988 through March 1989 relating to the Cle Elum Lake sockeye salmon restoration feasibility study. During this period, efforts focused on collection and spawning of adult sockeye salmon from the Wenatchee River, incubation of eggs from the 1988-brood, and the rearing of juveniles from the 1987-brood. In late July and early August 1988, 520 adult sockeye salmon were captured at fishways on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Fish were held to maturity in late September and early October, spawned, and eggs incubated at a quarantine hatchery in Seattle, WA. The 336 sockeye salmon successfully spawned from the net-pens at Lake Wenatchee were surveyed for the presence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. In addition, 13 and 5 sockeye salmon spawners were surveyed from spawning grounds on the White and Little Wenatchee Rivers, respectively, from within the Lake Wenatchee system. 12 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. A model to predict the evolution of a gravel bed river under an imposed cyclic hydrograph and its application to the Trinity River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viparelli, Enrica; Gaeuman, David; Wilcock, Peter; Parker, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Major changes in the morphology of the Trinity River in California, such as narrowing of the cross section and sedimentation of fine sediment in pools, occurred after the closure of a system of dams. These changes caused a dramatic reduction in the salmonid population and a resulting decline of the fishery. Gravel augmentation, regulated flood releases, and mechanical channel rehabilitation are currently being implemented to help restore the aquatic habitat of the river. The present paper describes a tool, named the Spawning Gravel Refresher, for designing and predicting the effects of gravel augmentation in gravel bed rivers. The tool assumes an imposed, cycled hydrograph. The model is calibrated and applied to the regulated reach of the Trinity River in four steps: (1) zeroing runs to reproduce conditions of mobile bed equilibrium as best can be estimated for the predam Trinity River, (2) runs to compare the predictions with the results of previous studies, (3) runs at an engineering time scale to reproduce the effects of the dams, and (4) runs to design gravel augmentation schemes. In the fourth group of runs, the combined effects of engineered flood flow releases and gravel augmentation are predicted. At an engineering time scale, the model indicates that the fraction of fine sediment in the surface layer and in the topmost part of the substrate should decrease when subjected to these two restoration measures, with a consequent improvement of the quality of the spawning gravel.

  14. Mainstem Clearwater River study: Assessment for Salmonid Spawning, Incubation, and Rearing.

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, William P.; Pishl, Markley J.; Whitman, Marc A.

    1990-06-01

    This is the second annual progress report for studies conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe to evaluate the potential for increasing fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations and establishing summer chinook salmon spawning in the lower 57.5 km of the mainstem Clearwater River (LMCR) of Idaho. The report presents study methods and preliminary results for the 1988--1989 phase of the study. The overall study plan was designed to quantitatively evalulate the available spawning, incubation and rearing habitat for fall and summer chinook salmon. We also studied steelhead trout (O. mykiss) rearing habitat since there is a stable population of these fish in the LMCR's tributaries and their parr are known to rear periodically in the mainstem. Resident fish were studied to assess the potential for habitat overlap with that of anadromous fish. Based on these findings the Nez Perce Tribe could determine chinook salmon habitat conditions for selected stocks under existing flow and temperature regimes and consult with the US Army Corps of Engineering concerning the effects of Dworshak Dam operation on flows and measures to restore or establish stocks identified in this study. 38 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  16. Wild Steelhead Studies, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holubetz, Terry B; Leth, Brian D.

    1997-05-01

    To enumerate chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss adult escapements, weirs were operated in Marsh, Chamberlain, West Fork Chamberlain, and Running creeks. Beginning in late July 1994, a juvenile trap was installed in Running Creek to estimate juvenile outmigrants. Plans have been completed to install a weir in Rush Creek to enumerate steelhead adult escapement beginning in spring 1995. Design and agreements are being developed for Johnson Creek and Captain John Creek. Data collected in 1993 and 1994 indicate that spring chinook salmon and group-B steelhead populations and truly nearing extinction levels. For example, no adult salmon or steelhead were passed above the West Fork Chamberlain Creek weir in 1984, and only 6 steelhead and 16 chinook salmon were passed into the important spawning area on upper Marsh Creek. Group-A steelhead are considerably below desirable production levels, but in much better status than group-B stocks. Production of both group-A and group-B steelhead is being limited by low spawning escapements. Studies have not been initiated on wild summer chinook salmon stocks.

  17. Offshore sand and gravel mining

    SciTech Connect

    Pandan, J.W.

    1983-05-01

    This paper reviews the status of mining offshore for sand and gravel on a world-wide basis. It discusses the technology for exploration and evaluation of sea floor mineral targets, as well as mining, transportation, and processing. Large operations in Japan and Europe are described, based upon personal observations of the author. The U.S. situation is outlined and opinions offered as to the outlook for the future.

  18. Unfolding with Maxed and Gravel.

    SciTech Connect

    WIEGEL, BURKHARD

    2004-07-12

    Version: 00 UMG (Unfolding with MAXED and GRAVEL) is a package of seven programs written for the analysis of data measured with spectrometers that require the use of unfolding techniques. See the developers’ website for information on training courses http://www.ptb.de/en/org/6/utc2006/intro.htm. The program MAXED applies the maximum entropy principle to the unfolding problem, and the program GRAVEL uses a modified SAND-II algorithm to do the unfolding. There are two versions of each: MXD_FC33 and GRV_FC33 for “few-channel” unfolding (e.g., Bonner sphere spectrometers) and MXD-MC33 and GRV_MC33 for “multi-channel” unfolding (e.g., NE-213). The program IQU can be used to calculate integral quantities for both MAXED and GRAVEL solution spectra and, in the case of MAXED solutions, it can also be used to calculate the uncertainty in these values as well as the uncertainty in the solution spectrum. The uncertainty calculation is handled in the following way: given a solution spectrum generated by MAXED, the program IQU considers variations in the measured data and in the default spectrum and uses standard methods to do sensitivity analysis and uncertainty propagation. There are two versions: IQU_FC33 for “few channel” unfolding and IQU_MC33 for “multi-channel” unfolding. The program UMGPlot can be used to display the results from the unfolding programs MAXED and GRAVEL in graphical form in a quick and easy way.

  19. Journey of the Oncorhynchus: A Story of the Pacific Northwest Salmon.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-06-01

    This report tells the story of the Pacific Northwest salmon in words that children can understand. The life cycle of chinook salmon is depicted through pictures and elementary language from the egg to juvenile fish in fresh water, to maturing fish in the ocean, and the adults migrating back up to spawning grounds in the Columbia River. This can be very useful in the education of children.

  20. The response of stream periphyton to Pacific salmon: using a model to understand the role of environmental context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellmore, J. Ryan; Fremier, Alexander K.; Mejia, Francine; Newsom, Michael

    2014-01-01

    1. In stream ecosystems, Pacific salmon deliver subsidies of marine-derived nutrients and disturb the stream bed during spawning. The net effect of this nutrient subsidy and physical disturbance on biological communities can be hard to predict and is likely to be mediated by environmental conditions. For periphyton, empirical studies have revealed that the magnitude and direction of the response to salmon varies from one location to the next. Salmon appear to increase periphyton biomass and/or production in some contexts (a positive response), but decrease them in others (a negative response). 2. To reconcile these seemingly conflicting results, we constructed a system dynamics model that links periphyton biomass and production to salmon spawning. We used this model to explore how environmental conditions influence the periphyton response to salmon. 3. Our simulations suggest that the periphyton response to salmon is strongly mediated by both background nutrient concentrations and the proportion of the stream bed suitable for spawning. Positive periphyton responses occurred when both background nutrient concentrations were low (nutrient limiting conditions) and when little of the stream bed was suitable for spawning (because the substratum is too coarse). In contrast, negative responses occurred when nutrient concentrations were higher or a larger proportion of the bed was suitable for spawning. 4. Although periphyton biomass generally remained above or below background conditions for several months following spawning, periphyton production returned quickly to background values shortly afterwards. As a result, based upon our simulations, salmon did not greatly increase or decrease overall annual periphyton production. This suggests that any increase in production by fish or invertebrates in response to returning salmon is more likely to occur via direct consumption of salmon carcasses and/or eggs, rather than the indirect effects of greater periphyton production. 5

  1. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology.

  2. Habitats of Weak Salmon Stocks of the Snake River Basin and Feasible Recovery Measures : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 1 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.W.; Witty, Kenneth L.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes spawning aggregations of Snake River salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and numerical status of aggregations. It summarizes habitat quality and problems between the natal area and the open ocean. It reviews critical habitat designation, identifies mitigative measures and suggests monitoring and research.

  3. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  4. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  5. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  6. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug; Griswold, Robert G.

    2004-06-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU); The Tribe's long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through their Integrated Fish and Wildlife Program. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2004 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit Lake; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Fishhook Creek; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye salmon and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between

  8. Use of female nest characteristics in the sexual behaviour of male sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamon, T.R.; Foote, C.J.; Brown, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    On three island beaches in Iliamna Lake, Alaska, large numbers of male sockeye salmon gathered and spawned in artificial excavations that mimicked a female's nest immediately prior to spawning, while apparently ignoring the control site. The number of males attracted was correlated positively with changes in the operational sex ratio. In contrast, on the mainland beach examined, no reaction to the artificial nests was apparent. The results are discussed in terms of mate searching behaviour by males, the duration of the spawning period, and associated selection pressures on males to use characteristics of their environment that provide information on availability of females.

  9. Temperature-associated population diversity in salmon confers benefits to mobile consumers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruff, Casey P.; Schindle, Daniel E.; Armstrong, Jonathan B.; Bentle, Kale T.; Brooks, Gabriel T.; Holtgrieve, Gordon W.; McGlauflin, Molly T.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Seeb, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity can generate intraspecific diversity through local adaptation of populations. While it is becoming increasingly clear that population diversity can increase stability in species abundance, less is known about how population diversity can benefit consumers that can integrate across population diversity in their prey. Here we demonstrate cascading effects of thermal heterogeneity on trout–salmon interactions in streams where rainbow trout rely heavily on the seasonal availability of anadromous salmon eggs. Water temperature in an Alaskan stream varied spatially from 5°C to 17.5°C, and spawning sockeye salmon showed population differentiation associated with this thermal heterogeneity. Individuals that spawned early in cool regions of the 5 km long stream were genetically differentiated from those spawning in warmer regions later in the season. Sockeye salmon spawning generates a pulsed resource subsidy that supports the majority of seasonal growth in stream-dwelling rainbow trout. The spatial and temporal structuring of sockeye salmon spawn timing in our focal stream extended the duration of the pulsed subsidy compared to a thermally homogeneous stream with a single population of salmon. Further, rainbow trout adopted movement strategies that exploited the multiple pulses of egg subsidies in the thermally heterogeneous stream. Fish that moved to track the resource pulse grew at rates about 2.5 times higher than those that remained stationary or trout in the reference stream with a single seasonal pulse of eggs. Our results demonstrate that habitat heterogeneity can have important effects on the population diversity of dominant species, and in turn, influence their value to species that prey upon them. Therefore, habitat homogenization may have farther-reaching ecological effects than previously considered.

  10. Founding events influence genetic population structure of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Lake Clark, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramstad, K.M.; Woody, C.A.; Sage, G.K.; Allendorf, F.W.

    2004-01-01

    Bottlenecks can have lasting effects on genetic population structure that obscure patterns of contemporary gene flow and drift. Sockeye salmon are vulnerable to bottleneck effects because they are a highly structured species with excellent colonizing abilities and often occupy geologically young habitats. We describe genetic divergence among and genetic variation within spawning populations of sockeye salmon throughout the Lake Clark area of Alaska. Fin tissue was collected from sockeye salmon representing 15 spawning populations of Lake Clark, Six-mile Lake, and Lake Iliamna. Allele frequencies differed significantly at 11 microsatellite loci in 96 of 105 pairwise population comparisons. Pairwise estimates of FST ranged from zero to 0.089. Six-mile Lake and Lake Clark populations have historically been grouped together for management purposes and are geographically proximate. However, Six-mile Lake populations are genetically similar to Lake Iliamna populations and are divergent from Lake Clark populations. The reduced allelic diversity and strong divergence of Lake Clark populations relative to Six-mile Lake and Lake Iliamna populations suggest a bottleneck associated with the colonization of Lake Clark by sockeye salmon. Geographic distance and spawning habitat differences apparently do not contribute to isolation and divergence among populations. However, temporal isolation based on spawning time and founder effects associated with ongoing glacial retreat and colonization of new spawning habitats contribute to the genetic population structure of Lake Clark sock-eye salmon. Nonequilibrium conditions and the strong influence of genetic drift caution against using estimates of divergence to estimate gene flow among populations of Lake Clark sockeye salmon.

  11. Spawning habitat and behavior of Gila trout, a rare salmonid of the southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    The spawning season of Gila trout, Salmo gilae Miller, in three streams in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, began in early April at the lowest elevation and continued through June at the highest elevation. Water temperature and stream flow interacted to induce spawning; however, the former was more important. Spawning commenced at water temperatures near 8 C. Redds were normally in 6 to 15 cm deep water, about a quarter of the stream width from one bank and within 5 m of cover. The substrate was predominantly gravel and small pebble (0.2 to 3.8 cm). Spawning fish selected redd sites based on depth of water and substrate rather than on water velocity. Redds ranged in area from less than 0.1 m/sup 2/ to nearly 2.0 m/sup 2/ and averaged 3 to 4 cm in structural depth. Normally a single fish or a pair of fish occupied a redd, but occupancy by three to four fish was common. Most spawning activity occurred between 1300 and 1600 hours. Fry (15 to 20 mm long) emerged in 8 to 10 weeks and inhibited riffle areas. Absence of fry from pools occupied by adults indicated that cannibalism may occur.

  12. Maturation, fecundity, and intertidal spawning of Pacific sand lance in the northern Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Rose, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, showed no sexual dimorphism in length-to-weight (gonad-free) ratio or length-at-age relationship. Most matured in their second year, males earlier in the season than females, but females (31%) attained a higher gonadosomatic index than males (21%). Sand lance spawned intertidally once each year in late September and October on fine gravel or sandy beaches soon after the seasonal peak in water temperatures. Sand lance in Cook Inlet and Prince William Sound displayed similar maturation schedules. Schools were dominated 2: 1 by males as they approached the intertidal zone at a site where spawning has taken place for decades. Sand lance spawned vigorously in dense formations, leaving scoured pits in beach sediments. Fecundity of females (93–199 mm) was proportional to length, ranging from 1468 to 16 081 ova per female. About half of the overall spawning school fecundity was derived from age group 1 females (55% of the school by number). Spawned eggs were 1·02 mm in diameter, demersal, slightly adhesive, and deposited in the intertidal just below the waterline. Sand lance embryos developed over 67 days through periods of intertidal exposure and sub-freezing air temperatures.

  13. Are inland wolf-ungulate systems influenced by marine subsidies of Pacific salmon?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.G.; Farley, Sean D.; Stricker, C.A.; Demma, D.J.; Roffler, G.H.; Miller, D.C.; Rye, R.O.

    2010-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in North America are considered obligate predators of ungulates with other food resources playing little role in wolf population dynamics or wolf-prey relations. However, spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhyncus spp.) are common throughout wolf range in northwestern North America and may provide a marine subsidy affecting inland wolf-ungulate food webs far from the coast. We conducted stable-isotope analyses for nitrogen and carbon to evaluate the contribution of salmon to diets of wolves in Denali National Park and Preserve, 1200 river-km from tidewater in interior Alaska, USA. We analyzed bone collagen from 73 wolves equipped with radio collars during 1986-2002 and evaluated estimates of salmon in their diets relative to the availability of salmon and ungulates within their home ranges. We compared wolf densities and ungulate : wolf ratios among regions with differing salmon and ungulate availability to assess subsidizing effects of salmon on these wolf-ungulate systems. Wolves in the northwestern flats of the study area had access to spawning salmon but low ungulate availability and consumed more salmon (17% ?? 7% [mean ?? SD]) than in upland regions, where ungulates were sixfold more abundant and wolves did or did not have salmon spawning areas within their home ranges (8% ?? 6% and 3% ?? 3%, respectively). Wolves were only 17% less abundant on the northwestern flats compared to the remainder of the study area, even though ungulate densities were 78% lower. We estimated that biomass from fall runs of chum (O. keta) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon on the northwestern flats was comparable to the ungulate biomass there, and the contribution of salmon to wolf diets was similar to estimates reported for coastal wolves in southeast Alaska. Given the ubiquitous consumption of salmon by wolves on the northwestern flats and the abundance of salmon there, we conclude that wolf numbers in this region were enhanced by the allochthonous subsidy provided by

  14. Recovery and management options for spring/summer chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin.

    PubMed

    Kareiva, P; Marvier, M; McClure, M

    2000-11-03

    Construction of four dams on the lower Snake River (in northwestern United States) between 1961 and 1975 altered salmon spawning habitat, elevated smolt and adult migration mortality, and contributed to severe declines of Snake River salmon populations. By applying a matrix model to long-term population data, we found that (i) dam passage improvements have dramatically mitigated direct mortality associated with dams; (ii) even if main stem survival were elevated to 100%, Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) would probably continue to decline toward extinction; and (iii) modest reductions in first-year mortality or estuarine mortality would reverse current population declines.

  15. Locating subsurface gravel with thermal imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholen, Douglas E.; Clerke, William H.; Luepke, Douglas E.

    1986-01-01

    A method was discussed for using 6 band thermal imagery to locate subsurface gravel deposits in vegetated areas. Geologic history is reviewed to select potential areas of study. An overflight was made using a thermal scanner. The data were processed with a computerized system to delineate areas showing a quartz signature radiated by a gravel deposit. The method was developed during a search for gravel on National Forest land in Louisiana. Processed data from thermal imagery was compared with known gravel deposits and exploratory drill hole logs. A high correlation was noted for a wide range of deposits, from commercial pits to trace deposits only a foot thick. Overburden at these sites varied from zero to sixty feet, near the maximum annual penetration by the thermal wave. It was concluded that the method can be used to locate buried gravel deposits and that more time and effort are needed to verify the usefulness for developing gravel pits adjacent to proposed construction sites.

  16. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  17. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to ...

  18. Method of gravel packing a subterranean well

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    This patent describes a method of gravel packing a well bore penetrating a subterranean formation. It comprises blocking a first group of apertures in a liner with an immobile gel; positioning the liner within the well bore thereby defining a first annulus between the liner and the well bore; transporting a slurry comprised of gravel suspended in a fluid into the first annulus, the fluid flowing through a second group of apertures in the liner while the gravel is deposited within the first annulus to form a gravel pack; and thereafter removing substantially all of the gel from the first group of apertures.

  19. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L; Soderlund, K; Thomann, Estela; Schreck, C B; Sharpton, T J

    2014-10-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected

  20. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Michael L.; Soderlund, K.; Thomann, E.; Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpton, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected upon

  1. POLLUTION OF GRAVEL SPAWNING GROUNDS BY DEPOSITION OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT. (R827148)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Knowledge representation and qualitative simulation of salmon redd functioning. Part I: qualitative modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Guerrin, F; Dumas, J

    2001-02-01

    This work aims at representing empirical knowledge of freshwater ecologists on the functioning of salmon redds (spawning areas of salmon) and its impact on mortality of early stages. For this, we use Qsim, a qualitative simulator. In this first part, we provide unfamiliar readers with the underlying qualitative differential equation (QDE) ontology of Qsim: representing quantities, qualitative variables, qualitative constraints, QDE structure. Based on a very simple example taken of the salmon redd application, we show how informal biological knowledge may be represented and simulated using an approach that was first intended to analyze qualitatively ordinary differential equations systems. A companion paper (Part II) gives the full description and simulation of the salmon redd qualitative model. This work was part of a project aimed at assessing the impact of the environment on salmon populations dynamics by the use of models of processes acting at different levels: catchment, river, and redds. Only the latter level is dealt with in this paper.

  3. It's a Salmon's Life!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

  4. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) Pink Salmon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    velocity, water depth, can be adversely affected when exposed and densities of fish can influence to some high intertidal salinities. substrate ...Dissolved Oxygen. .. ..... ....... ....... ......... 11 Substrate . .. .. ....... ....... ....... ......... 11 Water Depth...to force water down on the gravel in freshwater close to the sea or in to remove fine sediments (Wickett the intertidal zones. Pink salmon are 1959a

  5. Differential expression of three types of gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes during the spawning season in grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles.

    PubMed

    Shahjahan, Md; Hamabata, Tomoko; Motohashi, Eiji; Doi, Hiroyuki; Ando, Hironori

    2010-05-15

    Grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, has unique spawning behavior; spawning occurs on beach only for several days around new moon and full moon from spring to early summer. To investigate the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the reproductive function, genes encoding three types of GnRHs, namely seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) and salmon GnRH (sGnRH), were cloned and changes in their mRNA amounts were examined over the spawning season. In addition, changes in the pituitary gonadotropin subunit mRNAs and the plasma steroid hormones were examined over the spawning season. Fishes were assessed at four reproductive stages, i.e., in December (early maturation), in April (maturing), in May (spawning), and in July (post-spawning). Moreover, spawning fish just after releasing eggs and sperm were taken at a spawning bed. The amounts of sbGnRH mRNA were substantially elevated in May and the spawning fish in both sexes, concomitant with considerable elevations of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone beta subunit mRNAs and plasma estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and testosterone (T) levels. There were strong positive correlations between the sbGnRH mRNA and the plasma E(2) and T levels over the spawning season in both sexes. The amounts of cGnRH-II mRNA showed no noticeable changes except for an increase in the post-spawning females. The amounts of sGnRH mRNA in the males were significantly increased in May, but they were low in the spawning males. In the females, sGnRH mRNA increased from the maturing stage and reached a maximum in the post-spawning stage, in which a positive correlation with the plasma cortisol levels was observed. These specific changes suggest that the expression of three types of GnRH genes is differentially regulated during the spawning season, and sex steroids may be important for the differential expression of GnRH genes.

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug

    2009-07-31

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: the immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency Recovery effort. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2008 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Alturas Lake Creek; (4) monitor, enumerate, and evaluate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  7. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  8. Nonnative Pacific salmon alter hot spots of sediment nitrification in Great Lakes tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Peter S.; Tank, Jennifer L.

    2013-06-01

    Biogeochemical transformations may represent an important pathway influencing the fate of nutrient subsidies in stream ecosystems. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) provide an ammonium (NH4+) subsidy to streams during their annual spawning runs, which may be transformed to nitrate (NO3-) via sediment nitrification. Increases in either forms of dissolved inorganic nitrogen may have ecosystem effects both at the reach and watershed scales, including the fertilization of algal biofilms and elevated export of nutrients to downstream ecosystems. In the nonnative range of salmon, where spawning runs are a relatively new phenomenon, few studies have explored the effect of introduced salmon on ecosystem processes. To assess the effect of nonnative salmon on dissolved inorganic nitrogen dynamics in Great Lakes tributaries, we quantified sediment nitrification in five streams before, during, and after the spawning run in 2009. Overall, sediment nitrification rates were higher in the channel thalweg (mean ± SE = 1.9 ± 0.1 mg N/gAFDM/d) compared to channel margins (mean ± SE = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg N/gAFDM/d). In the two streams with the largest salmon runs, nitrification was highest in the channel thalweg prior to salmon, but margin sediments had higher nitrification during the run. Among all streams, variation in nitrification rates was habitat specific, predicted by exchangeable NH4+ in sediments from the thalweg and predicted by salmon biomass for sediments in the channel margin. Nonnative salmon provide a pulsed source of inorganic nitrogen to Great Lakes tributaries, yet dissimilatory biogeochemical transformations such as nitrification may alter the form of the NH4+ subsidy and potentially influence downstream lakes via export of both NH4+ and NO3-.

  9. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye salmon conducted by IDFG during the period of April 1994 to April 1995 are covered by this report. One female anadromous adult returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year. She was spawned at Eagle Fish Hatchery on October 21, 1994. Her fecundity was 2,896. The mean fertilization rate and percent swim-up were 96% and 95%, respectively. Four hundred eighty eyed eggs were shipped to the NMFS Big Beef Creek Fish Hatchery in Washington state, leaving 2,028 fish on site at Eagle. Additionally, captive broodstock and wild residual sockeye salmon (captured at Redfish Lake) were spawned. Spawning data from 234 females spawned during this period are included in this report. Other spawning data (i.e., genetic cross and incubation temperature) are included in the Captive Broodstock Research section of this report.

  10. Sand transport over an immobile gravel substrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume channel to evaluate the effects of increasing amounts of sand with an immobile gravel fraction on the sand transport rate and configuration of the sand bed. Knowledge of the movement of sand in gravel beds is important for the management of streams a...

  11. Kodiak brown bears surf the salmon red wave: direct evidence from GPS collared individuals.

    PubMed

    Deacy, William; Leacock, William; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-05-01

    A key constraint faced by consumers is achieving a positive energy balance in the face of temporal variation in foraging opportunities. Recent work has shown that spatial heterogeneity in resource phenology can buffer mobile consumers from this constraint by allowing them to track changes in resource availability across space. For example, salmon populations spawn asynchronously across watersheds, causing high-quality foraging opportunities to propagate across the landscape, prolonging the availability of salmon at the regional scale. However, we know little about how individual consumers integrate across phenological variation or the benefits they receive by doing so. Here, we present direct evidence that individual brown bears track spatial variation in salmon phenology. Data from 40 GPS collared brown bears show that bears visited multiple spawning sites in synchrony with the order of spawning phenology. The number of sites used was correlated with the number of days a bear exploited salmon, suggesting the phenological variation in the study area influenced bear access to salmon, a resource which strongly influences bear fitness. Fisheries managers attempting to maximize harvest while maintaining ecosystem function should strive to protect the population diversity that underlies the phenological variation used by wildlife consumers.

  12. Estimation of Vertical Groundwater Fluxes into a Streambed through Continuous Temperature Profile Monitoring and the Relationship of Groundwater Fluxes to Coaster Brook Trout Spawning Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Grinsven, M. J.; Mayer, A. S.; Huckins, C.

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that the spatial distribution of groundwater inflows through river bottom sediments is a critical factor associated with the selection of coaster brook trout (a life history variant of Salvelinus fontinalis) spawning sites. An 80-m stretch of the Salmon Trout River, in the upper peninsula of Michigan, was selected to test the hypothesis. The river stretch is relatively similar along its length with regard to superficial spawning habitat selection factors. Coaster brook trout have been observed to return consistently to spawn in specific areas within the study river stretch. A monitoring well system was installed to measure subsurface temperatures underneath the riverbed over a 13-month period. The monitoring well locations were separated into areas where spawning and non-spawning behavior occurred. Over 200,000 temperature measurements were made at five vertical locations in the 22 monitoring wells. Temperature data in the subsurface below the spawning area was generally cooler and less variable than river temperatures. Temperatures in the non-spawning area were generally warmer, more variable, and closely tracked temporal variations in river temperatures. Temperature data were inverted to obtain subsurface groundwater velocities using a numerical approximation of the heat transfer equation. Approximately 45,000 estimates of groundwater velocities were obtained. Estimated velocities in the spawning and non-spawning areas confirmed that groundwater velocities in the spawning area are primarily in the upward direction, with magnitudes on the order of greater than 5×10-3 cm/s. In the non-spawning area, groundwater velocities were mostly either in the downward direction or, if they were in the upward direction, the magnitude of the velocity was low, on the order of less than 1×10-3 cm/s. Both the temperature and velocity results confirm the hypothesis that spawning sites correspond to areas of significant groundwater influx to the river bed.

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  14. Salmon and steelhead in the White Salmon River after the removal of Condit Dam–Planning efforts and recolonization results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Brady; Engle, Rod O; Zendt, Joseph S; Shrier, Frank C; Wilson, Jeremy T; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and completely removed in 2012. This action opened habitat to migratory fish for the first time in 100 years. The White Salmon Working Group was formed to create plans for fish salvage in preparation for fish recolonization and to prescribe the actions necessary to restore anadromous salmonid populations in the White Salmon River after Condit Dam removal. Studies conducted by work group members and others served to inform management decisions. Management options for individual species were considered, including natural recolonization, introduction of a neighboring stock, hatchery supplementation, and monitoring natural recolonization for some time period to assess the need for hatchery supplementation. Monitoring to date indicates that multiple species and stocks of anadromous salmonids are finding and spawning in the now accessible and recovering habitat.

  15. Differential modulation of resistance biomarkers in skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha by the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Braden, Laura M; Barker, Duane E; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile pink salmon larger than 0.7 g reject the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and are considered resistant to the infection. Robust innate defense responses in the skin contribute to the observed resistance. In contrast adult pink salmon captured at sea or shortly before spawning carry large numbers of the parasite, suggesting inability to control the infection. The purpose of this research is to better understand these apparently contradictory conclusions by comparing a suite of genetic and cellular markers of resistance to L. salmonis in the skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon. The expression of major histocompatibility factor II, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 was down-regulated in mature but not juvenile pink salmon. Similarly, skin at the site of parasite attachment in juvenile salmon was highly populated with MHIIβ(+) and IL-1β(+) cells that were either absent, or at reduced levels at similar sites in mature salmon. In addition, mucocyte density was relatively low in the skin of mature salmon, irrespective of louse infection. In juveniles, the higher mucocyte density decreased following louse attachment. We show that in mature pink salmon, genetic and histological responses in skin are depressed and speculate that salmonid defense against L. salmonis is modulated by maturation.

  16. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  18. Histological assessment of organs in sexually mature and post-spawning steelhead trout and insights into iteroparity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penney, Zachary L.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are anadromous and iteroparous, but repeat-spawning rates are generally low. Like other anadromous salmonids, steelhead trout fast during freshwater spawning migrations, but little is known about the changes that occur in vital organs and tissues. We hypothesized that fish capable of repeat-spawning would not undergo the same irreversible degeneration and cellular necrosis documented in semelparous salmon. Using Snake River steelhead trout as a model we used histological analysis to assess the cellular architecture in the pyloric stomach, ovary, liver, and spleen in sexually mature and kelt steelhead trout. We observed 38 % of emigrating kelts with food or fecal material in the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence of feeding was more likely in good condition kelts, and feeding was associated with a significant renewal of villi in the pyloric stomach. No vitellogenic oocytes were observed in sections of kelt ovaries, but perinucleolar and early/late stage cortical alveolus oocytes were present suggesting iteroparity was possible. We documented a negative correlation between the quantity of perinucleolar oocytes in ovarian tissues and fork length of kelts suggesting that larger steelhead trout may invest more into a single spawning event. Liver and spleen tissues of both mature and kelt steelhead trout had minimal cellular necroses. Our findings indicate that the physiological processes causing rapid senescence and death in semelparous salmon are not evident in steelhead trout, and recovery begins in fresh water. Future management efforts to increase iteroparity in steelhead trout and Atlantic salmon must consider the physiological processes that influence post-spawning recovery.

  19. Spawning and rearing habitat use by white sturgeons in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Parsley, M.J.; Beckman, L.G. )

    1993-03-01

    Spawning and rearing habitats used by white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus were described from water temperature, depth, and velocity measurements and substrate types present at sites where eggs, larvae, young-of-the-year, and juveniles (ages 1-7) were collected. Spawning and egg incubation occurred in the swiftest water available (mean water column velocity, 0.8-2.8 m/s), which was within 8 km downstream from each of the four main-stem Columbia River dams in our study area. Substrates where spawning occurred mainly cobble, boulder, and bedrock. Yolk-sac larvae were transported by the river currents from spawning areas into deeper areas with lower water velocities and finer substrates. Young-of-the-year white sturgeons were found at depths of 9-57 m, at mean water column velocities of 0.6 m/s and less, and over substrates of hard clay, mud and silt, sand, gravel, and cobble. Juvenile fish were found at depths of 2-58 m, at mean water column velocities of 1.2 m/s and less, and over substrates of hard clay, mud and silt, sand, gravel, cobble, boulder, and bedrock. 38 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Spawning and rearing habitat use by white sturgeons in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Beckman, Lance G.; McCabe, George T.

    1993-01-01

    Spawning and rearing habitats used by white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanuswere described from water temperature, depth, and velocity measurements and substrate types present at sites where eggs, larvae, young-of-the-year, and juveniles (ages 1–7) were collected. Spawning and egg incubation occurred in the swiftest water available (mean water column velocity, 0.8–2.8 m/s), which was within 8 km downstream from each of the four main-stem Columbia River dams in our study area. Substrates where spawning occurred were mainly cobble, boulder, and bedrock. Yolk-sac larvae were transported by the river currents from spawning areas into deeper areas with lower water velocities and finer substrates. Young-of-the-year white sturgeons were found at depths of 9–57 m, at mean water column velocities of 0.6 m/s and less, and over substrates of hard clay, mud and silt, sand, gravel, and cobble. Juvenile fish were found at depths of 2–58 m, at mean water column velocities of 1.2 m/s and less, and over substrates of hard clay, mud and silt, sand, gravel, cobble, boulder, and bedrock.

  1. Multi-scale geomorphic and hydrogeologic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat in headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; Wilcox, A. C.; Woessner, W. W.; Muhlfeld, C.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated multi-scale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt- dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Bull trout redds were primarily found in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (74%), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater-stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds (26%), however, were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches. Among all reaches and subreaches, the abundance of redds increased with increased bankfull dimensionless shear stress and decreased with reach-average streambed grain size (p < 0.05). Within these selected reaches and subreaches, redd occurrence tended to be associated with the finest available textural facies (i.e., gravel and small cobble substrates) in concave-up bedforms with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm. Groundwater provided substantial thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Our spawning gravel competence results indicate that bull trout select spawning areas that are potentially susceptible to flooding-induced scour during the fall and winter incubation period.

  2. Spawning characteristics of redband trout in a headwater stream in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2002-01-01

    I investigated the spawning characteristics of redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri (a rainbow trout subspecies) during the spring of 1998 in Basin Creek, a third-order headwater stream located in the Kootenai River drainage in northwestern Montana. I examined the timing of spawning as related to discharge and water temperature and analyzed microhabitat selection of 30 completed redds in a low-gradient (0.5–1.5%) reach. Redband trout spawned as flow declined after peak runoff and as mean daily water temperature exceeded 6.0C and maximum daily temperature exceeded 7.0C. Redband trout began spawning on 6 June (mean daily discharge = 2.1 m3/s), 10 d after the peak discharge (8.7 m3/s) occurred. The last redd was completed on 24 June, when discharge was 1.5 m3/s. The mean total redd length was 53 cm (SD = 14; range = 31–91 cm), and the mean total area was 51 cm2 (SD = 8; range= 46– 76 cm2). Eighty percent of the redds were located in pool tailouts, 13% in runs, and 7% in riffles. Spawning redband trout selected redd sites based on substrate size and water depth but not water velocity. Fish selected substrate sizes of 2–6 mm, water depths of 20–30 cm, and water velocities of 40–70 cm/s. My results suggest that redband trout in a low-gradient, third-order mountain stream found suitable spawning habitat in pool tail-outs that contained abundant gravels.

  3. Diffusion coefficients in gravel under unsaturated conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, J.L.; Wright, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Diffusion coefficients were experimentally determined in unsaturated gravel to evaluate the effectiveness of gravel as a diffusion barrier to ionic transport in the vadose zone. Water contents were fixed by use of an ultracentrifuge with an ultralow constant rate flow pump supplying solution to the sample via a rotating seal. Once the gravel was at hydraulic steady state, the electrical conductivity was measured, and the diffusion coefficient calculated using the Nernst-Einstein equation. Diffusion coefficient values for potassium ion (D{sub e}) in four types of angular gravel ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} m{sup 2}/s (1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}/s) for a 6.3-9.5 mm angular granitic gravel at a volumetric water content of 5.5% to 2.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} m{sup 2}/s (2.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2}/s) in a 4.0-6.3 mm quartzite gravel at a volumetric water content of 0.47%. Variations in D{sub e} values resulted primarily from differences in water content which depends on gravel type and particle size.

  4. Long-Term Studies of the Effects of Salmon Spawners on Stream Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloner, D. T.; Lamberti, G. A.; Cak, A. D.; Edwards, R. T.

    2005-05-01

    To determine the ecological effects of salmon-derived nutrients (SDN) transported into fresh waters by spawning adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), we monitored several ecological parameters in Fish Creek, Southeast Alaska from 2000 to 2004. Pink and chum salmon spawn in the lower reach of Fish Creek, but cannot move further upstream because of a waterfall, 4 km from saltwater. We estimated spawner densities and measured dissolved nutrient concentrations and epilithon abundance before, during, and after the salmon run, in reaches above and below the waterfall barrier. Salmon spawners increased streamwater concentrations of ammonium (2.3 - 148x) and soluble reactive phosphorus (0.4 - 17x), and epilithon chlorophyll a (14 - 29x) and ash-free dry mass (1.4 - 4x) in lower reaches. However, the duration and magnitude of these effects varied widely among years, and did not appear to vary solely with spawner densities. Our results suggest that although SDN can stimulate primary production through increased nutrient concentrations, other environmental factors, such as temperature, irradiance, and discharge, can modulate the influence of salmon spawners on stream ecosystems. To better assess the ecological influence of SDN, future studies should consider the influence of key environmental factors and their temporal and spatial dynamics.

  5. Optimizing materials for better gravel packs

    SciTech Connect

    Cocales, B. )

    1992-12-01

    This paper reports on the permeability of crystalline silica (commercial) gravel used for gravel packs. Many gravel properties are tested and monitored frequently, but an industry permeability standard has not been established. To standardize permeability numbers, experiments were conducted on crystalline silica and aluminum silicate (Carbo-Prop) using a constant-head permeameter. Equations developed from lab results show permeability as a function of porosity. These equations were developed for each material size and type, and can be used to determine permeability for any porosity.

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A.

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  7. Evidence of Olfactory Imprinting at an Early Life Stage in Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Bett, Nolan N; Hinch, Scott G; Dittman, Andrew H; Yun, Sang-Seon

    2016-11-09

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) navigate towards spawning grounds using olfactory cues they imprinted on as juveniles. The timing at which imprinting occurs has been studied extensively, and there is strong evidence that salmon imprint on their natal water during the parr-smolt transformation (PST). Researchers have noted, however, that the life histories of some species of Pacific salmon could necessitate imprinting prior to the PST. Juvenile pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) spend less time in fresh water than any other species of Pacific salmon, and presumably must imprint on their natal water at a very young age. The time at which imprinting occurs in this species, however, has not been experimentally tested. We exposed juvenile pink salmon as alevins to phenethyl alcohol (PEA) or control water, reared these fish to adulthood, and then tested their behavioural responses to PEA to determine whether the fish successfully imprinted. We found that pink salmon exposed to PEA as alevins were attracted to the chemical as adults, suggesting that imprinting can occur during this stage. Our finding provides some of the first evidence to support the long-standing belief that imprinting can occur in pink salmon prior to the PST.

  8. Evidence of Olfactory Imprinting at an Early Life Stage in Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)

    PubMed Central

    Bett, Nolan N.; Hinch, Scott G.; Dittman, Andrew H.; Yun, Sang-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) navigate towards spawning grounds using olfactory cues they imprinted on as juveniles. The timing at which imprinting occurs has been studied extensively, and there is strong evidence that salmon imprint on their natal water during the parr-smolt transformation (PST). Researchers have noted, however, that the life histories of some species of Pacific salmon could necessitate imprinting prior to the PST. Juvenile pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) spend less time in fresh water than any other species of Pacific salmon, and presumably must imprint on their natal water at a very young age. The time at which imprinting occurs in this species, however, has not been experimentally tested. We exposed juvenile pink salmon as alevins to phenethyl alcohol (PEA) or control water, reared these fish to adulthood, and then tested their behavioural responses to PEA to determine whether the fish successfully imprinted. We found that pink salmon exposed to PEA as alevins were attracted to the chemical as adults, suggesting that imprinting can occur during this stage. Our finding provides some of the first evidence to support the long-standing belief that imprinting can occur in pink salmon prior to the PST. PMID:27827382

  9. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during...

  10. Crossfire-Bonds Gravel Pit NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is an NPDES permit and statement of basis. The Crossfire-Bonds Gravel Pit is authorized to discharge to Deer Canyon. Authorization for discharge is limited to only those outfalls specifically listed in the permit.

  11. Modeling surficial sand and gravel deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.; Page, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    Mineral-deposit models are an integral part of quantitative mineral-resource assessment. As the focus of mineral-deposit modeling has moved from metals to industrial minerals, procedure has been modified and may be sufficient to model surficial sand and gravel deposits. Sand and gravel models are needed to assess resource-supply analyses for planning future development and renewal of infrastructure. Successful modeling of sand and gravel deposits must address (1) deposit volumes and geometries, (2) sizes of fragments within the deposits, (3) physical characteristics of the material, and (4) chemical composition and chemical reactivity of the material. Several models of sand and gravel volumes and geometries have been prepared and suggest the following: Sand and gravel deposits in alluvial fans have a median volume of 35 million m3. Deposits in all other geologic settings have a median volume of 5.4 million m3, a median area of 120 ha, and a median thickness of 4 m. The area of a sand and gravel deposit can be predicted from volume using a regression model (log [area (ha)] =1.47+0.79 log [volume (million m3)]). In similar fashion, the volume of a sand and gravel deposit can be predicted from area using the regression (log [volume (million m3)]=-1.45+1.07 log [area (ha)]). Classifying deposits by fragment size can be done using models of the percentage of sand, gravel, and silt within deposits. A classification scheme based on fragment size is sufficiently general to be applied anywhere. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

  12. Protection of gravel pack well completions during steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, D.N.; Northrop, P.S.

    1993-08-31

    A method is described for protecting a gravel pack completion in a well through which steam is injected into a subterranean formation wherein gravel used to form said gravel pack completion contains silica; said method comprising: passing said steam through a silica-containing particulate material at the surface prior to injecting said steam through said gravel pack well completion.

  13. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  14. 9000 years of salmon fishing on the Columbia River, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, V.L.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    A large assemblage of salmon bones excavated 50 yr ago from an ???10,000-yr-old archaeological site near The Dalles, Oregon, USA, has been the primary evidence that early native people along the Columbia River subsisted on salmon. Recent debate about the human role in creating the deposit prompted excavation of additional deposits and analysis of archaeologic, geologic, and hydrologic conditions at the site. Results indicate an anthropogenic source for most of the salmonid remains, which have associated radiocarbon dates indicating that the site was occupied as long ago as 9300 cal yr B.P. The abundance of salmon bone indicates that salmon was a major food item and suggests that migratory salmonids had well-established spawning populations in some parts of the Columbia Basin by 9300-8200 yr ago. ?? 2004 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

  15. Laboratory tests to assess water-level fluctuations at Vernita Bar, Washington, USA. [Effects on chinook salmon redd

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Becker, C.D.; Abernethy, C.S.

    1985-02-01

    Vernita Bar chinook salmon redd dewatering was simulated in gravel-filled aquaria. Dewatering before hatching did not affect survival; after hatching a few hours of dewatering was fatal. Weather conditions at Vernita Bar was not a factor in assessing dewatering effects. Above-ground watering of dewatered redds may protect alevins and eleutheroembryos.

  16. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South

  17. Steelhead Spawning Surveys Near Locke Island, Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist,; Mueller, RP

    1999-10-19

    conducted in July 1999. The survey area was divided into an area adjacent to the erosion zone and an area immediately upstream of this zone. The majority of the survey area was composed of gravel and medium cobble (particle sizes 0.6 to 15.2 cm). Aquatic vegetation (milfoil) was found in the upstream section, indicating lower water velocities not conducive to steelhead spawning. Based on the available substrate within the entire survey area, we estimate 81% of survey site could be used by adult steelhead for spawning.

  18. Saving the Salmon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprangers, Donald

    2004-01-01

    In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require…

  19. MICROTURBULENCE IN GRAVEL BED STREAMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, T.; Tsakiris, A. G.; Kramer, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    The overarching objective of this investigation was to evaluate the role of relative submergence on the formation and evolution of cluster microforms in gravel bed streams and its implications to bedload transport. Secondary objectives of this research included (1) a detailed analysis of mean flow measurements around a clast; and (2) a selected number of experimental runs where the mean flow characteristics are linked together with the bed micro-topography observations around a clast. It is hypothesized that the relative submergence is an important parameter in defining the feedback processes between the flow and clasts, which governs the flow patterns around the clasts, thus directly affecting the depositional patterns of the incoming sediments. To examine the validity of the hypothesis and meet the objectives of this research, 19 detailed experimental runs were conducted in a tilting, water recirculating laboratory flume under well-controlled conditions. A fixed array of clast-obstacles were placed atop a well-packed bed with uniform size glass beads. During the runs, multifractional spherical particles were fed upstream of the clast section at a predetermined rate. State-of-the-art techniques/instruments, such as imaging analysis software, Large Scale Particle Velocimeter (LSPIV) and an Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) were employed to provide unique quantitative measurements for bedload fluxes, clast/clusters geomorphic patterns, and mean flow characteristics in the vicinity of the clusters. Different flow patterns were recorded for the high relative submergence (HRS) and low relative submergence (LRS) experimental runs. The ADV measurements provided improved insight about the governing flow mechanisms for the HRS runs. These mechanisms were described with flow upwelling at the center of the flume and downwelling occurring along the flume walls. Flow downwelling corresponded to an increase in the free surface velocity. Additionally, the visual observations

  20. Spatial consistency of Chinook salmon redd distribution within and among years in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, Katherine J.; Torgersen, Christian; Henning, Julie; Murray, Christopher J.

    2013-04-28

    We investigated the spawning patterns of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington (USA) using a unique set of fine- and coarse-scale 35 temporal and spatial data collected during bi-weekly aerial surveys conducted in 1991-2009 (500 m to 28 km resolution) and 2008-2009 (100-500 m resolution). Redd locations were mapped from a helicopter during 2008 and 2009 with a hand-held global positioning system (GPS) synchronized with in-flight audio recordings. We examined spatial patterns of Chinook salmon redd reoccupation among and within years in relation to segment-scale geomorphic features. Chinook salmon spawned in the same sections each year with little variation among years. On a coarse scale, five years (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2009) were compared for reoccupation. Redd locations were highly correlated among years resulting in a minimum correlation coefficient of 0.90 (adjusted P = 0.002). Comparisons on a fine scale (500 m) between 2008 and 2009 also revealed a high degree of consistency among redd locations (P < 0.001). On a finer temporal scale, we observed that salmon spawned in the same sections during the first and last week (2008: P < 0.02; and 2009: P < 0.001). Redds were clustered in both 2008 and 2009 (P < 0.001). Regression analysis with a generalized linear model at the 500-m scale indicated that river kilometer and channel bifurcation were positively associated with redd density, whereas sinuosity was negatively associated with redd density. Collecting data on specific redd locations with a GPS during aerial surveys was logistically feasible and cost effective and greatly enhanced the spatial precision of Chinook salmon spawning surveys.

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Gilliland, Kim

    2006-07-14

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2005 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2003 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek; (3) monitor sockeye salmon smolt migration from the captive rearing program release of juveniles into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (6

  3. Fine sediment impacts on Salmonid spawning success: Relative effects of pore blockage and oxygen demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, I.; Sear, D.; Collins, A.; Jones, I.; Naden, P.

    2013-12-01

    Salmonids act as geomorphic agents constructing a spawning habitat (redd) with fine sediment being washed out of the bed, increasing porosity around the incubating eggs. However, during the incubation period fine sediment infiltrates back into the river bed and degrades the habitat quality. Fine sediment has been found to reduce survival rates of salmonid eggs in both field and laboratory experiments, with the main hypotheses used to explain this being (a) fine sediment reduces gravel permeability and intra-gravel flow velocities; (b) intra-gravel O2 concentrations decrease due to reduced supply and increased consumption by organic sediments; and (c) clay particles block the exchange of O2 across the egg membrane. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically based numerical model which stimulates the effect of fine sediment intrusion on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. This has been used to assess the sensitivity of salmonid egg survival to changes in the quantity and composition of fine sediment, including particle size and sediment oxygen demand. Results indicate that egg survival is highly sensitive to the discharge and the suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles, rather than silt and clay. This can be explained by the increased likelihood of blocking of intra-gravel pores by larger sand particles, which reduce intra-gravel flow velocities and the supply of oxygen rich water. Furthermore, this effect of sediment mass has been found to be more important than the sediment oxygen consumption process. These findings have implications for how we manage the sediment delivery problem, especially as future projections indicate increased sediment delivery under climate and land management change.

  4. Evaluation of long-term bedload virtual velocity in gravel-bed rivers (Ardenne, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houbrechts, Geoffrey; Levecq, Yannick; Peeters, Alexandre; Hallot, Eric; Van Campenhout, Jean; Denis, Anne-Cécile; Petit, François

    2015-12-01

    In many gravel-bed rivers, bed material transfer has been interrupted or perturbed by anthropogenic activities. Currently, restoration projects are being conducted in many countries in order to re-establish bedload continuity. However, until now, few studies have provided indications of the velocity of bed material over the long-term (at least decade to century time-scale). In the context of river restoration projects (e.g. weir removal, addition of spawning gravel), these data are nevertheless crucial to predict the downstream propagation of the geomorphological and biological benefits (e.g. supply-transport equilibrium, morphological and substratum diversity). In our study, PIT-tag tracers were used in eight medium-sized gravel-bed rivers (Ardenne Region, Belgium) to propose a flow competence relationship based on specific stream power, on the one hand, and to determine the long-term virtual velocity of the bed material corresponding to the median diameter (D50) of the surface layer of riffles, on the other hand. After each flow event that exceeded the threshold for sediment entrainment, tagged particles were sought and located, even when they were buried in the subsurface layer. Afterwards, all of the data were used to estimate the virtual velocity of the bed material over the long-term using three approaches. Finally, the results were compared with long-term transport estimations based on iron slag dispersed by the rivers since the end of the middle ages.

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  6. Propagation of sediment pulses in flume experiments simulating gravel augmentation in armored channels downstream of dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadde, J.; Venditti, J. G.; Sklar, L. S.; Wydzga, A.; Nelson, P. A.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2005-12-01

    Gravel augmentation is an increasingly common river restoration strategy for armored channels downstream of dams, however, few analytical tools are available to assist river managers in selecting the appropriate sediment volumes, grain sizes, and frequency of additions to achieve desired geomorphic and ecological outcomes. Coarse sediment additions are often intended to improve habitat for spawning salmonids by altering stream bed grain size distributions, and increasing the frequency of bed mobilization and the diversity of channel morphology. Here we report preliminary results of an ongoing laboratory investigation in which we simulate the gravel augmentation process and document the spatial and temporal evolution of the bed in response to pulses of elevated fine gravel supply. The experiments are conducted in a 30-m long, 0.86-m wide flume, with a calibrated sediment feed and a tipping bucket type sediment trap that provides a continuous record of sediment flux at the downstream end of the flume. We created an initial armored bed by first achieving an active transport equilibrium slope and then shutting off the sediment feed and allowing the bed to coarsen and degrade until the transport rate became negligible. We then introduced gravel pulses of various volumes and grain sizes, and mapped the propagation of the wave of added sediment as it moved through the flume. The sediments comprising each pulse are painted distinct colors to aid in mapping and to quantify the extent of exchange with the armored bed. Mapping techniques include planform maps of zones of active transport and temporal contours of width-averaged concentrations of added gravel. We also documented the changes in bed grain size distribution using manual pebble counts before and after each run and analysis of high resolution photographs of the bed taken during the run. We also collected frequent bedload samples at regular locations along the flume length to document the movement of the gravel pulse

  7. Diverse juvenile life-history behaviours contribute to the spawning stock of an anadromous fish population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsworth, Timothy E.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat quality often varies substantially across space and time, producing a shifting mosaic of growth and mortality trade-offs across watersheds. Traditional studies of juvenile habitat use have emphasised the evolution of single optimal strategies that maximise recruitment to adulthood and eventual fitness. However, linking the distribution of individual behaviours that contribute to recruitment at the population level has been elusive, particularly for highly fecund aquatic organisms. We examined juvenile habitat use within a population of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that spawn in a watershed consisting of two interconnected lakes and a marine lagoon. Otolith microchemical analysis revealed that the productive headwater lake accounted for about half of juvenile growth for those individuals surviving to spawn in a single river in the upper watershed. However, 47% of adults had achieved more than half of their juvenile growth in the downstream less productive lake, and 3% of individuals migrated to the estuarine environment during their first summer and returned to freshwater to overwinter before migrating back to sea. These results describe a diversity of viable habitat-use strategies by juvenile sockeye salmon that may buffer the population against poor conditions in any single rearing environment, reduce density-dependent mortality and have implications for the designation of critical habitat for conservation purposes. A network of accessible alternative habitats providing trade-offs in growth and survival may be important for long-term viability of populations.

  8. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Underwater time- lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002. The adult salmon spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 2002 was 410 fish. Jack salmon comprised 7.1 percent of the run. Estimated hatchery composition was 6.1 percent of the spawning run. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 26, 15 days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream movement of 41 adults occurred on July 8. Peak of total movement activity was August 18. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 2. Snow pack in the drainage was 91% of the average during the winter of 2001/2002. Video determined salmon spawner abundance was compared to redd count expansion method point estimates in Lake Creek in 2002. Expanded index area redd count and extensive area redd count point estimates in 2002, estimated from one percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion methods varied from two percent fewer to 55 percent greater in 2001, 11 to 46 percent fewer in 1999 and 104 to 214 percent greater in 1998. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers determined by video abundance and multiple pass redd counts of the larger extensive survey

  9. Yakima River Radio-Telemetry Study: Spring Chinook Salmon, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric

    1994-09-01

    As part of the presupplementation planning, baseline data on the productivity of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River have been collected. However, for adult salmonids, data on habitat use, delays in passage at irrigation diversions, migration rates, and substock separation had not been previously collected. In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service began a 2-year radio-telemetry study of adult spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River Basin. Specific objectives addressed in this study were: to determine spawning populations` run timing, passage patterns at irrigation diversion dams, and morphometric characteristics to determine where and when substocks become separated; to evaluate fish passage at Yakima River Basin diversion dams including Prosser, Sunnyside, Wapato, Roza, Town Diversion, Easton, Cowiche, and Wapatox Dams; to determine spring chinook salmon migration rates between Yakima River Basin dams, prespawning behavior, temporal distribution, and habitat utilization; to identify spawning distribution and timing of spring chinook salmon; to determine the amount and cause of prespawning mortality of spring chinook salmon; and to evaluate adult fish-handling procedures for the right-bank, adult-trapping facility at Prosser Dam.

  10. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams.

  11. John Day Fall Chinook/Salmon Mitigation Plan Acclimation and Imprinting Site Feasibility Study: Summary Report : Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Sverdrup Corporation; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to replace upriver bright fall chinook salmon which were lost by construction of the John Day Dam. This will be accomplished by releasing salmon fry and smolts, incubated in the Spring Creek and Bonneville Hatcheries, at several upriver locations. Prior to release it is desired to feed and acclimate the juvenile fish to relieve the stress of truck transport, and to imprint them to the release site. This will ultimately produce adult chinook salmon that return to their historic spawning areas through traditional common property fisheries. It will also provide sexually mature broodstock fish that can be captured and spawned to supplement continued hatchery operation. This report summarizes results of an engineering feasibility study done for 10 potential acclimation sites on the Columbia, Yakima and Walla Walla Rivers. A detailed report has been prepared for each site and each is bound separately.

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research : Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Spaulding, Scott

    1993-05-01

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock.

  13. A time-lapse photography method for monitoring salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) passage and abundance in streams

    PubMed Central

    Leacock, William B.; Eby, Lisa A.; Stanford, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating population sizes is often a critical component of fisheries research and management. Although there is a growing appreciation of the importance of small-scale salmon population dynamics to the stability of salmon stock-complexes, our understanding of these populations is constrained by a lack of efficient and cost-effective monitoring tools for streams. Weirs are expensive, labor intensive, and can disrupt natural fish movements. While conventional video systems avoid some of these shortcomings, they are expensive and require excessive amounts of labor to review footage for data collection. Here, we present a novel method for quantifying salmon in small streams (<15 m wide, <1 m deep) that uses both time-lapse photography and video in a model-based double sampling scheme. This method produces an escapement estimate nearly as accurate as a video-only approach, but with substantially less labor, money, and effort. It requires servicing only every 14 days, detects salmon 24 h/day, is inexpensive, and produces escapement estimates with confidence intervals. In addition to escapement estimation, we present a method for estimating in-stream salmon abundance across time, data needed by researchers interested in predator--prey interactions or nutrient subsidies. We combined daily salmon passage estimates with stream specific estimates of daily mortality developed using previously published data. To demonstrate proof of concept for these methods, we present results from two streams in southwest Kodiak Island, Alaska in which high densities of sockeye salmon spawn. PMID:27326378

  14. A Critical Assessment of the Ecological Assumptions Underpinning Compensatory Mitigation of Salmon-Derived Nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-09-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  15. A critical assessment of the ecological assumptions underpinning compensatory mitigation of salmon-derived nutrients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  16. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  17. A Critical Assessment of the Ecological Assumptions Underpinning Compensatory Mitigation of Salmon-Derived Nutrients.

    PubMed

    Collins, Scott F; Marcarelli, Amy M; Baxter, Colden V; Wipfli, Mark S

    2015-09-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  18. Sand, gravel properties key to optimum designs

    SciTech Connect

    Oyeneyin, M.B.

    1998-01-26

    Successful gravel packed and screen well completions require a knowledge of sand as well as gravel textural properties. These completion methods keep sand and fines from entering the well bore, so that long-term production capacity of the well is ensured. This first of a three-part series will cover key factors that influence effective sand control. The concluding parts will present guidelines for both gravel packs and screens. Fines, more than load-bearing formation sands, pose the greater problem for the two sand exclusion techniques. Therefore, reservoir sand analysis is the main key for controlling sand. An integrated team approach to both sand control design and implementation from well planning through drilling to final completion is the best strategy for optimizing well performance in reservoirs with sand problems.

  19. Laboratory studies of fines movement in gravel packs

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, A.R. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Most high permeability, high deliverability, unconsolidated and loosely consolidated sandstone formations require gravel packing as part of the completion procedure. The gravel packs are designed to allow the soft formations to produce sand-free at economic production rates. Techniques and procedures used for gravel size selection are typically based on criteria which have been used by the industry for over 20 years. Simple laboratory flow tests using clean gravel columns and fines from a variety of formations, however, indicate existing gravel-size selection guidelines are too conservative. Although the gravels selected are very efficient in preventing formation fines from entering the pack, the buildup of silt and fines at the gravel/formation interface can cause quick degradation of the effective permeability through the pack. Improvements in gravel pack life can be obtained by using gravel with higher initial permeability, either by increasing the average size of the gravels used (i.e. larger sand grains) or through the use of more spherical particles (synthetic gravel). The laboratory tests reported in this paper suggest that both alternatives can be considered in gravel pack operations. It is a further premise of this paper that sufficient improvements have been made in gravel pack procedures in recent years to allow effective placement of the higher permeability gravels proposed.

  20. Laboratory studies of fines movement in gravel packs

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, A.R. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    Most high-permeability, high-deliverability, unconsolidated, and loosely consolidated sandstone formations require gravel packing as part of the completion procedure. The gravel packs are designed to allow the soft formations to produce sand-free at economical production rates. Techniques and procedures used for gravel-size selection are typically based on criteria that have been used by the industry for more than 20 years. Simple laboratory flow tests using clean gravel columns and fines from a variety of formations, however, indicate that existing gravel-size-selection guidelines are too conservative. Although the gravels selected are very efficient in preventing formation fines from entering the pack, the buildup of silt and fines at the gravel/formation interface can cause quick degradation of the effective permeability through the pack. Improvements in gravel-pack life can be obtained by using gravel with higher initial permeability, either by increasing the average size of the gravels used (i.e., larger sand grains) or through the use of more spherical particles (synthetic gravel). The laboratory tests reported in this paper suggest that both alternatives can be considered in gravel-pack operations. It is a further premise of this paper that sufficient improvements have been made in gravel-pack procedures in recent years to allow effective placement of the proposed higher-permeability gravels.

  1. Multiscale thermal refugia and stream habitat associations of chinook salmon in northwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Price, David M.; Li, Hiram W.; McIntosh, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    We quantified distribution and behavior of adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) related to patterns of stream temperature and physical habitat at channel-unit, reach-, and section-level spatial scales in a wilderness stream and a disturbed stream in the John Day River basin in northeastern Oregon. We investigated the effectiveness of thermal remote sensing for analyzing spatial patterns of stream temperature and assessed habitat selection by spring chinook salmon, evaluating whether thermal refugia might be responsible for the persistence of these stocks in rivers where water temperatures frequently exceed their upper tolerance levels (25A?C) during spawning migration. By presenting stream temperature and the ecology of chinook salmon in a historical context, we could evaluate how changes in riverine habitat and thermal spatial structure, which can be caused by land-use practices, may influence distributional patterns of chinook salmon. Thermal remote sensing provided spatially continuous maps of stream temperature for reaches used by chinook salmon in the upper subbasins of the Middle Fork and North Fork John Day River. Electivity analysis and logistic regression were used to test for associations between the longitudinal distribution of salmon and cool-water areas and stream habitat characteristics. Chinook salmon were distributed nonuniformly in reaches throughout each stream. Salmon distribution and cool water temperature patterns were most strongly related at reach-level spatial scales in the warm stream, the Middle Fork (maximum likelihood ratio: P 0.30). Pools were preferred by adult chinook salmon in both subbasins (Bonferroni confidence interval: P a?? 0.05); however, riffles were used proportionately more frequently in the North Fork than in the Middle Fork. Our observations of thermal refugia and their use by chinook salmon at multiple spatial scales reveal that, although heterogeneity in the longitudinal stream temperature profile may

  2. Dual Annual Spawning Races in Atlantic Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  3. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  4. Sequential tests for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in individuals and populations of sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Pascho, Ron

    1986-01-01

    The incidence and titer distribution of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in cavity fluid from spent female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) varied little when fish from a naturally spawning population were sampled three times on alternate days. However, when prespawning female sockeye salmon from a second population were individually tagged, penned, and sampled daily, the incidence and proportion of fish with high virus titer rose over a 6-d period. In 10 instances, consecutive cavity fluid samples from the same fish reverted from virus-positive to virus-negative. We suggest that spent fish should be sampled when accurate and quantitative data on the incidence and level of the virus are required.

  5. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  6. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  7. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  8. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout

  9. Alternative mating strategies in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vazquez, E; Moran, P; Martinez, J L; Perez, J; de Gaudemar, B; Beall, E

    2001-01-01

    By screening variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci, multiple paternity within clutches has been found in wild populations of southern European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta). For Atlantic salmon, we determined the relative contribution of alternative male phenotypes to the next generation. Individual males that are morphologically juvenile yet sexually mature fertilized a large proportion of eggs, and they thereby contributed to an increase of genetic variability in wild populations via (1) balancing the sex ratio, (2) increasing outbreeding, and (3) enlarging the effective population size, in part a consequence of (1) and (2). In addition, these precocious males ensured that interspecific spawns involving Atlantic salmon females and brown trout males (a fairly common occurrence in southern Europe where the two species are sympatric) resulted mostly in Atlantic salmon progeny. For brown trout, preliminary genetic results indicated that multiple paternity, when present, was not due to alternative mating strategies by males, but rather to successive fertilizations by adult suitors.

  10. Dairy Wastewater, Aquaculture, and Spawning Fish as Sources of Steroid Hormones in the Aquatic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziej, E. P.; Harter, T.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2004-12-01

    A suite of androgens, estrogens, and progestins were measured in samples from dairy farms, aquaculture facilities, and surface waters with actively spawning fish using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) to assess the potential importance of these sources of steroid hormones to surface waters. In a dairy waste lagoon, the endogenous estrogens 17beta-estradiol and estrone, and the androgens testosterone and androstenedione were detected at concentrations as high as 650 ng/L. Samples from nearby groundwater monitoring wells demonstrated removal of steroid hormones in the subsurface. Samples from nearby surface waters and tile drains likely impacted by animal wastes demonstrated the sporadic presence of the steroids 17beta-estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and medroxyprogesterone, usually at concentrations near or below 1 ng/L. The endogenous steroids estrone, testosterone, and androstenedione were detected in the raceways and effluents of three fish hatcheries at concentrations near 1 ng/L. Similar concentrations were detected in a river containing spawning adult Chinook salmon. These results indicate that dairy wastewater, aquaculture effluents, and even spawning fish are sources that can lead to detectable concentrations of steroid hormones in surface waters and that the concentrations of these compounds exhibit considerable temporal and spatial variation.

  11. Dairy wastewater, aquaculture, and spawning fish as sources of steroid hormones in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Kolodziej, Edward P; Harter, Thomas; Sedlak, David L

    2004-12-01

    A suite of androgens, estrogens, and progestins were measured in samples from dairy farms, aquaculture facilities, and surface waters with actively spawning fish using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/ MS) to assess the potential importance of these sources of steroid hormones to surface waters. In a dairywaste lagoon, the endogenous estrogens 17beta-estradiol and estrone and the androgens testosterone and androstenedione were detected at concentrations as high as 650 ng/L. Samples from nearby groundwater monitoring wells demonstrated removal of steroid hormones in the subsurface. Samples from nearby surface waters and tile drains likely impacted by animal wastes demonstrated the sporadic presence of the steroids 17beta-estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and medroxyprogesterone, usually at concentrations near or below 1 ng/L. The endogenous steroids estrone,testosterone, and androstenedione were detected in the raceways and effluents of three fish hatcheries at concentrations near 1 ng/L. Similar concentrations were detected in a river containing spawning adult Chinook salmon. These results indicate that dairy wastewater, aquaculture effluents, and even spawning fish can lead to detectable concentrations of steroid hormones in surface waters and that the concentrations of these compounds exhibit considerable temporal and spatial variation.

  12. Ecological significance of riverine gravel bars in regulated river reaches below dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ock, G.; Takemon, Y.; Sumi, T.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    concentration and benthic POM density, and analyzed stable isotope signatures (δ15N and δ13C) and C:N ratios to effectively identify the three sources and longitudinally estimate their relative contributions. Our results showed that the retention capacities of riffle-pool sequences in the Uji R. differ depending on their POM trophic source. The relative contribution of lentic plankton decreased steeply in riffles ranging 10 to 14%, whereas that of allochthonous particles decreased in pools accounting for 7%. The braided gravel bar in Tagliamento R. had both high POM retention and high algal production. We found an uneven distribution in the amount of POM along the bar shore, while its trophic source composition was highly heterogeneous. Moreover, such spatial variation was highly correlated with secondary flow velocity and direction. In addition, physicochemical differences (e.g. water temp, DO, conductivity, pH and nitrate conc.) between downwelling and upwelling zones were shown along bar, indicating that hyporheic zones in gravel bars can functions as thermal and biochemical buffers. Based on the Trinity River results, we are creating a comprehensive picture of the physicochemical habitat complexity needed by salmon and macroinvertebrates, with a view toward management of quantity and quality of riverine organic matter in ecosystem recovery.

  13. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  14. Erosion of sand from a gravel bed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cleaning of fine sediment out of gravel stream beds has become an important method to restore impacted stream habitats. Introducing the increased flows needed to entrain fine sediments without eroding the coarser fractions of the bed and potentially destroying its usefulness as a habitat requires c...

  15. Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.; Burges, S.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial patterns of bed material entrainment by floods were documented at seven gravel bars using arrays of metal washers (bed tags) placed in the streambed. The observed patterns were used to test a general stochastic model that bed material entrainment is a spatially independent, random process where the probability of entrainment is uniform over a gravel bar and a function of the peak dimensionless shear stress ??*0 of the flood. The fraction of tags missing from a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect to ??*0 with a mean value (50% of the tags entrained) of 0.085 and standard deviation of 0.022 (root-mean-square error of 0.09). Variation in partial entrainment for a given ??*0 demonstrated the effects of flow conditioning on bed strength, with lower values of partial entrainment after intermediate magnitude floods (0.065 < ??*0 < 0.08) than after higher magnitude floods. Although the probability of bed material entrainment was approximately uniform over a gravel bar during individual floods and independent from flood to flood, regions of preferential stability and instability emerged at some bars over the course of a wet season. Deviations from spatially uniform and independent bed material entrainment were most pronounced for reaches with varied flow and in consecutive floods with small to intermediate magnitudes.

  16. Grain Exchange Probabilities Within a Gravel Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschenburger, J.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the vertical exchange of sediments during floods. These exchanges regulate the virtual velocity of sediment and bed material texture. This study describes general tendencies in the vertical exchange of gravels within the substrate that result from multiple floods. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2000 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1991 and 1992. These tracers have been recovered 10 times over 12 flood seasons to quantify their vertical position in the streambed. For analysis, the bed is divided into layers based on armor layer thickness. Once tracers are well mixed within the streambed, grains in the surface layer are most likely to be mixed into the subsurface, while subsurface grains are most likely to persist within the subsurface. Fractional exchange probabilities approach size independence when the most active depth of the substrate is considered. Overall these results highlight vertical mixing as an important process in the dispersion of gravels.

  17. Atmospheric depression-mediated water temperature changes affect the vertical movement of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Takashi; Hyodo, Susumu; Sato, Katsufumi

    2016-08-01

    The Sanriku coastal area, Japan, is one of the southern-most natural spawning regions of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. Here, we report their behavioral response to changes in ambient temperature after the passage of an atmospheric depression during the early spawning season. Before the passage, all electrically tagged fish moved vertically for several hours to depths below the shallow thermocline at >100 m. However, during the atmospheric depression, the salmon shortened the duration of their vertical movements and spent most time at the surface. The water column was homogenous at <150 m deep except for the surface. The descending behavior may have been discontinued because the cooler water below the thermocline was no longer in a thermally defined layer, due to strong vertical mixing by high wave action. Instead, they likely spent time within the cooler water temperatures at the surface of bays to minimize metabolic energy cost during migration.

  18. Application of laser ablation ICPMS to trace the environmental history of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi; Hirata, Takafumi; Takagi, Yasuaki

    2007-02-01

    Trace element levels in otoliths of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta were examined by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). A close linear relationship in the Sr:Ca ratios between EPMA (X-ray analysis with an electron microprobe) and LA-ICPMS analyses was found (p<0.0001), suggesting that the latter technique could be used to separate the marine and freshwater life phases. Mg:Ca, Cr:Ca, Zn:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios in either the core region or the oceanic growth zone of the otoliths varied among sites. These differences suggest that elemental compositions may reflect environmental variability among spawning (breeding) or habitat sites. Thus, those element ratios demonstrate the potential to be used to distinguish between fish spawning (breeding) sites and habitats for this species of salmon.

  19. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993 : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen W.

    1997-05-01

    This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. Validation of a side-scan sonar method for quantifying walleye spawning habitat availability in the littoral zone of northern Wisconsin Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Jacob T.; Sloss, Brian L.; Isermann, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has generally ignored the potential effects of spawning habitat availability and quality on recruitment of Walleye Sander vitreus, largely because information on spawning habitat is lacking for many lakes. Furthermore, traditional transect-based methods used to describe habitat are time and labor intensive. Our objectives were to determine if side-scan sonar could be used to accurately classify Walleye spawning habitat in the nearshore littoral zone and provide lakewide estimates of spawning habitat availability similar to estimates obtained from a transect–quadrat-based method. Based on assessments completed on 16 northern Wisconsin lakes, interpretation of side-scan sonar images resulted in correct identification of substrate size-class for 93% (177 of 191) of selected locations and all incorrect classifications were within ± 1 class of the correct substrate size-class. Gravel, cobble, and rubble substrates were incorrectly identified from side-scan images in only two instances (1% misclassification), suggesting that side-scan sonar can be used to accurately identify preferred Walleye spawning substrates. Additionally, we detected no significant differences in estimates of lakewide littoral zone substrate compositions estimated using side-scan sonar and a traditional transect–quadrat-based method. Our results indicate that side-scan sonar offers a practical, accurate, and efficient technique for assessing substrate composition and quantifying potential Walleye spawning habitat in the nearshore littoral zone of north temperate lakes.

  1. Characterizing unsaturated diffusion in porous tuff gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qinhong; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Wang, Joseph, S.Y.

    2003-11-12

    Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (for example, the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent to which surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents were calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s for tuff gravel. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel at very low water contents.

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1995-12-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

  3. South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reaney, Mark D.

    2009-04-15

    that move toward road decommissioning to reduce sediment delivery to spawning gravels and rearing habitats by reducing sedimentation from road related, man-made sources. For FY08, the project included the design and implementation of two fish barrier replacement structures mentioned above, the Salt and Profile Creek Bridges. These work elements were to be implemented on Valley County easements within the Payette National Forest. The existing culverts are full or partial barriers to most aquatic life species and all juvenile anadromous and resident fish species. Implementation will reconnect 9.34 miles of habitat, and provide natural stream channels to facilitate complete passage for all aquatic life forms. All designs were completed and a construction subcontract was awarded to construct free span, pre-cast concrete bridges. For 2008, the project statement of work also included all the necessary work elements to manage, coordinate, plan, and develop continuing strategies for restoration and protection activities.

  4. Impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanrahan, T.P.; Geist, D.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonid habitats in main-stem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13% and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the main-stem Columbia River and 163 km of the main-stem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains, which were once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment and more bars and islands and had lower water surface slopes than did less extensively used areas. Because flows in the main stem are now highly regulated, the predevelopment alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes - specifically, sustained peak flows for scouring - is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries, tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  5. Impacts of the Columbia River Hydroelectric System on Mainstem Habitats of Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    Salmonid habitats in mainstem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13 and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the mainstem Columbia River and 163 km of the mainstem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment, more bars and islands, and had lower water surface slopes than areas not extensively used. Because flows in the mainstem are now highly regulated, the pre-development alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes, specifically sustained peak flows for scouring, is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries and tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  6. Modeling Shasta Dam operations to regulate temperatures for Chinook salmon under extreme climate and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, A.; Saito, L.; Sapin, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hanna, R. B.; Kauneckis, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chinook salmon populations have declined significantly after the construction of Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River in 1945 prevented them from spawning in the cold waters upstream. In 1994, the winter-run Chinook were listed under the Endangered Species Act and 3 years later the US Bureau of Reclamation began operating a temperature control device (TCD) on the dam that allows for selective withdrawal for downstream temperature control to promote salmon spawning while also maximizing power generation. However, dam operators are responsible to other interests that depend on the reservoir for water such as agriculture, municipalities, industry, and recreation. An increase in temperatures due to climate change may place additional strain on the ability of dam operations to maintain spawning habitat for salmon downstream of the dam. We examined the capability of Shasta Dam to regulate downstream temperatures under extreme climates and climate change by using stochastically generated streamflow, stream temperature, and weather inputs with a two-dimensional CE-QUAL-W2 model under several operational options. Operation performance was evaluated using degree days and cold pool volume (volume of water below a temperature threshold). Model results indicated that a generalized operations release schedule, in which release elevations varied over the year to match downstream temperature targets, performed best overall in meeting temperature targets while preserving cold pool volume. Releasing all water out the bottom throughout the year tended to meet temperature targets at the expense of depleting the cold pool, and releasing all water out uppermost gates preserved the cold pool, but released water that was too warm during the critical spawning period. With higher air temperatures due to climate change, both degree day and cold pool volume metrics were worse than baseline conditions, which suggests that Chinook salmon may be more negatively affected under climate change.

  7. PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

  8. Coupling channel hydro-morphodynamics and fish spawning habitat in a forested montane stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we couple a hydrodynamic model with field data to investigate channel dynamics and spawning habitat potential for small-bodied salmonids in coarse-bed streams in British Columbia. We studied four reaches of East Creek, a small montane stream near Vancouver, BC, which display rapid (plane bed) and riffle-pool morphologies and provide habitat for a population of resident coastal cutthroat trout. Repeated channel surveys were conducted to obtain detailed information on channel topography and dynamics; net change in bed elevation between successive surveys was utilized as an index of scour and fill. Extensive bed surface sampling and low altitude vertical imagery were used in order to investigate bed surface texture and structures and to identify suitable spawning substrate patches. A 2-D hydrodynamic model, FaSTMECH (within MultiDimensional Surface Water Modeling System interface), was calibrated using field data and applied to simulate the spatial pattern of bed shear stress during a bankfull flow event. During small-to-intermediate floods significant bed scour, deeper than the estimated egg burial depth, occurred on a small proportion of bed area, in well-defined zones associated with obstacles such as large woody debris. Usually, distinct depositional zones developed just downstream of the scour locations. The spatial distribution of forcing elements and modeled bed shear stress explained well the observed pattern of scour and fill. Suitable spawning gravel was very limited in the study sites, particularly in two upstream reaches, primarily due to the coarse nature of the bed. In summary, scour disturbance risk appears to be relatively low in coarse-bed channels, except during extreme flow events, and shortage of suitable spawning substrate may be more important for small-bodied salmonids. This study demonstrates that coupling of hydro-morphodynamic and ecological data can provide a useful tool in fish habitat assessment and restoration.

  9. Genetic differentiation of sockeye salmon subpopulations from a geologically young Alaskan lake system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, C.V.; Spearman, William J.; Cronin, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Tustumena lake drainage in southcentral Alaska is glacially turbid and geologically young (<2,000 years old). Previous field studies identified at least three subpopulations of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka at Tustumena Lake, based on the distribution and timing of spawners. The subpopulations included early-run salmon that spawned in six clearwater tributaries of the lake (mid August), lake shoreline spawners (late August), and late-run fish that spawned in the lake's outlet, the Kasilof River (late September). Our objective was to determine the degree of genetic differentiation among these subpopulations based on restriction enzyme analyses of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA and analyses of four polymorphic allozyme loci. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequencies for outlet-spawning sockeye salmon differed significantly from those of all other subpopulations. The most common (36%) haplotype in the outlet subpopulation did not occur elsewhere, thus suggesting little or no gene flow between outlet spawners and other spatially close subpopulations at Tustumena Lake. Allele frequencies at two allozyme loci also indicated a degree of differentiation of the outlet subpopulation from the shoreline and tributary subpopulations. Allele frequencies for three tributary subpopulations were temporally stable over approximately 20 years (based on a comparison to previously published results) despite initiation of a hatchery program in two of the tributaries during the intervening period. Collectively, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that significant genetic differentiation has occurred within the Tustumena Lake drainage since deglaciation approximately 2,000 years ago.

  10. Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

    1995-08-01

    This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a

  11. Flow and sediment-transport modeling of Kootenai River White Sturgeon Spawning Habitat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J.; Barton, G.; Paragamian, V.

    2004-12-01

    The population of White Sturgeon in the Kootenai River downstream of Libby Dam in Montana and Idaho has declined since the construction of the dam in 1972. The White Sturgeon was listed as endangered in 1994 and an 11.2 mile reach of the river, downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was designated as Critical Habitat in 2001. It is hypothesized that hydro-electric and flood control operations have contributed to poor spawning habitat and recruitment of juvenile fish. The successful incubation of eggs requires a stable and coarse bed material. Currently the sturgeon are spawning in a reach of poor substrate consisting of dunes up to 2 meters in amplitude and composed of fine sand while a short distance upstream there is suitable substrate of coarse gravel. We present here the preliminary results of a flow and sediment-transport modeling effort to aid in an understanding of both the current spawning habitat of the White Sturgeon and the potential to artificially enhance the current spawning habitat or to influence the sturgeon to move upstream to more suitable habitat. A 2.5 dimensional flow model was constructed for an 8-kilometer reach of the designated Critical Habitat. The modeled reach consists of several broad meanders and a mid channel island. The substrate is composed of fine sand with a median grain size of 0.22mm and has large dunes up to 2m in amplitude at relatively lows flows of 200 cms that wash out to a plane bed at around 600 cms. The model has been calibrated to a range of historical flow conditions from 170 cms to 1709 cms and verified against 16 ADCP velocity cross-section profiles collected during a period of steady flow at 554 cms. The model predicts well most of the salient features of the velocity field including the magnitude and location of the secondary flow, using a simple constant value for roughness. However for a few reaches of the river the bed forms and their spatial variability in size are shown to significantly affect the flow and the

  12. Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations; FY 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Uusitalo, Nancy M.

    2003-01-30

    Adult and juvenile chum salmon were monitored from October 2001 through September 2002 to evaluate factors limiting production. In 2001, 6 and 69 adult chum salmon were captured in the Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs weirs, respectively. In 2001, 285 and 328 chum salmon carcasses were recovered during spawning ground surveys in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs, respectively. Twenty-eight fish captured in the mainstem Columbia River, Hamilton Springs, and Hardy Creek were implanted with radio tags and tracked via an array of fixed aerial, underwater antennas and a mobile tracking unit. Using the Area-Under-the-Curve program population estimates of adult chum salmon were 835 in Hardy Creek and 617 in Hamilton Springs. Juvenile chum salmon migration was monitored from March-June 2002. Total catches for Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 103,315 and 140,220, respectively. Estimates of juvenile chum salmon emigration were 450,195 ({+-}21,793) in Hardy Creek and 561,462 ({+-}21,423) in Hamilton Springs.

  13. Reconstruction of Pacific salmon abundance from riparian tree-ring growth.

    PubMed

    Drake, D C; Naiman, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    We use relationships between modern Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) escapement (migrating adults counted at weirs or dams) and riparian tree-ring growth to reconstruct the abundance of stream-spawning salmon over 150-350 years. After examining nine sites, we produced reconstructions for five mid-order rivers and four salmon species over a large geographic range in the Pacific Northwest: chinook (O. tschwatcha) in the Umpqua River, Oregon, USA; sockeye (O. nerka) in Drinkwater Creek, British Columbia, Canada; pink (O. gorbuscha) in Sashin Creek, southeastern Alaska, USA; chum (O. keta) in Disappearance Creek, southeastern Alaska, USA; and pink and chum in the Kadashan River, southeastern Alaska, USA. We first derived stand-level, non-climatic growth chronologies from riparian trees using standard dendroecology methods and differencing. When the chronologies were compared to 18-55 years of adult salmon escapement we detected positive, significant correlations at five of the nine sites. Regression models relating escapement to tree-ring growth at the five sites were applied to the differenced chronologies to reconstruct salmon abundance. Each reconstruction contains unique patterns characteristic of the site and salmon species. Reconstructions were validated by comparison to local histories (e.g., construction of dams and salmon canneries) and regional fisheries data such as salmon landings and aerial surveys and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation climate index. The reconstructions capture lower-frequency cycles better than extremes and are most useful for determination and comparison of relative abundance, cycles, and the effects of interventions. Reconstructions show lower population cycle maxima in both Umpqua River chinook and Sashin Creek pink salmon in recent decades. The Drinkwater Creek reconstruction suggests that sockeye abundance since the mid-1990s has been 15-25% higher than at any time since 1850, while no long-term deviations from natural cycles are

  14. Influence of waves and horseshoe crab spawning on beach morphology and sediment grain-size characteristics on a sandy estuarine beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, N.L.; Nordstrom, K.F.; Smith, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of wave action and horseshoe crab spawning on the topography and grain-size characteristics on the foreshore of an estuarine sand beach in Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA were evaluated using data collected over six consecutive high tides. Data were gathered inside and outside a 25 m long exclosure constructed to create a control area free of disturbance by crabs. The density of crabs in the swash zone outside the exclosure was 8??1 organisms m-2. The maximum depth of sediment activation on the upper foreshore where spawning occurred was 0??103 m during periods characterized by low significant wave heights: < 0??08 m. This depth is greater than the depth of activation by waves alone during moderate significant wave heights of 0??16 - 0??18 m but less than the maximum depth (0??127 m) recorded when spawning occurred during periods of moderate wave heights. Spawning, combined with moderate wave heights, creates a concave upper foreshore that is similar to the type of profile change that occurs during storms, thus lowering the wave-energy threshold for morphological response. Spawning during low wave heights increases the mean grain size and sorting of surface sediments caused by the addition of gravel to the swash. Sedimentological differences are most pronounced on the upper foreshore, and data from this location may be most useful when using grain-size characteristics to interpret the effect of spawning in the sedimentary record. Depths of sediment reworking by horseshoe crabs can be greater than those by subsequent storm waves, so evidence of spawning can be preserved on non-eroding beaches. Greater depth of activation by horseshoe crab spawning than by waves alone, even during moderate-energy conditions, reveals the importance of crab burrowing in releasing eggs to the water column and making them available for shore birds. ?? 2005 International Association of Sedimentologists.

  15. Population differences in response to hypoxic stress in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Côte, J; Roussel, J-M; Le Cam, S; Bal, G; Evanno, G

    2012-12-01

    Understanding whether populations can adapt to new environmental conditions is a major issue in conservation and evolutionary biology. Aquatic organisms are increasingly exposed to environmental changes linked with human activities in river catchments. For instance, the clogging of bottom substratum by fine sediments is observed in many rivers and usually leads to a decrease in dissolved oxygen concentrations in gravel beds. Such hypoxic stress can alter the development and even be lethal for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) embryos that spend their early life into gravel beds. In this study, we used a common garden experiment to compare the responses to hypoxic stress of four genetically differentiated and environmentally contrasted populations. We used factorial crossing designs to measure additive genetic variation of early life-history traits in each population. Embryos were reared under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and we measured their survival, incubation time and length at the end of embryonic development. Under hypoxic conditions, embryos had a lower survival and hatched later than in normoxic conditions. We found different hypoxia reaction norms among populations, but almost no population effect in both treatments. We also detected significant sire × treatment interactions in most populations and a tendency for heritability values to be lower under stressful conditions. Overall, these results reveal a high degree of phenotypic plasticity in salmon populations that nevertheless differ in their adaptive potential to hypoxia given the distinct reaction norms observed between and within populations.

  16. Mineral scale in gravel packed wells

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Soereide, F.

    1994-12-31

    Mineral scales of barium, strontium and calcium sulphate are well known to the oil industry. The most common scale is calcium carbonate. However carbonate, unlike the three other scales mentioned, is acid soluble and it is perhaps the sulphate scales which gives the greatest problems. One additional feature of the sulphate scales is that they very often coprecipitate radium sulphate which is radioactive and difficult to dispose of and troublesome to work with from a health and safety aspect. This paper presents the production history of gravel packed wells which have experienced the deposition and removal of mainly strontium sulphate (SrSO{sub 4}) scale. A scale prediction program is used to analyze the scale tendencies under both equilibrium and kinetic controlled conditions. The flow and scale characteristics of gravel packed and naturally completed wells are compared.

  17. Expandable mixing section gravel and cobble eductor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Arthur L.; Krawza, Kenneth I.

    1997-01-01

    In a hydraulically powered pump for excavating and transporting slurries in hich it is immersed, the improvement of a gravel and cobble eductor including an expandable mixing section, comprising: a primary flow conduit that terminates in a nozzle that creates a water jet internal to a tubular mixing section of the pump when water pressure is applied from a primary supply flow; a tubular mixing section having a center line in alignment with the nozzle that creates a water jet; a mixing section/exit diffuser column that envelopes the flexible liner; and a secondary inlet conduit that forms an opening at a bas portion of the column and adjacent to the nozzle and water jet to receive water saturated gravel as a secondary flow that mixes with the primary flow inside of the mixing section to form a combined total flow that exits the mixing section and decelerates in the exit diffuser.

  18. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  19. Characterizing Unsaturated Diffusion in Porous Tuff Gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Kneafsey, T J; Roberts, J J; Tomutsa, L; Wang, J S

    2003-11-12

    Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (e.g., the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent of surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents are calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could significantly hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel.

  20. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  1. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Don; Carmichael, Richard W.

    2004-07-01

    BPA Fish and Wildlife Program Project Number 1998-01-001 provides funding for the Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted for FY 2003. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, these fish are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. This report covers activities conducted and provides data analyses for the Grande Ronde Spring Chinook Salmon Captive broodstock Program from 1 January--31 December 2003. Since the fiscal year ends in the middle of the spawning period, an annual report based on calendar year is more logical. This document is the FY 2003 annual report. Detailed information on historic and present population status, project background, goals and objectives, significance to regional programs and relationships to other programs, methods and previous results are available in the 1995-2002 Project Status Report (Hoffnagle et al 2003).

  2. Effect of gravel on hydraulic conductivity of compacted soil liners

    SciTech Connect

    Shelley, T.L. ); Daniel, D.E. )

    1993-01-01

    How much gravel should be allowed in low-hydraulic-conductivity, compacted soil liners To address this question, two clayey soils are uniformly mixed with varying percentages of gravel that, by itself, has a hydraulic conductivity of 170 cm/s. Soil/gravel mixtures are compacted and then permeated. Hydraulic conductivity of the compacted gravel/soil mixtures is less than 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s for gravel contents as high as 50-60%. For gravel contents [le] 60%, gravel content is not important: all test specimens have a low hydraulic conductivity. For gravel contents > 50-60%, the clayey soils does not fill voids between gravel particles, and high hydraulic conductivity results. The water content of the nongravel fraction is found to be a useful indicator of proper moisture conditions during compaction. From these experiments in which molding water content and compactive energy are carefully controlled, and gravel is uniformly mixed with the soil, it is concluded that the maximum allowable gravel content is approximately 50%.

  3. Identifying interactions among salmon populations from observed dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masami

    2008-01-01

    A simple direct correlation analysis of individual counts between different populations often fails to characterize the true nature of population interactions; however, the most common data type available for population studies is count data, and one of the most important objectives in population and community ecology is to identify interactions among populations. Here, I examine the dynamics of the spawning abundance of fall-run chinook salmon spawning within the California Central Valley and the Klamath Basin, California, and the Columbia River Basin, Oregon. I analyzed multiple time series from each watershed using a multivariate time-series technique called maximum autocorrelation factor analysis. This technique was used for finding common underlying trends in escapement abundance within each watershed. These trends were further investigated to identify potential resource-mediated interactions among the three groups of salmon. Each group is affected by multiple trends that are likely to be affected by environmental factors. In addition, some of the trends are coherent with each other, and the differences in population dynamics originate from variations in the relative importance of these trends among the three watershed groups.

  4. Use of a portable electric barrier to estimate Chinook salmon escapement in a turbid Alaskan river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmisano, A.; Burger, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    We developed a portable electric barrier to aid in the capture of adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha undergoing spawning migrations up a turbid stream in south-central Alaska. In 1981, we tagged and released 157 chinook salmon after diverting them from the main-stem Killey River into a conventional trap with the aid of the electric barrier. On the basis of returns of tagged salmon to Benjamin Creek, a clear-water tributary of the upper Killey River, we estimated spawners in the drainage to number 8,000 fish. Two different statistical approaches to the mark–recapture data yielded similar estimates. Through several modifications of the electric barrier, we were able to reduce mortality associated with the barrier's use.

  5. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-08-26

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in

  6. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

    2012-06-19

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations.

  7. Investigations into the [Early] Life History of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project, Oregon : Annual Report 1994 : Project Period 1 June 1993 to 31 May 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies of spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde basin. During the past year we focused on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles and surveys of spawning adults. The specific objectives for the early life history portion of the study were: Objective 1, document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; Objective 2, estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake River dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; Objective 3 initiate study of the winter habitat utilized by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. The specific objectives for the spawning ground surveys were: Objective 4, conduct extensive and supplemental spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in spawning streams in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha basin, Objective 5; determine how adequately historic index area surveys index spawner abundance by comparing index counts to extensive and supplemental redd counts; Objective 6, determine what changes in index areas and timing of index surveys would improve the accuracy of index surveys; Objective 7, determine the relationship between number of redds observed and fish escapement for the Grande Ronde and Imnaha river basins.

  8. Effects of hydraulic roughness on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buffington, J.M.; Montgomery, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Field studies of forest gravel-bed rivers in northwestern Washington and southeastern Alaska demonstrate that bed-surface grain size is responsive to hydraulic roughness caused by bank irregularities, bars, and wood debris. We evaluate textural response by comparing reach-average median grain size (D50) to that predicted from the total bank-full boundary shear stress (??0(bf)), representing a hypothetical reference condition of low hydraulic roughness. For a given ??0(bf), channels with progressively greater hydraulic roughness have systematically finer bed surfaces, presumably due to reduced bed shear stress, resulting in lower channel competence and diminished bed load transport capacity, both of which promote textural fining. In channels with significant hydraulic roughness, observed values of D50 can be up to 90% smaller than those predicted from ??0(bf). We find that wood debris plays an important role at our study sites, not only providing hydraulic roughness but also influencing pool spacing, frequency of textural patches, and the amplitude and wavelength of bank and bar topography and their consequent roughness. Our observations also have biological implications. We find that textural fining due to hydraulic roughness can create usable salmonid spawning gravels in channels that otherwise would be too coarse.

  9. Post-release behavior and movement patterns of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after capture using alternative commercial fish gear, lower Columbia River, Washington and Oregon, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, WDFW conducted post-release mortality studies of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) that were captured using beach or purse seines. These studies were comprised of two groups of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags): (1) treatment fish that were captured by one of the gear types 9–25 river kilometers (rkm) downstream of Bonneville Dam (rkm 234); and (2) control fish that were captured at the Adult Fish Facility near the Washington shore fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, and then transported and released 8 rkm downstream of the Bonneville Dam. Fish were confirmed to have survived if they moved upstream and were detected on PIT-tag antennas at or upstream of Bonneville Dam, were recovered at hatcheries or at the dam, or were captured by commercial or sport fishers. Post-release survival estimates were higher for steelhead (89–98 percent) than for Chinook salmon and coho salmon (50–90 percent; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpub. data, 2014). However, some Chinook salmon and coho salmon return to hatcheries, or spawn in the mainstem Columbia River and in tributaries downstream of Bonneville Dam. The proportion of Chinook salmon and coho salmon in the treatment group that were destined for areas downstream of Bonneville Dam likely was higher than in the control group because the control fish were collected as they were attempting to pass the dam. If this assertion was true, mortality would have been overestimated in these studies, so WDFW developed a study plan to determine the post-release movements and intended location of Chinook salmon and coho salmon collected with beach and purse seines in the lower Columbia River.

  10. Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch

    2009-02-19

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation

  11. Oil spill impact on Pacific salmon (g. Oncorhynchus) of northwestern Sakhalin (Tengi River Basin as a pattern)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexander N.; Tarasov, Nikolay N.; Pusankov, Konstantin L.; Ivanova, Lubov V.; Pusankova, Ekaterina N.

    2001-01-01

    Northern Sakhalin is a region of the intensive oil and gas transportation by oil-pipe lines. In July 2, 1997, the oil spill has happened at the oil-pipe line 'Okha-Komsomolsk-on- Amur.' Oil pollution spread over the basin of Tengi Rive (Amur estuary). The Tengi River is a spawning area for endemic and important commercial fish. There is a reserve on the river. Genus Oncorhynchus (pink and chum salmon) prevail in ichthyofauna. A satellite data analysis (NOAA-12, NOAA-14) was a success to accurate the oil distribution over the Amur estuary. As a result of the accident, more than 120 t of oil have been spilled. 26.3 km of the river area, more than 60 km of the Amur estuary coast and about 850 km2 of its water area were polluted. In the basin of Tengi River about 58000 m2 of spawning area were lost. The main damage (89%) was caused to the fry feeding near the coast. The loss of fish production has constituted about 1800 t. By species the damage was as follows: 53% -- pink salmon, 29% -- chum salmon, 11% -- masu salmon and 7% -- coho salmon.

  12. Summer spawning in the fourhorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus quadricornis, from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, S.R.; Yasutake, W.T.; West, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Histological ovarian analysis indicates summer spawning occurs in Myoxocephalus quadricornis (Fourhorn Sculpin) from Alaska. Previous studies have shown this species spawns during winter in the Baltic Sea; the data presented herein suggests that geographical variation may occur in the timing of spawning of this species.

  13. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program; Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    prompting an early release. The total mortality for the acclimation period was 49 (0.05 %). The total number of fish released from the acclimation facility during the late period was 105,369. Maintenance and repair activities were conducted at the acclimation facilities in 2005. Facility maintenance work consisted of snow removal, installation of drainage lines, removal of gravel from intake area, installation of new gate at the CCAF, and complete overhaul of 2 travel trailers. The Catherine Creek Adult Capture Facility (CCACF) was put into operation on 11 February 2005. The first adult summer steelhead was captured on 4 March. A total of 190 adult summer steelhead were trapped and released from 4 March to 16 May 2005. Peak arrival at the trap was the week of 8 April. The first adult spring Chinook salmon was captured at CCACF on 6 May 2005. A total of 226 spring Chinook salmon were trapped from 6 May to 8 July 2005. There were 56 adults and 4 jacks unmarked and 136 adult and 30 jack marked spring Chinook salmon trapped. Peak arrival at the trap was the week of 10 June for the unmarked and marked fish. None of the captive broodstock returns were collected for broodstock. Broodstock was collected systematically over the entire return from 31 May to 6 July 2005. Ten of the 34 broodstock collected and transported from CCACF to LGH were unmarked fish trapped. About 18% of the naturally produced adult males and females trapped were taken to LGH for broodstock. One jack was collected for every 5 adult males that were taken to LGH. A total of 30 age 4 and 5 and 4 age 3 fish were transported to LGH for broodstock. The hatchery component of the broodstock was 66.7%. Five weekly spawning surveys were conducted below the weir on Catherine Creek beginning 30 June 2005. During these surveys no live or dead fish were observed. The trap was removed from Catherine Creek on 3 August 2005. Temperatures at the CCACF ranged from -0.1 C on 14 February to 23.7 C on 21 July. The hourly

  14. Susceptibility of captive adult winter-run Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to waterborne exposures with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Arkush, K D; Mendonca, H L; McBride, A M; Hedrick, R P

    2004-06-11

    Sexually mature female Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with no prior history of exposure to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) were susceptible to experimental infection induced by additions of virus to the water. The resulting infections resembled those observed among naturally infected hatchery and wild populations of Chinook salmon. Virus was detected as early as 4 d post-exposure (p.e.) and subsequently in all virus-exposed fish that died or that were examined at 14 d p.e. when the study was terminated. The greatest concentrations of virus, up to 10(8) plaque-forming units (pfu) ml(-1), were found in the ovarian fluid at 13 to 14 d p.e., but the virus was also found in high concentrations in the gill, kidney/spleen and plasma. In contrast, the virus was not recovered from unexposed control adult salmon that died or were sampled at the end of the study. Despite detecting concentrations of IHNV in excess of 10(7) pfu g(-1) of tissue, no specific microscopic lesions were found in IHNV-exposed compared to unexposed control salmon. The results of this initial study suggest that virus in the spawning environment, either from adult salmon or other sources, may contribute to its rapid spread among adult Chinook salmon, thereby considerably increasing the prevalence of IHNV infection in both wild and hatchery populations of adult Chinook salmon.

  15. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  16. Method for reducing water production from a gravel packed well

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, L.E.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes a process for reducing water production from a well having a gravel containing gravel pack traversing a production zone, the gravel pack including a perforated tubing extending through the gravel pack, a screen over a perforate section of the tubing; isolating packers above and below the screen, and gravel packing between the screen and perforated casing adjacent- the production zone, the production zone including a lower water-producing interval and an upper hydrocarbon-producing interval. It comprises: placing a bridge plug within the perforate tubing at a position below the hydrocarbon-producing zone; placing a layer of coarse sand on the bridge plug, the coarse sand having an average particle sized greater than the average particle size of the gravel forming the gravel pack; placing a layer of fine sand over the layer of coarse sand, the fine sand having an average particle size smaller than the average particle size of the gravel forming the gravel pack and filling the tubing to a level at or above the top of the water-producing interval; placing a settable liquid resin through the tubing onto the top of the layer of fine sand, whereby the resin flows outwardly from the tubing to form a layer of resin extending from the tubing through the gravel; and allowing the resin to set, thereby forming a barrier to flow of water from the water-producing zone into the tubing.

  17. Genetic evidence for ecological divergence in kokanee salmon.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Matthew A; Russello, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of locally adapted phenotypes among populations that experience divergent selective pressures is a central mechanism for generating and maintaining biodiversity. Recently, the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing technology has provided tools for investigating the genetic basis of this process in natural populations of nonmodel organisms. Kokanee, the freshwater form of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), occurs as two reproductive ecotypes, which differ in spawning habitat (tributaries vs. shorelines); however, outside of the spawning season the two ecotypes co-occur in many lakes and lack diagnostic morphological characteristics. We used restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to identify 6145 SNPs and genotype kokanee from multiple spawning sites in Okanagan Lake (British Columbia, Canada). Outlier tests revealed 18 loci putatively under divergent selection between ecotypes, all of which exhibited temporally stable allele frequencies within ecotypes. Six outliers were annotated to sequences in the NCBI database, two of which matched genes associated with early development. There was no evidence for neutral genetic differentiation; however, outlier loci demonstrated significant structure with respect to ecotype and had high assignment accuracy in mixed composition simulations. The absence of neutral structure combined with a small number of highly divergent outlier loci is consistent with theoretical predictions for the early stages of ecological divergence. These outlier loci were then applied to a realistic fisheries scenario in which additional RAD sequencing was used to genotype kokanee collected by trawl in Okanagan Lake, providing preliminary evidence that this approach may be an effective tool for conservation and management.

  18. Remote-sensing of Riverine Environments Utilized by Spawning Pallid Sturgeon Using a Suite of Hydroacoustic Tools and High-resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, C. M.; Jacobson, R. B.; DeLonay, A. J.; Braaten, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    relevant to spawning fish and developing embryos (< 1 meter). The Yellowstone River in Montana and North Dakota provides the closest analog to a reference condition for pallid sturgeon spawning habitat with a natural flow regime and relatively natural channel geomorphology. Recent documented suspected spawning on the Yellowstone River occurs in a a sand-bedded reach with patches of gravel deposits, in zones of higher velocity (1.0-1.5 meters per second) compared to the ranges of velocities available in an adjacent reach and over a range of depths (2-5 meters). Results from substrate assessments at pallid sturgeon spawning sites on the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers may have implications for sediment and flow management as well as provide guidance for potential habitat manipulation in support of the recovery of the pallid sturgeon.

  19. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.

  20. Responses of pink salmon to CO2-induced aquatic acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Michelle; Hamilton, Trevor J.; Eom, Junho; Lyall, Emily M.; Gallup, Joshua; Jiang, Amy; Lee, Jason; Close, David A.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification negatively affects many marine species and is predicted to cause widespread changes to marine ecosystems. Similarly, freshwater ecosystems may potentially be affected by climate-change-related acidification; however, this has received far less attention. Freshwater fish represent 40% of all fishes, and salmon, which rear and spawn in freshwater, are of immense ecosystem, economical and cultural importance. In this study, we investigate the impacts of CO2-induced acidification during the development of pink salmon, in freshwater and following early seawater entry. At this critical and sensitive life stage, we show dose-dependent reductions in growth, yolk-to-tissue conversion and maximal O2 uptake capacity; as well as significant alterations in olfactory responses, anti-predator behaviour and anxiety under projected future increases in CO2 levels. These data indicate that future populations of pink salmon may be at risk without mitigation and highlight the need for further studies on the impact of CO2-induced acidification on freshwater systems.

  1. Genetic assessment of a summer chum salmon metapopulation in recovery.

    PubMed

    Small, Maureen P; Johnson, Thom H; Bowman, Cherril; Martinez, Edith

    2014-02-01

    Programs to rebuild imperiled wild fish populations often include hatchery-born fish derived from wild populations to supplement natural spawner abundance. These programs require monitoring to determine their demographic, biological, and genetic effects. In 1990s in Washington State, the Summer Chum Salmon Conservation Initiative developed a recovery program for the threatened Hood Canal summer chum salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) (the metapopulation) that used in-river spawners (wild fish) for each respective supplementation broodstock in six tributaries. Returning spawners (wild-born and hatchery-born) composed subsequent broodstocks, and tributary-specific supplementation was limited to three generations. We assessed impacts of the programs on neutral genetic diversity in this metapopulation using 16 microsatellite loci and a thirty-year dataset spanning before and after supplementation, roughly eight generations. Following supplementation, differentiation among subpopulations decreased (but not significantly) and isolation by distance patterns remained unchanged. There was no decline in genetic diversity in wild-born fish, but hatchery-born fish sampled in the same spawning areas had significantly lower genetic diversity and unequal family representation. Despite potential for negative effects from supplementation programs, few were detected in wild-born fish. We hypothesize that chum salmon natural history makes them less vulnerable to negative impacts from hatchery supplementation.

  2. Effects of acids on gravels and proppants

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, S.K.

    1988-05-01

    The effects of acids on the integrity of gravels and proppants should be considered in acid treatments. This paper reports on the influence of acid type, acid concentration, and contact duration on the acid solubility of five sands and bauxitic materials. The effects of the acids on the mechanical strength and the size distribution of the solids are determined. The authors found that intermediate-density and low-density bauxites (IDB and LDB) are very soluble in HF acid and that sintered bauxite is weakened by HF acid.

  3. Mineral resource of the month: industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    With many diverse uses, industrial sand and gravel, also known as silica sand, is one of the most important nonmetallic minerals in the world. Industrial sand and gravel is a mining industry term used for sands that have a very high percentage of silicon dioxide, or greater than 95 percent quartz. Deposits of industrial sand and gravel can be found virtually everywhere on Earth, but are less widespread than deposits of common construction sand and gravel. Industrial sand and gravel is distinctive in grain size, hardness, inertness and resistance to high temperature and chemical action. Beverage containers, fiberglass insulation, fiber-optic cables and light bulbs are just some of today’s many products produced from industrial sand and gravel.

  4. Dual openhole gravel pack in shaly fine sands

    SciTech Connect

    Moricca, G.; Ripa, G.; Rucci, D.; Pitoni, E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the design and execution of dual-zone gravel packs in very shaly and silty formations of median sand grain size less than 30 {micro}m. An oversized gravel was selected for sand control and, as a consequence, the openhole gravel-pack technique was adopted to reduce the effect of intermixing between formation and gravel-pack sand. During the completions in the first five wells, the authors encountered and solved several operational problems, including those involving (1) borehole stability, (2) setting of inflatable packer for zone isolation, (3) hole preparation, and (4) gravel placement. From the lessons they learned, another 11 wells were completed with dual openhole gravel packs without significant problems. After 1 year of production, the flow performance from the wells met or exceeded the initial objectives.

  5. Erosion depth of sand from an immobile gravel bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnle, R.; Wren, D.; Langendoen, E.

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to improve prediction of the depth of erosion of sand (D50 = 0.3-0.9 mm) from immobile gravel (D50 = 36.1 mm) under steady uniform flows with bed shear stresses from 0.1 to 0.9 of that required to entrain the gravel. This situation, often encountered downstream of dams, has important implications for habitat restoration. Steady uniform flows were imposed on a flume channel containing a mixture of sand and gravel until sediment concentrations in the flow exiting the channel became small. The elevation of sand relative to gravel was measured after each experiment and compared poorly to calculated depths from published relationships whose predictions were based in part on the equivalent grain roughness of the bed. An improved predictive relationship was developed by using the cumulative distribution function of the surface gravel elevations to scale the shear velocity available for transporting sand from the gravel substrate.

  6. Broadcast spawning by Pocillopora species on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Roach, Sebastian; Miller, Karen J; Woolsey, Erika; Gerlach, Gabriele; Baird, Andrew H

    2012-01-01

    The coral genus Pocillopora is one of the few to include some species that broadcast spawn gametes and some species that brood larvae, although reports of reproductive mode and timing vary within and among species across their range. Notably, the ubiquitous Pocillopora damicornis has been described as both a brooder and spawner, although evidence of broadcast spawning is rare. Here, we report observations of broadcast-spawning in four species of Pocillopora on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), including P. damicornis. All species spawned predictably during the early morning, two days following the full moon, and spawning was observed in multiple months over the summer period (November to February). Eggs and sperm were free-spawned concurrently. Eggs were negatively buoyant and contained Symbiodinium. This newfound knowledge on the mode, timing and regularity of broadcast spawning in Pocillopora spp. on the GBR brings us one step closer to elucidating the complex reproductive ecology of these species.

  7. Validation of a spatial model used to locate fish spawning reef construction sites in the St. Clair–Detroit River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jason L.; Bennion, David; Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations have suffered precipitous declines in the St. Clair–Detroit River system, following the removal of gravel spawning substrates and overfishing in the late 1800s to mid-1900s. To assist the remediation of lake sturgeon spawning habitat, three hydrodynamic models were integrated into a spatial model to identify areas in two large rivers, where water velocities were appropriate for the restoration of lake sturgeon spawning habitat. Here we use water velocity data collected with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to assess the ability of the spatial model and its sub-models to correctly identify areas where water velocities were deemed suitable for restoration of fish spawning habitat. ArcMap 10.1 was used to create raster grids of water velocity data from model estimates and ADCP measurements which were compared to determine the percentage of cells similarly classified as unsuitable, suitable, or ideal for fish spawning habitat remediation. The spatial model categorized 65% of the raster cells the same as depth-averaged water velocity measurements from the ADCP and 72% of the raster cells the same as surface water velocity measurements from the ADCP. Sub-models focused on depth-averaged velocities categorized the greatest percentage of cells similar to ADCP measurements where 74% and 76% of cells were the same as depth-averaged water velocity measurements. Our results indicate that integrating depth-averaged and surface water velocity hydrodynamic models may have biased the spatial model and overestimated suitable spawning habitat. A model solely integrating depth-averaged velocity models could improve identification of areas suitable for restoration of fish spawning habitat.

  8. Natural selection constrains personality and brain gene expression differences in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Höglund, Erik; Winberg, Svante

    2015-04-01

    In stream-spawning salmonid fishes there is a considerable variation in the timing of when fry leave the spawning nests and establish a feeding territory. The timing of emergence from spawning nests appears to be related to behavioural and physiological traits, e.g. early emerging fish are bolder and more aggressive. In the present study, emerging Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) alevins were sorted into three fractions: early, intermediate and late emerging. At the parr stage, behaviour, stress responses, hindbrain monoaminergic activity and forebrain gene expression were explored in fish from the early and late emerging fractions (first and last 25%). The results show that when subjected to confinement stress, fish from the late emerging fraction respond with a larger activation of the brain serotonergic system than fish from the early fraction. Similarly, in late emerging fish, stress resulted in elevated expression of mRNA coding for serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1A), GABA-A receptor-associated protein and ependymin, effects not observed in fish from the early emerging fraction. Moreover, fish from the early emerging fraction displayed bolder behaviour than their late emerging littermates. Taken together, these results suggest that time of emergence, boldness and aggression are linked to each other, forming a behavioural syndrome in juvenile salmon. Differences in brain gene expression between early and late emerging salmon add further support to a relationship between stress coping style and timing of emergence. However, early and late emerging salmon do not appear to differ in hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis reactivity, another characteristic of divergent stress coping styles.

  9. Two-step method for horizontal gravel packing

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, J.K.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a method for placing gravel within an annulus formed in a non-vertical borehole by the placement of a screen within the borehole. It comprises: injecting into the annulus a slurry of gravel and a medium viscosity carrier fluid to pack from 50% to 75% of the screen-borehole annulus; and injecting into the annulus a slurry of gravel and a low viscosity carrier fluid until the annulus is completely packed.

  10. Evaluation of Head-of-Reservoir Conditions for Downstream Migration of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at Shasta Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancey, K. M.; Saito, L.; Svoboda, C.; Bender, M. D.; Hannon, J.; Hellmann, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since completion of Shasta Dam, migration of Chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Sacramento River has been blocked, causing loss of spawning and rearing habitat. This has been a factor leading to population declines of these fish species over several decades. Winter-run Chinook salmon, spring-run Chinook salmon and steelhead trout are now listed under the Endangered Species Act. A habitat assessment of the tributaries upstream of Shasta Dam showed that the Sacramento and McCloud tributaries have suitable habitat for reintroduction of adult salmon and steelhead for spawning. Such reintroduction would require downstream passage of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead past Shasta Dam. To evaluate the possibility of collecting and transporting juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead past Shasta Dam, a CE-QUAL-W2 model of Shasta Lake and the Sacramento River, McCloud River, Pit River and Squaw Creek tributaries was used to assess where and when conditions were favorable at head-of-reservoir locations upstream of proposed temperature curtains to collect juvenile fish. Head-of-reservoir is the zone of transition between the river and the upstream end of the reservoir. Criteria for evaluating locations suitable to collect these fish included water temperature and velocities in the Sacramento and McCloud tributaries. Model output was analyzed during months of downstream migration under dry, median and wet year conditions. Potential for proposed temperature curtains, anchored and floating, to improve conditions for fish migration was also evaluated with the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Use of temperature curtains to assist fish migration is a novel approach that to our knowledge has not previously been assessed for recovery of Chinook salmon and steelhead populations. Providing safe passage conditions is challenging, however the study findings may assist in formulation of a juvenile fish passage alternative that is suitable for Shasta Lake.

  11. Ionoregulatory changes in different populations of maturing sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka during ocean and river migration.

    PubMed

    Shrimpton, J M; Patterson, D A; Richards, J G; Cooke, S J; Schulte, P M; Hinch, S G; Farrell, A P

    2005-11-01

    We present the first data on changes in ionoregulatory physiology of maturing, migratory adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Fraser River sockeye were intercepted in the ocean as far away as the Queen Charlotte Islands (approximately 850 km from the Fraser River) and during freshwater migration to the spawning grounds; for some populations this was a distance of over 700 km. Sockeye migrating in seawater toward the mouth of the Fraser River and upriver to spawning grounds showed a decline in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. As a result, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of fish arriving at the spawning grounds was significantly lower than values obtained from fish captured before entry into freshwater. Plasma osmolality and chloride levels also showed significant decreases from seawater values during the freshwater migration to spawning areas. Movement from seawater to freshwater increased mRNA expression of a freshwater-specific Na+,K+-ATPase isoform (alpha1a) while having no effect on the seawater-specific isoform (alpha1b). In addition, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity generally increased in active spawners compared with unspawned fish on the spawning grounds and this was associated with a marked increase in Na+,K+-ATPase alpha1b mRNA. Increases in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activities observed in spawners suggests that the fish may be attempting to compensate for the osmotic perturbation associated with the decline in plasma chloride concentration and osmolality.

  12. Problems with Approximate Bearing Capacity of Gravel Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachý, Jan; Weiss, Viktorie; Bartuška, Ladislav

    2016-10-01

    The publication aims to bring undoubted importance approximate table bearing capacity of gravel soils, which are used in the new constructions. Tabulated values enable to determine the estimated bearing capacity of foundation soil for a simple and inexpensive construction to a depth of 1 meter. In the publication there are compares particular class of gravel soils in depending on the width of the base and ingredients of fine-grained soil. Gravelly soils are the best foundation soil in terms of bearing capacity, but the amount of fine-grained soils or poorly grained gravel, or gravel with a low value of relative density can greatly reduce this value.

  13. Bioaccumulation and transport of contaminants: migrating sockeye salmon as vectors of mercury.

    PubMed

    Baker, Matthew R; Schindler, Daniel E; Holtgrieve, Gordon W; St Louis, Vincent L

    2009-12-01

    Biological transport by migratory animals is increasingly recognized as important to the long-range dispersal of toxic contaminants. Mercury (Hg) contamination is a widespread environmental concern with serious health implications for humans and wildlife. Due to their unique life history, anadromous salmon may act as important vectors for this contaminant, transferring Hg between marine and freshwater ecosystems. Previous analyses have considered contaminant transport by salmon to be unidirectional. These studies have evaluated Hg import to freshwater by spawning adults, but have not quantitatively assessed export through the migration of juveniles to the ocean. To determine the total Hg burden to freshwater systems by sockeye salmon, we reconstructed the net transport of Hg to the Wood River System in Bristol Bay, Alaska accounting for fluxes in (via adults) and out (via juveniles) of the system. Hg concentrations were higher in juvenile than adult salmon. Hg export from freshwater systems by salmon ranged from 3 to 30% of total import. Proportional export by smolts may be higher for populations under heavy exploitation with strong density dependence in juvenile recruitment. Full consideration of contaminant loading by migratory species requires attention to the relative contaminant flux at all life history stages and the effects of density dependent growth and survival.

  14. Limnology and fish ecology of sockeye salmon nursery lakes of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Wilbur L.; Burgner, R.L.

    1972-01-01

    Many important, recently glaciated oligotrophic lakes that lie in coastal regions around the northern rim of the Pacific Ocean produce anadromous populations of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. This paper describes the limnology and fish ecology of two such lakes in British Columbia, five in Alaska, and one in Kamchatka. Then we discuss the following general topics: the biogenic eutrophication of nursery lakes from the nutrients released from salmon carcasses wherein during years of highest numbers of spawners, lake phosphate balances in Lakes Babine, Iliamna, and Dalnee are significantly affected; the use of nursery lakes by young sockeye that reveals five patterns related to size and configuration of lake basins and the distribution of spawning areas; the interactions between various life history stages of sockeye salmon and such resident predators, competitors, and prey as Arctic char, lake trout, Dolly Varden, cutthroat trout, lake whitefish, pygmy whitefish, pond smelt, sticklebacks, and sculpins; the self-regulation of sockeye salmon abundance in these nursery lakes as controlled by density-dependent processes; the interrelations between young sockeye salmon biomass and growth rates, and zooplankton abundance in Babine Lake; and finally, the diel, vertical, pelagial migratory behavior of young sockeye in Babine Lake and the new hypothesis dealing with bioenergetic conservation.

  15. The importance of genetic verification for determination of Atlantic salmon in north Pacific waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.; Williams, I.; Sage, G.K.; Zimmerman, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic analyses of two unknown but putative Atlantic salmon Salmo salar captured in the Copper River drainage, Alaska, demonstrated the need for validation of morphologically unusual fishes. Mitochondrial DNA sequences (control region and cytochrome b) and data from two nuclear genes [first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequence and growth hormone (GH1) amplification product] indicated that the fish caught in fresh water on the Martin River was a coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, while the other fish caught in the intertidal zone of the Copper River delta near Grass Island was an Atlantic salmon. Determination of unusual or cryptic fish based on limited physical characteristics and expected seasonal spawning run timing will add to the controversy over farmed Atlantic salmon and their potential effects on native Pacific species. It is clear that determination of all putative collections of Atlantic salmon found in Pacific waters requires validation. Due to uncertainty of fish identification in the field using plastic morphometric characters, it is recommended that genetic analyses be part of the validation process. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers. The

  17. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  19. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  20. Using Sodium-Chloride Tracers and Grain Size Analysis to Determine Hyporheic Permeability in Salmonid Spawning Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbery, J. W.; Janes, M. K.; Heffernan, J. E.; Horner, T.

    2012-12-01

    Embryonic mortality rates of salmonids are greatly affected by gravel permeability and grain size distributions within the host gravel. Typical permeability testing methods use a single standpipe to measure the permeability. For studies on the American and Feather Rivers in northern California, tracer tests were used to measure seepage velocity using a main "injection" well and several downstream monitoring wells. Bulk samples and pebble counts were used to measure grain size. Measurements were recorded at approximately 30cm depth in the gravel, where salmonid species typically lay their eggs. Sites were examined before and after stream restoration to compare subsurface habitat conditions. During each tracer test, a super-saturated NaCl solution was introduced into an "injection" standpipe with a short well screen located 30cm deep in the gravel. Identical downstream standpipes contained conductivity meters that sensed the NaCl as it passed through the gravel, causing a spike in specific conductance. Plotting the peak conductance against the arrival time allowed a seepage velocity to be measured in cm/second. Seepage velocity ranged from 0.2 - 0.7 cm/sec in restored gravel, and was less than 1.6 x 10-4 cm/sec in some un-restored areas. Grain size analysis showed that un-restored areas had an armored surface with d50 values ranging from 4-10 cm, while the subsurface showed excessive fine material supporting large grains smaller than those in the surface sample with d50 values ranging from 1.3 - 3.0 cm. Restored areas were found to contain a well sorted composition containing little to no fine material and a subsurface which closely matched the surface showing d50 values from 1.6 - 3.8 cm. Comparing results of tracer tests with grain size distributions in both restored and un-restored spawning gravels gives an indication of the relative health of a particular portion of a hyporheic river system, and the relative success of some restoration projects.

  1. Flowing-recirculated water system for inducing spawning phase sea lampreys to spawn in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredricks, Kim T.; Seelye, James G.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a water-recirculating system for inducing spawning of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) held under laboratory conditions. Water temperature in the system was gradually increased to and maintained at 18 ± 2°C, the optimal temperature for spawning. About 10% freshwater was added daily to prevent buildup of waste products. Sea lampreys were provided substrate (approximately 3–6 cm in diameter) to build nests, and a water velocity of 0.2–0.3 m!s was maintained with an electric trolling motor. Sea lampreys held in this system exhibited characteristic spawning behavior. Prolarvae produced from artificial fertilization of gametes developed according to the standard timeline.

  2. Quantifying the factors influencing gravel placement and productivity of an internally gravel packed completion based on field data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Welling, R.W.F.; Jonathan, P.; Reijnen, P.H.F.; Samuel, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed analysis of 341 internally gravel-packed zones in wells from three oil fields was carried out to determine which parameters significantly influence the placement of the gravel in such a completion and the well`s resulting productivity. The database analysis demonstrates that, in addition to the well-known impairing factors, such as dirty completion fluids and viscous fluid-loss control pills, the performance of gravel packs can be improved by increasing the number of perforations--especially in 7 inch completions. This suggests that the perforation tunnel is the most critical area in an internally gravel-packed completion.

  3. Overwash threshold experiment for gravel barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matias, Ana; Williams, Jon; Bradbury, Andrew; Masselink, Gerhard; Ferreira, Óscar

    2010-05-01

    Field measurements of overwash effects, associated physical forcing, and determination of threshold conditions, are much less common for gravel than for sandy barriers (e.g., field measurements by Lorang, 2002; Bradbury et al., 2005; and laboratory studies by Obhrai et al., 2008). In order to define overwash thresholds for gravel there is a need for measurements under a variety of forcing conditions that include waves, tides and surges. Flume experiments allow the manipulation of physical forcing and can make a valuable contribution to improve the understanding and prediction of overwash. To study gravel barrier overwash processes, BARDEX proto-type scale laboratory experiment was undertaken in the Delta flume (Williams et al., 2009). A 4 m high, 50 m wide gravel barrier composed of sediments with D50 = 10 mm was emplaced in the flume and subjected to a range of water levels, wave heights and wave periods. Barrier morphology was surveyed before and after each run. Two situations were simulated: overwashing and overtopping. Following Orford and Carter (1982) terminology, the distinction between overtopping and overwash was based on the type of morphological change over the barrier crest. Overtopping causes vertical accretion at the crest, whereas overwashing promotes the formation of washover deposits landwards from the crest. Ten overwash experiments were conducted (divided in 63 runs), and overtopping was recorded in 22 runs and overwash in 20 runs. In other runs, only the beach face was reworked by waves. In a systematic series of tests water levels were varied between 3.00 m and 3.75 m (in steps of 0.125 m); wave height was varied between 0.8 m and 1.3 m (in steps of 0.05 or 0.1 m); and wave periods of 4.5, 6, 7 and 8 seconds were used. These hydrodynamic conditions were used to compute wave run-up using several well-known formulae (cf., Powell, 1990; Stockdon et al., 2007). Comparison between run-up estimations and the barrier crest elevation prior to wave

  4. Aniakchak sockeye salmon investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamon, Troy R.; Pavey, Scott A.; Miller, Joe L.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve provides unusual and dramatic landscapes shaped by numerous volcanic eruptions, a massive flood, enormous landslides, and ongoing geological change. The focal point of the monument is Aniakchak Caldera, a restless volcano that embodies the instability of the Alaska Peninsula. This geological instability creates a dynamic and challenging environment for the biological occupants of Aniakchak and unparalleled opportunities for scientists to measure the adaptability of organisms and ecosystems to change. The sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) is one member of the Aniakchak ecosystem that has managed to adapt to geologic upheaval and is now thriving in the park. Aside from just surviving in the harsh environment, these salmon are also noteworthy for providing essential marinederived nutrients to plants and animals and as a source of food for historic and present day people in the region.

  5. Vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to climate change: a life cycle perspective using expert judgments.

    PubMed

    McDaniels, Tim; Wilmot, Sarah; Healey, Michael; Hinch, Scott

    2010-12-01

    Fraser River sockeye salmon have been the basis for a major commercial fishery shared by Canada and the United States, and an important cultural foundation for many aboriginal groups; they are also of huge ecological significance throughout the Fraser Basin. The potential for altered aquatic habitat and temperature regimes due to climate change is an important concern for Fraser River sockeye salmon. This paper characterizes the vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to future climate change using an approach that is novel on three counts. First, previous efforts to assess the vulnerability of salmon to climate change have largely focused on only part of the life cycle, whereas we consider climate vulnerability at all stages in the life cycle. Second, we use the available scientific literature to provide a basis for structuring and eliciting judgments from fisheries science and management experts who research and manage these systems. Third, we consider prospects for mitigating the effects of climate change on sockeye salmon. Tests showed that participants' judgments differentiated in statistically significant ways among questions that varied in terms of life stages, spawning regions and climate scenarios. The consensus among participants was that Fraser River sockeye are most vulnerable to climate change during the egg and returning adult stages of the life cycle. A high temperature scenario was seen as imposing the greatest risk on sockeye stocks, particularly those that migrate to the upper reaches of the Fraser River system and spawn earlier in the summer. The inability to alter water temperature and the highly constrained nature of sockeye management, with competing gear types and sequential fisheries over a long distance, suggest the potential to mitigate adverse effects is limited. Fraser River sockeye already demonstrate a great deal of adaptive capacity in utilizing heterogeneous habitats in different river sub-basins. This adaptability points to the

  6. Hyporheic Exchange in Gravel-Bed Rivers with Pool-Riffle Morphology: A 3D Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonina, D.; Buffington, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is a saturated band of sediment that surrounds river flow and forms a linkage between the river and the aquifer. It is a rich ecotone where benthic, hyporheic, and groundwater species temporarily or permanently reside. Head gradients along the streambed draw river water into the hyporheic zone and expel pore water into the stream. This process, known as hyporheic exchange, is important for delivering nutrients, oxygen and other solutes to the sediment, and for washing away waste products to support this ecotone. It is an essential component of the carbon and nitrogen cycles, and it controls in-stream contaminant transport. Although hyporheic exchange has been studied in sand-bed rivers with two-dimensional dune morphology, few studies have been conducted for gravel-bed rivers with three-dimensional pool-riffle geometry. The hyporheic zone of gravel-bed rivers is particularly important for salmonids, many of which are currently at risk world wide. Salmon and trout lay their eggs within the hyporheic zone for incubation. After hatching, the alevins live in the gravel before emerging into the stream. The upwelling and downwelling hyporheic fluxes are intense in these streams due to the highly permeable sediment and strong head variations forced by shallow flow over high-amplitude bed forms. Moreover, gravel-bed rivers show a wide range of flow regimes that change seasonally and have strong effects on hyporheic exchange. To study this exchange, we used four sets of pool-riffle geometries in twelve recirculating flume experiments. We kept a constant bed-form wavelength, but changed the bed-form amplitude and imposed three discharges, covering a wide range of hydraulic and geometric characteristics. Hyporheic exchange was predicted from a three-dimensional model based on bedform-induced pumping transport, where the boundary head profile is the pressure head distribution at the sediment interface, measured with an array of mini-piezometers buried within

  7. Biotic and abiotic influences on abundance and distribution of nonnative Chinook salmon and native ESA-listed steelhead in the Wind River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence fish populations and distributions. Concerns have been raised about the influence of hatchery fish on wild populations. Carson National Fish Hatchery produces spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wind River, Washington, and some spawn in the river. Managers were concerned that Chinook salmon could negatively affect wild steelhead O. mykiss and that a self-sustaining population of Chinook salmon may develop. Our objectives were to assess: 1) the distribution and populations of juvenile spring Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead in the upper Wind River; 2) the influence of stream flow and of each population on the other; and 3) if Chinook salmon populations were self-sustaining. We snorkeled to determine distribution and abundance. Flow in the fall influenced upstream distribution and abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon. Juvenile Chinook salmon densities were consistently low (range 0.0 to 5.7 fish 100 m-2) and not influenced by number of spawners, winter flow magnitude, or steelhead abundance. Juvenile steelhead were distributed through the study section each year. Age-0 and age-1 steelhead densities (age-0 range: 0.04 to 37.0 fish 100 m-2; age-1 range: 0.02 to 6.21 fish 100 m-2) were consistently higher than for juvenile Chinook salmon. Steelhead spawner abundance positively influenced juvenile steelhead abundance. During this study, Chinook salmon in the Wind River appear to have had little effect on steelhead. Low juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and a lack of a spawner-to-juvenile relationship suggest Chinook salmon are not self-sustaining and potential for such a population is low under current conditions.

  8. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  9. SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  10. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    PubMed

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    Severe infection by the endemic myxozoan parasite, Ceratonova (synonym, Ceratomyxa) shasta, has been associated with declines in and impaired recovery efforts of populations of fall-run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Klamath River, California. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving a polychaete worm host as well as a salmon host. Myxospore transmission of this parasite, from salmon to polychaete, is a life cycle step during which there is a potential for applied disease management. A 3-year data set on prevalence, intensity, and spore characteristics of C. shasta myxospores was obtained from adult Chinook Salmon carcasses surveyed in the main stem of the Klamath River and three of its tributaries, Bogus Creek and the Shasta and Trinity rivers. Annual prevalence of myxospore detection in salmon intestines ranged from 22% to 52%, and spore concentration values per intestinal scraping ranged from 3.94 × 10(2) to 1.47 × 10(7) spores. A prevalence of 7.3% of all carcasses examined produced >5.0 × 10(5) spores, and these carcasses with "high" spore counts accounted for 76-95% of the total spores in a given spawning season. Molecular analysis of visually negative carcasses showed that 45-87% of these samples had parasite DNA, indicating they contained either low spore numbers or presporogonic stages of the parasite. Myxospores were rarely found in carcasses of freshly spawned adults but were common in decomposed carcasses of both sexes. The date of collection or age (based indirectly on FL) did not influence detection. The longer prespawn residence time for spring-run Chinook Salmon compared with that for fall-run Chinook Salmon in the Trinity River was associated with higher spore loads. The dye exclusion method for assessing spore viability in fresh smears indicated an inverse relationship in spore integrity and initial spore concentration. A carcass-removal pilot project in Bogus Creek for 6 weeks in the fall of 2008 (907 carcasses removed

  11. ["Non-aging" pearl oyster and aging salmon (about lack of basis for production of medicines based on European pearl oyster Margaritifera margaritifera)].

    PubMed

    Popov, I Iu

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on disproof of the claim by Valery Ziuganov, that pearl oyster infection prolongs the lifespan of salmon and that pearl oyster can be used as a source of medicine. His activity on the production of medicine pretending to care cancer and senescence based on the gills of salmon infected by pearl oyster is blamed. The data on pearl oyster and salmon biology are presented: Atlantic salmon survives after spawning irrespectively of oyster infection. The problem of shady medicines production is discussed. It was shown that even Academic editions and formal attributes of the belonging to scientific community do not provide a necessary barrier to frauds in this field. Adaptationist program popularity contributes such a situation, because it provides "grounds" for any speculation concerning advantages of any biological process.

  12. Erosion depth of sand from an immobile gravel bed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract This study was conducted to provide information on the depth of erosion of sand (D50 = 0.3, 0.9 mm) from immobile gravel (D50 = 36.1 mm) under steady uniform flows with bed shear stresses from 0.1 to 0.9 of that required to entrain the gravel. This situation, often encountered downstream o...

  13. Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1986-1988 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1988-10-01

    In 1986, a multi-year project to evaluate the biological feasibility of reestablishing anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs to Cle Elum Lake in the Yakima River Basin was established between the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). This program involves the capture, spawning, and rearing of disease-free donor stock in 1987 and 1988 and assessment of juvenile outmigration and survival from Cle Elum Lake in 1989 and 1990. Work in 1987--1988 involved collection of adult sockeye salmon from the Lake Wenatchee run and incubation and rearing of progeny as donor stock. In July 1987, 263 adults were captured at the Dryden fishway on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Adults were held approximately 90 days and spawned, and the eggs were transferred to a quarantine hatchery. Pre-spawning survival was 95.1%, and all spawners were certified as being free of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. Egg viability averaged about 40%; however, eyed egg to hatch survival was over 99%. Juveniles are being reared in quarantine, and survival to date is about 92%. The NMFS currently has over 131,000 fry (0.7 g average weight) in culture. Fry have been certified twice (at 0.12 g and 0.25 g average weight) as being free of IHN and other replicating viruses. Viral certification will continue throughout rearing. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Bert; Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug

    2000-05-01

    In March of 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an inter-agency effort to save the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka from extinction. This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the calendar year of 1998. Project objectives included; (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka released from the captive rearing program into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (2) fertilize Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) control the number of spawning kokanee in Fishhook Creek; (6) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (7) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity. Results by objective are summarized.

  15. Very low embryonic crude oil exposures cause lasting cardiac defects in s