Bugarel, M; Tudor, A; Loneragan, G H; Nightingale, K K
Foodborne illnesses due to Salmonella represent an important public-health concern worldwide. In the United States, a majority of Salmonella infections are associated with a small number of serotypes. Furthermore, some serotypes that are overrepresented among human disease are also associated with multi-drug resistance phenotypes. Rapid detection of serotypes of public-health concern might help reduce the burden of salmonellosis cases and limit exposure to multi-drug resistant Salmonella. We developed a two-step real-time PCR-based rapid method for the identification and detection of five Salmonella serotypes that are either overrepresented in human disease or frequently associated with multi-drug resistance, including serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Newport, Hadar, and Heidelberg. Two sets of four markers were developed to detect and differentiate the five serotypes. The first set of markers was developed as a screening step to detect the five serotypes; whereas, the second set was used to further distinguish serotypes Heidelberg, Newport and Hadar. The utilization of these markers on a two-step investigation strategy provides a diagnostic specificity of 97% for the detection of Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis, Newport and Hadar. The diagnostic sensitivity of the detection makers is >96%. The availability of this two-step rapid method will facilitate specific detection of Salmonella serotypes that contribute to a significant proportion of human disease and carry antimicrobial resistance. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sivula, Christine P; Bogomolnaya, Lydia M; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L
Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models. PMID:18922185
The potential impact of intentional post-pasteurisation contamination of liquid egg products with the multi-antibiotic resistant pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) was assessed by determining the viability of this bacterium in whole egg, albumen and 10% sug...
Ley, Benedikt; Le Hello, Simon; Lunguya, Octavie; Lejon, Veerle; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan
Infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 is associated with high rates of drug resistance, bloodstream infections, and death. To determine whether ST313 is dominant in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we studied 180 isolates collected during 2007–2011; 96% belonged to CRISPOL type CT28, which is associated with ST313. PMID:24655438
Humphries, Andrea; Deridder, Sandra; Bäumler, Andreas J
The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium genome contains 13 operons with homology to fimbrial gene sequences. Here we investigated the role of 11 serotype Typhimurium fimbrial proteins, including FimA, AgfA (CsgA), BcfA, StbA, SthA, LpfA, PefA, StdA, StcA, StiA, and StfA, as antigens during the infection of genetically resistant mice (CBA). Upon the growth of serotype Typhimurium in standard laboratory broth culture, only the expression of FimA could be detected by Western blot analysis. The infection of mice with serotype Typhimurium grown in broth culture, followed by at least one subsequent infection, resulted in seroconversion of animals to FimA, AgfA, BcfA, StbA, SthA, LpfA, PefA, StdA, StcA, StiA, and StfA positivity. Most animals seroconverted to only a subset of these fimbrial antigens. The immunization of mice with glutathione S-transferase (GST)-FimA, GST-AgfA, GST-BcfA, GST-StbA, GST-SthA, GST-LpfA, GST-PefA, GST-StdA, GST-StcA, GST-StiA, and GST-StfA fusion proteins resulted in reduced fecal shedding of serotype Typhimurium during a challenge compared to that by a control group immunized with purified GST protein. Collectively, these data suggest that the expression of serotype Typhimurium fimbrial antigens is induced during the infection of mice.
Markogiannakis, Antonis; Tassios, Panayotis T.; Lambiri, Maria; Ward, Linda R.; Kourea-Kremastinou, Jenny; Legakis, Nicholas J.; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis C.
Six distinct clones were present among Greek multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage type DT104, since isolates belonging to resistance phenotypes including the ACSSuT (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline) core could be distinguished with respect to their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, int1 integron structures, and presence or absence of antibiotic resistance genes ant(3")-Ia, pse-1, and tem-1. PMID:10699039
Winter, Sebastian E.; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Haneda, Takeshi; Winter, Maria G.; Wilson, R. Paul; Russell, Joseph M.; Henry, Thomas; Tran, Quynh T.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Gomez, Gabriel; Bevins, Charles L.; Rüssmann, Holger; Monack, Denise M.; Adams, L. Garry; Bäumler, Andreas J.
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium causes acute inflammatory diarrhea in humans. Flagella contribute to intestinal inflammation, but the mechanism remains unclear since most mutations abrogating pattern recognition of flagellin also prevent motility and reduce bacterial invasion. To determine the contribution of flagellin pattern recognition to the generation of innate immune responses, we compared in two animal models a nonmotile, but flagellin-expressing and -secreting serotype Typhimurium strain (flgK mutant) to a nonmotile, non-flagellin-expressing strain (flgK fliC fljB mutant). In vitro, caspase-1 can be activated by cytosolic delivery of flagellin, resulting in release of the interferon gamma inducing factor interleukin-18 (IL-18). Experiments with streptomycin-pretreated caspase-1-deficient mice suggested that induction of gamma interferon expression in the murine cecum early (12 h) after serotype Typhimurium infection was caspase-1 dependent but independent of flagellin pattern recognition. In addition, mRNA levels of the CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine were markedly increased early after serotype Typhimurium infection of streptomycin-pretreated wild-type mice regardless of flagellin expression. In contrast, in bovine ligated ileal loops, flagellin pattern recognition contributed to increased mRNA levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 3α and more fluid accumulation at 2 h after infection. Collectively, our data suggest that pattern recognition of flagellin contributes to early innate host responses in the bovine ileal mucosa but not in the murine cecal mucosa. PMID:19237529
García-Del Portillo, Francisco; Jungnitz, Heidrun; Rohde, Manfred; Guzmán, Carlos A.
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the generation of acquired immunity to infections by pathogenic microorganisms. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is known to survive and proliferate intracellularly within macrophages and nonphagocytic cells, but no data exist on how this pathogen interacts with DCs. In this report, we show the capacity of serotype Typhimurium to survive within the established mouse DC line CB1. In contrast to the case for the macrophage model, the compartments of DCs containing serotype Typhimurium are devoid of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins and the PhoPQ two-component regulatory system is not essential for pathogen intracellular survival. PMID:10768999
Salmonella is an important cause of foodborne illness; however, identifying the source of these infections can be difficult. This is especially true for Salmonella serotype Typhimurium, which is found in diverse agricultural niches. Cephalosporins are one of the primary treatment choices for complic...
Elfenbein, Johanna R; Endicott-Yazdani, Tiana; Porwollik, Steffen; Bogomolnaya, Lydia M; Cheng, Pui; Guo, Jinbai; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Talamantes, Marissa; Shields, Christine; Maple, Aimee; Ragoza, Yury; DeAtley, Kimberly; Tatsch, Tyler; Cui, Ping; Andrews, Katharine D; McClelland, Michael; Lawhon, Sara D; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene
Cattle are naturally infected with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and exhibit pathological features of enteric salmonellosis that closely resemble those in humans. Cattle are the most relevant model of gastrointestinal disease resulting from nontyphoidal Salmonella infection in an animal with an intact microbiota. We utilized this model to screen a library of targeted single-gene deletion mutants to identify novel genes of Salmonella Typhimurium required for survival during enteric infection. Fifty-four candidate mutants were strongly selected, including numerous mutations in genes known to be important for gastrointestinal survival of salmonellae. Three genes with previously unproven phenotypes in gastrointestinal infection were tested in bovine ligated ileal loops. Two of these mutants, STM3602 and STM3846, recapitulated the phenotype observed in the mutant pool. Complementation experiments successfully reversed the observed phenotypes, directly linking these genes to the colonization defects of the corresponding mutant strains. STM3602 encodes a putative transcriptional regulator that may be involved in phosphonate utilization, and STM3846 encodes a retron reverse transcriptase that produces a unique RNA-DNA hybrid molecule called multicopy single-stranded DNA. The genes identified in this study represent an exciting new class of virulence determinants for further mechanistic study to elucidate the strategies employed by Salmonella to survive within the small intestines of cattle.
Brooks, John T; Matyas, Bela T; Fontana, John; DeGroot, Mary Ann; Beuchat, Larry R; Hoekstra, Michael; Friedman, Cindy R
A 1998 investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections among children tasting unpasteurized milk during tours of a dairy farm demonstrated a distribution of unusually long incubation periods (median, 8 days; interquartile range [IQR], 6-14 days). Bacterial isolates were highly acid tolerant and contained genes associated with protection against destructive phagocytic reactive oxygen intermediates. We hypothesize that exposure to low-dose oral inoculum of a pathogen with these properties could have contributed to cases of non-typhoidal salmonellosis with the longest incubation period reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Bogomolnaya, Lydia M; Aldrich, Lindsay; Ragoza, Yuri; Talamantes, Marissa; Andrews, Katharine D; McClelland, Michael; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium can move through liquid using swimming motility, and across a surface by swarming motility. We generated a library of targeted deletion mutants in Salmonella Typhimurium strain ATCC14028, primarily in genes specific to Salmonella, that we have previously described. In the work presented here, we screened each individual mutant from this library for the ability to move away from the site of inoculation on swimming and swarming motility agar. Mutants in genes previously described as important for motility, such as flgF, motA, cheY are do not move away from the site of inoculation on plates in our screens, validating our approach. Mutants in 130 genes, not previously known to be involved in motility, had altered movement of at least one type, 9 mutants were severely impaired for both types of motility, while 33 mutants appeared defective on swimming motility plates but not swarming motility plates, and 49 mutants had reduced ability to move on swarming agar but not swimming agar. Finally, 39 mutants were determined to be hypermotile in at least one of the types of motility tested. Both mutants that appeared non-motile and hypermotile on plates were assayed for expression levels of FliC and FljB on the bacterial surface and many of them had altered levels of these proteins. The phenotypes we report are the first phenotypes ever assigned to 74 of these open reading frames, as they are annotated as 'hypothetical genes' in the Typhimurium genome.
Swine responses to, and control of, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ST) infection have been compared to S. enterica serotype Choleraesuis (SC) infection. Using subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH), long oligonucleotide Qiagen and Affymetrix porcine GeneChip® arrays, and real time ge...
Chessa, Daniela; Winter, Maria G; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Tükel, Çagla; Bäumler, Andreas J
The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) genome contains a large repertoire of putative fimbrial operons that remain poorly characterized because they are not expressed in vitro. In this study, insertions that induced expression of the putative stdABCD fimbrial operon were identified from a random bank of transposon mutants by screening with immuno-magnetic particles for ligand expression (SIMPLE). Transposon insertions upstream of csgC and lrhA or within dam, setB and STM4463 (renamed rosE) resulted in expression of StdA and its assembly into fimbrial filaments on the cell surface. RosE is a novel negative regulator of Std fimbrial expression as indicated by its repression of a std::lacZ reporter construct and by binding of the purified protein to a DNA region upstream of the stdA start codon. Expression of Std fimbriae in the rosE mutant resulted in increased attachment of S. typhimurium to human colonic epithelial cell lines (T-84 and CaCo-2). A rosE mutant exhibited a reduced ability to compete with virulent S. typhimurium for colonization of murine organs, while no defect was observed when both competing strains carried a stdAB deletion. These data suggest that a tight control of Std fimbrial expression mediated by RosE is required during host pathogen interaction. PMID:18331470
McDonough, Patrick L.; Shin, Sang J.; Lein, Donald H.
The presence of lactose-fermenting Salmonella strains in clinical case materials presented to microbiology laboratories presents problems in detection and identification. Failure to detect these strains also presents a public health problem. The laboratory methods used in detecting lactose-fermenting Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from six outbreaks of salmonellosis in veal calves are described. Each outbreak was caused by a multiply-resistant and lactose-fermenting strain of S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. The use of Levine eosin-methylene blue agar in combination with screening of suspect colonies for C8 esterase enzyme and inoculation of colonies into sulfide-indole-motility medium for hydrogen sulfide production was particularly effective for their detection. A hypothesis for the creation of lactose-fermenting salmonellae in the environment is presented. It is proposed that the environment and husbandry practices of veal-raising barns provide a unique niche in which lactose-fermenting salmonellae may arise. PMID:10699026
Bogomolnaya, Lydia M.; Aldrich, Lindsay; Ragoza, Yuri; Talamantes, Marissa; Andrews, Katharine D.; McClelland, Michael; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium can move through liquid using swimming motility, and across a surface by swarming motility. We generated a library of targeted deletion mutants in Salmonella Typhimurium strain ATCC14028, primarily in genes specific to Salmonella, that we have previously described. In the work presented here, we screened each individual mutant from this library for the ability to move away from the site of inoculation on swimming and swarming motility agar. Mutants in genes previously described as important for motility, such as flgF, motA, cheY are do not move away from the site of inoculation on plates in our screens, validating our approach. Mutants in 130 genes, not previously known to be involved in motility, had altered movement of at least one type, 9 mutants were severely impaired for both types of motility, while 33 mutants appeared defective on swimming motility plates but not swarming motility plates, and 49 mutants had reduced ability to move on swarming agar but not swimming agar. Finally, 39 mutants were determined to be hypermotile in at least one of the types of motility tested. Both mutants that appeared non-motile and hypermotile on plates were assayed for expression levels of FliC and FljB on the bacterial surface and many of them had altered levels of these proteins. The phenotypes we report are the first phenotypes ever assigned to 74 of these open reading frames, as they are annotated as ‘hypothetical genes’ in the Typhimurium genome. PMID:25369209
Khatiwara, Anita; Jiang, Tieshan; Sung, Sam-Sun; Dawoud, Turki; Kim, Jeong Nam; Bhattacharya, Dhruva; Kim, Hee-Bal; Ricke, Steven C.
As more whole-genome sequences become available, there is an increasing demand for high-throughput methods that link genes to phenotypes, facilitating discovery of new gene functions. In this study, we describe a new version of the Tn-seq method involving a modified EZ:Tn5 transposon for genome-wide and quantitative mapping of all insertions in a complex mutant library utilizing massively parallel Illumina sequencing. This Tn-seq method was applied to a genome-saturating Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium mutant library recovered from selection under 3 different in vitro growth conditions (diluted Luria-Bertani [LB] medium, LB medium plus bile acid, and LB medium at 42°C), mimicking some aspects of host stressors. We identified an overlapping set of 105 protein-coding genes in S. Typhimurium that are conditionally essential under at least one of the above selective conditions. Competition assays using 4 deletion mutants (pyrD, glnL, recD, and STM14_5307) confirmed the phenotypes predicted by Tn-seq data, validating the utility of this approach in discovering new gene functions. With continuously increasing sequencing capacity of next generation sequencing technologies, this robust Tn-seq method will aid in revealing unexplored genetic determinants and the underlying mechanisms of various biological processes in Salmonella and the other approximately 70 bacterial species for which EZ:Tn5 mutagenesis has been established. PMID:22367088
Development and evaluation of an experimental vaccination program using a live avirulent Salmonella typhimurium strain to protect immunized chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes.
Hassan, J O; Curtiss, R
A stable live avirulent, genetically modified delta cya delta crp Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain, chi 3985, was used in several vaccination strategies to evaluate its use in the control of Salmonella infection in chickens. Oral vaccination of chickens at 1 and at 14 days of age with 10(8) CFU of chi 3985 protected against invasion of spleen, ovary, and bursa of Fabricius and colonization of the ileum and cecum in chickens challenged with 10(6) CFU of virulent homologous Salmonella strains from group B. Chickens challenged with heterologous Salmonella strains from groups C, D, and E were protected against visceral invasion of spleen and ovary, while invasion of the bursa of Fabricius and colonization of ileum and cecum was reduced in vaccinated chickens. Oral vaccination at 2 and at 4 weeks of age induced an excellent protection against challenge with virulent group B Salmonella serotypes and very good protection against challenge with group D or E Salmonella serotypes, while protection against challenge with group C Salmonella serotypes was marginal but significant. Vaccination at 2 and at 4 weeks of age also protected vaccinated chickens against challenge with 10(8) CFU of highly invasive S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis strains. The protection of chickens vaccinated with chi 3985 against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes is outstanding, and the complete protection against ovarian invasion in chickens challenged with 10(8) CFU of highly invasive S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis strains suggests that vaccination of chickens with chi 3985 can complement the present hygiene- and sanitation-based Salmonella control measures. This paper reports a breakthrough in the use of live avirulent vaccine to control Salmonella carriers in chickens. PMID:7960134
De Cort, W; Mot, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F
Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is still an important cause of Salmonella infections in humans and there is a need for control methods that protect broilers from day-of-hatch until slaughter age against infection with Salmonella. Colonisation-inhibition, a concept in which a live Salmonella strain is orally administered to day-old chickens and protects against subsequent challenge, can potentially be used as control method. In this study, the efficacy of a Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain as a colonisation-inhibition strain for protection of broilers against Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated. Administration of a Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens decreased faecal shedding and strongly reduced caecal and internal organ colonisation of a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain administered one day later using a seeder bird model. In addition, it was verified whether a colonisation-inhibition culture could be developed that protects against both Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium. Therefore, the Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain was orally administered simultaneously with a Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens, which resulted in a decreased caecal and internal organ colonisation for both a Salmonella Enteritidis and a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain short after hatching, using a seeder bird model. The combined culture was not protective against Salmonella Paratyphi B varietas Java challenge, indicating serotype-specific protection mechanisms. The data suggest that colonisation-inhibition can potentially be used as a versatile control method to protect poultry against several Salmonella serotypes.
Castillo, A; McKenzie, K S; Lucia, L M; Acuffi, G R
The effectiveness of an aqueous ozone treatment in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serotype Typhimurium on hot carcass surfaces was determined with the use of a model carcass spray cabinet. Carcass surface regions were removed from carcasses and inoculated with feces containing 10(6) to 10(7) CFU each of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium per g and were then exposed to a water wash or to a water wash followed by a sanitizing ozone treatment. Water washes were applied at 28 degrees C beginning at a pressure of 10 lb/in2 and gradually increasing to 400 lb/in2. Ozone treatment was carried out by spraying surfaces with an aqueous ozone solution (80 lb/in2 at 28 degrees C) containing 95 mg of ozone per liter. Pathogen reductions achieved with ozone treatment were not significantly different from those achieved with a water wash alone. In addition, ozone treatment did not reduce E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium contamination that was spread over the carcass surface as a result of the water wash. Under the conditions of this study, the aqueous ozone treatment applied resulted in no significant improvement over a water wash in reducing pathogens on beef carcass surfaces.
Zhang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Xiang-Yan; Xu, Liang; Gu, Xi-Xi; Yang, Ling; Li, Wan; Ren, Si-Qi; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia
Salmonella spp. is one of the most important food-borne pathogens causing digestive tract and invasive infections in both humans and animals. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) especially the CTX-M-type ESBLs are increasingly being reported worldwide and in China. These studies seldom focused on Salmonella isolates from food-producing animals. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles, serotypes and ESBLs and in particular, CTX-M producing Salmonella isolates from chickens and pigs in China. Salmonella isolates were identified by API20E system and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay; serotypes were determined using slide agglutination with hyperimmune sera; antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using the ager dilution method; the prevalence of ESBLs and PMQR genes were screened by PCR; CTX-M-producing isolates were further characterized by conjugation along with genetic relatedness and plasmid replicon type. In total, 159 Salmonella strains were identified, among which 95 strains were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, 63 strains were S. enterica serovar Indiana, and 1 strain was S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. All of these isolates presented multi-drug resistant phenotypes. Forty-five isolates carried bla CTX-M genes, the most common subtype was CTX-M-27(34), followed by CTX-M-65(7) and CTX-M-14(4). Most bla CTX-M genes were transmitted by non-typeable or IncN/IncFIB/IncP/IncA/C/IncHI2 plasmids with sizes ranging from 80 to 280 kb. In particular, all the 14 non-typeable plasmids were carrying bla CTX-M-27 gene and had a similar size. PFGE profiles indicated that CTX-M-positive isolates were clonally related among the same serotype, whilst the isolates of different serotypes were genetically divergent. This suggested that both clonal spread of resistant strains and horizontal transmission of the resistance plasmids contributed to the dissemination of bla CTX-M-9G-positive Salmonella isolates. The presence and
Zhang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Xiang-Yan; Xu, Liang; Gu, Xi-Xi; Yang, Ling; Li, Wan; Ren, Si-Qi; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia
Salmonella spp. is one of the most important food-borne pathogens causing digestive tract and invasive infections in both humans and animals. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) especially the CTX-M-type ESBLs are increasingly being reported worldwide and in China. These studies seldom focused on Salmonella isolates from food-producing animals. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles, serotypes and ESBLs and in particular, CTX-M producing Salmonella isolates from chickens and pigs in China. Salmonella isolates were identified by API20E system and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay; serotypes were determined using slide agglutination with hyperimmune sera; antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using the ager dilution method; the prevalence of ESBLs and PMQR genes were screened by PCR; CTX-M-producing isolates were further characterized by conjugation along with genetic relatedness and plasmid replicon type. In total, 159 Salmonella strains were identified, among which 95 strains were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, 63 strains were S. enterica serovar Indiana, and 1 strain was S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. All of these isolates presented multi-drug resistant phenotypes. Forty-five isolates carried blaCTX-M genes, the most common subtype was CTX-M-27(34), followed by CTX-M-65(7) and CTX-M-14(4). Most blaCTX-M genes were transmitted by non-typeable or IncN/IncFIB/IncP/IncA/C/IncHI2 plasmids with sizes ranging from 80 to 280 kb. In particular, all the 14 non-typeable plasmids were carrying blaCTX-M-27 gene and had a similar size. PFGE profiles indicated that CTX-M-positive isolates were clonally related among the same serotype, whilst the isolates of different serotypes were genetically divergent. This suggested that both clonal spread of resistant strains and horizontal transmission of the resistance plasmids contributed to the dissemination of blaCTX-M-9G-positive Salmonella isolates. The presence and spread
Busani, L.; Graziani, C.; Battisti, A.; Franco, A.; Ricci, A.; Vio, D.; Digiannatale, E.; Paterlini, F.; D'Incau, M.; Owczarek, S.; Caprioli, A.; Luzzi, I.
The antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Infantis isolated from humans, foodstuffs and farm animals in Italy between 1999 and 2001 was examined. All the isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin, but high rates of resistance were observed for several other drugs, especially for S. Typhimurium. The rates of resistance and multiresistance were generally higher among animal and food isolates than in human strains; conversely, no significant difference was observed between animal and food isolates. Among S. Typhimurium, multiresistance was more common in bovine, poultry and rabbit strains than in swine isolates, and was rare in strains from pigeon. Resistance to trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole was mainly found in isolates of swine and human origin. This study confirms the role of livestock as a reservoir of drug-resistant Salmonella spp. and underlines the need for integrated surveillance systems of antibiotic resistance that consider isolates not only from human disease but also from the animal reservoirs and the food vehicles. PMID:15061499
Folster, Jason P; Tolar, Beth; Pecic, Gary; Sheehan, Deborah; Rickert, Regan; Hise, Kelley; Zhao, Shaohua; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; McDermott, Patrick; Whichard, Jean M
Salmonella is an important cause of foodborne illness; however, identifying the source of these infections can be difficult. This is especially true for Salmonella serotype Typhimurium, which is found in diverse agricultural niches. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) are one of the primary treatment choices for complicated Salmonella infections. In Salmonella, ESC resistance in the United States is mainly mediated by blaCMY genes carried on various plasmids. In this study, we examined whether the characterization of blaCMY plasmids, along with additional information, can help us identify potential sources of infection by Salmonella, and used serotype Typhimurium as a model. In the United States, monitoring of retail meat, food animals, and ill persons for antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella is conducted by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. In 2008, 70 isolates (70/581; 12.0%) (34 isolates from retail meat, 23 food animal, and 13 human) were resistant to ceftriaxone and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. All were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for blaCMY and 59/70 (84.3%) of these genes were plasmid encoded. PCR-based replicon typing identified 42/59 (71.2%) IncI1-blaCMY plasmids and 17/59 (28.8%) IncA/C-blaCMY plasmids. Isolates from chickens or chicken products with blaCMY plasmids primarily had IncI1-blaCMY plasmids (37/40; 92.5%), while all isolates from cattle had IncA/C-blaCMY plasmids. Isolates from humans had either IncA/C- blaCMY (n=8/12; [66.7%]) or IncI1- blaCMY (n=4/12 [33.3%]) plasmids. All of the IncI1-blaCMY plasmids were ST12 or were closely related to ST12. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (AST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the isolates were also compared and differences were identified between isolate sources. When the source of a Typhimurium outbreak or sporadic illness is unknown, characterizing the outbreak isolate's blaCMY plasmids, AST, and PFGE patterns may help identify it.
McQuestin, Olivia J; Musgrove, Michael T; Tamplin, Mark L
The potential impact of post-pasteurisation contamination of liquid egg products with the multi-antibiotic resistant pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) was assessed by determining the viability of this bacterium in whole egg, albumen and 10% w/w sugared and salted yolk incubated at 4-42 degrees C. Results indicated that populations of S. Typhimurium DT104 were slowly inactivated in all four products when stored at 4 degrees C. However, based on the typical shelf-lives of cold-stored liquid egg, less than 0.6 log-kill would be achieved in those products prior to their use. Incubation at temperatures pertaining to abuse situations (10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C) revealed an increasing potential for growth of S. Typhimurium DT104 in whole egg, albumen and sugared yolk, as indicated by trends in growth rate, lag duration and maximum population density. At even higher temperatures (30, 37 and 42 degrees C), growth rates of S. Typhimurium DT104 in whole egg and sugared yolk continued to increase. The same was true for S. Typhimurium DT104 in albumen except that growth was not observed at 42 degrees C and instead populations were inactivated within 30 h. At no temperature tested was S. Typhimurium DT104 able to grow in salted yolk. The influence of these growth and inactivation patterns on the risk of salmonellosis in relation to product type and storage temperature is discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salmonella enterica are a versatile group of bacteria with a wide range in virulence potential. To facilitate genome comparisons across this virulence spectrum, we present eight complete closed genome sequences of four S. enterica serotypes (Anatum, Montevideo, Typhimurium, and Newport) isolated fro...
Kisluk, Guy; Yaron, Sima
Salmonella enterica is one of the major food-borne pathogens associated with ready-to-eat fresh foods. Although polluted water might be a significant source of contamination in the field, factors that influence the transfer of Salmonella from water to the crops are not well understood, especially under conditions of low pathogen levels in water. The aim of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term (1 h to 28 days) persistence of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of parsley following spray irrigation with contaminated water. Plate counting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-based methods were implemented for the quantification. By applying qRT-PCR with enrichment, we were able to show that even irrigation with water containing as little as ∼300 CFU/ml resulted in the persistence of S. Typhimurium on the plants for 48 h. Irrigation with water containing 8.5 log CFU/ml resulted in persistence of the bacteria in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere for at least 4 weeks, but the population steadily declined with a major reduction in bacterial counts, of ∼2 log CFU/g, during the first 2 days. Higher levels of Salmonella were detected in the phyllosphere when plants were irrigated during the night compared to irrigation during the morning and during winter compared to the other seasons. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the transfer of Salmonella from contaminated water to crops, as well as its persistence over time, will enable the implementation of effective irrigation and control strategies.
Salmonella enterica is one of the major food-borne pathogens associated with ready-to-eat fresh foods. Although polluted water might be a significant source of contamination in the field, factors that influence the transfer of Salmonella from water to the crops are not well understood, especially under conditions of low pathogen levels in water. The aim of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term (1 h to 28 days) persistence of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of parsley following spray irrigation with contaminated water. Plate counting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-based methods were implemented for the quantification. By applying qRT-PCR with enrichment, we were able to show that even irrigation with water containing as little as ∼300 CFU/ml resulted in the persistence of S. Typhimurium on the plants for 48 h. Irrigation with water containing 8.5 log CFU/ml resulted in persistence of the bacteria in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere for at least 4 weeks, but the population steadily declined with a major reduction in bacterial counts, of ∼2 log CFU/g, during the first 2 days. Higher levels of Salmonella were detected in the phyllosphere when plants were irrigated during the night compared to irrigation during the morning and during winter compared to the other seasons. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the transfer of Salmonella from contaminated water to crops, as well as its persistence over time, will enable the implementation of effective irrigation and control strategies. PMID:22447598
Kranker, Søren; Alban, Lis; Boes, Jaap; Dahl, Jan
A longitudinal study of the infection dynamics of Salmonella enterica was carried out with three Danish farrow-to-finish swine herds. To account for variations in Salmonella shedding over time, litters from each herd were divided into two cohorts. Each cohort consisted of 30 pigs, for a total of 180 pigs. Pigs were individually monitored by monthly bacteriologic and serologic examinations from weaning to slaughter. At weaning, individual sows were examined bacteriologically and serologically. At slaughter, cecal contents, ileocecal lymph nodes, and carcass swab samples were obtained from 131 pigs. A total of 88 pigs were found to be shedding Salmonella on one or more occasions. Only the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium was detected during the study period. At weaning, no sows or piglets were found to be shedding, but a serological reaction was detected in 11 sows. The prevalence in culture peaked in the nursery and subsequently declined to undetectable levels before slaughter. The seroprevalence peaked approximately 60 days after the peak prevalence in culture. Salmonella was detected in individual fecal samples at least once in 53% of the pigs, and 62% of the pigs were seropositive more than once. Only 3.7% of all pigs were found to be culture positive on more than one occasion. Piglets from seroreacting sows had a significantly (P = 0.0339) lower probability of shedding in the nursery. Under the assumption that shedding lasted at least 1 or 2 weeks, the average shedding time was estimated to have been 18 or 26 days. An association between serology, on-farm bacteriology, and Salmonella prevalence in culture at slaughter was shown. Marked differences in prevalence in sera and prevalence in culture between cohorts and within herds were observed. These differences emphasize the need for caution when using point estimates in on-farm interventions and surveillance in subclinically infected swine herds. PMID:12791837
Mazurek, Jacek; Salehi, Ellen; Propes, Dennis; Holt, Jo; Bannerman, Tammy; Nicholson, Lisa M; Bundesen, Mark; Duffy, Rosemary; Moolenaar, Ronald L
In December 2002, the Ohio Department of Health was notified of two children with Salmonella infection. Both had a history of drinking raw milk from a combination dairy-restaurant-petting zoo (dairy). The dairy was the only establishment in Ohio licensed to sell raw milk and reported 1.35 million visitors annually. We investigated to determine the extent of the outbreak and identify illness risk factors. A case patient was any person with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-matched Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from 30 November 2002 to 18 February 2003. Sixty-two met the confirmed case definition. Forty dairy case patient patrons were included in a case-control study; 56 controls were their well meal companions. Consumption of raw milk was found to be associated with illness (odds ratio, 45.1; 95% confidence interval, 8.8 to 311.9). The dairy discontinued selling raw milk. Because 27 other states still allow the sale of raw milk, awareness of the hazards of its consumption should be raised and relevant regulations carefully reviewed.
Tsolis, Renée M.; Townsend, Stacy M.; Miao, Edward A.; Miller, Samuel I.; Ficht, Thomas A.; Adams, L. Garry; Bäumler, Andreas J.
The genetic basis for the host adaptation of Salmonella serotypes is currently unknown. We have explored a new strategy to identify Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) genes involved in host adaptation, by comparing the virulence of 260 randomly generated signature-tagged mutants during the oral infection of mice and calves. This screen identified four mutants, which were defective for colonization of only one of the two host species tested. One mutant, which only displayed a colonization defect during the infection of mice, was further characterized. During competitive infection experiments performed with the S. typhimurium wild type, the mutant was defective for colonization of murine Peyer's patches but colonized bovine Peyer's patches at the wild-type level. No difference in virulence between wild type and mutant was observed when calves were infected orally with 1010 CFU/animal. In contrast, the mutant possessed a sixfold increase in 50% lethal morbidity dose when mice were infected orally. The transposon in this mutant was inserted in a 2.9-kb pathogenicity islet, which is located between uvrB and yphK on the S. typhimurium chromosome. This pathogenicity islet contained a single gene, termed slrP, with homology to ipaH of Shigella flexneri and yopM of Yersinia pestis. These data show that comparative screening of signature-tagged mutants in two animal species can be used for scanning the S. typhimurium genome for genes involved in host adaptation. PMID:10569754
Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...
On December 10, 2002, the Clark County Combined Health District and the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) were notified of two hospitalized children infected with Salmonella Enterica serotype Typhimurium. Initial investigation implicated consumption of raw, unpasteurized milk purchased at a local combination dairy-restaurant (dairy) during November 27-December 13, 2002, as the cause. This report summarizes the subsequent investigation. Because 27 states still allow the sale of raw milk, and organizations continue their efforts to allow marketing and sale of raw milk to the public directly from the farm, consumer education about the hazards of raw milk and a careful review of existing policies are needed.
De Valk, H.; Delarocque-Astagneau, E.; Colomb, G.; Ple, S.; Godard, E.; Vaillant, V.; Haeghebaert, S.; Bouvet, P. H.; Grimont, F.; Grimont, P.; Desenclos, J. C.
In 1997, a community-wide outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection occurred in France. The investigation included case searching and a case-control study. A case was defined as a resident of the Jura district with fever or diarrhoea between 12 May and 8 July 1997, from whom S. typhimurium was isolated in stool or blood. One hundred and thirteen cases were identified. Thirty-three (83 %) of 40 cases but only 23 (55 %) of 42 community controls, matched for age and area of residence, reported eating Morbier cheese (Odds ratio: 6.5; 95 % Confidence Interval: 1.4-28.8). Morbier cheese samples taken from the refrigerators of two case-patients and one symptom-free neighbour cultured positive for S. typhimurium of the same phage type as the human isolates. The analysis of distribution channels incriminated one batch from a single processing plant. These findings show that an unpasteurized soft cheese is an effective vehicle of S. typhimurium transmission. PMID:10722123
Immediate Reduction of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Viability via Membrane Destabilization following Exposure to Multiple-Hurdle Treatments with Heated, Acidified Organic Acid Salt Solutions▿†
Milillo, S. R.; Martin, E.; Muthaiyan, A.; Ricke, S. C.
The antimicrobial activity of organic acids in combination with nonchemical treatments was evaluated for inactivation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium within 1 min. It was observed that the effectiveness of the multiple-hurdle treatments was temperature (P ≤ 0.05) and pH (P ≤ 0.05) dependent and corresponded to the degree of organic acid lipophilicity (sodium acetate being least effective and sodium propionate being the most effective). This led to the hypothesis that the loss in viability was due at least in part to cell membrane disruption. Evaluation of osmotic response, potassium ion leakage, and transmission electron micrographs confirmed treatment effects on the cell membrane. Interestingly, all treatments, even those with no effect on viability, such as with sodium acetate, resulted in measurable cellular stress. Microarray experiments explored the specific response of S. Typhimurium to sodium acetate and sodium propionate, the most similar of the tested treatments in terms of pKa and ionic strength, and found little difference in the changes in gene expression following exposure to either, despite their very different effects on viability. Taken together, the results reported support our hypothesis that treatment with heated, acidified, organic acid salt solutions for 1 min causes loss of S. Typhimurium viability at least in part by membrane damage and that the degree of effectiveness can be correlated with lipophilicity of the organic acid. Overall, the data presented here indicate that a combined thermal, acidified sodium propionate treatment can provide an effective antimicrobial treatment against Salmonella. PMID:21478311
Sandvang, D; Jensen, L B; Baggesen, D L; Baloda, S B
The clonal relationship among Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from selected pig production units in Denmark was investigated by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing method to determine environmental survival and spread of Salmonella in different herds. Thirty-four Typhimurium isolated during 1996-1998 from porcine faeces and environmental samples from three pig farms designated 1, 3 and 5 were characterised by PFGE using two restriction enzymes. Farm 5 supplied piglets to farm 1 and the herds were located close to each other. Results of PFGE analysis showed both intra- and inter-relationships, i.e. identical PFGE patterns among the faecal and environmental isolates from farm 1 and farm 5. All the isolates from farm 3 irrespective of the source showed identical PFGE patterns, but were different from samples from farms 1 and 5. This study indicates spread between farms and survival of a farm-specific clone. Furthermore, identical PFGE patterns of isolates from piglet supplier and finisher herds indicate that the farrow-to-grower herd of farm 5 was sub-clinically infected prior to delivery to farm 1 and thereby caused the transmission of Salmonella.
Tamminga, S. K.; Beumer, R. R.; Kampelmacher, E. H.; van Leusden, F. M.
Experiments were carried out to assess the reduction rate of two salmonella strains (S. eastbourne and S. typhimurium) in chocolate bars. After artificial contamination of chocolate, after 'conching', with about 10(6) S. eastbourne/g. this organism was still recovered after 9 months storage. The strain of S. typhimurium was less resistant. Both serotypes died off more rapidly in bitter chocolate than in milk chocolate. After contamination with a smaller dose (about 10(3)/g.) with these two serotypes, similar differences were observed. PMID:1107412
Ballou, M A; Hanson, D L; Cobb, C J; Obeidat, B S; Sellers, M D; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Carroll, J A; Earleywine, T J; Lawhon, S D
Two experiments investigated how plane of nutrition influences performance, leukocyte responses, and resistance to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge. In experiment 1, 46 (2±1 d of age) calves were randomly assigned to 2 diets: a low (LPN; n=23) and high plane of nutrition (HPN; n=23). The LPN calves were fed 409 g/d of dry matter (DM) of a 20% crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer, whereas HPN calves were fed 610 and 735 g/d of DM of a 28% crude protein and 25% fat milk replacer during wk 1 and 2 to 6, respectively. In experiment 2, 20 bull calves (LPN; n=11 and HPN; n=9) were orally challenged on d 80 with 1.5×10(7) cfu of Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC #14028). The HPN calves had a greater incidence (87.5 vs. 45.5%) and duration of days with high fecal scores (5.5 vs. 3.5 d). The LPN calves had greater neutrophil surface expression of L-selectin on d 7, 21, and 42. Following the Salmonella Typhimurium challenge, calf starter DM intake was greater among the HPN calves. The percentage of neutrophils producing an oxidative burst was also greater among HPN calves on d 1 to 5 after the challenge. Similarly, the intensity of the oxidative burst tended to be greater among the HPN calves on d 2 and 3 postchallenge. The secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α from whole-blood cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide tended to be greater on d 1 and was greater on d 5 and 6 among HPN calves. The median ranks of haptoglobin concentrations were greater and plasma zinc concentrations tended to be decreased among LPN calves. These data indicate that feeding a HPN to Jersey calves improved average daily gain and feed efficiency, but increased the incidence of high fecal scores during the first few weeks of life; however, the HPN Jersey calves may be more resistant to Salmonella Typhimurium after weaning.
Differences in the carriage and the ability to utilize the serotype associated virulence plasmid in strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium investigated by use of a self-transferable virulence plasmid, pOG669.
Olsen, John E; Brown, Derek J; Thomsen, Line E; Platt, David J; Chadfield, Mark S
Most strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype typhimurium (S. typhimurium) naturally harbour a virulence plasmid which carries the salmonella plasmid virulence (spv) genes. However, isolates belonging to certain phage types are generally found without the plasmid. We have utilized a self-transferable virulence plasmid, pOG669 to investigate the effect of introduction of spv genes into strains of such phage types. The use of the co-integrate plasmid, pOG669, was validated on a diverse collection of strains. pOG669 was transferred into strains of serotypes that are normally associated with the possession of virulence plasmids. All strains maintained the wild type level of virulence in a mouse model, except that introduction of pOG669 restored normal virulence levels in an avirulent, plasmid free strain of S. dublin and resulted in a decrease in virulence in a strain of S. dublin from clonal line Du3. S. gallinarum did not become virulent in mice, but pOG669 was functionally interchangeable with the wild type plasmid when strains were tested in a chicken model. Strains of serotypes not normally associated with the carriage of a virulence plasmid did not increase in virulence upon the introduction of pOG669. An IncX plasmid pOG670 that was included as control was incompatible with the virulence plasmid in a strain of S. dublin, demonstrating that the common virulence plasmid of this serotype is of a different incompatibility group than other virulence plasmids. Strains of S. typhimurium from phage types that do not normally carry a virulence plasmid responded differently to attempts to introduce pOG669. No transconjugants were observed with the strains of DT5 and DT21. The introduction of pOG669 did not alter the virulence of JEO3942(DT10), DT35 and JEO3949(DT66) significantly, while DT1 and DT27 became more virulent. DT27 became as virulent as wild type C5, while logVC(10) of DT1 only increased from 4.1 to 5.7. The ability to express spv-genes was
Donalson, L M; Kim, Woo-Kyun; Chalova, V I; Herrera, P; Woodward, C L; McReynolds, J L; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of combining a prebiotic with poultry feeds on the growth of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ST) in an in vitro cecal fermentation system. Cecal contents from three laying hens were pooled and diluted to a 1:3000 concentration in an anaerobic dilution solution. The cecal dilution was added to sterile test tubes filled with alfalfa and layer ration with and without fructooligosaccharide (FOS). Two controls containing cecal dilutions and anaerobic dilution solution were used. The samples were processed in the anaerobic hood and incubated at 37 degrees C. Samples were inoculated with Salmonella at 0 and 24h after in vitro cecal fermentation and plated at 0 and 24h after inoculation with ST. Plates were incubated for 24h and colony forming units (CFU) enumerated. The samples immediately inoculated with ST without prior cecal fermentation did not significantly lower ST counts 24h later. However, samples pre-incubated for 24h with cecal microflora prior to ST inoculation exhibited reduced ST CFU by approximately 2 logarithms, with the most dramatic decreases seen in alfalfa and layer ration combined with FOS. The addition of FOS to feed substrate diets in combination with cecal contents acted in a synergistic manner to decrease ST growth only after ST was introduced to 24h cecal incubations.
Shi, Liang; Ansong, Charles; Smallwood, Heather S.; Rommereim, Leah M.; McDermott, Jason E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Gustin, Jean K.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.
The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) must replicate within host macrophages in order to establish systemic infection in susceptible mice. In an effort to identify new STM proteins that help the bacterium colonize macrophages, we have cultured STM cells with a low pH/low magnesium medium (MgM) under two different conditions termed MgM-Shock and MgM-Dilution and investigated the impacts of these culturing conditions on the STM proteome by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomics. LC-MS/MS results showed that alteration of culturing conditions affected a group of STM proteins differently. Compared to MgM-Shock, MgM-Dilution induced more proteins of the Salmonella-pathogenecity island 2-type III secretion system (SPI2-T3SS). The abundances of the proteins used for cobalamin biosynthesis increased under MgM-Shock condition but decreased under MgM-Dilution condition, while those proteins used for thiamine or biotin biosynthesis were not affected under the former condition but increased under the latter condition. Western-blot (WB) analysis confirmed the LC-MS/MS results. Because cobalamin, thiamine and biotin play different roles in STM metabolism, differential induction of the proteins involved in their biosyntheses suggests that the metabolic states of STM cells under these conditions differ considerably. WB analysis also showed that the abundances of SPI2-T3SS proteins SsaQ and SseE and biotin biosynthesis proteins BioB and BioD increased after STM infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Deletion of the gene encoding BioB reduced the ability of STM to replicate inside the macrophages, demonstrating for the first time the involvement of a biotin synthesis protein in STM colonization of macrophages.
Liang, D W; Lu, J H; Wu, Q; Ke, B X; Jiang, C H; Long, J; Fang, Y P; Lin, L J; Zeng, N Y; Fu, L; Jiang, L X
To investigate whether the Luminex xMAP(®) Salmonella Serotyping Assay (xMAP SSA) is applicable to serotype Salmonella from humans in southern China. Two hundred and five Salmonella isolates from diarrhoea patients were serotyped by xMAP SSA in parallel with the traditional serotyping. Forty serotypes were identified among 205 isolates; the most prevalent serotypes identified were Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Stanley, Salmonella I 4,5,12:i:-, and Salmonella Typhimurium. One hundred and ninety-five (95·1%, 195/205) isolates were serotyped completely by xMAP SSA, while 10 stereotypes were partially detected as they were not included in the assay. The xMAP SSA correctly identified 192 (98·5%, 192/195) isolates. Five nonmotile and three monophasic strains, which possessed flagellar antigen genes that weren't expressed, were completely serotyped by xMAP SSA; however, these isolates were left undetected by the traditional method. The xMAP SSA used in the study is a microsphere-based, molecular assay that could rapidly and accurately serotype Salmonella. It is suitable to identify the serovars of Salmonella in southern China. The xMAP SSA, with high-throughput characteristics, provides an accurate and rapid serotyping system that dramatically strengthens the capability of clinical and public health laboratories for Salmonella serotyping. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Recent work has called attention to the unequal competitive abilities of different Salmonella serotypes in standard broth culture and plating media. Such serotypes include Enteritidis and Typhimurium that are specifically targeted in some regulatory and certification programs because they cause a l...
Millemann, Yves; Gaubert, Stéphane; Remy, Dominique; Colmin, Catherine
A procedure that uses an original molecular marker (IS200-PCR) and that is based on the amplification of DNA with outward-facing primers complementary to each end of IS200 has been evaluated with a collection of 85 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates. These strains were isolated from a group of 10 cows at different stages: during transportation between the farm and the slaughterhouse, on the slaughter line, from the environment, and from the final product (ground beef). The 85 isolates were characterized by their antibiotic resistance patterns and were compared by IS200-PCR and by use of four other genotypic markers. Those markers included restriction profiles for 16S and 23S rRNA (ribotypes) and amplification profiles obtained by different approaches: random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR, and PCR ribotyping. The results of the IS200-PCR were in accordance with those of other molecular typing methods for this collection of isolates. Five different genotypes were found, which made it possible to refine the hypotheses on transmission obtained from phenotypic results. The genotyping results indicated the massive contamination of the whole group of animals and of the environment by one clonal strain originally recovered from one cow that excreted the strain. On the other hand, a few animals and their environment appeared to be simultaneously contaminated with genetically different strains. PMID:10834977
Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...
VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F
Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h intervals for 20 additional h of storage. After 24 h, 99.9% of all Salmonella cells were killed. S. thompson and S. tennessee were more resistant to heat inactivation than the other serotypes. Naturally occurring contamination by Salmonella spp. in dry food products could be significantly reduced with this treatment.
van Asselt, E D; Thissen, J T N M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J
Salmonella serotype distribution can give insight in contamination routes and persistence along a production chain. Therefore, it is important to determine not only Salmonella prevalence but also to specify the serotypes involved at the different stages of the supply chain. For this purpose, data from a national monitoring program in the Netherlands were used to estimate the serotype distribution and to determine whether this distribution differs for the available sampling points in the broiler supply chain. Data covered the period from 2002 to 2005, all slaughterhouses (n = 22), and the following 6 sampling points: departure from hatchery, arrival at the farm, departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, departure from the slaughterhouse, and end of processing. Furthermore, retail data for 2005 were used for comparison with slaughterhouse data. The following serotypes were followed throughout the chain: Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Paratyphi B var. Java (Salmonella Java), Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Virchow, and Salmonella Mbandaka. Results showed that serotype distribution varied significantly throughout the supply chain (P < 0.05). Main differences were found at the farm and at the slaughterhouse (within one stage), and least differences were found between departure from one stage and arrival at the next stage. The most prominent result was the increase of Salmonella Java at farm level. This serotype remained the most prominent pathogen throughout the broiler supply chain up to the retail phase.
Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of plane of nutrition on performance, leukocyte responses, and the pathophysiological response to an oral Salmonella typhimurium challenge in Jersey calves. In experiment 1, forty-six (2 ± 1 days of age) calves were randomly assigned to 2 die...
Wright, Jennifer G.; Tengelsen, Leslie A.; Smith, Kirk E.; Bender, Jeff B.; Frank, Rodney K.; Grendon, John H.; Rice, Daniel H.; Thiessen, Ann Marie B.; Gilbertson, Catherine Jo; Sivapalasingam, Sumathi; Barrett, Timothy J.; Besser, Thomas E.; Hancock, Dale D.
In 1999 and 2000, 3 state health departments reported 4 outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in employees, clients, and client animals from 3 companion animal veterinary clinics and 1 animal shelter. More than 45 persons and companion animals became ill. Four independent investigations resulted in the testing of 19 human samples and >200 animal samples; 18 persons and 36 animals were culture-positive for S. Typhimurium. One outbreak was due to multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium R-type ACKSSuT, while the other 3 were due to multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium R-type ACSSuT DT104. This report documents nosocomial transmission of S. Typhimurium and demonstrates that companion animal facilities may serve as foci of transmission for salmonellae between animals and humans if adequate precautions are not followed. PMID:16102313
Effect of dietary mannanoligosaccharide and sodium chlorate on the growth performance, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding of weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium.
Burkey, T E; Dritz, S S; Nietfeld, J C; Johnson, B J; Minton, J E
A 28-d experiment evaluated the growth, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding patterns in pigs (n = 96; initially 6.8 +/- 1.3 kg) fed mannanoligosaccharides (MANNAN) and sodium chlorate (CHLORATE) before and after oral challenge with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ST). The negative control diet contained no antimicrobial (CON), and the positive control contained carbadox (CARB; 55 ppm). Test diets contained (as-fed basis) MANNAN (1,500 ppm) or CHLORATE (800 ppm). Pigs were fed diets for 14 d and then given ST orally. Pigs fed CARB had greater ADG over the entire study than pigs from other treatments (P < 0.05). During wk 1 to 2, before ST challenge, feed intake (as-fed basis) was lower for pigs fed MANNAN and CHLORATE than pigs fed CARB (P < 0.05). During the final 2 wk, pigs fed CARB had greater feed intake than pigs on other treatments (P < 0.05). Gain/feed was greater for pigs fed CARB in the 2 wk before ST (P < 0.05); however, in wk 3 to 4 after ST, gain/feed was reduced for CON pigs compared to pigs on other treatments (P < 0.05). Serum IGF-I was decreased at 2 and 4 d after ST (P < 0.001), and, overall, IGF-I was greater in pigs fed CARB than CON or CHLORATE (P < 0.05). Serum haptoglobin concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) for all treatments at d 6 compared with d 13 after ST. Overall, haptoglobin was greater for MANNAN than for CARB and CHLORATE (P < 0.05) and tended to be increased (P < 0.06) relative to CON. Interleukin-6 was not affected by treatment or day post-ST challenge. Fecal shedding of salmonellae organisms was less for CHLORATE (P < 0.05) than all other treatments at 7 d after ST. Shedding scores decreased from d 7 to 14 after ST (P < 0.05) for the CON, CARB, and MANNAN treatments. We conclude that feeding MANNAN and CHLORATE before acute enteric disease challenge may support improved gut function as evidenced by improved gain/feed, and that CHLORATE may decrease bacterial shedding. But neither MANNAN nor CHLORATE enhanced
Nabbut, N. H.; Barbour, E. K.; Al-Nakhli, H. M.
A total of 264 salmonellae representing 65 different species and serotypes were isolated for the first time in Saudi Arabia, from various animal species, animal feed, sewage, and sludge. The six most frequently isolated Salmonella species or serotypes were: livingstone, concord, “S. schottmuelleri” (invalid), lille, S. typhimurium, and cerro. PMID:6983931
... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.120 Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. Salmonella Typhimurium...
Assessing the effect of sodium dichloroisocyanurate concentration on transfer of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in wash water for production of minimally processed iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).
Maffei, D F; Sant'Ana, A S; Monteiro, G; Schaffner, D W; Franco, B D G M
This study evaluated the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 250 mg l(-1) ) in wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from contaminated lettuce to wash water and then to other noncontaminated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water. Experiments were designed mimicking the conditions commonly seen in minimally processed vegetable (MPV) processing plants in Brazil. The scenarios were as follows: (1) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in nonchlorinated water, followed by washing 10 noninoculated portions sequentially. (2) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in chlorinated water followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (3) Washing five inoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (4) Washing five noninoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five inoculated portions sequentially and then by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially in the same water. Salm. Typhimurium transfer from inoculated lettuce to wash water and further dissemination to noninoculated lettuces occurred when nonchlorinated water was used (scenario 1). When chlorinated water was used (scenarios 2, 3 and 4), no measurable Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred if the sanitizer was ≥10 mg l(-1) . Use of sanitizers in correct concentrations is important to minimize the risk of microbial transfer during MPV washing. In this study, the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in the wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from inoculated lettuce to wash water and then to other noninoculated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water was evaluated. The use of chlorinated water, at concentration above 10 mg l(-1) , effectively prevented Salm. Typhimurium transfer under several different washing scenarios. Conversely, when nonchlorinated water was used, Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred in
Kariuki, Samuel; Okoro, Chinyere; Kiiru, John; Njoroge, Samuel; Omuse, Geoffrey; Langridge, Gemma; Kingsley, Robert A; Dougan, Gordon; Revathi, Gunturu
Multidrug-resistant bacteria pose a major challenge to the clinical management of infections in resource-poor settings. Although nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) bacteria cause predominantly enteric self-limiting illness in developed countries, NTS is responsible for a huge burden of life-threatening bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we characterized nine S. Typhimurium isolates from an outbreak involving patients who initially failed to respond to ceftriaxone treatment at a referral hospital in Kenya. These Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, cefepime, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and cefpodoxime. Resistance to β-lactams, including to ceftriaxone, was associated with carriage of a combination of blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-1, and blaTEM-1 genes. The genes encoding resistance to heavy-metal ions were borne on the novel IncHI2 plasmid pKST313, which also carried a pair of class 1 integrons. All nine isolates formed a single clade within S. Typhimurium ST313, the major clone of an ongoing invasive NTS epidemic in the region. This emerging ceftriaxone-resistant clone may pose a major challenge in the management of invasive NTS in sub-Saharan Africa.
Okoro, Chinyere; Kiiru, John; Omuse, Geoffrey; Langridge, Gemma; Kingsley, Robert A.; Dougan, Gordon; Revathi, Gunturu
Multidrug-resistant bacteria pose a major challenge to the clinical management of infections in resource-poor settings. Although nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) bacteria cause predominantly enteric self-limiting illness in developed countries, NTS is responsible for a huge burden of life-threatening bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we characterized nine S. Typhimurium isolates from an outbreak involving patients who initially failed to respond to ceftriaxone treatment at a referral hospital in Kenya. These Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, cefepime, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and cefpodoxime. Resistance to β-lactams, including to ceftriaxone, was associated with carriage of a combination of blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-1, and blaTEM-1 genes. The genes encoding resistance to heavy-metal ions were borne on the novel IncHI2 plasmid pKST313, which also carried a pair of class 1 integrons. All nine isolates formed a single clade within S. Typhimurium ST313, the major clone of an ongoing invasive NTS epidemic in the region. This emerging ceftriaxone-resistant clone may pose a major challenge in the management of invasive NTS in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25779570
Sukhnanand, Sharinne; Alcaine, Sam; Warnick, Lorin D.; Su, Wan-Lin; Hof, Jessica; Craver, Mary Pat J.; McDonough, Patrick; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin
While serotyping and phage typing have been used widely to characterize Salmonella isolates, sensitive subtyping methods that allow for evolutionary analyses are essential for examining Salmonella transmission, ecology, and evolution. A set of 25 Salmonella enterica isolates, representing five clinically relevant serotypes (serotypes Agona, Heidelberg, Schwarzengrund, Typhimurium, and Typhimurium var. Copenhagen) was initially used to develop a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Salmonella targeting seven housekeeping and virulence genes (panB, fimA, aceK, mdh, icdA, manB, and spaN). A total of eight MLST types were found among the 25 isolates sequenced. A good correlation between MLST types and Salmonella serotypes was observed; only one serotype Typhimurium var. Copenhagen isolate displayed an MLST type otherwise typical for serotype Typhimurium isolates. Since manB, fimA, and mdh allowed for the highest subtype discrimination among the initial 25 isolates, we chose these three genes to perform DNA sequencing of an additional 41 Salmonella isolates representing a larger diversity of serotypes. This “three-gene sequence typing scheme” allowed discrimination of 25 sequence types (STs) among a total of 66 isolates; STs correlated well with serotypes and allowed within-serotype differentiation for 9 of the 12 serotypes characterized. Phylogenetic analyses showed that serotypes Kentucky and Newport could each be separated into two distinct, statistically well supported evolutionary lineages. Our results show that a three-gene sequence typing scheme allows for accurate serotype prediction and for limited subtype discrimination among clinically relevant serotypes of Salmonella. Three-gene sequence typing also supports the notion that Salmonella serotypes represent both monophyletic and polyphyletic lineages. PMID:16081897
Soyer, Y.; Moreno Switt, A.; Davis, M. A.; Maurer, J.; McDonough, P. L.; Schoonmaker-Bopp, D. J.; Dumas, N. B.; Root, T.; Warnick, L. D.; Gröhn, Y. T.; Wiedmann, M.
The prevalence, among human clinical cases, of Salmonella enterica serotype 4,5,12:i:−, a serotype antigenically similar to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium but lacking second-phase flagellar antigens, has increased considerably over the last 10 years. To probe the evolution and ecology of this emerging serotype, we characterized 190 Salmonella isolates initially classified as Salmonella serotypes 4,5,12:i:− (n = 90) and Typhimurium (n = 100) and obtained from various sources in the United States and Spain. These isolates were characterized into six sequence types (determined by multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) and 79 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types. The majority of Salmonella serotype 4,5,12:i:− and Typhimurium isolates (85 and 84 isolates, respectively) represented a single MLST type. Existing genome information revealed different genome deletions (which included genes responsible for phase 2 flagellum expression) in four Spanish Salmonella serotype 4,5,12:i:− isolates and one U.S. Salmonella serotype 4,5,12:i:− isolate. Fifty-nine isolates of both serotypes, representing different sources and geographical locations as well as different molecular subtypes, were thus screened for the presence of six genes and one specific region, all of which were previously found to show variable presence among Salmonella serotype 4,5,12:i:− and Typhimurium strains. All Salmonella serotype 4,5,12:i:− isolates lacked the phase 2 flagella genes fljA and fljB, which were present in all Salmonella serotype Typhimurium isolates. While all Spanish Salmonella serotype 4,5,12:i:− isolates carried the same deletion surrounding fljAB, all but two U.S. isolates showed a different genomic deletion; the two atypical U.S. isolates represented the “Spanish” deletion genotype and a unique deletion genotype. Salmonella serotype 4,5,12:i:− thus appears to represent at least two common clones, which cannot easily be differentiated with standard diagnostic
Aabo, S; Christensen, J P; Chadfield, M S; Carstensen, B; Olsen, J E; Bisgaard, M
The aim of the present study was to compare the invasion of selected zoonotic Salmonella serotypes of poultry in an in vivo chicken intestinal loop model and also in vitro in epithelial cell cultures. Invasion was measured relative to a reference strain, Salmonella Typhimurium 4/74 invH201::TnphoA. Two serotypes demonstrated intracellular log(10) counts that differed significantly from all other serotypes tested: Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 being 1.5 log(10) colony forming units (CFU) (31-fold) higher, and Salmonella Tennessee being 0.7 log(10) CFU (fivefold) lower than the reference strain (P < or = 0.0001). A group of serotypes, which can be vertically transmitted, showed significantly higher intracellular counts (fourfold to eightfold) than the reference strain. The group included S. Typhimurium 4/74, S. Typhimurium DT104 (poultry and porcine isolates), S. Enteritidis PT1, S. Enteritidis PT6, S. Enteritidis PT8, and Salmonella Berta. The serotypes Salmonella Hadar, Salmonella Virchow, S. 4,12:b:-, S. Typhimurium DT41, and Salmonella Infantis, most of which are considered horizontally transmitted, did not show significantly different intracellular counts from the reference strain. Results from the cell culture invasion studies agreed with the in vivo data, with the exception of S. Berta and the poultry isolate of S. Typhimurium DT104.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.120 Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella typhimurium which has been inactivated and...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.120 Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella typhimurium which has been inactivated and...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.120 Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella typhimurium which has been inactivated and...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.120 Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella typhimurium which has been inactivated and...
Oral administration of the Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt to laying hens at day of hatch reduces shedding and caecal colonization of Salmonella 4,12:i:-, the monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium.
Kilroy, Sofie; Raspoet, Ruth; Devloo, Rosalie; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip
A new monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica serotype 4,12:i:-, is rapidly emerging. This serotype is now considered to be among the 10 most common serovars isolated from humans in many countries in Europe and in the United States. The public health risk posed by these emerging monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium strains is considered comparable to that of classical Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The serotype 4,12:i:- is frequently isolated from pigs but also poultry are carrying strains from this serotype. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of the Salmonella Typhimurium strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt, a strain contained in the commercially available live vaccines AviPro Salmonella Duo and AviPro Salmonella VacT, against infection with the emerging monophasic variant in poultry. Three independent trials were conducted. In all trials, laying type chicks were orally vaccinated with the Salmonella Typhimurium strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt at d hatch, while the birds were challenged the next d with a different infection dose in each trial (low, high, and intermediate). For the intermediate-dose study, a seeder bird model was used in which one out of 3 animals were infected while all individual birds were infected in the other trials. Data obtained from each independent trial show that oral administration of the Salmonella Typhimurium strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt at d hatch reduced shedding, caecal, and internal organ colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium 4,12:i:-, administered at d 2 life. This indicates that Salmonella Typhimurium strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt can help to control Salmonella 4,12:i:- infections in poultry.
Handa, Hitesh; Gurczynski, Stephen; Jackson, Matthew P.; Auner, Gregory; Walker, Jeremy; Mao, Guangzhao
Phages are promising alternatives to antibodies as the biorecognition element in a variety of biosensing applications. In this study, a monolayer of bacteriophage P22 whose tailspike proteins specifically recognize Salmonella serotypes was covalently bound to glass substrates through a bifunctional cross linker 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The specific binding of Salmonella typhimurium to the phage monolayer was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and atomic force microscopy. Escherichia coli and a Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes were also studied as control bacteria. The P22 particles show strong binding affinity to S. typhimurium. In addition, the dried P22 monolayer maintained 50% binding capacity to S. typhimurium after a one-week storage time. This is a promising method to prepare phage monolayer coatings on surface plasmon resonance and acoustic biosensor substrates in order to utilize the nascent phage display technology.
Bäumler, A J; Heffron, F
A chromosomal region present in Salmonella typhimurium but absent from related species was identified by hybridization. A DNA probe originating from 78 min on the S. typhimurium chromosome hybridized with DNA from Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella heidelberg, and Salmonella dublin but not with DNA from Salmonella typhi, Salmonella arizonae, Escherichia coli, and Shigella serotypes. Cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the corresponding region of the S. typhimurium chromosome encodes a fimbrial operon. Long fimbriae inserted at the poles of the bacterium were observed by electron microscopy when this fimbrial operon was introduced into a nonpiliated E. coli strain. The genes encoding these fimbriae were therefore termed lpfABCDE, for long polar fimbriae. Genetically, the lpf operon was found to be most closely related to the fim operon of S. typhimurium, both in gene order and in conservation of the deduced amino acid sequences. PMID:7721701
Li, Ruichao; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Wu, Congming
Salmonella is one of the most important foodborne pathogens, which causes a huge economic burden worldwide. To detect Salmonella rapidly is very meaningful in preventing salmonellosis and decreasing economic losses. Currently, isolation of Salmonella is confirmed by biochemical and serobased serotyping methods, which are time consuming, labor intensive, and complicated. To solve this problem, a hexa-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed using comparative genomics analysis and multiplex PCR technology to detect Salmonella and Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Choleraesuis, and Salmonella Pullorum simultaneously. The accuracy of this method was tested by a collection of 142 Salmonella. Furthermore, the strategy described in this article to mine serovar-specific fragments for Salmonella could be used to find specific fragments for other Salmonella serotypes and bacteria. The combination of this strategy and multiplex PCR is promising in the rapid identification of foodborne pathogens.
Zhang, Guodong; Ma, Li; Patel, Nehal; Swaminathan, Bala; Wedel, Stephanie; Doyle, Michael P
During May and June of 2005, 26 persons in several states were infected by a single strain (isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium after eating cake batter ice cream. The cake mix used to prepare the cake batter in the ice cream was implicated by epidemiologic investigation as the source of Salmonella contamination. Initial tests did not detect Salmonella in cake mix collected during the outbreak investigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate different procedures to isolate Salmonella from the implicated cake mix, cake, and ice cream. All outbreak-associated food samples (14 samples) were collected during the outbreak investigation by health departments of several of the states involved. Different combinations of Salmonella isolation procedures, including sample size, preenrichment broth, enrichment broth, enrichment temperature, and isolation medium, were used. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from two cake mix samples; the food isolates were indistinguishable from the outbreak pattern by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. Universal preenrichment broth was substantially better than was lactose broth for preenrichment, and tetrathionate broth was better than was Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth for isolating Salmonella from the two positive cake mix samples. Although more typical Salmonella colonies were observed on plates from enrichment cultures grown at 35 degrees C, more confirmed Salmonella isolates were obtained from plates of enrichment cultures grown at 42 degrees C. Brilliant green agar, xylose lysine tergitol 4 agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate agar, Hektoen enteric agar, and bismuth sulfite agar plates were equally effective in isolating Salmonella from cake mix. The best combination of preenrichment-enrichment conditions for isolating the outbreak strain of Salmonella was preenrichment of cake mix samples in universal preenrichment broth at 35 degrees C for 24 h
McAuley, Catherine M.; Duffy, Lesley L.; Subasinghe, Nela; Hogg, Geoff; Coventry, John; Fegan, Narelle
Salmonellosis in Australia has been linked to eggs and egg products with specific serotypes associated with outbreaks. We compared attachment to and survival on egg shells and growth in eggs of two Salmonella serotypes, an egg outbreak associated Salmonella Typhimurium and a non-egg-associated Salmonella enterica ssp. II 1,4,12,27:b:[e,n,x] (S. Sofia). Experiments were conducted at combinations of 4, 15, 22, 37 and 42°C. No significant differences occurred between the serotypes in maximum growth rates, which were significantly greater (P < 0.001) in egg yolk (0.427 log10 CFU/mL/h) compared to whole egg (0.312 log10 CFU/mL/h) and egg white (0.029 log10 CFU/mL/h). Attachment to egg shells varied by time (1 or 20 min) and temperature (4, 22 and 42°C), with S. Typhimurium isolates attaching at higher levels (P < 0.05) than S. Sofia after 1 min at 4°C and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 attaching at higher (P < 0.05) levels at 22°C. Survival on egg shells was not significantly different across isolates. Salmonella serotypes behaved similarly regarding growth in egg contents, attachment to egg shells and survival on eggs, indicating that other factors more likely contributed to reasons for S. Typhimurium being implicated in multiple egg-associated outbreaks. PMID:26539536
Long, M; Lai, H; Deng, W; Zhou, K; Li, B; Liu, S; Fan, L; Wang, H; Zou, L
The study aimed to serotype the Salmonella isolates recovered from chicken and egg production chains, and to investigate the disinfectant resistance phenotypes and genotypes of these isolates. The Salmonella isolates were serotyped, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of disinfectants were determined. Results showed that the Salmonella isolates recovered from both chains were diverse, and the serotypes in each part of the production chain and between the two production chains were significantly different. In the chicken production chain, 19 different serotypes were recovered, while only five serotypes were found in the egg production chain. The isolates showed a high susceptibility to didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) but a low susceptibility to benzalkonium chloride (BC), benzalkonium bromide (BAB) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium were more resistant to BC and BAB. The qacEΔ1 and qacF resistance genes were detected in 26·7 and 7·7% of the isolates respectively. The qacEΔ1 gene was frequently found in Salmonella Derby and Salm. Enteritidis (P < 0·05). Our findings indicated that Salmonella was commonly present in both chains, and could serve as a critical vector in spreading disinfectant resistance associated with different serotypes. This study first demonstrated disinfectant resistance phenotypes and genotypes of serotyped Salmonella. The study highlights the need for monitoring the disinfectant resistance varied in different Salmonella serotypes. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Jackson, Brendan R; Griffin, Patricia M; Cole, Dana; Walsh, Kelly A; Chai, Shua J
Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998-2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Hadar were attributed to eggs or poultry, whereas >50% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Javiana, Litchfield, Mbandaka, Muenchen, Poona, and Senftenberg were attributed to plant commodities. Serotypes Typhimurium and Newport were associated with a wide variety of food commodities. Knowledge about these associations can help guide outbreak investigations and control measures.
Shuai-Cheng, Wu; Ben-Dong, Fu; Xiu-Ling, Chu; Jian-Qing, Su; Yun-Xing, Fu; Zhen-Qiang, Cui; Dao-Xiu, Xu; Zong-Mei, Wu
Phloretin, a natural component of many fruits, exhibits anti-virulence effects and provides a new alternative to counter bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin on the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium. At concentrations where growth of Salmonella was not inhibited, phloretin significantly inhibited bacteria biofilm formation and motility. Subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin repressed eight genes involved in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 3 genes involved in flagella production. Furthermore, subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin inhibited the adhesion and invasion of Salmonella in IEC-6 cells and reduced the LDH levels of S. typhimurium-infected IEC-6 cells. Additionally, phloretin significantly decreased the cecum bacterial loads of the mice infected with live S. typhimurium containing subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin by gavage. These results suggested that subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin attenuate the virulence of S. typhimurium and protect against S. typhimurium infection.
Reddy, Shanker P; Wang, Hua; Adams, Jennifer K; Feng, Peter C H
Salmonella continues to rank as one of the most costly foodborne pathogens, and more illnesses are now associated with the consumption of fresh produce. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Microbiological Data Program (MDP) sampled select commodities of fresh fruit and vegetables and tested them for Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and Listeria. The Salmonella strains isolated were further characterized by serotype, antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile. This article summarizes the Salmonella data collected by the MDP between 2002 and 2012. The results show that the rates of Salmonella prevalence ranged from absent to 0.34% in cilantro. A total of 152 isolates consisting of over 50 different serotypes were isolated from the various produce types, and the top five were Salmonella enterica serotype Cubana, S. enterica subspecies arizonae (subsp. IIIa) and diarizonae (subsp. IIIb), and S. enterica serotypes Newport, Javiana, and Infantis. Among these, Salmonella serotypes Newport and Javiana are also listed among the top five Salmonella serotypes that caused most foodborne outbreaks. Other serotypes that are frequent causes of infection, such as S. enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis, were also found in fresh produce but were not prevalent. About 25% of the MDP samples were imported produce, including 65% of green onions, 44% of tomatoes, 42% of hot peppers, and 41% of cantaloupes. However, imported produce did not show higher numbers of Salmonella-positive samples, and in some products, like cilantro, all of the Salmonella isolates were from domestic samples. About 6.5% of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to the antimicrobial compounds tested, but no single commodity or serotype was found to be the most common carrier of resistant strains or of resistance. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the produce isolates showed similarities with Salmonella isolates from meat samples and from outbreaks, but
Oh, Sang-Ik; Kim, Jong Wan; Chae, Myeongju; Jung, Ji-A; So, Byungjae; Kim, Bumseok; Kim, Ha-Young
This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from clinically diseased pigs collected from 2008 to 2014 in Korea. Isolates were also characterized according to the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Among 94 Salmonella isolates, 81 (86.2%) were identified as being of the Salmonella Typhimurium serotype, followed by Salmonella Derby (6 of 94, 6.4%), Salmonella 4,,12:i:- (4 of 94, 4.3%), Salmonella Enteritidis (2 of 94, 2.1%), and Salmonella Brandenburg (1 of 94, 1.1%). The majority of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were resistant to tetracycline (92.6%), followed by streptomycin (88.9%) and ampicillin (80.2%). Overall, 96.3% of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates showed multidrug-resistant phenotypes and commonly harbored the resistance genes blaTEM (64.9%), flo (32.8%), aadA (55.3%), strA (58.5%), strB (58.5%), sulII (53.2%), and tetA (61.7%). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of 45 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from individual farms revealed 27 distinct patterns that formed one major and two minor clusters in the dendrogram analysis, suggesting that most of the isolates (91.1%) from diseased pigs were genetically related. These findings can assist veterinarians in the selection of appropriate antimicrobial agents to combat Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and genetic status in Salmonella Typhimurium for the detection of emerging resistance trends.
Park, U E; Roth, J R; Olivera, B M
NAD can serve as both a purine and a pyridine source for Salmonella typhimurium. Exogenous NAD is rapidly broken down into nicotinamide mononucleotide and AMP by an NAD pyrophosphatase, the first step in the pathway for the assimilation of exogenous NAD. We isolated and characterized mutants of S. typhimurium lacking NAD pyrophosphatase activity; such mutants were identified by their failure to use exogenous NAD as a purine source. These mutants carry mutations that map at a new locus, designated pnuE, between 86 and 87 min on the Salmonella chromosome. PMID:2841298
Puyalto, C; Colmin, C; Laval, A
The aim of this work was to study the increase in hair contamination by salmonella in cattle between the farm and slaughterhouse and to explore the possible relationship between this contamination and the contamination of carcasses and of the ground beef made from these animals. Between April 1994 and May 1995, eight groups of ten cows were sampled at different stages during transportation between the farm and the slaughterhouse and on the slaughterline. For each group, one or two cows were included in each group because they had been shown to excrete Salmonella typhimurium 15 days before slaughtering. Samples were collected from the animals (faeces, hide, carcasses, lymph nodes, ears), from the environment (vehicles, cubicles, loading corridor, stunning area) and from the final product (ground beef). The hair samples as well as the environmental samples were the most frequently contaminated (26 to 69%). Eleven different salmonella serotypes were identified, with a maximum of three different serotypes per sample. The typhimurium serotype was isolated from 67% of the positive samples. For the animals leaving the farms, the frequency of hair contamination by serotype typhimurium was 8%. The step that most influenced hair contamination seemed to be the transportation to the slaughterhouse with the contamination frequency reaching 25%. The time spent by the animals in the cubicles of the waiting area of the slaughterhouse seemed to have little influence on the frequency of hair contamination. Even though the frequency of coat contamination reached 25% (for serotype typhimurium) at the beginning of the slaughterline, carcass contamination was only 1% before chilling and only involved one group of animals. In this group, hair contamination after slaughter (serotype typhimurium) reached 90% (9/10), and 80% (4/5) of the samples taken from the ground beef were positive (serotype typhimurium). No contamination was detected in the ground meat made from the other groups.
Zheng, Jin Hai
Obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli specifically colonize and proliferate inside tumor tissues and inhibit tumor growth. Among them, attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) has been widely studied in animal cancer models and Phase I clinical trials in human patients. S. typhimurium genes are easily manipulated; thus diverse attenuated strains of S. typhimurium have been designed and engineered as tumor-targeting therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that show both an excellent safety profile and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. An attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, VNP20009, successfully targeted human metastatic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Phase I clinical trials; however, the efficacy requires further refinement. Along with the characteristics of self-targeting, proliferation, and deep tissue penetration, the ease of genetic manipulation allows for the production of more attenuated strains with greater safety profiles and vector systems that deliver designable cargo molecules for cancer diagnosis and/or therapy. Here, we discuss recent progress in the field of Salmonellae-mediated cancer therapy. PMID:27689027
Zheng, Jin Hai; Min, Jung-Joon
Obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli specifically colonize and proliferate inside tumor tissues and inhibit tumor growth. Among them, attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) has been widely studied in animal cancer models and Phase I clinical trials in human patients. S. typhimurium genes are easily manipulated; thus diverse attenuated strains of S. typhimurium have been designed and engineered as tumor-targeting therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that show both an excellent safety profile and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. An attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, VNP20009, successfully targeted human metastatic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Phase I clinical trials; however, the efficacy requires further refinement. Along with the characteristics of self-targeting, proliferation, and deep tissue penetration, the ease of genetic manipulation allows for the production of more attenuated strains with greater safety profiles and vector systems that deliver designable cargo molecules for cancer diagnosis and/or therapy. Here, we discuss recent progress in the field of Salmonellae-mediated cancer therapy.
Madajczak, Grzegorz; Dera-Tomaszewska, Bozena; Wasiak, Monika; Chróst, Anna; Szych, Jolanta
Two molecular biology methods were used to differentiate Salmonella enterica 1,4,,12:i:- strains: "Salmonella Check&Trace microarray" (CT) and multiplex PCR (mPCR). For 92 strains in CT result "Salmonella 1,4,,12:i:-" were obtained. Those strains were confirmed in mPCR as monophasic fljB-lack Salmonella Typhimurium. For 17 strains, which in CT assay were recognized as Salmonella Typhimurium, the same identification was obtained in mPCR. Reference Salmonella strains: Lagos, Agama, Tsevie, Glocester and Tumodi in CT were recognized as Salmonella genovar, in mPCR--as Salmonella O:4, H:i other than Salmonella Typhimurium, the same like Salmonella Farsta, recognized incorrectly in CT as Salmonella Typhimurium.
Dr. Cheryl Nickerson of Tulane University is studying the effects of simulated low-g on a well-known pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that causes two to four million cases of gastrointestinal illness in the United States each year. While most healthy people recover readily, S. typhimurium can kill people with weakened immune systems. Thus, a simple case of food poisoning could disrupt a space mission. Using the NASA rotating-wall bioreactor, Nickerson cultured S. typhimurium in modeled microgravity. Mice infected with the bacterium died an average of three days faster than the control mice, indicating that S. typhimurium's virulence was enhanced by the bioreactor. Earlier research showed that 3 percent of the genes were altered by exposure to the bioreactor. Nickerson's work earned her a 2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.
Antony, B; Dias, M; Shetty, A K; Rekha, B
An outbreak of food poisoning due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden ( S.weltevreden ) involving 34 students has been reported from a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore. The symptoms developed 8-10 hours, after consuming a non- vegetarian dish, probably fish, from an outside caterer. The identity of the organism was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli. This report emphasizes the geographical distribution of this organism in the Coastal Karnataka region. S.Weltevreden may be overlooked due to the biochemical similarity to S. Paratyphi B & S. Typhimurium.
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is an important food safety issue in humans and animals. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) has reported that 27.3% of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates in humans were resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics...
Osterberg, Julia; Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg; Wallgren, Per
Feed-borne spread of Salmonella spp. to pigs has been documented several times in recent years in Sweden. Experiences from the field suggest that feed-associated serotypes might be less transmittable and subsequently easier to eradicate from pig herds than other serotypes more commonly associated to pigs. Four Salmonella serotypes were selected for experimental studies in pigs in order to study transmissibility and compare possible differences between feed-associated (S Cubana and S Yoruba) and pig-associated serotypes (S Derby and S Typhimurium). Direct contact transmission was studied in four groups of pigs formed by six 10-week-old salmonella negative pigs commingled with two fatteners excreting one of the four salmonella serotypes. Indirect transmission was studied by putting six 10-week-old salmonella negative pigs in each of four salmonella contaminated rooms. Each room had previously housed a group of pigs, excreting one of the four selected serotypes.All pigs were monitored for two weeks with respect to the faecal excretion of salmonella and the presence of serum antibodies. At the end of the trial, eight samples from inner tissues and organs were collected from each pig at necropsy. In the four direct transmission groups, one pig shed Salmonella (Cubana) at one occasion. At necropsy, S Typhimurium was isolated from one pig.In the indirect transmission groups, two pigs in the Yoruba room and one pig in each of the other rooms were excreting detectable levels of Salmonella once during the study period of two weeks. At necropsy, S Derby was isolated from one of six pigs in the Derby room and S Typhimurium was isolated from four of the six pigs in the Typhimurium room.No significant serological response could be detected in any of the 48 pigs. These results show that all four selected serotypes were able to be transmitted in at least one of these field-like trials, but the transmission rate was low in all groups and no obvious differences between feed
Background Feed-borne spread of Salmonella spp. to pigs has been documented several times in recent years in Sweden. Experiences from the field suggest that feed-associated serotypes might be less transmittable and subsequently easier to eradicate from pig herds than other serotypes more commonly associated to pigs. Four Salmonella serotypes were selected for experimental studies in pigs in order to study transmissibility and compare possible differences between feed-assoociated (S Cubana and S Yoruba) and pig-associated serotypes (S Derby and S Typhimurium). Methods Direct contact transmission was studied in four groups of pigs formed by six 10-week-old salmonella negative pigs commingled with two fatteners excreting one of the four salmonella serotypes. Indirect transmission was studied by putting six 10-week-old salmonella negative pigs in each of four salmonella contaminated rooms. Each room had previously housed a group of pigs, excreting one of the four selected serotypes. All pigs were monitored for two weeks with respect to the faecal excretion of salmonella and the presence of serum antibodies. At the end of the trial, eight samples from inner tissues and organs were collected from each pig at necropsy. Results In the four direct transmission groups, one pig shed Salmonella (Cubana) at one occasion. At necropsy, S Typhimurium was isolated from one pig. In the indirect transmission groups, two pigs in the Yoruba room and one pig in each of the other rooms were excreting detectable levels of Salmonella once during the study period of two weeks. At necropsy, S Derby was isolated from one of six pigs in the Derby room and S Typhimurium was isolated from four of the six pigs in the Typhimurium room. No significant serological response could be detected in any of the 48 pigs. Conclusions These results show that all four selected serotypes were able to be transmitted in at least one of these field-like trials, but the transmission rate was low in all groups and
Parsons, B N; Crayford, G; Humphrey, T J; Wigley, P
Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica poses a particular risk to public health, and in particular isolates belonging to clonal lineages such as Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 cause epidemics across species including poultry. In recent years, antimicrobial-resistant S. Typhimurium DT193 and specifically the monophasic S. Typhimurium-like variants of this phage type, serotypes 4,12:i:- and 4,5,12:i:-, have become an increasing risk to public health in Europe and the USA and now account for nearly one-half of human S. Typhimurium infections in the UK. Unlike S. Typhimurium that possesses two forms of flagella which can vary between phase 1 and phase 2 during infection, monophasic variants possess only phase 1 flagella. These monophasic antimicrobial-resistant variants have become a major problem in pig production but human cases have also been associated with poultry consumption and have been found in UK flocks through surveillance schemes since 2010. In this study we determined the ability of antimicrobial-resistant DT193 serotype 4,12:i:- and 4,5,12:i:- isolates from pigs to infect chickens. All isolates were found to colonize the caeca and liver. All but one isolate of serotype 4,5,12:i:- also infected the spleen. Levels of infection and pathology were comparable with those found with the virulent S. Typhimurium isolate 4/74. These findings indicate that both S. Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic variants of this phage type usually associated with pigs are capable of colonizing the chicken. This shows that both S. Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic variants represent a significant and potential emerging threat to poultry production from "spill-over" of these isolates from the pig industry or other sources.
This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...
Wang, Huhu; Ding, Shijie; Dong, Yang; Ye, Keping; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong
Salmonella attached to meat contact surfaces encountered in meat processing facilities may serve as a source of cross-contamination. In this study, the influence of serotypes and media on biofilm formation of Salmonella was investigated in a simulated meat processing environment, and the relationships between biofilm formation and cell characteristics were also determined. All six serotypes (Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg, Salmonella Derby, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Indiana, Salmonella Infantis, and Salmonella Typhimurium) can readily form biofilms on stainless steel surfaces, and the amounts of biofilms were significantly influenced by the serotypes, incubation media, and incubation time used in this study. Significant differences in cell surface hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, motility, and growth kinetic parameters were observed between individual serotypes tested. Except for growth kinetic parameters, the cell characteristics were correlated with the ability of biofilm formation incubated in tryptic soy broth, whereas no correlation with biofilm formation incubated in meat thawing-loss broth (an actual meat substrate) was found. Salmonella grown in meat thawing-loss broth showed a "cloud-shaped" morphology in the mature biofilm, whereas when grown in tryptic soy broth it had a "reticulum-shaped" appearance. Our study provides some practical information to understand the process of biofilm formation on meat processing contact surfaces.
Edrington, T S; Schultz, C L; Bischoff, K M; Callaway, T R; Looper, M L; Genovese, K J; Jung, Y S; McReynolds, J L; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J
Mature dairy cattle were sampled over a 2-year period (2001-2002) on six farms in New Mexico and Texas. Fecal samples (n = 1560) were collected via rectal palpation and cultured for Salmonella, and one isolate from each positive sample was serotyped. Three isolates of each serotype, with the exception of Salmonella Newport (n = 12), were examined for susceptibility to 17 antimicrobial agents. Twenty-two different serotypes were identified from a total of 393 Salmonella isolates. Montevideo was the predominant serotype (27%) followed by Mbandaka (15%), Senftenberg (11.4%), Newport (6.4%), Anatum (4.8%), and Give (4.8%). Salmonella Typhimurium and Dublin, two frequently reported serotypes, accounted for only 1% of the observed serotypes in this study. Sixty-four percent of the serotypes were susceptible to all 17 antimicrobials, 14% were resistant to a single agent, and 22% were multiresistant (2-11 types of resistance). All isolates tested were susceptible to amikacin, apramycin, imipenem, ceftriaxone, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin. The most frequent types of resistance were to sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, streptomycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin (ranging from 8.9 to 22.4%). Serotypes demonstrating multiple resistance included Dublin and Give (resistant to three or more antibiotics), Typhimurium (resistant to five antibiotics), and Newport (four and two isolates resistant to six and nine antibiotics, respectively). Class 1 integrons were present in only two Salmonella Dublin isolates and one Salmonella Newport isolate. The most prevalent resistance patterns observed in this study were toward antimicrobial agents commonly used in cattle, while all Salmonella isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin, antibiotics used in human medicine.
Use of a LightCycler gyrA Mutation Assay for Rapid Identification of Mutations Conferring Decreased Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin in Multiresistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium DT104 Isolates
Walker, R. A.; Saunders, N.; Lawson, A. J.; Lindsay, E. A.; Dassama, M.; Ward, L. R.; Woodward, M. J.; Davies, R. H.; Liebana, E.; Threlfall, E. J.
A LightCycler-based PCR-hybridization gyrA mutation assay (GAMA) was developed to rapidly detect gyrA point mutations in multiresistant (MR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.25 to 1.0 mg/liter). Ninety-two isolates (49 human, 43 animal) were tested with three individual oligonucleotide probes directed against an Asp-87-to-Asn (GAC→AAC) mutation, an Asp-87-to-Gly (GAC→GGC) mutation, and a Ser-83-to-Phe (TCC→TTC) mutation. Strains homologous to the probes could be distinguished from strains that had different mutations by their probe-target melting temperatures. Thirty-seven human and 30 animal isolates had an Asp-87-to-Asn substitution, 6 human and 6 animal isolates had a Ser-83-to-Phe substitution, and 5 human and 2 animal isolates had an Asp-87-to-Gly substitution. The remaining six strains all had mismatches with the three probes and therefore different gyrA mutations. The sequencing of gyrA from these six isolates showed that one human strain and two animal strains had an Asp-87-to-Tyr (GAC→TAC) substitution and two animal strains had a Ser-83-to-Tyr (TCC→TAC) substitution. One animal strain had no gyrA mutation, suggesting that this isolate had a different mechanism of resistance. Fifty-eight of the strains tested were indistinguishable by several different typing methods including antibiograms, pulsed-field gel gel electrophoresis, and plasmid profiling, although they could be further subdivided according to gyrA mutation. This study confirmed that MR DT104 with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin from humans and food animals in England and Wales may have arisen independently against a background of clonal spread of MR DT104. PMID:11283069
Pulido-Landínez, Martha; Washington, Paul; Thornton, Jay Kay; Zhang, Yi; Sánchez-Ingunza, Roxana; Banda, Alejandro; Guard, Jean; Nascimento, Vladimir P; Magee, Danny L; Mauel, Michael J
To obtain information about Salmonella from commercial birds and poultry environments within Mississippi, 50 Salmonella enterica isolates were collected and characterized by intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR) serotyping and by determining antimicrobial resistance. ISR assigned serotype to all 50 Salmonella enterica isolates whereas the Kauffman-White-LeMinor antibody-based scheme assigned serotype to 48. Agreement between both methods was K = 89.58. Within the set, 12 serotypes were detected. The antimicrobial resistance patterns (ARP) of 12 serotypes, namely Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Kentucky, Bredeney, Mbandaka, Saintpaul, Montevideo, Cubana, Lille, Senftenberg, Johannesburg, and one serotype UN0094, were determined using minimum inhibitory concentration values. The antibiograms demonstrated differences between Salmonella serotypes and among isolates of the same serotype. All isolates were 100% susceptible to enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The number of antimicrobials to which the isolates were resistant ranged from two to nine. Twenty-two different ARPs were identified and ARP1, with resistance to spectinomycin and sulfadimethoxine, was most frequently observed. Forty isolates (80%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials and were thus designated multidrug resistant. Detection of a unique serotype, and variation in antibiograms within the set, demonstrates that it is important to survey isolates periodically from a region to follow epidemiologic trends.
Vaz, Jacqueline Boldrin; Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Junior, Angelo Berchieri; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium synthesizes cobalamin (vitamin B12) only during anaerobiosis. Two percent of the S. Typhimurium genome is devoted to the synthesis and uptake of vitamin B12 and to B12-dependent reactions. To understand the requirement for cobalamin synthesis better, we constructed mutants of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Pullorum that are double-defective in cobalamin biosynthesis (ΔcobSΔcbiA). We compared the virulence of these mutants to that of their respective wild type strains and found no impairment in their ability to cause disease in chickens. We then assessed B12 production in these mutants and their respective wild type strains, as well as in S. Typhimurium ΔcobSΔcbiA, Salmonella Gallinarum ΔcobSΔcbiA, and their respective wild type strains. None of the mutants was able to produce detectable B12. B12 was detectable in S. Enteritidis, S. Pullorum and S. Typhimurium wild type strains but not in S. Gallinarum. In conclusion, the production of vitamin B12in vitro differed across the tested Salmonella serotypes and the deletion of the cbiA and cobS genes resulted in different levels of alteration in the host parasite interaction according to Salmonella serotype tested. PMID:24031771
Tamminga, S. K.; Beumer, R. R.; Kampelmacher, E. H.; van Leusden, F. M.
Milk chocolate mass containing salmonellas was prepared by mixing artificially contaminated milk powder with the other ingredients at a temperature of about 40 °C. From this mass bars were made. Two series were prepared, with S. eastbourne and S. typhimurium respectively. The number of surviving salmonellas was counted after various periods of storage, up to 19 months. S. eastbourne was reduced in numbers during 19 months from an initial count of ca. 3 × 104 to ca. 3 × 102 per 100 g of chocolate. S. typhimurium died off more rapidly, and was not detectable in about 55 g after 15 months, in spite of an initial count of ca. 105 per 100 g. In these experiments the salmonellas in the milk powder had had to survive the spraying procedure and the adverse conditions in the dried powder. This may be the reason why S. eastbourne showed a distinctly better survival on storage than the same serotype showed in previous experiments in which the organism was added as a broth culture to the chocolate mix. With S. typhimurium, however, such a difference was hardly detectable. Possible explanations of these results are discussed. PMID:336788
Ivanek, Renata; Österberg, Julia; Gautam, Raju; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna
Despite the public health importance of Salmonella infection in pigs, little is known about the associated dynamics of fecal shedding and immunity. In this study, we investigated the transitions of pigs through the states of Salmonella fecal shedding and immune response post-Salmonella inoculation as affected by the challenge dose and serotype. Continuous-time multistate Markov models were developed using published experimental data. The model for shedding had four transient states, of which two were shedding (continuous and intermittent shedding) and two non-shedding (latency and intermittent non-shedding), and one absorbing state representing permanent cessation of shedding. The immune response model had two transient states representing responses below and above the seroconversion level. The effects of two doses [low (0.65×10(6) CFU/pig) and high (0.65×10(9) CFU/pig)] and four serotypes (Salmonella Yoruba, Salmonella Cubana, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Salmonella Derby) on the models' transition intensities were evaluated using a proportional intensities model. Results indicated statistically significant effects of the challenge dose and serotype on the dynamics of shedding and immune response. The time spent in the specific states was also estimated. Continuous shedding was on average 10-26 days longer, while intermittent non-shedding was 2-4 days shorter, in pigs challenged with the high compared to low dose. Interestingly, among pigs challenged with the high dose, the continuous and intermittent shedding states were on average up to 10-17 and 3-4 days longer, respectively, in pigs infected with S. Cubana compared to the other three serotypes. Pigs challenged with the high dose of S. Typhimurium or S. Derby seroconverted on average up to 8-11 days faster compared to the low dose. These findings highlight that Salmonella fecal shedding and immune response following Salmonella challenge are dose- and serotype-dependent and that the detection of specific
Ivanek, Renata; Österberg, Julia; Gautam, Raju; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna
Despite the public health importance of Salmonella infection in pigs, little is known about the associated dynamics of fecal shedding and immunity. In this study, we investigated the transitions of pigs through the states of Salmonella fecal shedding and immune response post-Salmonella inoculation as affected by the challenge dose and serotype. Continuous-time multistate Markov models were developed using published experimental data. The model for shedding had four transient states, of which two were shedding (continuous and intermittent shedding) and two non-shedding (latency and intermittent non-shedding), and one absorbing state representing permanent cessation of shedding. The immune response model had two transient states representing responses below and above the seroconversion level. The effects of two doses [low (0.65×106 CFU/pig) and high (0.65×109 CFU/pig)] and four serotypes (Salmonella Yoruba, Salmonella Cubana, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Salmonella Derby) on the models' transition intensities were evaluated using a proportional intensities model. Results indicated statistically significant effects of the challenge dose and serotype on the dynamics of shedding and immune response. The time spent in the specific states was also estimated. Continuous shedding was on average 10–26 days longer, while intermittent non-shedding was 2–4 days shorter, in pigs challenged with the high compared to low dose. Interestingly, among pigs challenged with the high dose, the continuous and intermittent shedding states were on average up to 10–17 and 3–4 days longer, respectively, in pigs infected with S. Cubana compared to the other three serotypes. Pigs challenged with the high dose of S. Typhimurium or S. Derby seroconverted on average up to 8–11 days faster compared to the low dose. These findings highlight that Salmonella fecal shedding and immune response following Salmonella challenge are dose- and serotype-dependent and that the detection of specific
Tonziello, Gilda; Valentinotti, Romina; Arbore, Enrico; Cassetti, Paolo; Luzzati, Roberto
Patient: Male, 73 Final Diagnosis: Salmonella typhimurium abscess of the chest wall Symptoms: — Medication: Ciprofloxacin Clinical Procedure:— Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Non-typhoid Salmonella extra-intestinal infections usually develop in infants and in adult patients with pre-existing predisposing conditions. Blood stream infections and urinary tract infections are the most common clinical presentations, but other sites of infection may be involved as well. Case Report: We describe a case of invasive salmonellosis caused by Salmonella typhimurium involving the chest wall in a 73-year-old man. The patient had suffered from gastroenteritis followed by left basal pneumonia with pleural effusion 7 weeks before. The CT scan of the chest wall showed a pericostal abscess with shirt-stud morphology near the left last cartilaginous arch. The abscess was surgically drained and patient was cured after a 40-day ciprofloxacin treatment. Conclusions: A review of the literature on extra-intestinal non-typhoid salmonellosis shows that pleuropulmonary and soft-tissue infections are uncommon. We argue that non-typhoid Salmonella might be considered as a possible cause of chest wall abscess in individuals with recent history of gastroenteritis complicated by pneumonia and pleural effusion. PMID:24298305
Comparative analysis of twenty-four complete aenome aequences of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Anatum, Montevideo, Typhimurium and Newport isolated from ground beef or asymptomatic cattle on farm or at harvest
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica are a versatile group of bacteria with a wide range of variation in virulence potential. Complete S. enterica genome sequences available to date are primarily of strains isolated from humans or of serotypes that commonly cause human disease. To facilitate genomic ...
Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Lens, Luc; Haesendonck, Roel; Teyssier, Aimeric; Hudin, Noraine Salleh; Strubbe, Diederik; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An
In recent decades major declines in urban house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have been observed in north-western European cities, whereas suburban and rural house sparrow populations have remained relatively stable or are recovering from previous declines. Differential exposure to avian pathogens known to cause epidemics in house sparrows may in part explain this spatial pattern of declines. Here we investigate the potential effect of urbanization on the development of a bacterial pathogen reservoir in free-ranging house sparrows. This was achieved by comparing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium in 364 apparently healthy house sparrows captured in urban, suburban and rural regions across Flanders, Belgium between September 2013 and March 2014. In addition 12 dead birds, received from bird rescue centers, were necropsied. The apparent absence of Salmonella Typhimurium in fecal samples of healthy birds, and the identification of only one house sparrow seropositive for Salmonella spp., suggests that during the winter of 2013–2014 these birds did not represent any considerable Salmonella Typhimurium reservoir in Belgium and thus may be considered naïve hosts, susceptible to clinical infection. This susceptibility is demonstrated by the isolation of two different Salmonella Typhimurium strains from two of the deceased house sparrows: one DT99, typically associated with disease in pigeons, and one DT195, previously associated with a passerine decline. The apparent absence (prevalence: <1.3%) of a reservoir in healthy house sparrows and the association of infection with clinical disease suggests that the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on house sparrows is largely driven by the risk of exogenous exposure to pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium strains. However, no inference could be made on a causal relationship between Salmonella infection and the observed house sparrow population declines. PMID:27168186
Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Lens, Luc; Haesendonck, Roel; Teyssier, Aimeric; Hudin, Noraine Salleh; Strubbe, Diederik; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An
In recent decades major declines in urban house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have been observed in north-western European cities, whereas suburban and rural house sparrow populations have remained relatively stable or are recovering from previous declines. Differential exposure to avian pathogens known to cause epidemics in house sparrows may in part explain this spatial pattern of declines. Here we investigate the potential effect of urbanization on the development of a bacterial pathogen reservoir in free-ranging house sparrows. This was achieved by comparing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium in 364 apparently healthy house sparrows captured in urban, suburban and rural regions across Flanders, Belgium between September 2013 and March 2014. In addition 12 dead birds, received from bird rescue centers, were necropsied. The apparent absence of Salmonella Typhimurium in fecal samples of healthy birds, and the identification of only one house sparrow seropositive for Salmonella spp., suggests that during the winter of 2013-2014 these birds did not represent any considerable Salmonella Typhimurium reservoir in Belgium and thus may be considered naïve hosts, susceptible to clinical infection. This susceptibility is demonstrated by the isolation of two different Salmonella Typhimurium strains from two of the deceased house sparrows: one DT99, typically associated with disease in pigeons, and one DT195, previously associated with a passerine decline. The apparent absence (prevalence: <1.3%) of a reservoir in healthy house sparrows and the association of infection with clinical disease suggests that the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on house sparrows is largely driven by the risk of exogenous exposure to pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium strains. However, no inference could be made on a causal relationship between Salmonella infection and the observed house sparrow population declines.
Han, Sanghyun; Micallef, Shirley Ann
Several outbreaks of Salmonella enterica infections have been linked to tomatoes. One cost-effective way to complement on-farm preventive Good Agricultural Practices is to identify cultivars with inherent decreased susceptibility to Salmonella colonization. Fruit and leaves of 13 tomato cultivars with distinct phenotypes were screened to evaluate their susceptibility to Salmonella epiphytic colonization. Field-grown fruit or gnotobiotically grown seedling leaves were spot inoculated in replicate with either Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 or a tomato outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella Newport. Initial loads of the Salmonella inocula were 2.5 log CFU per fruit and 3.5 or 7.0 log CFU per seedling. Salmonella cells were retrieved and enumerated using direct plating after 24 h of incubation at room temperature for fruit and 72 h at 26°C during the day and 18°C at night for seedling leaves. Epiphytic colonization of fruit by S. enterica was cultivar-dependent and serotype-specific, but did not necessarily correlate with leaf colonization. Fruit of cultivar Heinz-1706 were the least colonized by Salmonella Newport, while the highest populations were retrieved from fruit of Nyagous. By contrast, seedling leaves supporting the lowest populations were Florida 91 VF and the highest were Virginia Sweets for Salmonella Newport. For Salmonella Typhimurium the lowest was Nyagous and the highest was Heinz-1706 and Moneymaker. The tomato outbreak strain of Salmonella Newport attained higher population densities on fruit than did Salmonella Typhimurium, suggesting better adaptation to tomato fruit colonization. Salmonella Newport populations were significantly lower on leaves, but not fruit of the near-isogenic line Movione, compared with the parent cultivar Moneymaker, suggesting the immunity conferring gene Pto could be responding to this outbreak strain. Susceptibility of tomato fruit to Salmonella colonization is highly variable and could be one criterion for cultivar
Effect of probiotic-, bacteriophage-, or organic acid-supplemented feeds or fermented soybean meal on the growth performance, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding of grower pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium.
Gebru, E; Lee, J S; Son, J C; Yang, S Y; Shin, S A; Kim, B; Kim, M K; Park, S C
A 28-d experiment evaluated the growth performance, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding patterns in pigs (n = 108; initially, 38.7 ± 6.7 kg) fed 6 treatment diets, including a control diet with no antimicrobial agents (CON), a positive control diet containing chlortetracycline, 100 mg/kg (CT), a diet containing anti-Salmonella Typhimurium bacteriophage, 3 × 10(9) plaque-forming units/kg of feed (ASB), Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP56, 6.5 × 10(8) cfu/kg of feed (LP), 0.2% microencapsulated organic acids (MOA), or 5% fermented soybean meal (FSM). Pigs were fed the diets for 2 wk before and 2 wk after challenging orally with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (SalT). Before bacterial challenge, ADFI was similar in all groups. After SalT challenge, ADFI of CON pigs was less (P < 0.05) than all other groups. Before challenge, pigs on MOA, FSM, and CT diets had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F than CON pigs. After challenge (wk 3 to 4) and during the overall experimental period (wk 1 to 4), ADG of all treatment groups and G:F of all treatment groups except the LP group were greater (P < 0.05) than those of CON pigs. Relative to all other treatments, CON and LP pigs had greater (P < 0.05) bacterial shedding scores on d 7 after SalT challenge. At d 14 postchallenge, shedding scores declined (P < 0.05) in all treatment groups compared with CON pigs. Serum haptoglobin for all treatment groups increased from d 0 concentrations on d 6 postchallenge and declined to prechallenge concentrations on d 13 (P < 0.05). Circulating IGF-I concentrations declined from 2 to 6 d postchallenge and increased again by d 13 in ASB and LP groups, did not decline in FSM and CT groups, and continuously declined through d 13 in CON and LP groups (P < 0.05). However, in MOA group, IGF-I concentrations declined from preinfection concentrations on d 2, increased on d 4, and declined again until d 13 (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of the cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β were not
Maraki, Sofia; Papadakis, Ioannis S
We report on the serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns to 20 different antimicrobials of 150 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from stools of diarrhoeal patients on the island of Crete over the period January 2011-December 2012. Among the S. enterica serotypes recovered, Enteritidis was the most prevalent (37.3%), followed by Typhimurium (28.7%) and Newport (8.7%). No resistance was detected to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. Rates of resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole were 9.3%, 4%, 2%, 15.3%, and 8.7%, respectively. Resistance to ≥4 antibiotics was primarily observed for serotypes Typhimurium and Hadar. Enteritidis remains the predominant serotype in Crete. Although low resistance to most antimicrobials was detected, continued surveillance of susceptibility is needed due to the risk of resistance.
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The salmonella typhimurium reverse....5265 The salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay. (a) Purpose. The Salmonella typhimurium.... (1) A reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium detects mutation in a gene of a...
Emmerth, Melanie; Goebel, Werner; Miller, Samuel I.; Hueck, Christoph J.
Salmonella typhimurium causes systemic and fatal infection in inbred mice, while the related serotype Salmonella typhi is avirulent for mammals other than humans. In order to identify genes from the virulent strain S. typhimurium ATCC 14028 that are absent in S. typhi Ty2, and therefore might be involved in S. typhimurium mouse virulence, a PCR-supported genomic subtractive hybridization procedure was employed. We have identified a novel putative fimbrial operon, stfACDEFG, located at centisome 5 of the S. typhimurium chromosome, which is absent in S. typhi, Salmonella arizonae, and Salmonella bongori but was detected in several other Salmonella serotypes. The fimbrial genes represent a genomic insertion in S. typhimurium compared to the respective region between fhuB and hemL in Escherichia coli K-12. In addition, the subtraction procedure yielded F plasmid-related sequences from the S. typhimurium virulence plasmid, a number of DNA fragments representing parts of lambdoid prophages and putative sugar transporters, and several fragments with unknown sequences. The majority of subtracted chromosomal sequences map to three distinct locations, around centisomes 5, 27, and 57. PMID:10482505
Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.
Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time
Pande, Vivek V; Devon, Rebecca L; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R; Chousalkar, Kapil K
Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time
Background The EU Regulation No 2160/2003 imposes a reduction in the prevalence of Salmonella in pigs. The efficiency of control programmes for Salmonella in pigs, reported among the EU Member States, varies and definitive eradication seems very difficult. Control measures currently recommended for Salmonella are not serotype-specific. Is it possible that the risk factors for different Salmonella serotypes are different? The aim of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for two groups of Salmonella sp serotypes using pen faecal samples from breeding pig holdings representative of the Portuguese pig sector. Methods The data used come from the Baseline Survey for the Prevalence of Salmonella in breeding pigs in Portugal. A total of 1670 pen faecal samples from 167 herds were tested, and 170 samples were positive for Salmonella. The presence of Salmonella in each sample (outcome variable) was classified in three categories: i) no Salmonella, ii) Salmonella Typhimurium or S. Typhimurium-like strains with the antigenic formula: 1,4,5,12:i:-, , and iii) other serotypes. Along with the sample collection, a questionnaire concerning herd management and potential risk factors was utilised. The data have a “natural” hierarchical structure so a categorical multilevel analysis of the dataset was carried out using a Bayesian hierarchical model. The model was estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, implemented in the software WinBUGS. Results The significant associations found (when compared to category “no Salmonella”), for category “serotype Typhimurium or S. Typhimurium-like strains with the antigenic formula: 1,4,5,12:i:-” were: age of breeding sows, size of the herd, number of pigs/pen and source of semen. For the category “other serotypes” the significant associations found were: control of rodents, region of the country, source of semen, breeding sector room and source of feed. Conclusions The risk factors significantly associated
Rayamajhi, Nabin; Kang, Sang Gyun; Kang, Mi Lan; Lee, Hee Soo; Park, Kyung Yoon; Yoo, Han Sang
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) isolated and identified from swine were subjected for the analysis of antibiotic resistance pattern and clinically important class 1 and 2 integrons. In addition, S. Typhimurium isolates exhibiting ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and florfenicol (ACSSuTF) resistance pattern as described in most Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) were characterized by polymerase chain reaction. All the isolates were resistant to more than four antibiotics and showed the highest resistance to streptomycin (94.1%), followed by tetracycline (90.1%), ampicillin (64.7%), chloramphenicol (56.8%) and gentamicin (54.9%). MIC value for the ten isolates ranged between 0.125-2 mug/ml for ciprofloxacin. Among the beta-lactams used, only one of the isolate exhibited resistance to ceftiofur (MIC 8 microg/ml). Sixty eight percent of these multi drug resistance (MDR) S. Typhimurium isolates carried clinically important class 1 integron with 1kb (aadA) and/or 2kb (dhfrXII-orfF-aadA2) resistance gene cassettes. This study reports the increasing trend of multi drug resistance (MDR) S. Typhimurium with clinically important class 1 integron in pigs. In addition, emergence of the ACSSuTF-type resistance in S. Typhimurium PT other than DT104 may limit the use of resistance gene markers in its detection methods by PCR.
McDermid, A S; Lever, M S
Small particle aerosols of plate-grown Salmonella enteritidis and Salm. typhimurium were generated and maintained within a rotating drum at 75% relative humidity and 24 degrees C for 2 h. Plate-grown organisms were found to be more aerosol-stable than broth-grown organisms. Differences were observed between the two species; plate-grown Salm. typhimurium retained 100% viability after 2 h compared to approximately 70% for plate-grown Salm. enteritidis. A large proportion of cells of both serotypes remained viable in aerosols after 2 h, confirming the potential for airborne transmission for these organisms, e.g. within henhouses and during food processing.
Non-host adapted Salmonella serovars are opportunistic pathogens that can colonize food-producing animals without causing overt disease, including the frequent foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Interventions against Salmonella need to both enhance food safe...
Miarelli, Maria; Drumo, Rosanna; Signorelli, Federica; Marchitelli, Cinzia; Pavone, Silvia; Pesciaroli, Michele; Ruggieri, Jessica; Chirullo, Barbara; Ammendola, Serena; Battistoni, Andrea; Alborali, Giovanni L; Manuali, Elisabetta; Pasquali, Paolo
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important cause of acute food- borne zoonoses worldwide, typically carried by pigs. It is well known that Salmonella has evolved a wide array of strategies enabling it to invade the host, but little information is available on the specific host responses to Salmonella infections. In the present study, we used an in vivo approach (involving piglets infected with a virulent or an attenuated S. Typhimurium strain) coupled to histological and proteomic analysis of the cecum mucosa, to highlight the host pathways activated during S. Typhimurium infection. We confirm the complex host-pathogen interaction. Our data showed that the metabolic and the cytoskeleton organization functions were the most significantly altered. In particular, the modifications of energy metabolic pathway could suggest a "nutriprive" mechanism, in which the host reduce its metabolic and energetic status to limit Salmonella infection. This study could represent a preliminary approach, providing information useful to better understand the host-Salmonella interaction.
Foodborne pathogens are constantly adapting to circumvent intervention strategies. The ability to detect and overcome these adaptations are critical to ensure a safe food supply. We determined genotypic and/or phenotypic differences between Salmonella recovered from broiler chicks after comingling w...
Szabó, I; Scherer, K; Roesler, U; Appel, B; Nöckler, K; Hensel, A
The most frequently isolated Salmonella serotype from pork in Germany is S. typhimurium, especially phagetype DT 104. The monitoring programs on Salmonella in swine are based on enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) detecting antibodies in serum or meat juice. These serological results are used to classify swine herds in three categories to assess the hygienic status of farm regarding Salmonella infection in pigs. The object of this study was the comparative evaluation of four indirect Salmonella ELISA tests approved in Germany to detect Salmonella typhimurium infection of swine. Three tests (A-C) are based on LPS-antigen and directed against specific IgG-antibodies. The fourth test (D) bases on a whole-cell-lysate antigen and discriminates between Salmonella specific IgA-, IgM- and IgG-antibodies. In a longitudinal study sixteen 6 weeks old weaning pigs were orally infected with S. typhimurium DT 104. During an observation period of 138d clinical and bacteriological parameters were monitored and serum samples obtained at regular intervals as well as meat juice samples taken at slaughter were examined by the respective ELISA systems. Study results reveal that all tested ELISA systems are able to detect S. typhimurium infection in pigs in both sample matrices, blood serum and meat juice whereas test D showed the highest sensitivity to detect Salmonella antibodies in pigs. The sensitivity to detect Salmonella antibodies varied between tests A and C according to the used cut-off (test specific cut-off vs. recommended surveillance cut-off) resulting in a change of seroprevalence and hence may influence the Salmonella status of the farm.
Newport; Sal. 9633 - serotype Newport; and Sal. 9186 - serotype Newport. Salmonella enteritidis serotype typhimurium strain 2000 was obtained from...7054 Table 1I CULTURE MEDIA SURVEY Salmonella enteritidis Salmonella typhimurium serotype Javiana #10016 SRlI Culture Media C H 0 Cell Factor C H 0 Cell...the pediatric bacteriology laboratory of the UTMB Children’s Hospital and previously reported to prs-’uce the heat labile toxin (9). Salmonella
Grafanakis, E; Leontides, L; Genigeorgis, C
Blood samples were taken from 50 pigs in each of 59 farrow-to-finish production herds and from 40 pigs in each of four of five registered multiplying herds. Samples of feed and faeces were also collected from 17 of the production herds and from the four multiplying herds. The sera were tested for antibodies to Salmonella enterica by the Danish mix-ELISA, and the organisms were isolated, serotyped and sensitivity tested by standard techniques. The average within-herd seroprevalence was 3.4 per cent and at least one pig tested seropositive in 21 of the 59 herds. In the multiplying herds, only a single seroreactor was detected. Salmonellae were isolated from only five of 95 feed samples, from two of the 17 herds sampled, Salmonella tennessee in four of five samples from one herd and an untypable strain in one of five samples from another. Four infected faecal samples were detected in four herds; they harboured Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella bredeney or Salmonella london. No salmonellae were isolated from the samples of feed and faeces taken from the multiplying herds. The S london and S typhimurium had a low sensitivity to streptomycin, kanamycin and neomycin, and the S typhimurium also had low sensitivity to amoxycillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, cefalotin and cefoperazone. The other isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested.
Mohamed, Tagelsir; Zhao, Shaohua; White, David G; Parveen, Salina
There is conflicting data regarding whether commercial chilling has any effect on persistence of Salmonella serovars, including antibiotic resistant variants, on chicken carcasses. A total of 309 Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky isolates recovered from pre- and post-chill whole broiler carcasses were characterized for genetic relatedness using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and for the presence of virulence factors (invA, pagC, spvC) by PCR and for aerobactin and colicin production by bioassays. A subset of these isolates (n = 218) displaying resistance to either sulfisoxazole and/or ceftiofur [S. Typhimurium (n = 66) and S. Kentucky (n = 152)] were further tested for the presence of associated antibiotic resistance elements (class-I integrons and blaCMY genes) by PCR. All 145 ceftiofur resistant S. Kentucky and S. Typhimurium isolates possessed blaCMY genes. Class-I integrons were only detected in 6.1% (n = 4/66) of sulfisoxazole resistant S. Typhimurium isolates. The PFGE analysis revealed the presence of genetically diverse populations within the recovered isolates but clusters were generally concordant with serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profiles. At a 100% pattern similarity index, thirty-six percent of the undistinguishable S. Typhimurium and 22% of the undistinguishable S. Kentucky isolates were recovered from the same chilling step. All isolates possessed the invA and pagC genes, but only 1.4%possessed spvC. Irrespective of the chilling step, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the production of aerobactin and colicin between S. Typhimurium and S. Kentucky isolates. Taken together, these results indicate that chilling impacted the recovery of particular Salmonella clonal groups but had no effect on the presence of class-I integrons, blaCMY genes, and tested virulence factors.
Young, Howard S.; Dang, Hongyue; Lai, Yimin; DeRosier, David J.; Khan, Shahid
Electron cryomicroscopy of rotor complexes of the Salmonella typhimurium flagellar motor, overproduced in a nonmotile Escherichia coli host, has revealed a variation in subunit symmetry of the cytoplasmic ring (C ring) module. C rings with subunit symmetries ranging from 31 to 38 were found. They formed a Gaussian distribution around a mean between 34 and 35, a similar number to that determined for native C rings. C-ring diameter scaled with the number of subunits, indicating that the elliptical-shaped subunits maintained constant intersubunit spacing. Taken together with evidence that the M ring does not correspondingly increase in size, this finding indicates that rotor assembly does not require strict stoichiometric interactions between the M- and C-ring subunits. Implications for motor function are discussed. PMID:12524310
Shukla, Yogeshwer; Taneja, Pankaj; Arora, Annu; Sinha, Neeraj
Mancozeb, a dithiocarbamate fungicide, was examined for its possible mutagenic activity using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. We found that Mancozeb exhibited toxic effects at the dose of 40 microg/plate and higher with all tester strains. Mancozeb showed dose-dependent increases in the number of revertants with and without metabolic activation when it was dissolved in DMSO or acetone with strain TA97a; however, the number of revertants at the highest dose was less than two-fold compared to control values. We postulate that the true mutagenic potential of Mancozeb may be masked by its toxic effect to the tester strain used.
Palmgren, H.; McCafferty, D.; Aspán, A.; Broman, T.; Sellin, M.; Wollin, R.; Bergström, S.; Olsen, B.
The number of human visitors to Antarctica is increasing rapidly, and with it a risk of introducing infectious organisms to native animals. To study the occurrence of salmonella serotypes in sub-Antarctic wildlife, faecal samples were collected from gentoo penguins, macaroni penguins, gray-headed albatrosses, black-browed albatrosses and Antarctic fur seals on Bird Island in the South Georgian archipelago during the austral summer of 1996 and 1998. In 1996, S. havana, S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis were isolated from 7% of gentoo penguins and 4% of fur seals. In 1998, however, 22% of fur seals were found to be infected with S. havana, S. enteritidis and S. newport. All isolates, except one, showed identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-patterns within each serotype, irrespective of sampling year and animal reservoir. No significant antibiotic resistance was found. The very low heterogeneity in the salmonella isolates found could either indicate a high genetic adaptation of the bacteria to the environment or a recent introduction of salmonella into the area. PMID:11117947
Foster, J W; Hall, H K
Salmonella typhimurium can encounter a wide variety of environments during its life cycle. One component of the environment which will fluctuate widely is pH. In nature, S. typhimurium can experience and survive dramatic acid stresses that occur in diverse ecological niches ranging from pond water to phagolysosomes. However, in vitro the organism is very sensitive to acid. To provide an explanation for how this organism survives acid in natural environments, the adaptive ability of S. typhimurium to become acid tolerant was tested. Logarithmically grown cells (pH 7.6) shifted to mild acid (pH 5.8) for one doubling as an adaptive procedure were 100 to 1,000 times more resistant to subsequent strong acid challenge (pH 3.3) than were unadapted cells shifted directly from pH 7.6 to 3.3. This acidification tolerance response required protein synthesis and appears to be a specific defense mechanism for acid. No cross protection was noted for hydrogen peroxide, SOS, or heat shock. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of acid-regulated polypeptides revealed 18 proteins with altered expression, 6 of which were repressed while 12 were induced by mild acid shifts. An avirulent phoP mutant was 1,000-fold more sensitive to acid than its virulent phoP+ parent, suggesting a correlation between acid tolerance and virulence. The Mg2(+)-dependent proton-translocating ATPase was also found to play an important role in acid tolerance. Mutants (unc) lacking this activity were unable to mount an acid tolerance response and were extremely acid sensitive. In contrast to these acid-sensitive mutants, a constitutively acid-tolerant mutant (atr) was isolated from wild-type LT2 after prolonged acid exposure. This mutant overexpressed several acidification tolerance response polypeptides. The data presented reveal an important acidification defense modulon with broad significance toward survival in biologically hostile environments.
Wilkoff, Lee J.; Westbrook, Louise; Dixon, Glen J.
The persistence of Salmonella typhimurium (V-31) on wool blanket, wool gabardine, cotton sheeting, cotton knit jersey, cotton terry cloth, and cotton wash-and-wear fabrics was studied. Three methods of exposure were employed to contaminate the fabrics: direct contact, aerosol, and a lyophilized mixture of bacteria and dust having a high content of textile fibers. After contamination, the fabrics were held in 35 or 78% relative humidity at 25 C. The persistence time of S. typhimurium on fabrics held in 35% relative humidity was substantially longer when the fabrics were contaminated by direct contact or by exposure to dust containing bacteria than when contaminated by exposure to aerosolized cultures. Viable bacterial populations persisted for 24 weeks at relatively high population densities on swatches of wool gabardine, cotton sheeting, cotton knit jersey, and cotton terry cloth exposed by direct contact and held in a humidity of 35%. In 78% humidity, bacterial populations persisted on the fabrics for relatively shorter periods of time regardless of the mode of contamination or fabric type. This organism retained its virulence for Swiss mice after being recovered from wool gabardine swatches held 8 weeks in humidities of 35 or 78% and from cotton terry cloth swatches held 6 weeks in the same humidities. Images PMID:4896883
Sanderson, K E; Hessel, A; Rudd, K E
We present edition VIII of the genetic map of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. We list a total of 1,159 genes, 1,080 of which have been located on the circular chromosome and 29 of which are on pSLT, the 90-kb plasmid usually found in LT2 lines. The remaining 50 genes are not yet mapped. The coordinate system used in this edition is neither minutes of transfer time in conjugation crosses nor units representing "phage lengths" of DNA of the transducing phage P22, as used in earlier editions, but centisomes and kilobases based on physical analysis of the lengths of DNA segments between genes. Some of these lengths have been determined by digestion of DNA by rare-cutting endonucleases and separation of fragments by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Other lengths have been determined by analysis of DNA sequences in GenBank. We have constructed StySeq1, which incorporates all Salmonella DNA sequence data known to us. StySeq1 comprises over 548 kb of nonredundant chromosomal genomic sequences, representing 11.4% of the chromosome, which is estimated to be just over 4,800 kb in length. Most of these sequences were assigned locations on the chromosome, in some cases by analogy with mapped Escherichia coli sequences. PMID:7603411
Butela, Kristen; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.
The traditional genetic tools used in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium rely heavily on a high-transducing mutant of bacteriophage P22. P22 recognizes its hosts by the structure of their O-antigens, which vary among serovars of Salmonella; therefore, it cannot be used in most non-Typhimurium Salmonella, including the majority of those causing food-borne illnesses in both humans and livestock. Bacteriophage P1 infects a variety of enteric bacteria, including galE mutants of serovar Typhimurium; however, the degree to which the presence of coimmune prophages, the lack of required attachment sites or the lack of host factors act as barriers to using phage P1 in natural isolates of Salmonella is unknown. Here, we show that recombineering can be used to make virtually any serovar of Salmonella susceptible to P1 infection; as a result, P1 can be utilized for facile genetic manipulation of non-Typhimurium Salmonella, including movement of very large pathogenicity islands. A toolkit for easy manipulation of non-Typhimurium serovars of Salmonella is described. PMID:23041268
Helmuth, R; Stephan, R; Bunge, C; Hoog, B; Steinbeck, A; Bulling, E
Antibiotic-sensitive Salmonella isolates belonging to seven common serotypes and originating from 29 different countries from all continents were investigated for their plasmid DNA content (337 isolates) and their outer membrane protein profiles (216 isolates). Of the S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. dublin, and S. choleraesuis isolates, 90% or more carried a serotype-specific plasmid. The molecular sizes of the plasmids were 60 megadaltons (Md) for S. typhimurium, 37 Md for S. enteritidis, 56 Md for S. dublin, and 30 Md for S. choleraesuis. The outer membrane protein profiles were homogeneous within each of the seven serotypes, except that a minority of S. enteritidis and S. dublin strains were lacking one major outer membrane protein. Virulence studies were performed with 39 representative strains by measuring the 50% lethal doses (LD50S) after oral infection of mice. The LD50 values obtained for plasmid-positive strains of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, and S. dublin were up to 10(6)-fold lower than the values obtained for the plasmid-free strains of the same serotype. Only the plasmid-positive strains could invade the livers of orally infected mice, and only they were resistant to the bactericidal activity of 90% guinea pig serum. Strains of S. infantis were generally plasmid free, whereas S. panama and S. heidelberg isolates carried heterogeneous plasmid populations. The virulence properties of the latter three serotypes could not be correlated with the predominant plasmids found in these strains.
Helmuth, R; Stephan, R; Bunge, C; Hoog, B; Steinbeck, A; Bulling, E
Antibiotic-sensitive Salmonella isolates belonging to seven common serotypes and originating from 29 different countries from all continents were investigated for their plasmid DNA content (337 isolates) and their outer membrane protein profiles (216 isolates). Of the S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. dublin, and S. choleraesuis isolates, 90% or more carried a serotype-specific plasmid. The molecular sizes of the plasmids were 60 megadaltons (Md) for S. typhimurium, 37 Md for S. enteritidis, 56 Md for S. dublin, and 30 Md for S. choleraesuis. The outer membrane protein profiles were homogeneous within each of the seven serotypes, except that a minority of S. enteritidis and S. dublin strains were lacking one major outer membrane protein. Virulence studies were performed with 39 representative strains by measuring the 50% lethal doses (LD50S) after oral infection of mice. The LD50 values obtained for plasmid-positive strains of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, and S. dublin were up to 10(6)-fold lower than the values obtained for the plasmid-free strains of the same serotype. Only the plasmid-positive strains could invade the livers of orally infected mice, and only they were resistant to the bactericidal activity of 90% guinea pig serum. Strains of S. infantis were generally plasmid free, whereas S. panama and S. heidelberg isolates carried heterogeneous plasmid populations. The virulence properties of the latter three serotypes could not be correlated with the predominant plasmids found in these strains. Images PMID:3980081
Gay, Noellie; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; de Thoisy, Benoit; Berger, Franck
In French Guiana, a French overseas territory located in the South American northern coast, nearly 50% of Salmonella serotypes isolated from human infections belong to serotypes rarely encountered in metropolitan France. A reptilian source of contamination has been investigated. Between April and June 2011, in the area around Cayenne, 151 reptiles were collected: 38 lizards, 37 snakes, 32 turtles, 23 green iguanas and 21 caimans. Cloacal swab samples were collected and cultured. Isolated Salmonella strains were identified biochemically and serotyped. The overall carriage frequency of carriage was 23.2% (95% confidence interval: 16.7-30.4) with 23 serotyped strains. The frequency of Salmonella carriage was significantly higher for wild reptiles. Near two-thirds of the Salmonella serotypes isolated from reptiles were also isolated from patients in French Guiana. Our results highlight the risk associated with the handling and consumption of reptiles and their role in the spread of Salmonella in the environment.
Shi, Liang; Ansong, Charles; Smallwood, Heather S.; Rommereim, Leah M.; McDermott, Jason E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Gustin, Jean K.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.
To determine the impact of a low Mg2+/pH defined growth medium (MgM) on the proteome of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, we cultured S. Typhimurium cells in the medium under two different conditions termed MgM Shock and MgM Dilution and then comparatively analyzed the bacterial cells harvested from these conditions by a global proteomic approach. Proteomic results showed that MgM Shock and MgM Dilution differentially affected the S. Typhimurium proteome. MgM Shock induced a group of proteins whose induction usually occurred at low O2 level, while MgM Dilution induced those related to the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) and those involved in thiamine or biotin biosynthesis. The metabolic state of the S. Typhimurium cells grown under MgM Shock condition also differed significantly from that under MgM Dilution condition. Western blot analysis not only confirmed the proteomic results, but also showed that the abundances of SPI2-T3SS proteins SsaQ and SseE and biotin biosynthesis proteins BioB and BioD increased after S. Typhimurium infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Deletion of the gene encoding BioB reduced the bacterial ability to replicate inside the macrophages, suggesting a biotin-limited environment encountered by S. Typhimurium within RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Monack, Denise M.; Raupach, Barbel; Hromockyj, Alexander E.; Falkow, Stanley
Invasive Salmonella typhimurium induces dramatic cytoskeletal changes on the membrane surface of mammalian epithelial cells and RAW264.7 macrophages as part of its entry mechanism. Noninvasive S. typhimurium strains are unable to induce this membrane ruffling. Invasive S. typhimurium strains invade RAW264.7 macrophages in 2 h with 7- to 10-fold higher levels than noninvasive strains. Invasive S. typhimurium and Salmonella typhi, independent of their ability to replicate intracellularly, are cytotoxic to RAW264.7 macrophages and, to a greater degree, to murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Here, we show that the macrophage cytotoxicity mediated by invasive Salmonella is apoptosis, as shown by nuclear morphology, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and host cell DNA fragmentation. S. typhimurium that enter cells causing ruffles but are mutant for subsequent intracellular replication also initiate host cell apoptosis. Mutant S. typhimurium that are incapable of inducing host cell membrane ruffling fail to induce apoptosis. The activation state of the macrophage plays a significant role in the response of macrophages to Salmonella invasion, perhaps indicating that the signal or receptor for initiating programmed cell death is upregulated in activated macrophages. The ability of Salmonella to promote apoptosis may be important for the initiation of infection, bacterial survival, and escape of the host immune response.
Salmonella typhimurium appears green in on human intestinal tissue (stained red) cultured in a NASA rotating wall bioreactor. Dr. Cheryl Nickerson of Tulane University is studying the effects of simulated low-g on a well-known pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that causes two to four million cases of gastrointestinal illness in the United States each year. While most healthy people recover readily, S. typhimurium can kill people with weakened immune systems. Thus, a simple case of food poisoning could disrupt a space mission. Using the NASA rotating-wall bioreactor, Nickerson cultured S. typhimurium in modeled microgravity. Mice infected with the bacterium died an average of three days faster than the control mice, indicating that S. typhimurium's virulence was enhanced by the bioreactor. Earlier research showed that 3 percent of the genes were altered by exposure to the bioreactor. Nickerson's work earned her a 2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.
Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming
Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) has shown great preclinical promise as a broad-based anti-cancer therapeutic (please see Chapter 1 ). The present chapter describes materials and methods for the preclinical study of S. typhimurium A1-R in clinically-relevant mouse models. Establishment of orthotopic metastatic mouse models of the major cancer types is described, as well as other useful models, for efficacy studies of S. typhimurium A1-R or other tumor-targeting bacteria, as well. Imaging methods are described to visualize GFP-labeled S. typhimurium A1-R, as well as GFP- and/or RFP-labeled cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which S. typhimurium A1-R targets. The mouse models include metastasis to major organs that are life-threatening to cancer patients including the liver, lung, bone, and brain and how to target these metastases with S. typhimurium A1-R. Various routes of administration of S. typhimurium A1-R are described with the advantages and disadvantages of each. Basic experiments to determine toxic effects of S. typhimurium A1-R are also described. Also described are methodologies for combining S. typhimurium A1-R and chemotherapy. The testing of S. typhimurium A1-R on patient tumors in patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse models is also described. The major methodologies described in this chapter should be translatable for clinical studies.
Musgrove, Michael T; Mcquestin, Olivia J; Tamplin, Mark; Kelley, Lynda C
Since 11 September 2001, quality and food safety are no longer the concerns of only consumers, industry, regulatory agencies, or other government officials. Liquid foods that are prepared or stored in bulk, including liquid egg products, are considered to be at potential risk for sabotage. Because of their versatility, low price, and functional properties, many of these products are being marketed. Four of the most common products of this type are whole egg, egg albumen, 10% sugared yolk, and 10% salted yolk. Although all of the serotypes of Salmonella enterica may cause illness, multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 has become widespread and can cause severe illness that is difficult to treat. Studies were conducted to determine growth patterns of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in four commercial liquid egg products held at 4, 10, 20, 30, 37, and 42 degrees C for 0 to 384 h. All experiments were performed in duplicate and repeated twice. Standard methods were used to estimate cell numbers, and log CFU per gram of egg product was plotted against time. The number of cells of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 increased to 8 to 9 log CFU/g in whole egg and 10% sugared yolk, increased by 1 log CFU/g in liquid albumen, but decreased by 3 log CFU/g in 10% salted yolk. Data from this study have been archived in the ComBase database to further assist policy makers or other scientists interested in Salmonella growth characteristics in liquid eggs. However, based on data generated in this study, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 probably does not constitute a food threat agent in liquid eggs.
Piras, Francesca; Brown, Derek J; Meloni, Domenico; Mureddu, Anna; Mazzette, Rina
In order to improve the knowledge about the presence of Salmonella in pork meat in Sardinia (Italy), the prevalence and the sources of Salmonella at 5 pig slaughterhouses (slaughtered pigs and environment) were investigated and the isolates were characterised. A total of 462 samples were collected, 425 from pigs at slaughter and 41 from the slaughterhouse environment. Salmonella was isolated from 26/85 (30.5%) mesenteric lymph nodes, 14/85 (16.4%) colon contents, and from 12/85 (14.1%) carcasses and livers. Salmonella prevalence was 38% (8/21) in samples from surfaces not in contact with meat, and 35% (7/20) in those from surfaces in contact with meat. Thirty-one pigs were identified as carriers of Salmonella in lymph nodes and/or colon content, but of these, only 8 carcasses were positive. A total of 103 Salmonella isolates were serotyped and genotyped. Eight different serotypes were detected; the most common were S. Derby (44/103, 42.7%) and S. Typhimurium (24/103, 23.3%). The most prevalent S. Typhimurium phage type was DT193. Thirty-two isolates were found to be resistant to more than one antimicrobial (MDR). Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) permitted the resolution of XbaI macrorestriction fragments of the Salmonella strains into 20 distinct pulsotypes. Combined application of a plasmid profiling assay (PPA) and PFGE gave useful additional information to assist in tracing the routes of Salmonella contamination in abattoirs. To reduce Salmonella prevalence some preventive measures should be encouraged: the origin of infected slaughter animals should be identified and direct and cross-contamination of carcasses should be avoided by adhering to HACCP principles in association with good hygiene procedures (GHP). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cavallaro, Elizabeth; Date, Kashmira; Medus, Carlota; Meyer, Stephanie; Miller, Benjamin; Kim, Clara; Nowicki, Scott; Cosgrove, Shaun; Sweat, David; Phan, Quyen; Flint, James; Daly, Elizabeth R; Adams, Jennifer; Hyytia-Trees, Eija; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Hoekstra, Robert M; Schwensohn, Colin; Langer, Adam; Sodha, Samir V; Rogers, Michael C; Angulo, Frederick J; Tauxe, Robert V; Williams, Ian T; Behravesh, Casey Barton
Contaminated food ingredients can affect multiple products, each distributed through various channels and consumed in multiple settings. Beginning in November 2008, we investigated a nationwide outbreak of salmonella infections. A case was defined as laboratory-confirmed infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium occurring between September 1, 2008, and April 20, 2009. We conducted two case-control studies, product "trace-back," and environmental investigations. Among 714 case patients identified in 46 states, 166 (23%) were hospitalized and 9 (1%) died. In study 1, illness was associated with eating any peanut butter (matched odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 5.3), peanut butter-containing products (matched odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.7), and frozen chicken products (matched odds ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 14.7). Investigations of focal clusters and single cases associated with nine institutions identified a single institutional brand of peanut butter (here called brand X) distributed to all facilities. In study 2, illness was associated with eating peanut butter outside the home (matched odds ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.6 to 10.0) and two brands of peanut butter crackers (brand A: matched odds ratio, 17.2; 95% CI, 6.9 to 51.5; brand B: matched odds ratio, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 9.8). Both cracker brands were made from brand X peanut paste. The outbreak strain was isolated from brand X peanut butter, brand A crackers, and 15 other products. A total of 3918 peanut butter-containing products were recalled between January 10 and April 29, 2009. Contaminated peanut butter and peanut products caused a nationwide salmonellosis outbreak. Ingredient-driven outbreaks are challenging to detect and may lead to widespread contamination of numerous food products.
Pokharel, S; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Brashears, M M
As the incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is increasing, data regarding the antimicrobial interventions and pathogen internalization in marinated meat products are important. This study evaluated the antimicrobial intervention and internalization of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated beef sirloin steaks. Beef bottom sirloin flaps (IMPS #185A; USDA Select) inoculated (10(8) log10 CFU ml(-1) ) with Salm. Typhimurium were sprayed (lactic acid (4%) and buffered vinegar (2%)) prior to vacuum-tumbled marination (0·35% sodium chloride and 0·45% sodium tripolyphosphate) for 30 min. Pathogen presence after antimicrobial spray, vacuum-tumbled marination, and translocation was determined by direct plating on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar with tryptic soy agar (TSA) overlay. The data imply varied internalization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated meat. Lactic acid (4%) spray (P < 0·0001) and buffered vinegar (2%; P < 0·0001) reduced surface populations of Salm. Typhimurium on inoculated beef sirloin flaps prior to vacuum marination. However, lactic acid treated sirloin flaps had greater reductions (~2 log10 CFU cm(-2) ) than buffered vinegar when compared with control prior to vacuum marination. However, the translocation of Salm. Typhimurium following vacuum marination was not influenced (P < 0·333) by the application of a surface organic acid spray prior to marination.
Cabrera-Diaz, Elisa; Barbosa-Cardenas, Claudia M; Perez-Montaño, Julia A; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Delia; Pacheco-Gallardo, Carlos; Barba, Jeannette
The occurrence, serotype diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella bacteria in commercial ground beef at retail establishments were investigated. Salmonella was isolated from 135 (56.7%) of 238 ground beef samples collected at the same number of butcher's shops located in three municipalities of Jalisco State, Mexico, during an 11-month period. The isolation frequency differed by municipality (P < 0.05) and was higher (P < 0.05) during the warm season (68.5%) than during the cold season (43.2%). Overall, 25 serotypes and 8 serogroups were identified among 135 Salmonella isolates; predominant were Salmonella group B (9.6%), Salmonella Anatum (8.9%), Salmonella Agona (6.7%), Salmonella Infantis (6.7%), and Salmonella Typhimurium (5.9%). All Salmonella isolates were tested for susceptibility to 11 antimicrobial drugs of human and veterinary use. Resistance to tetracycline was the most commonly observed (40.7%), followed by resistance to streptomycin (35.6%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (20.7%), and nalidixic acid (19.3%). Thirty-seven Salmonella isolates (27.4%) were multidrug resistant, and the majority corresponded to Salmonella Group B, Salmonella Anatum, and Salmonella Typhimurium. Three Salmonella isolates were resistant to seven different antimicrobials. The frequency of Salmonella in ground beef samples (56.7%) was higher than that observed in our previous investigation on beef carcasses (15.4%) at small abattoirs in the same region of Mexico. This may be a result of increasing contamination at these two points of the raw-beef production chain or may be an effect of the grinding process that facilitates a more-homogeneous pathogen distribution in the product. Poor hygiene, temperature abuse, and practices allowing cross-contamination during ground beef fabrication at these retail establishments increase the consumer's exposure to Salmonella.
Anton, Dora N.
A strain (DA82) having peculiar osmotic properties was isolated in Salmonella typhimurium. The mutant shows increased elasticity of its cell wall and makes spherical instead of elongated cells, regardless of the osmolality of the medium. The strain withstands dilution in distilled water without disruption or death and grows normally in 0.1 molal NaCl broth (240 milliosmol), but it dies exponentially in low-osmolality broth (40 milliosmol). Addition of salts or sucrose instantly stops death and allows growth and cell division to proceed. Death is not due to lysis because this appears at later times and at a much lower rate. Osmotic inactivation is temperature-dependent: higher death rates occur at higher incubation temperatures. Inhibition of protein synthesis by chloramphenicol (20 μg/ml) prevents osmotic death. At 37 C and at lower temperatures, the phenomenon of osmotic death is transient. After a variable interval, growth of the osmotic-sensitive strain resumes. It is assumed that the strain's osmotic behavior is due to membrane defectiveness. The membrane disfunction and the wall defect shown by the strain may be consequences of a single genetic alteration or the results of independent mutations. Images PMID:4110928
Brãnes, L V; Somers, J M; Kay, W W
The growth of a pleiotropic membrane mutant of Salmonella typhimurium with modified lipopolysaccharide composition was found to be strictly dependent on the peptone component of complex media. Nutritional Shiftdown into minimal media allowed growth for three to four generations. Of 20 commercial peptones, only enzymatic digests supported growth to varying degrees. Neither trace cations, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, lipids, glutathione, polyamines, carbodimides, nor synthetic peptides stimulated growth; however, cells still metabolized carbohydrates, and amino acid transport systems were shown to be functional. A tryptic digest of casein was fractionated into four electrophoretically different peptide fractions of 1,000 to 1,200 molecular weight which supported growth to varying degrees. The best of these was further fractionated to two highly hydrophopic peptides. N-terminal modifications eliminated biological activity. Fluorescein-conjugated goat antibody to rabbit immunoglobulin G was used as a probe to detect antipeptide antibody-peptide complexes on membrane preparations. Cells grown on peptone distributed the peptide into both inner and outer membranes. The peptide could be removed with chaotropic agents, and cells had to be pregrown in peptone-containing media to bind the hydrophobic peptide. The gene (hyp) responsible for peptide auxotrophy was mapped at 44 to 45 units by conjugation. Images PMID:7024254
Kirsh, M; Dembinski, D R; Hartman, P E; Miller, C G
Wild-type Salmonella typhimurium can use carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) as a source of histidine, but carnosine utilization is blocked in particular mutants defective in the constitutive enzyme peptidase D, the product of the pepD gene. Biochemical evidence for assigning carnosinase activity to peptidase D (a broad-specificity dipeptidase) includes: (i) coelution of carnosinase and dipeptidase activity from diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and Bio-Gel P-300 columns; (ii) coelectrophoresis of carnosinase and dipeptidase on polyacrylamide gels; and (iii) inactivation of carnosinase and dipeptidase activities at identical rates at both 4 and 42 degrees C. Genetic evidence indicates that mutations leading to loss of carnosinase activity map at pepD. Several independent pepD mutants have been isolated by different selection procedures, and the patterns of peptide utilization of strains carrying various pepD alleles have been studied. Many pepD mutations lead to the production of partially active peptidase D enzymes with substrate specificities that differ strikingly from those of the wild-type enzyme. The growth yields of carnosinase-deficient strains growing in Difco nutrient broth indicate that carnosine is the major utilizable source of histidine in this medium. PMID:26655
Antón, D N
A strain (DA82) having peculiar osmotic properties was isolated in Salmonella typhimurium. The mutant shows increased elasticity of its cell wall and makes spherical instead of elongated cells, regardless of the osmolality of the medium. The strain withstands dilution in distilled water without disruption or death and grows normally in 0.1 molal NaCl broth (240 milliosmol), but it dies exponentially in low-osmolality broth (40 milliosmol). Addition of salts or sucrose instantly stops death and allows growth and cell division to proceed. Death is not due to lysis because this appears at later times and at a much lower rate. Osmotic inactivation is temperature-dependent: higher death rates occur at higher incubation temperatures. Inhibition of protein synthesis by chloramphenicol (20 mug/ml) prevents osmotic death. At 37 C and at lower temperatures, the phenomenon of osmotic death is transient. After a variable interval, growth of the osmotic-sensitive strain resumes. It is assumed that the strain's osmotic behavior is due to membrane defectiveness. The membrane disfunction and the wall defect shown by the strain may be consequences of a single genetic alteration or the results of independent mutations.
Bursztyn, H; Sgaramella, V; Ciferri, O; Lederberg, J
Cells of rough (but not smooth) strains of Salmonella typhimurium become competent for transfection by phage P22 deoxyribonucleic acid after treatment with 0.1 M CaCl2. The yield of infectious centers is about 10(-8) per genome equivalent of deoxyribonucleic acid. However, different sorts of rough strains vary in their ability to become competent in a fashion that can be correlated with the level of the genetic block in cell wall lipopolysaccharide synthesis. The most amenable strains are blocked by defects in the addition of galactose units I and II of the lipopolysaccharide by the inability to synthesize uridine 5'-diphosphate-galactose (galE point mutants and gal deletion mutants). Strains blocked only in the addition of galactose I, glucose I, or heptose II have low levels of transfectability, whereas strains with either more complete or more deficient lipopolysaccharide core are not competent for transfection. When normal lipopolysaccharide synthesis is restored either genetically or by furnishing exogenous galactose (galE point mutants that can still use it), the cells are not longer competent for transfection. PMID:1104596
Suo, Zhiyong; Yang, Xinghong; Avci, Recep; Kellerman, Laura; Pascual, David W; Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew
Most bacteria, planktonic and sessile, are encapsulated inside loosely bound extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) in their physiological environment. Imaging a bacterium with its capsule requires lengthy sample preparation to enhance the capsular contrast. In this study, Salmonella typhimurium was investigated using atomic force microscopy for a practical means of imaging an encapsulated bacterium in air. The investigation further aimed to determine the relation between the buffers used for preparing the bacterium and the preservation of the capsular material surrounding it. It was observed that rinsing bacteria with HEPES buffer could stabilize and promote capsule formation, while rinsing with PBS, Tris, or glycine removes most of the capsular EPS. For bacteria rinsed with HEPES and air-dried, the height images showed only the contour of the capsular material, while the phase and amplitude images presented the detailed structures of the bacterial surface, including the flagella encapsulated inside the capsular EPS. The encapsulation was attributed to the cross-linking of the acidic exopolysaccharides mediated by the piperazine moiety of HEPES through electrostatic attraction. This explanation is supported by encapsulated bacteria observed for samples rinsed with N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazine solution and by the presence of entrapped HEPES within the dry capsular EPS suggested by micro-Raman spectroscopy.
Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M.; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Bosilevac, Joseph M.; Shackelford, Steven D.; Wheeler, Tommy L.; Koohmaraie, Mohammad
The objective of this study was to characterize Salmonella enterica contamination on carcasses in two large U.S. commercial pork processing plants. The carcasses were sampled at three points, before scalding (prescald), after dehairing/polishing but before evisceration (preevisceration), and after chilling (chilled final). The overall prevalences of Salmonella on carcasses at these three sampling points, prescald, preevisceration, and after chilling, were 91.2%, 19.1%, and 3.7%, respectively. At one of the two plants, the prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for each of the carcass sampling points. The prevalences of carcasses with enumerable Salmonella at prescald, preevisceration, and after chilling were 37.7%, 4.8%, and 0.6%, respectively. A total of 294 prescald carcasses had Salmonella loads of >1.9 log CFU/100 cm2, but these carcasses were not equally distributed between the two plants, as 234 occurred at the plant with higher Salmonella prevalences. Forty-one serotypes were identified on prescald carcasses with Salmonella enterica serotypes Derby, Typhimurium, and Anatum predominating. S. enterica serotypes Typhimurium and London were the most common of the 24 serotypes isolated from preevisceration carcasses. The Salmonella serotypes Johannesburg and Typhimurium were the most frequently isolated serotypes of the 9 serotypes identified from chilled final carcasses. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for selected isolates from each carcass sampling point. Multiple drug resistance (MDR), defined as resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents, was identified for 71.2%, 47.8%, and 77.5% of the tested isolates from prescald, preevisceration, and chilled final carcasses, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the interventions used by pork processing plants greatly reduce the prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses, but MDR Salmonella was isolated from 3.2% of the final carcasses sampled. PMID:22327585
Herrera-León, Silvia; Ramiro, Raquel; Arroyo, Margarita; Díez, Rosa; Usera, Miguel Angel; Echeita, Maria Aurora
Salmonella serotypes are defined on the basis of somatic (O) antigens which define the serogroup and flagellar (H) factor antigens, both of which are present in the cell wall of Salmonella. Most Salmonella organisms alternatively express phase-1 or phase-2 flagellar antigens encoded by fliC and fljB genes, respectively. Our group previously published two multiplex PCRs for distinguishing the most common first- and second-phase antigens. In this paper we describe a third multiplex PCR to identify the most common serogroups (O:B; O:C1; O:C2; O:D and O:E). The combination of these three PCRs enabled us to completely serotype organisms belonging to the Salmonella species. This multiplex PCR includes 10 primers. A total of 67 Salmonella strains belonging to 32 different serotypes were tested. Each strain generated one serogroup-specific fragment ranging between 162 and 615bp. Twenty-eight strains belonging to 21 serotypes, with a serogroup different from those tested in this work, did not generate any fragments. To compare molecular serotyping with traditional serotyping, 500 strains, received according to the order of arrival in the laboratory, were serotyped using both methods. The three multiplex PCRs were able to serotype 84.6% of the tested strains. This method was found to be very helpful in our laboratory as an alternative method for typing strains causing outbreaks, and it can be used to supplement conventional serotyping, since it is also applicable to motionless and rough strains.
Chousalkar, Kapil; Gole, Vaibhav; Caraguel, Charles; Rault, Jean-Loup
Free range production systems are becoming a major source of egg production in Australia and worldwide. This study investigated shedding and ecology of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella species in a free range layer flock, wild birds and foxes in the vicinity of the free range farm in different seasons. Shedding of Salmonella was significantly higher in summer. Within the shed, overall, Salmonella prevalence was highest in dust. Corticosterone level in faeces was highest in spring and lowest in winter. There was no direct association between the Salmonella shedding (MPN/gm) and corticosterone levels in faeces. Salmonella Typhimurium MLVA types isolated from fox and wild birds were similar to MLVA types isolated from layer flock and reported during human food borne illness. Wild birds and foxes appear to play an important role in S. Typhimurium ecology and food safety. Environmental factors could play a role in evolution of S. Typhimurium in free range environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guan, Guo-fang; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Li-ming; Jin, Chun-shun; Sun, Kai; Zhang, De-jun; Yu, Duo-jiao; Cao, Hong-wei; Lu, Yan-qing; Wen, Lian-ji
An effective cancer therapeutic should target tumours specifically with limited systemic toxicity. Here, we transformed an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) with an Apoptin expressing plasmid into a human laryngeal carcinoma cell line. The expression of the inserted gene was measured using fluorescence and immunoblotting assays. The attenuated S. typhimurium-mediated Apoptin significantly decreased cytotoxicity and strongly increased cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3. The process was mediated by Bax, cytochrome c and caspase-9. A syngeneic nude murine tumour model was used to determine the anti-tumour effects of the recombinant bacteria in vivo. Systemic injection of the recombinant bacteria with and without re-dosing caused significant tumour growth delay and reduced tumour microvessel density, thereby extending host survival. Our findings indicated that the use of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium as an Apoptin expression vector has potential cancer therapeutic benefits.
Shah, Devendra H; Paul, Narayan C; Sischo, Willium C; Crespo, Rocio; Guard, Jean
Salmonella spp. is the most predominant bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. Due to the risk of human infection associated with poultry products and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella also poses a significant challenge to commercial poultry production. During the last decade (2002 to 2012), the 12 most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes (MPPSTs) were frequently and consistently isolated from poultry products in the United States. These MPPSTs and their percent prevalence in poultry products include Kentucky (4%), Enteritidis (2%) Heidelberg (2%), Typhimurium (2%), S. I 4,,12:i:- (0.31%), Montevideo (0.20%), Infantis (0.16%) Schwarzengrund (0.15%), Hadar (0.15%), Mbandaka (0.13%), Thompson (0.12%), and Senftenberg (0.04%). All MPPSTs except Kentucky are among the top 30 clinically significant serotypes that cause human illnesses in the United States. However with the exception of a few widely studied serotypes such as S. Enteritidis and Typhimurium, the ecology and epidemiology of the majority of MPPSTs still remain poorly investigated. Published data from the United States suggests that MPPSTs such as Heidelberg, Typhimurium, Kentucky, and Sentfenberg are more likely to be multi-drug resistant (MDR, ≥3 antimicobial classes) whereas Enteritidis, Montevideo, Schwarzengrund, Hadar, Infantis, Thompson, and Mbandaka are generally pan-susceptible or display resistance to fewer antimicobials. In contrast, the majority of MPPSTs isolated globally have been reported to display MDR phenotype. There also appears to be an international spread of a few MDR serotypes including Kentucky, Schwarzengrund, Hadar, Thomson, Sentfenberg, and Enteritidis, which may pose significant challenges to the public health. The current knowledge gaps on the ecology, epidemiology, and antimicrobial resistance of MPPSTs are discussed. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Pulido-Landínez, M; Sánchez-Ingunza, R; Guard, J; do Nascimento, V Pinheiro
To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from southern Brazil, the Kauffmann–White–Le Minor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR) region that assesses single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring around a 5S ribosomal gene. Serotypes identified were Heidelberg (40·6%), Enteritidis (34·2%), Hadar (8·4%), Typhimurium (3·9%), Gallinarum (3·2%), Agona (1·3%), Cerro (1·3%), Livingstone (1·3%), Infantis (0·6%), Isangi (0·6%), Mbandaka (0·6%), Montevideo (0·6%) and Senftenberg (0·6%). Three unique ISRs were detected from four strains. Day old chicks yielded only S. Enteritidis, whereas S. Heidelberg was most often associated with poultry carcasses. Overall agreement between KWL and ISR was 85·2%, with disagreement possibly due to the ability of ISR to detect mixtures of serotypes in culture. Overall, ISR provided more information than did KWL about the ecology of Salm. enterica on-farm. The O-antigen group D Salm. enterica serovars such as Pullorum, Gallinarum and Enteritidis appear susceptible to overgrowth by other serotypes. Significance and Impact of the Study Single nucleotide polymorphisms found in a group of poultry-associated Salmonella isolates from southern Brazil provided evidence of mixtures of serovar group D serotypes on-farm and in single samples from birds. This finding suggests that co-infection and interserotype competition of Salmonella enterica in poultry could impact the incidence of disease in animals or humans. In addition, unique serotypes were identified on-farm that escaped characterization by antibody typing. Application of cost-efficient and highly discriminatory genomic methods for assigning serotype may alter concepts about the epidemiology of Salm. enterica on-farm and in foods. PMID:23734786
Salmonella infections cause an estimated 1.4 million human illnesses and 400 deaths annually in the United States. Although the incidence of several other foodborne bacterial infections decreased substantially during 1996-2004, the incidence of Salmonella infections declined modestly. In September 2004, the New Mexico Department of Health received reports from the New Mexico Scientific Laboratory Division of eight Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates that had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns using XbaI and BlnI restriction enzymes. The patients were from three New Mexico counties and had onsets of illness during August 18-29. A review of PFGE patterns submitted to the National Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Disease Surveillance (PulseNet) database for Salmonella revealed 31 indistinguishable patient isolates of S. Typhimurium from nine states (Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Tennessee, and Wisconsin) and the District of Columbia, with illness onset occurring during August 11-October 2, 2004. The S. Typhimurium isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. An investigation conducted by state health departments, CDC, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) identified ground beef purchased at a national chain of supermarkets as the source of S. Typhimurium infections. Traceback results indicated product originating from a common supplier; however, evaluators determined that plant practices conformed to FSIS production guidelines, and no product recalls were made. This report describes the investigation and underscores the risk for salmonellosis from contact with contaminated ground beef, despite regulatory directives to reduce Salmonella contamination in beef production. Reduced contamination and consumption of raw or undercooked meat and further education of the food service industry and consumers are critical to
Kirchner, Miranda J; Liebana, Ernesto; McLaren, Ian; Clifton-Hadley, Felicity A; Wales, Andrew D; Davies, Robert H
To examine possible correlations in bovine Salmonella isolates between environmental survival and serovar-associated epidemiological patterns, bovine field isolates of Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Dublin (two each) were inoculated into bovine faeces slurry and tested monthly by culture for survival during a six-month period of storage at a variable ambient temperature in a disused animal transporter. Low moisture conditions, where the slurry was dried onto wooden dowels, increased detectable survival of a low-level inoculum by up to five months, compared with wet slurry. A more modest increase of survival time was seen with storage of wet slurry under refrigeration at 4°C. Under both dry and wet conditions, the concentration of culturable Salmonella Typhimurium declined at a slower rate than did that of Salmonella Dublin. Salmonella that was naturally contaminating bovine faeces from farms with Salmonella Typhimurium did not show superior survival times compared with Salmonella Typhimurium that had been artificially inoculated into samples. The differing survival characteristics of the two serovars that was observed in environmental faeces may complement their different modes of infection in cattle. Salmonella Dublin, being a bovine host-adapted strain that establishes chronic infection in some animals, may have less need to survive for a prolonged period outside of its host than does Salmonella Typhimurium.
Sahu, Surasri N; Anriany, Yuda; Grim, Christopher J; Kim, Sungji; Chang, Zenas; Joseph, Sam W; Cinar, Hediye N
Salmonella enterica serover Typhimurium definitive phage type DT104, resistant to multiple antibiotics, is one of the most widespread Salmonella species in human infection worldwide. Although several cohort studies indicate that DT104 carrying the multidrug resistance (MDR) locus on salmonella genomic island 1 is a possible hyper-virulent strain compared to DT104 strains without MDR, or other Salmonella enterica serotypes, existing experimental evidence regarding virulence properties associated with the MDR region is controversial. To address this question, we constructed an isogenic MDR deletion (∆MDR) mutant strain of DT104, SNS12, by allelic exchange and used Caenorhabditis elegans as a host model to assess differences in virulence between these two strains. SNS12 exhibited decreased virulence in C. elegans, and we observed increased colonization and proliferation of the intestine of C. elegans by DT104. The immune response against MDR-carrying DT104 appears to function through a non-canonical Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) pathway, namely prion-like-(QN-rich)-domain-bearing protein pathway (PQN), in a ced-1 dependent manner in C. elegans. Further, we also demonstrate that genes of the PQN pathway and antimicrobial peptide gene abf-2, are expressed at higher transcriptional levels in worms immediately following exposure to DT104, in comparison with worms exposed to SNS12. Altogether, our results suggest that the MDR region of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 has a direct role in virulence against Caenorhabditis elegans.
Sahu, Surasri N.; Anriany, Yuda; Grim, Christopher J.; Kim, Sungji; Chang, Zenas; Joseph, Sam W.; Cinar, Hediye N.
Salmonella enterica serover Typhimurium definitive phage type DT104, resistant to multiple antibiotics, is one of the most widespread Salmonella species in human infection worldwide. Although several cohort studies indicate that DT104 carrying the multidrug resistance (MDR) locus on salmonella genomic island 1 is a possible hyper-virulent strain compared to DT104 strains without MDR, or other Salmonella enterica serotypes, existing experimental evidence regarding virulence properties associated with the MDR region is controversial. To address this question, we constructed an isogenic MDR deletion (∆MDR) mutant strain of DT104, SNS12, by allelic exchange and used Caenorhabditis elegans as a host model to assess differences in virulence between these two strains. SNS12 exhibited decreased virulence in C. elegans, and we observed increased colonization and proliferation of the intestine of C. elegans by DT104. The immune response against MDR-carrying DT104 appears to function through a non-canonical Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) pathway, namely prion-like-(QN-rich)-domain-bearing protein pathway (PQN), in a ced-1 dependent manner in C. elegans. Further, we also demonstrate that genes of the PQN pathway and antimicrobial peptide gene abf-2, are expressed at higher transcriptional levels in worms immediately following exposure to DT104, in comparison with worms exposed to SNS12. Altogether, our results suggest that the MDR region of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 has a direct role in virulence against Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:24124587
Calo, Juliany Rivera; Park, Si Hong; Baker, Christopher A; Ricke, Steven C
Salmonella enterica is one of the most prevalent pathogens responsible for foodborne illness worldwide. Numerous Salmonella serovars have been associated with the consumption of a variety of products, and limiting food-borne illness due to Salmonella serovars is a continuing problem for food producers and public health. The emergence and prevalence of Salmonella serovars has been studied but the predominant serovars have varied somewhat over the years. The aims of this research were to compare the aerobic growth responses of selected predominant foodborne Salmonella serovars, and evaluate how the spent media from different serovars affects the growth of a well-characterized Salmonella Typhimurium strain. Growth responses were similar for most strains in spent media except for S. Typhimurium (ATCC 14028), which exhibited a decrease in growth in the presence of Salmonella Heidelberg (ARI-14) spent media. This research will provide a better understanding of the growth differences among several Salmonella serovars in nutrient limited spent media.
Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F
Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors.
Sato, Y; Fukui, S; Kurusu, H; Kitazawa, I; Kuwamoto, R; Aoyagi, T
Salmonella typhimurium infection occurred in a children's zoo where 11 fowl and 85 mammals were kept. Initially, the guinea pigs were infected and transmitted the infection to the fowl and rabbits. These mammals responded to medication and cleared of the infection; however, the birds were judged to contain excreters despite four regimens of treatment with antibiotics. Cloacal swabs were taken from all the birds. One turkey was positive for Salmonella and was destroyed. Pooled fecal samples from the birds were again positive. All the birds were tested serologically, and two birds, a goose and a turkey, were positive with Salmonella pullorum-gallinarum antigen, which was assumed to be a cross reaction with S. typhimurium antigen. The two birds were destroyed and the goose yielded Salmonella. The infection was finally eradicated, and the serologic examination was considered to be the most useful procedure for detection of the excreters.
Eiguer, T; Butta, N
We report data of isolation of 3,665 strains of Salmonella, 1,855 of Shigella and 697 of E. coli infantile enteropathogenic (EPI) from different sources: human, animal, food and water, in Argentina during the triennium 1979-1981, considering their importance in the chain of transmission of enterobacteria. It appears that S. typhimurium is the most common among all the isolated serotypes of Salmonella, following in order of importance, S. oranienburg, S. derby, S. panama, S. agona, S. anatum, S. newport, S. bredeney and S. montevideo. It is important to emphasize the appearance of new Shigella serotypes in Argentina, particularly Sh. dysenteriae 2. We found that E. coli EPI 0111:B4 was the most frequent serotype and in 1981 the serotype 0112:B13 was also found.
Reamer, R H; Affronti, L F; Blankenship, L C; Alford, J A
Four serotypes of Salmonella enteritidis, Anatum ATCC 9270, Newbrunswick ATCC 1608, Oranienburg 200 E, and Pullorum RM, were studied to determine biological, chemical, or physical differences which might explain variations in Salmonella virulence as previously reported by McCullough and Eisele (J. Infect. Dis. 88:278-289, 1951; 89:259-265, 1951). These investigators found that serotype Pullorum was significantly less virulent than serotypes Newport, Derby, Barielly, Meleagridis and Anatum when fed to healthy humans. Results of our own experiments showed that serotype Pullorum RM had a generation time approximately twice that of serotype Anatum 9270. The volume of serotype Pullorum was approximately one-half the volume of the other serotypes used (Anatum 9270, Newbrunswick 1608, Oranienburg 200 E, Cubana 12007, and Meleagridis DR). The number of cells required to yield 1 g dry weight was substantially higher for serotype Pullorum RM than for serotypes Anatum 9270, Newbrunswick 1608, and Oranienburg 200 E. The yield of endotoxin per gram dry weight for serotype Pullorum RM averaged 22 mg/g, whereas yields of endotoxin for serotypes Anatum 9270, Newbrunswick 1608, and Oranienburg 200 E averaged 32 to 35 mg/g. The relative abundance of the four major fatty acids (measured by gas chromatography) also showed distinct differences among the serotypes. Pullorum RM contained less lauric and 3-hydroxymyristic acids and more myristic and palmitic acids than the other three serotypes. The identity of 3-hydroxymyristate was confirmed by mass spectroscopy. Serotype Pullorum RM required 10 times more lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) to obtain a 50% lethal dose in mice than the other three serotypes. When the lipid part was separated from the polysaccharide and solubilized with bovine serum, the 50% lethal dose of serotype Pullorum RM was equal to that of the other three.
Reamer, R. H.; Affronti, L. F.; Blankenship, L. C.; Alford, J. A.
Four serotypes of Salmonella enteritidis, Anatum ATCC 9270, Newbrunswick ATCC 1608, Oranienburg 200 E, and Pullorum RM, were studied to determine biological, chemical, or physical differences which might explain variations in Salmonella virulence as previously reported by McCullough and Eisele (J. Infect. Dis. 88:278-289, 1951; 89:259-265, 1951). These investigators found that serotype Pullorum was significantly less virulent than serotypes Newport, Derby, Barielly, Meleagridis and Anatum when fed to healthy humans. Results of our own experiments showed that serotype Pullorum RM had a generation time approximately twice that of serotype Anatum 9270. The volume of serotype Pullorum was approximately one-half the volume of the other serotypes used (Anatum 9270, Newbrunswick 1608, Oranienburg 200 E, Cubana 12007, and Meleagridis DR). The number of cells required to yield 1 g dry weight was substantially higher for serotype Pullorum RM than for serotypes Anatum 9270, Newbrunswick 1608, and Oranienburg 200 E. The yield of endotoxin per gram dry weight for serotype Pullorum RM averaged 22 mg/g, whereas yields of endotoxin for serotypes Anatum 9270, Newbrunswick 1608, and Oranienburg 200 E averaged 32 to 35 mg/g. The relative abundance of the four major fatty acids (measured by gas chromatography) also showed distinct differences among the serotypes. Pullorum RM contained less lauric and 3-hydroxymyristic acids and more myristic and palmitic acids than the other three serotypes. The identity of 3-hydroxymyristate was confirmed by mass spectroscopy. Serotype Pullorum RM required 10 times more lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) to obtain a 50% lethal dose in mice than the other three serotypes. When the lipid part was separated from the polysaccharide and solubilized with bovine serum, the 50% lethal dose of serotype Pullorum RM was equal to that of the other three. PMID:361563
Nolan, L K; Giddings, C W; Boland, E W; Steffen, D J; Brown, J; Misek, A
Nasal secretions, faecal samples and buffy coats were obtained from 102 cattle from a North Dakota dairy herd with a history of calf scours. Treated buffy coats, faecal samples and nasal secretions were inoculated into tetrathionate broth (TB), incubated at 37 degrees C overnight, and plated onto brilliant green agar medium with novobiocin (BGAN). The TB was left at room temperature for 5 days and then used to inoculate fresh TB. The fresh TB was incubated at 37 degrees C over night and plated onto BGAN medium. All the plates were incubated at 37 degrees C over night and observed for Salmonella-like growth. Suspect colonies were further tested and Salmonella isolates were serotyped by the National Veterinary Services laboratory. Twenty-two of the 36 calves sampled harboured S. typhimurium in their faeces, but no samples from cows were positive. No Salmonella were isolated from the buffy coats, but 4 calves were shown to have Salmonella in their nasal secretions. Extended enrichment of the faecal cultures in TB resulted in a significant increase in Salmonella isolations, although 2 samples were positive following the initial enrichment period and not after secondary enrichment. The typical Salmonella isolate detected from this herd contained a transmissible R-plasmid encoding resistance to tetracycline, kanamycin, sulphisoxazole and ampicillin. This study confirmed that delayed secondary enrichment in TB is superior to primary enrichment for detection of Salmonella from cattle.
Gu, Ganyu; Hu, Jiahuai; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; Richardson, Susanna M.; Bartz, Jerry A.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.
Several Salmonella enterica outbreaks have been traced back to contaminated tomatoes. In this study, the internalization of S. enterica Typhimurium via tomato leaves was investigated as affected by surfactants and bacterial rdar morphotype, which was reported to be important for the environmental persistence and attachment of Salmonella to plants. Surfactants, especially Silwet L-77, promoted ingress and survival of S. enterica Typhimurium in tomato leaves. In each of two experiments, 84 tomato plants were inoculated two to four times before fruiting with GFP-labeled S. enterica Typhimurium strain MAE110 (with rdar morphotype) or MAE119 (without rdar). For each inoculation, single leaflets were dipped in 109 CFU/ml Salmonella suspension with Silwet L-77. Inoculated and adjacent leaflets were tested for Salmonella survival for 3 weeks after each inoculation. The surface and pulp of ripe fruits produced on these plants were also examined for Salmonella. Populations of both Salmonella strains in inoculated leaflets decreased during 2 weeks after inoculation but remained unchanged (at about 104 CFU/g) in week 3. Populations of MAE110 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of MAE119 from day 3 after inoculation. In the first year, nine fruits collected from one of the 42 MAE119 inoculated plants were positive for S. enterica Typhimurium. In the second year, Salmonella was detected in adjacent non-inoculated leaves of eight tomato plants (five inoculated with strain MAE110). The pulp of 12 fruits from two plants inoculated with MAE110 was Salmonella positive (about 106 CFU/g). Internalization was confirmed by fluorescence and confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can move inside tomato plants grown in natural field soil and colonize fruits at high levels without inducing any symptoms, except for a slight reduction in plant growth. PMID:22096553
Issack, Mohammad I; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Ramsamy, Veemala D; Svendsen, Christina A; Pornruangwong, Srirat; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Hendriksen, Rene S
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is one of the leading causes of salmonellosis in Mauritius, where it has also been associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness. However, little is known about its molecular epidemiology in the country. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the clonality and source of Salmonella Typhimurium in Mauritius by studying human, food, and poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration determination. Forty-nine isolates collected between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed, including 25 stool isolates from foodborne illness outbreaks and sporadic gastroenteritis cases, four blood isolates, one postmortem colon isolate, 14 food isolates, and five poultry isolates. All isolates were pansusceptible to the 16 antibiotics tested, except for two isolates that were resistant to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Overall characterization of the isolates by PFGE digested with XbaI and BlnI resulted in eight different patterns. The largest of the clusters in the composite dataset consisted of 20 isolates, including two raw chicken isolates, four poultry isolates, and nine human stool isolates from two outbreaks. A second cluster consisted of 18 isolates, of which 12 originated from human blood and stool samples from both sporadic and outbreak cases. Six food isolates were also found in this cluster, including isolates from raw and grilled chicken, marlin mousse, and cooked pork. One poultry isolate had a closely related PFGE pattern. The results indicate that one clone of Salmonella Typhimurium found in poultry has been causing outbreaks of foodborne illness in Mauritius and another clone that has caused many cases of gastrointestinal illness and bacteremia in humans could also be linked to poultry. Thus, poultry appears to be a major reservoir for Salmonella Typhimurium in Mauritius. Initiating on-farm control strategies and measures against future dissemination may
Kingsley, Robert A.; van Amsterdam, Karin; Kramer, Naomi; Bäumler, Andreas J.
Little is known about factors which enable Salmonella serotypes to circulate within populations of livestock and domestic fowl. We have identified a DNA region which is present in Salmonella serotypes commonly isolated from livestock and domestic fowl (S. enterica subspecies I) but absent from reptile-associated Salmonella serotypes (S. bongori and S. enterica subspecies II to VII). This DNA region was cloned from Salmonella serotype Typhimurium and sequence analysis revealed the presence of a 6,105-bp open reading frame, designated shdA, whose product's deduced amino acid sequence displayed homology to that of AIDA-I from diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, MisL of serotype Typhimurium, and IcsA of Shigella flexneri. The shdA gene was located adjacent to xseA at 52 min, in a 30-kb DNA region which is not present in Escherichia coli K-12. A serotype Typhimurium shdA mutant was shed with the feces in reduced numbers and for a shorter period of time compared to its isogenic parent. A possible role for the shdA gene during the expansion in host range of S. enterica subspecies I to include warm-blooded vertebrates is discussed. PMID:10768965
This paper reports an amperometric biosensor for rapid and sensitive Salmonella Typhimurium detection in milk. The biosensor was assembled from the self-assembled monolayers technique on a gold surface. In this device, polyclonal antibodies were oriented by protein A. The biosensor structure was cha...
Sun, Jizhou; Xia, Shanhong; Bian, Chao; Qu, Lan
In this paper, a micro amperometric immunosensor based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems technology for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) was constructed by immobilizing a polyclonal antibody (the bio-molecular recognition element) onto the surface of polypyrrole(PPy) /staphylococcal protein A(SPA) modified Pt electrode. Pyrrole doped with SPA was co-electropolymerized onto the working electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry in 10 minutes for orientation-controlled immobilization of salmonella capture antibodies. S. typhimurium with the concentration of 102cfu/ml could be detected by this immunosensor with a controllable and convenient manipulation to effectively modify the sensing surface more rapidly with less consumption of reagent (10ÂµL), which showed the good property of the sensor. It is potential to develop a micro biosensor that can be used for convenient, accurate, cost-effective and real-time sensing of pathogens in food products.
Ramachandran, Girish; Aheto, Komi; Shirtliff, Mark E; Tennant, Sharon M
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, an enteric pathogen that causes a self-limiting gastroenteritis, forms biofilms on different surfaces. In sub-Saharan Africa, Salmonella Typhimurium of a novel sequence type (ST) 313 was identified and produces septicemia in the absence of gastroenteritis. No animal reservoir has been identified, and it is hypothesized that transmission occurs via human to human. In this study, we show that invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 strains from Mali are poor biofilm producers compared to Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 strains, which are found worldwide and are known to be associated with gastroenteritis. We evaluated biofilms using crystal violet staining, examination of the red, dry and rough morphotype, pellicle formation and a continuous flow system. One month-old Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 colonies survived in the absence of exogenous nutrients and were highly resistant to sodium hypochlorite treatment compared to Salmonella Typhimurium ST313. This study for the first time demonstrates the comparative biofilm-forming ability and long-term survival of clinical Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 and ST313 isolates. Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 strains are strong biofilm producers and can survive desiccation compared to Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 that form weak biofilms and survive poorly following desiccation. Our data suggest that like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 lack mechanisms that allow it to persist in the environment.
Matak, Kristen E; Hvizdzak, Andrea L; Beamer, Sarah; Jaczynski, Jacek
The effect of electron beam (e-beam) radiation on the recovery of Salmonella serotypes Tennessee (ATCC 10722) and Typhimurium (ATCC 14028) in creamy peanut butter over a 14-d storage period at 22 °C was studied. Each Salmonella type was independently inoculated into peanut butter and subjected to e-beam doses that ranged from 0 to 3.1 kGy, confirmed by film dosimetry. After 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 14-d of storage, microbial analyses were conducted. Survivors were recovered on growth and selective media using standard spread-plating methods. Microbial counts (CFU/g) were log-converted and differences were determined by ANOVA and Tukey's Honestly Significant Differences test. When samples were not e-beam-treated, there were no significant changes (P > 0.05) in microbial numbers over time. In e-beamed samples, microbial numbers decreased over time; however, reductions were not always significant. Initial recovery rates (R-rates) 2 d after e-beam treatment were significantly different for the 2 strains of Salmonella and between recovery media (P < 0.05); however, these differences did not persist for the remainder of the storage period (P > 0.05) indicating that injured cells were not able to survive in the high-fat, low-water activity peanut butter environment. R-rates for both strains of Salmonella were maintained until day 14 when there were significant reductions in Salmonella Typhimurium (P < 0.05). These results indicate that Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Typhimurium will survive in peanut butter when exposed to nonlethal doses of e-beam irradiation. Electron beam (e-beam) irradiation is an alternative to thermal processing; this technique inactivates microorganisms and insects that might be present in a food by generating radiation by accelerated electrons that inactivate organisms directly because of interaction with cell components and indirectly by producing free radicals that disrupt integrity of the cell membrane. E-beam radiation will reduce the number
Miller, Rachel A.
ABSTRACT Select nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serotypes were recently found to encode the Salmonella cytolethal distending toxin (S-CDT), an important virulence factor for serotype Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever. Using a PCR-based assay, we determined that among 21 NTS serotypes causing the majority of food-borne salmonellosis cases in the United States, genes encoding S-CDT are conserved in isolates representing serotypes Javiana, Montevideo, and Oranienburg but that among serotype Mississippi isolates, the presence of S-CDT-encoding genes is clade associated. HeLa cells infected with representative strains of these S-CDT-positive serotypes had a significantly higher proportion of cells arrested in the G2/M phase than HeLa cells infected with representative strains of S-CDT-negative serotypes Typhimurium, Newport, and Enteritidis. The G2/M cell cycle arrest was dependent on CdtB, the active subunit of S-CDT, as infection with isogenic ΔcdtB mutants abolished their ability to induce a G2/M cell cycle arrest. Infection with S-CDT-encoding serotypes was significantly associated with activation of the host cell’s DNA damage response (DDR), a signaling cascade that is important for detecting and repairing damaged DNA. HeLa cell populations infected with S-CDT-positive serotypes had a significantly higher proportion of cells with DDR protein 53BP1 and γH2AX foci than cells infected with either S-CDT-negative serotypes or isogenic ΔcdtB strains. Intoxication with S-CDT occurred via autocrine and paracrine pathways, as uninfected HeLa cells among populations of infected cells also had an activated DDR. Overall, we show that S-CDT plays a significant role in the cellular outcome of infection with NTS serotypes. PMID:27999166
Ethelberg, Steen; Mølbak, Kåre
The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Typhimurium infections in humans, and in particular MDR definitive phage type 104 (DT104), has increased substantially in many countries in the last 2 decades, often associated with increased illness. To examine the magnitude of this problem, a survey was conducted among countries with available antimicrobial resistance or phage typing surveillance data. A total of 29, primarily industrialized, countries participated in the survey, which covered the years 1992–2001. Overall, the incidence of MDR S. Typhimurium and DT104 increased continuously during this period, although the problem affected primarily Europe and North America. The increase appeared to have peaked in the United Kingdom but not in other countries. Also, the incidence of quinolone-resistant S. Typhimurium was increasing. This survey implies that MDR S. Typhimurium constitutes an increasing public health problem in large parts of the world and emphasizes the importance of surveillance and control programs. PMID:15963280
Farakos, S M Santillana; Hicks, J W; Frye, J G; Frank, J F
Salmonella enterica is not able to grow at water activity (aw) levels below 0.94, but it can survive in low-aw foods for long periods of time. Temperature, aw, substrate, and serotype affect its persistence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature and aw on the relative persistence among four serotypes of Salmonella enterica in low-aw whey protein powder. Whey protein powder was equilibrated to aws 0.18 ± 0.02 and 0.54 ± 0.03, inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Agona, Tennessee, Montevideo, and Typhimurium), vacuum sealed, and stored at 36°C for 6 months and at 70°C for 48 h. Presumptive Salmonella colonies (30 to 32) were randomly picked from each plate at the end of each survival study. PCR multiplex serotyping was used to identify the isolates. A multinomial mixed logistic model with Salmonella Tennessee as a reference was used to test for significant differences in frequency distribution of the surviving serotypes. Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Agona were the most prevalent surviving serotypes, followed in decreasing order by Salmonella Montevideo and Salmonella Typhimurium. Statistical analysis indicated that temperature (P = 0.003) and aw (P = 0.012) influenced the relative prevalence of the Salmonella serotypes. If other environmental conditions are equal, Salmonella Tennessee is better able to survive than Salmonella Montevideo and Salmonella Typhimurium at higher temperatures and higher aw levels in low-aw whey protein powder held at 36 and 70°C. The relative prevalence of Salmonella Agona to Salmonella Tennessee did not change with increasing temperature (P = 0.211) or aw (P = 0.453). These results should be considered in risk assessment and when developing predictive models for survival of Salmonella in low-aw foods.
Vega, Nicole M.; Allison, Kyle R.; Samuels, Amanda N.; Klempner, Mark S.; Collins, James J.
Bacterial communication plays an important role in many population-based phenotypes and interspecies interactions, including those in host environments. These interspecies interactions may prove critical to some infectious diseases, and it follows that communication between pathogenic bacteria and commensal bacteria is a subject of growing interest. Recent studies have shown that Escherichia coli uses the signaling molecule indole to increase antibiotic tolerance throughout its population. Here, we show that the intestinal pathogen Salmonella typhimurium increases its antibiotic tolerance in response to indole, even though S. typhimurium does not natively produce indole. Increased antibiotic tolerance can be induced in S. typhimurium by both exogenous indole added to clonal S. typhimurium populations and indole produced by E. coli in mixed-microbial communities. Our data show that indole-induced tolerance in S. typhimurium is mediated primarily by the oxidative stress response and, to a lesser extent, by the phage shock response, which were previously shown to mediate indole-induced tolerance in E. coli. Further, we find that indole signaling by E. coli induces S. typhimurium antibiotic tolerance in a Caenorhabditis elegans model for gastrointestinal infection. These results suggest that the intestinal pathogen S. typhimurium can intercept indole signaling from the commensal bacterium E. coli to enhance its antibiotic tolerance in the host intestine. PMID:23946425
Crull, Katja; Rohde, Manfred; Westphal, Kathrin; Loessner, Holger; Wolf, Kathrin; Felipe-López, Alfonso; Hensel, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried
Systemic administration of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to tumour bearing mice results in preferential colonization of the tumours and retardation of tumour growth. Although the bacteria are able to invade the tumour cells in vitro, in tumours they were never detected intracellularly. Ultrastructural analysis of Salmonella-colonized tumours revealed that the bacteria had formed biofilms. Interestingly, depletion of neutrophilic granulocytes drastically reduced biofilm formation. Obviously, bacteria form biofilms in response to the immune reactions of the host. Importantly, we tested Salmonella mutants that were no longer able to form biofilms by deleting central regulators of biofilm formation. Such bacteria could be observed intracellularly in immune cells of the host or in tumour cells. Thus, tumour colonizing S. typhimurium might form biofilms as protection against phagocytosis. Since other bacteria are behaving similarly, solid murine tumours might represent a unique model to study biofilm formation in vivo. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Oscar, T P
Mathematical models that predict the behavior of human bacterial pathogens in food are valuable tools for assessing and managing this risk to public health. A study was undertaken to develop a model for predicting the behavior of Salmonella enterica serotype 8,20:-:z6 in chicken meat during cold storage and to determine how well the model would predict the behavior of other serotypes of Salmonella stored under the same conditions. To develop the model, ground chicken thigh meat (0.75 cm(3)) was inoculated with 1.7 log Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 and then stored for 0 to 8 -8 to 16°C. An automated miniaturized most-probable-number (MPN) method was developed and used for the enumeration of Salmonella. Commercial software (Excel and the add-in program NeuralTools) was used to develop a multilayer feedforward neural network model with one hidden layer of two nodes. The performance of the model was evaluated using the acceptable prediction zone (APZ) method. The number of Salmonella in ground chicken thigh meat stayed the same (P > 0.05) during 8 days of storage at -8 to 8°C but increased (P < 0.05) during storage at 9°C (+0.6 log) to 16°C (+5.1 log). The proportion of residual values (observed minus predicted values) in an APZ (pAPZ) from -1 log (fail-safe) to 0.5 log (fail-dangerous) was 0.939 for the data (n = 426 log MPN values) used in the development of the model. The model had a pAPZ of 0.944 or 0.954 when it was extrapolated to test data (n = 108 log MPN per serotype) for other serotypes (S. enterica serotype Typhimurium var 5-, Kentucky, Typhimurium, and Thompson) of Salmonella in ground chicken thigh meat stored for 0 to 8 days at -4, 4, 12, or 16°C under the same experimental conditions. A pAPZ of ≥0.7 indicates that a model provides predictions with acceptable bias and accuracy. Thus, the results indicated that the model provided valid predictions of the survival and growth of Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 in ground chicken thigh meat stored for 0 to 8 days at -8 to
Lakew, Wubishet; Girma, Abayneh; Triche, Elizabeth
Typhoidal and nontyphoidal salmonella infections are common causes of gastroenteritis in the community. However, salmonella only rarely causes invasive infections like meningitis. We report a 13-day-old female neonate with signs and symptoms of meningitis whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture showed Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae that was sensitive to ceftriaxone. She presented with fever and failure to feed for 2 days. Despite prompt treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin, and ceftriaxone, she developed communicating hydrocephalus, frequent seizures, and coma that progressed to death after 2 weeks of hospitalization. Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae is a rare cause of human infection known to leading to meningitis symptoms similar to those caused by other salmonella species. This is the first report of it as a cause of meningitis in a child under one month of age. Therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis in immunocompromised children, neonates, and those with contacts with reptiles.
Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.
Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087
Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C
Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9) or 10(7) CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants.
Salmonella enterica is a significant cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, with S. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Heidelberg being particularly prevalent. S. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Heidelberg have broad host ranges infecting poultry, dairy animals and humans. Traditional methods used fo...
Hiriart, Yanina; Serradell, Maria; Martínez, Araci; Sampaolesi, Sofia; Maciel, Dolores Gonzalez; Chabalgoity, Jose Alejandro; Yim, Lucía; Algorta, Gabriela; Rumbo, Martin
In developing countries, bacterial acute gastroenteritis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality among young children. Salmonellosis constitutes a major cause of infectious enteritis worldwide, most of them associated to the consumption of contaminated food products. Traditionally, Salmonella has been classified in serovars based on varieties of O and H surface antigens. In the present work we generated and characterized a panel of anti-flagellin monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in order to select antibodies useful for detecting the H surface antigen. Four different MAbs were obtained by somatic hybridization of splenocytes. We found two MAbs that recognised regions of flagellin conserved among different Salmonella serovars. Other two MAbs recognised structures restricted to Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium, being one of them suitable for agglutination tests. Using a diverse panel of S. enterica serovars with different H antigen varieties we confirmed that this MAb agglutinates specifically S. Typhimurium (antigenic formula: 4,12:i:1,2) or other serovars expressing flagellar factor i. In conclusion, we generated a valuable immunochemical tool to be used in simple assays for serotyping of epidemiologically relevant strains. The capacity to characterize specific strains and determine the primary sources of Salmonella contamination generate valuable information of the epidemiology of this microorganism, contributing to the improvement of public health.
A general regression neural network and Monte Carlo simulation model for predicting survival and growth of Salmonella on raw chicken skin as a function of serotype (Typhimurium, Kentucky, Hadar), temperature (5 to 50C) and time (0 to 8 h) was developed. Poultry isolates of Salmonella with natural r...
Hsueh, Po-Ren; Teng, Lee-Jene; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Chang, Chao-Fu; Wan, Jen-Hsien; Yan, Jing-Jou; Lee, Chun-Ming; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Huang, Wen-Kuei; Yang, Dine; Shyr, Jainn-Ming; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Wang, Li-Shin; Lu, Jang-Jih; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Chang, Feng-Yee; Yang, Yi-Chueh; Lau, Yeu-Jun; Liu, Yung-Ching; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Ho, Shen-Wu; Luh, Kwen-Tay
We evaluated the disk susceptibility data of 671 nontyphoid Salmonella isolates collected from different parts of Taiwan from March 2001 to August 2001 and 1,261 nontyphoid Salmonella isolates from the National Taiwan University Hospital from 1996 to 2001. Overall, ciprofloxacin resistance was found in 2.7% (18/671) of all nontyphoid Salmonella isolates, in 1.4% (5/347) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and in 7.5% (8/107) in S. enterica serotype Choleraesuis nationwide. MICs of six newer fluoroquinolones were determined for the following isolates: 37 isolates of ciprofloxacin-resistant (human) S. Typhimurium (N = 26) and Choleraesuis (N = 11), 10 isolates of ciprofloxacin-susceptible (MIC <1 mg/mL) (human) isolates of these two serotypes, and 15 swine isolates from S. Choleraesuis (N = 13) and Typhmurium (N = 2) with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC >0.12 microg/mL). Sequence analysis of the gryA, gyrB, parC, parE, and acrR genes, ciprofloxacin accumulation, and genotypes generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with three restriction enzymes (SpeI, XbaI, and BlnI) were performed. All 26 S. Typhimurium isolates from humans and pigs belonged to genotype I. For S. Choleraesuis isolates, 91% (10/11) of human isolates and 54% (7/13) of swine isolates belonged to genotype B. These two genotypes isolates from humans all exhibited a high-level of resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC 16-64 mg/mL). They had two-base substitutions in the gyrA gene at codons 83 (Ser83Phe) and 87 (Asp87Gly or Asp87Asn) and in the parC gene at codon 80 (Ser80Arg, Ser80Ile, or Ser84Lys). Our investigation documented that not only did these two S. enterica isolates have a high prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance nationwide but also that some closely related ciprofloxacin-resistant strains are disseminated from pigs to humans.
Teng, Lee-Jene; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Chang, Chao-Fu; Wan, Jen-Hsien; Yan, Jing-Jou; Lee, Chun-Ming; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Huang, Wen-Kuei; Yang, Dine; Shyr, Jainn-Ming; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Wang, Li-Shin; Lu, Jang-Jih; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Chang, Feng-Yee; Yang, Yi-Chueh; Lau, Yeu-Jun; Liu, Yung-Ching; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Ho, Shen-Wu; Luh, Kwen-Tay
We evaluated the disk susceptibility data of 671 nontyphoid Salmonella isolates collected from different parts of Taiwan from March 2001 to August 2001 and 1,261 nontyphoid Salmonella isolates from the National Taiwan University Hospital from 1996 to 2001. Overall, ciprofloxacn resistance was found in 2.7% (18/671) of all nontyphoid Salmonella isolates, in 1.4% (5/347) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and in 7.5% (8/107) in S. enterica serotype Choleraesuis nationwide. MICs of six newer fluoroquinolones were determined for the following isolates: 37 isolates of ciprofloxacin-resistant (human) S. enterica Typhimurium (N = 26) and Choleraesuis (N = 11), 10 isolates of ciprofloxacin-susceptible (MIC <1 μg/mL) (human) isolates of these two serotypes, and 15 swine isolates from S. enterica Choleraesuis (N = 13) and Typhmurium (N = 2) with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC >0.12 μg/mL). Sequence analysis of the gryA, gyrB, parC, parE, and acrR genes, ciprofloxacin accumulation; and genotypes generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with three restriction enzymes (SpeI, XbaI, and BlnI) were performed. All 26 S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from humans and pigs belonged to genotype I. For S. enterica Choleraesuis isolates, 91% (10/11) of human isolates and 54% (7/13) of swine isolates belonged to genotype B. These two genotypes isolates from humans all exhibited a high-level of resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC 16–64 μg/mL). They had two-base substitutions in the gyrA gene at codons 83 (Ser83Phe) and 87 (Asp87Gly or Asp87Asn) and in the parC gene at codon 80 (Ser80Arg, Ser80Ile, or Ser84Lys). Our investigation documented that not only did these two S. enterica isolates have a high prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance nationwide but also that some closely related ciprofloxacin-resistant strains are disseminated from pigs to humans. PMID:15078598
Li, Yuefang; Xie, Xinbao; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xiangshi; Chang, Hailing; Wang, Chuanqing; Wang, Aiming; He, Yanlei; Yu, Hui; Wang, Xiaohong; Zeng, Mei
Information about nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection in children is limited in mainland China. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, serotypes, and antibiotic resistance patterns of NTS infection in children in Shanghai. All cases with probable bacterial diarrhea were enrolled from the enteric clinic of a tertiary pediatric hospital between July 2010 and December 2011. Salmonella isolation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were conducted by the microbiological laboratory. NTS were recovered from 316 (17.2%) of 1833 cases with isolation rate exceeding Campylobacter (7.1%) and Shigella (5.7%). NTS infection was prevalent year-round with a seasonal peak during summer and autumn. The median age of children with NTS gastroenteritis was 18 months. Fever and blood-in-stool were reported in 52.5% and 42.7% of cases, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis (38.9%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (29.7%) were the most common serovars. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed 60.5% of isolates resistant to ≥1 clinically important antibiotics. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and the third-generation cephalosporins was detected in 5.5% and 7.1%-11.7% of isolates, respectively. NTS is a major enteropathogen responsible for bacterial gastroenteritis in children in Shanghai. Resistance to the current first-line antibiotics is of concern. Ongoing surveillance for NTS infection and antibiotic resistance is needed to control this pathogen in Shanghai.
Hong, Samuel; Rovira, Albert; Davies, Peter; Ahlstrom, Christina; Muellner, Petra; Rendahl, Aaron; Olsen, Karen; Bender, Jeff B; Wells, Scott; Perez, Andres; Alvarez, Julio
Salmonellosis remains one of the leading causes of foodborne disease worldwide despite preventive efforts at various stages of the food production chain. The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica represents an additional challenge for public health authorities. Food animals are considered a major reservoir and potential source of foodborne salmonellosis; thus, monitoring of Salmonella strains in livestock may help to detect emergence of new serotypes/MDR phenotypes and to gain a better understanding of Salmonella epidemiology. For this reason, we analyzed trends over a nine-year period in serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance, of Salmonella isolates recovered at the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (MVDL) from swine (n = 2,537) and cattle (n = 1,028) samples. Prevalence of predominant serotypes changed over time; in swine, S. Typhimurium and S. Derby decreased and S. Agona and S. 4,5,12:i:- increased throughout the study period. In cattle, S. Dublin, S. Montevideo and S. Cerro increased and S. Muenster became less frequent. Median minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates were higher for those recovered from swine compared with cattle, and were particularly high for certain antibiotic-serotype combinations. The proportion of resistant swine isolates was also higher than observed in the NARMS data, probably due to the different cohort of animals represented in each dataset. Results provide insight into the dynamics of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in livestock in Minnesota, and can help to monitor emerging trends in antimicrobial resistance.
Hong, Samuel; Rovira, Albert; Davies, Peter; Ahlstrom, Christina; Muellner, Petra; Rendahl, Aaron; Olsen, Karen; Bender, Jeff B.; Wells, Scott; Perez, Andres
Salmonellosis remains one of the leading causes of foodborne disease worldwide despite preventive efforts at various stages of the food production chain. The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica represents an additional challenge for public health authorities. Food animals are considered a major reservoir and potential source of foodborne salmonellosis; thus, monitoring of Salmonella strains in livestock may help to detect emergence of new serotypes/MDR phenotypes and to gain a better understanding of Salmonella epidemiology. For this reason, we analyzed trends over a nine-year period in serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance, of Salmonella isolates recovered at the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (MVDL) from swine (n = 2,537) and cattle (n = 1,028) samples. Prevalence of predominant serotypes changed over time; in swine, S. Typhimurium and S. Derby decreased and S. Agona and S. 4,5,12:i:- increased throughout the study period. In cattle, S. Dublin, S. Montevideo and S. Cerro increased and S. Muenster became less frequent. Median minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates were higher for those recovered from swine compared with cattle, and were particularly high for certain antibiotic-serotype combinations. The proportion of resistant swine isolates was also higher than observed in the NARMS data, probably due to the different cohort of animals represented in each dataset. Results provide insight into the dynamics of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in livestock in Minnesota, and can help to monitor emerging trends in antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27936204
Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Mattheus, Wesley; Vanhoof, Raymond
The Belgian National Reference Centre for Salmonella received 16,544 human isolates of Salmonella enterica between January 2009 and December 2013. Although 377 different serotypes were identified, the landscape is dominated by S. enterica serovars Typhimurium (55%) and Enteritidis (19%) in a ratio which is inverse to European Union averages. With outbreaks of Salmonella serotypes Ohio, Stanley, and Paratyphi B variant Java as prime examples, 20 serotypes displayed significant fluctuations in this 5-year period. Typhoid strains account for 1.2% of Belgian salmonellosis cases. Large-scale antibiotic susceptibility analyses (n = 4,561; panel of 12 antibiotics) showed declining resistance levels in S. Enteritis and Typhimurium isolates for 8 and 3 tested agents, respectively. Despite low overall resistance to ciprofloxacin (4.4%) and cefotaxime (1.6%), we identified clonal lineages of Salmonella serotypes Kentucky and Infantis displaying rising resistance against these clinically important drugs. Quinolone resistance is mainly mediated by serotype-specific mutations in GyrA residues Ser83 and Asp87 (92.2% not wild type), while an additional ParC_Ser80Ile mutation leads to ciprofloxacin resistance in 95.5% S. Kentucky isolates, which exceeds European averages. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) alleles qnrA1 (n = 1), qnrS (n = 9), qnrD1 (n = 4), and qnrB (n = 4) were found in only 3.0% of 533 isolates resistant to nalidixic acid. In cefotaxime-resistant isolates, we identified a broad range of Ambler class A and C β-lactamase genes (e.g., blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52, blaCTX-M-14, and blaCTX-M-15) commonly associated with members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. In conclusion, resistance to fluoroquinolones and cefotaxime remains rare in human S. enterica, but clonal resistant serotypes arise, and continued (inter)national surveillance is mandatory to understand the origin and routes of dissemination thereof. PMID:25385108
Eiguer, T; Butta, N; Picandet, A M
A total of 49 serotypes were isolated in Argentina during the triennium 1979-1981, from 3,665 Salmonella strains isolated from different sources: human, animal, food and water. The degree of correlation among every one of them was analyzed in order to establish their influence in the cycles of transmission and human infection. S. typhimurium prevailed in human materials, being also isolated from water and animal, although in a smaller degree. Something similar occurred with S. oranienburg. It was observed that S. typhi retained its usual feature of endemic disease. Other serotypes of Salmonella were also found, particularly: S. paratyphi, S. panama, S. derby, S. agona, S. bredeney, S. newport, S. anatum and S. montevideo. From 3,665 Salmonella strains studied, 73.73% were isolated from human sources and the other 26.27% from non human sources, 5.40% corresponding to animal isolations, 15.39% from water and 5.48% from food.
Thomas, S.M.; Sedgwick, S.G. )
Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli is encoded by the umuDC operon. Salmonella typhimurium DNA which has homology with E. coli umuC and is able to complement E. coli umuC122::Tn5 and umuC36 mutations has been cloned. Complementation of umuD44 mutants and hybridization with E. coli umuD also occurred, but these activities were much weaker than with umuC. Restriction enzyme mapping indicated that the composition of the cloned fragment is different from the E. coli umuDC operon. Therefore, a umu-like function of S. typhimurium has been found; the phenotype of this function is weaker than that of its E. coli counterpart, which is consistent with the weak mutagenic response of S. typhimurium to UV compared with the response in E. coli.
Zhulin, I B; Rowsell, E H; Johnson, M S; Taylor, B L
Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium show positive chemotaxis to glycerol, a chemical previously reported to be a repellent for E. coli. The threshold of the attractant response in both species was 10(-6) M glycerol. Glycerol chemotaxis was energy dependent and coincident with an increase in membrane potential. Metabolism of glycerol was required for chemotaxis, and when lactate was present to maintain energy production in the absence of glycerol, the increases in membrane potential and chemotactic response upon addition of glycerol were abolished. Methylation of a chemotaxis receptor was not required for positive glycerol chemotaxis in E. coli or S. typhimurium but is involved in the negative chemotaxis of E. coli to high concentrations of glycerol. We propose that positive chemotaxis to glycerol in E. coli and S. typhimurium is an example of energy taxis mediated via a signal transduction pathway that responds to changes in the cellular energy level.
Wong, T L; Thom, K; Nicol, C; Heffernan, H; MacDiarmid, S
To survey the prevalence of Salmonella in imported and domestic pet chews for assessing their potential in introducing novel pathogenic and antimicrobial resistant Salmonella serotype clones into New Zealand, and as vehicles of salmonellosis in the domestic home environment. Three hundred samples, each of imported and domestic pet chews, were examined bacteriologically for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella cells in the pre-enrichment culture were concentrated by using Dynabeads, and then selective enrichment and plating were performed by a method described in the Bacteriological and Analytical Manual, USFDA. Salmonella was isolated from 16 (5.3%) of the imported and 20 (6.7%) of the domestic pet chews, but the prevalences of Salmonella in imported and domestic products were not significantly different. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute disc diffusion methods. Salmonella Borreze has never been recorded earlier in New Zealand and was detected from Australian raw hide. Three isolates of Salmonella London were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin, and two isolates of Salmonella Infantis were resistant to nalidixic acid, one of which was also resistant to streptomycin. Novel pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella are being introduced into New Zealand through the import of pet chews. This indicates that pet chews are a potential source of exposure to Salmonella in the domestic home environment. Contaminated pet chews are potential sources of Salmonella infection for domestic pets, and humans are at risk of exposure either directly by contact through handling or inadvertently by cross-contamination of food or food-contact surfaces in home environments.
Callaway, T R; Morrow, J L; Edrington, T S; Genovese, K J; Dowd, S; Carroll, J; Dailey, J W; Harvey, R B; Poole, T L; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J
"Segregated early weaning" (SEW) of pigs reduces exposure to pathogenic bacteria, but upon arrival at grower facilities pigs may be co-mingled regardless of farm of origin. The present study was designed to examine the effect of mixing (social) stress on populations of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in SEW pigs. Piglets (7 days old; n = 28 in each of 2 replicates) were separated into 2 treatments (control and mixed groups) of 2 pens per treatment (7 piglets/pen). One (n = 1) "seeder" pig/pen was inoculated with 10(9) CFU of S. Typhimurium. Each seeder was placed with non-inoculated "contact" piglets (n = 6). A"contact" piglet was swapped each day between the "mixed" pens for 5 days; pigs in control pens were not exchanged. On day 5, the incidence of fecal Salmonella shedding was higher in the mixed contact pigs (P < 0.05). Rectal Salmonella and cecal coliform populations in mixed pigs were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than in control pigs but cecal Salmonella populations were not different. Mixed pigs were more susceptible to tissue invasiveness (i.e., Salmonella-positive tonsils and lymph nodes) than control pigs. These results indicate that social stress of weaned pigs may increase susceptibility to and/or fecal shedding of Salmonella. Food-borne Salmonella infections in the United States are estimated to cost the economy dollar 2.4 billion annually (ERS/USDA, 2001). Approximately 6-9% of human salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of pork products (Frenzen et al., 1999). Salmonella is relatively common on swine farms and has been isolated from all stages of the pork production chain (Davies et al., 1999; Fedorka-Cray et al., 1997b; Rostagno et al., 2003). Salmonella is a threat to the pork industry not only from a food-safety perspective as a public health concern, but some Salmonella serotypes can cause clinical illnesses in swine, negatively impacting production efficiency and profitability (Schwartz, 1991).
Thomas, S.M.; Crowne, H.M.; Pidsley, S.C.; Sedgwick, S.G. )
The umuDC operon of Escherichia coli encodes functions required for mutagenesis induced by radiation and a wide variety of chemicals. The closely related organism Salmonella typhimurium is markedly less mutable than E. coli, but a umu homolog has recently been identified and cloned from the LT2 subline. In this study the nucleotide sequence and structure of the S. typhimurium LT2 umu operon have been determined and its gene products have been identified so that the molecular basis of umu activity might be understood more fully. S. typhimurium LT2 umu consists of a smaller 417-base-pair (bp) umuD gene ending 2 bp upstream of a larger 1,266-bp umuC gene. The only apparent structural difference between the two operons is the lack of gene overlap. An SOS box identical to that found in E. coli is present in the promoter region upstream of umuD. The calculated molecular masses of the umuD and umuC gene products were 15.3 and 47.8 kilodaltons, respectively, which agree with figures determined by transpositional disruption and maxicell analysis. The S. typhimurium and E. coli umuD sequences were 68% homologous and encoded products with 71% amino acid identity; the umuC sequences were 71% homologous and encoded products with 83% amino acid identity. Furthermore, the potential UmuD cleavage site and associated catalytic sites could be identified. Thus the very different mutagenic responses of S. typhimurium LT2 and E. coli cannot be accounted for by gross differences in operon structure or gene products. Rather, the ability of the cloned S. typhimurium umuD gene to give stronger complementation of E. coli umuD77 mutants in the absence of a functional umuC gene suggests that Salmonella UmuC protein normally constrains UmuD protein activity.
Jelsbak, Lotte; Thomsen, Line Elnif; Wallrodt, Inke; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Olsen, John Elmerdahl
Sensing and responding to environmental cues is a fundamental characteristic of bacterial physiology and virulence. Here we identify polyamines as novel environmental signals essential for virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a major intracellular pathogen and a model organism for studying typhoid fever. Central to its virulence are two major virulence loci Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI1 and SPI2). SPI1 promotes invasion of epithelial cells, whereas SPI2 enables S. Typhimurium to survive and proliferate within specialized compartments inside host cells. In this study, we show that an S. Typhimurium polyamine mutant is defective for invasion, intracellular survival, killing of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and systemic infection of the mouse model of typhoid fever. Virulence of the mutant could be restored by genetic complementation, and invasion and intracellular survival could, as well, be complemented by the addition of exogenous putrescine and spermidine to the bacterial cultures prior to infection. Interestingly, intracellular survival of the polyamine mutant was significantly enhanced above the wild type level by the addition of exogenous putrescine and spermidine to the bacterial cultures prior to infection, indicating that these polyamines function as an environmental signal that primes S. Typhimurium for intracellular survival. Accordingly, experiments addressed at elucidating the roles of these polyamines in infection revealed that expression of genes from both of the major virulence loci SPI1 and SPI2 responded to exogenous polyamines and was reduced in the polyamine mutant. Together our data demonstrate that putrescine and spermidine play a critical role in controlling virulence in S. Typhimurium most likely through stimulation of expression of essential virulence loci. Moreover, our data implicate these polyamines as key signals in S. Typhimurium virulence. PMID:22558361
Beck, Christoph F.; Ingraham, John L.; Neuhard, Jan; Thomassen, Elisabeth
The pathways by which uracil, cytosine, uridine, cytidine, deoxyuridine, and deoxycytidine are metabolized by Salmonella typhimurium are established. The various 5-fluoropyrimidine analogues are shown to exert their toxic effects only after having been converted to the nucleotide level, and these conversions are shown to be catalyzed by the same enzymes which similarly convert the natural substrates. Methods for isolating mutant strains blocked in various steps of metabolism of pyrimidine bases and nucleosides are described. PMID:4259664
Figueiredo, Rui; Henriques, Ana; Sereno, Rui; Mendonça, Nuno; da Silva, Gabriela Jorge
As Salmonella is a common foodborne pathogen, the present study aimed to determine the distribution of Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated during 2011-2012 from poultry, swine, cattle, and processed food in Portugal, and to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility and the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Results were also compared with data obtained before the implementation of the National Control Program in Poultry and the ban of antimicrobial agents in animal feed in the European Union (EU). A total of 14 serotypes were identified, from 258 isolates recovered, with Salmonella Typhimurium (32.6%, n=84) and Salmonella Enteritidis (10.1%, n=26) being the most common. Salmonella Enteritidis in poultry was less frequent than in previous studies, which might be associated with the implementation of the National Control Program for Salmonella in poultry. Nevertheless, other serotypes seem to occupy this biological niche, and may be more common in human salmonellosis in the future. The majority of isolates (70.2%, n=181) were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobial agent and exhibited higher frequency of resistance to tetracycline (47.7%, n=123) and ampicillin (36.0%, n=93), with Salmonella Typhimurium being the more resistant serotype. Resistance to fluoroquinolones was shown in 8% (n=21) of isolates, a lower value compared to data obtained before 2004. ESBLs producers Salmonella Typhimurium bla(CTX-M-1) and Salmonella Enteritidis bla(SHV-12) were isolated from swine and poultry, respectively. The bla(CTX-M-1) and bla(SHV-12) genes were carried on conjugative plasmids of IncHI2replicon types and IncI1, respectively. This was the first report of a bla(CTX-M-1) in Salmonella Typhimurium in Portugal. Overall, the results revealed changes in animal origin Salmonella serotypes, mainly emerging serotypes, in frequency of resistance, and in occurrence of ESBLs-producing Salmonella. The control measures taken by the EU seem to have some impact on the
Güleşen, Revasiye; Levent, Belkıs; Üvey, Mehmet; Bayrak, Hasan; Akgeyik, Mesut
Despite the measures taken and control applications worldwide, Salmonella infections continue to threat the public health. Since these infections also cause significant economical loss, the salmonellas continue to be forefront globally. The determination of Salmonella serotypes and their sources is important for epidemiological point of view. In this study, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of environmental isolates of Salmonella spp. recovered from the poultry farms, that were send for confirmation and serotyping between seven years period, 2008-2014, were evaluated. Strains isolated from environmental samples that were sent to Public Health Institute, Department of Microbiology Reference Laboratory, National Reference Laboratory for Enteric Pathogens, were inoculated onto Salmonella-Shigella and Xylose Lysine Desoxycholate agar and evaluated after 18-24 hours of incubation at 37°C. The identification of the strains was performed by using standard biochemical tests from the suspected colonies. Strains compatible with Salmonella spp. were serotyped using polyvalent and monovalent Salmonella O and H antisera by slide agglutination method. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed and evaluated according to CLSI recommendation using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. In our study, a total of 2011 Salmonella strains were evaluated and 15 different serogroups and 75 different serotypes were identified. The most common Salmonella serotypes were S.Infantis (30.6%), followed by S.Enteritidis (21.8%), S.Typhimurium (6.5%), S.Kottbus (5.2%), S.Tennessee (4.3%), S.Mbandaka (4.1%), S.Indiana (3.9%), S.Kentucky (3%), S.Corvallis (2.5%), S.Paratyphi B (1.9%) and S.Hadar (1.7%). Among the isolates, 50.1% (1008/2011) were found susceptible to all of the tested antimicrobials. The rate of isolates that were resistant to only one drug was found to be 15.6%, whereas 30.9% of the strains showed multi-drug resistance (resistant to ≥ 3 antimicrobial drugs
Chirullo, Barbara; Pesciaroli, Michele; Drumo, Rosanna; Ruggeri, Jessica; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Pistoia, Claudia; Petrucci, Paola; Martinelli, Nicola; Cucco, Lucilla; Moscati, Livia; Amadori, Massimo; Magistrali, Chiara F.; Alborali, Giovanni L.; Pasquali, Paolo
Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is responsible for foodborne zoonotic infections that, in humans, induce self-limiting gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the wild-type strain S. Typhimurium (STM14028) is able to exploit inflammation fostering an active infection. Due to the similarity between human and porcine diseases induced by S. Typhimurium, we used piglets as a model for salmonellosis and gastrointestinal research. This study showed that STM14028 is able to efficiently colonize in vitro porcine mono-macrophages and intestinal columnar epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells, and that the colonization significantly increases with LPS pre-treatment. This increase was then reversed by inhibiting the LPS stimulation through LPS antagonist, confirming an active role of LPS stimulation in STM14028-intracellular colonization. Moreover, LPS in vivo treatment increased cytokines blood level and body temperature at 4 h post infection, which is consistent with an acute inflammatory stimulus, capable to influence the colonization of STM14028 in different organs and tissues. The present study proves for the first time that in acute enteric salmonellosis, S. Typhimurium exploits inflammation for its benefit in piglets. PMID:26441914
Gart, Elena V.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Welsh, Thomas H.; Alaniz, Robert C.; Randel, Ronald D.; Lawhon, Sara D.
The mammalian digestive tract is home to trillions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. In monogastric mammals the stomach and small intestine harbor diverse bacterial populations but are typically less populated than the colon. The gut bacterial community (microbiota hereafter) varies widely among different host species and individuals within a species. It is influenced by season of the year, age of the host, stress and disease. Ideally, the host and microbiota benefit each other. The host provides nutrients to the microbiota and the microbiota assists the host with digestion and nutrient metabolism. The resident microbiota competes with pathogens for space and nutrients and, through this competition, protects the host in a phenomenon called colonization resistance. The microbiota participates in development of the host immune system, particularly regulation of autoimmunity and mucosal immune response. The microbiota also shapes gut–brain communication and host responses to stress; and, indeed, the microbiota is a newly recognized endocrine organ within mammalian hosts. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium hereafter) is a food-borne pathogen which adapts to and alters the gastrointestinal (GI) environment. In the GI tract, S. Typhimurium competes with the microbiota for nutrients and overcomes colonization resistance to establish infection. To do this, S. Typhimurium uses multiple defense mechanisms to resist environmental stressors, like the acidic pH of the stomach, and virulence mechanisms which allow it to invade the intestinal epithelium and disseminate throughout the host. To coordinate gene expression and disrupt signaling within the microbiota and between host and microbiota, S. Typhimurium employs its own chemical signaling and may regulate host hormone metabolism. This review will discuss the multidirectional interaction between S. Typhimurium, host and microbiota as well as mechanisms that allow S
The distribution of serotype-specific plasmids among different subgroups of strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis: characterization of molecular variants by restriction enzyme fragmentation patterns.
Rankin, S. C.; Benson, C. E.; Platt, D. J.
Four hundred and thirty-four isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis were studied. They were grouped into five subsets defined by either the collection criteria or the parameter which formed the basis for subsequent analysis. Seventy-seven per cent harboured the serotype-specific plasmid (SSP). In 55% of the isolates this was the sole plasmid. Molecular variation in the SSP was detected in 17 (5%) of the isolates on the basis of restriction enzyme fragmentation pattern (REFP) analysis using Pst I and Sma I. The SSP variants were further characterized using additional restriction enzymes chosen to optimize the information content and analysed using a coefficient of similarity. A variant SSP designated pOG690 showed greater resemblance to the SSP of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium than Enteritidis; 89% and 68% respectively for Pst I and 79% and 55% respectively for Sma I. In respect of the Pst I data pOG690 shared at least 55 kb of DNA with the Typhimurium SSP and 37 kb with the SSP of Enteritidis. This variant was associated with poultry (duck, goose, chicken) and all isolates belonged to phage type 9b. Other variants were associated with phage types 4, 6, 6a, 9a, 11, 15 and 24. The epidemiological implications of these results are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7867741
Chemical decontaminants are currently under review for final approval by the European Union authorities with the aim of reducing the number and/or prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms on poultry. The purpose of the research being reported here was to determine the association, if any, of decontaminant resistance with the serotype, phage type, and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella strains. Sixty poultry isolates of Salmonella enterica (serotypes Enteritidis: phage types 1, 4, 4b, 6a, 14b, and 35; Typhimurium; Newport; Infantis; Poona; Virchow; Agona; Derby; and Paratyphi B) showing resistance to none (sensitive), one (resistant), two, three, four, five, six, seven, or nine (multiresistant) antibiotics were screened for resistance to 1,000 ppm acidified sodium chlorite, 1.2% trisodium phosphate, or 25% citric acid. D-values (seconds required for 1-log reduction in the number of bacteria) in peptone water, using a linear regression, of Salmonella in the presence of acidified sodium chlorite varied widely with serotype (the highest resistance levels were shown by serotypes Typhimurium, Newport, and Derby) and antibiotic resistance pattern (average values of 8.37 +/- 1.69 s for multiresistant strains as compared with 5.96 +/- 0.54 s for sensitive, P < 0.05). A positive relationship (0.775, P < 0.001) was found between acidified sodium chlorite D-values and the number of antibiotics to which strains were resistant. Both serotype and antibiotic resistance had only a slight influence over Salmonella resistance to trisodium phosphate, with average D-values from 12.44 +/- 0.91 s (sensitive strains) to 13.28 +/- 0.77 s (multiresistant) (P < 0.05). Neither serotype nor antibiotic profile was associated with Salmonella resistance to citric acid (average D-value of 12.20 +/- 0.81 s). Minimal differences in resistance to decontaminants were found among Salmonella Enteritidis phage types. Results in the present study highlight the importance of selecting an adequate strain
Having documented information available on the capability of Salmonella to remain in the cladode tissue it is important to understand the role of nopal on the lifecycle of enteropathogenic bacteria in humans, as well as for management and control programs of theses pathogens in plants. Because of th...
Fresh produce associated outbreaks have increased in the last few years. E.coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have been causative agents of infection in these outbreaks. Fresh produce is consumed raw, and in the absence of terminal kill treatment, it is imperative to understand sources of contamination o...
Amajoud, Nadia; Bouchrif, Brahim; El Maadoudi, Mohammed; Skalli Senhaji, Nadia; Karraouan, Bouchra; El Harsal, Abdeltif; El Abrini, Jamal
Salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. The irrational use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal feed has greatly promoted the emergence and spread of resistant strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella. A total of 464 food products were collected in Tetouan from January 2010 to December 2012. The isolation and identification of Salmonella were performed according to Moroccan standard 08.0.116. All isolates were serotyped and were then tested for antibiotic resistance using the disk diffusion method. The microbiological analysis showed that 10.3% of food samples were contaminated with Salmonella. Eleven serotypes were identified: Kentucky 22.9% (11/48), Agona 16.7% (8/48), Reading 12.5% (6/48), Corvallis 8.3% (4/48), Saintpaul 8.3% (4/48), Typhimurium 6.2% (3/48), Montevideo 6.2% (3/48), Enteritidis 4.2% (2/48), and 2% (1/48) for each of Israel, Hadar, and Branderup. Drug susceptibility testing showed that 39.6% of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 60.4% were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. The highest percentage of resistance was found to the following antimicrobial agents: nalidixic acid (27.1%), sulfonamides (25%), amoxicillin (12.5%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 12.5%, trimethoprim (10.4%), cephalothin (4.2%), and chloramphenicol (2.1%). This study revealed a relatively high prevalence of Salmonella in food products in Tetouan and a large percentage of drug-resistant strains. Hygienic measures should be rigorously implemented, and monitoring resistance of Salmonella is required to reduce the risks related to the emergence of multi-resistant bacteria.
Issack, Mohammad I; Hendriksen, Rene S; Lun, Phimy Lan Keng; Lutchun, Ram K S; Aarestrup, Frank M
We report the first outbreak of salmonellosis caused by consumption of contaminated marlin mousse. Between 29 October and 5 November 2008, at least 53 persons developed diarrheal illness, all with a history of eating marlin mousse. Salmonella spp. that did not produce gas from glucose was isolated from stools of 26 affected patients and blood culture from one patient. Salmonella sp. isolates with the same phenotype were isolated in three samples of marlin mousse manufactured on 27 October 2008. The constituents of the mousse were smoked marlin, raw eggs, bovine gelatin, oil, and cream. A laboratory investigation of one sample of marlin mousse manufactured 3 days later, and the individual ingredients sampled a week after production of the contaminated batch were all negative for Salmonella. Serotyping and minimum inhibitory concentration determination were performed on 12 patient isolates related to the outbreak and two mousse isolates. All isolates belonged to Salmonella serovar Typhimurium and were pansusceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that all the isolates were indistinguishable, thus implicating the mousse as the vehicle of the outbreak.
Previte, Joseph J.; Chang, Y.; El-Bisi, H. M.
The efficiency of ionizing radiation in detoxifying the lethal determinant(s) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella typhimurium, S. enteritidis, and Escherichia coli in aqueous solution and associated with heat-killed S. typhimurium cells in suspension decreased with doses above 1 Mrad. The 50% end point of inactivation was more than 7.0 Mrad for heat-killed salmonellae and 4.8, 4.5, and 1.0 Mrad for the LPS of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, and E. coli, respectively. After exposure to 20 Mrad, S. typhimurium LPS retained a small portion of its lethal properties although the ld50 was much greater than 9.5 mg per 20-g mouse. However, at −184 C, no inactivation of the lethal determinant(s) occurred after exposure to as much as 20 Mrad. This demonstrated the significance of the indirect effect and the mobility and formation of free radicals. At 22 C, the optical density at 400 mμ increased and the pH decreased with increasing radiation dose, but no qualitative changes were observed in the infrared spectrum. No change was observed in the pyrogenicity of S. typhimurium LPS; a slight decrease in antigenicity was revealed when 6 days, but not when 1 day, elapsed between vaccination and challenge in the mouse protection test. The results were interpreted as evidence of the existence of two or more lethal and antigenic determinants. The differential effect of radiation on these properties and on the pyrogenic component(s) probably are indicative of separate functional sites for lethal, antigenic, and pyrogenic activities. PMID:5337846
Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela
Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages.
Capalonga, Roberta; Ramos, Rosane Campanher; Both, Jane Mari Correa; Soeiro, Mara Lúcia Tiba; Longaray, Solange Mendes; Haas, Simone; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar
Previous studies have identified Salmonella as the main causative agent of foodborne diseases in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, between 1997 and 2006. This study aimed to describe the Salmonella serotypes, antimicrobial patterns, and food vehicles of salmonellosis that occurred in RS between 2007 and 2012. Information about Salmonella isolates and salmonellosis outbreaks registered in the official records of the Central Laboratory of RS (FEEPS/IPB-LACEN/RS) was analyzed. Among the 163 isolates investigated, 138 (84.7%) were identified as S. Enteritidis. The second and third most frequent serovars identified were S. Schwarzengrund (5.5%) and S. Typhimurium (3.7%). Homemade mayonnaise was the food vehicle most frequently identified (17.39%), followed by pastry products (15.94%) and beef (12.32%). Antimicrobial resistance was analyzed; 12 drugs were tested. Higher percentages of resistance were observed to nitrofurantoin (94.2%) and nalidixic acid (89.1%). The resistance to these two drugs was verified in 80.43% of the isolates. Multi-resistance to three and five drugs was verified in four and two isolates, respectively. Comparing the results of the present study with results of previous reports, it was possible to conclude that S. Enteritidis and homemade mayonnaise are still the main serotype and food vehicle of salmonellosis in RS and that antimicrobial resistance has been increasing among S. Enteritidis responsible for foodborne outbreaks in southern Brazil.
Tankouo‐Sandjong, B.; Sessitsch, A.; Stralis‐Pavese, N.; Liebana, E.; Kornschober, C.; Allerberger, F.; Hächler, H.; Bodrossy, L.
Summary Adequate identification of Salmonella enterica serovars is a prerequisite for any epidemiological investigation. This is traditionally obtained via a combination of biochemical and serological typing. However, primary strain isolation and traditional serotyping is time‐consuming and faster methods would be desirable. A microarray, based on two housekeeping and two virulence marker genes (atpD, gyrB, fliC and fljB), has been developed for the detection and identification of the two species of Salmonella (S. enterica and S. bongori), the five subspecies of S. enterica (II, IIIa, IIIb, IV, VI) and 43 S. enterica ssp. enterica serovars (covering the most prevalent ones in Austria and the UK). A comprehensive set of probes (n = 240), forming 119 probe units, was developed based on the corresponding sequences of 148 Salmonella strains, successfully validated with 57 Salmonella strains and subsequently evaluated with 35 blind samples including isolated serotypes and mixtures of different serotypes. Results demonstrated a strong discriminatory ability of the microarray among Salmonella serovars. Threshold for detection was 1 colony forming unit per 25 g of food sample following overnight (14 h) enrichment. PMID:21261872
Gallegos-Robles, Miguel A; Morales-Loredo, Alberto; Alvarez-Ojeda, Genoveva; Vega-P, Adrián; Chew-M, Yazmín; Velarde, Sixto; Fratamico, Pina
A study was conducted in 2006 to determine the prevalence of Salmonella on three cantaloupe farms in Matamoros, Coahuila, Mexico, and on one farm that cultivates chile peppers var. Bell in Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico. Samples from cantaloupe farms consisted of cantaloupe rinses, irrigation water, water from furrows in the field, and workers' hands. Samples from the chile pepper farm consisted of rinses of chile peppers obtained at the field, pepper rinses obtained at the packing house, and irrigation water from the field. A total of 55 samples were obtained from both production systems. Twelve and 10 samples from the cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems, respectively, tested positive for Salmonella according to a traditional culture method. The difference between the proportion of Salmonella-positive samples from the cantaloupe production system (12 of 28 = 0.43) and the chile pepper production system (10 of 27 = 0.37) was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method based on the fliC gene was used to determine the serotype of the isolates. Salmonella Typhimurium was the only serotype found associated with the cantaloupe production system, whereas both Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis serotypes were found associated with the chile pepper production system. Results showed that 91% (20 of 22) and 9% (2 of 22) of the isolates from both agricultural systems matched with the Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis reference strain restriction profiles, respectively. This study demonstrates the utility of the PCR-RFLP technique for determining the serotypes of Salmonella isolates obtained from cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems.
López-Cuevas, Osvaldo; Castro-Del Campo, Nohelia; León-Félix, Josefina; González-Robles, Arturo; Chaidez, Cristóbal
Four phages isolated from cattle and poultry feces were analyzed for their ability to lyse Salmonella serotypes and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The phage one-step growth curves, morphology, and genetic characteristics were determined. All phages showed a lytic effect on various Salmonella serotypes and E. coli O157:H7, which lysed at least 70% of the 234 strains tested. The phages had latent periods ranging from 10 to 15 min and generation times of 30 to 45 min, while burst size fluctuated between 154 and 426 PFU/cell. Phages morphology showed isometric and elongated heads and rigid contractile tails, consistent with morphology of the Myoviridae family. Phages' DNA dendrograms showed a distinctive RFLP when digested by HindIII and EcoRV, and SDS-PAGE profile showed distinctive proteins expression as well. In vitro phage challenge showed a total reduction of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Saintpaul counts at 2 h, whereas for Salmonella Montevideo a reduction and retardation growth, at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100, was observed; however, under a MOI of 10 000, no viable cells were detected after 4 h. The wide host ranges of these phages suggested they could be used for simultaneous biocontrol of some Salmonella serotypes and E. coli O157:H7.
Guntupalli, R.; Hu, Jing; Lakshmanan, Ramji S.; Wan, Jiehui; Huang, Shichu; Yang, Hong; Barbaree, James M.; Huang, T. S.; Chin, Bryan A.
Novel mass-sensitive, magnetostrictive sensors have a characteristic resonant frequency that can be determined by monitoring the magnetic flux emitted by the sensor in response to an applied, time varying, magnetic field. This magnetostrictive platform has a unique advantage over conventional sensor platforms in that measurement is wireless or remote. These biosensors can thus be used in-situ for detecting pathogens and biological threat agents. In this work, we have used a magnetostrictive platform immobilized with a polyclonal antibody (the bio-molecular recognition element) to form a biosensor for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium. Upon exposure to solutions containing Salmonella typhimurium bacteria, the bacteria were bound to the sensor and the additional mass of the bound bacteria caused a shift in the sensor's resonant frequency. Responses of the sensors to different concentrations of S. typhimurium were recorded and the results correlated with those obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of samples. Good agreement between the measured number of bound bacterial cells (attached mass) and frequency shifts were obtained. The longevity and specificity of the selected polyclonal antibody were also investigated and are reported.
Herzberg, Mendel; Jawad, Mudhaffer J.; Pratt, Darrell
Herzberg, Mendel (University of Florida, Gainesville), and Mudhaffer J. Jawad, and Darrell Pratt. Succinate metabolism and virulence in Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 89:185–192. 1965.—A virulent, smooth strain of Salmonella typhimurium (Wild-7) grew slowly with succinate as sole carbon source (Suc-L). Old stock cultures yielded a smooth variant which grew rapidly (Suc-E). Visible colonies of Suc-E appeared in 24 hr, whereas Suc-L required 48 hr. Differences other than the response to succinate were not demonstrable between the two strains; ld50 values of both strains were similar, but equivalent numbers of Suc-E required longer periods of time to kill mice. Recovery of bacteria from liver and spleen homogenates revealed that Suc-L remains as such in vivo, but Suc-E populations change to Suc-L. By the eighth day of infection, the organisms were 93 to 100% Suc-L; thus, mortality was due to the Suc-L population developed in vivo and not the Suc-E of the original inoculum. Animal passage of a number of stock cultures of S. typhimurium of diverse origin, all Suc-E type, invariably yielded Suc-L. Slow utilization of succinate appears to be correlated with virulence. Images PMID:14255661
The influence of magnesium and calcium ions in process water on the growth of Salmonella typhimurium was evaluated to address the concerns for food quality and safety. Salmonella typhimurium was exposed to media containing 500 ppm and 1000 ppm of magnesium and calcium ions for 45 minutes followed by...
Chicken is one of the most popular meat products in the world. Salmonella Typhimurium is a common foodborne pathogens associated with the processing of poultry. An optical Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor was sensitive to the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken carcass. The Spr...
Acquiring a highly stable photonic plasmid in transformed Salmonella typhimurium for use in biophotonic studies of bacterial tracking in vivo is critical to experimental paradigm development. The objective of this study was to determine stability of transformed Salmonella typhimurium (S. typh-lux) u...
Background: Acquiring a highly stable photonic plasmid in transformed Salmonella Typhimurium for use in biophotonic studies of bacterial tracking in vivo is critical to experimental paradigm development. The objective of this study was to determine stability of transformed Salmonella Typhimurium (S....
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteriditis (S. Enteriditis) is the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide, including the USA. Many S. enterica serotypes known to cause foodborne disease are associated with broiler meat contamination. While some serotypes are specific to birds (S. e...
Lai, Jing; Wu, Congming; Wu, Chenbin; Qi, Jing; Wang, Yang; Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Yuqing; Shen, Jianzhong
The aims of this study were to investigate the serotype distribution, genetic relationships and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella from food-producing animals in Shandong province of China in 2009 and 2012. A total of 362 out of 1825 samples from chickens, 53 out of 445 samples from ducks, and 50 out of 692 samples from pigs were positive for Salmonella. Isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility testing (15 antibiotics) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The most common serotypes recovered in the chicken samples were Enteritidis (n=294, 81.2%) and Indiana (n=45, 12.4%). For ducks, Cremieu (n=25, 47.2%), Indiana (n=13, 24.5%) and Typhimurium (n=9, 17%) were frequently isolated. In the pig samples, Derby (n=29, 58%), Typhimurium (n=9, 18%), and Enteritidis (n=6, 12%) were the most common serovars. PFGE results indicated that clonal dissemination of each serovar was prevalent, and that the Salmonella found on the poultry carcasses was caused by cross-contamination in the abattoirs. More than 99% of the Salmonella isolates collected were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The Salmonella resistance rates for 15 antibiotics in 2012 were significantly higher than those in 2009. In 2012, the highest resistance was to nalidixic acid (95.9%), followed by sulphafurazole (78.2%) and ampicillin (72.3%); the lowest levels of resistance were to kanamycin (40.1%) and amikacin (38.7%). Additionally, 41.5% and 42.2% of the Salmonella were resistant to ciprofloxacin and ceftiofur, respectively. Noticeably, 25% of the serovar Enteritidis and all of the serovar Indiana were resistant to at least 10 antibiotics in 2012. The increasing trend of antibiotic resistance in Shandong province indicates the need for more careful use of antibiotics.
Wang, Lijun; Wang, Ronghui; Chen, Fang; Jiang, Tieshan; Wang, Hong; Slavik, Michael; Wei, Hua; Li, Yanbin
In this study, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to select aptamers against Salmonella typhimurium. To increase the success rate of Systematic Evolution of Ligands Exponential Enrichment (SELEX), the affinity of DNA pool in each round was simultaneously tracked using QCM in order to avoid the loss of high-quality aptamers. When the frequency change reached a maximum value after several rounds of selection and counter-selection, the candidate pool was cloned and sequenced. Out of three aptamer candidates, aptamer B5 showed high specificity and binding affinity with dissociation constant (Kd value) of 58.5nM, and was chosen for further studies. Subsequently, a QCM-based aptasensor was developed to detect S. typhimurium. This aptasensor was able to detect 10(3)CFU/mL of S. typhimurium with less than 1h. This study demonstrated QCM-based selection could be more effective selection of aptamers and QCM-based aptasensor could be more sensitive in detecting S. typhimurium.
Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Gu, Ganyu; Vallad, Gary E; van Bruggen, Ariena H C
Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica have increasingly been associated with tomatoes and traced back to production areas, but the spread of Salmonella from a point source onto plants has not been described. Splash dispersal by rain could be one means of dissemination. Green fluorescent protein-labeled, kanamycin-resistant Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium dispensed on the surface of plastic mulch, organic mulch, or soil at 10⁸ CFU/cm² was used as the point source in the center of a rain simulator. Tomato plants in soil with and without plastic or organic mulch were placed around the point source, and rain intensities of 60 and 110 mm/h were applied for 5, 10, 20, and 30 min. Dispersal of Salmonella followed a negative exponential model with a half distance of 3 cm at 110 mm/h. Dispersed Salmonella survived for 3 days on tomato leaflets, with a total decline of 5 log and an initial decimal reduction time of 10 h. Recovery of dispersed Salmonella from plants at the maximum observed distance ranged from 3 CFU/g of leaflet after a rain episode of 110 mm/h for 10 min on soil to 117 CFU/g of leaflet on plastic mulch. Dispersal of Salmonella on plants with and without mulch was significantly enhanced by increasing rain duration from 0 to 10 min, but dispersal was reduced when rainfall duration increased from 10 to 30 min. Salmonella may be dispersed by rain to contaminate tomato plants in the field, especially during rain events of 10 min and when plastic mulch is used.
Verbrugghe, Elin; Van Parys, Alexander; Leyman, Bregje; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) contamination of pork, is one of the major sources of human salmonellosis. The bacterium is able to persist and hide in asymptomatic carrier animals, generating a reservoir for Salmonella transmission to other animals and humans. Mechanisms involved in Salmonella persistence in pigs remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that the Salmonella htpG gene, encoding a homologue of the eukaryotic heat shock protein 90, contributes to Salmonella Typhimurium persistence in intestine-associated tissues of pigs, but not in the tonsils. HtpG does not seem to play an important role during the acute phase of infection. The contribution to persistence was shown to be associated with htpG-dependent Salmonella invasion and survival in porcine enterocytes and macrophages. These results reveal the role of HtpG as a virulence factor contributing to Salmonella persistence in pigs.
Fahnestock, M; Koshland, D E
The chemotactic response to galactose in wild-type Salmonella typhimurium is not inducible by galactose, but is inducible by fucose, a non-metabolizable analog. In a galactokinase mutant, however, the galactose receptor is inducible by galactose. These data indicate that the concentration of free galactose in the cell controls the levels of the galactose receptor. The intensities of the chemotactic responses were found to vary in proportion to the concentration of galactose receptors. In bacteria with higher levels of galactose receptors, the ribose response is inhibited by galactose. This supports the model in which the ribose and galactose receptors compete for a common component of the signaling system.
Kuang, Xiuhua; Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Ahmad, Ijaz; Liu, Zhenli; Zonghui, Yuan
Salmonella spp. can indirectly infect humans via transfer from animals and animal-derived food products, and thereby cause potentially fatal diseases. Therefore, gaining an understanding of Salmonella infection in farm animals is increasingly important. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of serotypes in Salmonella samples isolated from chickens (n = 837), pigs (n = 930), and dairy cows (n = 418) in central China (Henan, Hubei, and Hunan provinces) in 2010-2011, and investigate the susceptibility of strains to antimicrobial agents. Salmonella isolates were identified by PCR amplification of the invA gene, serotypes were determined by using a slide agglutination test for O and H antigens, and susceptibility to 24 antimicrobials was tested using the agar dilution method. In total, 248 Salmonella strains were identified: 105, 105, and 38 from chickens, dairy cows, and pigs, respectively. Additionally, 209 strains were identified in diseased pigs from the Huazhong Agricultural University veterinary hospital. Among these 457 strains, the dominant serotypes were Typhimurium in serogroup B, IIIb in serogroup C, and Enteritidis in serogroup D. In antimicrobial susceptibility tests, 41.14% of Salmonella spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents, 48.14% were resistant to at least one, and 34.72% were resistant to more than three classes. Strains were highly resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (39.61%), nalidixic acid (39.17%), doxycycline (28.22%), and tetracycline (27.58%). Resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones ranged from 5.25 to 7.44% and 19.04 to 24.51%, respectively. Among penicillin-resistant and cephalosporin-resistant strains, 25 isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing Salmonella strains identified in healthy animals here will present a challenge for veterinary medicine and farm animal husbandry, and could also pose a threat to public health. The level of
Baothman, Othman A S; Rolfe, Matthew D; Green, Jeffrey
Aconitases (Acn) are iron-sulfur proteins that catalyse the reversible isomerization of citrate and isocitrate via the intermediate cis-aconitate in the Krebs cycle. Some Acn proteins are bi-functional and under conditions of iron starvation and oxidative stress lose their iron-sulfur clusters and become post-transcriptional regulators by binding specific mRNA targets. Many bacterial species possess two genetically distinct aconitase proteins, AcnA and AcnB. Current understanding of the regulation and functions of AcnA and AcnB in dual Acn bacteria is based on a model developed in Escherichia coli. Thus, AcnB is the major Krebs cycle enzyme expressed during exponential growth, whereas AcnA is a more stable, stationary phase and stress-induced enzyme, and both E. coli Acns are bi-functional. Here a second dual Acn bacterium, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), has been analysed. Phenotypic traits of S. Typhimurium acn mutants were consistent with AcnB acting as the major Acn protein. Promoter fusion experiments indicated that acnB transcription was ~10-fold greater than that of acnA and that acnA expression was regulated by the cyclic-AMP receptor protein (CRP, glucose starvation), the fumarate nitrate reduction regulator (FNR, oxygen starvation), the ferric uptake regulator (Fur, iron starvation) and the superoxide response protein (SoxR, oxidative stress). In contrast to E. coli, S. Typhimurium acnA was not induced in the stationary phase. Furthermore, acnA expression was enhanced in an acnB mutant, presumably to partially compensate for the lack of AcnB activity. Isolated S. Typhimurium AcnA protein had kinetic and mRNA-binding properties similar to those described for E. coli AcnA. Thus, the work reported here provides a second example of the regulation and function of AcnA and AcnB proteins in a dual Acn bacterium.
Van Parys, Alexander; Boyen, Filip; Leyman, Bregje; Verbrugghe, Elin; Maes, Dominiek; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank
Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis is host species specific. In addition, differences in in vitro behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium strains have also been described, which may be reflected by a different course of infection within a host species. We compared the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs, using two Salmonella Typhimurium strains that were able to interfere with MHC II expression on porcine macrophages to a different extent in vitro. After experimental inoculation, blood and faecal samples from all pigs were collected at regular time points. At 40 days post inoculation (pi), animals were euthanized and tissue samples were bacteriologically analysed. The proportion of serologically positive piglets at 33 days pi was significantly higher in pigs that were inoculated with the strain that did not downregulate MHC II expression in vitro. Furthermore, this strain was less frequently shed and isolated in lower numbers from tonsils and ileocaecal lymph nodes than the strain that was able to markedly downregulate MHC II expression in vitro. We thus found that the delayed onset of seroconversion after oral inoculation of piglets with a particular Salmonella Typhimurium strain coincided with higher faecal shedding and increased persistence. Strain specific differences in Salmonella pathogenesis might thus have repercussions on the serological detection of Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs.
Webber, Mark A; Coldham, Nick G; Woodward, Martin J; Piddock, Laura J V
The aim of this study was to determine and compare the proteomes of three triclosan-resistant mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in order to identify proteins involved in triclosan resistance. The proteomes of three distinct but isogenic triclosan-resistant mutants were determined using two-dimensional liquid chromatography mass separation. Bioinformatics was then used to identify and quantify tryptic peptides in order to determine protein expression. Proteomic analysis of the triclosan-resistant mutants identified a common set of proteins involved in production of pyruvate or fatty acid with differential expression in all mutants, but also demonstrated specific patterns of expression associated with each phenotype. These data show that triclosan resistance can occur via distinct pathways in Salmonella, and demonstrate a novel triclosan resistance network that is likely to have relevance to other pathogenic bacteria subject to triclosan exposure and may provide new targets for development of antimicrobial agents.
Shin, Hwa Hui; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Cha, Hyung Joon
It is important to rapidly and selectively detect and analyze pathogenic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in contaminated food to reduce the morbidity and mortality of Salmonella infection and to guarantee food safety. In the present work, we developed an oligonucleotide microarray containing duplicate specific capture probes based on the carB gene, which encodes the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase large subunit, as a competent biomarker evaluated by genetic analysis to selectively and efficiently detect and discriminate three S. enterica subsp. enterica serotypes: Choleraesuis, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium. Using the developed microarray system, three serotype targets were successfully analyzed in a range as low as 1.6 to 3.1 nM and were specifically discriminated from each other without nonspecific signals. In addition, the constructed microarray did not have cross-reactivity with other common pathogenic bacteria and even enabled the clear discrimination of the target Salmonella serotype from a bacterial mixture. Therefore, these results demonstrated that our novel carB-based oligonucleotide microarray can be used as an effective and specific detection system for S. enterica subsp. enterica serotypes.
Shin, Hwa Hui; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Seo, Jeong Hyun
It is important to rapidly and selectively detect and analyze pathogenic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in contaminated food to reduce the morbidity and mortality of Salmonella infection and to guarantee food safety. In the present work, we developed an oligonucleotide microarray containing duplicate specific capture probes based on the carB gene, which encodes the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase large subunit, as a competent biomarker evaluated by genetic analysis to selectively and efficiently detect and discriminate three S. enterica subsp. enterica serotypes: Choleraesuis, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium. Using the developed microarray system, three serotype targets were successfully analyzed in a range as low as 1.6 to 3.1 nM and were specifically discriminated from each other without nonspecific signals. In addition, the constructed microarray did not have cross-reactivity with other common pathogenic bacteria and even enabled the clear discrimination of the target Salmonella serotype from a bacterial mixture. Therefore, these results demonstrated that our novel carB-based oligonucleotide microarray can be used as an effective and specific detection system for S. enterica subsp. enterica serotypes. PMID:24185846
Milazzo, A; Giles, L C; Zhang, Y; Koehler, A P; Hiller, J E; Bi, P
Changing trends in foodborne disease are influenced by many factors, including temperature. Globally and in Australia, warmer ambient temperatures are projected to rise if climate change continues. Salmonella spp. are a temperature-sensitive pathogen and rising temperature can have a substantial effect on disease burden affecting human health. We examined the relationship between temperature and Salmonella spp. and serotype notifications in Adelaide, Australia. Time-series Poisson regression models were fit to estimate the effect of temperature during warmer months on Salmonella spp. and serotype cases notified from 1990 to 2012. Long-term trends, seasonality, autocorrelation and lagged effects were included in the statistical models. Daily Salmonella spp. counts increased by 1·3% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1·013, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·008-1·019] per 1 °C rise in temperature in the warm season with greater increases observed in specific serotype and phage-type cases ranging from 3·4% (IRR 1·034, 95% CI 1·008-1·061) to 4·4% (IRR 1·044, 95% CI 1·024-1·064). We observed increased cases of S. Typhimurium PT9 and S. Typhimurium PT108 notifications above a threshold of 39 °C. This study has identified the impact of warm season temperature on different Salmonella spp. strains and confirms higher temperature has a greater effect on phage-type notifications. The findings will contribute targeted information for public health policy interventions, including food safety programmes during warmer weather.
Zhou, Zhemin; Sangal, Vartul; Krauland, Mary G.; Hale, James L.; Harbottle, Heather; Uesbeck, Alexandra; Dougan, Gordon; Harrison, Lee H.; Brisse, Sylvain
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica is traditionally subdivided into serovars by serological and nutritional characteristics. We used Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) to assign 4,257 isolates from 554 serovars to 1092 sequence types (STs). The majority of the isolates and many STs were grouped into 138 genetically closely related clusters called eBurstGroups (eBGs). Many eBGs correspond to a serovar, for example most Typhimurium are in eBG1 and most Enteritidis are in eBG4, but many eBGs contained more than one serovar. Furthermore, most serovars were polyphyletic and are distributed across multiple unrelated eBGs. Thus, serovar designations confounded genetically unrelated isolates and failed to recognize natural evolutionary groupings. An inability of serotyping to correctly group isolates was most apparent for Paratyphi B and its variant Java. Most Paratyphi B were included within a sub-cluster of STs belonging to eBG5, which also encompasses a separate sub-cluster of Java STs. However, diphasic Java variants were also found in two other eBGs and monophasic Java variants were in four other eBGs or STs, one of which is in subspecies salamae and a second of which includes isolates assigned to Enteritidis, Dublin and monophasic Paratyphi B. Similarly, Choleraesuis was found in eBG6 and is closely related to Paratyphi C, which is in eBG20. However, Choleraesuis var. Decatur consists of isolates from seven other, unrelated eBGs or STs. The serological assignment of these Decatur isolates to Choleraesuis likely reflects lateral gene transfer of flagellar genes between unrelated bacteria plus purifying selection. By confounding multiple evolutionary groups, serotyping can be misleading about the disease potential of S. enterica. Unlike serotyping, MLST recognizes evolutionary groupings and we recommend that Salmonella classification by serotyping should be replaced by MLST or its equivalents. PMID:22737074
Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se-Ran; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W.; Wilson, Daniel J.; Aarestrup, Frank M.
It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rates of mutation and divergence times of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial susceptible in ∼1948 (95% credible interval [CI], 1934 to 1962) and later became MDR DT104 in ∼1972 (95% CI, 1972 to 1988) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) MDR region into susceptible strains already containing SGI1. This was followed by multiple transmission events, initially from central Europe and later between several European countries. An independent transmission to the United States and another to Japan occurred, and from there MDR DT104 was probably transmitted to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ∼1975 (95% CI, 1975 to 1990). In Denmark, WGS analysis provided evidence for transmission of the organism between herds of animals. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the success of the program to eradicate Salmonella from pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. The results from this study refute several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and suggest that WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and devising strategies for prevention of Salmonella infections. PMID:26944846
Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se-Ran; Ussery, David W.; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W.; Wilson, Daniel J.; Aarestrup, Frank M.
It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. In this paper, we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rates of mutation and divergence times of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial susceptible in ~1948 (95% credible interval [CI], 1934 to 1962) and later became MDR DT104 in ~1972 (95% CI, 1972 to 1988) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) MDR region into susceptible strains already containing SGI1. This was followed by multiple transmission events, initially from central Europe and later between several European countries. An independent transmission to the United States and another to Japan occurred, and from there MDR DT104 was probably transmitted to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ~1975 (95% CI, 1975 to 1990). In Denmark, WGS analysis provided evidence for transmission of the organism between herds of animals. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the success of the program to eradicate Salmonella from pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. Finally, the results from this study refute several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and suggest that WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and devising strategies for prevention of Salmonella infections.
Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon; ...
It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. In this paper, we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rates of mutation and divergence times of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial susceptible in ~1948 (95% credible interval [CI], 1934more » to 1962) and later became MDR DT104 in ~1972 (95% CI, 1972 to 1988) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) MDR region into susceptible strains already containing SGI1. This was followed by multiple transmission events, initially from central Europe and later between several European countries. An independent transmission to the United States and another to Japan occurred, and from there MDR DT104 was probably transmitted to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ~1975 (95% CI, 1975 to 1990). In Denmark, WGS analysis provided evidence for transmission of the organism between herds of animals. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the success of the program to eradicate Salmonella from pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. Finally, the results from this study refute several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and suggest that WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and devising strategies for prevention of Salmonella infections.« less
Verbrugghe, Elin; Boyen, Filip; Van Parys, Alexander; Van Deun, Kim; Croubels, Siska; Thompson, Arthur; Shearer, Neil; Leyman, Bregje; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank
Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs often result in the development of carriers that intermittently excrete Salmonella in very low numbers. During periods of stress, for example transport to the slaughterhouse, recrudescence of Salmonella may occur, but the mechanism of this stress related recrudescence is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the role of the stress hormone cortisol in Salmonella recrudescence by pigs. We showed that a 24 h feed withdrawal increases the intestinal Salmonella Typhimurium load in pigs, which is correlated with increased serum cortisol levels. A second in vivo trial demonstrated that stress related recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs can be induced by intramuscular injection of dexamethasone. Furthermore, we found that cortisol, but not epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, promotes intracellular proliferation of Salmonella Typhimurium in primary porcine alveolar macrophages, but not in intestinal epithelial cells and a transformed cell line of porcine alveolar macrophages. A microarray based transcriptomic analysis revealed that cortisol did not directly affect the growth or the gene expression or Salmonella Typhimurium in a rich medium, which implies that the enhanced intracellular proliferation of the bacterium is probably caused by an indirect effect through the cell. These results highlight the role of cortisol in the recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium by pigs and they provide new evidence for the role of microbial endocrinology in host-pathogen interactions.
Leyman, Bregje; Boyen, Filip; Verbrugghe, Elin; Parys, Alexander Van; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank
In pigs, infection with Salmonella Typhimurium often results in the development of carriers that re-excrete the organism during periods of stress. Previous studies have shown that cortisol plays a significant role in the recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium and that re-excretion can be induced by injections of dexamethasone. This study evaluated whether a commercially available Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine was able to reduce Salmonella excretion in a model mimicking pre-slaughter stress. Pigs were randomly assigned to either vaccination or a control group and, 5 weeks later, were infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Twenty-three days post infection, pigs were injected with dexamethasone to induce recrudescence and Salmonella Typhimurium numbers were determined. Salmonella loads were significantly lower in the ileum and colon and in the contents of the ileum and caecum in vaccinated pigs than in non-vaccinated pigs. In addition, significantly more Salmonella positive tonsil and colon samples were found in non-vaccinated pigs. Vaccination with an attenuated vaccine reduced but did not eliminate Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs in conditions mimicking pre-slaughter stress.
Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs often result in the development of carriers that intermittently excrete Salmonella in very low numbers. During periods of stress, for example transport to the slaughterhouse, recrudescence of Salmonella may occur, but the mechanism of this stress related recrudescence is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the role of the stress hormone cortisol in Salmonella recrudescence by pigs. We showed that a 24 h feed withdrawal increases the intestinal Salmonella Typhimurium load in pigs, which is correlated with increased serum cortisol levels. A second in vivo trial demonstrated that stress related recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs can be induced by intramuscular injection of dexamethasone. Furthermore, we found that cortisol, but not epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, promotes intracellular proliferation of Salmonella Typhimurium in primary porcine alveolar macrophages, but not in intestinal epithelial cells and a transformed cell line of porcine alveolar macrophages. A microarray based transcriptomic analysis revealed that cortisol did not directly affect the growth or the gene expression or Salmonella Typhimurium in a rich medium, which implies that the enhanced intracellular proliferation of the bacterium is probably caused by an indirect effect through the cell. These results highlight the role of cortisol in the recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium by pigs and they provide new evidence for the role of microbial endocrinology in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22151081
Erol, Irfan; Goncuoglu, Muammer; Ayaz, Naim Deniz; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Bilir Ormanci, Fatma Seda; Iseri Kangal, Ozlem
The aim of the study was to find out the serotype distribution of 169 Salmonella colonies recovered from 112 Salmonella positive ground turkey (115 colonies) and 52 turkey meat parts (54 colonies). Out of 15 Salmonella serotypes: S. Corvallis, S. Kentucky, S. Bredeney, S. Virchow, S. Saintpaul and S. Agona were identified as the predominant serovars at the rates of 27%, 13%, 12%, 12%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. Other serotypes were below 6% of the total isolates. All S. Kentucky and S. Virchow and most of the S. Corvallis (39/46) and S. Heidelberg (9/9) serotypes were recovered from ground turkey. The results indicate that turkey ground meat and meat parts were contaminated with quite distinct Salmonella serotypes. This is the first study reporting Salmonella serotype distribution in turkey meat and S. Corvallis as predominant serotype in poultry meat in Turkey. PMID:23936785
Erol, Irfan; Goncuoglu, Muammer; Ayaz, Naim Deniz; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Ormanci, Fatma Seda Bilir; Kangal, Ozlem Iseri
The aim of the study was to find out the serotype distribution of 169 Salmonella colonies recovered from 112 Salmonella positive ground turkey (115 colonies) and 52 turkey meat parts (54 colonies). Out of 15 Salmonella serotypes: S. Corvallis, S. Kentucky, S. Bredeney, S. Virchow, S. Saintpaul and S. Agona were identified as the predominant serovars at the rates of 27%, 13%, 12%, 12%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. Other serotypes were below 6% of the total isolates. All S. Kentucky and S. Virchow and most of the S. Corvallis (39/46) and S. Heidelberg (9/9) serotypes were recovered from ground turkey. The results indicate that turkey ground meat and meat parts were contaminated with quite distinct Salmonella serotypes. This is the first study reporting Salmonella serotype distribution in turkey meat and S. Corvallis as predominant serotype in poultry meat in Turkey.
Fu, Songzhe; Octavia, Sophie; Tanaka, Mark M.; Sintchenko, Vitali
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most common Salmonella serovar causing foodborne infections in Australia and many other countries. Twenty-one S. Typhimurium strains from Salmonella reference collection A (SARA) were analyzed using Illumina high-throughput genome sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 SARA strains ranged from 46 to 11,916 SNPs, with an average of 1,577 SNPs per strain. Together with 47 strains selected from publicly available S. Typhimurium genomes, the S. Typhimurium core genes (STCG) were determined. The STCG consist of 3,846 genes, a set that is much larger than that of the 2,882 Salmonella core genes (SCG) found previously. The STCG together with 1,576 core intergenic regions (IGRs) were defined as the S. Typhimurium core genome. Using 93 S. Typhimurium genomes from 13 epidemiologically confirmed community outbreaks, we demonstrated that typing based on the S. Typhimurium core genome (STCG plus core IGRs) provides superior resolution and higher discriminatory power than that based on SCG for outbreak investigation and molecular epidemiology of S. Typhimurium. STCG and STCG plus core IGR typing achieved 100% separation of all outbreaks compared to that of SCG typing, which failed to separate isolates from two outbreaks from background isolates. Defining the S. Typhimurium core genome allows standardization of genes/regions to be used for high-resolution epidemiological typing and genomic surveillance of S. Typhimurium. PMID:26019201
Sobotta, B; Schüsseler, G; Gerhardt, G G; Teitge, E; Gundermann, K O
The paper offers the results of a one-year-survey of Salmonella-serotypes in a municipal sewage-purification plant with a capacity of roughly 70,000 m3 per day. Findings of a quantitative study had shown Salmonella-maxima in the activated-sludge-basin. This suggested specialized Salmonella-serotypes, resident in this part of the plant as a possible explanation which was to be verified by this study. On ten days samples were taken from the inlet, and the outlet of the primary-sedimentation-tank, the outlet of the activated-sludge-basin and the effluent of the final sedimentation-basin. A combination of membrane-filtration and MPN-Method with a fifefold enrichment in 2.5% tetrathionate was applied for salmonella isolation. Plating was done on malachit-green-chinablue-lactose-agar followed by serological typing. 1,587 strains representing 38 different serotypes (Table 1) were identified with S. typhi-murium (Fig. 1) accounting for 36% of the isolations followed by S. bovis-morbificans, S. hadar (Fig. 2) and S. panama. None of the serotypes found showed a preference of a special sampling point. The qualitative and quantitative distribution of Salmonella in the plant seems to depend on the Salmonella contents of the entering waste water mainly. The greatest variety of Salmonella-serotypes was located in the activated-sludge-basin (Table 2) where oxygen-enrichment seems to result in the best ecological conditions for Salmonella survival. 3.3% of 722 strains examined did not produce hydrogen-sulphide (Table 3) and some showed damaged flagella-antigens. As a possible explanation toxic influences in the sewage are discussed. The epidemiological links between findings of Salmonella in sewage and in man of the same area are established and results differing in some aspects explained by the high rate of unknown infections. The existence of an autochthonous Salmonella-population in the sewage plant could not be proved.
Swine are often asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella spp., and interventions are needed to limit colonization of swine to enhance food safety and reduce environmental contamination. We evaluated the attenuation and potential vaccine use in pigs of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant of r...
Shioi, J; Taylor, B L
The aerotactic response of Salmonella typhimurium SL3730 has been quantitatively correlated with a change in the proton motive force (delta p) as measured by a flow-dialysis technique. At pH 7.5, the membrane potential (delta psi) in S. typhimurium changed from -162 +/- 13 to -111 +/- 15 mV when cells grown aerobically were made anaerobic, and it returned to the original value when the cells were returned to aerobiosis. The delta pH across the membrane was zero. At pH 5.5, delta psi was -70 mV in aerobiosis and -20 mV in anaerobiosis, and delta pH was -118 and -56 mV for aerobic and anaerobic cells, respectively. A decrease in delta p resulted in increased tumbling, and an increase in delta p resulted in a smooth swimming response at either pH. Inhibition of aerotaxis at pH 7.5 by various concentrations of KCN correlated with a decreased delta p, due to a decreased delta psi in aerobiosis and little change in delta psi in anaerobiosis. At concentrations up to 100 mM, 2,4-dinitrophenol decreased delta psi, but did not inhibit aerotaxis because the difference between delta psi in aerobic and anaerobic cells remained constant. Considered as a whole, the results indicate that aerotaxis in S. typhimurium is mediated by delta p.
Korhonen, T K; Lounatmaa, K; Ranta, H; Kuusi, N
Type 1 pili from Salmonella typhimurium LT2 were purified and characterized. The pilus filaments were 6 nm in diameter and over 1 microns long. Estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weight of the pilin was 21,000. The isoelectric point of the filament was 4.1. Hydrophobic amino acids comprised 40.3% of the total amino acids of the pilin, which contained more proline, serine, and lysine than reported for the type 1 pilin of Escherichia coli. Purified pili agglutinated both horse and chicken erythrocytes and yeast cells but not bovine, sheep, or human erythrocytes. Horse erythrocyte agglutination was inhibited at lower concentrations by alpha-methyl-D-mannoside than by yeast mannane and D-fructose. Agglutination was not affected by D-galactose or sucrose. Results of the present study confirm the role of type 1 pili as Salmonella hemagglutinins and show chemical differences between the type 1 pili of S. typhimurium and E. coli. Images PMID:6107289
Lakshmanan, Ramji S.; Hu, Jing; Guntupalli, Rajesh; Wan, Jiehui; Huang, Shichu; Yang, Hong; Petrenko, Valery A.; Barbaree, James M.; Chin, Bryan A.
This article presents a contactless, remote sensing Salmonella typhimurium sensor based on the principle of magnetostriction. Magnetostrictive materials have been used widely for various types of sensor systems. In this work, the use of a magnetostrictive material for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium has been established. The mass of the bacteria attached to the sensor causes changes in the resonance frequency of the sensor. Filamentous bacteriophage was used as a probe order to ensure specific and selective binding of the bacteria onto the sensor surface. Thus changes in response of the sensor due to the mass added onto the sensor caused by specific attachment of bacteria can be monitored in absence of any contact to the sensor. The response of the sensor due to increasing concentrations (from 5x101 to 5x10 8 cfu/ml) of the bacteria was studied. A reduction in the physical dimensions enhances the sensitivity of these sensors and hence different dimensions of the sensor ribbons were studied. For a 2mm x 0.1mm x 0.02mm the detection limit was observed to be of the order of 10 4 cfu/mL and for a sensor of 1mm x 0.2mm x 0.02mm a reduced detection limit of 10 3 cfu/mL was achieved.
Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Hoegh-Andersen, Kirsten Hobolt; Rosenkrantz, Jesper Tjørnholt; Schroll, Casper; Casadesús, Josep; Aabo, Søren; Christensen, Jens Peter
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) can invade in the intestine of the avian host, and knowledge on the mechanisms that govern this is potentially important for prevention of disease. This study investigated the invasion of S. Typhimurium in the avian host and to which extent it depended on motility and chemotaxis. Wild type and previously well-characterized transposon mutants in flagella genes fliC and fljB and in chemotaxis genes cheA, cheB and cheR were used as challenge strains in intestinal loop experiments. Invasion was shown to be dose dependent, but did not require functional flagella or chemotaxis genes. In support of the results from intestinal loop experiments, flagella and chemotaxis genes were not significantly important to the outcome of an oral infection. The results showed that S. Typhimurium invasion in the avian host was dose dependent and was not affected by the loss of flagella and chemotaxis genes.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella, a leading cause of U.S. foodborne disease and food-related deaths, often asymptomatically colonizes food-producing animals. In fact, >50% of U.S. swine production facilities test positive for Salmonella. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 NCTC13348 c...
Boore, Amy L.; Hoekstra, R. Michael; Iwamoto, Martha; Fields, Patricia I.; Bishop, Richard D.; Swerdlow, David L.
Background Despite control efforts, salmonellosis continues to cause an estimated 1.2 million infections in the United States (US) annually. We describe the incidence of salmonellosis in the US and introduce a novel approach to examine the epidemiologic similarities and differences of individual serotypes. Methods Cases of salmonellosis in humans reported to the laboratory-based National Salmonella Surveillance System during 1996–2011 from US states were included. Coefficients of variation were used to describe distribution of incidence rates of common Salmonella serotypes by geographic region, age group and sex of patient, and month of sample isolation. Results During 1996–2011, more than 600,000 Salmonella isolates from humans were reported, with an average annual incidence of 13.1 cases/100,000 persons. The annual reported rate of Salmonella infections did not decrease during the study period. The top five most commonly reported serotypes, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, and Javiana, accounted for 62% of fully serotyped isolates. Coefficients of variation showed the most geographically concentrated serotypes were often clustered in Gulf Coast states and were also more frequently found to be increasing in incidence. Serotypes clustered in particular months, age groups, and sex were also identified and described. Conclusions Although overall incidence rates of Salmonella did not change over time, trends and epidemiological factors differed remarkably by serotype. A better understanding of Salmonella, facilitated by this comprehensive description of overall trends and unique characteristics of individual serotypes, will assist in responding to this disease and in planning and implementing prevention activities. PMID:26701276
Guo, Wei; Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Haoyan
Benzalkonium chloride is one of the invaluable biocides that is extensively used in healthcare settings as well as in the food processing industry. After exposing wild-type Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s or its AcrAB inactivation mutant to gradually increasing levels of benzalkonium chloride, resistance mutants S-41, S-150, S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73 were selected and these mutants also showed a 2-64-fold stable minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increase to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. In S-41 and S-150, the expression of acrB was increased 2.7- and 7.6-fold, and ΔtolC or ΔacrAB mutants of S-41 and S-150 showed the same MICs to all tested antimicrobials as the equivalent Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s mutants. However, in S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73, the expression of acrF was increased 96-, 230-, and 267-fold, respectively, and ΔtolC or ΔacrEF mutants of S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73 showed the similar MICs to all tested antimicrobials as the ΔtolC mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s. Our data showed that constitutively over-expressed AcrAB working through TolC was the main resistance mechanism in ST14028s benzalkonium chloride resistance mutants. However, after AcrAB had been inactivated, benzalkonium chloride-resistant mutants could still be selected and constitutively over-expressed, AcrEF became the dominant efflux pump working through TolC and being responsible for the increasing antimicrobial resistance. These data indicated that different mechanisms existed for acrB and acrF constitutive over-expression. Since exposure to benzalkonium chloride may lead to Salmonella mutants with a decreased susceptibility to quinolones, which is currently one of the drugs of choice for the treatment of life-threatening salmonelosis, research into the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the benzalkonium chloride resistance mutants will be of increasing importance.
Comparison of a PCR serotyping assay, Check&Trace assay for Salmonella, and Luminex Salmonella serotyping assay for the characterization of Salmonella enterica identified from fresh and naturally contaminated cilantro.
Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, J; Ewing, L; Jarvis, K; Dudley, K; Grim, C; Gopinath, G; Flamer, M-L; Auguste, W; Jayaram, A; Elmore, J; Lamont, M; McGrath, T; Hanes, D E
Salmonella enterica isolated from fresh cilantro samples collected through the USDA/AMS Microbiological Data Program (MDP) were used to compare a PCR serotyping assay against the Check&Trace assay and the Luminex (BioPlex) Salmonella serotyping assay. The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the three methods for serotyping Salmonella from both enrichment broth cultures and pure Salmonella cultures. In this investigation, Salmonella spp. serotyping was conducted using 24 h enrichment broth cultures and pure Salmonella cultures from cilantro samples, with the PCR serotyping assay. Conversely, the Check&Trace and Luminex for Salmonella assays required pure cultures for Salmonella serotyping. The cilantro samples contained S. enterica serovar Montevideo, Newport, Saintpaul, and Tennessee, identified by the PCR serotyping assay and Check&Trace for Salmonella, but the Luminex assay only identified two of the four serotypes of the cilantro samples. The anticipated impact from this study is that the PCR serotyping assay provides a time- and cost-effective means for screening, identifying and serotyping Salmonella using DNA extracted from 24 h enrichment cilantro samples.
Larsen, Rachel A.; Knox, Tina M.; Miller, Charles G.
Two well-characterized enzymes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli are able to hydrolyze N-terminal aspartyl (Asp) dipeptides: peptidase B, a broad-specificity aminopeptidase, and peptidase E, an Asp-specific dipeptidase. A serovar Typhimurium strain lacking both of these enzymes, however, can still utilize most N-terminal Asp dipeptides as sources of amino acids, and extracts of such a strain contain additional enzymatic activities able to hydrolyze Asp dipeptides. Here we report two such activities from extracts of pepB pepE mutant strains of serovar Typhimurium identified by their ability to hydrolyze Asp-Leu. Although each of these activities hydrolyzes Asp-Leu at a measurable rate, the preferred substrates for both are N-terminal isoAsp peptides. One of the activities is a previously characterized isoAsp dipeptidase from E. coli, the product of the iadA gene. The other is the product of the serovar Typhimurium homolog of E. coli ybiK, a gene of previously unknown function. This gene product is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile structural family of amidohydrolases. Like most other members of this family, the mature enzyme is generated from a precursor protein by proteolytic cleavage and the active enzyme is a heterotetramer. Based on its ability to hydrolyze an N-terminal isoAsp tripeptide as well as isoAsp dipeptides, the enzyme appears to be an isoAsp aminopeptidase, and we propose that the gene encoding it be designated iaaA (isoAsp aminopeptidase). A strain lacking both IadA and IaaA in addition to peptidase B and peptidase E has been constructed. This strain utilizes Asp-Leu as a leucine source, and extracts of this strain contain at least one additional, as-yet-uncharacterized, peptidase able to cleave Asp dipeptides. PMID:11325937
Larsen, R A; Knox, T M; Miller, C G
Two well-characterized enzymes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli are able to hydrolyze N-terminal aspartyl (Asp) dipeptides: peptidase B, a broad-specificity aminopeptidase, and peptidase E, an Asp-specific dipeptidase. A serovar Typhimurium strain lacking both of these enzymes, however, can still utilize most N-terminal Asp dipeptides as sources of amino acids, and extracts of such a strain contain additional enzymatic activities able to hydrolyze Asp dipeptides. Here we report two such activities from extracts of pepB pepE mutant strains of serovar Typhimurium identified by their ability to hydrolyze Asp-Leu. Although each of these activities hydrolyzes Asp-Leu at a measurable rate, the preferred substrates for both are N-terminal isoAsp peptides. One of the activities is a previously characterized isoAsp dipeptidase from E. coli, the product of the iadA gene. The other is the product of the serovar Typhimurium homolog of E. coli ybiK, a gene of previously unknown function. This gene product is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile structural family of amidohydrolases. Like most other members of this family, the mature enzyme is generated from a precursor protein by proteolytic cleavage and the active enzyme is a heterotetramer. Based on its ability to hydrolyze an N-terminal isoAsp tripeptide as well as isoAsp dipeptides, the enzyme appears to be an isoAsp aminopeptidase, and we propose that the gene encoding it be designated iaaA (isoAsp aminopeptidase). A strain lacking both IadA and IaaA in addition to peptidase B and peptidase E has been constructed. This strain utilizes Asp-Leu as a leucine source, and extracts of this strain contain at least one additional, as-yet-uncharacterized, peptidase able to cleave Asp dipeptides.
Laszlo, D J; Taylor, B L
Sensory transduction in aerotaxis required electron transport, in contrast to chemotaxis, which is independent of electron transport. Assays for aerotaxis were developed by employing spatial and temporal oxygen gradients imposed independently of respiration. By varying the step increase in oxygen concentration in the temporal assay, the dose-response relationship was obtained for aerotaxis in Salmonella typhimurium. A half-maximal response at 0.4 microM oxygen and inhibition by 5 mM KCN suggested that the "receptor" for aerotaxis is cytochrome o. The response was independent of adenosine triphosphate formation via oxidative phosphorylation but did correlate with changes in membrane potential monitored with the fluorescent cyanine dye diS-C3-(5). Nitrate and fumarate, which are alternative electron acceptors for the respiratory chain in S. typhimurium, inhibited aerotaxis when nitrate reductase and fumarate reductase were induced. These results support the hypothesis that taxis to oxygen, nitrate, and fumarate is mediated by the electron transport system and by changes in the proton motive force. Aerotaxis was normal in Escherichia coli mutants that were defective in the tsr, tar, or trg genes; in S. typhimurium, oxygen did not stimulate methylation of the products of these genes. A cheC mutant which shows an inverse response to chemoattractants also gave an inverse response to oxygen. Therefore, aerotaxis is transduced by a distinct and unidentified signally protein but is focused into the common chemosensory pathway before the step involving the cheC product. When S. typhimurium became anaerobic, the decreased proton motive force from glycolysis supported slow swimming but not tumbling, indicating that a minimum proton motive force was required for tumbling. The bacteria rapidly adapted to the anaerobic condition and resumed tumbling after about 3 min. The adaptation period was much shorter when the bacteria had been previously grown anaerobically. Images PMID
Binder, David C.; Arina, Ainhoa; Wen, Frank; Tu, Tony; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.; Wainwright, Derek A.; Schreiber, Hans
ABSTRACT We recently reported that therapeutic vaccination with live tumor antigen-producing Salmonella typhimurium rescues dysfunctional endogenous T cell responses and eradicates long-established tumors refractory to αCTLA-4 and αPD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor blockade. Here, we show that live intravenously injected or heat-killed (HK) intratumorally injected Salmonella typhimurium, even when not producing tumor antigen, synergize with adoptive T cell therapy to eradicate tumors. These data demonstrate that the combination of adoptive T cell transfer with the injection of live or dead Salmonella typhimurium is a promising approach for cancer treatment. PMID:27471609
Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se-Ran; Ussery, David W; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W; Wilson, Daniel J; Aarestrup, Frank M
It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rates of mutation and divergence times of 315S Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial susceptible in ∼1948 (95% credible interval [CI], 1934 to 1962) and later became MDR DT104 in ∼1972 (95% CI, 1972 to 1988) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) MDR region into susceptible strains already containing SGI1. This was followed by multiple transmission events, initially from central Europe and later between several European countries. An independent transmission to the United States and another to Japan occurred, and from there MDR DT104 was probably transmitted to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ∼1975 (95% CI, 1975 to 1990). In Denmark, WGS analysis provided evidence for transmission of the organism between herds of animals. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the success of the program to eradicate Salmonellafrom pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. The results from this study refute several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and suggest that WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and devising strategies for prevention of Salmonella infections.
Protective immunity conferred by a DNA adenine methylase deficient Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine when delivered in-water to sheep challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
Mohler, V L; Heithoff, D M; Mahan, M J; Walker, K H; Hornitzky, M A; Gabor, L; Thomson, P C; Thompson, A; House, J K
Stimulation of acquired immunity to Salmonella in livestock is not feasible in neonates (which can be infected within 24h of birth) and is challenging in feedlots, which typically source animals from diverse locations and vendors. Induction of innate immune mechanisms through mass vaccination of animals upon arrival to feedlots is an alternative approach. Transport, environmental conditions, changes in social grouping, and further handling during feedlot assembly are significant stressors. These factors, as well as concurrent exposure to a diversity of pathogens, contribute to the risk of disease. We have shown that oral immunization of calves with a modified live Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain, which lacks the DNA adenine methylase gene (S. Typhimurium dam), attenuates the severity of clinical disease, reduces fecal shedding, and promotes clearance of salmonellae following virulent homologous and heterologous challenge. This study examines the safety and efficacy of a S. Typhimurium dam vaccine in sheep via oral delivery in drinking water (ad libitum), as a means to effectively vaccinate large groups of animals. Adult merino sheep were vaccinated in drinking water -28 days, -7 days and 24h pre and 24h post-virulent Salmonella Typhimurium challenge which was administered via the oral route. Significant attenuation of clinical disease (temperature, appetite, and attitude) and reduction in mortality and virulent Salmonella Typhimurium fecal shedding and tissue colonization was observed in animals that received the vaccine 28 and 7 days pre-challenge. Further, vaccination did not pose a risk to stock previously infected with virulent salmonellae as mortalities and clinical disease in sheep vaccinated prior to or following virulent challenge did not differ significantly from the non-vaccinated controls. The capacity of S. Typhimurium dam vaccines delivered in drinking water to protect livestock from virulent Salmonella challenge offers an
Koluman, A; Celik, G; Unlu, T
Background and Objectives The significant rise in food borne infections is mainly caused by Campylobacter spp., Salmonella serovars and Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. As the emerging food borne pathogens cause disease, more studies have been conducted for rapid detection of these pathogens. The combination of immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR) is the most accurate and rapid test preferred by almost every researcher. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is preferred for being a new, user friendly and rapid technique in microbiological analyses. The main aim of this study is to detect application of IMS-FTIR for Salmonella identification from foods in a short time with a higher sensitivity. Materials and Methods Conventional Culture Technique (CC), IMS-CC, IMS-PCR and IMS-FTIR techniques were compared with each other for rapid detection in artificially contaminated minced beef with Salmonella Typhimurium, as of the 2nd, 4th and 8th hours of contamination. The method was evaluated in different food matrices and sensitivity, specifity and overall recovery was calculated. Results The results indicate that IMS-FTIR can detect S. Typhimurium as of the 8th hour with sensitivity of 95.6667, accuracy of 91.69329, false positive ratio of 0.04333 and overall recovery of 95.66%. Conclusion It can be suggested that the IMS-FTIR method is capable of detecting S.Typhimurium in a short time with lower cost. PMID:22783456
Lawhon, Sara D; Frye, Jonathan G; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Altier, Craig
CsrA is a regulator of invasion genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. To investigate the wider role of CsrA in gene regulation, we compared the expression of Salmonella genes in a csrA mutant with those in the wild type using a DNA microarray. As expected, we found that expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) invasion genes was greatly reduced in the csrA mutant, as were genes outside the island that encode proteins translocated into eukaryotic cells by the SPI-1 type III secretion apparatus. The flagellar synthesis operons, flg and fli, were also poorly expressed, and the csrA mutant was aflagellate and non-motile. The genes of two metabolic pathways likely to be used by Salmonella in the intestinal milieu also showed reduced expression: the pdu operon for utilization of 1,2-propanediol and the eut operon for ethanolamine catabolism. Reduced expression of reporter fusions in these two operons confirmed the microarray data. Moreover, csrA was found to regulate co-ordinately the cob operon for synthesis of vitamin B12, required for the metabolism of either 1,2-propanediol or ethanolamine. Additionally, the csrA mutant poorly expressed the genes of the mal operon, required for transport and use of maltose and maltodextrins, and had reduced amounts of maltoporin, normally a dominant protein of the outer membrane. These results show that csrA controls a number of gene classes in addition to those required for invasion, some of them unique to Salmonella, and suggests a co-ordinated bacterial response to conditions that exist at the site of bacterial invasion, the intestinal tract of a host animal.
Handeland, Kjell; Nesse, Live L; Lillehaug, Atle; Vikøren, Turid; Djønne, Berit; Bergsjø, Bjarne
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) can be considered as a relevant indicator species for Salmonella in the local environment and Salmonella faecal carriage was investigated in 215 red foxes in Norway shot during the winters 2002/2003 and 2003/2004. Fourteen (6.5%) of the foxes carried Salmonella. Four isolates were determined as serovars Kottbus (n=2) and Hessarek (n=2) of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, and one as S. enterica subspecies IIIb:61:k:1,5,(7). The remaining nine isolates were S. enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium 4,12:i:1,2 and all displayed the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile designated A2. This serovar regularly causes disease outbreaks amongst small passerine birds during winter and most of these outbreaks are associated with the PFGE profile A2. The results strongly indicated that the Salmonella Typhimurium infections in red foxes were primarily acquired through ingestion of infected small passerines. To investigate the capability of the A2 strain to establish a true intestinal infection in the fox an inoculation experiment with an A2 isolate from small passerines was carried out in farmed silver foxes (V. vulpes). The experiment also included one strain with an uncommonly occurring profile (X201) from small passerines. To highlight possible differences in capability of the two inoculation strains to pass the acid gastric juice in the fox, in vitro studies of their acid tolerance was carried out. Also their catalase activity and biofilm production were studied. All three foxes inoculated with the A2 strain developed sub-clinical intestinal infection of 2 weeks duration, whereas none of the three foxes inoculated with the X201 strain shed this bacterium. The X201 strain displayed a much lower capability, than the A2 strain, to survive at pH 3 in vitro. The low acid tolerance probably made it difficult for the X201 strain to pass the stomach and establish an intestinal infection in the experimental foxes. Reduced
Díez-García, Miryam; Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos
The influence of the serotype on the growth behaviour and the ability to form biofilms of Salmonella enterica strains was investigated. The relationships between biofilm formation and growth kinetic parameters were also determined. A total of 69 strains (61 isolates from poultry and 8 reference strains from culture collections) belonging to 10 serotypes (S. enterica serotype Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Paratyphi B, S. Poona, S. Derby, S. Infantis, S. Enteritidis, S. Virchow, S. Agona and S. Typhi) were tested. All Salmonella strains produced biofilms on polystyrene micro-well plates (crystal violet assay). Isolates were classified as weak (35 strains), moderate (22), or strong (12) biofilm producers. S. Agona and S. Typhi produced the most substantial (P < 0.001) biofilms. Growth curves were performed at 37 °C in tryptone soy broth by means of optical density (OD(420-580)) measurements from 0 to 48 h. Growth kinetic parameters (Gompertz model) varied between serotypes. The maximum growth rate (ΔOD(420-580)/h) ranged from 0.030 ± 0.002 (S. Typhi) to 0.114 ± 0.011 (S. Agona). The ability of Salmonella strains to form biofilms was not related to their growth kinetic parameters. The formation of biofilms by Salmonella on polystyrene constitutes an issue of concern because plastic materials are frequently used in food facilities. The findings suggest that special efforts must be made for the effective control of Salmonella in food-processing environments when S. Agona or S. Typhi strains are present. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rouf, Syed Fazle; Kitowski, Vera; Böhm, Oliver M.; Rhen, Mikael; Jäger, Timo; Bange, Franz-Christoph
Production of reactive oxygen species represents a fundamental innate defense against microbes in a diversity of host organisms. Oxidative stress, amongst others, converts peptidyl and free methionine to a mixture of methionine-S- (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxides (Met-R-SO). To cope with such oxidative damage, methionine sulfoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB are known to reduce MetSOs, the former being specific for the S-form and the latter being specific for the R-form. However, at present the role of methionine sulfoxide reductases in the pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial pathogens has not been fully detailed. Here we show that deletion of msrA in the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella (S.) enterica serovar Typhimurium increased susceptibility to exogenous H2O2, and reduced bacterial replication inside activated macrophages, and in mice. In contrast, a ΔmsrB mutant showed the wild type phenotype. Recombinant MsrA was active against free and peptidyl Met-S-SO, whereas recombinant MsrB was only weakly active and specific for peptidyl Met-R-SO. This raised the question of whether an additional Met-R-SO reductase could play a role in the oxidative stress response of S. Typhimurium. MsrC is a methionine sulfoxide reductase previously shown to be specific for free Met-R-SO in Escherichia (E.) coli. We tested a ΔmsrC single mutant and a ΔmsrBΔmsrC double mutant under various stress conditions, and found that MsrC is essential for survival of S. Typhimurium following exposure to H2O2, as well as for growth in macrophages, and in mice. Hence, this study demonstrates that all three methionine sulfoxide reductases, MsrA, MsrB and MsrC, facilitate growth of a canonical intracellular pathogen during infection. Interestingly MsrC is specific for the repair of free methionine sulfoxide, pointing to an important role of this pathway in the oxidative stress response of Salmonella Typhimurium. PMID:22073230
Okoro, Chinyere K; Kingsley, Robert A; Connor, Thomas R; Harris, Simon R; Parry, Christopher M; Al-Mashhadani, Manar N; Kariuki, Samuel; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gordon, Melita A; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Wain, John; Heyderman, Robert S; Obaro, Stephen; Alonso, Pedro L; Mandomando, Inacio; MacLennan, Calman A; Tapia, Milagritos D; Levine, Myron M; Tennant, Sharon M; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon
A highly invasive form of non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has recently been documented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common Salmonella enterica serovar causing this disease is Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium). We applied whole-genome sequence-based phylogenetic methods to define the population structure of sub-Saharan African invasive Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and compared these to global Salmonella Typhimurium populations. Notably, the vast majority of sub-Saharan invasive Salmonella Typhimurium isolates fell within two closely related, highly clustered phylogenetic lineages that we estimate emerged independently ∼52 and ∼35 years ago in close temporal association with the current HIV pandemic. Clonal replacement of isolates from lineage I by those from lineage II was potentially influenced by the use of chloramphenicol for the treatment of iNTS disease. Our analysis suggests that iNTS disease is in part an epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa caused by highly related Salmonella Typhimurium lineages that may have occupied new niches associated with a compromised human population and antibiotic treatment.
Singh, Bhoj Raj; Chandra, Mudit; Agarwal, Ravikant
The effect of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium, a zoonotic serovar, on mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) cultivar Pant Mung-3 plants was studied. Inoculation of mung bean seeds with Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2 x 10(5) CFU/ml) reduced sprouting rate (P < 0.07). This effect was more pronounced at higher levels of contamination. In the soil inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2 x 10(6) CFU/g), germination was retarded and the number of defective sprouts was also significantly higher (P < 0.002). Salmonella Typhimurium grew inside germinating seeds and plant tissues and persisted in seedlings, adult plants, and harvested seedlings dried and stored at room temperature (30 degrees C) up to 45 days. Phaseolus aureus plants grown in sterile soil was resistant to Salmonella Typhimurium infection at 15 days of age and cleared Salmonella from all the aerial parts within 3 h of infection. However, Salmonella Typhimurium could be reisolated from the basal area of the stem and from soil even after 45 days of exposure to the pathogen.
Wick, Mary Jo
Infections with Salmonella enterica serovars remain a serious problem worldwide. While serovar Typhi causes significant morbidity and mortality that is restricted to humans, serovar Typhimurium causes gastroenteritidis in humans and can also infect other animals. As mice with the susceptible Nramp1 locus get systemic infection with serovar Typhimurium, murine infection models using this serovar have been widely used to decipher the immune mechanisms required to survive systemic Salmonella infection. This review summarizes recent studies in murine infection models that have advanced our understanding of the events that occur during the first days after oral Salmonella infection. The pathways of bacterial penetration across the intestinal epithelium, bacterial spread to draining (mesenteric) lymph nodes and dissemination to systemic tissues is discussed. The response of myeloid cell populations, including dendritic cells, inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, during the early stage of infection is also discussed. Finally, the mechanisms driving recruitment of myeloid cells to infected intestinal lymphoid tissues and what is known about Toll-like receptor signaling pathways in innate immunity to Salmonella infection is also discussed.
Syvanen, J. Michael; Roth, John R.
Mutations of Salmonella typhimurium affecting the structural gene for ornithine transcarbamylase (argl) have been isolated and mapped. The two ornithine transcarbamylase loci in Escherichia coli K-12 have been demonstrated by F′ episome transfer. PMID:4553006
Fernandes, Sueli Aparecida; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Francisco, Gabriela Rodrigues; Bueno, Maria Fernanda Campagnari; Garcia, Doroti Oliveira; Doi, Yohei; Casas, Monique Ribeiro Tiba
We characterized extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) enzymes among Salmonella strains isolated in Brazil from 2009 to 2014. Salmonella recovered from both clinical and nonhuman (food, poultry, and environment) sources were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. β-lactamases genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction/sequencing; plasmid profiles and transferability were assessed by S1-pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genetic diversity was evaluated by XbaI-PFGE. Out of 630 Salmonella strains screened, 46 displayed ESBL phenotype, distributed across 11 different serotypes. blaCTX-M-8 and blaCTX-M-2 genes were detected at frequencies of 47% and 41%, respectively. blaSHV-5 and blaSHV-2 were also detected but in lower frequencies (4%, 2%). blaTEM-1 gene was detected in 22% of the strains. Most of the ESBL genes were transferable by conjugation, and the respective blaESBL gene was detected in the recipient strain, indicating the location of ESBL determinants on transferable plasmids. XbaI-PFGE revealed genomic diversity of Salmonella Typhimurium bearing blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-8, blaTEM-1, and blaSHV-2 genes. Salmonella Muenchen (harboring blaCTX-M-2) and Salmonella Corvallis (blaCTX-M-8 and blaSHV-5) showed clonal relatedness within respective serotypes. Our findings underscore the occurrence of diverse ESBL genes in several Salmonella serotypes, reinforcing the need for continuous surveillance of resistance genes circulating in human and nonhuman sources.
Fiorino, Fabio; Rondini, Simona; Micoli, Francesca; Lanzilao, Luisa; Alfini, Renzo; Mancini, Francesca; MacLennan, Calman A.; Medaglini, Donata
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis are the predominant causes of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. Considering the co-endemicity of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, a bivalent vaccine formulation against both pathogens is necessary for protection against iNTS disease, thus investigation of glycoconjugate combination is required. In the present work, we investigated the immune responses induced by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis monovalent and bivalent glycoconjugate vaccines adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide (alum) only or in combination with cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG). Humoral and cellular, systemic and local, immune responses were characterized in two different mouse strains. All conjugate vaccines elicited high levels of serum IgG against the respective O-antigens (OAg) with bactericidal activity. The bivalent conjugate vaccine induced systemic production of antibodies against both S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis OAg. The presence of alum or alum + CpG adjuvants in vaccine formulations significantly increased the serum antigen-specific antibody production. The alum + CpG bivalent vaccine formulation triggered the highest systemic anti-OAg antibodies and also a significant increase of anti-OAg IgG in intestinal washes and fecal samples, with a positive correlation with serum levels. These data demonstrate the ability of monovalent and bivalent conjugate vaccines against S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis to induce systemic and local immune responses in different mouse strains, and highlight the suitability of a bivalent glycoconjugate formulation, especially when adjuvanted with alum + CpG, as a promising candidate vaccine against iNTS disease. PMID:28289411
Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Mattheus, Wesley; Vanhoof, Raymond; Bertrand, Sophie
The Belgian National Reference Centre for Salmonella received 16,544 human isolates of Salmonella enterica between January 2009 and December 2013. Although 377 different serotypes were identified, the landscape is dominated by S. enterica serovars Typhimurium (55%) and Enteritidis (19%) in a ratio which is inverse to European Union averages. With outbreaks of Salmonella serotypes Ohio, Stanley, and Paratyphi B variant Java as prime examples, 20 serotypes displayed significant fluctuations in this 5-year period. Typhoid strains account for 1.2% of Belgian salmonellosis cases. Large-scale antibiotic susceptibility analyses (n = 4,561; panel of 12 antibiotics) showed declining resistance levels in S. Enteritis and Typhimurium isolates for 8 and 3 tested agents, respectively. Despite low overall resistance to ciprofloxacin (4.4%) and cefotaxime (1.6%), we identified clonal lineages of Salmonella serotypes Kentucky and Infantis displaying rising resistance against these clinically important drugs. Quinolone resistance is mainly mediated by serotype-specific mutations in GyrA residues Ser83 and Asp87 (92.2% not wild type), while an additional ParC_Ser80Ile mutation leads to ciprofloxacin resistance in 95.5% S. Kentucky isolates, which exceeds European averages. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) alleles qnrA1 (n = 1), qnrS (n = 9), qnrD1 (n = 4), and qnrB (n = 4) were found in only 3.0% of 533 isolates resistant to nalidixic acid. In cefotaxime-resistant isolates, we identified a broad range of Ambler class A and C β-lactamase genes (e.g., bla(SHV-12), blaTEM-52, bla(CTX-M-14), and bla(CTX-M-15)) commonly associated with members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. In conclusion, resistance to fluoroquinolones and cefotaxime remains rare in human S. enterica, but clonal resistant serotypes arise, and continued (inter)national surveillance is mandatory to understand the origin and routes of dissemination thereof. Copyright © 2015, American Society for
Park, Sun-Yang; Pontes, Mauricio H.; Groisman, Eduardo A.
Flagella are multiprotein complexes necessary for swimming and swarming motility. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella-mediated motility is repressed by the PhoP/PhoQ regulatory system. We now report that Salmonella can move on 0.3% agarose media in a flagella-independent manner when experiencing the PhoP/PhoQ-inducing signal low Mg2+. This motility requires the PhoP-activated mgtA, mgtC, and pagM genes, which specify a Mg2+ transporter, an inhibitor of Salmonella’s own F1Fo ATPase, and a small protein of unknown function, respectively. The MgtA and MgtC proteins are necessary for pagM expression because pagM mRNA levels were lower in mgtA and mgtC mutants than in wild-type Salmonella, and also because pagM expression from a heterologous promoter rescued motility in mgtA and mgtC mutants. PagM promotes group motility by a surface protein(s), as a pagM-expressing strain conferred motility upon a pagM null mutant, and proteinase K treatment eliminated motility. The pagM gene is rarely found outside subspecies I of S. enterica and often present in nonfunctional allelic forms in organisms lacking the identified motility. Deletion of the pagM gene reduced bacterial replication on 0.3% agarose low Mg2+ media but not in low Mg2+ liquid media. Our findings define a form of motility that allows Salmonella to scavenge nutrients and to escape toxic compounds in low Mg2+ semisolid environments. PMID:25624475
Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.
The mutagenic and lethal effects of ionizing radiation on histidine-deficient auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium were studied to improve the understanding of radiation damage to DNA. The auxotrophs were divided into two groups - one which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions and another sensitive to frameshifts. These groups were composed of parent-daughter pairs in which the chemical mutagenicity enhancing plasmid, pKM101, is absent in the parent strain and present in the daughter. Co-60 ..gamma..-radiation and 250 kV x-rays were used to irradiate the bacteria. Irradiation of the frameshift - sensitive strains which carry the pKm101 plasmid doubled the absolute number of induced revertants whereas irradiation of the base-pair substitution sensitive strain which also carries the pKm101 plasmid produced nearly no change in the number of induced revertants. A nearly negligible effect on the mutation rate was observed for all parent strains. (ACR)
Schmid, M B
Thirteen temperature-sensitive lethal mutations of Salmonella typhimurium map near metC at 65 min and form the clmF (conditional lethal mutation) locus. The mutations in this region were ordered by three-point transduction crosses. After a shift to the nonpermissive temperature, many of these clmF mutants failed to complete the segregation of nucleoids into daughter cells; daughter nucleoids appeared incompletely separated and asymmetrically positioned within cells. Some clmF mutants showed instability of F' episomes at permissive growth temperatures yet showed no detectable defect with smaller multicopy plasmids such as pSC101 or pBR322. In addition, many of the clmF mutants rapidly lost viability yet continued DNA replication at the nonpermissive temperature. These results suggest that the clmF locus encodes at least one indispensable gene product that is required for faithful partitioning of the bacterial nucleoid and F-plasmid replicons. Images PMID:2203751
Ruddat, I; Tietze, E; Ziehm, D; Kreienbrock, L
A collection of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates obtained from sporadic salmonellosis cases in humans from Lower Saxony, Germany between June 2008 and May 2010 was used to perform an exploratory risk-factor analysis on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) using comprehensive host information on sociodemographic attributes, medical history, food habits and animal contact. Multivariate resistance profiles of minimum inhibitory concentrations for 13 antimicrobial agents were analysed using a non-parametric approach with multifactorial models adjusted for phage types. Statistically significant associations were observed for consumption of antimicrobial agents, region type and three factors on egg-purchasing behaviour, indicating that besides antimicrobial use the proximity to other community members, health consciousness and other lifestyle-related attributes may play a role in the dissemination of resistances. Furthermore, a statistically significant increase in AMR from the first study year to the second year was observed.
French, S; Martin, K; Patterson, T; Bauerle, R; Miller, O L
Transcriptional activity of plasmids carrying wild-type and mutant trp operons was visualized in cell lysates of Salmonella typhimurium. Plasmid and transcription-unit sizes varied with the size of the cloned operon. Following 3-(3-indolyl)acrylic acid derepression, all operons of a particular type exhibited the same high level of transcriptional activity. An estimated 11-14 transcripts must be initiated each minute to maintain the 190-base-pair spacing of RNA polymerases observed on the promoter-proximal half of the wild-type trp operon. A decline in RNA polymerase density was observed on promoter-distal portions of cloned trp operons, which may be attributable to premature transcription termination accompanying translation inhibition due to indolylacrylic acid's interference with normal tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase activity.
Gündüz, Gülten Tiryaki; Gönül, Sahika Aktuğ; Karapinar, Mehmet
The antimicrobial activity of myrtle leaves (Myrtus communis) oil was tested against the nalidixic acid resistant strain of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 13311. An inoculum (100 microl, ca.10(8) cfu/ml) was deposited on the skin of whole tomatoes and 10 g of shredded iceberg lettuce, dried for 2 h at 22 degrees C and held for 22 h at 4 degrees C before treatments. Inoculated iceberg lettuce (3.51-3.99 log cfu/g) and tomatoes (3.47-4.86 log cfu/tomato) were treated with three different washing procedures for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min; washing with sterile distilled water (control), washing with three different concentrations of myrtle leaves oil and the last treatment was a combination of washing with myrtle leaves oil and then rinsing in sterile distilled water for 1 min. Washing with myrtle leaves oil with or without rinsing procedures caused significant reduction in S. Typhimurium population compared with the control after treatment for four different times (p<0.05). There is no significant difference between washing times in reduction of S. Typhimurium (p>0.05). The maximum logarithmic reductions of 1.66 cfu/g-1.89 cfu/tomato were respectively obtained on iceberg lettuce and tomatoes treated with 1000 ppm myrtle leaves oil without any rinsing treatment. The results suggest that the use of myrtle leaves oil is an innovative and useful tool as an alternative to the use of chlorine or other synthetic disinfectants in fruits and vegetables, especially for organic products.
Specific and DNP-Specific Memory B-Cells Clones 12. Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide 124 structure 13. Diagram of the Gram -Negative...Introduction Salmonella typhimurium is a gram -negative, facultative, intracellular bacterium which multiplies in the phagocytic cells of the...in C3H/HeN (Lps") and C3H/HeJ (Lps*̂ ) mice. Moreover, pre-treatment of C3H/HeJ mice with the gram -positive macrophage activator, BCG, markedly
The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness of zein-based coatings in reducing populations of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and preserving quality of cherry tomatoes. Tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of S. Typhimurium LT2 plus three mutants on the smoo...
Bruni, Carmelo B.; Rechler, Matthew M.; Martin, Robert G.
Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium containing 1 to 2% of wild-type ribonuclease I activity were isolated. The rns mutation had no effect on the polarity of mutations in the S. typhimurium histidine operon. Even in the presence of an rns mutation, it was not possible to obtain strong suppressors of the polarity of two polar mutations in the his operon. PMID:4347966
Jneid, Bakhos; Moreau, Karine; Plaisance, Marc; Rouaix, Audrey; Dano, Julie; Simon, Stéphanie
Salmonella enterica species are enteric pathogens that cause severe diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to enteric fever and sepsis in humans. These infectious diseases are still the major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries, especially in children younger than 5 years and immunocompromised adults. Vaccines targeting typhoidal diseases are already marketed, but none protect against non-typhoidal Salmonella. The existence of multiple non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes as well as emerging antibiotic resistance highlight the need for development of a broad-spectrum protective vaccine. All Salmonella spp. utilize two type III Secretion Systems (T3SS 1 and 2) to initiate infection, allow replication in phagocytic cells and induce systemic disease. T3SS-1, which is essential to invade epithelial cells and cross the barrier, forms an extracellular needle and syringe necessary to inject effector proteins into the host cell. PrgI and SipD form, respectively, the T3SS-1 needle and the tip complex at the top of the needle. Because they are common and highly conserved in all virulent Salmonella spp., they might be ideal candidate antigens for a subunit-based, broad-spectrum vaccine. We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of PrgI and SipD administered by subcutaneous, intranasal and oral routes, alone or combined, in a mouse model of Salmonella intestinal challenge. Robust IgG (in all immunization routes) and IgA (in intranasal and oral immunization routes) antibody responses were induced against both proteins, particularly SipD. Mice orally immunized with SipD alone or SipD combined with PrgI were protected against lethal intestinal challenge with Salmonella Typhimurium (100 Lethal Dose 50%) depending on antigen, route and adjuvant. Salmonella T3SS SipD is a promising antigen for the development of a protective Salmonella vaccine, and could be developed for vaccination in tropical endemic areas to control infant
Madonna, M J; Fuchs, R L; Brenchley, J E
Glutamate synthase activity is required for the growth of Salmonella typhimurium on media containing a growth-rate-limiting nitrogen source. Mutations that alter glutamate synthase activity had been identified in the gltB gene, but it was not known which of the two nonidentical subunits of the enzyme was altered. To examine the gene-protein relationship of the glt region, two nonsense mutations were identified and used to demonstrate that gltB encodes the large subunit of the enzyme. Six strains with independent Mu cts d1 (lac bla) insertions were isolated, from which a collection of deletion mutations was obtained. The deletions were transduced with the nonsense mutations and 38 other glt point mutations to construct a fine-structure genetic map. Chromosome mobilization studies, mediated by Hfr derivatives of Mu cts d1 lysogens, showed that gltB is transcribed in a clockwise direction, as shown in the S. typhimurium linkage map. Studies of the polar effects of three Mu cts d1 insertions indicated that the gene for the small subunit maps clockwise to gltB and that the two genes are cotranscribed to form a glt operon. Images PMID:3881392
Hellinckx, Jessica; Fuchs, Thilo M
Growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 with myo-inositol (MI) as the sole carbon and energy source is characterized by a bistable phenotype that manifests in a growth phenotype with an extraordinarily long and length-variable lag phase. However, in the presence of hydrogen carbonate, in the absence of IolR that represses the MI degradation pathway, or if cells are already adapted to minimal medium (MM) with MI, the lag phase is drastically shortened, and the bistable phenotype is abolished. We hypothesized that memory development or hysteresis is a further characteristic of MI degradation by S. Typhimurium; therefore, we investigated the transition from a short to a long lag phase in more detail. Growth experiments demonstrated that memory on the population level is successively lost within approximately 8 hr after cells, which had been adapted to MI utilization, were transferred to lysogeny broth (LB) medium. Flow cytometry (FC) analysis using a chromosomal fusion to PiolE , a promoter controlling the expression of the enzymatic genes iolE and iolG involved in MI degradation, indicated a gradual reversion within a few hours from a population in the "ON" status with respect to iolE transcription to one that is mainly in the "OFF" status. Growth and FC experiments revealed that IolR does not affect hysteresis.
Kier, L D; Weppelman, R; Ames, B N
A survey of Salmonella typhimurium enzymes possessing phosphatase or phosphodiesterase activity was made using several different growth conditions. These studies revealed the presence of three major enzymes, all of which were subsequently purified: a cyclic 2' ,3'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.d), an acid hexose phosphatase (EC 126.96.36.199), and a nonspecific acid phosphatase (EC 188.8.131.52). A fourth enzyme hydrolyzed bis-(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate but none of the other substrates tested. No evidence was found for the existence of an alkaline phosphatase (EC 184.108.40.206) or a specific 5'-nucleotidase (EC 220.127.116.11) in S. typhimurium LT2. All three phosphatases could be measured efficiently in intact cells, which suggested a periplasmic location; however, they were not readily released by osmotic shock procedures. The nonspecific acid phosphatase, which was purified to apparent homogeneity, yielded a single polypeptide band on both sodium dodecyl sulfate and acidic urea gel electrophoretic systems. Images PMID:192712
Anderson, E. S.
A rise in Salmonella typhimurium infection was observed in calves in Britain during 1964–6, follwing the adoption of the intensive farming method. A single phage type of S. typhimurium, type 29, was incriminated as the major pathogen. Attempts to treat and control the disease with a range of antibiotics were ineffective, but resulted in the acquisition of transferable multiple drug resistance by type 29. The transmission of drug-resistant type 29, directly or indirectly, from bovines to man resulted in many human infections. Transferable drug resistance reaching man from enterobacteria of animal origin may ultimately enter specifically human pathogens. Infections such as that caused by type 29 can be eliminated, not by the massive use of antibiotics but by improvement in conditions of animal husbandry and reduction in the opportunities for the initiation and spread of the disease. A reappraisal is needed of the methods of using antibiotics to determine how these methods can be improved, in order to conserve the long-term efficacy of the antibiotics. PMID:4874171
The DiversiLabTM System, which employs repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) to genotype microorganisms, was evaluated as a method to predict the serotype of Salmonella isolates. Two hundred and thirty-three Salmonella isolates belonging to 14 frequently isolated serotypes f...
Oscar, T P; Tasmin, R; Parveen, S
A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that strains of Salmonella Typhimurium that are resistant to antibiotics are more resistant to chlorine in chilled water than strains of Salmonella Typhimurium that are not resistant to antibiotics. To test this hypothesis, strains (n = 16) of Salmonella Typhimurium with four antibiotic resistance profiles were tested for their inactivation kinetics in chlorinated (30 ppm, pH 6) water at 4°C. The four antibiotic resistance profiles were (i) none; (ii) tetracycline-sulfisoxazole (T-Su); (iii) tetracycline-ampicillin-amoxicillin-cefoxitin-ceftiofur-sulfisoxazole (T-A-Am-C-Ce-Su); and (iv) tetracycline-ampicillin-amoxicillin-cefoxitin-ceftiofur-sulfisoxazole-kanamycin (T-A-Am-C-Ce-Su-K). Inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium in chlorinated water displayed nonlinear kinetics with a concave downward curve that fit well (R(2) = 0.964) to the power law model, with a shape parameter of 1.37. The time for a single log reduction (D-value) of Salmonella Typhimurium from an initial concentration of 5.36 log/ml did not differ (P > 0.05) among the four antibiotic resistance groups and ranged from 3.8 to 4.3 min for n = 4 strains per group. Thus, the hypothesis was rejected, and it was concluded that expression of an antibiotic resistance phenotype does not confer cross-protection in Salmonella Typhimurium to chlorine inactivation in chilled water.
Thung, T Y; Mahyudin, N A; Basri, D F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, C W J; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S
Salmonellosis is one of the major food-borne diseases in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The most probable number (MPN) in combination with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method was used to quantify the Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in the samples. The occurrence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in 120 chicken meat samples were 20.80%, 6.70%, and 2.50%, respectively with estimated quantity varying from <3 to 15 MPN/g. The antibiogram testing revealed differential multi-drug resistance among S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolates. All the isolates were resistance to erythromycin, penicillin, and vancomycin whereas sensitivity was recorded for Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, and Trimethoprim. Our findings demonstrated that the retail chicken meat could be a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistance Salmonella and may constitute a public health concern in Malaysia. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Ktsoyan, Zhanna A.; Mkrtchyan, Mkhitar S.; Zakharyan, Magdalina K.; Mnatsakanyan, Armine A.; Arakelova, Karine A.; Gevorgyan, Zaruhi U.; Ktsoyan, Lusntag A.; Sedrakyan, Anahit Ì.; Hovhannisyan, Alvard I.; Ghazaryan1, Karine A.; Boyajyan, Anna S.; Aminov, Rustam I.
The main goal of this study was to establish how the inflammation caused by infection with two different Salmonella enterica serotypes, S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, may lead to the predisposition to allergy as measured by total IgE level in the blood. Infection by S. Typhimurium did not affect the systemic IgE concentration while in S. Enteritidis-infected patients there was a significant 3.5-fold increase. This effect was especially profound in patients >4 years old, with up to the 8-fold increase above the norm. The degree of dysbiosis in these two infections measured with the comparative counts of cultivated bacteria showed an inverse relationship with the IgE concentration. Earlier we reported the elevated level of IL-17 in patients infected by S. Enteritidis. In the current study a significant correlation was found between the concentrations of IL-17 and IgE suggesting a possible role played by this cytokine in triggering the production of IgE in response to S. Enteritidis infection. PMID:26075186
Liu, Qiong; Liu, Qing; Yi, Jie; Liang, Kang; Liu, Tian; Roland, Kenneth L; Jiang, Yanlong; Kong, Qingke
Salmonella enterica cause diarrheal and systemic diseases and are of considerable concern worldwide. Vaccines that are cross-protective against multiple serovars could provide effective control of Salmonella-mediated diseases. Bacteria-derived outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are highly immunogenic and are capable of eliciting protective immune responses. Alterations in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) length can result in outer membrane remodeling and composition of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) changing. In this study, we investigated the impact of truncated LPS on both the production and immunogenicity of Salmonella OMVs, including the ability of OMVs to elicit cross-protection against challenge by heterologous Salmonella strains. We found that mutations in waaJ and rfbP enhanced vesiculation, while mutations in waaC, waaF and waaG inhibited this process. Animal experiments indicated that OMVs from waaC, rfaH and rfbP mutants induced stronger serum immune responses compared to OMVs from the parent strain, while all elicited protective responses against the wild-type S. Typhimurium challenge. Furthermore, intranasal or intraperitoneal immunization with OMVs derived from the waaC and rfbP mutants elicited significantly higher cross-reactive IgG responses and provided enhanced cross-protection against S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis challenge than the wild-type OMVs. These results indicate that truncated-LPS OMVs are capable of conferring cross protection against multiple serotypes of Salmonella infection.
Futagawa-Saito, K; Hiratsuka, S; Kamibeppu, M; Hirosawa, T; Oyabu, K; Fukuyasu, T
To determine prevalence, serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in healthy pigs, faecal samples from 6771 pigs on 73 farms collected during 1998-1999 and 2004-2005 were examined. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for susceptibility to 22 antimicrobials: benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefazolin, cephaloridine, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, fradiomycin, colistin, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethoxypyridazine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Farm-level and pig-level Salmonella prevalences were 35.5% and 2.2% in 1998-1999, and 35.7% and 3.3% in 2004-2005. Prevalence by growth stage was 2.4% for sows, 3.3% for weaned pigs, 2.7% for fattening pigs and 3.8% for finishing pigs. The predominant serotypes identified were Agona (28.4%), Typhimurium (17.9%) and Infantis (16.4%) in 1998-1999, and Typhimurium (32.5%), Anatum (24.6%) and Infantis (13.5%) in 2004-2005. Compared with the 1998-1999 isolates, the 2004-2005 isolates showed significantly higher rates of resistance to all the antimicrobials except tetracyclines (P<0.01 to P<0.05) and resistance to 2 antimicrobials [19.4% (13/67) vs. 39.7% (50/126), P<0.01]. This study provides national estimates of Salmonella prevalence in healthy pigs of different growth stages in Japan.
Chai, Yating; Li, Suiqiong; Horikawa, Shin; Shen, Wen; Park, Mi-Kyung; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J.; Chin, Bryan A.
This paper presents the direct detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor. The ME biosensor consists of a ME resonator as the sensor platform and E2 phage as the biorecognition element that is genetically engineered to specifically bind with Salmonella typhimurium. The ME biosensor, which is a wireless sensor, vibrates with a characteristic resonant frequency under an externally applied magnetic field. Multiple sensors can easily be remotely monitored. Multiple measurement and control sensors were placed on the shell eggs contaminated by Salmonella typhimurium solutions with different known concentrations. The resonant frequency of sensors before and after the exposure to the spiked shell eggs was measured. The frequency shift of the measurement sensors was significantly different than the control sensors indicating Salmonella contamination. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm binding of Salmonella to the sensor surface and the resulting frequency shift results.
Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Dhaenens, Maarten; Shearer, Neil; Goossens, Joline; De Saeger, Sarah; Eeckhout, Mia; D'Herde, Katharina; Thompson, Arthur; Deforce, Dieter; Boyen, Filip; Leyman, Bregje; Van Parys, Alexander; De Backer, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Croubels, Siska; Pasmans, Frank
The mycotoxin T-2 toxin and Salmonella Typhimurium infections pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Interactions between both agents may result in a different outcome of the infection. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of low and relevant concentrations of T-2 toxin on the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. We showed that the presence of 15 and 83 μg T-2 toxin per kg feed significantly decreased the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria present in the cecum contents, and a tendency to a reduced colonization of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and colon contents was noticed. In vitro, proteomic analysis of porcine enterocytes revealed that a very low concentration of T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL) affects the protein expression of mitochondrial, endoplasmatic reticulum and cytoskeleton associated proteins, proteins involved in protein synthesis and folding, RNA synthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and regulatory processes. Similarly low concentrations (1-100 ng/mL) promoted the susceptibility of porcine macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells to Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, in a SPI-1 independent manner. Furthermore, T-2 toxin (1-5 ng/mL) promoted the translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium over an intestinal porcine epithelial cell monolayer. Although these findings may seem in favour of Salmonella Typhimurium, microarray analysis showed that T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL) causes an intoxication of Salmonella Typhimurium, represented by a reduced motility and a downregulation of metabolic and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 genes. This study demonstrates marked interactions of T-2 toxin with Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis, resulting in bacterial intoxication.
Hengge, R; Larson, T J; Boos, W
Salmonella typhimurium contains a transport system for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate that is inducible by growth on glycerol and sn-glycerol-3-phosphate. In fully induced cells, the system exhibited an apparent Km of 50 microM and a Vmax of 2.2 nmol/min . 10(8) cells. The corresponding system in Escherichia coli exhibits, under comparable conditions, a Km of 14 microM and a Vmax of 2.2 nmol/min . 10(8) cells. Transport-defective mutants were isolated by selecting for resistance against the antibiotic fosfomycin. They mapped in glpT at 47 min in the S. typhimurium linkage map, 37% cotransducible with gyrA. In addition to the glpT-dependent system, S. typhimurium LT2 contains, like E. coli, a second, ugp-dependent transport system for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate that was derepressed by phosphate starvation. A S. typhimurium DNA bank containing EcoRI restriction fragments in phage lambda gt7 was used to clone the glpT gene in E. coli. Lysogens that were fully active in the transport of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate with a Km of 33 microM and a Vmax of 2.0 nmol/min . 10(8) cells were isolated in a delta glpT mutant of E. coli. The EcoRI fragment harboring glpT was 3.5 kilobases long and carried only part of glpQ, a gene distal to glpT but on the same operon. The fragment was subcloned in multicopy plasmid pACYC184. Strains carrying this hybrid plasmid produced large amounts of cytoplasmic membrane protein with an apparent molecular weight of 33,000, which was identified as the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate permease. Its properties were similar to the corresponding E. coli permease. The presence of the multicopy glpT hybrid plasmid had a strong influence on the synthesis or assembly of other cell envelope proteins of E. coli. For instance, the periplasmic ribose-binding protein was nearly absent. On the other hand, the quantity of an unidentified E. coli outer membrane protein usually present only in small amounts increased. Images PMID:6408060
Park, U E; Olivera, B M; Hughes, K T; Roth, J R; Hillyard, D R
Bacterial DNA ligases use NAD as an energy source. In this study we addressed two questions about these enzymes. First, what is the physiological consequence of completely removing the NAD-dependent enzyme and replacing it with an ATP-dependent DNA ligase? We constructed Salmonella typhimurium strains in which the endogenous NAD-dependent DNA ligase activity was inactivated by an insertion mutation and the ATP-dependent enzyme from bacteriophage T4 was provided by a cloned phage gene. Such strains were physiologically indistinguishable from the wild type, even under conditions of UV irradiation or treatment with alkylating agents. These results suggest that specific functional interactions between DNA ligase and other replication and repair enzymes may be unimportant under the conditions tested. Second, the importance of DNA ligation as the initiating event of the bacterial pyridine nucleotide cycle was critically assessed in these mutant strains. Surprisingly, our results indicate that DNA ligation makes a minimal contribution to the pyridine nucleotide cycle; the Salmonella strains with only an ATP-dependent ligase had the same NAD turnover rates as the wild-type strain with an NAD-dependent ligase. However, we found that NAD turnover was significantly decreased under anaerobic conditions. We suggest that most intracellular pyridine nucleotide breakdown occurs in a process that protects the cell against oxygen damage but involves a biochemical mechanism other than DNA ligation. Images PMID:2649488
Wong, Kathy; Gehring, Kalle; Cygler, Miroslaw
Salmonella Typhimurium GtgE is an effector protein contributing to the virulence of this pathogen. It was shown to possess highly selective proteolytic activity against a subset of Rab proteins that helps in evasion of Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) fusion with lysosomes. Cys45, His151 and Asp169 are essential for proteolytic activity. The structure of a C-terminal fragment GtgE(79–214) indicated the presence of a papain-like fold. Here, we present the structure of GtgE(17–214) containing the fully assembled active site. The design of a proteolytically active and crystallizable GtgE construct was aided by NMR spectroscopy. The protein indeed displays papain-like fold with an assembled Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad. Like the full-length GtgE, the crystallizable construct showed low activity in vitro for its known substrates, Rab32 and Rab29. NMR titration experiments showed at most very weak binding of GtgE to the peptide encompassing the Rab29 cleavage site. In view of the low in vitro activity and poor substrate binding, we postulate that the function of GtgE in vivo as a proteolytic enzyme is dependent on other factor(s), such as a protein partner or interactions with the SCV membrane, which stimulate(s) GtgE activity in vivo. PMID:27923041
Rajtak, Ursula; Boland, Fiona; Leonard, Nola; Bolton, Declan; Fanning, Séamus
The persistence of Salmonella in the environment is an important factor influencing the transmission of infection in pig production. This study evaluated the effects of acid tolerance response (ATR), organic acid supplementation, and physical properties of feed on the survival of a five-strain Salmonella mixture in porcine feces held at 4 and 22°C for 88 days. Acid-adapted or non-acid-adapted nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella strains were used to inoculate feces of pigs fed four different diets, which consisted of a nonpelleted, finely ground meal feed or a finely ground, pelleted feed that was left unsupplemented or was supplemented with K-diformate. Organic acid supplementation and physical properties of feed markedly influenced Salmonella survival, but the effects were highly dependent on storage temperature; survival was unaffected by ATR. The most pronounced effects were observed at 22°C, a temperature similar to that of finishing pig houses. The supplementation of meal diets with K-diformate significantly reduced the duration of survival (P < 0.1) and increased rates of decline (P < 0.0001) of salmonellae in feces compared to survival in feces of pigs fed unsupplemented meal. The pelleting of feed, compared to feeding meal, significantly reduced (P < 0.1) the duration of survival in feces held at 22°C. Only minor effects of feed form and acid supplementation on survivor numbers were observed at 4°C. Differences in the fecal survival of Salmonella could not be related to diet-induced changes in fecal physiochemical parameters. The predominant survival of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT193 and serotype 4,,12:i:- in porcine feces demonstrates the superior ability of these serotypes to survive in this environment. Fecal survival and transmission of Salmonella in pig herds may be reduced by dietary approaches, but effects are highly dependent on environmental temperature.
Rajtak, Ursula; Boland, Fiona; Bolton, Declan; Fanning, Séamus
The persistence of Salmonella in the environment is an important factor influencing the transmission of infection in pig production. This study evaluated the effects of acid tolerance response (ATR), organic acid supplementation, and physical properties of feed on the survival of a five-strain Salmonella mixture in porcine feces held at 4 and 22°C for 88 days. Acid-adapted or non-acid-adapted nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella strains were used to inoculate feces of pigs fed four different diets, which consisted of a nonpelleted, finely ground meal feed or a finely ground, pelleted feed that was left unsupplemented or was supplemented with K-diformate. Organic acid supplementation and physical properties of feed markedly influenced Salmonella survival, but the effects were highly dependent on storage temperature; survival was unaffected by ATR. The most pronounced effects were observed at 22°C, a temperature similar to that of finishing pig houses. The supplementation of meal diets with K-diformate significantly reduced the duration of survival (P < 0.1) and increased rates of decline (P < 0.0001) of salmonellae in feces compared to survival in feces of pigs fed unsupplemented meal. The pelleting of feed, compared to feeding meal, significantly reduced (P < 0.1) the duration of survival in feces held at 22°C. Only minor effects of feed form and acid supplementation on survivor numbers were observed at 4°C. Differences in the fecal survival of Salmonella could not be related to diet-induced changes in fecal physiochemical parameters. The predominant survival of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT193 and serotype 4,,12:i:- in porcine feces demonstrates the superior ability of these serotypes to survive in this environment. Fecal survival and transmission of Salmonella in pig herds may be reduced by dietary approaches, but effects are highly dependent on environmental temperature. PMID:22038599
Pati, Niladri Bhusan; Vishwakarma, Vikalp; Selvaraj, Sathish Kumar; Dash, Sabyasachi; Saha, Bhaskar; Singh, Neera; Suar, Mrutyunjay
Development of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) live attenuated vaccine carrier strain to prevent enteric infections has been a subject of intensive study. Several mutants of S. Typhimurium have been proposed as an effective live attenuated vaccine strain. Unfortunately, many such mutant strains failed to successfully complete the clinical trials as they were suboptimal in delivering effective safety and immunogenicity. However, it remained unclear, whether the existing live attenuated S. Typhimurium strains can further be attenuated with improved safety and immune efficacy or not. We deleted a specific non-SPI (Salmonella Pathogenicity Island) encoded virulence factor mig-14 (an antimicrobial peptide resistant protein) in ssaV deficient S. Typhimurium strain. The ssaV is an important SPI-II gene involved in Salmonella replication in macrophages and its mutant strain is considered as a potential live attenuated strain. However, fatal systemic infection was previously reported in immunocompromised mice like Nos2-/- and Il-10-/- when infected with ssaV deficient S. Typhimurium. Here we reported that attenuation of S. Typhimurium ssaV mutant in immunocompromised mice can further be improved by introducing additional deletion of gene mig-14. The ssaV, mig-14 double mutant was as efficient as ssaV mutant, with respect to host colonization and eliciting Salmonella-specific mucosal sIgA and serum IgG response in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, this double mutant did not show any systemic infection in immunocompromised mice. This study suggests that ssaV, mig-14 double mutant strain can be effectively used as a potential vaccine candidate even in immunocompromised mice. Such attenuated vaccine strain could possibly used for expression of heterologous antigens and thus for development of a polyvalent vaccine strain.
Meyer, Torsten; Schirrmann, Thomas; Frenzel, André; Miethe, Sebastian; Stratmann-Selke, Janin; Gerlach, Gerald F; Strutzberg-Minder, Katrin; Dübel, Stefan; Hust, Michael
Solely in Europoe, Salmonella Typhimurium causes more than 100,000 infections per year. Improved detection of livestock colonised with S. Typhimurium is necessary to prevent foodborne diseases. Currently, commercially available ELISA assays are based on a mixture of O-antigens (LPS) or total cell lysate of Salmonella and are hampered by cross-reaction. The identification of novel immunogenic proteins would be useful to develop ELISA based diagnostic assays with a higher specificity. A phage display library of the entire Salmonella Typhimurium genome was constructed and 47 immunogenic oligopeptides were identified using a pool of convalescent sera from pigs infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. The corresponding complete genes of seven of the identified oligopeptids were cloned. Five of them were produced in E. coli. The immunogenic character of these antigens was validated with sera from pigs infeced with S. Tyhimurium and control sera from non-infected animals. Finally, human antibody fragments (scFv) against these five antigens were selected using antibody phage display and characterised. In this work, we identified novel immunogenic proteins of Salmonella Typhimurium and generated antibody fragments against these antigens completely based on phage display. Five immunogenic proteins were validated using a panel of positive and negative sera for prospective applications in diagnostics of Salmonela Typhimurium.
Smith, C.M.; Eisenstadt, E. )
The umuDC operon of Escherichia coli is required for efficient mutagenesis by UV light and many other DNA-damaging agents. The existence of a umuDC analog in Salmonella typhimurium has been questioned. With DNA probes to the E. coli umuD and umuC genes, we detected, by Southern blot hybridization, sequences similar to both of these genes in S. typhimurium LT2. We also confirmed that the presence of cloned E. coli umuD enhances the UV mutability and resistance of S. typhimurium. Our data strongly suggest that S. typhimurium contains a functional umuDC operon.
Octavia, Sophie; Wang, Qinning; Tanaka, Mark M; Sintchenko, Vitali; Lan, Ruiting
We sequenced the genomes of 14 sequential Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates obtained over a five year period from a patient with persistent Salmonella bacteriuria. The isolates formed five distinct lineages; two of which co-existed over four years. We inferred that the observed within-patient variation resulted from mutation events.
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is associated with increased morbidity in humans and presents an important food safety concern. Antibiotic resistance among isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has become especially prevalent as over 27 per cent of isolates from humans in the Unit...
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can utilize molecular hydrogen for growth and amino acid transport during anaerobic growth. Via microarray we identified H2 gas-affected gene expression changes in Salmonella. Addition of H2 caused altered expression of 965 genes; 176 genes were H2-up-regulate...
More than 27 percent of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from humans in the United States are resistant to three or more antibiotics. This presents an important food safety concern as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is associated with increased morbidity in humans. It has been...
Okoro, Chinyere K; Barquist, Lars; Connor, Thomas R; Harris, Simon R; Clare, Simon; Stevens, Mark P; Arends, Mark J; Hale, Christine; Kane, Leanne; Pickard, Derek J; Hill, Jennifer; Harcourt, Katherine; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A
Two lineages of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) of multi-locus sequence type ST313 have been linked with the emergence of invasive Salmonella disease across sub-Saharan Africa. The expansion of these lineages has a temporal association with the HIV pandemic and antibiotic usage. We analysed the whole genome sequence of 129 ST313 isolates representative of the two lineages and found evidence of lineage-specific genome degradation, with some similarities to that observed in S. Typhi. Individual ST313 S. Typhimurium isolates exhibit a distinct metabolic signature and modified enteropathogenesis in both a murine and cattle model of colitis, compared to S. Typhimurium outside of the ST313 lineages. These data define phenotypes that distinguish ST313 isolates from other S. Typhimurium and may represent adaptation to a distinct pathogenesis and lifestyle linked to an-immuno-compromised human population.
Okoro, Chinyere K.; Barquist, Lars; Connor, Thomas R.; Harris, Simon R.; Clare, Simon; Stevens, Mark P.; Arends, Mark J.; Hale, Christine; Kane, Leanne; Pickard, Derek J.; Hill, Jennifer; Harcourt, Katherine; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A.
Two lineages of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) of multi-locus sequence type ST313 have been linked with the emergence of invasive Salmonella disease across sub-Saharan Africa. The expansion of these lineages has a temporal association with the HIV pandemic and antibiotic usage. We analysed the whole genome sequence of 129 ST313 isolates representative of the two lineages and found evidence of lineage-specific genome degradation, with some similarities to that observed in S. Typhi. Individual ST313 S. Typhimurium isolates exhibit a distinct metabolic signature and modified enteropathogenesis in both a murine and cattle model of colitis, compared to S. Typhimurium outside of the ST313 lineages. These data define phenotypes that distinguish ST313 isolates from other S. Typhimurium and may represent adaptation to a distinct pathogenesis and lifestyle linked to an-immuno-compromised human population. PMID:25803844
Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Su, Lin-Hui; Chu, Chi-Hong; Wang, Mei-Hwei; Yeh, Chia-Ming; Weill, Francois-Xavier; Chu, Chishih
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common cause of nontyphoidal salmonellosis in humans and animals. Multidrug-resistant serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104, which emerged in the 1990s, has become widely distributed in many countries. A total of 104 clinical isolates of Salmonella serogroup B were collected from three major hospitals in Taiwan during 1997 to 2003 and were examined by a multiplex PCR targeting the resistance genes and the spv gene of the virulence plasmid. A total of 51 isolates (49%) were resistant to all drugs (ACSSuT [resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline]), and all contained a 1.25-kb PCR fragment of integron that is part of the 43-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). The second group was resistant to SSu (28%), and the third was susceptible to all five drugs (13%). Fifty-nine isolates were serotyped to be serovar Typhimurium by the tube agglutination method using H antisera. The virulence plasmid was found in 54 (91.5%) of the 59 serovar Typhimurium isolates. A majority (94.1%) of the Salmonella serogroup B isolates with the ACSSuT resistance pattern harbored a virulence plasmid. Phage typing identified three major phage types: DT104, DT120, and U302. Analysis of the isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed six genotypes. We found two genotypes in DT104 strains, two in DT120, and the other two in U302. The presence of a monophasic serovar (4,5,12:i:−) has added difficulty in the determination of the serovars of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serogroup B isolates. Nevertheless, the multiplex PCR devised in the present study appears to be efficient and useful in the rapid identification of ACSSuT-type serovar Typhimurium with SGI1, irrespective of their phage types. PMID:16825349
Boland, Cécile; Bertrand, Sophie; Mattheus, Wesley; Dierick, Katelijne; Jasson, Vicky; Rosseel, Toon; Van Borm, Steven; Mahillon, Jacques
Fifty-nine monophasic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates, collected in Belgium during the period from 2008 to 2011, have been serotyped as 4,:i:− and shown to harbor an fljB coding sequence. The genetic differences between these strains and phenotypically biphasic Salmonella Typhimurium were analyzed through PCR and DNA sequencing. Genetic alterations in the fljB promoter region affecting expression of the phase 2 flagellin were observed in 53 isolates. Other genetic events in the invertible region carrying the fljB promoter were observed in 2 isolates. For the remaining 4 isolates, no molecular differences with a reference biphasic Salmonella Typhimurium strain could be observed. Next-generation sequencing of one representative isolate affected in the fljB promoter region revealed a 26-kb IS26 composite transposon insertion along with a local genomic rearrangement. Several other IS26 element-mediated alterations of this genomic region were observed. This group of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium isolates was genetically heterogeneous, as revealed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), PCR, and sequencing. Pigs and pork represented a major source of such monophasic isolates in Belgium, as reported in other countries. Three out of 5 isolates of human origin presented genetic profiles identical to those of food isolates, demonstrating the pathogenic potential of the newly characterized variants and potential dissemination along the food chain. This study highlighted the key role played by IS26 insertions in the loss of phase 2 flagellin expression and the subsequent generation of multiple monophasic variant lineages from biphasic Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. PMID:25724958
Ge, Chongtao; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung
Internalization of pathogens poses a tremendous health risk in the consumption of raw fresh produce, because conventional washing cannot remove pathogens effectively after internalization occurs. We investigated (i) the pattern of Salmonella internalization in different parts of green onions when it was contaminated on their surfaces, and (ii) whether environmental factors (extreme weather) affect the extent of Salmonell a internalization. Green onions were surface contaminated with three different levels of Salmonella Typhimurium (1, 3, and 5 log CFU per green onion). Each contamination group was irrigated with three different water volumes to mimic water stress and to determine if Salmonella Typhimurium internalization was localized in different parts of the plant. The plants were collected 2 days after contamination, and surface bacteria were inactivated with ethanol and silver nitrate. The plants were then cut into two parts, upper and lower. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each part was visualized and confirmed with a laser scanning confocal microscope and was quantified with the plate count method and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results indicate that Salmonella Typhimurium can be taken up through the plant surface and transported from the upper to the lower part of the plant. The level of viable internalized Salmonella Typhimurium (plate count) was higher in the lower part than the level in the upper leafy part, especially when the leaves were contaminated with a high concentration of Salmonella (5 log CFU, P < 0.05), whereas the total internalized Salmonella Typhimurium (by qPCR) was higher in the upper part (P < 0.05) at the same contamination level. The discrepancy between these results suggests that most internalized Salmonella lost viability in the upper part but survived in the lower part. Water stress did not significantly change the extent of internalization in either location of green onion, whether detected via plate count or q
Okoro, Chinyere K.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Connor, Thomas R.; Harris, Simon R.; Parry, Christopher M.; Al-Mashhadani, Manar N; Kariuki, Samuel; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gordon, Melita A.; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Wain, John; Heyderman, Robert S.; Obaro, Stephen; Alonso, Pedro L.; Mandomando, Inacio; MacLennan, Calman A.; Tapia, Milagritos D.; Levine, Myron M.; Tennant, Sharon M; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon
A highly invasive form of non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has been recently documented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common Salmonella enterica serovar causing this disease is Typhimurium. We applied whole-genome sequence-based phylogenetic methods to define the population structure of sub-Saharan African invasive Salmonella Typhimurium and compared these to global Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Notably, the vast majority of sub-Saharan invasive Salmonella Typhimurium fell within two closely-related, highly-clustered phylogenetic lineages that we estimate emerged independently ~52 and ~35 years ago, in close temporal association with the current HIV pandemic. Clonal replacement of isolates of lineage I by lineage II was potentially influenced by the use of chloramphenicol for the treatment of iNTS disease. Our analysis suggests that iNTS disease is in part an epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa caused by highly related Salmonella Typhimurium lineages that may have occupied new niches associated with a compromised human population and antibiotic treatment. PMID:23023330
Everest, Paul; Ketley, Julian; Hardy, Simon; Douce, Gill; Khan, Shahid; Shea, Jacqui; Holden, David; Maskell, Duncan; Dougan, Gordon
Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring independent, defined mutations in aroA, invA, ssrA, or msbB were assessed for their ability to induce fluid accumulation, tissue damage, and local inflammation in rabbit ileal loops. Three wild-type strains of S. typhimurium, TML, HWSH, and SL1344, and two mutant strains, S. typhimurium SL1344 ssrA and S. typhimurium SL1344 msbB, consistently induced fluid accumulation in the lumen of loops and inflammation of loop-associated tissues. In contrast, three different S. typhimurium aroA strains and an invA mutant of SL1344 did not induce significant fluid accumulation in the rabbit ileal loops. However, the S. typhimurium aroA strains did induce an inflammatory infiltrate and some local villus-associated damage, but the invA mutant did not. Histologically, wild-type S. typhimurium, S. typhimurium SL1344 ssrA, and S. typhimurium SL1344 msbB demonstrated more severe effects on villus architecture than S. typhimurium aroA strains, whereas S. typhimurium invA-infected loops showed no detectable damage. This suggests that villus damage most likely contributes to fluid accumulation within the loop. PMID:10338486
Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun
This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration.
Forbester, Jessica L; Goulding, David; Vallier, Ludovic; Hannan, Nicholas; Hale, Christine; Pickard, Derek; Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar; Dougan, Gordon
The intestinal mucosa forms the first line of defense against infections mediated by enteric pathogens such as salmonellae. Here we exploited intestinal "organoids" (iHOs) generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) to explore the interaction of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with iHOs. Imaging and RNA sequencing were used to analyze these interactions, and clear changes in transcriptional signatures were detected, including altered patterns of cytokine expression after the exposure of iHOs to bacteria. S. Typhimurium microinjected into the lumen of iHOs was able to invade the epithelial barrier, with many bacteria residing within Salmonella-containing vacuoles. An S. Typhimurium invA mutant defective in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 invasion apparatus was less capable of invading the iHO epithelium. Hence, we provide evidence that hIPSC-derived organoids are a promising model of the intestinal epithelium for assessing interactions with enteric pathogens.
Madaczak, Grzegorz; Szych, Jolanta; Wasiak, Monika
Traditionally Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes are identified by slide agglutination with specific antisera for somatic, flagellar and sometimes capsular antigens. An alternative way is genoserotyping using for example a microarray, eg. commercially available test Check&Trace Salmonella. The goal of this study was to evaluate the Check&Trace Salmonella microarray for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype identification, using Salmonella strains provided by reference laboratories during External Quality Assurance Systems organized for national reference laboratories by ECDC and WHO GFN. 80 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica have been tested using Check & Trace Salmonella (Check-Points BC, Netherlands). Also classical slide agglutination was performed according to EN ISO 6579:2003/Al:2007 norm, used as reference method. In the group of 80 tested strains, 66% were identified correctly, 4% gave uncertain results and 29% showed "Salmonella, genovar" without a serotype, of which 69% were not included in the CTS list of serotypes. Finally one strain has been recognized incorrectly. Because of IVD certification lack, the CTS test could not be recommended to clinical laboratories. AOAC-RI and OIE certification for test cause, that CTS could be used in most food, environmental and veterinary laboratories with the condition, that all unrecognized strains should be sent to a reference laboratory, to type according to EN ISO 6579:2003/Al:2007 norm, by KWM serotyping or other equal alternative methods.
Dawoud, Turki M; Khatiwara, Anita; Park, Si Hong; Davis, Morgan L; Baker, Christopher A; Ricke, Steven C; Kwon, Young Min
Contamination of food products by pathogenic microorganisms continues to be a major public health and food industry concern. Non-typhoidal Salmonella species have led to numerous outbreaks associated with various foods. A wide variety of methods have been applied and introduced for treatment of fresh foods to eliminate pathogenic as well as spoilage microorganisms. Salmonella can become exposed to elevated temperatures while associated with hosts such as poultry. In addition, heat treatment is also applied at various stages of processing to retain the shelf life of food products. Despite this, these microorganisms may overcome exposure to such treatments through the efficient expression of stress response mechanisms and result in illness following consumption. Thermal stress induces a range of destructive exposures to bacterial cells such as protein damage and DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In this study, we chose three genes (∆recD, ∆STM14_5307, and ∆aroD) associated with conditionally essential genes required for different aspects of optimal growth at 42 °C and evaluated the responses of wild type and mutant Salmonella Typhimurium strains to uncover potential mechanisms that may enable survival and resistance under thermal stress. The RecBCD complex that initiates repair of double-stranded DNA breaks through homologous recombination. STM14_5307 is a transcriptional regulator involved in stationary phase growth and inositol metabolism. The gene aroD is involved in metabolism and stationary phase growth. These strains were characterized via high throughput phenotypic profiling in response to two different growth temperatures (37 °C (human host temperature) and 42 °C (poultry host temperature)). The ∆aroD strain exhibited the highest sensitivity to the various temperatures followed by the ∆recD and ∆STM14_5307 strains, respectively. Achieving more understanding of the molecular mechanisms of heat survival may lead to the development
Collado-Romero, Melania; Aguilar, Carmen; Arce, Cristina; Lucena, Concepción; Codrea, Marius C.; Morera, Luis; Bendixen, Emoke; Moreno, Ángela; Garrido, Juan J.
The enteropathogen Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is the most commonly non-typhoideal serotype isolated in pig worldwide. Currently, one of the main sources of human infection is by consumption of pork meat. Therefore, prevention and control of salmonellosis in pigs is crucial for minimizing risks to public health. The aim of the present study was to use isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) to explore differences in the response to Salmonella in two segment of the porcine gut (ileum and colon) along a time course of 1, 2, and 6 days post infection (dpi) with S. Typhimurium. A total of 298 proteins were identified in the infected ileum samples of which, 112 displayed significant expression differences due to Salmonella infection. In colon, 184 proteins were detected in the infected samples of which 46 resulted differentially expressed with respect to the controls. The higher number of changes in protein expression was quantified in ileum at 2 dpi. Further biological interpretation of proteomics data using bioinformatics tools demonstrated that the expression changes in colon were found in proteins involved in cell death and survival, tissue morphology or molecular transport at the early stages and tissue regeneration at 6 dpi. In ileum, however, changes in protein expression were mainly related to immunological and infection diseases, inflammatory response or connective tissue disorders at 1 and 2 dpi. iTRAQ has proved to be a proteomic robust approach allowing us to identify ileum as the earliest response focus upon S. Typhimurium in the porcine gut. In addition, new functions involved in the response to bacteria such as eIF2 signaling, free radical scavengers or antimicrobial peptides (AMP) expression have been identified. Finally, the impairment at of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and lipid metabolism by means the under regulation of FABP6 protein and FXR/RXR and LXR/RXR signaling pathway in ileum has been
Wang, Jinyan; Li, Yongrui; Xu, Xuebin; Liang, Beibei; Wu, Fuli; Yang, Xiaoxia; Ma, Qiuxia; Yang, Chaojie; Hu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Hongbo; Li, Hao; Sheng, Chunyu; Xie, Jing; Du, Xinying; Hao, Rongzhang; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin
We aimed to analyze the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates identified from patients with diarrhea in Shanghai. The isolates showed high rates of resistance to traditional antimicrobials, and 20.6, 12.7, and 5.5% of them exhibited decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin, respectively. Notably, 473 (84.6%) isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR), including 161 (28.8%) isolates that showed an ACSSuT profile. Twenty-two MDR isolates concurrently exhibited decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin, and six of them were co-resistant to azithromycin. Of all the 71 isolates with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, 65 showed at least one mutation (D87Y, D87N, or D87G) in gyrA, among which seven isolates simultaneously had mutations of parC (S80R) (n = 6) or parC (T57S/S80R) (n = 1), while 49 isolates with either zero or one mutation in gyrA contained plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes including qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6′)-Ib-cr. Among the 115 cephalosporin-resistant isolates, the most common ESBL gene was blaCTX-M, followed by blaTEM-1, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV -12. Eight subtypes of blaCTX-M were identified and blaCTX-M-14 (n = 22) and blaCTX-M-55 (n = 31) were found to be dominant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of blaCTX-M-123 and blaCTX-M-125 in S. Typhimurium. Besides, mphA gene was identified in 15 of the 31 azithromycin-resistant isolates. Among the 22 isolates with reduced susceptibility to cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin, 15 contained ESBL and PMQR genes. Coexistence of these genes lead to the emergence of MDR and the transmission of them will pose great difficulties in S. Typhimurium treatments. Therefore, surveillance for these MDR isolates should be enhanced. PMID:28400764
Le Hello, Simon; de Jong, Birgitta; Rolfhamre, Per; Faensen, Daniel; Weill, François-Xavier; Giesecke, Johan
It’s easy to remember Salmonella serotypes names, isn’t it? Surely, this is because the naming system of Salmonella serotypes is by far the most scientist friendly. Traditionally, most Salmonella serotypes have been named after geographic locations. We decided to explore the geographic locations to which Salmonella serotypes refer and describe some unexpected twists in the naming scheme. We found that 93% (n = 1,475) of the 1,585 serotypes could be categorized as geo-serotypes; that is, the name refers to a geographic location. The 3 countries with the most geo-serotypes are Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Other serotype names refer to the name of a person, animal, tribe, or food item or are a composite of symptoms and host. The Salmonella serotypes naming scheme has had a valuable effect on public health microbiology, and in the current era of fast development of whole-genome sequencing, it should remain a reference.
He, Xinlong; Ahn, Juhee
This study was designed to evaluate the transfer potential of antibiotic resistance genes in antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium(R)) in the presence of bile salts. The resistance of S. Typhimurium(R) to ampicillin, kanamycin, and tetracycline was increased by 64-, 64-, and 512-fold, respectively. The highest transfer frequency from S. Typhimurium(R) to Escherichia coli was observed at the bile salt concentration of 160 μg/ml (3.8 × 10(-3) transferrants/cells). The expression of traJ and traY was suppressed in S. Typhimurium(R) by bile salt. This study provides useful information for understanding the conjugative transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in S. Typhimurium under intestinal conditions.
Pesce, A; Battistoni, A; Stroppolo, M E; Polizio, F; Nardini, M; Kroll, J S; Langford, P R; O'Neill, P; Sette, M; Desideri, A; Bolognesi, M
The functional and three-dimensional structural features of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase coded by the Salmonella typhimurium sodCI gene, have been characterized. Measurements of the catalytic rate indicate that this enzyme is the most efficient superoxide dismutase analyzed so far, a feature that may be related to the exclusive association of the sodCI gene with the most pathogenic Salmonella serotypes. The enzyme active-site copper ion is highly accessible to external probes, as indicated by quenching of the water proton relaxation rate upon addition of iodide. The shape of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum is dependent on the frozen or liquid state of the enzyme solution, suggesting relative flexibility of the copper ion environment. The crystal structure (R-factor 22.6%, at 2.3 A resolution) indicates that the dimeric enzyme adopts the quaternary assembly typical of prokaryotic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases. However, when compared to the structures of the homologous enzymes from Photobacterium leiognathi and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the subunit interface of Salmonella Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase shows substitution of 11 out of 19 interface residues. As a consequence, the network of structural water molecules that fill the dimer interface cavity is structured differently from the other dimeric bacterial enzymes. The crystallographic and functional characterization of this Salmonella Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase indicates that structural variability and catalytic efficiency are higher in prokaryotic than in the eukaryotic homologous enzymes.
Liu, Qiong; Liu, Qing; Yi, Jie; Liang, Kang; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Xiangmin; Curtiss, Roy; Kong, Qingke
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) isolated from Salmonella Typhimurium are potentially useful for developing subunit vaccines because of high immunogenicity and protective efficacy. However, flagella might remain in OMV pellets following OMV purification, resulting in non-essential immune responses and counteraction of bacterial protective immune responses when developing a vaccine against infection of multiple serotypes Salmonella. In this study, a flagellin-deficient S. Typhimurium mutant was constructed. Lipopolysaccharide profiles, protein profiles and cryo-electron microscopy revealed that there were no significant differences between the wild-type and mutant OMVs, with the exception of a large amount of flagellin in the wild-type OMVs. Neither the wild-type OMVs nor the non-flagellin OMVs were toxic to macrophages. Mice immunized with the non-flagellin OMVs produced high concentrations of IgG. The non-flagellin OMVs elicited strong mucosal antibody responses in mice when administered via the intranasal route in addition to provoking higher cross-reactive immune responses against OMPs isolated from S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis. Both intranasal and intraperitoneal immunization with the non-flagellin OMVs provided efficient protection against heterologous S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis challenge. Our results indicate that the flagellin-deficient OMVs may represent a new vaccine platform that could be exploited to facilitate the production of a broadly protective vaccine. PMID:27698383
Diard, Médéric; Sellin, Mikael E; Dolowschiak, Tamas; Arnoldini, Markus; Ackermann, Martin; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich
Antibiotics are powerful therapeutics but are not equally effective against all cells in bacterial populations. Bacteria that express an antibiotic-tolerant phenotype ("persisters") can evade treatment . Persisters can cause relapses of the infection after the end of the therapy . It is still poorly understood whether persistence affects the evolution of bacterial virulence. During infections, persisters have been found preferentially at particular sites within the host [3, 4]. If bacterial virulence factors are required to reach such sites, treatment with antibiotics could impose selection on the expression of virulence genes, in addition to their well-established effects on bacterial resistance. Here, we report that treatment with antibiotics selects for virulence and fosters transmissibility of Salmonella Typhimurium. In a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea, treatment with the broad-spectrum antibiotic ciprofloxacin reverses the outcome of competition between wild-type bacteria and avirulent mutants that can spontaneously arise during within-host evolution . While avirulent mutants take over the gut lumen and abolish disease transmission in untreated mice, ciprofloxacin tilts the balance in favor of virulent, wild-type bacteria. This is explained by the need for virulence factors to invade gut tissues and form a persistent reservoir. Avirulent mutants remain in the gut lumen and are eradicated. Upon cessation of antibiotic treatment, tissue-lodged wild-type pathogens reseed the gut lumen and thereby facilitate disease transmissibility to new hosts. Our results suggest a general principle by which antibiotic treatment can promote cooperative virulence during within-host evolution, increase duration of transmissibility, and thereby enhance the spread of an infectious disease.
Cheng, W.; Roth, J. R.
The electron-carrying cofactor NADP is formed by phosphorylation of NAD. A strategy for the isolation of NAD kinase mutants revealed two classes of temperature-sensitive mutations, nadF and nadG, mapping at min 13 and 72 of the Salmonella chromosome. Both mutant types grew on nutrient broth at both 30 and 42 degrees C but on minimal medium showed a temperature-sensitive growth defect which was not corrected by any of the single nutritional supplements tested. A nadF deletion mutant grew on nutrient broth but not on minimal medium. A double mutant with the nadF deletion and a nadG(Ts) mutation showed temperature-sensitive growth on all media. We propose that Salmonella typhimurium has two NAD kinases, one encoded by the nadF and one by the nadG gene. This is supported by the fact that temperature-sensitive mutants of both genes produce kinase activity with altered heat stability. Results suggest that either one of two NAD kinases is sufficient for growth on rich medium, but that both are needed for growth on minimal media. Enzyme assays show that the nadF gene is responsible for about 70% of total NAD kinase activity, and that the nadG gene dictates the remaining 30%. While testing nutritional phenotypes of nadF and nadG mutants, we found that the biosynthetic intermediate, quinolinic acid (QA) inhibited growth of nadF mutants on nutrient broth. This suggested that the NadG enzyme might be inhibited by QA. Enzyme assays demonstrated that QA inhibits the NadG but not the NadF enzyme. This suggests the existence of a regulatory mechanism which controls NADP levels. PMID:8021211
Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.
Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042
Blázquez, Elena; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Pérez de Rozas, Ana; Segalés, Joaquim; Pujols, Joan
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) irradiation system on reducing the load of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Salmonella choleraesuis (S. choleraesuis) resistant to streptomycin and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) inoculated in sterile porcine plasma and then subjected to different UV-C irradiation doses (750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L) using a pilot plant UV-C device working under turbulent flow. Results indicated that UV-C treatment induced a viability reduction of 0.38, 1.18, 3.59, 4.72 and 5.06 log10 S. typhimurium when irradiated at 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L, respectively. The observed log10 reduction of S. choleraesuis was 1.44, 2.68, 5.55, 7.07 and 7.97 at 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L, respectively. The best-fit inactivation for S. choleraesuis was the Weibull distribution curve, while the best-fit curve for S. typhimurium was the Weibull plus tail model, indicating that around 102 cfu/mL resistant S. typhimurium was detected when the liquid plasma was UV-C irradiated at doses up to 9000 J/L. Viability reduction for E. faecium was 0.44, 1.01, 3.70, 5.61 and 6.22 log10 when irradiated at 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L, respectively, with no bacterial resistance observed with UV-C doses of 6000 J/L or higher. The biphasic model was the best fit model for the inactivation curve for E. faecium. For the three microorganisms tested, about a 4 log-unit reduction was achieved when the liquid plasma was irradiated at 3000J/L. Overall results demonstrate the usefulness of the UV-C system to inactivate bacteria in liquid plasma before spray-drying. We conclude that the UV-C system can provide an additional biosafety feature that can be incorporated into the manufacturing process for spray-dried animal plasma. PMID:28399166
Mather, Alison E; Lawson, Becki; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Wigley, Paul; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R; Page, Andrew J; Holmes, Mark A; Paterson, Gavin K
Passerine salmonellosis is a well-recognized disease of birds in the order Passeriformes, which includes common songbirds such as finches and sparrows, caused by infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Previous research has suggested that some subtypes of S Typhimurium-definitive phage types (DTs) 40, 56 variant, and 160-are host adapted to passerines and that these birds may represent a reservoir of infection for humans and other animals. Here, we have used the whole-genome sequences of 11 isolates from British passerines, five isolates of similar DTs from humans and a domestic cat, and previously published S Typhimurium genomes that include similar DTs from other hosts to investigate the phylogenetic relatedness of passerine salmonellae to other S Typhimurium isolates and investigate possible genetic features of the distinct disease pathogenesis of S Typhimurium in passerines. Our results demonstrate that the 11 passerine isolates and 13 other isolates, including those from nonpasserine hosts, were genetically closely related, with a median pairwise single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) difference of 130 SNPs. These 24 isolates did not carry antimicrobial resistance genetic determinants or the S Typhimurium virulence plasmid. Although our study does not provide evidence of Salmonella transmission from passerines to other hosts, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that wild birds represent a potential reservoir of these Salmonella subtypes, and thus, sensible personal hygiene precautions should be taken when feeding or handling garden birds.
Szeto, Jason; Brumell, John H
Salmonella spp. can infect host cells by gaining entry through phagocytosis or by inducing host cell membrane ruffling that facilitates bacterial uptake. With its wide host range, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has proven to be an important model organism for studying intracellular bacterial pathogenesis. Upon entry into host cells, serovar Typhimurium typically resides within a membrane-bound compartment termed the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). From the SCV, serovar Typhimurium can inject several effector proteins that subvert many normal host cell systems, including endocytic trafficking, cytoskeletal rearrangements, lipid signaling and distribution, and innate and adaptive host defenses. The study of these intracellular events has been made possible through the use of various imaging techniques, ranging from classic methods of transmission electron microscopy to advanced livecell fluorescence confocal microscopy. In addition, DNA microarrays have now been used to provide a "snapshot" of global gene expression in serovar Typhimurium residing within the infected host cell. This review describes key aspects of Salmonella-induced subversion of host cell activities, providing examples of imaging that have been used to elucidate these events. Serovar Typhimurium engages specific host cell machinery from initial contact with the host cell to replication within the SCV. This continuous interaction with the host cell has likely contributed to the extensive arsenal that serovar Typhimurium now possesses, including two type III secretion systems, a range of ammunition in the form of TTSS effectors, and a complex genetic regulatory network that coordinates the expression of hundreds of virulence factors.
Jaradat, Z W; Zawistowski, J
Three murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced by fusion of P3X63-Ag8.653 myeloma cells and splenocytes of a mouse immunized with heat-attenuated (20 min, 80 degrees C) Salmonella typhimurium cells. MAbs 5A5 and 5B2 were of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) class, while MAb 4A8 was IgG2a. All possessed the kappa light chains. The MAbs were specific to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-5 antigen of Salmonella B serogroup, as determined by electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting. All MAbs recognized the same epitope, as determined by an additive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), although IgM MAbs exhibited higher avidity than the IgG MAb. ELISA analyses revealed that all three MAbs reacted with S. typhimurium (LPS O:1, 4, 5, and 12) while failing to recognize S. typhimurium var. copenhagen (LPS O:1, 4, and 12). The MAbs reacted equally with live and heat-attenuated Salmonella B serovars containing LPS O-5 antigen. The ability of the MAbs to detect live bacterial cells was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Treatment of bacteria with cholic acid and extremely low pH did not affect antibody binding to S. typhimurium. However, when S. typhimurium cells were exposed to alkaline conditions prior to reaction with all three MAbs, no binding was observed. The use of MAbs to discriminate between S. typhimurium and S. typhimurium var. copenhagen in meat samples was investigated. PMID:8572685
Mutreja, Ruchi; Jariyal, Monu; Pathania, Preeti; Sharma, Arunima; Sahoo, D K; Suri, C Raman
A specific surface antigen, OmpD has been reported first time as a surface biomarker in the development of selective and sensitive immunosensor for detecting Salmonella typhimurium species. The OmpD surface antigen extraction was done from Salmonella typhimurium serovars, under the optimized growth conditions for its expression. Anti-OmpD antibodies were generated and used as detector probe in immunoassay format on graphene-graphene oxide (G-GO) modified screen printed carbon electrodes. The water samples were spiked with standard Salmonella typhimurium cells, and detection was done by measuring the change in impedimetric response of developed immunosensor to know the concentration of serovar Salmonella typhimurium. The developed immunosensor was able to specifically detect S. typhimurium in spiked water and juice samples with a sensitivity upto 10(1)CFUmL(-1), with high selectivity and very low cross-reactivity with other strains. This is the first report on the detection of Salmonella typhimurum species using a specific biomarker, OmpD. The developed technique could be very useful for the detection of nontyphoidal Salmonellosis and is also important from an epidemiological point of view.
Wen, Xuesong; Dickson, James S
The abilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium to survive in vacuum-packaged, moisture-enhanced pork stored at 4 or 10°C were examined. Pork loins were surface inoculated with either C. jejuni or Salmonella Typhimurium and then moisture enhanced to a target of 10 or 20%. The enhanced pork loins were sliced 1 cm thick and vacuum packaged. A pork loin without moisture enhancement was sliced and vacuum packaged as a control. Samples were collected, plated, and the numbers of surviving organisms were determined periodically during storage at 4 and 10°C. The numbers of C. jejuni or Salmonella Typhimurium in samples with different moisture enhancement levels were similar (P > 0.05). No significant differences (P > 0.05) in C. jejuni counts were observed between samples at 10°C and those at 4°C. In contrast, the numbers of Salmonella Typhimurium in samples at 10°C had significantly (P < 0.05) increased (0.41 log CFU/g) from those at the refrigerated temperature of 4°C. Vacuum storage at 4 and 10°C for 28 days did not result in dramatic reductions in the mean numbers of C. jejuni and Salmonella Typhimurium. Our findings indicate that vacuum packaging under chilled conditions will not add substantially to safety for moisture-enhanced pork. Strict hygienic practices or the implementation of decontamination technologies is recommended.
Zhu, Senlin; Chen, Minhu; Chen, Jie; Hu, Pinjin; Li, Guoqing
To express Helicobacter pylori hpaA gene in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine vehicle, and elucidate the potential value of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium as a vector expressing Helicobacter pylori antigens, by means of molecular biology, 783 bp hpaA gene was cloned into NcoI-SalI site of a procaryotic expression plasmid pTrc99A, and the recombinant plasmid was then used to transform an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain SL3261, and the positive clones were screened by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. HpaA expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Two and 10 days after recombinant strain intragastric immunization, the C57BL/6 mice was sacrificed, and the spleen and terminal ileum was cultured for recombinant strain. The results showed that a recombinant procaryotic expression plasmid pTrc99A-hpaA was constructed, and the recombinant plasmid was then introduced into an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain SL3261 successfully. HpaA was expressed in the recombinant strains as a 30 kD protein, and also its immunogenicity was confirmed by Western blot. Recombinant strain was found in both spleen and terminal ileum of each mouse two and ten days after intragastric immunization. We concluded that a recombinant live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing Helicobacter pylori hpaA gene was constructed and identified, and this work will help to develop oral recombinant live vaccine strains against Helicobacter pylori infection.
Jackson, B.A.; Pertel, R.
Interpretive difficulties can be expected when molecular biology and modern genetics are applied to the safety evaluation of chemicals. Experience, in a regulatory setting, with evaluating the results of short term tests, such as Ames' mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium (Ames' assay), shows that the traditional toxicological paradigm for interpreting and evaluating the results of such tests is less than adequate. The considerable importance of a negative test outcome to the public health as well as to the course of the commercial development of a potentially useful chemical places special demands on both the investigator and the regulatory reviewer for an understanding of Ames' assay. The adequate design, conduct, interpretation, and evaluation of the outcomes of this assay require a knowledge of the chemical properties of the test agent, an understanding of the scientific basis of the test, and an appreciation of the extent to which modifications of the assay can alter the outcome. The investigator and the regulatory reviewer use the same considerations to determine the adequacy of the test design and of the test results. However, a fundamental difference exists between how they interpret results and how they view the outcome. Results from a study comparing activation systems from food animal and laboratory animal sources are used to illustrate the complexity of using safety data from a genetic test. A framework is developed to suggest how to accommodate the points of view of the investigator and the regulatory reviewer in evaluating these data.
Wang, Shuguang; Lawson, Rasheeda; Ray, Paresh C; Yu, Hongtao
Nanometer-sized gold, due to its beautiful and bountiful color and unique optical properties, is a versatile material for many industrial and societal applications. We have studied the effect of gold nanoparticles on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 102. The gold nanoparticles in solution prepared using the citrate reduction method is found not to be toxic or mutagenic but photomutagenic to the bacteria; however, careful control experiments indicate that the photomutagenicity is due to the co-existing citrate and Au3+ ions, not due to the gold nanoparticle itself. Au3+ is also found to be photomutagenic to the bacteria at concentrations lower than 1 µM, but toxic at higher concentrations. The toxicity of Au3+ is enhanced by light irradiation. The photomutagenicity of both citrate and Au3+ is likely due to the formation of free radicals, as a result of light-induced citrate decarboxylation or Au3+ oxidation of co-existing molecules. Both processes can generate free radicals that may cause DNA damage and mutation. Studies of the interaction of gold nanoparticles with the bacteria indicate that gold nanoparticles can be absorbed onto the bacteria surface but not able to penetrate the bacteria wall to enter the bacteria. PMID:21415096
Farr, S B; Kogoma, T
Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in a number of diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorders, and atherosclerosis, and its emerging as one of the most important causative agents of mutagenesis, tumorigenesis, and aging. Recent progress on the genetics and molecular biology of the cellular responses to oxidative stress, primarily in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, is summarized. Bacteria respond to oxidative stress by invoking two distinct stress responses, the peroxide stimulon and the superoxide stimulon, depending on whether the stress is mediated by peroxides or the superoxide anion. The two stimulons each contain a set of more than 30 genes. The expression of a subset of genes in each stimulon is under the control of a positive regulatory element; these genes constitute the OxyR and SoxRS regulons. The schemes of regulation of the two regulons by their respective regulators are reviewed in detail, and the overlaps of these regulons with other stress responses such as the heat shock and SOS responses are discussed. The products of Oxy-R- and SoxRS-regulated genes, such as catalases and superoxide dismutases, are involved in the prevention of oxidative damage, whereas others, such as endonuclease IV, play a role in the repair of oxidative damage. The potential roles of these and other gene products in the defense against oxidative damage in DNA, proteins, and membranes are discussed in detail. A brief discussion of the similarities and differences between oxidative stress responses in bacteria and eukaryotic organisms concludes this review. PMID:1779927
A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that strains of Salmonella Typhimurium that are resistant to antibiotics are more resistant to chlorine than strains of S. Typhimurium that are not resistant to antibiotics. To test this hypothesis, strains (n = 16) of S. Typhimurium with four antibiotic...
Ruggeri, J; Pesciaroli, M; Gaetarelli, B; Scaglione, F E; Pregel, P; Ammendola, S; Battistoni, A; Bollo, E; Alborali, G L; Pasquali, P
A major cause of salmonellosis in humans is the contamination of pork products. Infection in pigs can be controlled using bio-security programs, but they are not sufficient in countries where a high level of infection is recorded. In this context, the use of vaccines can represent a valid supplementary method of control. Recently, we have demonstrated that an attenuated strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium ΔznuABC) is protective against systemic and enteric salmonellosis in mouse and pig infection models, candidating this strain as an oral attenuated vaccine. In this study, we compared the efficacy of this attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain when administered orally or parenterally. Furthermore, in order to reproduce a pseudo-natural infection model, vaccinated pigs were allocated in the same pen with animals shedding virulent Salmonella Typhimurium. Animals were monitored weekly after vaccination and contact with infected piglets. Diarrhea and ataxia were recorded and Salmonella shedding was tested individually through bacterial culture. After four weeks of cohousing, piglets were euthanized, after which lymph nodes reactivity and gross lesions of the gut sections were scored at necropsy. Organs were submitted to microbiological and histological analyses. The data reported herein show that parenterally vaccinated animals do not shed the attenuated strain, and at the same time the absence of symptoms and decrease in virulent strain shedding in feces from day 6 after challenge demonstrated protection against infection induced by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium. In conclusion, our findings suggest that this is an alternative route of Salmonella Typhimurium ΔznuABC administration, without ignoring the advantages associated with oral vaccination.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most prevalent foodborne-associated bacteria in humans and livestock, and over 35 per cent of these isolates are resistant to three or more antibiotics. This is a concern as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella has been associat...
Schaefer, L M; Brözel, V S; Venter, S N
Investigations were carried out to evaluate and quantify colonization of laboratory-scale drinking water biofilms by a chromosomally green fluorescent protein (gfp)-tagged strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. Gfp encodes the green fluorescent protein and thus allows in situ detection of undisturbed cells and is ideally suited for monitoring Salmonella in biofilms. The fate and persistence of non-typhoidal Salmonella in simulated drinking water biofilms was investigated. The ability of Salmonella to form biofilms in monoculture and the fate and persistence of Salmonella in a mixed aquatic biofilm was examined. In monoculture S. Typhimurium formed loosely structured biofilms. Salmonella colonized established multi-species drinking water biofilms within 24 hours, forming micro-colonies within the biofilm. S. Typhimurium was also released at high levels from the drinking water-associated biofilm into the water passing through the system. This indicated that Salmonella could enter into, survive and grow within, and be released from a drinking water biofilm. The ability of Salmonella to survive and persist in a drinking water biofilm, and be released at high levels into the flow for recolonization elsewhere, indicates the potential for a persistent health risk to consumers once a network becomes contaminated with this bacterium.
Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) can detect pathogens rapidly and accurately. The metal surface for the SERS spectroscopy was a silver nano-particle encapsulated biopolymer polyvinyl alcohol nano-colloid deposited on a stainless steel plate. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis...
Van Parys, A; Boyen, F; Dewulf, J; Haesebrouck, F; Pasmans, F
The aim of this study was to determine whether a hydrolysable tannin extract of sweet chestnut wood (Globatan(®)) has an inhibitory effect on Salmonella Typhimurium survival both in vitro and in vivo in pigs. In a first experiment, the minimal inhibitory concentration of Globatan(®) on 57 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates was determined. For all isolates, an MIC of 160-320 μg/ml was found. The second in vitro study revealed that Salmonella growth was strongly reduced using Globatan(®) concentrations of 25-50 μg/ml and nearly completely inhibited at a concentration of 100 μg/ml Globatan(®). In an in vivo trial, two groups of six piglets, each group receiving feed with or without the addition of Globatan(®) (3 g/kg), were orally inoculated with 10(7) colony forming units of a Salmonella Typhimurium strain. Globatan(®) had no effect on faecal excretion of Salmonella, and no differences in colonization of the intestines and internal organs were demonstrated in pigs euthanized at 4 days post-inoculation. In conclusion, the hydrolysable tannin extract used in this study showed strong action against Salmonella Typhimurium in vitro but not in vivo.
Marathe, Sandhya A; Kumar, Rupesh; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi; Nagaraja, Valakunja; Chakravortty, Dipshikha
Typhoidal and non-typhoidal infection by Salmonella is a serious threat to human health. Ciprofloxacin is the last drug of choice to clear the infection. Ciprofloxacin, a gyrase inhibitor, kills bacteria by inducing chromosome fragmentation, SOS response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the bacterial cell. Curcumin, an active ingredient from turmeric, is a major dietary molecule among Asians and possesses medicinal properties. Our research aimed at investigating whether curcumin modulates the action of ciprofloxacin. We investigated the role of curcumin in interfering with the antibacterial action of ciprofloxacin in vitro and in vivo. RT-PCR, DNA fragmentation and confocal microscopy were used to investigate the modulation of ciprofloxacin-induced SOS response, DNA damage and subsequent filamentation by curcumin. Chemiluminescence and nitroblue tetrazolium reduction assays were performed to assess the interference of curcumin with ciprofloxacin-induced ROS. DNA binding and cleavage assays were done to understand the rescue of ciprofloxacin-mediated gyrase inhibition by curcumin. Curcumin interferes with the action of ciprofloxacin thereby increasing the proliferation of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium in macrophages. In a murine model of typhoid fever, mice fed with curcumin had an increased bacterial burden in the reticuloendothelial system and succumbed to death faster. This was brought about by the inhibition of ciprofloxacin-mediated downstream signalling by curcumin. The antioxidant property of curcumin is crucial in protecting Salmonella against the oxidative burst induced by ciprofloxacin or interferon γ (IFNγ), a pro-inflammatory cytokine. However, curcumin is unable to rescue ciprofloxacin-induced gyrase inhibition. Curcumin's ability to hinder the bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin and IFNγ might significantly augment Salmonella pathogenesis.
Kapperud, G; Lassen, J; Dommarsnes, K; Kristiansen, B E; Caugant, D A; Ask, E; Jahkola, M
Plasmid profile analysis, restriction endonuclease analysis, and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis were used in conjunction with serotyping, bacteriophage typing, and biochemical fingerprinting to trace epidemiologically related isolates of Salmonella typhimurium from an outbreak caused by contaminated chocolate products in Norway and Finland. To evaluate the efficiency of the epidemiological marker methods, isolates from the outbreak were compared with five groups of control isolates not known to be associated with the outbreak. Both plasmid profile analysis and phage typing provided further discrimination over that produced by serotyping and biochemical fingerprinting. Plasmid profile analysis and phage typing were equally reliable in differentiating the outbreak isolates from the epidemiologically unrelated controls and were significantly more effective than multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. The greatest differentiation was achieved when plasmid profile analysis and phage typing were combined to complement serotyping and biochemical fingerprinting. However, none of the methods employed, including restriction enzyme analysis of plasmid DNA, were able to distinguish the outbreak isolates from five isolates recovered in Norway and Finland over a period of years from dead passerine birds and a calf. Images PMID:2674198
Oliveira, Celso J B; Carvalho, Luiz F O S; Fernandes, Sueli A; Tavechio, Ana T; Domingues, Francisco J
A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of slaughter pigs infected by Salmonella typhimurium after an enterocolitis outbreak in a commercial pig farm, which was characterised by diarrhoea during the growing phase. Anatomopathological and histopathological findings were suggestive of salmonellosis, which was further confirmed by isolation of S. typhimurium from organs and faeces samples from diseased animals. Ileocolic lymph nodes were aseptically collected from 43 pigs during slaughter procedures. The estimated prevalence of Salmonella-infected pigs was 53.48% [confidence interval (CI): 42.94:64.02%]. This finding demonstrates that the carriage of S. typhimurium at slaughter might be high if pigs originate from a batch previously affected by Salmonella-enterocolitis outbreak at the pre-harvest pork production chain.
Chapman, P. A.; Rhodes, P.; Rylands, W.
Food poisoning due to Salmonella typhimurium phage type 141 was unusual in the Sheffield area before 1984. The sudden increase in incidence of this phage type during 1984 and 1985, and its causative role in several small outbreaks in this period have been investigated. Epidemiological and laboratory investigations suggested that hens' eggs were the most likely source of S. typhimurium phage type 141. PMID:3042440
The immunogenicity of ribosomes and ribosomal subfractions isolated from Yersina pestis and Salmonella typhimurium has been studied. Ribosomes and ribosomal protein isolated from S. typhimurium protected mice against lethal challenge. Ribosomal ribonucleic acid isolated by phenol extraction failed to induce any significant level of protection in mice. None of the ribosomes or ribosomal subfractions isolated from Y. pestis were effective in inducing immunity to lethal challenge. These results suggest that the immunogen of the ribosomal vaccine is protein.
Kranker, Søren; Alban, Lis; Boes, Jaap; Dahl, Jan
A longitudinal study of the infection dynamics of Salmonella enterica was carried out with three Danish farrow-to-finish swine herds. To account for variations in Salmonella shedding over time, litters from each herd were divided into two cohorts. Each cohort consisted of 30 pigs, for a total of 180 pigs. Pigs were individually monitored by monthly bacteriologic and serologic examinations from weaning to slaughter. At weaning, individual sows were examined bacteriologically and serologically. At slaughter, cecal contents, ileocecal lymph nodes, and carcass swab samples were obtained from 131 pigs. A total of 88 pigs were found to be shedding Salmonella on one or more occasions. Only the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium was detected during the study period. At weaning, no sows or piglets were found to be shedding, but a serological reaction was detected in 11 sows. The prevalence in culture peaked in the nursery and subsequently declined to undetectable levels before slaughter. The seroprevalence peaked approximately 60 days after the peak prevalence in culture. Salmonella was detected in individual fecal samples at least once in 53% of the pigs, and 62% of the pigs were seropositive more than once. Only 3.7% of all pigs were found to be culture positive on more than one occasion. Piglets from seroreacting sows had a significantly (P = 0.0339) lower probability of shedding in the nursery. Under the assumption that shedding lasted at least 1 or 2 weeks, the average shedding time was estimated to have been 18 or 26 days. An association between serology, on-farm bacteriology, and Salmonella prevalence in culture at slaughter was shown. Marked differences in prevalence in sera and prevalence in culture between cohorts and within herds were observed. These differences emphasize the need for caution when using point estimates in on-farm interventions and surveillance in subclinically infected swine herds.
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, serotype and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella on broiler carcasses collected from commercial processing plants. Twenty US commercial processing plants representing eight integrators in thirteen states were included in the survey....
Koval'chuk, N I; Shubin, F N; Khoroshko, V A; Sheverdina, F N; Tarasenko, T T; Kosheleva, N G
The results of the comparative study of the phenotypical properties and the plasmid profile of 63 strains of salmonellae, belonging to 44 serotypes of groups B, C1, C2, C3, D, E1, E4, F. The study revealed that strains of different serotypes had their individual plasmid profile. Strains of the same serotype of salmonellae isolated from similar sources had an identical plasmid profile, while strains isolated from different sources differed in their plasmid profiles, though they might have a similar phenotype. Plasmid analysis was shown to be an effective method for the intraspecific typing of rarely isolated Salmonella serotypes and suitable for use as the basis of the microbiological monitoring of salmonellae.
Evaluation of avian-specific probiotic and Salmonella enteritidis-, Salmonella typhimurium-, and Salmonella heidelberg-specific antibodies on cecal colonization and organ invasion of Salmonella enteritidis in broilers.
Tellez, G; Petrone, V M; Escorcia, M; Morishita, T Y; Cobb, C W; Villaseñor, L; Promsopone, B
Salmonella Enteritidis colonizes the intestinal tract of poultry and causes foodborne illness in humans. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in the intestinal tract of poultry reduces potential carcass contamination during slaughter. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an avian-specific probiotic combined with Salmonella Enteritidis-, Salmonella Typhimurium-, and Salmonella Heidelberg-specific antibodies on the cecal colonization and organ invasion of Salmonella Enteritidis in broiler as well as on body weights. The treatment group was defined as chicks spray-vaccinated with Avian Pac Plus at the hatchery and given Avian Pac Plus for the first 3 days after placement. An intermediate treatment was given at 10 and 14 days, 2 days prior to vaccination and 2 days postvaccination. All birds were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, La Sota virus (one drop/eye) at 12 days of age. A final treatment was given 3 days preslaughter. The control group was defined as chicks not given Avian Pac Plus at any time. Six hours after oral administration of the probiotic suspension (treatment group) or water (control group) at placement, the chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. All chickens were orally inoculated with 0.25 ml of Salmonella Enteritidis that contained 4 x 10(7) CFU/1.0 ml. Cecal colonization and organ invasion were evaluated for Salmonella Enteritidis on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, and 41. The probiotic-treated group had a significantly lower concentration of Salmonella Enteritidis cecal colonization at days 3, 7, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, and 41 when compared to the nontreated, control group (P < 0.05). Similarly, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis from the internal organs (liver and spleen) when probiotic-treated and nonprobiotic-treated groups were compared. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the mean body weight between the two experimental
Namkung, H; Yu, H; Gong, J; Leeson, S
The antimicrobial activities of n-butyric acid and its derivatives against Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium perfringens were studied. n-Butyric acid and its derivatives (monobutyrin and a mixture of mono-, di-, and tri-glycerides of butyric acid) were added at different concentrations (ranging from 250 to 7,000 mg/kg to a media inoculated with either Salmonella Typhimurium or C. perfringens. The antimicrobial activity of butyric acid against C. perfringens was measured at 2 bacterium concentrations and 2 inoculations involving ambient aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The most effective antimicrobial activity for Salmonella Typhimurium was observed with n-butyric acid, with 90% inhibition rate at a concentration of 1,500 mg/kg. Although minimal inhibition for Salmonella Typhimurium was observed with butyric acid glycerides, lipase addition to a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycerides of butyric acid increased (P < 0.01) antimicrobial activity of these derivatives. Antimicrobial activity of butyric acid and its derivative against C. perfringens was higher when using a moderate initial inoculation concentration (10(5)) compared with a higher initial concentration (10(7)) of this bacterium. At a lower inoculation of C. perfringens (10(5)), >90% inhibition rate by all butyric acid glycerides was observed with prior aerobic inoculation at 2,000 mg/kg, whereas using anaerobic inoculation, only 50% monobutyrin maintained >90% inhibitory effect at 3,000 mg/kg. The antimicrobial effect of monobutyrin against C. perfringens was generally higher (P < 0.01) for 50% monobutyrin than for 100% monobutyrin. Either a mixture of butyric acid derivatives or 50% monobutyrin decreased (P < 0.01) C. perfringens in a media containing intestinal contents whereas only 50% monobutyrin decreased (P < 0.01) Salmonella Typhimurium within a media containing cecal contents from mature Leghorns. These results show that n-butyric acid and 50% monobutyrin could be used to control Salmonella
Baker, D A; Smitherman, R O; McCaskey, T A
Salmonella typhimurium declined rapidly when inoculated into Tilapia aurea culture pools fertilized with fresh swine waste. Within the water column, a 95% decline of viable cells occurred during the first 6 h. Isolation of viable salmonellae was possible at 16 days post-inoculation, but not at 32 days. Similarly, salmonellae could be detected in the viscera and epithelium of T. aurea at 16 days, although not at 32 days. Salmonellae were not isolated from the fish flesh, nor was there evidence of septicemic infection. PMID:6347063
Torreblanca, J.; Casadesus, J.
Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium lacking DNA adenine methylase were isolated; they include insertion and deletion alleles. The dam locus maps at 75 min between cysG and aroB, similar to the Escherichia coli dam gene. Dam(-) mutants of S. typhimurium resemble those of E. coli in the following phenotypes: (1) increased spontaneous mutations, (2) moderate SOS induction, (3) enhancement of duplication segregation, (4) inviability of dam recA and dam recB mutants, and (5) suppression of the inviability of the dam recA and dam recB combinations by mutations that eliminate mismatch repair. However, differences between S. typhimurium and E. coli dam mutants are also found: (1) S. typhimurium dam mutants do not show increased UV sensitivity, suggesting that methyl-directed mismatch repair does not participate in the repair of UV-induced DNA damage in Salmonella. (2) S. typhimurium dam recJ mutants are viable, suggesting that the Salmonella RecJ function does not participate in the repair of DNA strand breaks formed in the absence of Dam methylation. We also describe a genetic screen for detecting novel genes regulated by Dam methylation and a locus repressed by Dam methylation in the S. typhimurium virulence (or ``cryptic'') plasmid. PMID:8878670
Schüsseler, G; Sobotta, B; Gerhardt, G G; Teitge, E; Gundermann, K O
A one-year-study was carried out in the waste-water treatment plant of Plön (population equivalents 60,000), which has a mechanical and a biological purification and an additional chemical flocculation. Samples were taken at five different places in the plant and examined for Salmonella by use of membrane-filtration and MPN-method. 2,611 Salmonella-strains, representing 23 species, were isolated and serologically typed from samples taken at ten days. S. typhi-murium was found most frequently (Table 1, Fig. 1). The largest spectrum of different types was located in the activated sludge-basin and at the outlet of the chemical flocculation (Table 2). No correlation could be established between the qualitative findings and the Salmonella-counts or other parameter like temperatures. All the ten species that have been officially reported to cause salmonellosis in man were also isolated from the sewage (Table 5). Findings of other Salmonella-serotypes are attributed to unreported human infections and animals or other sources.
Orrego, C.; Eisenstadt, E.
UV mutability of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 was eliminated in the presence of a multicopy plasmid carrying the Escherichia coli lexA/sup +/ gene. This result suggests that inducible, SOS-like functions are required for UV mutagenesis in S. typhimurium. S. typhimurium strains carrying either point or deletion mutations in topA had previously been shown to lose their mutability by UV or methyl methanesulfonate. Mitomycin C induction of the Phi(mucB'-lacZ') fusion (a DNA damage-inducible locus carried on plasmid pSE205) in S. typhimurium topA was normal, suggesting that RecA is activated in topA mutants. These observations lead the authors deduce that S. typhimurium has at least one DNA damage-inducible locus in addition to recA that is required for UV mutability.
Curt, Alexander; Zhang, Jiuli; Minnerly, Justin; Jia, Kailiang
Salmonella typhimurium infects both intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that is present in all eukaryotes. Autophagy has been reported to limit the Salmonella replication in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mammals. However, it is unknown whether intestinal autophagy activity plays a role in host defense against Salmonella infection in C. elegans. In this study, we inhibited the autophagy gene bec-1 in different C. elegans tissues and examined the survival of these animals following Salmonella infection. Here we show that inhibition of the bec-1 gene in the intestine but not in other tissues confers susceptibility to Salmonella infection, which is consistent with recent studies in mice showing that autophagy is involved in clearance of Salmonella in the intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore, the intestinal autophagy activity is essential for host defense against Salmonella infection from C. elegans to mice, perhaps also in humans.
Hudnik-Plevnik, Tamara A.; Djordjević, Nadežda
Salmonella typhimurium LT-2 was compared with radioresistant (B/r) and radiosensitive (Bs−2) strains of Escherichia coli in respect to the survival, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) breakdown, and DNA synthesis after X irradiation. It is shown that S. typhimurium LT-2 is about four times more sensitive than E. coli B/r but less sensitive than Bs−2. The DNA breakdown is in S. typhimurium LT-2 lower than the postirradiation breakdown of DNA in both E. coli strains and DNA synthesis proceeds in this bacterium in spite of a much lower survival, as in the radioresistant E. coli B/r. PMID:4916313
Verbrugghe, Elin; Van Parys, Alexander; Haesendonck, Roel; Leyman, Bregje; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank
Antibiotics are among the most frequently prescribed drugs in human and animal medicine. With antibiotic resistance being a serious threat to veterinary and public health, the prudent use of antibiotics receives much attention. Less well known is that incorrect use of antimicrobial agents may also lead to increased bacterial virulence with the potential of a more severe clinical course of infection. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subtherapeutic doses of tetracyclines on htpG virulence gene expression in Salmonella Typhimurium and on the course of salmonellosis. Salmonella strains containing an htpG-luxCDABE transcriptional fusion were constructed. Phenotype microarrays and tetracycline treatment were used to investigate their htpG expression. A Salmonella transposon mutant bank was used to identify genes involved in the induction of htpG gene expression. Finally, the in vitro results were linked to the in vivo situation using a Salmonella mouse model. We demonstrate that subtherapeutic antimicrobial concentrations can exacerbate bacterial infections through direct up-regulation of bacterial virulence factors using Salmonella Typhimurium 112910a phage type 120/ad as a model organism. Phenotype microarrays showed that expression of the Salmonella Typhimurium virulence gene htpG is increased by several tetracycline antimicrobials at values below their MIC, a process that requires intact Salmonella LPS genes. Exposure of experimentally infected DBA/2J mice to subtherapeutic doxycycline concentrations resulted in htpG-mediated exacerbation of Salmonella Typhimurium infection. These findings show that the Salmonella isolate used in this study can respond to subtherapeutic tetracycline pressure by increasing its virulence and disease severity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Xia, Xi; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yizhen
Resistance is increasing to several critical antimicrobials used to treat Salmonella typhimurium infection, urging people to search for new antimicrobial agents. In this work, we reported the possibility of a potent antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin-BF found in the venom of the snake Bungarus fasciatus in treating Salmonella typhimurium infection. We tested its activity in biological fluids and in vivo using a mouse model of Salmonella typhimurium infection, and examined the effect of cathelicidin-BF on Salmonella invasion to epithelial cells. In addition, the biodistribution of cathelicidin-BF was evaluated by using in vivo optical imaging. The results revealed that cathelicidin-BF was unstable in gastrointestinal tract, but retained substantially active in murine serum. Cathelicidin-BF attenuated the clinical symptoms of Salmonella infected-mice, significantly reduced the number of internalized Salmonella and attenuated Salmonella-induced decreases in TER in epithelial cells. Our results provide a first indication for the potential of cathelicidin-BF as a novel therapeutic option for salmonellosis.
Michael, Agnieszka; John, Justin; Meyer, Brendan; Pandha, Hardev
Live attenuated bacterial vectors, such as Salmonella typhimurium, have shown promise as delivery vehicles for DNA. We have examined two new strains of S. typhimurium and their impact on dendritic cell maturation (CD12-sifA/aroC mutant and WT05-ssaV/aroC, both in TML background). Strain WT05 matured dendritic cells in a more efficient way; caused higher release of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-1beta; and was efficient for gene transfer. These findings suggest that the genetic background of the attenuation can influence the pattern of inflammatory immune response to Salmonella infection.
Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R; Morgan, Marion J; Bielke, Lisa R; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo
Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×10⁵ colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 10⁵ CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment.
Jung, Lae-Seung; Ding, Tian; Ahn, Juhee
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria can cause serious clinical and public health problems. This study describes the possibility of using bacteriophages as an alternative agent to control multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium. The potential lytic bacteriophages (P22-B1, P22, PBST10, PBST13, PBST32, and PBST 35) were characterized by morphological property, heat and pH stability, optimum multiplicity of infection (MOI), and lytic activity against S. Typhimurium KCCM 40253, S. Typhimurium ATCC 19585, ciprofloxacin-induced antibiotic-resistant S. Typhimurium ATCC 19585, and S. Typhimurium CCARM 8009. P22-B1 and P22 belong to Podoviridae family and PBST10, PBST13, PBST32, and PBST 35 show a typical structure with polyhedral head and long tail, belonging to Siphoviridae family. Salmonella bacteriophages were highly stable at the temperatures (< 60 °C) and pHs (5.0-11.0). The reduction rates of host cells were increased at the MOI-dependent manner, showing the highest reduction rate at MOI of 10. The host cells were most effectively reduced by P22, while P22-B1 showed the least lytic activity. The ciprofloxacin-induced antibiotic-resistant S. Typhimurium ATCC 19585, and clinically isolated antibiotic-resistant S. Typhimurium CCARM 8009 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, and tetracycline. P22 showed the highest lytic activity against S. Typhimurium KCCM 40253 (> 5 log reduction), followed by S. Typhimurium ATCC 19585 (4 log reduction) and ciprofloxacin-induced antibiotic-resistant S. Typhimurium ATCC 19585 (4 log reduction). The results would provide vital insights into the application of lytic bacteriophages as an alternative therapeutics for the control of multidrug-resistant pathogens.
Baptist, E W; Kredich, N M
A kinetic analysis of L-cystine uptake in wild-type Salmonella typhimurium indicates the presence of at least two, and possibly three, separate transport systems. CTS-1 accounts for the majority of uptake at 20 muM L-cystine, with a Vmax of 9.5 nmol/min per mg and a Km of 2.0 muM; CTS-2 is a low-capacity, higher-affinity system with a Vmax of 0.22 nmol/min per mg and a Km of 0.05 muM; a third, nonsaturable process has been designated CTS-3. We find that wild-type CTS-1 levels are at least 11 times higher in sulfur-limited cells than in L-cystine-grown cells. Pleiotropic cysteine auxotrophs of the types cysE (lacking serine transacetylase) and cysB- (lacking a regulatory element of positive control) have very low levels of CTS-1 even when grown under conditions of sulfur limitation, which response is analogous to that previously observed for cysteine biosynthetic enzymes (N . M. Kredich, J. Biol. Chem. 246:3474-3484, 1971). CTS-1 is induced in cysE mutants by growth in the presence of O-acetyl-L-serine (the product of serine transacetylase), again paralleling the behavior of the cysteine biosynthetic pathway. Strain DW25, a prototrophic cysBc mutant, which is constitutive for cysteine biosynthesis, is also derepressed for CTS-1 when grown on L-cystine. Since CTS-1 is regulated by sulfur limitation, O-acetyl-L-serine, and the cysB gene product, the same three conditions controlling cysteine biosynthesis, we propose that this transport system is a part of the cysteine regulon. PMID:326753
Soncini, F C; Véscovi, E G; Groisman, E A
The Salmonella typhimurium PhoP-PhoQ two-component regulatory system controls the expression of several genes, some of which are necessary for virulence. During a screening for PhoP-regulated genes, we identified the phoPQ operon as a PhoP-activated locus. beta-Galactosidase activity originating from phoPQ-lac transcriptional fusions required the presence of both the transcriptional regulator PhoP and its cognate sensor-kinase PhoQ. At low concentrations, PhoQ stimulated expression of phoPQ-lac transcriptional fusions. However, larger amounts of PhoQ protein without a concomitant increase in PhoP failed to activate phoPQ-lac fusions. Two different transcripts are produced from the phoPQ operon during exponential growth. These transcripts define two promoters: phoPp1, which requires both PhoP and PhoQ for activity and which is environmentally regulated, and phoPp2, which remains active in the absence of PhoP and PhoQ but which is slightly stimulated by these proteins. The pattern of transcriptional autoregulation was also observed at the protein level with anti-PhoP antibodies. In sum, autoregulation of the phoPQ operon provides several levels of control for the PhoP-PhoQ regulon. First, environmental signals would stimulate PhoQ to phosphorylate the PhoP protein that is produced at basal levels from the PhoP-PhoQ-independent promoter. Then, phospho-PhoP would activate transcription of phoPp1, resulting in larger amounts of PhoP and PhoQ and increased expression of PhoP-activated genes. A return to basal levels could be mediated by a posttranscriptional mechanism by which translation of the mRNA produced from phoPp1 is inhibited.
To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from Southern Brazil, the Kauffman-White-LeMinor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked Intergenic Sequ...
Mandal, Rabindra K.; Kwon, Young M.
Salmonella spp., one of the most common foodborne bacterial pathogens, has the ability to survive under desiccation conditions in foods and food processing facilities for years. This raises the concerns of Salmonella infection in humans associated with low water activity foods. Salmonella responds to desiccation stress via complex pathways involving immediate physiological actions as well as coordinated genetic responses. However, the exact mechanisms of Salmonella to resist desiccation stress remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we screened a genome-saturating transposon (Tn5) library of Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) 14028s under the in vitro desiccation stress using transposon sequencing (Tn-seq). We identified 61 genes and 6 intergenic regions required to overcome desiccation stress. Salmonella desiccation resistance genes were mostly related to energy production and conversion; cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis; inorganic ion transport and metabolism; regulation of biological process; DNA metabolic process; ABC transporters; and two component system. More than 20% of the Salmonella desiccation resistance genes encode either putative or hypothetical proteins. Phenotypic evaluation of 12 single gene knockout mutants showed 3 mutants (atpH, atpG, and corA) had significantly (p < 0.02) reduced survival as compared to the wild type during desiccation survival. Thus, our study provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms utilized by Salmonella for survival against desiccation stress. The findings might be further exploited to develop effective control strategies against Salmonella contamination in low water activity foods and food processing facilities.
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a virulence factor for many Gram-negative bacteria. Salmonella genus harbors five phylogenetically distinct T6SS loci encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs) SPI-6, SPI-19, SPI-20, SPI-21 and SPI-22, which are differentially distributed among serotypes. The T6SSs encoded in SPI-6 and SPI-19 contribute to pathogenesis of serotypes Typhimurium and Gallinarum in mice and chickens, respectively. Salmonella Dublin is a pathogen restricted to cattle where it causes a systemic disease. Also, it can colonize other hosts such as chickens and mice, which can act as reservoirs of this serotype. Salmonella Dublin harbors the genes for both T6SSSPI-6 and T6SSSPI-19. This study has determined the contribution of T6SSSPI-6 and T6SSSPI-19 to host-colonization by Salmonella Dublin using avian and murine models of infection. Competitive index experiments showed that, a mutant strain lacking both T6SSs (∆T6SSSPI-6/∆T6SSSPI-19) presents a strong colonization defect in cecum of chickens, similar to the defect observed for the ∆T6SSSPI-6 mutant, suggesting that this serotype requires a functional T6SSSPI-6 for efficient colonization of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Colonization of mice was also defective, although to a lesser extent than in chickens. In contrast, the T6SSSPI-19 was not necessary for colonization of either chickens or mice. Transfer of T6SSSPI-6, but not T6SSSPI-19, restored the ability of the double mutant to colonize both animal hosts. Our data indicate that Salmonella Dublin requires only the T6SSSPI-6 for efficient colonization of mice and chickens, and that the T6SSSPI-6 and T6SSSPI-19 are not functionally redundant. PMID:24405577
Bearson, Bradley L; Bearson, Shawn M D; Brunelle, Brian W; Bayles, Darrell O; Lee, In Soo; Kich, Jalusa D
Non-host-adapted Salmonella serovars, including the common human food-borne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), are opportunistic pathogens that can colonize food-producing animals without causing overt disease. Interventions against Salmonella are needed to enhance food safety, protect animal health and allow the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). An attenuated S. Typhimurium DIVA vaccine (BBS 866) was characterized for the protection of pigs following challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium. The porcine transcriptional response to BBS 866 vaccination was evaluated. RNA-Seq analysis was used to compare gene expression between BBS 866 and its parent; phenotypic assays were performed to confirm transcriptional differences observed between the strains. Vaccination significantly reduced fever and interferon-gamma (IFNγ) levels in swine challenged with virulent S. Typhimurium compared to mock-vaccinated pigs. Salmonella faecal shedding and gastrointestinal tissue colonization were significantly lower in vaccinated swine. RNA-Seq analysis comparing BBS 866 to its parental S. Typhimurium strain demonstrated reduced expression of the genes involved in cellular invasion and bacterial motility; decreased invasion of porcine-derived IPEC-J2 cells and swimming motility for the vaccine strain was consistent with the RNA-Seq analysis. Numerous membrane proteins were differentially expressed, which was an anticipated gene expression pattern due to the targeted deletion of several regulatory genes in the vaccine strain. RNA-Seq analysis indicated that genes involved in the porcine immune and inflammatory response were differentially regulated at 2 days post-vaccination compared to pre-vaccination. Evaluation of the S. Typhimurium DIVA vaccine indicates that vaccination will provide both swine health and food safety benefits.
Okoro, Chinyere K.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Quail, Michael A.; Kankwatira, Anstead M.; Feasey, Nicholas A.; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon
Background. Bloodstream infection with invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) is common and severe among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected adults throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The epidemiology of iNTS is poorly understood. Survivors frequently experience multiply recurrent iNTS disease, despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy, but recrudescence and reinfection have previously been difficult to distinguish. Methods. We used high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing and whole-genome phylogenetics to investigate 47 iNTS isolates from 14 patients with multiple recurrences following an index presentation with iNTS disease in Blantyre, Malawi. We isolated nontyphoidal salmonellae organisms from blood (n = 35), bone marrow (n = 8), stool (n = 2), urine (n = 1), and throat (n = 1) samples; these isolates comprised serotypes Typhimurium (n = 43) and Enteritidis (n = 4). Results. Recrudescence with identical or highly phylogenetically related isolates accounted for 78% of recurrences, and reinfection with phylogenetically distinct isolates accounted for 22% of recurrences. Both recrudescence and reinfection could occur in the same individual, and reinfection could either precede or follow recrudescence. The number of days to recurrence (23–486 d) was not different for recrudescence or reinfection. The number of days to recrudescence was unrelated to the number of SNPs accumulated by recrudescent organisms, suggesting that there was little genetic change during persistence in the host, despite exposure to multiple courses of antibiotics. Of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, 42 of 43 were pathovar ST313. Conclusions. High-resolution whole-genome phylogenetics successfully discriminated recrudescent iNTS from reinfection, despite a high level of clonality within and among individuals, giving insights into pathogenesis and management. These methods also have adequate resolution to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of this
Bearson, Bradley L.; Bearson, Shawn M. D.; Kich, Jalusa D.; Lee, In Soo
Swine are often asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella spp., and interventions are needed to limit colonization of swine to enhance food safety and reduce environmental contamination. We evaluated the attenuation and potential vaccine use in pigs of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant of rfaH, the gene encoding the RfaH antiterminator that prevents premature termination of long mRNA transcripts. Pigs inoculated with wild-type S. Typhimurium exhibited a significant elevation in average body temperature (fever) at 1 and 2 days post-inoculation; rfaH-inoculated pigs did not (n = 5/group). During the 7-day trial, a significant reduction of Salmonella in the feces, tonsils, and cecum were observed in the rfaH-inoculated pigs compared to wild-type inoculated pigs. To determine whether vaccination with the rfaH mutant could provide protection against wild-type S. Typhimurium challenge, two groups of pigs (n = 14/group) were intranasally inoculated with either the rfaH mutant or a PBS placebo at 6 and 8 weeks of age and challenged with the parental, wild-type S. Typhimurium at 11 weeks of age. The average body temperature was significantly elevated in the mock-vaccinated pigs at 1 and 2 days post-challenge, but not in the rfaH-vaccinated pigs. Fecal shedding at 2 and 3 days post-challenge and colonization of intestinal tract tissues at 7 days post-challenge by wild-type S. Typhimurium was significantly reduced in the rfaH-vaccinated pigs compared to mock-vaccinated pigs. Serological analysis using the IDEXX HerdChek Swine Salmonella Test Kit indicated that vaccination with the rfaH mutant did not stimulate an immune response against LPS. These results indicate that vaccination of swine with the attenuated rfaH mutant confers protection against challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium but does not interfere with herd level monitoring for Salmonella spp., thereby allowing for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). PMID
Davies, R; Gosling, R J; Wales, A D; Smith, R P
The study examined the effects of a licensed live Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine, administered to sows and gilts on three commercial pig units experiencing clinical salmonellosis associated with S. Typhimurium or its monophasic variant. After vaccination, clinical salmonellosis resolved and shedding of S. Typhimurium declined markedly and persistently on all breeding or breeding-finishing units, during the one- to two-year monitoring period. On two finishing units supplied in part by one of the vaccinated herds, pigs from the vaccinated herd were less likely to shed Salmonella than those from non-vaccinating herds, and Salmonella counts in faeces were also lower from the vaccine-linked animals. Non-Typhimurium Salmonella serovars were isolated typically in fewer than 10% of samples, and showed no clear temporal changes in frequency. Vaccination of dams alone with S. Typhimurium was associated with reduced shedding of closely-related serovars among all age groups in this commercial setting.
O'Donnell, Allison T; Vieira, Antonio R; Huang, Jennifer Y; Whichard, Jean; Cole, Dana; Karp, Beth E
We found a strong association between nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections in the United States and recent international travel by linking Salmonella Enteritidis data from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System and the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network.
Optical detection of foodborne bacteria such as Salmonella classifies bacteria by analyzing spectral data, and has potential for rapid detection. In this experiment hyperspectral microscopy is explored as a means for classifying five Salmonella serotypes. Initially, the microscope collects 89 spect...
Geornaras, I; von Holy, A
The broth microdilution method was used to determine the activities of selected antimicrobial agents used in the South African poultry industry (danofloxacin, neomycin, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tylosin and colistin) and vancomycin against bacterial isolates previously obtained from carcasses and selected equipment surfaces and environmental sources associated with poultry processing. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 38 isolates of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, 25 Listeria (L.) innocua, 18 L. monocytogenes, and 62 isolates belonging to six Salmonella (Salm.) serotypes (Salm. agona, Salm. blockley, Salm. enteritidis, Salm. isangi, Salm. reading and Salm. typhimurium) were determined. The most active antimicrobial agent against all the isolates tested was danofloxacin with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for 90% of the isolates (MIC90) not exceeding 0.25 and 2 microg/ml for gram-negative and gram-positive isolates, respectively. Conversely, high MICs were recorded for all the isolates tested against chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline (MIC90 range of 32 to > 512 microg/ml), except for the L. monocytogenes and Salm. enteritidis isolates (MIC range of < or = 0.5-4 microg/ml). Neomycin was found to be active against S. aureus, L. innocua, L. monocytogenes, Salm. enteritidis and Salm. isangi isolates, with MICs not exceeding 8 microg/ml. MIC ranges for tylosin and vancomycin, which were only tested against the gram-positive isolates, were from 1 to > 512 microg/ml and from 1 to 4 microg/ml, respectively. The MIC range for the remaining antimicrobial agent, colistin, which was only tested against the Salmonella isolates, was 0.5-16 microg/ml. The lack of MIC breakpoints for the antimicrobial agents used in the poultry industry did not allow for definite conclusions as to the level of resistant bacteria associated with poultry carcasses and the processing environment in this study.
Background Infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella have increased worldwide over the last couple of decades. Salmonella enterica serotype Blockley (Salmonella Blockley) infections is associated with chickens and is a rarely isolated serotype in human infections in most countries. Case presentation We report a case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2011. Three African males (aged 4, 14 and 16) presented to a clinic with diarrhoea, stomach cramps and headache. They started experiencing signs of illness a day after they consumed a common meal, consisting of meat, rice and potatoes. Stool specimens from the patients cultured Salmonella Blockley. The strains showed an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. Conclusion This is the first recorded case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in South Africa. PMID:23050633
Feye, K. M.; Anderson, K. L.; Scott, M. F.; McIntyre, D. R.; Carlson, S. A.
Salmonella carriage is an insidious problem for the poultry industry. While most Salmonella serotypes are avirulent in poultry, these bacteria can contaminate chicken meat during processing, leading to one of the most important food safety hazards. In this study, we examined the anti-Salmonella effects of Diamond V Original XPC™ (XPC) included in the finisher diet fed to commercial broilers. On 3 occasions between day one (D1) and D20, broilers were experimentally infected with multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium. After confirming that the chicks were shedding Salmonella in the feces on D21, broiler chicks were fed a diet containing XPC (n = 57 birds; 1.25 kg/MT) or an XPC-free control diet (CON) (n = 57 birds) to D49. Fecal samples were obtained weekly and subjected to selective culture for enumerating and determining the antibiotic resistance of the Salmonella. Salmonella isolates were then subjected to an in vitro virulence assay, which predicts the ability of Salmonella to cause illness in a mammalian host. Broilers were euthanized on D49 and a segment of the large intestine was removed and subjected to the same assays used for the fecal samples. When compared to the birds fed the CON diet, Salmonella fecal shedding, virulence (invasion and invasion gene expression), and antibiotic resistance were significantly decreased in birds fed XPC (5-fold, 7.5-fold, 6-fold, and 5.3-fold decreases, respectively). Birds fed XPC exhibited heavier body weight (BW) and greater BW gains than those fed the CON diet. The decrease in virulence was associated with a decreased expression of a genetic regulator of Salmonella invasion into cells (hilA), while the decrease in antibiotic resistance was due to a loss of an integron (SGI1) from the input strain. This study revealed that Original XPC™ inhibits the shedding, downstream virulence, and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella residing in broilers. PMID:27566726
Hoffman, Robert M
The present chapter reviews the development of the tumor-targeting amino-acid auxotrophic strain S. typhimurium A1 and the in vivo selection and characterization of the high-tumor-targeting strain S. typhimurium A1-R. Efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R in nude-mouse models of prostate, breast, pancreatic, and ovarian cancer, as well as sarcoma and glioma in orthotopic mouse models is described. Also reviewed is efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R targeting of primary bone tumor and lung metastasis of high-grade osteosarcoma, breast-cancer brain metastasis, and experimental breast-cancer bone metastasis in orthotopic mouse models. The efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R on pancreatic cancer stem cells, on pancreatic cancer in combination with anti-angiogenic agents, as well as on cervical cancer, soft-tissue sarcoma, and pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse models, is also described.
Jneid, Bakhos; Moreau, Karine; Plaisance, Marc; Rouaix, Audrey; Dano, Julie
Background Salmonella enterica species are enteric pathogens that cause severe diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to enteric fever and sepsis in humans. These infectious diseases are still the major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries, especially in children younger than 5 years and immunocompromised adults. Vaccines targeting typhoidal diseases are already marketed, but none protect against non-typhoidal Salmonella. The existence of multiple non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes as well as emerging antibiotic resistance highlight the need for development of a broad-spectrum protective vaccine. All Salmonella spp. utilize two type III Secretion Systems (T3SS 1 and 2) to initiate infection, allow replication in phagocytic cells and induce systemic disease. T3SS-1, which is essential to invade epithelial cells and cross the barrier, forms an extracellular needle and syringe necessary to inject effector proteins into the host cell. PrgI and SipD form, respectively, the T3SS-1 needle and the tip complex at the top of the needle. Because they are common and highly conserved in all virulent Salmonella spp., they might be ideal candidate antigens for a subunit-based, broad-spectrum vaccine. Principal Findings We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of PrgI and SipD administered by subcutaneous, intranasal and oral routes, alone or combined, in a mouse model of Salmonella intestinal challenge. Robust IgG (in all immunization routes) and IgA (in intranasal and oral immunization routes) antibody responses were induced against both proteins, particularly SipD. Mice orally immunized with SipD alone or SipD combined with PrgI were protected against lethal intestinal challenge with Salmonella Typhimurium (100 Lethal Dose 50%) depending on antigen, route and adjuvant. Conclusions and Significance Salmonella T3SS SipD is a promising antigen for the development of a protective Salmonella vaccine, and could be developed for
Shirron, Natali; Yaron, Sima
The persistence of enteric pathogens on plants has been studied extensively, mainly due to the potential hazard of human pathogens such as Salmonella enterica being able to invade and survive in/on plants. Factors involved in the interactions between enteric bacteria and plants have been identified and consequently it was hypothesized that plants may be vectors or alternative hosts for enteric pathogens. To survive, endophytic bacteria have to escape the plant immune systems, which function at different levels through the plant-bacteria interactions. To understand how S. enterica survives endophyticaly we conducted a detailed analysis on its ability to elicit or evade the plant immune response. The models of this study were Nicotiana tabacum plants and cells suspension exposed to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The plant immune response was analyzed by looking at tissue damage and by testing oxidative burst and pH changes. It was found that S. Typhimurium did not promote disease symptoms in the contaminated plants. Live S. Typhimurium did not trigger the production of an oxidative burst and pH changes by the plant cells, while heat killed or chloramphenicol treated S. Typhimurium and purified LPS of Salmonella were significant elicitors, indicating that S. Typhimurium actively suppress the plant response. By looking at the plant response to mutants defective in virulence factors we showed that the suppression depends on secreted factors. Deletion of invA reduced the ability of S. Typhimurium to suppress oxidative burst and pH changes, indicating that a functional SPI1 TTSS is required for the suppression. This study demonstrates that plant colonization by S. Typhimurium is indeed an active process. S. Typhimurium utilizes adaptive strategies of altering innate plant perception systems to improve its fitness in the plant habitat. All together these results suggest a complex mechanism for perception of S. Typhimurium by plants.
Jung, Yong Soo; Anderson, Robin C; Byrd, James A; Edrington, Thomas S; Moore, Randle W; Callaway, Todd R; McReynolds, Jack; Nisbet, David J
The effects of two feed supplements on Salmonella Typhimurium in the ceca of market-age broilers were determined. Broilers orally challenged 6 days before slaughter with a novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant strain of Salmonella Typhimurium were divided into one of four groups (20 birds each). The first group (the control group) received no treatment, the second group received sodium nitrate (SN) treatment (574 mg of NaNO3 per kg of feed), the third group received experimental chlorate product (ECP) treatment (15 mM NaClO3 equivalents), and the fourth group received ECP treatment in combination with SN treatment. The SN treatment was administered via feed for 5 days immediately before slaughter, and ECP was provided via ad libitum access to drinking water for the last 2 days before slaughter. Cecal contents were subjected to bacterial analysis. Significant (P < 0.05) Salmonella Typhimurium reductions (ca. 2 log units) relative to levels for untreated control broilers were observed for broilers receiving ECP in combination with SN. The ECP-only treatment resulted in significant (P < 0.05) reductions (ca. 0.8 log) of Salmonella Typhimurium in trial 2. We hypothesize that increasing Salmonella Typhimurium nitrate reductase activity resulted in increased enzymatic reduction of chlorate to chlorite, with a concomitant decrease in cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels. On the basis of these results, preadaptation with SN followed by ECP supplementation immediately preharvest could be a potential strategy for the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers.
Calva, Edmundo; Puente, José L.; Zaidi, Mussaret B.
The complete genome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium sequence type 19 (ST19) strain YU15, isolated in Yucatán, Mexico, from a human baby stool culture, was determined using PacBio technology. The chromosome contains five intact prophages and the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). This strain carries the Salmonella virulence plasmid pSTV. PMID:27081132
Nandre, Rahul M.; Lee, Dajeong; Lee, John Hwa
In this study, a genetically engineered live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine was evaluated for its ability to protect against Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) infection in chickens. The birds were orally primed with the vaccine on the 1st day of life and given an oral booster at 5 wk of age. Control birds were orally inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. Both groups of birds were orally challenged with a virulent ST strain at 9 wk of age. Compared with the control chickens, the vaccinated chickens had significantly higher levels of systemic IgG and mucosal IgA against specific ST antigens and a significantly greater lymphoproliferative response to ST antigens. The excretion of ST into the feces was significantly lower in the vaccinated group than in the control group on days 9 and 13 d after challenge. In addition, the vaccinated group had significantly fewer pronounced gross lesions in the liver and spleen and lower bacterial counts in the internal organs than the control group after challenge. These data indicate that genetically engineered live attenuated SE may induce humoral and cellular immune responses against ST antigens and may confer protection against virulent ST challenge. PMID:25673904
Nandre, Rahul M; Lee, Dajeong; Lee, John Hwa
In this study, a genetically engineered live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine was evaluated for its ability to protect against Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) infection in chickens. The birds were orally primed with the vaccine on the 1st day of life and given an oral booster at 5 wk of age. Control birds were orally inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. Both groups of birds were orally challenged with a virulent ST strain at 9 wk of age. Compared with the control chickens, the vaccinated chickens had significantly higher levels of systemic IgG and mucosal IgA against specific ST antigens and a significantly greater lymphoproliferative response to ST antigens. The excretion of ST into the feces was significantly lower in the vaccinated group than in the control group on days 9 and 13 d after challenge. In addition, the vaccinated group had significantly fewer pronounced gross lesions in the liver and spleen and lower bacterial counts in the internal organs than the control group after challenge. These data indicate that genetically engineered live attenuated SE may induce humoral and cellular immune responses against ST antigens and may confer protection against virulent ST challenge.
Adkins, Joshua N.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Gustin, Jean K.; Rue, Joanne; Clauss, Therese RW; Purvine, Samuel O.; Rodland, Karin D.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (aka, S. typhimurium) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes ~40,000 reported cases of acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea a year in the United States. To develop a deeper understanding of the infectious state of S. typhimurium, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based “bottom-up” proteomics was used to globally analyze the proteins present under specific growth conditions. Salmonella typhimurium LT2 strain cells were grown in contrasting culture conditions that mimicked both natural free-living conditions and an infectious state, i.e., logarithm phase, stationary phase and Mg-depleted medium growth. Initial comparisons of the LT2 strain protein abundances among cell culture conditions indicate that the majority of proteins do not change significantly. Not unexpectedly, cells grown in Mg-depleted medium conditions had a higher abundance of Mg2+ transport proteins than found in other growth conditions. A second more virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain (14028) was also studied with these growth conditions and used to directly compare to the LT2 strain. The strain comparison offers a unique opportunity to compare and contrast observations in these closely related bacteria. One particular protein family, propanediol utilization proteins, was drastically more abundant in the 14028 strain than in the LT2 strain, and may be a contributor to increased pathogenicity in the 14028 strain.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella, a leading cause of U.S. foodborne disease and food-related deaths, often asymptomatically colonizes food-producing animals. In fact, >50% of U.S. swine production facilities test positive for Salmonella. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 NCTC13348 c...
Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Shibayama, Christian I; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Cervantes-Barragán, Luisa; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cunningham, Adam F; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A; Becker, Ingeborg; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Bonifaz, Laura; Gunn, John S; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino
Salmonella are successful pathogens that infect millions of people every year. During infection, Salmonella typhimurium changes the structure of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in response to the host environment, rendering bacteria resistant to cationic peptide lysis in vitro. However, the role of these structural changes in LPS as in vivo virulence factors and their effects on immune responses and the generation of immunity are largely unknown. We report that modified LPS are less efficient than wild-type LPS at inducing pro-inflammatory responses. The impact of this LPS-mediated subversion of innate immune responses was demonstrated by increased mortality in mice infected with a non-lethal dose of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain mixed with the modified LPS moieties. Up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells and CD4(+) T-cell activation were affected by these modified LPS. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing specific antibody responses. Immunization with modified LPS moiety preparations combined with experimental antigens, induced an impaired Toll-like receptor 4-mediated adjuvant effect. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing immunity against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium. Hence, changes in S. typhimurium LPS structure impact not only on innate immune responses but also on both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses.
Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Shibayama, Christian I; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Cervantes-Barragán, Luisa; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cunningham, Adam F; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A; Becker, Ingeborg; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Bonifaz, Laura; Gunn, John S; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino
Salmonella are successful pathogens that infect millions of people every year. During infection, Salmonella typhimurium changes the structure of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in response to the host environment, rendering bacteria resistant to cationic peptide lysis in vitro. However, the role of these structural changes in LPS as in vivo virulence factors and their effects on immune responses and the generation of immunity are largely unknown. We report that modified LPS are less efficient than wild-type LPS at inducing pro-inflammatory responses. The impact of this LPS-mediated subversion of innate immune responses was demonstrated by increased mortality in mice infected with a non-lethal dose of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain mixed with the modified LPS moieties. Up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells and CD4+ T-cell activation were affected by these modified LPS. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing specific antibody responses. Immunization with modified LPS moiety preparations combined with experimental antigens, induced an impaired Toll-like receptor 4-mediated adjuvant effect. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing immunity against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium. Hence, changes in S. typhimurium LPS structure impact not only on innate immune responses but also on both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. PMID:21631497
Durul, Bora; Acar, Sinem; Bulut, Ece; Kyere, Emmanuel O; Soyer, Yeşim
Salmonella is commonly found in a variety of food products and is a major cause of bacterial foodborne illness throughout the world. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and diversity of Salmonella in eight different food types: sheep ground meat, cow ground meat, chicken meat, cow offal, traditional Sanliurfa cheese, unripened feta cheese, pistachios, and isot (a spice blend of dried red peppers specific to Sanliurfa), traditionally and commonly consumed in Turkey. Among 192 food samples, Salmonella was detected in 59 samples, with the highest prevalence in raw poultry parts (58%) and offal (58%) samples, while Salmonella was not detected in pistachios and dried red pepper. Resultant Salmonella isolates were characterized by serotyping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ten different serotypes represented 10 MLST sequence types (STs) with 1 novel ST and 17 PFGE types. Antimicrobial resistance profiling revealed that 30.5% of the isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Telaviv, which is rare throughout the world, was the second most common serotype isolated from food samples in this study, suggesting that this serotype might be one of the subtypes that is endemic to Turkey.
Estrada-Acosta, Mitzi; Medrano-Félix, Andrés; Jiménez, Maribel; Gómez-Gil, Bruno; León-Félix, Josefina; Amarillas, Luis
Salmonella is a pathogen of worldwide importance, causing disease in a vast range of hosts, including humans. We report the genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Saintpaul strain S-70, isolated from an aquatic environment. PMID:24336367
Heilbronn, Cherie; Munnoch, Sally; Butler, Michelle T; Merritt, Tony D; Durrheim, David N
Salmonella Typhimurium is the most common bacterial cause of gastrointestinal disease in NSW. Regular review of surveillance procedures ensures system objectives are met and informs improvements in system utility and efficiency. This paper assesses the timeliness and data completeness of NSW Salmonella Typhimurium surveillance after the routine introduction of multilocus variable repeat analysis (MLVA), a rapid sub-typing technique. MLVA results were available significantly earlier than alternate sub-typing techniques over the 2 years of this review. Accordingly, from a timeliness perspective, MLVA offers a favourable Salmonella Typhimurium sub-typing option in NSW. Further opportunities to improve timeliness and data completeness are identified. This paper was produced as part of a review of Salmonella Typhimurium surveillance in NSW for the period 2008-2009 by members of OzFoodNet based at Hunter New England Population Health. OzFoodNet is a national network established by the then Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing in 2000 to enhance foodborne disease surveillance in Australia.
Two trials were conducted to examine the ability of cecal bacterial cultures from broilers to inhibit growth of Salmonella Typhimurium during aerobic incubation. Cecal broth media was inoculated with 10 µl of cecal contents from 6 week old broilers taken from 2 separate flocks. Cultures were incubat...
Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Hui; Yang, Zhiwei; Li, Jingjing; Li, Jihai; Ren, Yali; Yan, Wenjie
To identify synergistic combinations of different food additives, the antimicrobial effects of thymol and carvacrol against Salmonella Typhimurium were assessed alone and in combination with various other preservatives including EDTA, acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid. Overall, growth of Salmonella Typhimurium was significantly inhibited in Mueller-Hinton broth containing thymol, carvacrol, EDTA, acetic acid, lactic acid, or citric acid at concentrations of 400 mg/liter, 400 microl/liter, 300 mg/liter, 0.2% (vol/vol), 0.2% (vol/vol), and 0.2% (wt/vol), respectively. The combination of different antimicrobials such as thymol or carvacrol with EDTA, thymol or carvacrol with acetic acid, and thymol or carvacrol with citric acid all resulted in significantly reduced populations of Salmonella Typhimurium. In samples treated with combinations, these antimicrobials had synergistic effects compared with samples treated with thymol, carvacrol, EDTA, acetic acid, or citric acid alone. However, the combined use of lactic acid with thymol or carvacrol did not produce a synergistic effect against Salmonella Typhimurium. Thus, some chelators or organic acids can be used as food preservatives in combination with thymol and carvacrol to reduce the concentrations needed to produce an adequate antimicrobial effect.
LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling is a known strategy that modulates a variety of bacterial processes in prokaryotes. Salmonella Typhimurium is known to possess LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling. Until now, the Lsr- ABC transporter system (LuxS- regulated) is the only known process controlled by t...
Orsel, Karin; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Miko, Angelika; van Duijkeren, Engeline
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from a pig, a calf, and a child on a farm in the Netherlands. The isolates were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods, which suggests nonfoodborne animal-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission. Persons in close contact with farm animals should be aware of this risk. PMID:15663868
Biochar amendment has been shown to affect bacterial transport in soils. The effect of soil texture on the transport of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in soils amended with 2 % poultry litter or pine chip biochars pyrolyzed under two temperatures (350 and 700 'C...
A waterborne disease outbreak associated with Salmonella typhimurium was identified in Gideon, Missouri (population 1104), a town in southeastern Missouri (USA) in December, 1993. It was estimated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that approximately 44% o...
The objective of the following experiment was to examine the effect of light exposure on horizontal transmission of Salmonella typhimurium in weaned pigs. Twenty crossbred pigs (average BW = 15 kg) were housed in isolation rooms (10 pigs/room) and randomly assigned to one of two lighting regimes: ...
Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains synthesize osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) under low osmolarity conditions (< 70 mos mol l-1). OPG synthesis is not observed when cells are grown in iso- or hyper-osmotic media (> 400 mos mol l-1). Mutation in OPG structural gene...
The pnp gene encodes polynucleotide phosphorylase, an exoribonuclease involved in RNA degradation. A mutation in the pnp gene was previously identified by our group in a signature-tagged mutagenesis screen designed to search for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes required for survival in...
A straightforward label-free method based on aptamer binding and surface enhanced Raman specstroscopy (SERS) has been developed for the detection of Salmonella Typhimurium, an important foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Surface of the SERS-active silver nanor...
Handeland, K.; Refsum, T.; Johansen, B. S.; Holstad, G.; Knutsen, G.; Solberg, I.; Schulze, J.; Kapperud, G.
Faecal carriage of salmonella was investigated in 320 hedgehogs from Moss municipality in south-eastern Norway, Askøy, Bergen and Os municipalities in central-western Norway, and five municipalities in south-western and central Norway. The sampling in Moss was carried out 1 year after a human outbreak of salmonellosis, whereas the sampling in Askøy, Bergen and Os was carried out during a human outbreak. Both outbreaks were caused by Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:1,2. No salmonella were detected in the hedgehogs from south-western (0/115) and central (0/24) Norway. Thirty-nine percent (39/99) of the animals sampled on Jeløy, and 41% (34/82) of those from Askøy, Bergen and Os, carried S. Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:1,2. The PFGE profile of isolates from hedgehogs and human beings were identical within each of the two outbreak areas. A significantly higher carrier rate of S. Typhimurium occurred among hedgehogs sampled at feeding places, compared to those caught elsewhere. The salmonella-infected hedgehog populations most likely constituted the primary source of infection during both of the human disease outbreaks, and the Norwegian hedgehog is suggested as a reservoir host of S. Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:1,2. PMID:12113498
Bauer, K; Benz, R; Brass, J; Boos, W
A mutant of Salmonella typhimurium was selected that is constitutive for the pho regulon. It exhibited constitutive glycerol-3-phosphate transport activity and synthesized a new outer membrane porin. Upon measurement of porin activity in black lipid films, it exhibited anion selectivity. It therefore appears analogous to the Escherichia coli PhoE porin. Images PMID:2981826
The ability of anaerobic cecal microflora of broilers to inhibit growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in media supplemented with lactate and succinate was examined. Cecal cultures were prepared by collecting ceca of processed broilers from a commercial processing facility, inoculating broth media with 1...
A waterborne disease outbreak associated with Salmonella typhimurium was identified in Gideon, Missouri (population 1104), a town in southeastern Missouri (USA) in December, 1993. It was estimated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that approximately 44% o...
Hernández Arricibita, Esther; Santamaria Zuazua, Rosaura; Ramos López, Gemma; Herrera-León, Silvia; Kárkamo Zuñeda, José Antonio; Muniozguren Agirre, Nerea
A report is presented on an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection that affected six people. The epidemiological and laboratory investigation associated the outbreak with the consumption of homemade chorizo purchased at a local street market. The vendor and producer were informed that the sale of meat products without sanitary authorization is prohibited, and the product was withdrawn from sale.
A recently discovered and characterized rice hull liquid smoke extract was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-agar method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of rice hull smoke extract was found to be 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial a...
Mather, Alison E.; Lawson, Becki; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Wigley, Paul; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Page, Andrew J.; Holmes, Mark A.
ABSTRACT Passerine salmonellosis is a well-recognized disease of birds in the order Passeriformes, which includes common songbirds such as finches and sparrows, caused by infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Previous research has suggested that some subtypes of S. Typhimurium—definitive phage types (DTs) 40, 56 variant, and 160—are host adapted to passerines and that these birds may represent a reservoir of infection for humans and other animals. Here, we have used the whole-genome sequences of 11 isolates from British passerines, five isolates of similar DTs from humans and a domestic cat, and previously published S. Typhimurium genomes that include similar DTs from other hosts to investigate the phylogenetic relatedness of passerine salmonellae to other S. Typhimurium isolates and investigate possible genetic features of the distinct disease pathogenesis of S. Typhimurium in passerines. Our results demonstrate that the 11 passerine isolates and 13 other isolates, including those from nonpasserine hosts, were genetically closely related, with a median pairwise single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) difference of 130 SNPs. These 24 isolates did not carry antimicrobial resistance genetic determinants or the S. Typhimurium virulence plasmid. Although our study does not provide evidence of Salmonella transmission from passerines to other hosts, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that wild birds represent a potential reservoir of these Salmonella subtypes, and thus, sensible personal hygiene precautions should be taken when feeding or handling garden birds. IMPORTANCE Passerine salmonellosis, caused by certain definitive phage types (DTs) of Salmonella Typhimurium, has been documented as a cause of wild passerine mortality since the 1950s in many countries, often in the vicinity of garden bird feeding stations. To gain better insight into its epidemiology and host-pathogen interactions, we sequenced the genomes of a collection of 11
Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Dhokane, Varsha S; Hajare, Sachin N; Sharma, Arun; Bandekar, Jayant R
The microbiological quality of market samples of minimally processed (MP) pineapple was examined. The effectiveness of radiation treatment in eliminating Salmonella Typhimurium from laboratory inoculated ready-to-eat pineapple slices was also studied. Microbiological quality of minimally processed pineapple samples from Mumbai market was poor; 8.8% of the samples were positive for Salmonella. D(10) (the radiation dose required to reduce bacterial population by 90%) value for S. Typhimurium inoculated in pineapple was 0.242 kGy. Inoculated pack studies in minimally processed pineapple showed that the treatment with a 2-kGy dose of gamma radiation could eliminate 5 log CFU/g of S. Typhimurium. The pathogen was not detected from radiation-processed samples up to 12 d during storage at 4 and 10 degrees C. The processing of market samples with 1 and 2 kGy was effective in improving the microbiological quality of these products.
Nastasi, A.; Mammina, C.; Villafrate, M. R.
Salmonella typhimurium is the most frequently identified serovar of Salmonella in Italy. This serovar is characterized by the widespread dissemination among human and non-human sources of phenotypically and genetically well-differentiated clones. In this study 457 strains of S. typhimurium isolated in Italy in the years 1982-91 from human and animal sources were submitted to characterization by the rDNA fingerprinting technique. Application of this typing method, after digestion of chromosomal DNA with HincII endonuclease, confirmed the greatest genetic differentiation of clones of S. typhimurium, allowing reliable identification of 45 rDNA patterns linked into 9 major clusters. rDNA pattern clusters or ribotypes specific to man were not recognized, whereas some rDNA patterns were characteristically related to ducks, pigeons and pet birds. The ribotyping results for isolates from animal hosts suggest that pig and cattle are the main source of human infection. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8519320
Thong, K. L.; Goh, Y. L.; Radu, S.; Noorzaleha, S.; Yasin, R.; Koh, Y. T.; Lim, V. K. E.; Rusul, G.; Puthucheary, S. D.
The incidence of food-borne salmonellosis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden is reported to be on the increase in Malaysia. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping method was used to assess the extent of genetic diversity and clonality of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden strains from humans and the environment. PFGE of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA from 95 strains of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden gave 39 distinct profiles with a wide range of Dice coefficients (0.27 to 1.00), indicating that PFGE is very discriminative and that multiple clones of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden exist among clinical and environmental isolates. Strains of one dominant pulsotype (pulsotype X1/X2) appeared to be endemic in this region, as they were consistently recovered from humans with salmonellosis between 1996 and 2001 and from raw vegetables. In addition, the sharing of similar PFGE profiles among isolates from humans, vegetables, and beef provides indirect evidence of the possible transmission of salmonellosis from contaminated raw vegetables and meat to humans. Furthermore, the recurrence of PFGE profile X21 among isolates found in samples of vegetables from one wet market indicated the persistence of this clone. The environment in the wet markets may represent a major source of cross-contamination of vegetables with Salmonella serotype Weltevreden. Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that the clinical isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden remained drug sensitive but that the vegetable isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to compare clinical and environmental isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden in Malaysia. PMID:12089269
Corbell, M J
The serological relationship between Brucella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica IX, and the group N salmonella serotypes S. godesberg, S. landau, S. morehead, S. neusdorf, S. soerenga and S. urbana was examined using agglutination, antiglobulin, complement fixation, immunodiffusion and fluorescent antibody methods. Antisera to the group N salmonella serotypes all reacted to significant titres in agglutination and complement fixation, but not antiglobulin or immunodiffusion tests with smooth brucella antigens. These antisera also reacted in agglutination, but not antiglobulin, tests with Y. enterocolitica IX. They did not react significantly in any tests with rough brucella antigens. Conversely, antisera to smooth Brucella spp. agglutinated group N salmonellas to low titre and Y. enterocolitica IX to titres similar to those given against the homologous strain. Antiserum to Y. enterocolitica IX on the other hand reacted with smooth brucella antigens to high titre in agglutination, complement fixation and antiglobulin tests, and with the group N salmonella antigens to substantial titres in agglutination tests. In direct fluorescent antibody tests, smooth Brucella strains and Y. enterocolitica IX reacted strongly with FITC-labelled antibody to Br. abortus whereas the group N salmonella strains reacted weakly. In tests with monospecific antisera to the A and M determinants of Br. abortus and Br. melitensis respectively, Y. enterocolitica IX reacted only with the antiserum to the A determinant whereas group N salmonellas reacted to low titre with both A and M antisera. The results of cross-absorption tests confirmed this relationship and suggested that the O30 antigens of group N salmonella serotypes contained antigenic determinants similar to, but not identical with, the antigenic structure shared by smooth Brucella spp. and Y. enterocolitica IX.
Cochrane, Roger A; Huss, Anne R; Aldrich, Gregory C; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K
Salmonella Typhimurium is a potential feed safety hazard in animal feed ingredients. Thermal mitigation of Salmonella spp. during rendering is effective but does not eliminate the potential for cross-contamination. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of chemicals to mitigate postrendering Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 contamination in rendered proteins over time. Treatments were arranged in a 6 × 4 factorial with six chemical treatments and four rendered protein meals. The chemical treatments included (i) control without chemical treatment, (ii) 0.3% commercial formaldehyde product, (iii) 2% essential oil blend, (iv) 2% medium chain fatty acid blend, (v) 3% organic acid blend, and (vi) 1% sodium bisulfate. The four rendered protein meals included (i) feather meal, (ii) blood meal, (iii) meat and bone meal, and (iv) poultry by-product meal. After matrices were chemically treated, they were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, stored at room temperature, and enumerated via plate counts on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 42 postinoculation. The Salmonella concentration in ingredients treated with medium chain fatty acid and commercial formaldehyde were similar to one another (P = 0.23) but were 2 log lower than the control (P < 0.05). Ingredients treated with organic acids and essential oils also had lower Salmonella concentrations than the control (P < 0.05). Time also played a significant role in Salmonella mitigation, because all days except days 14 and 21 (P = 0.92) differed from one another. Rendered protein matrix also affected Salmonella stability, because concentrations in meat and bone meal and blood meal were similar to one another (P = 0.36) but were greater than levels in feather meal and poultry by-product meal (P < 0.05). In summary, chemical treatment and time both mitigated Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, but their effectiveness was matrix dependent. Time and chemical treatment with medium
Hoffman, Robert M; Yano, Shuya
Cancer cells in G0/G1 are resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy agents which kill only cycling cancer cells. Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) decoyed cancer cells in monolayer culture and in tumor spheres to cycle from G0/G1 to S/G2/M, as demonstrated by fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) imaging. S. typhimurium A1-R targeted FUCCI-expressing subcutaneous tumors, and tumors growing on the liver, growing in nude mice and also decoyed quiescent cancer cells, which were the majority of the cells in the tumors, to cycle from G0/G1 to S/G2/M. The S. typhimurium A1-R-decoyed cancer cells became sensitive to cytotoxic agents.
Mittrücker, H W; Köhler, A; Mak, T W; Kaufmann, S H
Efficient T cell activation requires both TCR signals and costimulatory signals. CD28 is one of the molecules that provide costimulatory signals for T cells. We used mice deficient in CD28 expression (CD28-/- mice) to analyze the role of CD28 in the immune response against the intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium, the causative agent of murine typhoid fever. CD28-/- mice were highly susceptible to infection with wild-type S. typhimurium and even failed to control infection with attenuated aroA- S. typhimurium. More detailed analysis revealed that CD28-/- animals did not mount a T-dependent Ab response and were highly impaired in the production of IFN-gamma. Thus, CD28 cosignaling is crucial for immunity against S. typhimurium. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing an essential role for CD28 in protective immunity against an intracellular microbial pathogen.
El-Aziz, Doaa M Abd
To detect Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), one of the most frequently isolated serovars from food borne outbreaks throughout the world, in retail raw chicken meat and giblets. One hundred samples of retail raw chicken meat and giblets (Liver, heart and gizzard) which were collected from Assiut city markets for detection of the organism and by using Duplex PCR ampliﬁcation of DNA using rfbJ and fliC genes. S. typhimurium was detected at rate of 44%, 40% and 48% in chicken meat, liver and heart, respectively, but not detected in gizzard. The results showed high incidence of S. typhimurium in the examined samples and greater emphasis should be applied on prevention and control of contamination during processing for reducing food-borne risks to consumers.
Cutter, C N; Rivera-Betancourt, M
A study was conducted to determine if slaughter interventions currently used by the meat industry are effective against Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT 104) and two non-O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Three separate experiments were conducted by inoculating prerigor beef surfaces with a bovine fecal slurry containing Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 (experiment 1), E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O111:H8 (experiment 2), or E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O26:H11 (experiment 3) and spray washing with water, hot water (72 degrees C), 2% acetic acid, 2% lactic acid, or 10% trisodium phosphate (15 s, 125 +/- 5 psi, 35 +/- 2 degrees C). Remaining bacterial populations were determined immediately after treatments (day 0), after 2 days of aerobic storage at 4 degrees C, and after 7, 21, and 35 days of vacuum-packaged storage at 4 degrees C. In addition to enumeration, confirmation of pathogen serotypes was performed for all treatments on all days. Of the interventions investigated, spray treatments with trisodium phosphate were the most effective, resulting in pathogen reductions of >3 log10 CFU/cm2, followed by 2% lactic acid and 2% acetic acid (>2 log10 CFU/cm2). Results also indicated that interventions used to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium on beef surfaces were equally effective against Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 immediately after treatment and again after long-term, refrigerated, vacuum-packaged storage. Similarly, E. coli O111:H8 and E. coli O26:H11 associated with beef surfaces were reduced by the interventions to approximately the same extent as E. coli O157:H7 immediately after treatment and again after long-term, refrigerated, vacuum-packaged storage. It was also demonstrated that phenotypic characterization may not be sufficient to identify EHECs and that the organisms should be further confirmed with antibody- or genetic-based techniques. Based on these findings, interventions used by the meat industry to
Fernández, A; Noriega, E; Thompson, A
Cold atmospheric gas plasma treatment (CAP) is an alternative approach for the decontamination of fresh and minimally processed food. In this study, the effects of growth phase, growth temperature and chemical treatment regime on the inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) by Nitrogen CAP were examined. Furthermore, the efficacy of CAP treatment for decontaminating lettuce and strawberry surfaces and potato tissue inoculated with S. Typhimurium was evaluated. It was found that the rate of inactivation of S. Typhimurium was independent of the growth phase, growth temperature and chemical treatment regime. Under optimal conditions, a 2 min treatment resulted in a 2.71 log-reduction of S. Typhimurium viability on membrane filters whereas a 15 min treatment was necessary to achieve 2.72, 1.76 and 0.94 log-reductions of viability on lettuce, strawberry and potato, respectively. We suggest that the differing efficiency of CAP treatment on the inactivation of S. Typhimurium on these different types of fresh foods is a consequence of their surface features. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface structures of contaminated samples of lettuce, strawberry and potato revealed topographical features whereby S. Typhimurium cells could be protected from the active species generated by plasma.
Vigo, Germán B; Origlia, Javier; Gornatti, Daniel; Piscopo, Miguel; Salve, Angela; Caffer, María I; Pichel, Mariana; Binsztein, Norma; Leotta, Gerardo A
Two blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) chicks died of fatal salmonellosis in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The birds were histopathologically and microbiologically examined. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from the liver, spleen, heart, lung, kidney, and intestine of both birds. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The XbaI-PFGE profile of the Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from the two animals, which shared the same cage, was identical and showed a unique pattern compared with 301 isolates included in the PulseNet national database of Salmonella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. This is the first report that describes fatal cases of salmonellosis from blue and gold macaws.
Smith, H W; Tucker, J F
Chickens in groups of 40 were infected orally with a nalidixic acid-resistant mutant of Salmonella typhimurium and then fed continuously on diets containing ampicillin, chloramphenicol, furazolidone, neomycin, oxytetracycline, polymixin, spectinomycin, streptomycin or a mixture of trimethoprim and sulphadiazine. The amount of S. typhimurium excreted in their faeces was estimated at intervals by culture on brilliant green agar containing sodium nalidixate, both direct and after enrichment in selenite broth; the amount of Escherichia coli excreted was estimated by culture on MacConkey agar. The feeding of diets containing 500 mg./kg. of ampicillin, furazolidone, neomycin, polymixin, spectinomycin or streptomycin or 100 mg./kg. of trimethoprim and 500 mg./kg. of sulphadiazine for 46 days reduced to a varying degree the amount of S. typhimurium and E. coli excreted, the greatest reduction in S. typhimurium being brought about by the last treatment. The effect was less obvious when the concentration of the antibiotics in the food was decreased fivefold. An important reason for the very limited effect of some of the antibiotics was the emergence of antibiotic-resistant populations of S. typhimurium and E. coli. High concentrations of antibiotic-resistant organisms also arose in the faeces of the chickens fed diets containing tetracyclines and chloramphenicol, treatments which had no apparent effect on the amount of S. typhimurium and E. coli excreted. Much of the antibiotic resistance encountered was determined by R factors, a particular R factor usually being found in the E. coli populations of individual chickens before it was found in their S. typhimurium populations. No S. typhimurium or E. coli were isolated that possessed R factors determining resistance to polymixin, furazolidone or trimethoprim. No S. typhimurium or E. coli were isolated that were polymixin-resistant and no S. typhimurium that were furazolidone-resistant. The few trimethoprim-resistant S
Barco, Lisa; Longo, Alessandra; Lettini, Antonia Anna; Cortini, Enzo; Saccardin, Cristina; Minorello, Claudio; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Ricci, Antonia
Salmonella 4,,12:i:- is a variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which lacks the expression of phase-2 flagellar antigen, generally associated with the deletion of the fljB gene. Additional mechanisms involving the fljAB operon ( fljA, fljB, and hin genes) lead to the lack of expression of phase-2 flagellar antigens also in Salmonella strains harboring the fljB gene. For 20 S. 4,,12:i:- strains, defined as "inconsistent" Salmonella Typhimurium variants since they had phenotypically behaved as monophasic, even though the fljB gene was conserved, the fljAB operon was characterized in order to explain the ineffective expression of the phase-2 flagellar antigen. The monophasic phenotype for a first group of strains (9) was likely due to the absence of the hin gene, leading to the inhibited switch between the expression of phase-1 and phase-2 flagellar genes. For a second group of strains (5), the monophasic phenotype could be attributed to nonconservative point mutations identified in fljA and hin genes, which could hamper the proper expression of invertase gene and the fljA, acting as repressor of the phase-1 flagellar gene. Finally, for a last group of inconsistent strains (6), a plausible reason for their monophasic phenotype was not found, since the genes involved in the expression of phase-2 flagellar antigen were fully conserved. Moreover, the collection of inconsistent Salmonella Typhimurium isolates investigated were characterized by distinct molecular profiles, as demonstrated by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, and phenotype variability, as demonstrated by phage-typing. This study highlights the usefulness of investigating the entire fljAB operon when a definitive identification of the monophasic or biphasic status of Salmonella Typhimurium strains is needed (for instance, in the context of epidemiological investigations aimed to identify the relatedness among strains).
Sharan, Riti; Chhibber, Sanjay; Reed, Robert H
This study investigated the effect of copper as an antibacterial agent on the infectivity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mice were infected orally with a standardized dose of unstressed Salmonella Typhimurium and copper-stressed cells of Salmonella Typhimurium. Bacterial counts in ileum, blood, liver and spleen were observed up to 168 h under normal aerobic conditions. Serum sensitivity, phagocytosis, malondialdehyde levels and histopathology were studied for both set of animals. A decreased bacterial count in the organs with mild symptoms of infection and a complete recovery by 48 h was observed in mice infected with copper-stressed bacteria. Histopathological examination of ileum tissue demonstrated regeneration of damaged tissue post-infection with copper-stressed bacteria and no malondialdehyde levels were detected after 24 h in ileum, spleen and liver. Exposure to copper sensitized Salmonella Typhimurium to the lytic action of serum and intracellular killing by peritoneal macrophages. It can be concluded that copper stress confers a decrease in the infectivity of healthy Salmonella Typhimurium in normal mice. This study highlights the significance of use of copper as an antibacterial agent against Salmonella Typhimurium in reducing the risk of incidence of Salmonella infections from contaminated water.
Zou, Qing-Hua; Li, Ren-Qing; Liu, Gui-Rong; Liu, Shu-Lin
The bacterial genus Salmonella encompasses a large number of serotypes that are genetically very similar but biologically quite different, especially in pathogenic properties and host specificity. Serotyping has been used for the classification, identification, and epidemiological investigation due to its excellent discriminating power, but it cannot distinguish the different pathogenic lineages within a polyphyletic serotype. Additionally, very few institutions have the comprehensive set of antisera for typing. Therefore various studies have been performed to explore alternative assays to differentiate Salmonella isolates, such as the search for genes that can be used as potential molecular substitutes for serotyping. However, the genes tested so far have often given inconsistent results. In this study, the discriminating power of seven genes to differentiate 309 Salmonella strains representing 26 serotypes was evaluated and the results were compared with those of other methods. The seven newly selected genes have a good power to differentiate different serovars. The tree based on the concatenated sequences of these genes revealed phylogenetic relationships of the bacteria consistent with that of the whole genome tree. Individual Salmonella lineages each have specific genes that can be used to differentiate Salmonella isolates on a phylogenetic basis. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Rondini, Simona; Lanzilao, Luisa; Necchi, Francesca; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Micoli, Francesca; Saul, Allan; MacLennan, Calman A
Nontyphoidal Salmonella are a major and emerging cause of fatal invasive disease in Africa, and are genetically distinct from those found elsewhere in the world. Understanding the targets of protective immunity to these African Salmonellae is key to vaccine development. We immunized mice and rabbits with heat-inactivated wild-type African invasive Salmonella Typhimurium D23580 and rough mutants lacking O-antigen. Wild-type Salmonella, unlike rough bacteria, induced a large bactericidal antibody response mainly against O-antigen. Bactericidal ability of anti-O-antigen antibodies was confirmed following purification by affinity chromatography. The current findings support the development of an O-antigen conjugate vaccine against invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae for Africa.
Kallapura, G.; Morgan, M. J.; Pumford, N. R.; Bielke, L. R.; Wolfenden, A. D.; Faulkner, O. B.; Latorre, J. D.; Menconi, A.; Hernandez-Velasco, X.; Kuttappan, V. A.; Hargis, B. M.; Tellez, G.
Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that primary infection of Salmonella is by the oral-fecal route for poultry. However, the airborne transmission of Salmonella and similar enteric zoonotic pathogens has been historically neglected. Increasing evidence of Salmonella bioaerosol generation in production facilities and studies suggesting the vulnerabilities of the avian respiratory architecture together have indicated the possibility of the respiratory system being a potential portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. Presently, we evaluated this hypothesis through intratracheal (IT) administration of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, as separate challenges, in a total of 4 independent trials, followed by enumeration of cfu recovery in ceca-cecal tonsils and recovery incidence in liver and spleen. In all trials, both Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, challenged IT colonized cecae to a similar or greater extent than oral administration at identical challenge levels. In most trials, chickens cultured for cfu enumeration from IT-challenged chicks at same dose as orally challenged, resulted in an increase of 1.5 log higher Salmonella Enteritidis from ceca-cecal tonsils and a much lower dose IT of Salmonella Enteritidis could colonize ceca to the same extent than a higher oral challenge. This trend of increased cecal colonization due to IT challenge was observed with all trails involving week-old birds (experiment 2 and 3), which are widely considered to be more difficult to infect via the oral route. Liver-spleen incidence data showed 33% of liver and spleen samples to be positive for Salmonella Enteritidis administered IT (106 cfu/chick), compared with 0% when administered orally (experiment 2, trial 1). Collectively, these data suggest that the respiratory tract may be a largely overlooked portal of entry for Salmonella infections in chickens. PMID:24570455
Kallapura, G; Morgan, M J; Pumford, N R; Bielke, L R; Wolfenden, A D; Faulkner, O B; Latorre, J D; Menconi, A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Kuttappan, V A; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G
Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that primary infection of Salmonella is by the oral-fecal route for poultry. However, the airborne transmission of Salmonella and similar enteric zoonotic pathogens has been historically neglected. Increasing evidence of Salmonella bioaerosol generation in production facilities and studies suggesting the vulnerabilities of the avian respiratory architecture together have indicated the possibility of the respiratory system being a potential portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. Presently, we evaluated this hypothesis through intratracheal (IT) administration of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, as separate challenges, in a total of 4 independent trials, followed by enumeration of cfu recovery in ceca-cecal tonsils and recovery incidence in liver and spleen. In all trials, both Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, challenged IT colonized cecae to a similar or greater extent than oral administration at identical challenge levels. In most trials, chickens cultured for cfu enumeration from IT-challenged chicks at same dose as orally challenged, resulted in an increase of 1.5 log higher Salmonella Enteritidis from ceca-cecal tonsils and a much lower dose IT of Salmonella Enteritidis could colonize ceca to the same extent than a higher oral challenge. This trend of increased cecal colonization due to IT challenge was observed with all trails involving week-old birds (experiment 2 and 3), which are widely considered to be more difficult to infect via the oral route. Liver-spleen incidence data showed 33% of liver and spleen samples to be positive for Salmonella Enteritidis administered IT (10(6) cfu/chick), compared with 0% when administered orally (experiment 2, trial 1). Collectively, these data suggest that the respiratory tract may be a largely overlooked portal of entry for Salmonella infections in chickens.
Dunbar, Sherry A; Ritchie, Vivette Brown; Hoffmeyer, Michaela R; Rana, Gunjot S; Zhang, Hongwei
In this chapter we describe two commercially available bead-based molecular assays for detection, identification and serotyping of Salmonella. The xTAG(®) Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (GPP) is a qualitative multiplex test for the simultaneous detection of nucleic acids from Salmonella plus 14 other gastroenteritis-causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites from stool specimens. xTAG GPP uses the Luminex(®) xTAG universal array technology for the identification of specific target sequences combined with the xMAP(®) bead multiplexing platform for detection of the targets that were present in the starting sample. The xMAP Salmonella Serotyping Assay (SSA) is a multiplex nucleic acid-based direct hybridization assay for molecular identification of the serotype of Salmonella isolates. In xMAP SSA, target sequences amplified from cultured Salmonella isolates are captured by hybridization to sequence-specific capture probes which have been coupled to the multiplexed bead sets. Herein we provide detailed protocols for each of these assays and present data which describe their performance characteristics for detection and serotyping Salmonella.
Hébrard, Magali; Colgan, Aoife; Owen, Siân V.; Sivasankaran, Sathesh K.; Cameron, Andrew D. S.; Hokamp, Karsten; Hinton, Jay C. D.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is arguably the world’s best-understood bacterial pathogen. However, crucial details about the genetic programs used by the bacterium to survive and replicate in macrophages have remained obscure because of the challenge of studying gene expression of intracellular pathogens during infection. Here, we report the use of deep sequencing (RNA-seq) to reveal the transcriptional architecture and gene activity of Salmonella during infection of murine macrophages, providing new insights into the strategies used by the pathogen to survive in a bactericidal immune cell. We characterized 3583 transcriptional start sites that are active within macrophages, and highlight 11 of these as candidates for the delivery of heterologous antigens from Salmonella vaccine strains. A majority (88%) of the 280 S. Typhimurium sRNAs were expressed inside macrophages, and SPI13 and SPI2 were the most highly expressed pathogenicity islands. We identified 31 S. Typhimurium genes that were strongly up-regulated inside macrophages but expressed at very low levels during in vitro growth. The SalComMac online resource allows the visualisation of every transcript expressed during bacterial replication within mammalian cells. This primary transcriptome of intra-macrophage S.-Typhimurium describes the transcriptional start sites and the transcripts responsible for virulence traits, and catalogues the sRNAs that may play a role in the regulation of gene expression during infection. PMID:26561851
Chang, Chiung-Hung; Yu, Bi; Su, Chiu-Hsian; Chen, Daniel S; Hou, Yu-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Hsu, Yuan-Man
Salmonella, a common zoonotic pathogen, causes gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to improve gastrointestinal dysfunction and to modify the immune response to inflammation for centuries. This study used six herbal plants and four TCM formulae to rate their efficacy in preventing S. Typhimurium infection via mouse model. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Coptidis rhizome (CR) against the reference strain tallied 12.5 mg/ml and against clinical isolate ST21 was 25 mg/ml. MBCs of other herbal extracts and formulae on Salmonella Typhimurium strains were above 50 mg/ml. In the mice model, CR and Si Jun Zi Tang (SJZT) could significantly decrease the bacterial load in organs and blood after being challenged, along with body weight loss due to the infection. CR and SJZT alleviated infection-induced interferon-gamma levels in the serum and tissues, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in intestinal tissues. CR and SJZT serum metabolites could suppress S. Typhimurium invasion and TNF-α expression in RAW264.7 cells. The therapeutic activity of CR and SJZT may involve berberine, ginsenoside Rb1, and glycyrrhizin, interfering with Salmonella when invading macrophages. CR and SJZT has shown potential in preventing S. Typhimurium infection through the regulation of the immune response.
Zhu, Xiaoyang; Lei, Hehua; Wu, Junfang; Li, Jia V; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan
Salmonella typhimurium is a bacterial pathogen that poses a great threat to humans and animals. In order to discover hosts' responses to S. typhimurium infection, we collected and analyzed biofluids and organ tissues from mice which had ingested S. typhimurium. We employed (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis and immunological techniques. The results indicate that infection leads to a severe impact on mice spleen and ileum, which are characterized by splenomegaly and edematous villi, respectively. We found that increased levels of itaconic acid were correlated with the presence of splenomegaly during infection and may play an important role in Salmonella-containing vacuole acidification. In addition, metabonomic analyses of urine displayed the development of salmonellosis in mice, which is characterized by dynamic changes in energy metabolism. Furthermore, we found that the presence of S. typhimurium activated an anti-oxidative response in infected mice. We also observed changes in the gut microbial co-metabolites (hippurate, TMAO, TMA, methylamine). This investigation sheds much needed light on the host-pathogen interactions of S. typhimurium, providing further information to deepen our understanding of the long co-evolution process between hosts and infective bacteria.
Drumo, Rosanna; Pesciaroli, Michele; Ruggeri, Jessica; Tarantino, Michela; Chirullo, Barbara; Pistoia, Claudia; Petrucci, Paola; Martinelli, Nicola; Moscati, Livia; Manuali, Elisabetta; Pavone, Silvia; Picciolini, Matteo; Ammendola, Serena; Gabai, Gianfranco; Battistoni, Andrea; Pezzotti, Giovanni; Alborali, Giovanni L.; Napolioni, Valerio; Pasquali, Paolo; Magistrali, Chiara F.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important zoonotic gastrointestinal pathogen responsible for foodborne disease worldwide. It is a successful enteric pathogen because it has developed virulence strategies allowing it to survive in a highly inflamed intestinal environment exploiting inflammation to overcome colonization resistance provided by intestinal microbiota. In this study, we used piglets featuring an intact microbiota, which naturally develop gastroenteritis, as model for salmonellosis. We compared the effects on the intestinal microbiota induced by a wild type and an attenuated S. Typhimurium in order to evaluate whether the modifications are correlated with the virulence of the strain. This study showed that Salmonella alters microbiota in a virulence-dependent manner. We found that the wild type S. Typhimurium induced inflammation and a reduction of specific protecting microbiota species (SCFA-producing bacteria) normally involved in providing a barrier against pathogens. Both these effects could contribute to impair colonization resistance, increasing the host susceptibility to wild type S. Typhimurium colonization. In contrast, the attenuated S. Typhimurium, which is characterized by a reduced ability to colonize the intestine, and by a very mild inflammatory response, was unable to successfully sustain competition with the microbiota. PMID:26835435
Zierler, M K; Galán, J E
Contact of Salmonella typhimurium with cultured epithelial cells results in the assembly of surface appendages termed invasomes which are presumably required for the internalization of these organisms into host cells. The assembly of these structures requires the function of a dedicated protein secretion system encoded in the inv locus. We show in this report that contact of wild-type S. typhimurium with cultured Henle-407 cells stimulated the secretion of InvJ, a recently identified target of the inv-encoded type III protein secretion system. Stimulation of InvJ secretion also occurred upon bacterial contact with bovine calf serum-coated culture dishes but did not occur upon S. typhimurium contact with glutaraldehyde-fixed Henle-407 cells. The stimulation of InvJ secretion did not require de novo protein synthesis. Invasion-defective invC and invG mutants of S. typhimurium failed to secrete InvJ upon contact with live Henle-407 cells. In contrast, contact-dependent secretion of InvJ in S. typhimurium invE mutants occurred at levels equivalent to those of the wild type. These results indicate that the presence of Henle-407 cells and/or serum is capable of activating the type III secretion system encoded in the inv locus, further supporting the notion that Salmonella entry into cultured cells is the result of a biochemical cross-talk between the bacteria and the host cells. PMID:7558314
Tsolis, Renée M.; Adams, L. Garry; Ficht, Thomas A.; Bäumler, Andreas J.
Limited knowledge is available about the virulence mechanisms responsible for diarrheal disease caused by Salmonella typhimurium. To assess the contribution to diarrheal disease of virulence determinants identified in models of infection, we tested a collection of S. typhimurium mutants for their ability to cause enteritis in calves. S. typhimurium strains carrying mutations in the virulence plasmid (spvR), Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) (spiB), or SPI-5 (sopB) caused mortality and acute diarrhea in calves. An S. typhimurium rfaJ mutant, which is defective for lipopolysaccharide outer core biosynthesis, was of intermediate virulence. Mutations in SPI-1 (hilA and prgH) or aroA markedly reduced virulence and the severity of diarrhea. Furthermore, histopathological examination of calves infected with SPI-1 or aroA mutants revealed a marked reduction or absence of intestinal lesions. These data suggest that virulence factors, such as SPI-1, which are required during intestinal colonization are more important for pathogenicity in calves than are genes required during the systemic phase of S. typhimurium infection, including SPI-2 or the spv operon. This is in contrast to the degree of attenuation caused by these mutations in the mouse. PMID:10456944
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium, the causative agent of gastrointestinal disease and septicemia in humans, has been extensively studied, providing a comprehensive model system in which to study how pathogens respond to the rapidly changing conditions during persistence in...
Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium...
Khan, Ashraf A; Melvin, Cathy D; Dagdag, Elsie B
Several Salmonella enterica serotypes were isolated from unpasteurized orange juice samples analysed as a follow-up to an outbreak in 1999 of S. enterica serotype Muenchen in the Pacific Northwest regions of United States. Eleven S. enterica strains were serotyped and identified as S. enterica serotype Muenchen (2), S. enterica serotype Hidalgo (2), S. enterica serotype Alamo (1), S. enterica serotype Gaminera (2), S. enterica serotype Javiana (2) and a new serotyped strain S. enterica serotype Tempe (2). The identity of the new serotype S. enterica serovar Tempe serotype 30:b:1,7:z33 was confirmed by the National Salmonella Reference Laboratory at NCID/CDC, Atlanta. These strains were sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfisoxazole antibiotics. Isolates were screened for invasion (invA) and virulence (spvC) genes using specific primers for these two genes by polymerase chain reaction. All strains were positive for invA gene giving 321-bp fragment, however negative to virulence spvC gene. For pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, Salmonella strain plugs were made and digested with XbaI and subjected to 18-h electrophoresis. The PFGE patterns were different for each S. enterica serotypes suggesting the several origins of contamination in outbreak. S. enterica serotype.
Oki, Masayuki; Ueda, Akihiro; Tsuda, Ayumi; Yanagi, Hidetaka; Ozawa, Hideki; Takagi, Atsushi
Infection with non-typhoidal Salmonella often results in a self-limited acute gastroenteritis. Extra-intestinal Salmonella infection is relatively rare and occurs predominantly in infants and adults with significant underlying conditions. We describe a 54-year-old Japanese man with a history of heavy alcohol consumption and daily contact with a dog, who developed bacteremia complicated by vertebral osteomyelitis, spinal epidural abscess, and meningitis, due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. This case suggests that Salmonella should be considered as an etiologic pathogen in adult patients with perivertebral infection or meningitis.
Introduction: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteriditis (S. Enteriditis) is the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide, including the USA. Many S. enterica serotypes known to cause foodborne disease are associated with broiler meat contamination. While some serotypes are specific...
Background: A multiplex PCR technique to discriminate Salmonella enterica serotypes was adapted to a high-throughput, automated assay. Methods: Fifteen target genes were chosen that varied in distribution among common Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from various hosts. These targets were dete...
Fornefeld, Eva; Schierstaedt, Jasper; Jechalke, Sven; Grosch, Rita; Schikora, Adam; Smalla, Kornelia
The persistence of Salmonella in the environment is influenced by a multitude of biotic and abiotic factors. In addition, its persistence can be influenced by preadaptation before the introduction into the environment. In order to study how preadaptation changes the survival of Salmonella in soil and therefore its potential to colonize the phytosphere, we developed a new medium based on lettuce material [lettuce medium (LM)]. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 was used as a model for Salmonella in this study. LT2 was inoculated into soil microcosms after pregrowth in Luria Bertani (LB) broth or in LM. Survival of LT2 in soil was monitored over 56 days by plate counts and quantification of the Typhimurium-specific gene STM4497 using qPCR in total community DNA for which primers and TaqMan probe were designed in this study. Significantly enhanced persistence was observed for LT2 pregrown in LM compared to LT2 pregrown in LB, indicating a preadaptation effect. Surprisingly, no improved survival could be observed for S. Typhimurium strain 14028s and S. enterica serovar Senftenberg after pregrowth on LM. This indicates a high strain specificity of preadaptation. Results from previous studies suggested that biofilm formation could enhance the survival of human pathogens in various environments and might contribute to enhanced survival on plants. In vitro biofilm assays with several Salmonella strains revealed a strain-specific effect of LM on the biofilm formation. While LM significantly improved the biofilm formation of S. Senftenberg, the biofilm formation of LT2 was better in LB. This indicates that the better survival of LM-pregrown LT2 in soil was not linked to an improved ability to form biofilms but was likely due to other factors. Most importantly, this study showed that the medium used to pregrow Salmonella can influence its survival in soil and its biofilm formation which might influence the fate of Salmonella in soil.
Brown, David R; Price, Lisa D
Peyer's patches of the small intestine serve as inductive sites for mucosal immunity as well as targets for invasive enteropathogens, including Salmonella. Because they are innervated by catecholamine-containing enteric nerves, the hypothesis that the endogenous catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine or sympathomimetic drugs alter Salmonella Typhimurium uptake into Peyer's patches was tested. Porcine jejunal Peyer's patch explants were mounted in Ussing chambers and inoculated with a porcine field isolate of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104. Salmonella recovery from gentamicin-treated tissues increased significantly between 30 and 90 min of bacterial exposure to the mucosal surface. Addition of the neuronal conduction blocker saxitoxin (0.1 micromol L(-1)) or dopamine (30 micromol L(-1)) to the contraluminal aspect of explants decreased bacterial recovery after 60 min of Salmonella exposure. The effects of dopamine were mimicked by cocaine and methamphetamine (30 micromol L(-1)), which act on catecholaminergic nerve terminals to increase synaptic neurotransmitter concentrations. These results suggest that enteric catecholaminergic nerves modulate Salmonella colonization of Peyer's patches at the earliest stages of infection, in part by altering epithelial uptake of bacteria.
Almeida, Fernanda; Medeiros, Marta Inês Cazentini; Rodrigues, Dália Prazeres; Payne, Justin; Timme, Ruth E.
Salmonellosis is an important health problem worldwide and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most common isolated serovars. Here, we reported the draft genomes of 40 S. Typhimurium strains isolated from humans and food in Brazil. These draft genomes will improve phylogenetic analysis and will help enhance our understanding of strains of this serovar isolated in Brazil. PMID:27660768
Salmonella enterica are a leading cause of enterocolitis for humans and animals. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium infects a broad range of hosts. To facilitate genomic comparisons among isolates from different sources, we present the complete genome sequences of ten S. Typhimurium strains, five each...
Nguyen, Scott V.; Bono, James L.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Fields, Patricia I.; Dinsmore, Blake A.; Santovenia, Monica; Kelley, Christy M.; Wang, Rong; Bosilevac, Joseph M.; Harhay, Gregory P.
Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of enterocolitis for humans and animals. S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infects a broad range of hosts. To facilitate genomic comparisons among isolates from different sources, we present the complete genome sequences of 10 S. Typhimurium strains, 5 each isolated from human and bovine sources. PMID:27811097
Almeida, Fernanda; Medeiros, Marta Inês Cazentini; Rodrigues, Dália Prazeres; Payne, Justin; Timme, Ruth E; Allard, Marc W; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer
Salmonellosis is an important health problem worldwide and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most common isolated serovars. Here, we reported the draft genomes of 40 S Typhimurium strains isolated from humans and food in Brazil. These draft genomes will improve phylogenetic analysis and will help enhance our understanding of strains of this serovar isolated in Brazil.
Su, Lan; Zhang, Ping; Zheng, Da-wei; Wang, Yang-jun-qi; Zhong, Ru-gang
In this paper, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is used as an analytical tool for the detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium). Compared with normal Raman signal, the intensity of SERS signal is greatly enhanced. After processing all SERS data, the obvious differences between the SERS spectra of two species are determined. And applying the chemometric tools of principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (PCA-HCA), the SERS spectra of two species are distinguished more accurately. The results indicate that SERS analysis can provide a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of pathogenic bacteria.
Thiel, W; Recla, S
From 1980 to 1982 a total of 4541 strains of S. typhimurium of human origin and 745 S. typhimurium of non-human sources were received by the Salmonella Centre. During this period, the percentage of S. typhimurium rose from 33% to 51% (human origin) and from 12% to 33% (non-human origin), respectively. The incidence of infection was 20.0, the regional distribution showed a prominence of the eastern and western parts of Austria with Styria as leading country (46.2). 60% of the isolates of S. typhimurium were associated with illness, which was 10% more than for the other salmonellae; concerning outbreaks as well as single cases, S. typhimurium dominated, whereas the proportion of carriers of S. typhimurium among foodhandlers was small (12% S. typhimurium, 31% other salmonellae). As to the age-specific attack-rate, children younger than 5 years by far predominated with 67.2, with a falling tendency in the other age groups. As far as food is concerned, the increase of S. typhimurium in poultry is particularly striking. According to the phage-typing results, LT 10 was prominent in the years 1980 and 1981, whereas in 1982, LT 66, accounting for 62% out of 2201 tested human isolates dominated among 44 different phage-types as epidemic strain, especially in Styria and eastern Austria. In addition, LT 10 and LT 3 could be found more frequently. Starting from the important role of food in Salmonella associated enteritis, LT 66 leads to chicken as the main source of infection. Apart from LT 66, LT 1, 2, 3 and LT 140 were more frequent in non-human isolates. This infiltration of LT 66 into the Austrian chicken industry could have its origin in imported parent chickens. As mechanism the single replacement of LT 10 by LT 66 is discussed as well as the phage-conversion of LT 10. The other possible chains of infection (other poultry, feeding-staff, man) are regarded as less probable. To prove this thesis investigations on plasmids should be done.
Pradhan, A K; Li, Y; Swem, B L; Mauromoustakos, A
Contamination and penetration of salmonellae into hatching eggs may comprise an important link in the transmission of these bacteria to growing birds, processed carcasses, and eventually to the consumer. In this study, a predictive model for Salmonella typhimurium as a function of initial cell number and storage or incubation time at a nearly constant temperature and humidity was developed and evaluated to compute the bacterial load after 1 d (holding), 10 d (candling), 17 d (incubation), and 21 d (chick processing). Experiments were conducted for S. typhimurium with both high initial bacterial load (HIBL) and low initial bacterial load (LIBL) of 6.0 and 3.5 log cfu/egg, respectively. Eggs with HIBL experienced 2.0 log reduction in the bacterial load after holding at 4 degrees C for 24 h and 3.0 log increase in the bacterial load during incubation and hatch at approximately 37 degrees C between 17 d and 21 d. Experimental data showed that bacterial load of S. typhimurium from holding to chick processing changed from 3.7 to 6.6 log cfu/egg and from 3.7 to 2.7 log cfu/egg in HIBL and LIBL eggs, respectively. The developed model was able to predict bacterial load of S. typhimurium from 3.6 to 6.6 log cfu/egg in HIBL eggs and from 3.4 to 2.7 log cfu/egg in LIBL eggs from holding to chick processing. Root mean square errors and plot of predicted compared with observed bacterial load of S. typhimurium in contaminated eggs yielded a good fit and prediction. The predicted and experimental results indicated that incubated broiler eggs have an increase in internal bacterial loads between incubation and hatch. This model can be used as a tool to predict bacterial load of S. typhimurium in contaminated eggs as well as help predict the behavior of S. typhimurium during hatch.
Tennant, Sharon M; Schmidlein, Patrick; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F; Galen, James E; Levine, Myron M
Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections constitute a major health problem among infants and toddlers in sub-Saharan Africa; these infections also occur in infants and the elderly in developed countries. We genetically engineered a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of multilocus sequence type 313, the predominant genotype circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the capacities of S. Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaBA ΔclpX live oral vaccines to protect mice against a highly lethal challenge dose of the homologous serovar and determined protection against other group B and D serovars circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccines S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 were immunogenic and protected BALB/c mice against 10,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis, respectively. S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 protected mice against the group B serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Stanleyville (91% vaccine efficacy), and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 protected mice against the group D serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (85% vaccine efficacy). High rates of survival were observed when mice were infected 12 weeks postimmunization, indicating that the vaccines elicited long-lived protective immunity. Whereas CVD 1931 did not protect against S. Enteritidis R11, CVD 1944 did mediate protection against S. Typhimurium D65 (81% efficacy). These findings suggest that a bivalent (S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis) vaccine would provide broad protection against the majority of invasive NTS infections in sub-Saharan Africa.
Schmidlein, Patrick; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Galen, James E.; Levine, Myron M.
Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections constitute a major health problem among infants and toddlers in sub-Saharan Africa; these infections also occur in infants and the elderly in developed countries. We genetically engineered a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of multilocus sequence type 313, the predominant genotype circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the capacities of S. Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaBA ΔclpX live oral vaccines to protect mice against a highly lethal challenge dose of the homologous serovar and determined protection against other group B and D serovars circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccines S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 were immunogenic and protected BALB/c mice against 10,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis, respectively. S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 protected mice against the group B serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Stanleyville (91% vaccine efficacy), and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 protected mice against the group D serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (85% vaccine efficacy). High rates of survival were observed when mice were infected 12 weeks postimmunization, indicating that the vaccines elicited long-lived protective immunity. Whereas CVD 1931 did not protect against S. Enteritidis R11, CVD 1944 did mediate protection against S. Typhimurium D65 (81% efficacy). These findings suggest that a bivalent (S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis) vaccine would provide broad protection against the majority of invasive NTS infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26351285
Transcriptional Profiling of a Cross-Protective Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium UK-1 dam Mutant Identifies a Set of Genes More Transcriptionally Active Compared to Wild-Type, and Stably Transcribed across Biologically Relevant Microenvironments
Miller, Claire B.; Pierlé, Sebastian Aguilar; Brayton, Kelly A.; Ochoa, Jennine N.; Shah, Devendra H.; Lahmers, Kevin K.
Vaccination with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lacking DNA adenine methyltransferase confers cross-protective immunity against multiple Salmonella serotypes. The mechanistic basis is thought to be associated with the de-repression of genes that are tightly regulated when transiting from one microenvironment to another. This de-repression provides a potential means for the production of a more highly expressed and stable antigenic repertoire capable of inducing cross-protective immune responses. To identify genes encoding proteins that may contribute to cross-protective immunity, we used a Salmonella Typhimurium DNA adenine methyltransferase mutant strain (UK-1 dam mutant) derived from the parental UK-1 strain, and assessed the transcriptional profile of the UK-1 dam mutant and UK-1 strain grown under conditions that simulate the intestinal or endosomal microenvironments encountered during the infective process. As expected, the transcriptional profile of the UK-1 dam mutant identified a set of genes more transcriptionally active when compared directly to UK-1, and stably transcribed in biologically relevant culture conditions. Further, 22% of these genes were more highly transcribed in comparison to two other clinically-relevant Salmonella serovars. The strategy employed here helps to identify potentially conserved proteins produced by the UK-1 dam mutant that stimulate and/or modulate the development of cross-protective immune responses toward multiple Salmonella serotypes. PMID:25364573
Kim, Jin Seok; Lee, Sang Dae
Salmonella enterica infects a broad range of host animals, and zoonostic infection threatens both public health and the livestock and meat processing industries. Many antimicrobials have been developed to target Salmonella envelope that performs essential bacterial functions; however, there are very few analytical methods that can be used to validate the efficacy of these antimicrobials. In this study, to develop a potential biosensor for Salmonella envelope stress, we examined the transcription of the S. enterica serovar typhimurium spy gene, the ortholog of which in Escherichia coli encodes Spy (spheroplast protein y). Spy is a chaperone protein expressed and localized in the periplasm of E. coli during spheroplast formation, or by exposure to protein denaturing conditions. spy expression in S. typhimurium was examined by constructing a spy-gfp transcriptional fusion. S. typhimurium spy transcription was strongly induced during spheroplast formation, and also when exposed to membrane-disrupting agents, including ethanol and the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. Moreover, spy induction required the activity of regulator proteins BaeR and CpxR, which are part of the major envelope stress response systems BaeS/BaeR and CpxA/CpxR, respectively. Results suggest that monitoring spy transcription may be useful to determine whether a molecule particularly cause envelope stress in Salmonella. PMID:28316480
Jeong, Seon Mi; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Park, Yoon Mee; Kim, Jin Seok; Lee, Sang Dae; Bang, Iel Soo
Salmonella enterica infects a broad range of host animals, and zoonostic infection threatens both public health and the livestock and meat processing industries. Many antimicrobials have been developed to target Salmonella envelope that performs essential bacterial functions; however, there are very few analytical methods that can be used to validate the efficacy of these antimicrobials. In this study, to develop a potential biosensor for Salmonella envelope stress, we examined the transcription of the S. enterica serovar typhimurium spy gene, the ortholog of which in Escherichia coli encodes Spy (spheroplast protein y). Spy is a chaperone protein expressed and localized in the periplasm of E. coli during spheroplast formation, or by exposure to protein denaturing conditions. spy expression in S. typhimurium was examined by constructing a spy-gfp transcriptional fusion. S. typhimurium spy transcription was strongly induced during spheroplast formation, and also when exposed to membrane-disrupting agents, including ethanol and the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. Moreover, spy induction required the activity of regulator proteins BaeR and CpxR, which are part of the major envelope stress response systems BaeS/BaeR and CpxA/CpxR, respectively. Results suggest that monitoring spy transcription may be useful to determine whether a molecule particularly cause envelope stress in Salmonella.
Raghunathan, Anu; Reed, Jennifer; Shin, Sookil; Palsson, Bernhard; Daefler, Simon
Background Infections with Salmonella cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Replication of Salmonella typhimurium inside its host cell is a model system for studying the pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections. Genome-scale modeling of bacterial metabolic networks provides a powerful tool to identify and analyze pathways required for successful intracellular replication during host-pathogen interaction. Results We have developed and validated a genome-scale metabolic network of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 (iRR1083). This model accounts for 1,083 genes that encode proteins catalyzing 1,087 unique metabolic and transport reactions in the bacterium. We employed flux balance analysis and in silico gene essentiality analysis to investigate growth under a wide range of conditions that mimic in vitro and host cell environments. Gene expression profiling of S. typhimurium isolated from macrophage cell lines was used to constrain the model to predict metabolic pathways that are likely to be operational during infection. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that there is a robust minimal set of metabolic pathways that is required for successful replication of Salmonella inside the host cell. This model also serves as platform for the integration of high-throughput data. Its computational power allows identification of networked metabolic pathways and generation of hypotheses about metabolism during infection, which might be used for the rational design of novel antibiotics or vaccine strains. PMID:19356237
Wong, Marcus Ho Yin; Yan, Meiying; Chan, Edward Wai Chi; Biao, Kan
Salmonella infection is an important public health issue for which the needs of antimicrobial treatment are increasing. A total of 546 human clinical S. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates were recovered from patients in hospitals in China during the period of 2005 to ∼2011. Twenty percent of the isolates exhibited resistance to ciprofloxacin, and 4% were resistant to ceftriaxone. Importantly, for the first time, 12 (2%) S. Typhimurium isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were recovered; among these 12 isolates, two were also resistant to azithromycin, and one was resistant to all other drugs tested. The combined effects of various transferrable extended-spectrum β-lactamase determinants and a novel efflux-based ciprofloxacin resistance mechanism encoded by the mobile efflux gene oqxAB were responsible for the emergence of these extremely (highly) drug-resistant (XDR) S. Typhimurium isolates. The dissemination of resistance genes, such as those encoding ESBLs and the OqxAB pump, among Salmonella organisms will speed up the selection of XDR Salmonella, posing a huge threat to public health and Salmonella infection control. PMID:24752251
Raghunathan, Anu; Reed, Jennifer; Shin, Sookil; Palsson, Bernhard; Daefler, Simon
Infections with Salmonella cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Replication of Salmonella typhimurium inside its host cell is a model system for studying the pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections. Genome-scale modeling of bacterial metabolic networks provides a powerful tool to identify and analyze pathways required for successful intracellular replication during host-pathogen interaction. We have developed and validated a genome-scale metabolic network of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 (iRR1083). This model accounts for 1,083 genes that encode proteins catalyzing 1,087 unique metabolic and transport reactions in the bacterium. We employed flux balance analysis and in silico gene essentiality analysis to investigate growth under a wide range of conditions that mimic in vitro and host cell environments. Gene expression profiling of S. typhimurium isolated from macrophage cell lines was used to constrain the model to predict metabolic pathways that are likely to be operational during infection. Our analysis suggests that there is a robust minimal set of metabolic pathways that is required for successful replication of Salmonella inside the host cell. This model also serves as platform for the integration of high-throughput data. Its computational power allows identification of networked metabolic pathways and generation of hypotheses about metabolism during infection, which might be used for the rational design of novel antibiotics or vaccine strains.
Guerra, Beatriz; Soto, Sara M.; Argüelles, Jose M.; Mendoza, M. Carmen
A multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype [4,5,12:i:−] clone carried a class 1 integron harboring dfrA12 and aadA2 gene cassettes and blaTEM-1, aac(3)-IV, cmlA1, and tetA genes located in large plasmids of about 140 kb (carrying spv) or 120 kb (lacking spv). Several segregants, lacking multidrug resistance, contained a plasmid smaller than the parental one and no longer hybridized with probes for the lost resistances. The genes mediating resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline in the [4,5,12:i:−] clone are different from those found in the pentadrug-resistant serotype Typhimurium DT104 clone. PMID:11257054
Ganner, Anja; Stoiber, Christian; Uhlik, Jakob Tizian; Dohnal, Ilse; Schatzmayr, Gerd
The target of the present study was to quantify the capacity of different commercially available yeast derivatives to bind E. coli F4 and Salmonella Typhimurium. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed for the obtained binding numbers and the mannan-, glucan- and protein contents of the products, respectively. In a subsequent experiment, different yeast strains were fermented and treated by autolysis or French press to obtain a concentrated yeast cell wall. The capacity of yeast cell wall products to bind E. coli F4 and Salmonella Typhimurium was assessed with a quantitative microbiological microplate-based assay by measuring the optical density (OD) as the growth parameter of adhering bacteria. Total mannan and glucan were determined by HPLC using an isocratic method and a Refractive Index (RI) Detector. Total protein was determined by Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN). Statistical analyses were performed with IBM SPSS V19 using Spearman correlation and Mann Whitney U Test.Different yeast derivatives show different binding numbers, which indicate differences in product quality.Interestingly, the binding numbers for Salmonella Typhimurium are consistently higher (between one and two orders of magnitude) than for E. coli F4.We could demonstrate some statistical significant correlations between the mannan- and glucan content of different yeast derivatives and pathogen binding numbers; however, for the different yeast strains fermented under standardized laboratory conditions, no statistically significant correlations between the mannan- and glucan content and the binding numbers for E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium were found.Interestingly, we could demonstrate that the yeast autolysis had a statistically significant difference on E. coli binding in contrast to the French press treatment. Salmonella binding was independent of these two treatments.As such, we could not give a clear statement about the binding factors involved. We propose that many more factors
Kim, Hyeryen; Choi, Younho; Heu, Sunggi; Ryu, Sangryeol
Background Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram-negative pathogen causing salmonellosis. Salmonella Typhimurium-targeting bacteriophages have been proposed as an alternative biocontrol agent to antibiotics. To further understand infection and interaction mechanisms between the host strains and the bacteriophages, the receptor diversity of these phages needs to be elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-five Salmonella phages were isolated and their receptors were identified by screening a Tn5 random mutant library of S. Typhimurium SL1344. Among them, three types of receptors were identified flagella (11 phages), vitamin B12 uptake outer membrane protein, BtuB (7 phages) and lipopolysaccharide-related O-antigen (7 phages). TEM observation revealed that the phages using flagella (group F) or BtuB (group B) as a receptor belong to Siphoviridae family, and the phages using O-antigen of LPS as a receptor (group L) belong to Podoviridae family. Interestingly, while some of group F phages (F-I) target FliC host receptor, others (F-II) target both FliC and FljB receptors, suggesting that two subgroups are present in group F phages. Cross-resistance assay of group B and L revealed that group L phages could not infect group B phage-resistant strains and reversely group B phages could not infect group L SPN9TCW-resistant strain. Conclusions/Significance In this report, three receptor groups of 25 newly isolated S. Typhimurium-targeting phages were determined. Among them, two subgroups of group F phages interact with their host receptors in different manner. In addition, the host receptors of group B or group L SPN9TCW phages hinder other group phage infection, probably due to interaction between receptors of their groups. This study provides novel insights into phage-host receptor interaction for Salmonella phages and will inform development of optimal phage therapy for protection against Salmonella. PMID:22927964
Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Vanparys, A; Volf, J; Mahu, M; Van Immerseel, F; Rychlik, I; Dewulf, J; Ducatelle, R; Pasmans, F
Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs are a major source of human foodborne salmonellosis. To reduce the number of infected pigs, acidification of feed or drinking water is a common practice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether some frequently used short- (SCFA) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are able to alter virulence gene expression and to decrease Salmonella Typhimurium colonization and shedding in pigs using well established and controlled in vitro and in vivo assays. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 4 SCFA (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) and 2 MCFA (caproic and caprylic acid) were determined using 54 porcine Salmonella Typhimurium field strains. MIC values increased at increasing pH-values and were two to eight times lower for MCFA than for SCFA. Expression of virulence gene fimA was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth supplemented with sub-MIC concentrations of caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). Expression of hilA and invasion in porcine intestinal epithelial cells was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth containing sub-MIC concentrations of butyric acid or propionic acid (10 mM) and caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). When given as feed supplement to pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, coated butyric acid decreased the levels of faecal shedding and intestinal colonization, but had no influence on the colonization of tonsils, spleen and liver. Uncoated fatty acids, however, did not influence fecal shedding, intestinal or tonsillar colonization in pigs. In conclusion, supplementing feed with certain coated fatty acids, such as butyric acid, may