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Sample records for salt processing research

  1. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-10-31

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report

  2. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-12-10

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report.

  3. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  4. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  5. Salt acclimation processes in wheat.

    PubMed

    Janda, Tibor; Darko, Éva; Shehata, Sami; Kovács, Viktória; Pál, Magda; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Young wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Mv Béres) were exposed to 0 or 25 mM NaCl for 11 days (salt acclimation). Thereafter the plants were irrigated with 500 mM NaCl for 5 days (salt stress). Irrigating the plants with a low concentration of NaCl successfully led to a reduction in chlorotic symptoms and in the impairment of the photosynthetic processes when the plants were exposed to subsequent high-dose salt treatment. After exposure to a high concentration of NaCl there was no difference in leaf Na content between the salt-acclimated and non-acclimated plants, indicating that salt acclimation did not significantly modify Na transport to the shoots. While the polyamine level was lower in salt-treated plants than in the control, salt acclimation led to increased osmotic potential in the leaves. Similarly, the activities of certain antioxidant enzymes, namely glutathione reductase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, were significantly higher in salt-acclimated plants. The results also suggest that while SOS1, SOS2 or NHX2 do not play a decisive role in the salt acclimation processes in young wheat plants; another stress-related gene, WALI6, may contribute to the success of the salt acclimation processes. The present study suggested that the responses of wheat plants to acclimation with low level of salt and to treatment with high doses of salt may be fundamentally different.

  6. Evaluation of salt whey as an ingredient in processed cheese.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, R; Metzger, L E

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether salt whey, obtained from a traditional Cheddar cheese manufacturing process, could be used as an ingredient in processed cheese. Due to its high salinity level, salt whey is underutilized and leads to disposal costs. Consequently, alternative uses need to be pursued. The major components of salt whey (salt and water) are used as ingredients in processed cheese. Three replicates of pasteurized processed cheese (PC), pasteurized processed cheese food (PCF), and pasteurized processed cheese spread (PCS) were manufactured. Additionally, within each type of processed cheese, a control formula (CF) and a salt whey formula (SW) were produced. For SW, the salt and water in the CF were replaced with salt whey. The composition, functionality, and sensory properties of the CF and SW treatments were compared within each type of processed cheese. Mean melt diameter obtained for the CF and SW processed cheeses were 48.5 and 49.4 mm, respectively, for PC, and they were 61.6 and 63 mm, respectively, for PCF. Tube-melt results for PCS was 75.1 and 79.8 mm for CF and SW treatments, respectively. The mean texture profile analysis (TPA) hardness values obtained, respectively, for the CF and SW treatments were 126 N and 115 N for PC, 62 N and 60 N for PCF, and 12 N and 12 N for PCS. There were no significant differences in composition or functionality between the CF and SW within each variety of processed cheese. Consequently, salt whey can be used as an ingredient in PC without adversely affecting processed cheese quality.

  7. SEPARATION PROCESS FOR THORIUM SALTS

    DOEpatents

    Bridger, G.L.; Whatley, M.E.; Shaw, K.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process is described for the separation of uranium, thorium, and rare earths extracted from monazite by digesting with sulfuric acid. By carefully increasing the pH of the solution, stepwise, over the range 0.8 to 5.5, a series of selective precipitations will be achieved, with the thorium values coming out at lower pH, the rare earths at intermediate pH and the uranium last. Some mixed precipitates will be obtained, and these may be treated by dissolving in HNO/sub 3/ and contacting with dibutyl phosphate, whereby thorium or uranium are taken up by the organic phase while the rare earths preferentially remain in the aqueous solution.

  8. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  9. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  10. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, Lawrence J.; Christensen, Dana C.

    1984-01-01

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  11. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  12. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    PubMed

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  13. 238Pu recovery and salt disposition from the molten salt oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remerowski, M. L.; Stimmel, Jay J.; Wong, Amy S.; Ramsey, Kevin B.

    2000-07-01

    We have begun designing and optimizing our recovery and recycling processes by experimenting with samples of "spent salt" produced by MSO treatment of surrogate waste in the reaction vessel at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Indian Head. One salt was produced by treating surrogate waste containing pyrolysis ash spiked with cerium. The other salt contains residues from MSO treatment of materials similar to those used in 238Pu processing, e.g., Tygon tubing, PVC bagout bags, HDPE bottles. Using these two salt samples, we will present results from our investigations.

  14. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  15. Comparative Toxicities of Salts on Microbial Processes in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Arpita; Bengtson, Per; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinization is a growing threat to global agriculture and carbon sequestration, but to date it remains unclear how microbial processes will respond. We studied the acute response to salt exposure of a range of anabolic and catabolic microbial processes, including bacterial (leucine incorporation) and fungal (acetate incorporation into ergosterol) growth rates, respiration, and gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. To distinguish effects of specific ions from those of overall ionic strength, we compared the addition of four salts frequently associated with soil salinization (NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, and K2SO4) to a nonsaline soil. To compare the tolerance of different microbial processes to salt and to interrelate the toxicity of different salts, concentration-response relationships were established. Growth-based measurements revealed that fungi were more resistant to salt exposure than bacteria. Effects by salt on C and N mineralization were indistinguishable, and in contrast to previous studies, nitrification was not found to be more sensitive to salt exposure than other microbial processes. The ion-specific toxicity of certain salts could be observed only for respiration, which was less inhibited by salts containing SO42− than Cl− salts, in contrast to the microbial growth assessments. This suggested that the inhibition of microbial growth was explained solely by total ionic strength, while ion-specific toxicity also should be considered for effects on microbial decomposition. This difference resulted in an apparent reduction of microbial growth efficiency in response to exposure to SO42− salts but not to Cl− salts; no evidence was found to distinguish K+ and Na+ salts. PMID:26801570

  16. MSO spent salt clean-up recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M G; Brummond, W A; Hipple, D L; Hsu, P C; Summers, L J; Von Holtz, E H; Wang, F T

    1997-02-01

    An effective process has been developed to separate metals, mineral residues, and radionuclides from spent salt, a secondary waste generated by Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). This process includes salt dissolution, pH adjustment, chemical reduction and/or sulfiding, filtration, ion exchange, and drying. The process uses dithionite to reduce soluble chromate and/or sulfiding agent to suppress solubilities of metal compounds in water. This process is capable of reducing the secondary waste to less than 5% of its original weight. It is a low temperature, aqueous process and has been demonstrated in the laboratory [1].

  17. Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gourishankar, K. V.

    1998-11-11

    Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Processable Polyaniline Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gul, Salma; Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali; Bilal, Salma

    2013-06-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most promising candidates for possible technological applications. PANI has potential applications in batteries, anion exchanger, tissue engineering, inhibition of steel corrosion, fuel cell, sensors and so on. However, its insolubility in common organic solvents limits its range of applications. In the present study an attempt has been made to synthesize soluble polyaniline salt via inverse polymerization pathway using benzoyl peroxide as oxidant and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as dopant as well as a surfactant. A mixture of chloroform and 2-butanol was used as dispersion medium for the first time. The influence of synthesis parameters such as concentration of aniline, benzoyl peroxide and DBSA on the yield and other properties of the resulting PANI salt was studied. The synthesized PANI salt was found to be completely soluble in DMSO, DMF, chloroform and in a mixture of toluene and 2-propanol. The synthesized polymer salt was also characterized with cyclic voltam-metry, SEM, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. TGA was used to analyze the thermal properties of synthesized polymer. The extent of doping of the PANI salt was determined from UV-Vis spectra and TGA analysis. The activation energy for the degradation of the polymer was calculated with the help of TGA.

  19. Applications of molten salts in reactive metals processing

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Averill, W.A.

    1993-12-31

    Pyrochemical processes using molten salts provide a unique opportunity for the extraction and refining of many reactive and valuable metals either directly from the beneficiated ore or from other process effluent that contain reactive metal compounds. This research program is aimed at developing a process for the production and recovery of reactive and valuable metals, such as zinc, tin, lead, bismuth and silver, in a hybrid reactor combining electrolytic production of the calcium reductant and in-situ utilization of this reductant for pyrochemical reduction of the metal compounds, such as halide or oxides. The process is equally suitable for producing other low melting metals, such as cadmium and antimony. The cell is typically operated below 1000C temperature. Attempts have been made to produce silver, lead, bismuth, tin and cerium by calciothermic reduction in a molten salt media. In a separate effort, calcium has been produced by an electrolytic dissociation of lime in a calcium chloride medium. The most important characteristic of the hybrid technology is its ability to produce metals under ``zero-waste`` conditions.

  20. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  1. Use of iodized salt in processed Philippine food products.

    PubMed

    Azanza, P; Cariaso, K; Dela Cerna, M C; de Ocampo, C; Galvez, F; Moises, M; Pujanes, K

    1998-06-01

    The effects of iodized salt use on the quality of processed Philippine food products were evaluated. Samples for the study included dried-salted and smoked fish products, nitrite-cured pork, and fermented plain and flavored shrimp pastes. Generally, no significant differences were detected between the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the test products prepared with iodized and unfortified NaCl salts. The salting process in each food operation significantly increased the iodine content of the test products. However, subsequent losses in the absorbed iodine were recorded due to the boiling, smoking, drying, fermenting and heating processes in the different operations. It was recommended that studies be undertaken on the addition of iodine to semi-processed or completely processed food products to lessen iodine losses.

  2. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  3. Processes of Salt Transport in Disturbed Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitrakar, S.; Miller, S. N.; Caffrey, P. A.; Stern, J.

    2013-12-01

    The extraction of coal bed methane natural gas involves removal of large amount of ground/Coal Bed Methane (CBM) water which is commonly discharged to surface-water drainages or constructed reservoirs. The extraction of large volume of water and its disposal on soil surface not only lowers the water table but also potentially accelerate soil erosions, contaminate surface water resources, and alter the natural flows. Due to the difference in quality and quantity between the surface discharge and disposed CBM water, this management strategy potentially poses threats to quality of surface water and soil. CBM discharge water typically contains high concentrations of sodium and low concentrations of calcium and magnesium, resulting in high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Similarly, it also contains high concentration of other ions which could results in increasing salt concentrations. Our study area is in the Atlantic Rim development area of the Muddy Creek, SE of Wyoming, a tributary to Colorado River, where significant development of CBM wells is ongoing. Since Muddy Creek is part of the Upper Colorado River, the greatest concern is its potential to contribute to surface water quality (primarily salinity) impairment downstream. However, very few studies have made efforts to assess the water quality in this particular region. The alteration of stream water quality in this region is still not fully understood if it due to CBM water discharge or via soil/water interactions, erosion, and sediment transport. Efforts are being made to identify crucial water quality parameters such as SAR and EC along with the quantification of solute/salt loadings at both CBM discharge fed streams and natural streams at different seasons to distinguish effect of CBM discharge on water quality. We have been continuously monitoring water quality on monthly basis and discharge measurement on daily basis at sampling sites that are placed to discriminate CBM fed streams and natural streams. The

  4. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt.

    PubMed

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450-470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl-KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. •The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept.•This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L.•The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going.

  5. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    PubMed Central

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  6. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Bannochie, C. J.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-07-25

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  7. SALT tracker upgrade utilizing aerospace processes and procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Raoul; Coetzee, Chris; Strydom, Ockert; Brink, Janus; Browne, Keith; Wiid, Eben; Lochner, Wouter; Nelson, Grant; Rabe, Paul; Wilkinson, Martin; Moore, Vic; Malan, Adelaide; Love, Jonathan; Koeslag, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    The SALT Tracker was originally designed to carry a payload of approximately 1000 kg. The current loading exceeds 1300 kg and more instrumentation, for example, the Near-Infrared (NIR) arm of the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS), is being designed for the telescope. In general, provision also had to be made to expand the envelope of the tracker payload carrying capacity for future growth as some of the systems on SALT are currently running with small safety margins. It was therefore decided to upgrade the SALT Tracker to be able to carry a payload of 1875 kg. Before the project "Kick-Off" it became evident that neither SALT nor SAAO had the required standard of formal processes and procedures to execute a project of this nature. The Project Management, Mechanical Design and Review processes and procedures were adopted from the Aerospace Industry and tailored for our application. After training the project team in the application of these processes/procedures and gaining their commitment, the Tracker Upgrade Project was "Kicked-Off" in early May 2013. The application of these aerospace-derived processes and procedures, as used during the Tracker Upgrade Project, were very successful as is shown in this paper where the authors also highlight some of the details of the implemented processes and procedures as well as specific challenges that needed to be met while executing a project of this nature and technical complexity.

  8. Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Farmer, J.; Hoenig, C.; Krikorian, O.H.; Upadhye, R. ); Gay, R.L.; Stewart, A.; Yosim, S. . Energy Systems Group)

    1991-05-13

    We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000{degrees}C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700{degrees}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Renewing Liquid Fueled Molten Salt Reactor Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towell, Rusty; NEXT Lab Team

    2016-09-01

    Globally there is a desperate need for affordable, safe, and clean energy on demand. More than anything else, this would raise the living conditions of those in poverty around the world. An advanced reactor that utilizes liquid fuel and molten salts is capable of meeting these needs. Although, this technology was demonstrated in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL in the 60's, little progress has been made since the program was cancelled over 40 years ago. A new research effort has been initiated to advance the technical readiness level of key reactor components. This presentation will explain the motivation and initial steps for this new research initiative.

  10. Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R.; Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

  11. Salt, processed meat and the risk of cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Morrison, Howard; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2011-03-01

    This study assesses the association between salt added at the table, processed meat and the risk of various cancers. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 19 732 patients with histologically confirmed incident cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, prostate, testis, kidney, bladder, brain, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or leukaemia, and 5039 population controls,between 1994 and 1997. Measurement included information on socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 years before the study. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived through unconditional logistic regression. Compared with never adding salt at the table, always or often adding salt at the table was associated with an increased risk of stomach, lung, testicular and bladder cancer. Processed meat was significantly related to the risk of the stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, prostate, testis, kidney and bladder cancer and leukaemia; the odds ratios for the highest quartile ranged from 1.3 to 1.7. The findings add to the evidence that high consumption of salt and processed meat may play a role in the aetiology of several cancers.

  12. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  13. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W. L.; Snyder, C. T.; Frank, Steven; Riley, Brian

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  14. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend. It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives. The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  15. CO2 decomposition using electrochemical process in molten salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Koya; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2012-08-01

    The electrochemical decomposition of CO2 gas to carbon and oxygen gas in LiCl-Li2O and CaCl2-CaO molten salts was studied. This process consists of electrochemical reduction of Li2O and CaO, as well as the thermal reduction of CO2 gas by the respective metallic Li and Ca. Two kinds of ZrO2 solid electrolytes were tested as an oxygen ion conductor, and the electrolytes removed oxygen ions from the molten salts to the outside of the reactor. After electrolysis in both salts, the aggregations of nanometer-scale amorphous carbon and rod-like graphite crystals were observed by transmission electron microscopy. When 9.7 %CO2-Ar mixed gas was blown into LiCl-Li2O and CaCl2-CaO molten salts, the current efficiency was evaluated to be 89.7 % and 78.5 %, respectively, by the exhaust gas analysis and the supplied charge. When a solid electrolyte with higher ionic conductivity was used, the current and carbon production became larger. It was found that the rate determining step is the diffusion of oxygen ions into the ZrO2 solid electrolyte.

  16. Conditioning of Waste LiCl Salt from Pyrochemical Process Using Zeolite A

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.G.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, E.H.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.H.

    2006-07-01

    The electrolytic (LiCl-Li{sub 2}O) reduction process (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process; ACP) and the electrorefining process, which are being developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), are to generate two types of molten salt wastes such as a LiCl salt and a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, respectively. These waste salts must meet certain criteria for a disposal. A conditioning process composed of an immobilization and then a thermal treatment, for LiCl salt waste from the ACP has been developed using zeolite A. The immobilization of molten LiCl salt waste was conducted in a blender by mixing it with zeolite A at 923 K, producing a salt-loaded zeolite (SLZ). During the immobilization, the zeolite A was transformed to zeolite Li-A [Li{sub 2}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 80}], with some minor phases such as a Li-type sodalite [Li{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}-Sod; Li{sub 8}(AlSiO{sub 4}){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}] and Nepheline for some zeolite-rich condition. In order to obtain a final ceramic waste form with Na-type sodalite [Na{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}-Sod; Na{sub 8}(AlSiO{sub 4}){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}], the very highly leach-resistant crystal phase, the SLZ with r (=LiCl/zeolite) < 0.3 should be treated in a high temperature furnace above 1173 K, which was independent from an addition of glass frit during a mixing. (authors)

  17. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  18. Disposition of salt-waste from pyrochemical nuclear fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.

    2007-07-01

    Waste salts from pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuel can be immobilised in sodalite if consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at {approx}750 deg. C/100 MPa in thick stainless steel 316 cans. Other canning materials for this purpose also look possible. Spodiosite-based waste forms do not look promising in terms of leach resistance and their incorporation of alkali ions and compatibility with other phases which could potentially accommodate fission products, such as NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} or alumino-phosphate glass. Chloro- or fluor-apatite-based waste forms however have been reported to successfully accommodate fission products and alkalis which would be derived from either chloride- or fluoride-based waste pyro-processing salts. The presence of 10 or 20 wt% of additional Whitlockite, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, should allow chemical flexibility to maintain the same qualitative phase assemblage when there are variations in the waste feed and in the waste/precursor ratios. Experimental verification of incorporation of the full complement of waste salts and fission products is not yet complete however. Apatite-rich samples could likely be HIPed in Inconel 600 cans. Other candidate HIP canning materials such as Alloy 22 or Inconel 625 are under study by encapsulating them in the candidate waste form and studying their interaction or otherwise with the waste form. (author)

  19. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  20. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  1. SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

    2001-12-01

    This document is the annual technical progress report for Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT41026 entitled Proof-of-Concept Research for an Advanced Design Criterion to Improve Working Gas Capacity for Natural Gas Storage Caverns in Salt Formations. This report covers the reporting period from October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001. During this reporting period, the project was initiated and work was performed to develop structural models that will be used to evaluate two compressed natural gas storage caverns in the McIntosh Dome northwest of Mobile, Alabama. Information necessary to define the structural models include site-specific stress, temperature, geometry, stratigraphy, and operating scenarios in the dome and for the caverns. Additionally, material model development for the salt at the McIntosh Dome was initiated. Material model development activities include acquisition of salt core for testing, laboratory testing, and regression analyses to determine site-specific model parameter values that describe the behavior of salt around a storage cavern. Although not performed during this reporting period, the information and models developed will be used to perform advanced design storage cavern analyses for the Bay Gas caverns to determine the operating pressure ranges to maintain stable conditions.

  2. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals

  3. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation -- DWPF Late Wash Facility, Salt Process Cell and Chemical Process Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.

    1994-10-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Nuclear Waste will be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for long term storage and disposal. This is a nuclear criticality safety evaluation for the Late Wash Facility (LWF), the Salt Processing Cell (SPC) and the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). of the DWPF. Waste salt solution is processed in the Tank Farm In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process and is then further washed in the DWPF Late Wash Facility (LWF) before it is fed to the DWPF Salt Processing Cell. In the Salt Processing Cell the precipitate slurry is processed in the Precipitate Reactor (PR) and the resultant Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) produce is combined with the sludge feed and frit in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell to produce a melter feed. The waste is finally immobilized in the Melt Cell. Material in the Tank Farm and the ITP and Extended Sludge processes have been shown to be safe against a nuclear criticality by others. The precipitate slurry feed from ITP and the first six batches of sludge feed are safe against a nuclear criticality and this evaluation demonstrates that the processes in the LWF, the SPC and the CPC do not alter the characteristics of the materials to compromise safety.

  4. Research Planning Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofton, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

  5. Process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts and derivatives thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, R.I.; Wang, G.

    2000-07-04

    A process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. In particular, a process for the preparation of (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. Furthermore, a process is described wherein the (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts is a 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl trimethylammonium salt, preferably in chiral form. The protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts lead to L-carnitine when in chiral form.

  6. Process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts and derivatives thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.; Wang, Guijun

    2000-01-01

    A process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. In particular, a process for the preparation of (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. Furthermore, a process is described wherein the (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts is a 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl trimethylammonium salt, preferably in chiral form. The protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts lead to L-carnitine (9) when in chiral form (5).

  7. Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I.

    2013-07-01

    A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

  8. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  9. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, S.P.

    1997-07-08

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

  10. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Shih-Perng

    1997-01-01

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  11. The multicultural research process.

    PubMed

    Evans, Bronwynne C

    2006-07-01

    Qualitative research allows students to explore the complex experiences of health and illness and examine assumptions related to class, race, gender, and ethnicity. Faculty who teach qualitative research can promote culturally congruent nursing practice, and students can learn how such practice is grounded in research. The experiential approach taken in this class acquainted students with basic principles of qualitative research, used such principles to foster recognition of assumptions and increase cultural awareness, and encouraged a new way of knowing and being in nursing. The learning goals were to experience the "flavor" of qualitative data analysis using a filmed interview of an American Indian nurse and written interviews of a Hispanic/Latina nurse and nursing student, speaking about their educational experiences in nursing. In this process, the nurse educator exemplified principles of multicultural education for these budding teachers, such as weaving cultural content across the curriculum and role modeling concern for cultural issues in teaching, research, and service.

  12. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco-Martin, Laura; Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  13. Incorporation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in the evaluation of solubility requirements for the salt selection process: a case study using phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Wong, Harvey

    2013-10-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, salt is commonly used to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble compounds. Currently, there is a limited understanding on the solubility requirement for salts that will translate to improvement in oral exposure. Despite the obvious need, there is very little research reported in this area mainly due to the complexity of such a system. To our knowledge, no report has been published to guide this important process and salt solubility requirement still remains unanswered. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling offers a means to dynamically integrate the complex interplay of the processes determining oral absorption. A sensitivity analysis was performed using a PBPK model describing phenytoin to determine a solubility requirement for phenytoin salts needed to achieve optimal oral bioavailability for a given dose. Based on the analysis, it is predicted that phenytoin salts with solubility greater than 0.3 mg/mL would show no further increases in oral bioavailability. A salt screen was performed using a variety of phenytoin salts. The piperazine and sodium salts showed the lowest and highest aqueous solubility and were tested in vivo. Consistent with our analysis, we observed no significant differences in oral bioavailability for these two salts despite an approximate 60 fold difference in solubility. Our study illustrates that higher solubility salts sometimes provide no additional improvements in oral bioavailability and PBPK modeling can be utilized as an important tool to provide guidance to the salt selection and define a salt solubility requirement.

  14. The Serendipitous Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Ryder, Phyllis Mentzell

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study asking faculty in the first-year writing program and instruction librarians about their research process focusing on results specifically related to serendipity. Steps to prepare for serendipity are highlighted as well as a model for incorporating serendipity into a first-year writing…

  15. Research into Process Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Burton G.; And Others

    These papers are related to the basic comprehensive research and development plan of the Eastern Regional Institute for Education (ERIE). The first paper, Improving Process Education: A Comprehensive Plan by Burton G. Andreas, describes the comprehensive plan and introduces the succeeding papers. The goals of the program are to improve process…

  16. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  17. OCCUPATIONAL ALLERGY AND ASTHMA AMONG SALT WATER FISH PROCESSING WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Robins, Thomas G; Miller, Mary E; Bateman, Eric; Smuts, Marius; Baatjies, Roslynn; Lopata, Andreas L

    2010-01-01

    Background Fish processing is a common economic activity in Southern Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and host determinants of allergic symptoms, allergic sensitization, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and asthma among workers processing saltwater fish. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 594 currently employed workers in two processing plants involved in pilchard canning and fishmeal processing. A modified European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire was used. Skin prick tests (SPT) used extracts of common airborne allergens, fresh fish (pilchard, anchovy, maasbanker, mackerel, red eye) and fishmeal. Spirometry and methacholine challenge tests (tidal breathing method) used ATS guidelines. Results Work-related ocular-nasal symptoms (26%) were more common than asthma symptoms (16%). The prevalence of atopy was 36%, while 7% were sensitized to fish species and 26% had NSBH (PC20 ≤ 8 mg/ml or ≥12% increase in FEV1 post bronchodilator). The prevalence of probable occupational asthma was 1.8% and fish allergic rhino-conjunctivitis 2.6%. Women were more likely to report work-related asthma symptoms (OR=1.94) and have NSBH (OR=3.09), while men were more likely to be sensitized to fish (OR=2.06) and have airway obstruction (OR=4.17). Atopy (OR=3.16) and current smoking (OR=2.37), but not habitual seafood consumption were associated with sensitization to fish. Conclusions Based on comparison with previous published studies, the prevalence of occupational asthma to salt water fish is lower than due to shellfish. The gendered distribution of work and exposures in fish processing operations together with atopy and cigarette smoking are important determinants of occupational allergy and asthma. PMID:18726880

  18. Removal of uranium from spent salt from the moltensalt oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, L.; Hsu, P. C.; Holtz, E. V.; Hipple, D.; Wang, F.; Adamson, M.

    1997-03-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that has the capability of destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials. In this process, combustible waste and air are introduced into the molten sodium carbonate salt. The organic constituents of the waste materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, while most of the inorganic constituents, including toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes, are retained in the molten salt bath. As these impurities accumulate in the salt, the process efficiency drops and the salt must be replaced. An efficient process is needed to separate these toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes from the spent carbonate to avoid generating a large volume of secondary waste. Toxic metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc etc. are removed by a method described elsewhere. This paper describes a separation strategy developed for radioisotope removal from the mixed spent salt, as well as experimental results, as part of the spent salt cleanup. As the MSO system operates, inorganic products resulting from the reaction of halides, sulfides, phosphates, metals and radionuclides with carbonate accumulate in the salt bath. These must be removed to prevent complete conversion of the sodium carbonate, which would result in eventual losses of destruction efficiency and acid scrubbing capability. There are two operational modes for salt removal: (1) during reactor operation a slip-stream of molten salt is continuously withdrawn with continuous replacement by carbonate, or (2) the spent salt melt is discharged completely and the reactor then refilled with carbonate in batch mode. Because many of the metals and/or radionuclides captured in the salt are hazardous and/or radioactive, spent salt removed from the reactor would create a large secondary waste stream without further treatment. A spent salt clean up/recovery system is necessary to segregate these materials and minimize the amount of

  19. Tank 37H Salt Removal Batch Process and Salt Dissolution Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    2001-09-18

    Tank 30H is the receipt tank for concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. Tank 30H has had problems, such as cooling coil failure, which limit its ability to receive concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. SRS High Level Waste wishes to use Tank 37H as the receipt tank for the 3H Evaporator concentrate. Prior to using Tank 37H as the 3H Evaporator concentrate receipt tank, HLW must remove 50 inches of salt cake from the tank. They requested SRTC to evaluate various salt removal methods for Tank 37H. These methods include slurry pumps, Flygt mixers, the modified density gradient method, and molecular diffusion.

  20. SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a field-scale application demonstrating the use of continuum damage mechanics to determine the minimum allowable operating pressure of compressed natural gas storage caverns in salt formations. A geomechanical study was performed of two natural gas storage caverns (one existing and one planned) utilizing state-of-the-art salt mechanics to assess the potential for cavern instability and collapse. The geomechanical study consisted primarily of laboratory testing, theoretical development, and analytical/numerical tasks. A total of 50 laboratory tests was performed on salt specimens to aid in the development and definition of the material model used to predict the behavior of rock salt. Material model refinement was performed that improved the predictive capability of modeling salt during damage healing, recovery of work-hardened salt, and the behavior of salt at stress states other than triaxial compression. Results of this study showed that the working gas capacity of the existing cavern could be increased by 18 percent and the planned cavern could be increased by 8 percent using the proposed method compared to a conventional stress-based method. Further refinement of the continuum damage model is recommended to account for known behavior of salt at stress conditions other than triaxial compression that is not characterized accurately by the existing model.

  1. Salt marsh hydrology data web site facilitates research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, L. R.; Reeves, H. W.

    The interface between maritime forests and inter-tidal salt marshes along the southeastern coast of the United States is a major ecological boundary characterized by a sequence of botanical zones that typically consist of pine/ oak forest>Iva>Juncus>Salicornia>Spartina. In addition to questions regarding the physical and chemical factors that govern this ecotone, this interface is of interest because of the potential for groundwater flow to transfer nutrients and pollutants from developed uplands to the adjacent marshes. The interface is also of interest because it is presumably migrating upslope as a result of ongoing sea level rise and concomitant aquifer salinization.A new Web site, http://links.baruch.sc.edu/data/GRNDWATER/data/data.htm, contains long-term and spatially dense measurements of groundwater heads and salinity from a network of nested piezometers that has been installed along three forest-marsh transects across the Crab Haul Creek finger marsh basin at the North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve in Georgetown County South Carolina (Figure 1).

  2. Management of salt waste from electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.F.; Patterson, M.N.; Lee, J.; Wang, Y.; Versey, J.; Phongikaroon, S.

    2013-07-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electro-refiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form. (authors)

  3. Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

    2013-10-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

  4. Emissions from energetic material waste during the Molten Salt Destruction process

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-07-05

    The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process is an alternative to open burn/open detonation for destroying energetic materials; MSD has inherently low gaseous emissions, and the salt bath can scrub both acidic gases and particulates. It was demonstrated that high explosives and a liquid propellant can be safely and completely destroyed using MSD. Gaseous emissions of NOx and CO are very low. Nitrate builds up in the salt bath when nitrate-rich materials are destroyed, but addition fuel reduces the nitrate to NO. A program has been begun to add catalytic materials to the bed to further reduce emissions; a small molten salt bath has been constructed for chemical kinetic studies.

  5. Mapping the Collaborative Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanek, Julie Reed; Scholz, Carrie; Garcia, Alicia N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant federal investments in the production of high-quality education research, the direct use of that research in policy and practice is not evident. Some education researchers are increasingly employing collaborative research models that use structures and processes to integrate practitioners into the research process in an effort…

  6. Study of salt transport processes in Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Roy

    1992-01-01

    The study described here is a subset of a broader climate-related study, and is focused primarily on salinity intrusion into Delaware Bay and River. Given changes in freshwater discharge into the Delaware River as determined from the larger study, and given probable sea level rise estimates, the purpose here is to calculate the distribution of salinity within Delaware Bay and River. The approach adopted for this study is composed of two parts: an analysis of existing physical data in order to derive a basic understanding of the salt dynamics, and numerical simulation of future conditions based on this analysis. There are two important constraints in the model used: it must resolve the spatial scales important to the salt dynamics, and it must be sufficiently efficient to allow extensive sensitivity studies. This has led to the development of a 3D model that uses harmonic decomposition in time and irregular finite elements in space. All nonlinear terms are retained in the governing equations, including quadratic bottom stress, advection, and wave transport (continuity nonlinearity). These equations are coupled to the advection-diffusion equation for salt so that density gradient forcing is included in the momentum equations. Although this study is still in progress, the model has reproduced sea level variations and the 3D structure of tidal and residual currents very well. In addition, the study has addressed the effects of a 1-meter rise in mean sea level on hydrodynamics of the study area. Current work is focused on salt dynamics.

  7. Complex electronic waste treatment - An effective process to selectively recover copper with solutions containing different ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H I; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2016-11-01

    Recovery of valuable metals from electronic waste has been highlighted by the EU directives. The difficulties for recycling are induced by the high complexity of such waste. In this research, copper could be selectively recovered using an ammonia-based process, from industrially processed information and communication technology (ICT) waste with high complexity. A detailed understanding on the role of ammonium salt was focused during both stages of leaching copper into a solution and the subsequent step for copper recovery from the solution. By comparing the reactivity of the leaching solution with different ammonium salts, their physiochemical behaviour as well as the leaching efficiency could be identified. The copper recovery rate could reach 95% with ammonium carbonate as the leaching salt. In the stage of copper recovery from the solution, electrodeposition was introduced without an additional solvent extraction step and the electrochemical behaviour of the solution was figured out. With a careful control of the electrodeposition conditions, the current efficiency could be improved to be 80-90% depending on the ammonia salts and high purity copper (99.9wt.%). This research provides basis for improving the recyclability and efficiency of copper recovery from such electronic waste and the whole process design for copper recycling.

  8. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (p<0.05) until the end of process; GSH-Px was the most unstable one followed by catalase. Antioxidant enzyme activities were negatively correlated with TBARS (p<0.05), but the correlations were decreased with increasing process temperature. Salt showed inhibitory effect on all antioxidant enzyme activities and was concentration dependent. These results indicated that when process temperature and salt content were low at the same time during dry-salted bacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation.

  9. Research in Stochastic Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    appear. G. Kallianpur, Finitely additive approach to nonlinear filtering, Proc. Bernoulli Soc. Conf. on Stochastic Processes, T. Hida , ed., Springer, to...Nov. 85, in Proc. Bernoulli Soc. Conf. on Stochastic Processes, T. Hida , ed., Springer, to appear. i. Preparation T. Hsing, Extreme value theory for...1507 Carroll, R.J., Spiegelman, C.H., Lan, K.K.G., Bailey , K.T. and Abbott, R.D., Errors in-variables for binary regression models, Aug.82. 1508

  10. Integrated processes for desalination and salt production: A mini-review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenten, I. Gede; Ariono, Danu; Purwasasmita, Mubiar; Khoirudin

    2017-03-01

    The scarcity of fresh water due to the rapid growth of population and industrial activities has increased attention on desalination process as an alternative freshwater supply. In desalination process, a large volume of saline water is treated to produce freshwater while a concentrated brine is discharged back into the environment. The concentrated brine contains a high concentration of salt and also chemicals used during desalination operations. Due to environmental impacts arising from improper treatment of the brine and more rigorous regulations of the pollution control, many efforts have been devoted to minimize, treat, or reuse the rejected brine. One of the most promising alternatives for brine handling is reusing the brine which can reduce pollution, minimize waste volume, and recover valuable salt. Integration of desalination and salt production can be implemented to reuse the brine by recovering water and the valuable salts. The integrated processes can achieve zero liquid discharge, increase water recovery, and produce the profitable salt which can reduce the overall desalination cost. This paper gives an overview of desalination processes and the brine impacts. The integrated processes, including their progress and advantages in dual-purpose desalination and salt production are discussed.

  11. Information Processing Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    LABORATORY AIR FORCE WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL LABORATORIES AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND t= WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE , OHIO 45433-6503 1b L) .U u NOTICE When...Speech Recognition 14-9 TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.2.6. SPAM: Rule- Based Systems for Aerial Photointerpretation 4-104.3. Bibliography 4-125. Research in...Reconfiguration 6-36.5. Prototype for Distributed Sensing 6-46.6. Transaction Based Systems 6-46.7. Bibliography 6-57. Research in Cooperative User

  12. Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

    2012-01-30

    The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation

  13. Formulating poultry processing sanitizers from alkaline salts of fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though some poultry processing operations remove microorganisms from carcasses; other processing operations cause cross-contamination that spreads microorganisms between carcasses, processing water, and processing equipment. One method used by commercial poultry processors to reduce microbial contam...

  14. Research on probabilistic information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, W.

    1973-01-01

    The work accomplished on probabilistic information processing (PIP) is reported. The research proposals and decision analysis are discussed along with the results of research on MSC setting, multiattribute utilities, and Bayesian research. Abstracts of reports concerning the PIP research are included.

  15. Proceedings of the 7th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Steininger, Walter; Bollingerfehr, Willhelm

    2017-01-01

    The 7th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Washington, DC on September 7-9, 2016. Over fifty participants representing governmental agencies, internationally recognized salt research groups, universities, and private companies helped advance the technical basis for salt disposal of radioactive waste. Representatives from several United States federal agencies were able to attend, including the Department of Energy´s Office of Environmental Management and Office of Nuclear Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. A similar representation from the German ministries showcased the covenant established in a Memorandum of Understanding executed between the United States and Germany in 2011. The US/German workshops´ results and activities also contribute significantly to the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club repository research agenda.

  16. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting.

  17. Research in Stochastic Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    of stable processes: Spectral and moving average representations." S. Cambanis and A. Soltani , Z. Wahrsch. verw. Geb., 66, 1984, 593-612. "Comparisons...average representation for stationary random fields and Beurling’s theorem." A. Soltani , Ann. Probabilit, 12, 1984, 120-132. S "Decomposability of p

  18. [Deposition and burial of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh: research progress].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Song, Jin-Ming; Li, Xue-Gang; Yuan, Hua-Mao; Li, Ning; Duan, Li-Qin

    2013-07-01

    Coastal salt marsh has higher potential of carbon sequestration, playing an important role in mitigating global warming, while coastal saline soil is the largest organic carbon pool in the coastal salt marsh carbon budget. To study the carbon deposition and burial in this soil is of significance for clearly understanding the carbon budget of coastal salt marsh. This paper summarized the research progress on the deposition and burial of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh from the aspects of the sources of coastal salt marsh soil organic carbon, soil organic carbon storage and deposition rate, burial mechanisms of soil organic carbon, and the relationships between the carbon sequestration in coastal salt marsh and the global climate change. Some suggestions for the future related researches were put forward: 1) to further study the underlying factors that control the variability of carbon storage in coastal salt marsh, 2) to standardize the methods for measuring the carbon storage and the deposition and burial rates of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh, 3) to quantify the lateral exchange of carbon flux between coastal salt marsh and adjacent ecosystems under the effects of tide, and 4) to approach whether the effects of global warming and the increased productivity could compensate for the increase of the organic carbon decomposition rate resulted from sediment respiration. To make clear the driving factors determining the variability of carbon sequestration rate and how the organic carbon storage is affected by climate change and anthropogenic activities would be helpful to improve the carbon sequestration capacity of coastal salt marshes in China.

  19. Research in Stochastic Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    the Statistics Department, involving permaner.c faculty, visitors and students. UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED SAME AS RP-T EO TIC USERS ED 22a NAME OF...possible extensions of large deviation thoery (see (l] and references therein). For the case of Markov processes we attempted to derive the results of...homoscedastic errors, several classes of efficient, balanced designs for factorial experiments were constructed in [2]. In this project, the author has

  20. Information Processing Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    developing demonstrable vision systems. This report reviews out progress since the October 1984 workshop proceedings. The highlights in out Program in...A new class of algorithms based on the Boltzmann Machine is introduced and compared to previously developed algorithms. The report includes a review ...34compression analysis" method embodies a post -processing strategy that rewrites learned control rules, increasing their readability and reducing their match

  1. Research in Laser Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-15

    N . Zare, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 3094 (1970). 2J. N , Bardsley, B. R. Junker, and D. W, Norcross, Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 502 (1976). T . U . Ducas, M. G ...l)] g ,1/[Na(/j)k’„ ,, for n >nH whose average behavior is characterized by an excita- tion temperature between T , and T . Using predicted scaling...Office of Naval Research «« G ( T / g ARPA Order No. 2683, Amendment 8 Program Code No. 8E20 Contractor: University of Colorado Effective Date

  2. Effect of emulsifying salts on the physicochemical properties of processed cheese made from Mozzarella.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Liu, H

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types and concentrations of emulsifying salts (trisodium citrate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, and disodium orthophosphate) on the physicochemical properties of processed cheese. The physicochemical composition, texture profile, degree of casein dissociation, fat particle size, color, and nuclear magnetic resonance profile (NMR) of processed cheese were determined. Hardness, degree of casein dissociation, and pH increased as the concentration of emulsifying salts increased. The fat particle size of processed cheese was significantly influenced by the type of emulsifying salts, with processed cheese made with sodium hexametaphosphate having larger particles (4.68 µm) than cheeses made with the other salts (from 2.71 to 3.30 µm). The processed cheese prepared with trisodium citrate was whiter than those prepared with the other emulsifying salts. The NMR analysis showed that the relaxation time of processed cheese of 10 to 100 ms accounted for a major proportion, indicating that the moisture in processed cheese was mainly bound water combined with the fat globule and hydrated casein.

  3. A Process Research Framework: The International Process Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    www.sei.cmu.edu/iprc A Process Research Framework The International Process Research Consortium Eileen Forrester, editor Julia Allen Vic Basili...valuable mix of intuition and imagination. • Julia Allen, Software Engineering Institute • Vic Basili, University of Maryland • Barry Boehm...process. IPRC Framework xvii A colleague from SAIC, Ms. Mary Ann Herndon, attended several of our workshops until she left to form her own company

  4. Combined gettering and molten salt process for tritium recovery from lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Finn, P.A.; Bartlit, J.; Tanaka, S.; Teria, T.; Yamawaki, M.

    1988-02-01

    A new tritium recovery concept from lithium has been developed as part of the US/Japan collaboration on Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor Design Studies. This concept combines the ..gamma..-gettering process as the front end to recover tritium from the coolant, and a molten salt recovery process to extract tritium for fuel processing. A secondary lithium is used to regenerate the tritium from the gettering bed and, in the process, increases the tritium concentration by a factor of about 20. That way, the required size of the molten salt process becomes very small. A potential problem is the possible poisoning of the gettering bed by the salt dissolved in lithium. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Image Processing Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-30

    Technical Journal, Vol. 36, pp. 653-709, May 1957. -50- 4. Image Restoration anJ Enhdikcement Projects Imaje restoration ani image enhancement are...n (9K =--i_ (9) -sn =0- 2. where o is the noise energy ani I is an identity matrix. n Color Imaje Scanner Calibration: A common problem in the...line of the imaje , and >at. The statistics cf the process N(k) can now be given in terms of the statistics of m , 8 2 , and the sequence W= (cLe (5

  6. Application of salt whey in process cheese food made from Cheddar cheese containing exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Janevski, O; Hassan, A N; Metzger, L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to use salt whey in making process cheese food (PCF) from young (3-wk-old) Cheddar cheese. To maximize the level of salt whey in process cheese, low salt (0.6%) Cheddar cheese was used. Because salt reduction causes undesirable physiochemical changes during extended cheese ripening, young Cheddar cheese was used in making process cheese. An exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain (JFR) and a non-EPS-producing culture (DVS) were applied in making Cheddar cheese. To obtain similar composition and pH in the EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses, the cheese making protocol was modified in the latter cheese to increase its moisture content. No differences were seen in the proteolysis between EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses. Cheddar cheese made with the EPS-producing strain was softer, and less gummy and chewy than that made with the EPS-negative culture. Three-week-old Cheddar cheese was shredded and stored frozen until used for PCF manufacture. Composition of Cheddar cheese was determined and used to formulate the corresponding PCF (EPS-positive PCF and EPS-negative PCF). The utilization of low salt Cheddar cheese allowed up to 13% of salt whey containing 9.1% salt to be used in process cheese making. The preblend was mixed in the rapid visco analyzer at 1,000 rpm and heated at 95°C for 3 min; then, the process cheese was transferred into copper cylinders, sealed, and kept at 4°C. Process cheese foods contained 43.28% moisture, 23.7% fat, 18.9% protein, and 2% salt. No difference in composition was seen between the EPS-positive and EPS-negative PCF. The texture profile analysis showed that EPS-positive PCF was softer, and less gummy and chewy than EPS-negative PCF. The end apparent viscosity and meltability were higher in EPS-positive PCF than in EPS-negative PCF, whereas emulsification time was shorter in the former cheese. Sensory evaluation indicated that salt whey at the level used in this study did not affect

  7. Proceedings of the 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Leigh, Christi; Stein, Walter; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Von Berlepsche, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    The 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Santa Fe New Mexico September 8-10, 2014. The forty seven registered participants were equally divided between the United States (US) and Germany, with one participant from The Netherlands. The agenda for the 2014 workshop was under development immediately upon finishing the 4th Workshop. Ongoing, fundamental topics such as thermomechanical behavior of salt, plugging and sealing, the safety case, and performance assessment continue to advance the basis for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt formations. The utility of a salt underground research laboratory (URL) remains an intriguing concept engendering discussion of testing protocol. By far the most interest in this years’ workshop pertained to operational safety. Given events at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this discussion took on a new sense of relevance and urgency.

  8. The Effect of Salt-Processed Psoralea corylifolia on Generative Organ Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Gen-hua; Yan, Cui-ping; Gao, Qian-qian; Chen, Zhi-peng

    2016-01-01

    Psoralen and isopsoralen are two isomers and main effective components within Psoralea corylifolia. In order to investigate the salt-processing effect on tissue distribution characters of psoralen and isopsoralen, a sensitive and accurate ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of the 2 components in rats' tissues after administration of the extracts that came from either crude or salt-processed Psoralea corylifolia L. Data displayed that both areas under the curve (AUC) of psoralen and isopsoralen from salt-processed scurfpea fruit group were significantly increased compared with that of the crude herb group, especially in heart (p < 0.05), ovary, and testes (p < 0.001). Though the RE and RCmax of psoralen and isopsoralen in all of the investigated organs were over 1.0, generative organs kept the maximum value. The experiment manifested that salt-processing of scurfpea fruit can increase the distribution of psoralen and isopsoralen to generative organs, heart and spleen, and the distribution of psoralen and isopsoralen to generative organs is significantly higher compared to heart and spleen (p < 0.01). Results indicate that salt-processing of scurfpea fruit can significantly increase the distribution of psoralen and isopsoralen to generative organs. PMID:27840768

  9. Fused salt process for purifying zirconium and/or hafnium tetrachlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a fused salt process for continuously purifying zirconium and/or hafnium tetrachloride dissolved in a molten bath in a vessel. It comprises: maintaining a mass of a suitable mixture of salts, including zirconium and/or hafnium tetrachloride; heating the mixture of salts to a temperature at or immediately below the vaporization temperature of the zirconium and/or hafnium tetrachloride at which temperature the mixture of salts is fused to form a molten, tetrachloride-dissolving bath; continuously introducing into the dissolving bath a zirconium and/or hafnium tetrachloride powder; heating a portion of the dissolving bath in situ to a temperature higher than the vaporization temperature of the zirconium and/or hafnium tetrachloride so as to vaporize the tetrachloride; internally circulating the dissolving bath whereby the portion of the dissolving bath at the high temperature circulate with the bath at the lower temperature.

  10. US/German Collaboration in Salt Repository Research, Design and Operation - 13243

    SciTech Connect

    Steininger, Walter; Hansen, Frank; Biurrun, Enrique; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in the US and Germany [1-3] have precipitated renewed efforts in salt repository investigations and related studies. Both the German rock salt repository activities and the US waste management programs currently face challenges that may adversely affect their respective current and future state-of-the-art core capabilities in rock salt repository science and technology. The research agenda being pursued by our respective countries leverages collective efforts for the benefit of both programs. The topics addressed by the US/German salt repository collaborations align well with the findings and recommendations summarized in the January 2012 US Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC) report [4] and are consistent with the aspirations of the key topics of the Strategic Research Agenda of the Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) [5]. Against this background, a revival of joint efforts in salt repository investigations after some years of hibernation has been undertaken to leverage collective efforts in salt repository research, design, operations, and related issues for the benefit of respective programs and to form a basis for providing an attractive, cost-effective insurance against the premature loss of virtually irreplaceable scientific expertise and institutional memory. (authors)

  11. Research and development for improved lead-salt diode lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A substantial increase in output power levels for lead-salt diode lasers, through the development of improved fabrication methods, as demonstrated. The goal of 1 mW of CW, single-mode, single-ended power output, was achieved, with exceptional devices exhibiting values greater than 8 mW. It was found that the current tuning rate could be controlled by adjusting the p-n junction depth, allowing the tuning rate to be optimized for particular applications. An unexpected phenomenon was encountered when crystal composition was observed to be significantly altered by annealing at temperatures as low as 600 C; the composition was changed by transport of material through the vapor phase. This effect caused problems in obtaining diode lasers with the desired operating characteristics. It was discovered that the present packaging method introduces gross damaging effects in the laser crystal through pressure applied by the C-bend.

  12. Ethylene Antagonizes Salt-Induced Growth Retardation and Cell Death Process via Transcriptional Controlling of Ethylene-, BAG- and Senescence-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ya-Jie; Liu, Ling; Lin, Ying-Chao; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Li, Lei-Peng; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD) profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan's blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly, the protoplasts isolated from plant leaves and dyed with Annexin V-FITC were subjected to flow cytometric (FCM) assay. Our results showed that ethylene works effectively in seedling protoplasts, antagonizing salt-included root retardation and restraining cell death both in seedlings or protoplasts. Due to salinity, the entire or partial insensitivity of ethylene signaling resulted in an elevated levels of cell death in ein2-5 and ein3-1 plants and the event were amended in ctr1-1 plants after salt treatment. The subsequent experiment with exogenous ACC further corroborated that ethylene could modulate salt-induced PCD process actively. Plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family genes are recently identified to play an extensive role in plant PCD processes ranging from growth, development to stress responses and even cell death. Our result showed that salinity alone significantly suppressed the transcripts of BAG6, BAG7 and addition of ACC in the saline solution could obviously re-activate BAG6 and BAG7 expressions, which might play a key role to inhibit the salt-induced cell death. In summary, our research implies that ethylene and salinity antagonistically control BAG family-, ethylene-, and senescence-related genes to alleviate the salt-induced cell death. PMID:27242886

  13. Process evaluation of sea salt aerosol concentrations at remote marine locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struthers, H.; Ekman, A. M.; Nilsson, E. D.

    2011-12-01

    Sea salt, an important natural aerosol, is generated by bubbles bursting at the surface of the ocean. Sea salt aerosol contributes significantly to the global aerosol burden and radiative budget and are a significant source of cloud condensation nuclei in remote marine areas (Monahan et al., 1986). Consequently, changes in marine aerosol abundance is expected to impact on climate forcing. Estimates of the atmospheric burden of sea salt aerosol mass derived from chemical transport and global climate models vary greatly both in the global total and the spatial distribution (Texor et al. 2006). This large uncertainty in the sea salt aerosol distribution in turn contributes to the large uncertainty in the current estimates of anthropogenic aerosol climate forcing (IPCC, 2007). To correctly attribute anthropogenic climate change and to veraciously project future climate, natural aerosols including sea salt must be understood and accurately modelled. In addition, the physical processes that determine the sea salt aerosol concentration are susceptible to modification due to climate change (Carslaw et al., 2010) which means there is the potential for feedbacks within the climate/aerosol system. Given the large uncertainties in sea salt aerosol modelling, there is an urgent need to evaluate the process description of sea salt aerosols in global models. An extremely valuable source of data for model evaluation is the long term measurements of PM10 sea salt aerosol mass available from a number of remote marine observation sites around the globe (including the GAW network). Sea salt aerosol concentrations at remote marine locations depend strongly on the surface exchange (emission and deposition) as well as entrainment or detrainment to the free troposphere. This suggests that the key parameters to consider in any analysis include the sea surface water temperature, wind speed, precipitation rate and the atmospheric stability. In this study, the sea salt aerosol observations

  14. SY 09-4 PUBLIC POLICIES TO REDUCE SALT IN PROCESSED FOODS: HOW THEY MAY CORRELATE WITH IMPROVEMENT IN BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL AND REDUCED CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is the second leading global risk for death and disability after unhealthy diets. Amongst dietary risks, excess dietary salt (sodium) is the leading risk. As dietary sodium increases, blood pressure increases linearly. In meta-analyses of higher quality cohort studies and in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, higher dietary sodium is linearly associated with increased cardiovascular disease. There are an estimated xxxx deaths and xxx DALYs in 2013 from excess dietary sodium. The World Health Organization has a recommended sodium (salt) intake of less than 2000 mg (5 g)/day with the World Health Assembly setting a voluntary target of a 30% reduction by 2025. In high income countries, the vast majority of dietary salt comes from additives during commercial food processing. In low income countries the vast majority of salt is 'discretionary' being added at home in cooking and at the table, often as condiments (e.g. soya/fish sauce or bouillon). Many highly populated countries are in nutritional transition and have the highest salt intakes with both commercial and discretionary sources. Notably diets of natural foods without added salt contain 500-800 mg sodium/day. Policies to reduce commercial sources of salt have had demonstrated efficacy at reducing salt intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Use of salt replacers (potassium partly replacing sodium) hold promise to reduce discretionary salt and in randomized controlled trials reduce blood pressure. There is renewed 'scientific' controversy about reducing dietary salt. The controversy is largely based on a small number of individuals many of whom have had associations with the food and salt industry and/or have conducted research using methods highly prone to erroneous findings. Sadly several of those dissenting have made false or misleading statements about the science supporting salt reduction, altered scientific formula to make their controversial data appear more

  15. Superimpose signal processing method for micro-scale thermal imaging of solar salts at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Junko; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Kato, Yukitaka

    2016-05-01

    The global interest in energy applications activates the advanced study about the molten salts in the usage of fluids in the power cycle, such as for transport and heat storage in solar power facilities. However, the basic properties of molten salts show a general scattering in characterization especially in thermal properties. It is suggested that new studies are required on the measurement of thermal properties of solar salts using recent technologies. In this study, micro-scale heat transfer and phase change in molten salts are presented using our originally developed device: the micro-bolometer Infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPA) measuring system is a portable type instrument, which is re-designed to measure the thermal phenomena in high temperature up to 700 °C or higher. The superimpose system is newly setup adjusted to the signal processing in high temperature to realize the quantitative thermal imaging, simultaneously. The portable type apparatus for a quantitative micro-scale thermography using a micro-bolometer has been proposed based on an achromatic lens design to capture a micro-scale image in the long-wave infrared, a video signal superimposing for the real time emissivity correction, and a pseudo acceleration of a timeframe. Combined with the superimpose technique, the micro-scale thermal imaging in high temperature is achieved and the molten flows of the solar salts, sodium nitrate, and potassium nitrate are successfully observed. The solar salt, the mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, shows a different shape of exothermic heat front morphology in the lower phase transition (solidification) temperature than the nitrates on cooling. The proposed measuring technique will be utilized to accelerate the screening step to determine the phase diagram and the eutectics of the multiple mixtures of candidate molten salts, which may be used as heat transport medium from the concentrated solar power to a processing plant for thermal energy

  16. PROCESS OF FORMING PLUOTONIUM SALTS FROM PLUTONIUM EXALATES

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for converting plutonium oxalate to other plutonium compounds by a dry conversion method. According to the process, lower valence plutonium oxalate is heated in the presence of a vapor of a volatile non- oxygenated monobasic acid, such as HCl or HF. For example, in order to produce plutonium chloride, the pure plutonium oxalate is heated to about 700 deg C in a slow stream of hydrogen plus HCl. By the proper selection of an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, the plutonium halide product can be obtained in either the plus 3 or plus 4 valence state.

  17. Discontinuation of data processing step: Salt adjustment on designated foods likely to be home prepared

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this report is to describe (a) the basis for and implementation of a data processing step called salt adjustment that was performed on designated foods in USDA dietary intake surveys from 1985 through 2008, (b) the rationale for discontinuing the step, and (c) the impact and implica...

  18. FUSED SALT PROCESS FOR RECOVERY OF VALUES FROM USED NUCLEAR REACTOR FUELS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1960-08-01

    A process is given for recovering plutonium from a neutron-irradiated uranium mass (oxide or alloy) by dissolving the mass in an about equimolar alkali metalaluminum double chloride, adding aluminum metal to the mixture obtained at a temperature of between 260 and 860 deg C, and separating a uranium-containing metal phase and a plutonium-chloride- and fission-product chloridecontaining salt phase. Dissolution can be expedited by passing carbon tetrachloride vapors through the double salt. Separation without reduction of plutonium from neutron- bombarded uranium and that of cerium from uranium are also discussed.

  19. Process for the recovery of aluminum from dross without use of salt flux

    SciTech Connect

    Geus, E.H.; Lussi, V.; Spoel, H.

    1995-12-31

    A process has been developed to recover aluminum from dross which does not require the use of salt flux as commonly employed. This results in a salt-free residue which has potential industrial uses or alternatively can be safely land-filled. The dross is first heated by an air-fuel or oxy-fuel burner in a sealable rotary furnace. At a suitable temperature the burner is turned off and the temperature of the dross thereafter controlled by means of an atmosphere of oxidative and inert gases. When the free metal has agglomerated it is first discharged from the furnace, followed by the residues.

  20. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Lianxin; Zhang, Yingying; Gu, Hao; Chai, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin's related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71) and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed.

  1. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanming; Wang, Lianxin; Zhang, Yingying; Gu, Hao; Chai, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin's related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71) and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed. PMID:27069488

  2. Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-14

    In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

  3. A review of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension and its relevance for cardiovascular physiotherapy research

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lim-Kyu; Kim, Mee-Young; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Hye-Young; Hwang, Byong-Yong; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this review was to elucidate the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-related hypertensive mechanism and to contribute to future studies of cardiovascular physiotherapy. [Methods] This paper focuses on the signal transductions that control hypertension and its mechanisms. We include results reported by our laboratory in a literature review. [Results] Our results and the literature show the various mechanisms of DOCA-salt hypertension. [Conclusion] In this review paper, we carefully discuss the signal transduction in hypertension based on our studies and with reference to cardiovascular physiotherapy research. PMID:25642096

  4. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  5. Process For The Preparation Of 3,4-Dihyd Roxybutanoic Acid And Salts Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-06-07

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  6. Separation & Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, Carrie J.; Quach, Anh P.; Birnie, Dunbar P.; Ela, Wendell P.; Saez, Avelino E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.

    2004-12-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  7. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  8. Cochlear Processes: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwislocki, Jozef J.

    This paper summarizes recent research on functions of the cochlea of the inner ear. The cochlea is described as the seat of the first step in the auditory sound analysis and transduction of mechanical vibration into electrochemical processes leading to the generation of neural action potentials. The cochlea is also described as a frequent seat of…

  9. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    King, W

    2007-11-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  10. Process control of lightly salted wild and farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) by brine injection, brining, and freezing--a low field NMR study.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsdottir, Maria; Gunnlaugsson, Valur N; Finnbogadottir, Gudrun A; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Magnusson, Hannes; Arason, Sigurjon; Rustad, Turid

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to use low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and traditional chemical methods to investigate the physical and chemical differences in wild and farmed cod processed pre- and postrigor, and how these properties were affected by brine injection, brining, and freezing. In prerigor processed farmed or wild cod, brine injections followed by brining for 2 d, with brine concentrations up to 5.5% and 4%, respectively, were not sufficient to reach a muscle salt concentration of 2% as aimed for, while wild cod processed postrigor had sufficient salt uptake after the same processing. Low-field NMR gave valuable information about the differences in the muscle structure between wild and farmed cod as well as the state of the water in the muscle during brine injection, brining, and during rigor tension. Low-field NMR is, therefore, a valuable tool that can be used to optimize the salting and storing processes of lightly salted cod products from both wild and farmed cod. For farmed cod to be used in the production of lightly salted products further research is needed. Practical Application: Optimal processing of lightly salted cod products is important to the fish industry, due to an increasing market for this product in southern Europe. Farmed cod, which is seen as a potential steady raw material source for this production, differs considerably from its wild counterparts by having other chemical and physical muscle properties, such as lower water content and lower pH. With the processing procedures used today the farmed cod can, therefore, only be used in some of the products, where wild cod is currently used as raw material. It is, therefore, important that the processing of these products is optimized with regard to these differences in the raw material. This study gives a valuable contribution to further studies about optimal combinations of brine injections, brining, and freezing of pre- and postrigor processed farmed compared to wild cod.

  11. [Analysis on component difference in Citrus reticulata before and after being processed with salt by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui; Fu, Juan; Wu, La-Bin; Huang, Lin-Fang

    2013-07-01

    To analyze components of Citrus reticulata and salt-processed C. reticulata by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS), and compared the changes in components before and after being processed with salt. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were adopted to analyze the difference in fingerprint between crude and processed C. reticulata, showing increased content of eriocitrin, limonin, nomilin and obacunone increase in salt-processed C. reticulata. Potential chemical markers were identified as limonin, obacunone and nomilin, which could be used for distinguishing index components of crude and processed C. reticulata.

  12. Faraday Discussion 160 Introductory Lecture: Interpreting and Predicting Hofmeister Salt Ion and Solute Effects on Biopolymer and Model Processes Using the Solute Partitioning Model

    PubMed Central

    Record, M. Thomas; Guinn, Emily; Pegram, Laurel; Capp, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how Hofmeister salt ions and other solutes interact with proteins, nucleic acids, other biopolymers and water and thereby affect protein and nucleic acid processes as well as model processes (e.g solubility of model compounds) in aqueous solution is a longstanding goal of biophysical research. Empirical Hofmeister salt and solute “m-values” (derivatives of the observed standard free energy change for a model or biopolymer process with respect to solute or salt concentration m3) are equal to differences in chemical potential derivatives: m-value = Δ(dμ2/dm3) = Δμ23 which quantify the preferential interactions of the solute or salt with the surface of the biopolymer or model system (component 2) exposed or buried in the process. Using the SPM, we dissect μ23 values for interactions of a solute or Hofmeister salt with a set of model compounds displaying the key functional groups of biopolymers to obtain interaction potentials (called α-values) that quantify the interaction of the solute or salt per unit area of each functional group or type of surface. Interpreted using the SPM, these α-values provide quantitative information about both the hydration of functional groups and the competitive interaction of water and the solute or salt with functional groups. The analysis corroborates and quantifies previous proposals that the Hofmeister anion and cation series for biopolymer processes are determined by ion-specific, mostly unfavorable interactions with hydrocarbon surfaces; the balance between these unfavorable nonpolar interactions and often-favorable interactions of ions with polar functional groups determine the series null points. The placement of urea and glycine betaine (GB) at opposite ends of the corresponding series of nonelectrolytes results from the favorable interactions of urea, and unfavorable interactions of GB, with many (but not all) biopolymer functional groups. Interaction potentials and local-bulk partition coefficients

  13. Study on LiCl waste salt treatment process by layer melt crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-07-01

    Layer melt crystallization operated in a static mode has been applied to separate Group I and II chlorides from surrogate LiCl waste salt. The effects of operating conditions such as crystal growing rate(or flux) and initial impurity concentration on separation (or concentration) of cesium, strontium and barium involved in a LiCl melts were analyzed. In a layer crystallization process, separation was impaired by occlusion of impurities and by residual melt adhering to LiCl crystal after at the end of the process. The crystal growth rate strongly affects the crystal structure, therefore the separation efficiency, while the effect of the initial Cs and Sr concentration in LiCl molten salt was nearly negligible. (authors)

  14. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  15. Geologic processes and Cenozoic history related to salt dissolution in southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachman, George Odell

    1974-01-01

    Salt of Permian age in the subsurface of an area near The Divide, east of Carlsbad, N. Mex., is being considered for a nuclear waste repository. The geologic history of the region indicates that dissolution of salt has occurred in the past during at least three distinct epochs: (1) after Triassic but before middle Pleistocene time; (2) during middle Pleistocene; and (3) during late Pleistocene. Thus, destructive geologic processes have been intermittent through more than I00 million years. Nash Draw, near The Divide, formed during late Pleistocene time by the coalescing of collapse sinks. The rate of its subsidence is estimated to have been about 10 cm (0.33 foot) per thousand years. The immediate area of The Divide adjacent to Nash Draw has not undergone stress by geologic processes during Pleistocene time and there are no present indications that this geologic environment will change drastically within the period of concern for the repository.

  16. Improving Learners' Research Process Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, T. K.; Hunter, L.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Seagroves, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Professional Development Program (PDP) supports participants as they design inquiry activities that help learners improve their research process skills. These skills include the cognitive or reasoning skills that scientists and engineers use while doing research; for example, making a testable hypothesis, coordinating results from multiple experiments, or identifying and evaluating tradeoffs. Past work in the PDP indicated that additional support was needed to help participants design instructional activities that would teach these important skills. A new workshop was therefore developed for the 2009 PDP cycle, entitled "Improving Learners' Process Skills." In this workshop, participants worked in small groups to define specific science and engineering skills found in four past PDP activity designs. Participants distinguished between "simple tasks" and "authentic inquiry" activities that learners could perform as demonstration of the skill. Through this new workshop, participants were able to explicitly discuss ways in which individual process skills are unique or inter-related. In addition, by identifying a "simple task," participants were able to pinpoint areas in which their own designs could be improved to better focus on authentic inquiry tasks. In 2010, the workshop was slightly modified to help participants reconnect the research process skills with the activity content. In addition, the idea of using generic and context-specific scaffolds was also introduced. To make the participants feel like they were contributing to the PDP community, four activity designs actively being worked on in the 2010 cycle were used. Based on participant feedback, this "Improving Learners' Process Skills" workshop should be strongly considered for future returning participants.

  17. [Research progress in salting-out extraction of bio-based chemicals].

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianying; Liu, Chunjiao; Sun, Yaqin; Xiu, Zhilong

    2013-10-01

    Bio-refinery using cheap biomass focuses mainly on strain improvement and fermentation strategies whereas less effort is made on down-stream processing. Using cheap biomass more impurities are introduced into the fermentation broths than mono-sugar substrate, thus down-stream processing for bio-based chemicals becomes the key problem in industrial production. The technique called salting-out extraction (SOE) was introduced in this review, which is used to separate target products from fermentation broth on the basis of partition difference of chemicals in two phases formed by mixing salts and organic solvents (or amphipathic chemicals) with broth at suitable ratios. The effect of solvents and salts on the formation of two aqueous phases, especially short chain alcohols and inorganic salts, and the application of SOE in recovery of bio-based chemicals, such as lactic acid, 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol and acetoin were summarized. The bio-chemicals were efficiently recovered from fermentation broth, and most of the impurities (cells and proteins) were removed in the same step. This technique is promising in the separation of bio-based chemicals, especially the recovery of hydrophilic molecules with low molecular weights.

  18. The impact of the reduction of sodium content in processed foods in salt intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Souza, Bárbara da Silva Nalin de; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed at assessing the potential impact of the reduction of sodium content in processed foods in the average salt intake in the Brazilian population. A total of 32,900 participants of the first National Dietary Survey (NDS 2008-2009), age 10 years and older who provided information about food intake over two days were evaluated. The sodium reduction targets established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2010 and 2013 were used as the reference to determine the maximum content of sodium in 21 groups of processed food. The results show that sodium reduction targets in processed food have small impact in mean Brazilian population intake of salt. For 2017, the expected mean reduction is of 1.5%, the average sodium intake being still above the recommended 2,000mg/day maximum. Therefore, it will hardly be possible to reach the necessary reduction in salt intake in Brazil from volunteer agreements like the ones made so far.

  19. Proceedings of the 6th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Walter Steininger; Wilhelm Bollingerfehr

    2016-01-11

    The 6th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Dresden. Germany on September 7-9, 2015. Over seventy participants helped advance the technical basis for salt disposal of radioactive waste. The number of collaborative efforts continues to grow and to produce useful documentation, as well as to define the state of the art for research areas. These Proceedings are divided into Chapters, and a list of authors is included in the Acknowledgement Section. Also in this document are the Technical Agenda, List of Participants, Biographical Information, Abstracts, and Presentations. Proceedings of all workshops and other pertinent information are posted on websites hosted by Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club. The US/German workshops provide continuity for long-term research, summarize and publish status of mature areas, and develop appropriate research by consensus in a workshop environment. As before, major areas and findings are highlighted, which constitute topical Chapters in these Proceedings. In total, the scientific breadth is substantial and while not all subject matter is elaborated into chapter format, all presentations and abstracts are published in this document. In the following Proceedings, six selected topics are developed in detail.

  20. Helix-hairpin-helix motifs confer salt resistance and processivity on chimeric DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Andrey R; Belova, Galina I; Kozyavkin, Sergei A; Slesarev, Alexei I

    2002-10-15

    Helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) is a widespread motif involved in sequence-nonspecific DNA binding. The majority of HhH motifs function as DNA-binding modules with typical occurrence of one HhH motif or one or two (HhH)(2) domains in proteins. We recently identified 24 HhH motifs in DNA topoisomerase V (Topo V). Although these motifs are dispensable for the topoisomerase activity of Topo V, their removal narrows the salt concentration range for topoisomerase activity tenfold. Here, we demonstrate the utility of Topo V's HhH motifs for modulating DNA-binding properties of the Stoffel fragment of TaqDNA polymerase and Pfu DNA polymerase. Different HhH cassettes fused with either NH(2) terminus or COOH terminus of DNA polymerases broaden the salt concentration range of the polymerase activity significantly (up to 0.5 M NaCl or 1.8 M potassium glutamate). We found that anions play a major role in the inhibition of DNA polymerase activity. The resistance of initial extension rates and the processivity of chimeric polymerases to salts depend on the structure of added HhH motifs. Regardless of the type of the construct, the thermal stability of chimeric Taq polymerases increases under the optimal ionic conditions, as compared with that of TaqDNA polymerase or its Stoffel fragment. Our approach to raise the salt tolerance, processivity, and thermostability of Taq and Pfu DNA polymerases may be applied to all pol1- and polB-type polymerases, as well as to other DNA processing enzymes.

  1. Salt tolerance research in date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.), past, present, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; Kumar, Prakash P

    2015-01-01

    The date palm can adapt to extreme drought, to heat, and to relatively high levels of soil salinity. However, excessive amounts of salt due to irrigation with brackish water lead to a significant reduction in the productivity of the fruits as well as marked decrease in the viable numbers of the date palm trees. It is imperative that the nature of the existing salt-adaptation mechanism be understood in order to develop future date palm varieties that can tolerate excessive soil salinity. In this perspective article, several research strategies, obstacles, and precautions are discussed in light of recent advancements accomplished in this field and the properties of this species. In addition to a physiological characterization, we propose the use of a full range of OMICS technologies, coupled with reverse genetics approaches, aimed toward understanding the salt-adaption mechanism in the date palm. Information generated by these analyses should highlight transcriptional and posttranscriptional modifications controlling the salt-adaptation mechanisms. As an extremophile with a natural tolerance for a wide range of abiotic stresses, the date palm may represent a treasure trove of novel genetic resources for salinity tolerance.

  2. Aqueous-phase chemical processes in deliquescent sea-salt aerosols: A mechanism that couples the atmospheric cycles of S and sea salt

    SciTech Connect

    Chameides, W.L.; Stelson, A.W. )

    1992-12-20

    The aqueous-phase chemistry of deliquescent sea-salt aerosols in the remote marine boundary layer is investigated with a steady state box model. The model simulates the scavenging of soluble and reactive gaseous species by the sea-salt aerosols, the chemical reactions of these species and sea-salt ions in the deliquescent solution, and changes in the aerosol composition that occur as a result of these processes. The calculations indicate that deliquescent sea-salt aerosols are strongly buffered with a pH that remains close to 8 until the amount of acid added to the aerosol solution exceeds the alkalinity of sea salt. The oxidation of chloride by O[sub 3] and by free radicals is found to proceed at extremely slow rates, and thus these reactions cannot explain the high-chloride deficits recently observed over the North Atlantic Ocean. On the other hand, the oxidation of dissolved S[sub IV] by O[sub 3] in sea-salt aerosols is found to proceed at rates approaching 0.1 eq L[sup [minus]1] hr[sup [minus]1] and appears to be sufficiently rapid to qualitatively explain the observations of nss-SO[sub 4][sup +] in sea-salt aerosols over the North Atlantic Ocean. The calculations suggest the existence of a removal mechanism for atmospheric S that is largely controlled by the alkalinity of seawater and the flux of this alkalinity into the atmosphere in sea salt. It is estimated that this process will and ultimately remove about (1-4) [times] 10[sup 11]moles of SO[sub 2] from the atmosphere annually. Comparison of this loss rate with other elements of the atmospheric S cycle suggests that sea salt may remove a significant amount of S from the marine atmosphere and thereby depress the SO[sub 2] concentration in the marine boundary layer and limit the number of cloud condensation nuclei generated from the oxidation of SO[sub 2]. 59 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 2. Commercial plant study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit (PDU). This process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of the salt. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  4. Heterogeneous sulfate production in the remote marine environment: Cloud processing and sea-salt particle contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurciullo, C.; Lerner, B.; Sievering, H.; Pandis, S. N.

    1999-09-01

    Heterogeneous sulfate production in the remote marine boundary layer is studied by combining measurements collected during the first Southern Hemisphere marine Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) with two numerical models: one simulating heterogeneous sulfate production in sea-salt aerosol water (SSAW) and the other simulating cloud processing. The models calculate oxidation of SO2 by O3 and H2O2 via aqueous-phase reactions both in SSAW and in cloud droplets. Model calculations indicate that as much as 50-75% of the observed non-sea-salt (NSS) sulfate in particles in the ambient diameter size range of 0.9-16 μm during the ACE 1 measurement period is due to production in SSAW, with cloud processing producing the remainder. The initial alkalinity of the wind-generated sea-salt aerosols can strongly influence sulfate production. Changing the effective alkalinity of SSAW from a value typical of seawater to a value based on the measurements taken at Cape Grim results in a better match to the observed NSS sulfate size distribution with up to 75% of the predicted supermicrometer NSS sulfate being due to heterogeneous conversion in SSAW. The average rates of removal of sulfate due to dry and wet deposition for the 0.4-16 μm size range are 38 and 14 ng m-3 d-1 respectively.

  5. JUPITER-II Molten Salt Flibe Research: An Update On Tritium, Mobilization and Redox Chemistry Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Petti; D. A. Petti; G. R. Smolik; Michael F. Simpson; John P. Sharpe; R. A. Anderl; S. Fukada; Y. Hatano; Masanori Hara; Y. Oya; T. Terai; D.-K. Sze; S. Tanaka

    2005-05-01

    The second Japan/US Program on Irradiation Tests for Fusion Research (JUPITER-II) began on April 1, 2001. Part of the collaborative research centers on studies of the molten salt 2LiF2–BeF2 (also known as Flibe) for fusion applications. Flibe has been proposed as a self-cooled breeder in both magnetic and inertial fusion power plant designs over the last 25 years. The key feasibility issues associated with the use of Flibe are the corrosion of structural material by the molten salt, tritium behavior and control in the molten salt blanket system, and safe handling practices and releases from Flibe during an accidental spill. These issues are all being addressed under the JUPITER-II program at the Idaho National Laboratory in the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility. In this paper, we review the program to date in the area of tritium/deuterium behavior, Flibe mobilization under accident conditions and testing of Be as a redox agent to control corrosion. Future activities planned through the end of the collaboration are also presented.

  6. Ecomorphodynamic evolution of salt marshes: Experimental observations of bank retreat processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francalanci, S.; Bendoni, M.; Rinaldi, M.; Solari, L.

    2013-08-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the erosion of salt marsh edges. Flume laboratory experiments were carried out aimed at reproducing the instability and retreat of the scarps that typically delimit the salt marshes under the attack of wind waves during the tidal cycle. The bank model and hydrodynamic forcing in the flume were such as to simulate the conditions observed in the field in Venice Lagoon. Experiments were conducted for the same hydrodynamic forcing in the case of two identical banks but with and without the inclusion of the vegetation. Experimental results show that bank retreat involves a variety of processes (including particle erosion, cantilever and slide failures). The effect of the vegetation was to produce a delay in the mass failures, related to a certain growth of plant roots, thus providing an overall stabilizing effect. Bank instability was related to the formation of tension cracks at the bank top and to the impulsive effects associated with wave energy dissipation.

  7. Insights to caving processes from localization of microseismic swarms induced by salt solution mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennart Kinscher, Jannes; Bernard, Pascal; Contrucci, Isabelle; Mangeney, Anne; Piguet, Jack Pierre; Bigarre, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve our understanding of hazardous ground failures, caving processes, and collapses of large natural or man-made underground cavities, we studied microseismicity induced by the development and collapse of a salt solution mining cavity with a diameter of ~ 200 m at Cerville-Buissoncourt in Lorraine, France. Microseismicity was recorded as part of a large geophysical, multi-parameter monitoring research project (GISOS) by a local, high resolution, triggered 40 Hz geophone monitoring system consisting of five one-component and four three-component borehole stations located around and in the center of the cavity. The recorded microseismic events are very numerous (~ 50.000 recorded event files) where the major portion (~ 80 %) appear in unusual swarming sequences constituted by complex clusters of superimposed microseismic events. Body wave phase based routine tools for microseismic event detection and localization face strong limitations in the treatment of these signals. To overcome these shortcomings, we developed two probabilistic methods being able to assess the spatio-temporal characteristics in a semi-automatic manner. The first localization approach uses simple signal amplitude estimates on different frequency bands, and an attenuation model to constrain hypocenter source location. The second approach was designed to identify significantly polarized P wave energies and the associated polarization angles. Both approaches and its probabilistic conjunction were applied to the data of a two months lasting microseismic crisis occurring one year before the final collapse that was related to caving processes leading to a maximal growth of ~ 50 m of the cavity roof. The obtained epicenter locations show systematic spatio-temporal migration trends observed for different time scales. During three phases of major swarming activity, epicenter migration trends appear in the order of several seconds to minutes, are spatially constrained, and show partially a

  8. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-1inked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Hydrothermal Salt Separation Process and Analysis and Cost Estimating of Shipboard Liquid Waste Disposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    which are investigating methods to produce energy from waste . One particular process being investigated is a hydrothermal process which converts...Bio-fuels motivation Another application for hydrothermal treatment is a catalytic reaction process where a variety of biomass feedstocks...the hydrothermal biomass gasification process are twofold. First, salts which can interfere with the catalytic conversion process of the organic

  10. Feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to predict moisture content of porcine meat during salting process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Sun, Da-Wen; Qu, Jiahuan; Zeng, Xin-An; Pu, Hongbin; Ma, Ji

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique (1000-2500 nm) for predicting moisture content (MC) during the salting process of porcine meat was assessed. Different spectral profiles including reflectance spectra (RS), absorbance spectra (AS) and Kubelka-Munk spectra (KMS) were examined to investigate the influence of spectroscopic transformations on predicting moisture content of salted pork slice. The best full-wavelength partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were acquired based on reflectance spectra (Rc(2)=0.969, RMSEC=0.921%; Rc(2)=0.941, RMSEP=1.23%). On the basis of the optimal wavelengths identified using the regression coefficient, two calibration models of PLSR and multiple linear regression (MLR) were compared. The optimal RS-MLR model was considered to be the best for determining the moisture content of salted pork, with a Rc(2) of 0.917 and RMSEP of 1.48%. Visualisation of moisture distribution in each pixel of the hyperspectral image using the prediction model display moisture evolution and migration in pork slices.

  11. Destruction of XM-46 (aka LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-03-01

    The experimental work done on the destruction of the liquid gun propellant XM-46 (or LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Army is described in this report. The current methods of disposal of large quantities of high explosives (HE), propellants and wastes containing energetic materials by open burning or open detonation (OB/OD), or by incineration, are becoming undesirable. LLNL is developing MSD as an alternative to OB/OD and incineration of energetic materials. A series of 18 continuous experimental runs were made wherein a solution of XM-46 and water was injected into a bed of molten salt comprising the carbonates of sodium, potassium and lithium, along with air. The results from these experiments, described in detail in the main body of this report, show that: XM-46 can be safely and completely destroyed in a bed of molten salt at temperatures well below those needed for incineration. Under optimum operating conditions, less than 1% of the chemically bound nitrogen in the XM-46 is converted to NO{sub x}, and less than 1% carbon is converted to CO. There exist, however, a number of technical uncertainties: We need to understand better why nitrates build up in the salt bath, and what we can do to reduce this amount. We need to understand the mechanism of XM-46 oxidation and ways to minimize the formation of CO and NO{sub x}. In addition, we would like to find out ways by which a more concentrated solution of XM-46 can be introduced into the reactor, so as to increase the throughputs.

  12. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG, ROBERT

    2006-02-02

    All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program.

  13. Conditioning matrices from high level waste resulting from pyrochemical processing in fluorine salt

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, Agnes; Advocat, Thierry; Bousquet, Nicolas; Jegou, Christophe

    2007-07-01

    Separating the actinides from the fission products through reductive extraction by aluminium in a LiF/AlF{sub 3} medium is a process investigated for pyrometallurgical reprocessing of spent fuel. The process involves separation by reductive salt-metal extraction. After dissolving the fuel or the transmutation target in a salt bath, the noble metal fission products are first extracted by contacting them with a slightly reducing metal. After extracting the metal fission products, then the actinides are selectively separated from the remaining fission products. In this hypothesis, all the unrecoverable fission products would be conditioned as fluorides. Therefore, this process will generate first a metallic waste containing the 'reducible' fission products (Pd, Mo, Ru, Rh, Tc, etc.) and a fluorine waste containing alkali-metal, alkaline-earth and rare earth fission products. Immobilization of these wastes in classical borosilicate glasses is not feasible due to the very low solubility of noble metals, and of fluoride in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been developed including silicate glass/ceramic system for fluoride fission products and metallic ones for noble metal fission products. These waste-forms were evaluated for their confinement properties like homogeneity, waste loading, volatility during the elaboration process, chemical durability, etc. using appropriate techniques. (authors)

  14. OPERATIONS REVIEW OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS - 11327

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Poirier, M.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.; Brown, S.; Geeting, M.

    2011-02-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is removing liquid radioactive waste from its Tank Farm. To treat waste streams that are low in Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides, SRS developed the Actinide Removal Process and implemented the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The Actinide Removal Process contacts salt solution with monosodium titanate to sorb strontium and select actinides. After monosodium titanate contact, the resulting slurry is filtered to remove the monosodium titanate (and sorbed strontium and actinides) and entrained sludge. The filtrate is transferred to the MCU for further treatment to remove cesium. The solid particulates removed by the filter are concentrated to {approx} 5 wt %, washed to reduce the sodium concentration, and transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The CSSX process extracts the cesium from the radioactive waste using a customized solvent to produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS), and strips and concentrates the cesium from the solvent with dilute nitric acid. The DSS is incorporated in grout while the strip acid solution is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The facilities began radiological processing in April 2008 and started processing of the third campaign ('MarcoBatch 3') of waste in June 2010. Campaigns to date have processed {approx}1.2 million gallons of dissolved saltcake. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel performed tests using actual radioactive samples for each waste batch prior to processing. Testing included monosodium titanate sorption of strontium and actinides followed by CSSX batch contact tests to verify expected cesium mass transfer. This paper describes the tests conducted and compares results from facility operations. The results include strontium, plutonium, and cesium removal, cesium concentration, and organic entrainment and recovery data. Additionally, the poster describes lessons learned during operation

  15. Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) for Power and Process Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles; Hu, Lin-wen; Peterson, Per; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-01-21

    In 2011 the U.S. Department of Energy through its Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) awarded a 3- year integrated research project (IRP) to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its partners at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW). The IRP included Westinghouse Electric Company and an advisory panel chaired by Regis Matzie that provided advice as the project progressed. The first sentence of the proposal stated the goals: The objective of this Integrated Research Project (IRP) is to develop a path forward to a commercially viable salt-cooled solid-fuel high-temperature reactor with superior economic, safety, waste, nonproliferation, and physical security characteristics compared to light-water reactors. This report summarizes major results of this research.

  16. Completion report for the UMTRA project Vitro processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This completion report provides evidence that the final Salt Lake City, Utah, processing site property conditions are in accordance with the approval design and that all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been satisfied. Included as appendixes to support the stated conclusions are the record drawings; a summary of grid test results; contract specifications and construction drawing and the EPA standards; the audit, inspection, and surveillance summary; the permit information; and project photographs. The principal objectives of remedial action at Salt Lake City were to remove the tailings from the former processing site, render the site free of contamination to EPA standards, and restore the site to the final design grade elevations. The final remedial action plan, which is approved by the U.S. Department of Energy and concurred upon by the U.S. Nuclear Regulator Commission and the state of Utah, contains the conceptual design used to develop the final approved design. During remedial action construction operations, conditions were encountered that required design features that differed form the conceptual design. These conditions and the associated design changes are noted in the record drawings. All remedial action activities were completed in conformance with the specifications and drawings. In the opinion of the state of Utah, the record drawings accurately reflect existing property conditions at the processing site.

  17. On the importance of coupled THM processes to predict the long-term response of a generic salt repository for high-level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    Salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, in particular its ability to creep and heal fractures generated by excavation and its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state. In this research, we focus on disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (such as spent fuel) and we consider a generic salt repository with in-drift emplacement of waste packages and subsequent backfill of the drifts with run-of-mine crushed salt. As the natural salt creeps, the crushed salt backfill gets progressively compacted and an engineered barrier system is subsequently created. In order to evaluate the integrity of the natural and engineered barriers over the long-term, it is important to consider the coupled effects of the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes that take place. In particular, the results obtained so far show how the porosity reduction of the crushed salt affects the saturation and pore pressure evolution throughout the repository, both in time and space. Such compaction is induced by the stress and temperature regime within the natural salt. Also, transport properties of the host rock are modified not only by thermo-mechanically and hydraulically-induced damaged processes, but also by healing/sealing of existing fractures. In addition, the THM properties of the backfill evolve towards those of the natural salt during the compaction process. All these changes are based on dedicated laboratory experiments and on theoretical considerations [1-3]. Different scenarios are modeled and compared to evaluate the relevance of different processes from the perspective of effective nuclear waste repositories. The sensitivity of the results to some parameters, such as capillarity, is also addressed. The simulations are conducted using an updated version of the TOUGH2-FLAC3D simulator, which is based on a sequential explicit method to couple flow and geomechanics [4]. A new capability for large strains and creep

  18. Nanoscopic characterization of the water vapor-salt interfacial layer reveals a unique biphasic adsorption process

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; He, Jianfeng; Shen, Yi; Li, Xiaowei; Sun, Jielin; Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Shao, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Our quantitative understanding of water adsorption onto salt surfaces under ambient conditions is presently quite poor owing to the difficulties in directly characterizing this interfacial layer under these conditions. Here we determine the thickness of the interfacial layer on NaCl at different relative humidities (RH) based on a novel application of atomic force spectroscopy and capillary condensation theory. In particular, we take advantage of the microsecond-timescale of the capillary condensation process to directly resolve the magnitude of its contribution in the tip-sample interaction, from which the interfacial water thickness is determined. Further, to correlate this thickness with salt dissolution, we also measure surface conductance under similar conditions. We find that below 30% RH, there is essentially only the deposition of water molecules onto this surface, typical of conventional adsorption onto solid surfaces. However, above 30% RH, adsorption is simultaneous with the dissolution of ions, unlike conventional adsorption, leading to a rapid increase of surface conductance. Thus, water adsorption on NaCl is an unconventional biphasic process in which the interfacial layer not only exhibits quantitative differences in thickness but also qualitative differences in composition. PMID:27527905

  19. System and process for production of magnesium metal and magnesium hydride from magnesium-containing salts and brines

    DOEpatents

    McGrail, Peter B.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Koech, Phillip K.; Adint, Tyler T.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-22

    A system and process are disclosed for production of consolidated magnesium metal products and alloys with selected densities from magnesium-containing salts and feedstocks. The system and process employ a dialkyl magnesium compound that decomposes to produce the Mg metal product. Energy requirements and production costs are lower than for conventional processing.

  20. Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

    2009-02-20

    A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

  1. Development of pyro-processing technology for thorium-fuelled molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, J.; Straka, M.; Szatmary, L.

    2012-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is classified as the non-classical nuclear reactor type based on the specific features coming out from the use of liquid fuel circulating in the MSR primary circuit. Other uniqueness of the reactor type is based on the fact that the primary circuit of the reactor is directly connected with the on-line reprocessing technology, necessary for keeping the reactor in operation for a long run. MSR is the only reactor system, which can be effectively operated within the {sup 232}Th- {sup 233}U fuel cycle as thorium breeder with the breeding factor significantly higher than one. The fuel cycle technologies proposed as ford the fresh thorium fuel processing as for the primary circuit fuel reprocessing are pyrochemical and mainly fluoride. Although these pyrochemical processes were never previously fully verified, the present-day development anticipates an assumption for the successful future deployment of the thorium-fuelled MSR technology. (authors)

  2. Influence of high concentrations of mineral salts on production process and NaCl accumulation by Salicornia europaea plants as a constituent of the LSS phototroph link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    Use of halophytes (salt-tolerant vegetation), in a particular vegetable Salicornia europaea plants which are capable of utilizing NaCl in rather high concentrations, is one of possible means of NaCl incorporation into mass exchange of bioregenerative life support systems. In preliminary experiments it was shown that S. europaea plants, basically, could grow on urine pretreated with physicochemical processing and urease-enzyme decomposing of urea with the subsequent ammonia distillation. But at the same time inhibition of the growth process of the plants was observed. The purpose of the given work was to find out the influence of excessive quantities of some mineral elements contained in products of physicochemical processing of urine on the production process and NaCl accumulation by S. europaea plants. As the content of mineral salts in the human liquid wastes (urine) changed within certain limits, two variants of experimental solutions were examined. In the first variant, the concentration of mineral salts was equivalent to the minimum salt content in the urine and was: K - 1.5 g/l, P - 0.5 g/l, S - 0.5 g/l, Mg - 0.07 g/l, Ca - 0.2 g/l. In the second experimental variant, the content of mineral salts corresponded to the maximum salt content in urine and was the following: K - 3.0 g/l, P - 0.7 g/l, S - 1.2 g/l, Mg - 0.2 g/l, Ca - 0.97 g/l. As the control, the Tokarev nutrient solution containing nitrogen in the form of a urea, and the Knop nutrient solution with nitrogen in the nitrate form were used. N quantity in all four variants made up 177 mg/l. Air temperature was 24 °C, illumination was continuous. Light intensity was 690 μmol/m 2s of photosynthetically active radiation. NaCl concentration in solutions was 1%. Our researches showed that the dry aboveground biomass of an average plant of the first variant practically did not differ from the control and totaled 11 g. In the second variant, S. europaea productivity decreased and the dry aboveground biomass

  3. Influence of high concentrations of mineral salts on production process and NaCl accumulation by Salicornia europaea plants as a constituent of the LSS phototroph link.

    PubMed

    Tikhomirova, N A; Ushakova, S A; Kovaleva, N P; Gribovskaya, I V; Tikhomirov, A A

    2005-01-01

    Use of halophytes (salt-tolerant vegetation), in a particular vegetable Salicornia europaea plants which are capable of utilizing NaCl in rather high concentrations, is one of possible means of NaCl incorporation into mass exchange of bioregenerative life support systems. In preliminary experiments it was shown that S. europaea plants, basically, could grow on urine pretreated with physicochemical processing and urease-enzyme decomposing of urea with the subsequent ammonia distillation. But at the same time inhibition of the growth process of the plants was observed. The purpose of the given work was to find out the influence of excessive quantities of some mineral elements contained in products of physicochemical processing of urine on the production process and NaCl accumulation by S. europaea plants. As the content of mineral salts in the human liquid wastes (urine) changed within certain limits, two variants of experimental solutions were examined. In the first variant, the concentration of mineral salts was equivalent to the minimum salt content in the urine and was: K - 1.5 g/l, P - 0.5 g/l, S - 0.5 g/l, Mg - 0.07 g/l, Ca - 0.2 g/l. In the second experimental variant, the content of mineral salts corresponded to the maximum salt content in urine and was the following: K - 3.0 g/l, P - 0.7 g/l, S - 1.2 g/l, Mg - 0.2 g/l, Ca - 0.97 g/l. As the control, the Tokarev nutrient solution containing nitrogen in the form of a urea, and the Knop nutrient solution with nitrogen in the nitrate form were used. N quantity in all four variants made up 177 mg/l. Air temperature was 24 degrees C, illumination was continuous. Light intensity was 690 micromoles/m2s of photosynthetically active radiation. NaCl concentration in solutions was 1%. Our researches showed that the dry aboveground biomass of an average plant of the first variant practically did not differ from the control and totaled 11 g. In the second variant, S. europaea productivity decreased and the dry aboveground

  4. Sedimentary processes and products in a mesotidal salt marsh environment: insights from Groves Creek, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. R.; Hodgson, J. Y. S.; Brandes, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    Southeastern salt marshes are important repositories of sediment and carbon, and their formation is heavily dependent on deposition and accumulation of inorganic sediment. This study examined Groves Creek marsh near Savannah, GA, a typical Spartina alterniflora salt marsh of the southeastern US. Analyses were focused on the character, deposition and accumulation of material within the marsh on daily, monthly, decadal and centennial timescales, to determine the dominant factors in material supply and redistribution, and on its stratigraphy to determine the 1,000-year history of Groves Creek salt marsh development. Modern processes create gradients in grain size, which shows little variation from the tidal channel flanks up to mean sea level, and which coarsens with distance into the marsh from mean sea level to mean high water. This unexpected result suggests that, although floc transport is an important mechanism of sediment supply near the channel margins, energetic events must supply coarser materials to the marsh platform, where they are not readily removed by typical energy regimes. Daily deposition can approach 3 g/cm2 year; however, centennial accumulation rates are orders of magnitude lower (0.11±0.05 g/cm2 year) and are similar to those present over the past 300 years (0.05-0.2 g/cm2 year), indicating that much of the daily deposition is remobilized. Stable isotopic δ13C (average -18.7‰) and δ15N (average 5.7‰) values most likely indicate a large contribution from S. alterniflora as a carbon source throughout the marsh, although heavier δ15N on the channel flanks suggest that benthic algae may be locally important. Geologic, geochemical and microfossil evidence suggests that depositional conditions in the Groves Creek marsh have changed significantly over the past 1,000 years, creating a distinct fining-upward sequence. This sequence preserves the signature (from bottom to top) of subtidal flats grading to intertidal sandflats, an erosional lag

  5. Thermal energy storage in molten-salt systems for solar central receivers: The federal role in research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, A. I.; Mueller, R. O.

    1983-05-01

    The thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications (TESSTA) program, which is closely tied to a broader STES effort to develop solar central receivers, includes: exploratory research to identify and study new energy storage materials and processes and improved techniques for containing the heat storage media, which may be corrosive; base technology R and D, including component design and development and laboratory scale experimentation; and feasibility tests of large TES systems in partnership with industry. The TESSTA program emphasizes development of second generation and advanced TES systems to support solar central receivers that use either molten salt or liquid sodium as the heat transfer and exchange medium. The decisions and achievements of the TESSTA program are summarized beginning with a brief review of the central receiver program. Also discussed are the program structure and funding and the assessment of the Federal role.

  6. Separation and Purification of Mineral Salts from Spacecraft Wastewater Processing via Electrostatic Beneficiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, John D., II; Lunn, Griffin

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic separation is a class of material processing technologies commonly used for the sorting of coarse mixtures by means of electrical forces acting on charged or polarized particles. Most if not all of the existing tribo-electrostatic separators had been initially developed for mineral ores beneficiation. It is a well-known process that has been successfully used to separate coal from minerals. Potash (potassium) enrichment where underground salt mines containing large amounts of sodium is another use of this techno logy. Through modification this technology can be used for spacecraft wastewater brine beneficiation. This will add in closing the gap beeen traveling around Earth's Gravity well and long-term space explorations. Food has been brought on all man missions, which is why plant growth for food crops continues to be of interest to NASA. For long-term mission considerations food productions is one of the top priorities. Nutrient recovery is essential for surviving in or past low earth orbit. In our advance bio-regenerative process instead of nitrogen gas produced; soluble nitrate salts that can be recovered for plant fertilizer would be produced instead. The only part missing is the beneficiation of brine to separate the potassium from the sodium. The use of electrostatic beneficiation in this experiment utilizes the electrical charge differences between aluminum and dried brine by surface contact. The helixes within the aluminum tribocharger allows for more surface contact when being agitated. When two materials are in contact, the material with the highest affinity for electrons becomes negatively charged, while the other becomes positively charged. This contact exchange of charge may cause the particles to agglomerate depending on their residence time within the tribocharger, compromising the efficiency of separation. The aim of this experiment is to further the development in electrostatic beneficiation by optimizing the separation of ersatz and

  7. Molten salt steam generator subsystem research experiment. Volume I. Phase 1 - Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1984-10-01

    A study was conducted for Phase 1 of a two-phase project whose objectives were to develop a reliable, cost-effective molten salt steam generating subsystem for solar thermal plants, minimize uncertainty in capital, operating, and maintenance costs, and demonstrate the ability of molten salt to generate high-pressure, high-temperature steam. The Phase 1 study involved the conceptual design of molten salt steam generating subsystems for a nominal 100-MWe net stand-alone solar central receiver electric generating plant, and a nominal 100-MWe net hybrid fossil-fueled electric power generating plant that is 50% repowered by a solar central receiver system. As part of Phase 1, a proposal was prepared for Phase 2, which involves the design, construction, testing and evaluation of a Subsystem Research Experiment of sufficient size to ensure successful operation of the full-size subsystem designed in Phase 1. Evaluation of several concepts resulted in the selection of a four-component (preheater, evaporator, superheater, reheater), natural circulation, vertically oriented, shell and tube (straight) heat exchanger arrangement. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the system included full and part load performance, circulation requirements, stability, and critical heat flux analysis. Flow-induced tube vibration, tube buckling, fatigue evaluation of tubesheet junctions, steady-state tubesheet analysis, and a simplified transient analysis were included in the structural analysis of the system. Operating modes and system dynamic response to load changes were identified. Auxiliary equipment, fabrication, erection, and maintenance requirements were also defined. Installed capital costs and a project schedule were prepared for each design.

  8. Stability High Salt Content Waste Using Sol Gel Process. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 0236

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mixed waste sludges, soils, and homogeneous solids containing high levels of salt ( ~ greater than 15% by weight ) have proven to be difficult to stabilize due to the soluble nature of the salts. The current stabilization technique for high salt waste, grouting with Portland cement, is limited to low waste loadings. The presence of salts interfere with the hydration and curing of the cement, cause waste form deteriorating mineral expansions, or result in an undesirable separate phase altogether. Improved technologies for the stabilization of salt waste must be able to accommodate higher salt loadings, while maintaining structural integrity, chemical durability, and leach resistance. In a joint collaboration supported by the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Arizona Materials Laboratory (AML) at the University of Arizona have developed a sol-gel (wet-chemical) based, low-temperature-processing route for the stabilization of salt-containing mixed wastes. By blending and reacting liquid precursors at room temperature with salt waste, strong, impermeable “polyceram” matrices have been formed that encapsulate the environmentally hazardous waste components. As depicted by Figure 1, polycerams are hybrid organic/inorganic materials with unique properties derived from the chemical combination of polymer (organic) and ceramic (inorganic) components. For this application, the stabilizing polyceram matrices contain polybutadiene-based polymer components and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as the inorganic component. Polybutadiene (PBD) is a strong, tough, waterresistant plastic and its use in the polyceram promotes these same characteristics in the waste form. The PBD polymer component is modified to increase its reactivity with the SiO2 precursor during sol-gel processing. When combined, the polymer and SiO2 precursors react, gel, solidify, and encapsulate the

  9. Phytoremediation of salt-affected soils: a review of processes, applicability, and the impact of climate change.

    PubMed

    Jesus, João M; Danko, Anthony S; Fiúza, António; Borges, Maria-Teresa

    2015-05-01

    Soil salinization affects 1-10 billion ha worldwide, threatening the agricultural production needed to feed the ever increasing world population. Phytoremediation may be a cost-effective option for the remediation of these soils. This review analyzes the viability of using phytoremediation for salt-affected soils and explores the remedial mechanisms involved. In addition, it specifically addresses the debate over plant indirect (via soil cation exchange enhancement) or direct (via uptake) role in salt remediation. Analysis of experimental data for electrical conductivity (ECe) + sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) reduction and plant salt uptake showed a similar removal efficiency between salt phytoremediation and other treatment options, with the added potential for phytoextraction under non-leaching conditions. A focus is also given on recent studies that indicate potential pathways for increased salt phytoextraction, co-treatment with other contaminants, and phytoremediation applicability for salt flow control. Finally, this work also details the predicted effects of climate change on soil salinization and on treatment options. The synergetic effects of extreme climate events and salinization are a challenging obstacle for future phytoremediation applications, which will require additional and multi-disciplinary research efforts.

  10. Quantitative analysis of ammonium salts in coking industrial liquid waste treatment process based on Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ya-Nan; Wang, Gui-Shi; Tan, Tu; Cai, Ting-Dong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Gong-Dong; Mei, Jiao-Xu

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of ammonium salts in the process of coking industrial liquid waste treatment is successfully performed based on a compact Raman spectrometer combined with partial least square (PLS) method. Two main components (NH4SCN and (NH4)2S2O3) of the industrial mixture are investigated. During the data preprocessing, wavelet denoising and an internal standard normalization method are employed to improve the predicting ability of PLS models. Moreover, the PLS models with different characteristic bands for each component are studied to choose a best resolution. The internal and external calibration results of the validated model show a mass percentage error below 1% for both components. Finally, the repeatabilities and reproducibilities of Raman and reference titration measurements are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41405022 and 61475068).

  11. Processing of YBA2Cu3O7 tapes from a molten salt precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, Richard P.

    1990-09-01

    A novel process for forming a viscous nitrate precursor of the superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) material, without the use of binders or plasticizers, is described. The precursor material is formed at 90 C from low melting salts such as Ba(OH)2 - 8H2O, Cu(NO3)2 - 3H2O and an aqueous nitrate solution of yttrium. The viscous precursor behaves as a concentrated suspension, being composed of particles of Ba(NO3)2 and Cu2(OH)3NO3 which are bound together by a gelatinous yttrium nitrate phase. This material has shown desirable properties for the formation of thin tapes through the doctor blade tape casting process. A technique is described for forming thin sheets of superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) by tape casting a viscous molten salt precursor which shows desirable rheological properties without the addition of binders or plasticizers. The drying of these tapes has shown the formation of a yttrium nitrate binder phase to be important in reducing cracking. The firing of these tapes has shown that the metal nitrates in the dried material decompose individually when heated in an oxygen atmosphere and react to form the superconducting phase above 750 C. The decomposition of the nitrates has resulted in extensive porosity in the fired tapes. The superconducting phase was formed in a single heat treatment and oxygen anneal. Magnetometer measurements have shown a transition temperature of (Tc) = 88 K at 10 percent of 50 Oe field cooled saturation value.

  12. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization.

  13. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-06-23

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4-16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6-25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3-6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary.

  14. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-06-01

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4–16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6–25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3–6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary.

  15. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  16. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4–16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6–25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3–6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary. PMID:27334452

  17. Casein peptization, functional properties, and sensory acceptance of processed cheese spreads made with different emulsifying salts.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Clarissa R; Viotto, Walkiria H

    2010-01-01

    "Requeijão cremoso" is a traditional Brazilian processed cheese spread, showing ample acceptance on the national market. Emulsifying salts (ES) are an important factor influencing the characteristics of processed cheeses, but the literature presents conflicting results about their action on cheese functionality. Requeijão cremoso obtained from anhydrous ingredients allows the study of the influence of each type of ES on the cheese properties, since it can be treated as a model system where the variables are limited and well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of ES (TSC-sodium citrate, SHMP-sodium hexametaphosphate, STPP-sodium tripolyphosphate, and TSPP-tetrasodium pyrophosphate) on the sensory and functional characteristics of requeijão cremoso-processed cheeses obtained from anhydrous ingredients. The physicochemical composition, degree of casein dissociation, fat particle size, melting index, color, texture profile, and sensory acceptance of the cheeses were determined. The functional behavior of processed cheeses was strongly influenced by the type of ES and its physicochemical properties including its ability to bind Ca, the casein dispersion during cooking, and the possible creation of cross-links with casein during cooling. The cheese made with SHMP was the one most differentiated from the others, presenting lower melting index, whiter color, and higher values for hardness, gumminess, and adhesiveness. The differences in texture had an impact on sensory acceptance: with the exception of the sample manufactured with sodium hexametaphosphate, all the samples presented good sensory acceptance.

  18. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  19. Process for improving the energy density of feedstocks using formate salts

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R.P.; Case, Paige A.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of forming liquid hydrocarbons through thermal deoxygenation of cellulosic compounds are disclosed. Aspects cover methods including the steps of mixing a levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock with a formic acid salt, exposing the mixture to a high temperature condition to form hydrocarbon vapor, and condensing the hydrocarbon vapor to form liquid hydrocarbons, where both the formic acid salt and the levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock decompose at the high temperature condition and wherein one or more of the mixing, exposing, and condensing steps is carried out a pressure between about vacuum and about 10 bar.

  20. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Researchers perform tests at Kennedy Space Center. New facilities for such research will be provided at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  1. Response of DWPF thermal flowmeters to composition change: Effect on 02 determination in Salt Process Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R.A.

    1992-02-03

    Thermal flowmeters (more accurately described as hot wire anamometers) have been installed in the Salt Process Cell (SPC) at the Savannah River Site to measure in-cell process flows. However, upon investigating the effect of composition on thermal flow meters, it was concluded that determining a priori correction factors is a very complicated process requiring fairly precise knowledge of the vapor composition and the meter characteristics. It is recommended that DWPF estimate air enleakage using a test procedure similar to one being developed in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) which circumvents the correction problem by in situ calibration, and develop a profile which characterizes air inleakaqe as a function of [Delta]P to be used in conjunction with the inleakage test procedure. The recommended test procedure has some distinct advantages over the simple material balance approach. More detailed information on the characteristics of thermal flow meters the recommended air inleakage test procedure, and the inleakage profile are discussed in this report.

  2. Response of DWPF thermal flowmeters to composition change: Effect on 02 determination in Salt Process Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R.A.

    1992-02-03

    Thermal flowmeters (more accurately described as hot wire anamometers) have been installed in the Salt Process Cell (SPC) at the Savannah River Site to measure in-cell process flows. However, upon investigating the effect of composition on thermal flow meters, it was concluded that determining a priori correction factors is a very complicated process requiring fairly precise knowledge of the vapor composition and the meter characteristics. It is recommended that DWPF estimate air enleakage using a test procedure similar to one being developed in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) which circumvents the correction problem by in situ calibration, and develop a profile which characterizes air inleakaqe as a function of {Delta}P to be used in conjunction with the inleakage test procedure. The recommended test procedure has some distinct advantages over the simple material balance approach. More detailed information on the characteristics of thermal flow meters the recommended air inleakage test procedure, and the inleakage profile are discussed in this report.

  3. Modeling the Effects of Changes to Physical, Hydrological, and Biological Processes on Porewater Salinity Distributions in a Southeastern Salt Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklesh, D.; Meile, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal wetlands provide many important ecosystem services, which include carbon and nitrogen sequestration and transformations, the provision of habitats, and the reduction of erosion by the vegetation. Coastal wetlands will be affected by projected climate change and sea level rise and may fail to provide such services, prompting a need to understand the environmental controls on marsh and vegetation distribution. Therefore, as part of the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Long Term Ecological Research project, an integrated modeling approach is being developed to simulate how changes in salinity and inundation may change marsh ecosystem services, by coupling a hydrodynamic with a soil and a plant model. In coastal marsh ecosystems, porewater salinity strongly determines vegetation distribution and productivity. We will present the development of the soil model, which is based on mass conservation for water and salt and links physical, hydrological, and biological processes that determine porewater salinity, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, salt exchange between surface and subsurface, drainage, groundwater exchange, tidal inundation, and surface runoff, with the lateral exchange controlled by marsh topography. The model is applied to the Duplin River marsh, Sapelo Island, Georgia. Model validation is performed by comparing model-estimated salinities to porewater salinity measurements taken in different vegetation classes and over a range of marsh elevations. Modeled variability in porewater salinities will be presented over spring-neap, seasonal, and annual time scales. To discuss potential impacts of climate change and sea level rise, a sensitivity analysis will be presented that demonstrates the effect precipitation intensity, evapotranspiration, permeability, and marsh elevation have on porewater salinities.

  4. The Messy Process of Research: Dilemmas, Process, and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Charlotte; Brody, Michael; Dillon, Justin; Hart, Paul; Heimlich, Joe

    2007-01-01

    The unabashedly messy aspects of the research process are often hidden from published view, and are therefore not available to encourage and instruct. The authors tell specific stories about "messy" research, arranged around: (1) evolving research questions; (2) methodology or methods surprises; (3) problematic answers; and (4)publication…

  5. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Process-Product Research: A Cornerstone in Educational Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    This article links the contribution of process-product studies in developing the theoretical framework of educational effectiveness by pointing out the importance of teacher behavior in the classroom. The role that Jere Brophy played in this evolving research is described within the various phases of teacher effectiveness research. Process-product…

  7. Effect of salt, smoke compound and temperature on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in salmon during simulated smoking processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In smoked fish processes, smoking is the only step that is capable of inactivating pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, that contaminate the raw fish. The objectives of this study were to examine and develop a model to describe the survival of L. monocytogenes in salmon as affected by salt, s...

  8. Implications of sedimentological and hydrological processes on the distribution of radionuclides in a salt marsh near Sellafield, Cumbria

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, A.P.; Blackley, M.W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The report examines sedimentological and hydrological processes affecting a salt marsh in the Ravenglass estuary, which is situated south of the Sellafield nuclear-fuel-reprocessing plant. The results are discussed in the context of the distribution of low-level radioactive effluent at the site.

  9. Effect of pH alkaline salts of fatty acids on the inhibition of bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine the effect of pH on the ability of alkaline salts of three fatty acids (FA) to inhibit growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing. FA solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.5 M concentrations of caprylic, capric, or lauric acid in separate ali...

  10. Facilitating the Research Process for Struggling Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, J.; Bradley, K. Sue

    Too often students enter high school without being exposed to the research process and are often overwhelmed by the complex task of selecting and narrowing of a topic, developing research questions, writing the text, and appropriately documenting sources. This paper delineates specific learning activities that will simplify the process to make it…

  11. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, V.A.; von Winbush, S.

    1987-05-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500/degree/C, electrolysis at a voltage not more negative that about /minus/1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  12. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; von Winbush, Samuel

    1988-01-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500.degree. C., electrolysis at a voltage not more negative than about -1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  13. Toxicity in lead salt spiked soils to plants, invertebrates and microbial processes: Unraveling effects of acidification, salt stress and ageing reactions.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Erik; Oorts, Koen; Peeters, Sofie; Lanno, Roman; Cheyns, Karlien

    2015-12-01

    The fate and effects of toxic trace metals in soil freshly spiked soluble metal salts do not mimic those of metals in the field. This study was set up to test the magnitude of effects of salinity, acidification, and ageing on toxicity of lead (Pb) to plants, invertebrates and soil microbial processes. Three soils were spiked with Pb2+ salts up to a concentration of 8000 mg Pb/kg and were tested either after spiking, after soil leaching followed by pH correction, or after a 5-year outdoor ageing period with free drainage followed by pH correction. Soil solution ionic strength exceeded 150 mmol/L in soils tested directly after spiking and this decreased partially after leaching and returned back to background values after 5-year outdoor equilibration. Chronic toxicity to two plants, two invertebrates, and three microbial endpoints was consistently found in all spiked soils that were not leached. This toxicity significantly decreased or became absent after 5 years of ageing in 19 of the 20 toxicity tests by a factor 8 (median factor; range: 1.4->50), measured by the factor increase of total soil Pb dose required to induce 10% inhibition. The toxicity of Pb in leached soils was intermediate between the other two treatments. The lowest detectable chronic thresholds (EC10) in aged soils ranged 350-5300 mg Pb/kg. Correlation analysis, including data of Pb2+ speciation in soil solution, suggests that reduced ionic strength rather than acidification or true ageing is the main factor explaining the soil treatment effects after spiking. It is suggested that future toxicity studies should test fine PbO powder as a relevant source for Pb in soils to exclude the confounding salt effects.

  14. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  15. The on-line removal of non-regenerable salts from amine solutions using the UCARSEP{reg_sign} Process

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.; Gregory, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    Amine unit contamination with non-regenerable salts, whether as a result of acid or inorganic salt incursion, or solvent degradation, is a common industry problem. In MEA systems this is usually addressed by the use of a reclaimer but this is not a practical solution for DEA, MDEA or formulated solvents. Similarly, the old approach of purging solvent is no longer economically or environmentally justifiable. Neutralization of amine salts with a strong base can significantly prolong the useful life of the amine solution but eventually some of the salt may have to be removed, especially if mechanical losses are low. Electrodialysis (ED) has recently been applied to this problem and has been found to overcome many of the disadvantages of vacuum distillation and ion exchange technologies, both of which have been used in recent years for solvent clean-up. Union Carbide adapted ED technology to the unique conditions encountered in an amine system and developed the UCARSEP{reg_sign} Process. A mobile UCARSEP{reg_sign} unit has been built to achieve on-line salt removal rates of 40 lbmol/day (about 3,300 lb/day). This has been successfully used to clean up UCARSOL{reg_sign} solvents as well as DEA. Case studies are presented and the relative merits of this and other clean-up options are discussed.

  16. Growth of single crystals of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities by solution processes for devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Data obtained from the electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) and Kurtz Powder Methods will be provided to MSFC for further refinement of their method. A theoretical model for predicting the second-order nonlinearities of organic salts is being worked on. Another task is the synthesis of a number of salts with various counterions. Several salts with promising SHG activities and new salts will be tested for the presence of two crystalline forms. The materials will be recrystallized from dry and wet solvents and compared for SHG efficiency. Salts that have a high SHG efficiency and no tendency to form hydrates will be documented. The synthesis of these materials are included in this report. A third task involves method to aid in the growth of large, high quality single crystals by solution processes. These crystals will be characterized for their applicability in the fabrication of devices that will be incorporated into optical computers in future programs. Single crystals of optimum quality may be obtained by crystal growth in low-gravity. The final task is the design of a temperature lowering single crystal growth apparatus for ground based work. At least one prototype will be built.

  17. A reactive distillation process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing rare earth chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, H. C.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, N. Y.; Lee, T. K.; Han, S. Y.; Lee, K. R.; Park, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.

    2016-11-01

    The pyrochemical process, which recovers useful resources (U/TRU metals) from used nuclear fuel using an electrochemical method, generates LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing radioactive rare earth chlorides (RECl3). It is necessary to develop a simple process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt in a hot-cell facility. For this reason, a reactive distillation process using a chemical agent was achieved as a method to separate rare earths from the LiCl-KCl waste salt. Before conducting the reactive distillation, thermodynamic equilibrium behaviors of the reactions between rare earth (Nd, La, Ce, Pr) chlorides and the chemical agent (K2CO3) were predicted using software. The addition of the chemical agent was determined to separate the rare earth chlorides into an oxide form using these equilibrium results. In the reactive distillation test, the rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were decontaminated at a decontamination factor (DF) of more than 5000, and were mainly converted into oxide (Nd2O3, CeO2, La2O3, Pr2O3) or oxychloride (LaOCl, PrOCl) forms. The LiCl-KCl was purified into a form with a very low concentration (<1 ppm) for the rare earth chlorides.

  18. The results of HLW processing using zirconium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Yury; Zilberman, Boris; Shmidt, Olga; Saprikin, Vladimir; Ryasantsev, Valery

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Zirconium salt of dibutyl-phosphoric acid (ZS HDBP) dissolved in a diluent, is a promising solvent for liquid HLW processing. The investigations carried out earlier showed that ZS HDBP can recover a series of radionuclides (TPE, RE, U, Pu, Np, Sr) and some other elements (Mo, Ca, Fe) from aqueous solutions. The possibility of TPE and RE effective recovery and separation into appropriate fractions with high purification from each other was demonstrated as well. The results of extraction tests in the mixer-settlers in the course of liquid HLW treatment in hot cells, using ZS HDBP (0.4 M HDBP and 0.044 M Zr) dissolved in 30% TBP are presented. 30 liters of the feed solution containing TPE, RE, Sr and Cs with the total specific activity of 520 MBq/L and acidity of 2 M HNO{sub 3} were processed using the two-cycle flowsheet. TPE and RE recovery with subsequent stripping was realized in the first cycle, while Sr was recovered and concentrated in the second cycle. Raffinate of the latter contained almost all Cs. The degree of TPE and RE recovery was 104, and that of Sr was {approx}10. Decontamination factor of TPE and RE from Cs and Sr was 104, and that of Sr from TPE and Cs was 103. So, ZS HDBP can be used for separation of long-lived radionuclides from HLW with respect to radio-toxic category of the process products. (authors)

  19. Structure/processing relationships of highly ordered lead salt nanocrystal superlattices.

    PubMed

    Hanrath, Tobias; Choi, Joshua J; Smilgies, Detlef-M

    2009-10-27

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)(s) planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)(s) planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly.

  20. The effects of salt, particle and pore size on the process of carbon dioxide hydrate formation: A critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, Hosein; Ayoub, Muhammad; Bhat, A. H.; Mahmood, Syed Mohammad; Akbari, Saeed; Murshid, Ghulam

    2016-11-01

    Hydration is an alternative method for CO2 capture. In doing so, some researchers use porous media on an experimental scale. This paper tries to gather the researches on the formation of CO2 hydrate in different types of porous media such as silica sand, quartz sand, Toyoura, pumice, and fire hardened red clay. This review has attempted to examine the effects of salt and particle sizes as two major factors on the induction time, water to hydrate conversion, gas uptake (or gas consumption), and the rate of CO2 hydrate formation. By performing a critical assessment of previous research works, it was observed that the figure for the gas uptake (or gas consumption) and water to hydrate conversion in porous media was decreased by increasing the particle size provided that the pore size was constant. Although, salt can play a role in hydrate formation as the thermodynamic inhibitor, the results show that salt can be regarded as the kinetic growth inhibitor and kinetic promoter. Because of the fact that the gas uptake in seawater is lower than pure water at the end of experiment, the salt can act as a kinetic growth inhibitor. However, since gas uptake (after the nucleation period and for a short period) and the initial rate of hydrate formation in saline water were more than that of pure water, salt can play a promoter role in the kinetic reaction, too. Besides these, in the case of pure water and within a certain particle size, the amount of the hydrate formation rate has been seen to be greater in smaller particles (provided that the pore size is constant), however this has not been observed for seawater.

  1. Salt drying: a low-cost, simple and efficient method for storing plants in the field and preserving biological repositories for DNA diversity research.

    PubMed

    Carrió, Elena; Rosselló, Josep A

    2014-03-01

    Although a variety of methods have been optimized for the collection and storage of plant specimens, most of these are not suited for field expeditions for a variety of logistic reasons. Drying specimens with silica gel in polyethylene bags is currently the standard for field-sampling methods that are suitable for subsequent DNA extraction. However, silica-gel repositories are not readily available in remote areas, and its use is not very cost-effective for the long-term storage of collections or in developing countries with limited research budgets. Salting is an ancient and traditional drying process that preserves food samples by dehydrating tissues and inhibiting water-dependent cellular metabolism. We compared salt and silica-gel drying methods with respect to dehydration rates overtime, DNA quality and polymerase chain reaction(PCR) success to assess whether dry salting can be used as an effective plant preservation method for DNA analysis. Specimens from eleven plant species covering a variety of leaf structures, leaf thicknesses and water contents were analysed. Experimental work indicated that (i) levels of dehydration in sodium chloride were usually comparable to those obtained when silica gel was used, (ii) no spoilage, fungal or bacterial growth was observed for any of the species with all drying treatments and (iii) good yields of quality genomic DNA suitable for PCR applications were obtained in the salt-drying treatments. The preservation of plant tissues in commercial table salt appears to be a satisfactory, and versatile method that may be suitable in remote areas where cryogenic resources and silica repositories are not available.

  2. Leveraging ongoing research to evaluate the health impacts of South Africa's salt reduction strategy: a prospective nested cohort within the WHO-SAGE multicountry, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Karen; Menyanu, Elias; Biritwum, Richard Berko; Naidoo, Nirmala; Pieterse, Chiné; Madurai, Savathree (Lorna); Baumgartner, Jeannine; Asare, George A; Thiele, Elizabeth; Schutte, Aletta E; Kowal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study. Methods and analysis Baseline sodium intake was assessed in a nested cohort of the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-SAGE) wave 2 (2014–2015), a multinational longitudinal study on the health and well-being of adults and the ageing process. The South African cohort consisted of randomly selected households (n=4030) across the country. Spot and 24-hour urine samples are collected in a random subsample (n=1200) and sodium, potassium, creatinine and iodine analysed. Salt behaviour and sociodemographic data are captured using face-to-face interviews, alongside blood pressure and anthropometric measures. Ghana, the selected control country with no formal salt policy, provided a nested subsample (n=1200) contributing spot and 24-hour urine samples from the SAGE Ghana cohort (n=5000). Follow-up interviews and urine collection (wave 3) in both countries will take place in 2017 (postlegislation) to assess change in population-level sodium intake and blood pressure. Ethics and dissemination SAGE was approved by the WHO Ethics Review Committee (reference number RPC149) with local approval from the North-West University Human Research Ethics Committee and University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee (South Africa), and University of Ghana Medical School Ethics and Protocol Review Committee (Ghana). The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed international journals

  3. ALUREC -- A new salt-free process for recovery of aluminum from dross and aluminum containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gripenberg, H.; Graeb, H.; Flesch, G.; Muellerthann, M.

    1995-12-31

    To solve the environmental and financial problems of the traditional Rotary Salt Furnace process, a new salt-free method for aluminum dross and scrap melting, ALUREC, has been developed by AGA and its partners, Hoogovens Aluminium and MAN GHH. AGA and Hoogovens Aluminium developed the main process concept and jointly carried out trials on pilot plant scale. Owing to excellent results, the partners decided to jointly erect a commercial scale test plant. The order for the design and erection of the furnace went to MAN GHH. The three companies designed the test plant and began operation in the spring of 1994. The results have been excellent and the process is expected to be a technical and commercial success.

  4. Zr electrorefining process for the treatment of cladding hull waste in LiCl-KCl molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang Hwa; Lee, You Lee; Jeon, Min Ku; Kang, Kweon Ho; Choi, Yong Taek; Park, Geun Il

    2013-07-01

    Zr electrorefining for the treatment of Zircaloy-4 cladding hull waste is demonstrated in LiCl-KCl-ZrCl{sub 4} molten salts. Although a Zr oxide layer thicker than 5 μm strongly inhibits the Zr dissolution process, pre-treatment processes increases the dissolution kinetics. For 10 g-scale experiments, the purities of the recovered Zr were 99.54 wt.% and 99.74 wt.% for fresh and oxidized cladding tubes, respectively, with no electrical contact issue. The optimal condition for Zr electrorefining has been found to improve the morphological feature of the recovered Zr, which reduces the salt incorporation by examining the effect of the process parameters such as the ZrCl{sub 4} concentration and the applied potential.

  5. Process research and development for a tetrazole-based growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) pharmaceutical development candidate.

    PubMed

    Davulcu, Akin H; McLeod, Douglas D; Li, Jun; Katipally, Kishta; Littke, Adam; Doubleday, Wendel; Xu, Zhongmin; McConlogue, Cary W; Lai, Chiajen J; Gleeson, Margaret; Schwinden, Mark; Parsons, Rodney L

    2009-06-05

    BMS-317180 (1) is a potent, orally active agonist of the human growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor. This manuscript details the process research and development efforts that enabled the synthesis of the phosphate salt of 1 on a multi-kilogram scale. Key considerations in the development of this process focused on safe execution and the requirement for telescoped synthetic transformations (i.e., without isolation of intermediate products) to contend with a lack of suitably crystalline products.

  6. Sustainability Research: Biofuels, Processes and Supply Chains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will talk about sustainability at the EPA, summarily covering high level efforts and focusing in more detail on research in metrics for liquid biofuels and tools to evaluate sustainable processes. The presentation will also briefly touch on a new area of research, t...

  7. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  8. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated October 8, 1991: 'Plant researchers Lisa Ruffe and Neil Yorio prepare to harvest a crop of Waldann's Green Lettuce from KSC's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). KSC researchers have grown several different crops in the BPC to determine which plants will better produce food, water and oxygen on long-duration space missions.' Their work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  9. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated October 8, 1991: 'Plant researchers Neil Yorio and Lisa Ruffe prepare to harvest a crop of Waldann's Green Lettuce from KSC's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). KSC researchers have grown several different crops in the BPC to determine which plants will better produce food, water and oxygen on long-duration space missions.' Their work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  10. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated June 22, 1988: 'A dwarf wheat variety known as Yecoro Rojo flourishes in KSC's Biomass Production Chamber. Researchers are gathering information on the crop's ability to produce food, water and oxygen, and then remove carbon dioxide. The confined quarters associated with space travel require researchers to focus on smaller plants that yield proportionately large amounts of biomass. This wheat crop takes about 85 days to grow before harvest.' Plant experiments such as this are the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  11. Influence of multiple stressors on the auto-remediation processes occurring in salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana I; Lillebø, Ana I; Pardal, Miguel A; Caçador, Isabel

    2011-07-01

    Due to increasing global population, salt marshes have been subjected to multiple stressors such as increasing nutrient loadings and historical contamination. In order to better understand how does the salt marsh plants auto-remediation capacity (phytoaccumulation of metals) is affected by cultural eutrophication, an experiment was performed under controlled conditions. Plants were exposure to equal metal concentrations (Zn, Cu, and Ni - micronutrients, and Cd - class B metal) simulating historical contamination and three different concentrations of nitrogen (nitrate) simulating steps of cultural eutrophication. According to our study, under the tested concentrations, cultural eutrophication does not seem to affect Zn, Cu and Ni phytoremediation of H. portulacoides, but the ecosystem service of Cd phytoremediation seems to be promoted. Nevertheless, Cd high toxicity and bioaccumulation should be taken into account, as well as the vulnerability of salt marsh ecosystems, whose reduction will have drastic consequences to the ecosystem health.

  12. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latanision, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    An annual report of the research activities of the Materials Processing Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. Research on dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment, phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids, transport properties of droplet clusters in gravity-free fields, probes and monitors for the study of solidification of molten semiconductors, fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth, and heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification are discussed.

  13. Illinois Institute of Technology Report: IITB52 Antifoamer for Alternative Salt Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.

    2001-06-27

    The attached report is a summary of the work performed by Dr. Darsh Wasan, Dr. Alex Nikolov, and their researchers at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) during FY01. IIT developed the IITB52 antifoam for SRTC in FY00 to minimize the foam produced during precipitation, washing and concentration of cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate precipitate. The IITB52 antifoam has been very successful during continuous processing (prototypical of plant operation). However, there were several key issues where SRTC needed the experience and knowledge of IIT to resolve. As a result a subcontract was set up with Dr. Wasan and Dr. Alex Nikolov during FY01. This subcontract requested IIT to perform the basic research necessary to understand the foaming mechanism and explain the effectiveness of the IITB52 antifoam agent in the Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP).

  14. Influence of reaction period on a new packing SBBR process treating high-salt and phosphorus deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. X.; Zhou, M. J.; Yu, P. F.; Sun, M.; Ji, X. Q.; Zhang, J.

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of high-salt ballast wastewater treatment, Sequencing Biofilm Batch Reactor of new packing activated sludge process used to simulate an experimental study. When Chloride ion concentration is 20±2g/L, the impacts of reaction period and anoxic time (Ta) / aerobic time (To) on the effect of the treatment process and sludge activity were investigated. The results show the salt acclimation SBBR process can effectively remove organic contaminants; when the reaction period was 49h, the removal rates of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reached more than 91.0%, and the removal rate of NH+ 4 -N was 83.3%, the removal rate of Total Nitrogen (TN) was 67.7%, and the effluent concentration of COD, NH+ 4 -N and TN were respectively 45.7mg/L, 7.8mg/L and 18.6mg/L. At this time, TF reached 43.6pg/ml. With the Ta / To increase, the degree of denitrification increased and the nitrification rate reduced. When Ta/To 1:3, the optimal nitrogen removal appeared, ammonia removal efficiency was 83.8%, the effluent concentration was 7.8mg / L, TN removal rate was 67.7%, and the effluent concentration was 18.6mg / L, to reach effluent standards. Technical support was also provided to solve the problem of coastal salt waste low phosphorus wastewater.

  15. Estimating rangeland runoff, soil erosion, and salt mobility and transport processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 55% of sediment and salts entering the Colorado River are derived from accelerated soil erosion from federal rangelands with damages estimated to be $385 million per year. About 55% of the loading is derived from rangelands. This suggests a significant potential to reduce dissolved-solids loa...

  16. Bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids towards bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids were determined using the agar diffusion assay. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid (FA) was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric aci...

  17. A novel process for recovery of iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates: NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Longsheng; Liu, Yahui; Qi, Tao; Wang, Jianchong; Wang, Lina

    2013-01-15

    A novel process for recovering iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates has been developed. In the present paper, the treatment of rich titanium-vanadium slag by NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes is investigated. In the NaOH molten salt roasting process, the metallic iron is oxidized into ferriferous oxide, MgTi(2)O(5) is converted to NaCl-type structure of Na(2)TiO(3), and M(3)O(5) (M=Ti, Mg, Fe) is converted to α-NaFeO(2)-type structure of NaMO(2), respectively. Roasting temperature and NaOH-slag mass ratio played a considerable role in the conversion of titanium in the rich titanium-vanadium slag during the NaOH molten salt roasting process. Roasting at 500 °C for 60 min and a 1:1 NaOH-slag mass ratio produces 96.3% titanium conversion. In the water leaching process, the Na(+) was exchanged with H(+), Na(2)TiO(3) is converted to undefined structure of H(2)TiO(3), and NaMO(2) is converted to α-NaFeO(2)-type structure of HMO(2). Under the optimal conditions, 87.3% of the sodium, 42.3% of the silicon, 43.2% of the aluminum, 22.8% of the manganese, and 96.6% of the vanadium are leached out.

  18. PEG-salt aqueous two-phase systems: an attractive and versatile liquid-liquid extraction technology for the downstream processing of proteins and enzymes.

    PubMed

    Glyk, Anna; Scheper, Thomas; Beutel, Sascha

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing demand to establish new feasible, efficient downstream processing (DSP) techniques in biotechnology and related fields. Although several conventional DSP technologies have been widely employed, they are usually expensive and time-consuming and often provide only low recovery yields. Hence, the DSP is one major bottleneck for the commercialization of biological products. In this context, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-salt aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) represent a promising, efficient liquid-liquid extraction technology for the DSP of various biomolecules, such as proteins and enzymes. Furthermore, ATPS can overcome the limitations of traditional DSP techniques and have gained importance for applications in several fields of biotechnology due to versatile advantages over conventional DSP methods, such as biocompatibility, technical simplicity, and easy scale-up potential. In the present review, various practical applications of PEG-salt ATPS are presented to highlight their feasibility to operate as an attractive and versatile liquid-liquid extraction technology for the DSP of proteins and enzymes, thus facilitating the approach of new researchers to this technique. Thereby, single- and multi-stage extraction, several process integration methods, as well as large-scale extraction and purification of proteins regarding technical aspects, scale-up, recycling of process chemicals, and economic aspects are discussed.

  19. Progress in Studying Salt Secretion from the Salt Glands in Recretohalophytes: How Do Plants Secrete Salt?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Leng, Bingying; Wang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    To survive in a saline environment, halophytes have evolved many strategies to resist salt stress. The salt glands of recretohalophytes are exceptional features for directly secreting salt out of a plant. Knowledge of the pathway(s) of salt secretion in relation to the function of salt glands may help us to change the salt-tolerance of crops and to cultivate the extensive saline lands that are available. Recently, ultrastructural studies of salt glands and the mechanism of salt secretion, particularly the candidate genes involved in salt secretion, have been illustrated in detail. In this review, we summarize current researches on salt gland structure, salt secretion mechanism and candidate genes involved, and provide an overview of the salt secretion pathway and the asymmetric ion transport of the salt gland. A new model recretohalophyte is also proposed. PMID:27446195

  20. Effect of impurities in industrial salts on aluminum scrap melting

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y.; Revet, A.

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum scrap such as Used Beverage Containers (UBC) is melted under a protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of molten droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. Generally, the salt compositions for aluminum scrap recycling are based on equimolar mixtures of NaCl and KCl. A small amount of fluoride is also added in the salt. In the past, laboratory research at universities and industrial laboratories have been limited to pure salts. However, the industrial salts have impurities such as sulfates and other insoluble materials. These impurities have a pronounced effect on the efficiency of the scrap remelting process. In this paper, the role of impurities in industrial salts in terms of their chemical interactions with the metal are summarized. The efficiency of different industrial grade salts containing varying amounts of sulfates and other insoluble impurities for scrap recycling is compared.

  1. Recovery of salts from ion-exchange regeneration streams by a coupled nanofiltration-membrane distillation process.

    PubMed

    Jiříček, Tomáš; De Schepper, Wim; Lederer, Tomáš; Cauwenberg, Peter; Genné, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Ion-exchange tap water demineralization for process water preparation results in a saline regeneration wastewater (20-100 mS cm(-1)) that is increasingly problematic in view of discharge. A coupled nanofiltration-membrane distillation (NF-MD) process is evaluated for the recovery of water and sodium chloride from this wastewater. NF-MD treatment of mixed regeneration wastewater is compared to NF-MD treatment of separate anion- and cation-regenerate fractions. NF on mixed regeneration wastewater results in a higher flux (30 L m(-2) h(-1) at 7 bar) compared to NF on the separate fractions (6-9 L m(-2) h(-1) at 30 bar). NF permeate recovery is strongly limited by scaling (50% for separate and 60% for mixed, respectively). Physical signs of scaling were found during MD treatment of the NF permeates but did not result in flux decline for mixed regeneration wastewater. Final salt composition is expected to qualify as a road de-icing salt. NF-MD is an economically viable alternative compared to external disposal of wastewater for larger-scale installations (1.4 versus 2.5 euro m(-3) produced demineralized water for a 10 m3 regenerate per day plant). The cost benefits of water re-use and salt recuperation are small when compared to total treatment costs for mixed regenerate wastewater.

  2. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-04-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  3. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K.; Oomori, T.

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  4. Research at Yale in Natural Language Processing. Research Report #84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schank, Roger C.

    This report summarizes the capabilities of five computer programs at Yale that do automatic natural language processing as of the end of 1976. For each program an introduction to its overall intent is given, followed by the input/output, a short discussion of the research underlying the program, and a prognosis for future development. The programs…

  5. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  6. Methods for predicting properties and tailoring salt solutions for industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ally, Moonis R.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory accurately and quickly predicts thermodynamic properties of concentrated aqueous salt solutions. This algorithm is much simpler and much faster than other modeling schemes and is unique because it can predict solution behavior at very high concentrations and under varying conditions. Typical industrial applications of this algorithm would be in manufacture of inorganic chemicals by crystallization, thermal storage, refrigeration and cooling, extraction of metals, emissions controls, etc.

  7. Assessment of phosphogypsum impact on the salt-marshes of the Tinto river (SW Spain): role of natural attenuation processes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Castillo, Julio; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Nieto, José M

    2011-12-01

    About 120 Mton of phosphogypsum from the fertiliser industry were stack-piled on the salt-marshes of the Tinto river (Spain). This paper investigates the capacity of salt-marshes to attenuate contamination due to downward leaching from phosphogypsum. Solids and pore-waters were characterized at different depths of the pile to reach the marsh-ground. In superficial zones, metals were highly mobile, and no reduced sulphur was found. However, pollutant concentration decreased in the pore-water in deeper oxygen-restricted zones. Metal removal occurred by precipitation of newly formed sulphides, being this process main responsible for the contamination attenuation. Pyrite-S was the main sulphide component (up to 2528 mg/kg) and occurred as framboids, leading to high degrees of pyritization (up to 97%). The sulphidization reaction is Fe-limited; however, excess of acid-volatile sulphide over other metals cause precipitation of other sulphides, mainly of Cu and As. This decrease in metal mobility significantly minimises the impact of phosphogypsums on the salt-marshes.

  8. Integration of ion-exchange and nanofiltration processes for recovering Cr(III) salts from synthetic tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M; Marques, Joana C; Quina, Margarida J

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the possibility of integrating both ion-exchange (IX) and nanofiltration (NF) processes for the recovery of Cr(III) salts from a synthetic solution prepared with concentrations of Cr(III), [Formula: see text] and Cl(-) in the range of industrial effluents of tanneries. Ion exchange should be used as a pre-treatment for uptaking Cl(-) ions from the effluent, and thereafter the treated solution is fed to an NF unit to recover chromium sulphate salt for reuse in the tanning bath. The strong anionic resin Diaion PA316 was selected for evaluating chloride-sulphate ion-exchange equilibrium, with respect to mass of resin, NaCl concentration, temperature and ratio [Formula: see text]. It was observed that the separation factor, [Formula: see text], depends on the total electrolyte concentration and the ratio [Formula: see text] plays a role as well. Moreover, it was determined that the resin prefers sulphate over chloride since [Formula: see text] is less than 1. The performance of the NF process is dependent on [Formula: see text] and the rejection of Cr(III) may decrease from 90% to 70% as the ratio increases from 0.5 to 2. Regarding the integration of both IX and NF, the feed solution after treatement with the resin was fed to NF where the ratio of [Formula: see text] led to the best operating conditions for this process (90% of Cr(III) rejection and up to 77% for [Formula: see text] ions). This strategy may be considered as a sustainable approach since it permits to obtain a solution enriched in Cr(III) salt for reuse in the tanning process, thus contributing to environmental protection.

  9. Properties of solid dispersions of selected magnesium salts and the absorption process of Mg2+ ions in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcoin, Waclawa; Duda, Henryk; Chrobak, Dariusz

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an application of phosphatidylcholine 45% (PC 45) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in formulations of magnesium salts such as Mg(VitB6) and Mg(VitB6Arg) prepared by solid dispersion (SD) techniques. The evaluation of influence of the selected carriers on some physicochemical properties of solid dispersions and on the absorption process of Mg +2 ions in vitro were made. An infrared (IR) spectra study suggested creation of a hydrogen bond between the carriers and the examined magnesium salts. The results of the following thermal analysis: differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that application of PVP into SD lower the temperature of the decomposition process. However, in the case of PC 45 into SD the characteristic thermal effects of higher temperatures were observed. Moreover, values of the enthalpy SD of decomposition process were decreased. The results of these studies on absorption process of Mg2+ ions in vitro showed the positive influence of the applied carriers on the partition coefficient values (log P) in the examined formulation.

  10. Research on Superconductive Signal-Processing Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-30

    LABORATORY RESEARCH ON SUPERCONDUCTIVE SIGNAL-PROCESSING DEVICES ANNUAIL REPORT To THlE AIR FORCE OFF ICE O1P SCIENT [F[C RESEARCH ELE(;TRONICS ANI... J .,.-,.c.t n......... :.. u ll.. . . -1i1611tiC /.. TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract iii 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 Background 3 2.1 Summary of early program...desirable at the present time. 30 30 ............ j . . . ... .o.o. -....... ’’•."".-’,-.-.-............ -. . i 3.2.2 Extension of Time-Bandwidth

  11. Modeling deformation processes of salt caverns for gas storage due to fluctuating operation pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, N.; Nagel, T.; Goerke, U.; Khaledi, K.; Lins, Y.; König, D.; Schanz, T.; Köhn, D.; Attia, S.; Rabbel, W.; Bauer, S.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In the course of the Energy Transition in Germany, the focus of the country's energy sources is shifting from fossil to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Since renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, are subjected to annual, seasonal, and diurnal fluctuations, the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. Common methods of energy storage are the utilization of subsurface caverns as a reservoir for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or the storage of compressed air. The construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to the possibility of solution mining. Another advantage of evaporite as a host material is the self-healing capacity of salt rock. Gas caverns are capable of short-term energy storage (hours to days), so the operating pressures inside the caverns are fluctuating periodically with a high number of cycles. This work investigates the influence of fluctuating operation pressures on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of the gas during the loading/ unloading of the cavern. This provides information on the transient pressure and temperature distribution on the cavern boundary to calculate the deformation of its geometry. Non-linear material models are used for the mechanical analysis, which describe the creep and self-healing behavior of the salt rock under fluctuating loading pressures. In order to identify the necessary material parameters, we perform experimental studies on the mechanical behaviour of salt rock under varying pressure and temperature conditions. Based on the numerical results, we further derive concepts for monitoring THM quantities in the

  12. Fundamental surface processes in heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry: Applications to sea-salt (NaCl) and oxide particulate chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Heather Cecile

    1997-10-01

    Although heterogeneous phenomena are important in many atmospheric processes, these complex systems have been difficult to study at the fundamental level. Surface- sensitive techniques are currently being utilized to probe the chemistry of heterogeneous atmospheric systems. In addition to presenting fundamental surface chemistry of several systems, this dissertation shows that surface- sensitive and electron microscopy technology can provide substantial insight into heterogeneous atmospheric processes. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS) were used to better understand fundamental mechanisms of the reaction of sodium chloride with nitric acid vapor (and reaction with nitrogen dioxide) followed by water vapor. Results show for the first time that exposures to water vapor can lead to major reconstruction and concurrent recrystallization of the surface after reaction of NaCl(s) with HNO3(g). This has significant implications for tropospheric chemistry in polluted urban regions. The entire volume of airborne sea-salt (i.e. NaCl) particles is available for reaction due to the water-induced reorganization of the surface. Additional studies presented here include: (1) Laser induced desorption-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LID-FTMS) studies of the reactivity of thin films of aluminum oxide (γ- Al2O3/NiAl(100)) after exposure to molecules relevant to tropospheric and stratospheric particulate chemistry, (2) TEM-EDS studies of stratospheric particles, and (3) Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) of CO/NiAl(100). TDS and LID-FTMS studies reveal that non-hydroxylated γ- Al2O3/NiAl(100) is inert toward the adsorption of CF2Cl2 and HCF2Cl. LID-FTMS results show that 1,3-butadiene desorbs intact from non- hydroxylated γ- Al2O3/NiAl(100) at ~200 K. The TEM-EDS studies of stratospheric particles reveal that submicron alumina spheres are amorphous. Previous studies of submicron alumina spheres showed that γ-alumina was the

  13. Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

  14. Photonic processing at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochoa, Ellen; Reid, Max

    1990-01-01

    The Photonic Processing group is engaged in applied research on optical processors in support of the Ames vision to lead the development of autonomous intelligent systems. Optical processors, in conjunction with numeric and symbolic processors, are needed to provide the powerful processing capability that is required for many future agency missions. The research program emphasizes application of analog optical processing, where free-space propagation between components allows natural implementations of algorithms requiring a large degree of parallel computation. Special consideration is given in the Ames program to the integration of optical processors into larger, heterogeneous computational systems. Demonstration of the effective integration of optical processors within a broader knowledge-based system is essential to evaluate their potential for dependable operation in an autonomous environment such as space. The Ames Photonics program is currently addressing several areas of interest. One of the efforts is to develop an optical correlator system with two programmable spatial light modulators (SLMs) to perform distortion invariant pattern recognition. Another area of research is optical neural networks, also for use in distortion-invariant pattern recognition.

  15. Black Dross: Processing Salt Removal from Black Dross by Thermal Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Reza; Moosberg-Bustnes, John; Akhtar, Shahid; Aune, Ragnhild E.

    2014-11-01

    The salt removal from black dross by thermal treatment has experimentally been studied under different conditions in both a stationary resistance furnace and in a laboratory scale rotary furnace. The experiments were designed based on partial pressure calculations using the Thermo-Calc software (Thermo-Calc Software, Stockholm, Sweden). The salt removal efficiency was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses, and the optimum conditions for treatment established, i.e., temperature, gas flow rate, holding time, rotation rate, and sample size. The overall degree of chloride removal was established to increase as a function of time and temperature, as well as by reduced pressure. Under atmospheric pressure, the highest degree of chloride removal from a 20 g sample was obtained after 10 h at 1523 K resulting in a 98% removal and a final chloride content of 0.3 wt.% in the residue. Under reduced pressure, the chloride concentrate was lowered to 0.2 wt.% after thermal treatment of a 20 g sample at 1473 K for 8 h. In the case of 200 g samples treated in a rotary furnace, the chloride concentrate was 2.5 wt.% after 14 h at 1523 K, representing a removal of 87%. Below 0.3 wt.% chloride content, the material is deemed a nonhazardous waste.

  16. South Africa's salt reduction strategy: Are we on track, and what lies ahead?

    PubMed

    Webster, J; Crickmore, C; Charlton, K; Steyn, K; Wentzel-Viljoen, E; Naidoo, P

    2016-12-21

    On 2 September 2016, 25 local and international participants from various sectors met in Cape Town to take stock of South Africa (SA)'s progress in salt reduction and develop a roadmap for action. SA is centre stage on salt reduction globally, being the first country to mandate salt reduction across a wide range of processed foods. Excessive salt intake contributed by processed foods and discretionary sources motivated SA to implement a public awareness campaign in parallel with legislation to reduce salt intake to the World Health Organization target of 5 g per day. Five priority areas were identified for continued action on salt reduction, including obtaining research funds for continued monitoring and compliance of salt reduction targets. Determining the contribution of foods eaten out of home to total salt intake and implementing strategies to address this sector were also highlighted as key actions. Lastly, implementing the next stage of the Salt Watch awareness campaign to change.

  17. Dynamics of prolonged salt movement in the Glückstadt Graben (NW Germany) driven by tectonic and sedimentary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsitzka, Michael; Kley, Jonas; Jähne-Klingberg, Fabian; Kukowski, Nina

    2017-01-01

    The formation of salt structures exerted a major influence on the evolution of subsidence and sedimentation patterns in the Glückstadt Graben, which is part of the Central European Basin System and comprises a post-Permian sediment thickness of up to 11 km. Driven by regional tectonics and differential loading, large salt diapirs, salt walls and salt pillows developed. The resulting salt flow significantly influenced sediment distribution in the peripheral sinks adjacent to the salt structures and overprinted the regional subsidence patterns. In this study, we investigate the geometric and temporal evolution of salt structures and subsidence patterns in the central Glückstadt Graben. Along a key geological cross section, the post-Permian strata were sequentially decompacted and restored in order to reconstruct the subsidence history of minibasins between the salt structures. The structural restoration reveals that subsidence of peripheral sinks and salt structure growth were initiated in Early to Middle Triassic time. From the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic, salt movement and salt structure growth never ceased, but were faster during periods of crustal extension. Following a phase from Late Jurassic to the end of the early Late Cretaceous, in which minor salt flow occurred, salt movement was renewed, particularly in the marginal parts of the Glückstadt Graben. Subsidence rates and tectonic subsidence derived from backstripping of 1D profiles reveal that especially the Early Triassic and Middle Keuper times were periods of regional extension. Three specific types of salt structures and adjacent peripheral sinks could be identified: (1) Graben centre salt walls possessing deep secondary peripheral sinks on the sides facing away from the basin centre, (2) platform salt walls, whose main peripheral sinks switched multiple times from one side of the salt wall to the other, and (3) Graben edge pillows, which show only one peripheral sink facing the basin centre.

  18. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated August 14, 1995: 'KSC plant physiologist Dr. Gary Stutte (right) and Cheryl Mackowiak harvest potatoes grown in the Biomass Production Chamber of the Controlled Enviornment Life Support System (CELSS in Hangar L at Cape Canaveral Air Station. During a 418-day 'human rated' experiment, potato crops grown in the chamber provided the equivalent of a continuous supply of the oxygen for one astronaut, along with 55 percent of that long-duration space flight crew member's caloric food requirements and enough purified water for four astronauts while absorbing their expelled carbon dioxide. The experiment provided data that will help demonstarte the feasibility of the CELSS operating as a bioregenerative life support system for lunar and deep-space missions that can operate independently without the need to carry consumables such as air, water and food, while not requiring the expendable air and water system filters necessary on today's human-piloted spacecraft.' Their work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  19. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated August 14, 1995: 'KSC plant physiologist Dr. Gary Stutte harvests a potato grown in the Biomass Production Chamber of the Controlled environment Life Support system (CELSS) in Hangar L at Cape Canaveral Air Station. During a 418-day 'human rated' experiment, potato crops grown in the chamber provided the equivalent of a continuous supply of the oxygen for one astronaut, along with 55 percent of that long-duration space flight crew member's caloric food requirements and enough purified water for four astronauts while absorbing their expelled carbon dioxide. The experiment provided data that will help demonstarte the feasibility of the CELSS operating as a bioregenerative life support system for lunar and deep-space missions that can operate independently without the need to carry consumables such as air, water and food, while not requiring the expendable air and water system filters necessary on today's human-piloted spacecraft.' His work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  20. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit, Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, M.H.

    1980-10-01

    This represents the first quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of a PDU to test the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process. On July 24, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. The primary activities during the period covered by this report related to preparations for PDU Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program. These activities included restaffing the PDU operations group, reactivation of the facility, and effecting plant modifications and improvements based on an evaluation of previous operation experience. The Melt Withdrawal System which had proven unreliable during the previous runs, was completely redesigned; thermal and flow analyses were performed; new components procured; and assembly initiated. Run 6 which is scheduled for the next report period, is aimed primarily at verifying the adequacy of the redesigned Melt Withdrawal System.

  1. Evaluation of the influence of salt processing on pharmacokinetics of psoralen and isopsoralen in Psoralea corylifolia L.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian qian; Yan, Cui ping; Xu, Zi sheng; Wu, Yu; Weng, Ze bin; Zhao, Gen hua; Zhang, Liu jie; He, Jia yu; Cai, Bao chang; Chen, Zhi peng; Li, Wei dong

    2016-04-01

    A sensitive, specific and rapid ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed to investigate pharmacokinetic properties of psoralen and isopsoralen, two compounds isolated from raw/salt-processed fruit of Psoralea corylifolia L. UHPLC-MS/MS was used with positive ion electrospray. The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and a gradient elution program at flow rate of 0.3 mL/min was applied. Multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for the quantification of psoralen, isopsoralen ([M + H](+) m/z 187.0 → m/z 131.0) and scoparone (m/z 207.0 → m/z 151.1). Scoparone served as an internal standard. The method was fully validated for its sensitivity, selectivity, stability, matrix effect and extraction recovery. The obtained results showed that salt-processed Buguzhi significantly promoted the absorption of psoralen and isopsoralen, and increased the bioavailability of these compounds.

  2. Predominant processing adaptability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains isolated from Chinese traditional low-salt fermented whole fish.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xuefeng; He, Laping; Guo, Xu; Deng, Li; Yang, Wangen; Zhu, Qiujin; Duan, Zhenhua

    2017-02-02

    This study aimed to determine the predominant processing adaptability of 27 selected isolates of Staphylococcus xylosus in 'Suan yu', a traditional Chinese low-salt fermented whole-fish product. The isolates were screened for proteolytic, lipolytic, and enzymatic profiles; amino-acid decarboxylase content; antimicrobial activities; and tolerance to low temperatures, pH5.0, and salt. Two S. xylosus strains grew at 10°C in the presence of 10% NaCl and at pH5.0. Agar-plate assays and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that 21 and 8 of the strains exhibited appropriate proteolytic activities against myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins, respectively. All S. xylosus strains also displayed different enzymatic profiles, and most strains showed negative decarboxylase activities. The results of this step were used as input data for a Principal Component Analysis; therefore, the most technologically relevant strain 3 and 8 were combined with L. plantarum 120 as MS1 and MS2, respectively, were further selected for the fermented fish surimi, and the fish surimi inoculated with mixed starter cultures (MS1, MS2) scored high for overall acceptability. Free amino acid contents of 1757 and 1765mg/100g sample were found in fish surimi inoculated with MS1 and MS2, respectively, after 72h of fermentation. Therefore, Sx-3 and Sx-8, which presented the best predominant processing adaptability, is an eligible starter culture for fermented fish production.

  3. 2010 Membranes: Materials & Processes Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Lin

    2010-07-30

    The GRC series on Membranes: Materials and Processes have gained significant international recognition, attracting leading experts on membranes and other related areas from around the world. It is now known for being an interdisciplinary and synergistic meeting. The next summer's edition will keep with the past tradition and include new, exciting aspects of material science, chemistry, chemical engineering, computer simulation with participants from academia, industry and national laboratories. This edition will focus on cutting edge topics of membranes for addressing several grand challenges facing our society, in particular, energy, water, health and more generally sustainability. During the technical program, we want to discuss new membrane structure and characterization techniques, the role of advanced membranes and membrane-based processes in sustainability/environment (including carbon dioxide capture), membranes in water processes, and membranes for biological and life support applications. As usual, the informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the oral presentations and posters, and ample opportunity to meet many outstanding colleagues make this an excellent conference for established scientists as well as for students. A Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on the weekend prior to the GRC meeting will provide young researchers an opportunity to present their work and network with outstanding experts. It will also be a right warm-up for the conference participants to join and enjoy the main conference.

  4. Quantification of water, salt and nutrient exchange processes at the mouth of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Sylaios, Georgios K; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A; Akratos, Christos; Haralambidou, Kiriaki

    2006-08-01

    Vassova lagoon is a typical Mediterranean (small, shallow, micro-tidal, well-mixed) coastal lagoon, receiving limited seasonal freshwater inflows from direct precipitation and underground seepage. An intensive study was carried out in order to quantify the mechanisms responsible for the intra-tidal and residual transport of water, salt, nutrients and chlorophyll at the mouth of this lagoon and to assess the lagoon's flushing behavior. Results indicated that although the system is micro-tidal, tidal effects appeared to be the dominant factor for the longitudinal distribution of physical and chemical parameters, while the associated residual flow is also important and serves as a baseline measure of overall circulation. However, analysis of the net longitudinal currents and fluxes of water, salt and nutrients revealed the importance of non-tidal effects (wind effect and precipitation incidents) in the mean tidal transport. It is shown that the Eulerian residual currents transported water and its properties inwards under southern winds, while a seaward transport was induced during precipitation incidents and northern winds. The Stokes drift effect was found an order of magnitude lower than the Eulerian current, directed towards the lagoon, proving the partially-progressive nature of the tide. Nutrients and chlorophyll-alpha loads are exported from the lagoon to the open sea during the ebb phase of the autumn and winter tidal cycles, associated with the inflow of nutrient-rich freshwater, seeped through the surrounding drainage canal. The reverse transport occurs in spring and early summer, when nutrients enter the lagoon during the flood tidal phase, from the nutrient-rich upper layer of the stratified adjacent sea. Application of a tidal prism model shows that Vassova lagoon has a mean flushing time of 7.5 days, ranging between 4 to 18 days, affected inversely by the tidal oscillation.

  5. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  6. Quality characteristics of a dry-cured lamb leg as affected by tumbling after dry-salting and processing time.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Delgado, Luz H; Caro, Irma; Blanco, Carolina; Morán, Lara; Prieto, Nuria; Bodas, Raul; Giráldez, Francisco J; Mateo, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate selected quality characteristics of a dry-cured lamb leg with different tumbling treatments after salting. The characteristics were measured at different processing times. Three batches of dry-cured lamb legs (nine legs per batch) were prepared with no-, short- and long-tumbling treatments, and microbial counts, NaCl, aw, proximate composition, pH, free fatty acids, water soluble nitrogen, volatile compounds, texture and colour were evaluated at days 1, 22 and 71 of processing. Furthermore, a descriptive sensory analysis (flavour and texture) was performed in the final product (day 71). Time-related changes were observed for most of the characteristics studied. The effect of tumbling was only observed for the sensory attribute pastiness that was higher in tumbled legs. Methyl-branched butanal was only detected in tumbled legs.

  7. Ag nanowires: large-scale synthesis via a trace-salt-assisted solvothermal process and application in transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiu, Jinting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nogi, Masaya; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2013-04-01

    Ag nanowire (AgNW) films are receiving increasing attention as new transparent conductive films poised to replace indium tine oxide materials. However, coating of AgNW surfaces with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and other impurities during synthesis causes large contact resistance between the wires leading to low conductivities in the absence of additional treatments to fuse the overlapped AgNWs together. In the present work, we demonstrated a simple method to synthesize AgNWs by the reduction of AgNO3 using PVP as the reducing agent assisted by trace amounts of salts in ethanol. The shape and yield of the AgNWs depended significantly on the concentrations of these trace salts and on reaction temperatures. The silver nanowires were about 5-20 μm in length and showed a uniform diameter of about 70 nm. A detailed growth mechanism of the AgNWs has been proposed on the basis of the observations recorded by varying these synthesis parameters. Further, the AgNWs were used to form a transparent film, which without any additional treatments showed a sheet resistance of 10.4 Ω/sq and a transmittance of 81.9 % at 550 nm. The performance of the films was attributed to the trace amounts of residual impurities on the surface of the AgNWs and to the special V-shaped morphology of the wires prepared with the solvothermal process.

  8. NASA/MSFC FY-85 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W. (Compiler); Porter, F. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The two main areas of focus for the research program are global scale processes and mesoscale processes. Geophysical fluid processes, satellite doppler lidar, satellite data analysis, atmospheric electricity, doppler lidar wind research, and mesoscale modeling are among the topics covered.

  9. Geohydromechanical Processes in the Excavation Damaged Zone in Crystalline Rock, Rock Salt, and Indurated and Plastic Clays

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Bernier, Frederic; Davies, Christophe

    2004-06-20

    The creation of an excavation disturbed zone or excavation damaged zone is expected around all man-made openings in geologic formations. Macro- and micro-fracturing, and in general a redistribution of in situ stresses and rearrangement of rock structures, will occur in this zone, resulting in drastic changes of permeability to flow, mainly through the fractures and cracks induced by excavation. Such an EDZ may have significant implications for the operation and long-term performance of an underground nuclear waste repository. Various issues of concern need to be evaluated, such as processes creating fractures in the excavation damaged zone, the degree of permeability increase, and the potential for sealing or healing (with permeability reduction) in the zone. In recent years, efforts along these lines have been made for a potential repository in four rock types-crystalline rock, salt, indurated clay, and plastic clay-and these efforts have involved field, laboratory, and theoretical studies. The present work involves a synthesis of the ideas and issues that emerged from presentations and discussions on EDZ in these four rock types at a CLUSTER Conference and Workshop held in Luxembourg in November, 2003. First, definitions of excavation disturbed and excavation damaged zones are proposed. Then, an approach is suggested for the synthesis and intercomparison of geohydromechanical processes in the EDZ for the four rock types (crystalline rock, salt, indurated clay, and plastic clay). Comparison tables of relevant processes, associated factors, and modeling and testing techniques are developed. A discussion of the general state-of-the-art and outstanding issues are also presented. A substantial bibliography of relevant papers on the subject is supplied at the end of the paper.

  10. Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

    2000-02-02

    Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

  11. Microscopic evidence of grain boundary moisture during granular salt reconsolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, M. M.; Hansen, F.; Bauer, S. J.; Stormont, J.

    2015-12-01

    Very low permeability is a principal reason salt formations are considered viable hosts for disposal of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. Granular salt is likely to be used as back-fill material and a seal system component. Salt formation pressures will promote reconsolidation of granular salt, eventually resulting in low permeabilities, comparable to native salt. Understanding the consolidation processes, dependent on the stress state, moisture availability and temperature, is important for demonstrating sealing functions and long-term repository performance. As granular salt consolidates, initial void reduction is achieved by brittle processes of grain rearrangement and cataclastic flow. At porosities less than 10%, grain boundary processes and crystal-plastic mechanisms govern further porosity reduction. When present, fluid assists in grain boundary processes and recrystallization. Fluid inclusions are typically found in abundance within bedded salt crystal structure and along grain boundaries, but are rarely observed internal to domal salt grains. We have observed fluid canals and evidence of moisture along grain boundaries in domal salt. In this research, we investigate grain boundary moisture in granular salt that has been reconsolidated under high temperatures to relatively low porosity. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Avery Island was used to create cylindrical samples, vented and unvented, which were reconsolidated at 250°C and stresses to 20 MPa. Unvented reconsolidation retains essentially all the grain boundary moisture as found ubiquitously on scanning electron photomicrographs of consolidated samples which revealed an inhomogeneous distribution of canals from residual moisture. This contrasts significantly with the vented samples, which had virtually no grain boundary moisture after consolidation. Microstructural techniques include scanning electron, stereo-dynascopic, and optical microscopy. The observations will be used

  12. Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Research Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worley, B. A. (Editor); Peslen, C. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Global modeling; satellite data assimilation and initialization; simulation of future observing systems; model and observed energetics; dynamics of planetary waves; First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE) diagnosis studies; and National Research Council Research Associateship Program are discussed.

  13. Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D.

    2012-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

  14. THE HYDROTHERMAL REACTIONS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE, CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE AND SLUDGE IN THE MODULAR SALT PROCESS: A LITERATURE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Pennebaker, F.; Fink, S.

    2010-11-11

    The use of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is proposed for an at-tank process to treat High Level Waste at the Savannah River Site. The proposed configuration includes deployment of ion exchange columns suspended in the risers of existing tanks to process salt waste without building a new facility. The CST is available in an engineered form, designated as IE-911-CW, from UOP. Prior data indicates CST has a proclivity to agglomerate from deposits of silica rich compounds present in the alkaline waste solutions. This report documents the prior literature and provides guidance for the design and operations that include CST to mitigate that risk. The proposed operation will also add monosodium titanate (MST) to the supernate of the tank prior to the ion exchange operation to remove strontium and select alpha-emitting actinides. The cesium loaded CST is ground and then passed forward to the sludge washing tank as feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Similarly, the MST will be transferred to the sludge washing tank. Sludge processing includes the potential to leach aluminum from the solids at elevated temperature (e.g., 65 C) using concentrated (3M) sodium hydroxide solutions. Prior literature indicates that both CST and MST will agglomerate and form higher yield stress slurries with exposure to elevated temperatures. This report assessed that data and provides guidance on minimizing the impact of CST and MST on sludge transfer and aluminum leaching sludge.

  15. Studies of Quaternary saline lakes-III. Mineral, chemical, and isotopic evidence of salt solution and crystallization processes in Owens Lake, California, 1969-1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.I.; Friedman, I.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    As a consequence of the 1969-1970 flooding of normally dry Owens Lake, a 2.4-m-deep lake formed and 20% of the 2-m-thick salt bed dissolved in it. Its desiccation began August 1969, and salts started crystallizing September 1970, ending August 1971. Mineralogic, brine-composition, and stable-isotope data plus field observations showed that while the evolving brine composition established the general crystallization timetable and range of primary and secondary mineral assemblages, it was the daily, monthly, and seasonal temperature changes that controlled the details of timing and mineralogy during this depositional process. Deuterium analyses of lake brine, interstitial brine, and hydrated saline phases helped confirm the sequence of mineral crystallizations and transformations, and they documented the sources and temperatures of waters involved in the reactions. Salts first crystallized as floating rafts on the lake surface. Natron and mirabilite, salts whose solubilities decrease greatly with lowering temperatures, crystallized late at night in winter, when surface-water temperatures reached their minima; trona, nahcolite, burkeite, and halite, salts with solubilities less sensitive to temperature, crystallized during the afternoon in summer, when surface salinities reached their maxima. However, different temperatures were generally associated with crystallization (at the surface) and accumulation (on the lake floor) because short-term temperature changes were transmitted to surface and bottom waters at different rates. Consequently, even when solubilities were exceeded at the surface, salts were preserved or not as a function of bottom-water temperatures. Halite, a nearly temperature-insensitive salt, was always preserved. Monitoring the lake-brine chemistry and mineralogy of the accumulating salts shows: (1) An estimated 0.9 ?? 106 tons of CO2 was released to the atmosphere or consumed by the lake's biomass prior to most salt crystallization. (2) After

  16. FROM THE SEA TO THE FOREST: SEA SALT DEPOSITION ALTERS SOIL PROCESSES IN COASTAL FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most models of watershed biogeochemistry include the movement of materials from land to rivers and eventually the ocean. Few conceptual views, however, acknowledge the influence of materials derived from the ocean on terrestrial ecosystem processes. Based on spatial patterns of...

  17. Heavy-metal extraction from sewage sludge using phosphorous-based salts: optimization process with Na2H2P2O7.

    PubMed

    Navarro-González, Milagros; Ortega-López, Vanesa; Lópéz-Fernández, Juana I; Amo-Salas, Mariano; González-Carcedo, Salvador

    2016-11-24

    Land application is one of the important disposal alternatives for sewage sludge, but availability of potential toxic metals often restricts its uses. Three phosphorous-based salts (Na2H2P2O7, K4P2O7, KH2PO4) were studied as potential metal extractants. The conclusions of the research were that greater extractive efficiency is achieved through a 30-min process of vertical shaking with disodium diacid pyrophosphate - Na2H2P2O7 - at a concentration of 0.2 M at pH 2. Alternatively, the optimized process with oscillating shaking equipment would require 60 min. In both cases the average of set of extracted metals is around 50%. A second extraction process with potassium pyrophosphate - K4P2O7 at pH 6 achieved the reduction of further total amounts of metal, upper 65% with respect to the initial content. In this way the sludge could be used in land applications, with restrictions on each soil, according to the limit values specified in the future regulations.

  18. Biogeochemical and hydrologic processes controlling mercury cycling in Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, D.; Kenney, T.; Angeroth, C.; Waddell, B.; Darnall, N.; Perschon, C.; Johnson, W. P.

    2006-12-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL), in the Western United States, is a terminal lake with a highly variable surface area that can exceed 5,100 km2. The open water and adjacent wetlands of the GSL ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere, as well as a brine shrimp industry with annual revenues exceeding 70 million dollars. Despite the ecologic and economic significance of GSL, little is known about the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) and no water-quality standards currently exist for this system. Whole water samples collected since 2000 were determined to contain elevated concentrations of total Hg (100 ng/L) and methyl Hg (33 ng/L). The elevated levels of methyl Hg are likely the result of high rates of SO4 reduction and associated Hg methylation in persistently anoxic areas of the lake at depths greater than 6.5 m below the water surface. Hydroacoustic equipment deployed in this anoxic layer indicates a "conveyor belt" flow system that can distribute methyl Hg in a predominantly southerly direction throughout the southern half of GSL (fig. 1, URL: http://users.o2wire.com/dnaftz/Dave/AGU-abs-figs- AUG06.pdf). Periodic and sustained wind events on GSL may result in transport of the methyl Hg-rich anoxic water and bottom sediments into the oxic and biologically active regions. Sediment traps positioned above the anoxic brine interface have captured up to 6 mm of bottom sediment during cumulative wind-driven resuspension events (fig. 2, URL:http://users.o2wire.com/dnaftz/Dave/AGU-abs-figs-AUG06.pdf). Vertical velocity data collected with hydroacoustic equipment indicates upward flow > 1.5 cm/sec during transient wind events (fig. 3, URL:http://users.o2wire.com/dnaftz/Dave/AGU-abs-figs-AUG06.pdf). Transport of methyl Hg into the oxic regions of GSL is supported by biota samples. The median Hg concentration (wet weight) in brine shrimp increased seasonally from the spring to fall time period and is likely a

  19. Modeling of Salt Diffusion in Raw Hide: An Optimization of the Curing Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common method of preserving raw hides is brine curing with sodium chloride. However, this process has three important disadvantages: first, the length of time that it takes, which is a minimum of 18 hours; second, the insufficient degree of curing reached in some hides due to an overload a...

  20. Salt Weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, E.

    2006-12-01

    Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974

  1. The World Hypertension League: where now and where to in salt reduction

    PubMed Central

    Lackland, Daniel T.; Lisheng, Liu; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Nilsson, Peter M.; Niebylski, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    High dietary salt is a leading risk for death and disability largely by causing increased blood pressure. Other associated health risks include gastric and renal cell cancers, osteoporosis, renal stones, and increased disease activity in multiple sclerosis, headache, increased body fat and Meniere’s disease. The World Hypertension League (WHL) has prioritized advocacy for salt reduction. WHL resources and actions include a non-governmental organization policy statement, dietary salt fact sheet, development of standardized nomenclature, call for quality research, collaboration in a weekly salt science update, development of a process to set recommended dietary salt research standards and regular literature reviews, development of adoptable power point slide sets to support WHL positions and resources, and critic of weak research studies on dietary salt. The WHL plans to continue to work with multiple governmental and non-governmental organizations to promote dietary salt reduction towards the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. PMID:26090335

  2. Influence Learning Tour on Salted Fish Processing Behavior in Product Development in Karangantu Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudaya, Yaya

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase revenue, salted fish processors in Karangantu NFP should be able to change the behavior of production from quantity to quality orientation. The increase in revenue will be difficult to achieve if the salted fish products produced still monotonous and traditional and only sold in sacks or cardboard. Development of a quality…

  3. Individual aerosol particles in and below clouds along a Mt. Fuji slope: Modification of sea-salt-containing particles by in-cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, S.; Hirose, Y.; Miura, K.; Okochi, H.

    2014-02-01

    Sizes and compositions of atmospheric aerosol particles can be altered by in-cloud processing by absorption/adsorption of gaseous and particulate materials and drying of aerosol particles that were formerly activated as cloud condensation nuclei. To elucidate differences of aerosol particles before and after in-cloud processing, aerosols were observed along a slope of Mt. Fuji, Japan (3776 m a.s.l.) during the summer in 2011 and 2012 using a portable laser particle counter (LPC) and an aerosol sampler. Aerosol samples for analyses of elemental compositions were obtained using a cascade impactor at top-of-cloud, in-cloud, and below-cloud altitudes. To investigate composition changes via in-cloud processing, individual particles (0.5-2 μm diameter) of samples from five cases (days) collected at different altitudes under similar backward air mass trajectory conditions were analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. For most cases (four cases), most particles at all altitudes mainly comprised sea salts: mainly Na with some S and/or Cl. Of those, in two cases, sea-salt-containing particles with Cl were found in below-cloud samples, although sea-salt-containing particles in top-of-cloud samples did not contain Cl. This result suggests that Cl in the sea salt was displaced by other cloud components. In the other two cases, sea-salt-containing particles on samples at all altitudes were without Cl. However, molar ratios of S to Na (S/Na) of the sea-salt-containing particles of top-of-cloud samples were higher than those of below-cloud samples, suggesting that sulfuric acid or sulfate was added to sea-salt-containing particles after complete displacement of Cl by absorption of SO2 or coagulation with sulfate. The additional volume of sulfuric acid in clouds for the two cases was estimated using the observed S/Na values of sea-salt-containing particles. The estimation revealed that size changes by in

  4. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  5. Physicochemical, microbiological and spoilage analysis of probiotic processed cheese analogues with reduced emulsifying salts during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Ehsannia, Sheida; Sanjabi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-02-01

    Microbial quality of low-salt processed cheeses supplemented with Bacillus coagulans spores (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) relying on their physicochemical characteristics during 60 day-cold storage was evaluated. A reduction in moisture content, water activity and pH value and a significant enhancement in proteolytic index of control and probiotic samples were obtained by prolonging storage time. Survival rate of the probiotic cells significantly decreased up to day 30, while total count of the viable cells increased by increasing storage time. A 20 and 67 % increase in total counts of coliforms and mold-yeast of the control sample were respectively observed after 60 days of cold storage. A considerable decrease in the total counts of coliforms and mold-yeast was also found in the processed cheeses containing probiotic supplement. According to the macroscopic and sensory assessment, off-odors and off-flavors in the control sample were diagnosed after day 1 of cold-storage. Noticeably, the resistance to spoilage was more prominent in samples containing the probiotic cells.

  6. Research on chemical characteristics of soil salt crusts with saline groundwater drip-irrigation in the Tarim Desert Highway Shelterbelt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Xinwen; Lei, Jiaqiang; Li, Shengyu

    2013-01-01

    Soil salt crusts are special layers at soil surface which are widely distributed in the Trim Desert Highway Shelterbelt under drip-irrigation with high salinity groundwater. In order to reveal annual variation of their chemical characteristics, soil salt crusts in shelterbelt of different ages in hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert were sampled. SOM, total salt, inions and pH were analyzed. Following results were obtained. SOM of salt crusts increased with the shelterbelt ages, but increasing trend became lower gradually. Total salt, ions, and pH of salt crusts reduced gradually with the shelterbelt ages. Total salt of salt crusts in shelterbelt of different ages was much higher than shifting sandy land. Ions were higher than shifting sandy land, Cl(-), Na(+), and SO4 (2-) increased more obvious, then Mg(2+), K(+), Ca(2+) and HCO3 (-), CO3 (2-) was little and nearly had no change. pH was all alkaline, pH of salt crusts in shelterbelt of 11 years was even lower than shifting sandy land. We can include that the quality of shallow soil (0~30 cm) in the Trim Desert Highway Shelterbelt becomes better gradually.

  7. Air Force research in optical processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, J.

    1981-01-01

    Optical and optical electronic hybrid processing especially in the application area of image processing are emphasized. Real time pattern recognition processors for such airborne missions as target recognition, tracking, and terminal guidance are studied.

  8. Advantages of Studying Processes in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    It is argued that learning and instruction could be conceptualized from a process-analytic perspective. Important questions from the field of learning and instruction are presented which can be answered using our approach of process analyses. A classification system of process concepts and methods is given. One main advantage of this kind of…

  9. Process Control Research, Training Center for Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Tennessee have established a measurement and controls research center and a master's-level academic engineering program. A description of this university/industry cooperative research center is provided. Indicates that a doctoral program is planned when the master's program is well…

  10. H{sub 2}S-removal and sulfur-recovery processes using metal salts

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, S.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-11-01

    Scrubbing a sour gas stream with a solution of copper sulfate allows the clean-up temperature to be increased from ambient to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. The copper ion in solution reacts with the H{sub 2}S to produce insoluble CuS. The choice of copper sulfate was set by the very low solubility of CuS and the very rapid kinetics of the Cus formation. Since the copper sulfate solutions used are acidic, CO{sub 2} will not be co-absorbed. In a subsequent step the solid CuS is oxidized by a solution of ferric sulfate. The copper sulfate is regenerated, and elemental sulfur is formed together with ferrous sulfate. The ferrous sulfate is reoxidized to ferric sulfate using air. Since the copper sulfate and ferric solutions are regenerated, the overall reaction in this process is the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen to form sulfur. The use of copper sulfate has the further advantage that the presence of sulfuric acid, even as concentrated as 1 molar, does not inhibit the sorption of H{sub 2}S. Furthermore, the absorption reaction remains quite favorable thermodynamically over the temperature range of interest. Because the reaction goes to completion, only a single theoretical stage is required for complete H{sub 2}S removal and cocurrent gas/liquid contacting may be employed. The formation of solids precludes the use of a packed column for the contacting device. However, a venturi scrubber would be expected to perform satisfactorily. The kinetics of the oxidation of metal sulfides, in particular zinc and copper sulfide, is reported in the literature to be slow at near-ambient temperatures. The proposed process conditions for the oxidation step are different from those reported in the literature, most notably the higher temperature. The kinetics of the reaction must be studied at high temperatures and corresponding pressures. An important goal is to obtain sulfur of high purity, which is a salable product.

  11. H[sub 2]S-removal and sulfur-recovery processes using metal salts

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, S.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    Scrubbing a sour gas stream with a solution of copper sulfate allows the clean-up temperature to be increased from ambient to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. The copper ion in solution reacts with the H[sub 2]S to produce insoluble CuS. The choice of copper sulfate was set by the very low solubility of CuS and the very rapid kinetics of the Cus formation. Since the copper sulfate solutions used are acidic, CO[sub 2] will not be co-absorbed. In a subsequent step the solid CuS is oxidized by a solution of ferric sulfate. The copper sulfate is regenerated, and elemental sulfur is formed together with ferrous sulfate. The ferrous sulfate is reoxidized to ferric sulfate using air. Since the copper sulfate and ferric solutions are regenerated, the overall reaction in this process is the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen to form sulfur. The use of copper sulfate has the further advantage that the presence of sulfuric acid, even as concentrated as 1 molar, does not inhibit the sorption of H[sub 2]S. Furthermore, the absorption reaction remains quite favorable thermodynamically over the temperature range of interest. Because the reaction goes to completion, only a single theoretical stage is required for complete H[sub 2]S removal and cocurrent gas/liquid contacting may be employed. The formation of solids precludes the use of a packed column for the contacting device. However, a venturi scrubber would be expected to perform satisfactorily. The kinetics of the oxidation of metal sulfides, in particular zinc and copper sulfide, is reported in the literature to be slow at near-ambient temperatures. The proposed process conditions for the oxidation step are different from those reported in the literature, most notably the higher temperature. The kinetics of the reaction must be studied at high temperatures and corresponding pressures. An important goal is to obtain sulfur of high purity, which is a salable product.

  12. Linking external and internal salt geometries - a key to understanding salt dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, Peter; Urai, Janos

    2014-05-01

    Considering the growing importance of salt in the energy, food and waste disposal industries, this paper reviews the status quo and major developments in salt research over the last decade. As a way forward in order to close identified gaps in knowledge, an integrated salt basin evaluation concept is proposed appreciating both external and internal geometries and properties. Examples of key studies in the Central European Basin and the South Oman Salt basin show that such a model may improve our understanding of the multi-scale processes operating in salt terrains. The workflow proposed allows to better asses (i) the initiation and maintenance of salt dynamics, (ii) the evolution of the internal structure of evaporites during halokinesis in salt giants, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the salt's under- and overburden. It will lead to a better integration of the different data sets and resulting models, which will provide new insights into the structural evolution of salt giants. Finally it will also stimulate new concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and mechanics of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution. As an outlook for future research to be initiated in salt terrains we still need to improve our database on evaporite rocks especially the ones which take changes of properties in time into account. This includes for example the dependencies of thermal and mechanical properties on changes in strain, pressure and temperature or external and internal geometry changes relating to slow geological processes. Also geomechanical modelling efforts can be significantly improved by making full use of the data available on the effects of water, and some of the discrepancies seen in experimental data on different salts can probably be explained in

  13. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Bowen, H. K.; Kenney, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The goals and activities of the center are discussed. The center activities encompass all engineering materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, composites, superconductors, and thin films. Processes include crystallization, solidification, nucleation, and polymer synthesis.

  14. Salt-gradient Solar Ponds: Summary of US Department of Energy Sponsored Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Johnson, D. H.; Jones, G. F.; Zangrando, F.

    1984-01-01

    The solar pond research program conducted by the United States Department of Energy was discontinued after 1983. This document summarizes the results of the program, reviews the state of the art, and identifies the remaining outstanding issues. Solar ponds is a generic term but, in the context of this report, the term solar pond refers specifically to saltgradient solar pond. Several small research solar ponds have been built and successfully tested. Procedures for filling the pond, maintaining the gradient, adjusting the zone boundaries, and extracting heat were developed. Theories and models were developed and verified. The major remaining unknowns or issues involve the physical behavior of large ponds; i.e., wind mixing of the surface, lateral range or reach of horizontally injected fluids, ground thermal losses, and gradient zone boundary erosion caused by pumping fluid for heat extraction. These issues cannot be scaled and must be studied in a large outdoor solar pond.

  15. Integrated Salt Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2015-04-01

    The growing importance of salt in the energy, subsurface storage, and chemical and food industries also increases the challenges with prediction of geometries, kinematics, stress and transport in salt. This requires an approach, which integrates a broader range of knowledge than is traditionally available in the different scientific and engineering disciplines. We aim to provide a starting point for a more integrated understanding of salt, by presenting an overview of the state of the art in a wide range of salt-related topics, from (i) the formation and metamorphism of evaporites, (ii) rheology and transport properties, (iii) salt tectonics and basin evolution, (iv) internal structure of evaporites, (v) fluid flow through salt, to (vi) salt engineering. With selected case studies we show how integration of these domains of knowledge can bring better predictions of (i) sediment architecture and reservoir distribution, (ii) internal structure of salt for optimized drilling and better cavern design, (iii) reliable long-term predictions of deformations and fluid flow in subsurface storage. A fully integrated workflow is based on geomechanical models, which include all laboratory and natural observations and links macro- and micro-scale studies. We present emerging concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and deformation of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution.

  16. Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit. Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, M. H.

    1981-01-20

    This represents the second quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of the PDU. On June 25, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. During this report period, Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program was completed. The gasification system was operated for a total of 95 h at pressures up to 10 atm. Average product gas HHV values of 100 Btu/scf were recorded during 10-atm operation, while gasifying coal at a rate of 1100 lb/h. The run was terminated when the melt overflow system plugged after 60 continuous hours of overflow. Following this run, melt withdrawal system revisions were made, basically by changing the orifice materials from Monofrax to an 80 Cobalt-20 Chromium alloy. By the end of the report period, the PDU was being prepared for Run 7.

  17. Research and the Decision-Making Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Presents questions to be asked when evaluating the efficacy of audiovisual products designed to increase computer literacy of students in classroom situations and suggests that continuing research is also needed to fully evaluate these products. (MBR)

  18. Photographic Technology and the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Description of photogrammetric analyses which, combined with the current emergence of biomechanics, is utilized to explain and measure photographs of human movement. Oriented towards the use of photogrammetric analysis in physical education research. (JA)

  19. 77 FR 26911 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1208 RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order... Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order). The program will be implemented under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (1996 Act). Under the...

  20. 42 CFR 93.316 - Completing the research misconduct process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Completing the research misconduct process. 93.316... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional Investigation § 93.316 Completing the research misconduct process. (a) ORI expects institutions to carry inquiries...

  1. NASA/MSFC FY-83 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The atmospheric processes research program was reviewed. Research tasks sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, Earth Sciences and Applications Division in the areas of upper atmosphere, global weather, and mesoscale processes are discussed. The are: the research project summaries, together with the agenda and other information about the meeting.

  2. Enhanced removal of sodium salts supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis in a supercritical water oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, F; Sun, Z R; Fukushi, K; Oshima, Y; Yamamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    For practical applications of supercritical water oxidation to wastewater treatment, the deposition of inorganic salts in supercritical phase must be controlled to prevent a reactor from clogging. This study investigated enhanced removal of sodium salts with titanium particles, serving as a salt trapper and a catalyst precursor, and sodium recovery by sub-critical water. When Na(2)CO(3) was tested as a model salt, sodium removal efficiency was higher than theoretically maximum efficiency defined by Na(2)CO(3) solubility. The enhanced sodium removal resulted from in-situ synthesis of sodium titanate, which could catalyse acetic acid oxidation. The kinetics of sodium removal was described well by a diffusion mass-transfer model combined with a power law-type rate model of sodium titanate synthesis. Titanium particles showed positive effect on sodium removal in the case of NaOH, Na(2)SO(4) and Na(3)PO(4). However, they had negligible effect for NaCl and negative effect for Na(2)CrO(4), respectively. More than 99% of trapped sodium was recovered by sub-critical water except for Na(2)CrO(4). In contrast, sodium recovery efficiency remained less than 50% in the case of Na(2)CrO(4). Reused titanium particles showed the same performance for enhanced sodium removal. Enhanced salt removal supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis has great potential to enable both salt removal control and catalytic oxidation.

  3. Automated solar cell assembly team process research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Hogan, S. J.; Darkazalli, G.; Breen, W. F.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Patterson, J. S.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes work done under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, Phase 3A, which addresses problems that are generic to the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Spire's objective during Phase 3A was to use its light soldering technology and experience to design and fabricate solar cell tabbing and interconnecting equipment to develop new, high-yield, high-throughput, fully automated processes for tabbing and interconnecting thin cells. Areas that were addressed include processing rates, process control, yield, throughput, material utilization efficiency, and increased use of automation. Spire teamed with Solec International, a PV module manufacturer, and the University of Massachusetts at Lowell's Center for Productivity Enhancement (CPE), automation specialists, who are lower-tier subcontractors. A number of other PV manufacturers, including Siemens Solar, Mobil Solar, Solar Web, and Texas instruments, agreed to evaluate the processes developed under this program.

  4. The Process of Divorce Recovery: A Review of the Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastil, Richard W.

    Many researchers have speculated over the nature of the divorce recovery process. Is the process similar to Kubler-Ross's stages of grief or does divorce recovery follow a unique process? This paper examines the current body of empirical research in an attempt to answer these questions. From the 91 sources analyzed, it was discovered that most of…

  5. Research Methodologies and the Doctoral Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; Miller, Gary A.

    1997-01-01

    Doctoral students often select one of four common research methodologies that are popular in the social sciences and education today: positivist; interpretive; ideological; and pragmatic. But choice of methodology also influences the student's choice of course work, membership of dissertation committee, and the form and structure of the…

  6. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrysalline silicon solar cell research are summarized. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon solar cells.

  7. Low power signal processing research at Stanford

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burr, J.; Williamson, P. R.; Peterson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the research being conducted at Stanford University's Space, Telecommunications, and Radioscience Laboratory in the area of low energy computation. It discusses the work we are doing in large scale digital VLSI neural networks, interleaved processor and pipelined memory architectures, energy estimation and optimization, multichip module packaging, and low voltage digital logic.

  8. Research in Monolithic, Signal-Processing Circuits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    MwW ggCUMTY, CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGU(WeaDele #Atowd) 68CURITY CLASI.PICATI@N OF THIS PA66(*Wft DO* # Mtor * The research supported under Grant ARO...oscillators are widely used to generate precision clock - pulse waveforms for complex integrated circuits. However, the use of on-chip crystal

  9. Long-Term Modeling of Coupled Processes in a Generic Salt Repository for Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste: Analysis of the Impacts of Halite Solubility Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Battistelli, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Rock salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, such as its ability to creep and heal fractures and its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state. In this research, we focus on disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste and we consider a generic salt repository with in-drift emplacement of waste packages and crushed salt backfill. As the natural salt creeps, the crushed salt backfill gets progressively compacted and an engineered barrier system is subsequently created [1]. The safety requirements for such a repository impose that long time scales be considered, during which the integrity of the natural and engineered barriers have to be demonstrated. In order to evaluate this long-term integrity, we perform numerical modeling based on state-of-the-art knowledge. Here, we analyze the impacts of halite dissolution and precipitation within the backfill and the host rock. For this purpose, we use an enhanced equation-of-state module of TOUGH2 that properly includes temperature-dependent solubility constraints [2]. We perform coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical modeling and we investigate the influence of the mentioned impacts. The TOUGH-FLAC simulator, adapted for large strains and creep, is used [3]. In order to quantify the importance of salt dissolution and precipitation on the effective porosity, permeability, pore pressure, temperature and stress field, we compare numerical results that include or disregard fluids of variable salinity. The sensitivity of the results to some parameters, such as the initial saturation within the backfill, is also addressed. References: [1] Bechthold, W. et al. Backfilling and Sealing of Underground Repositories for Radioactive Waste in Salt (BAMBUS II Project). Report EUR20621 EN: European Atomic Energy Community, 2004. [2] Battistelli A. Improving the treatment of saline brines in EWASG for the simulation of hydrothermal systems. Proceedings, TOUGH Symposium 2012

  10. Process Research of Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A passivation process (hydrogenation) that will improve the power generation of solar cells fabricated from presently produced, large grain, cast polycrystalline silicon (Semix), a potentially low cost material are developed. The first objective is to verify the operation of a DC plasma hydrogenation system and to investigate the effect of hydrogen on the electrical performance of a variety of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. The second objective is to parameterize and optimize a hydrogenation process for cast polycrystalline silicon, and will include a process sensitivity analysis. The sample preparation for the first phase is outlined. The hydrogenation system is described, and some early results that were obtained using the hydrogenation system without a plasma are summarized. Light beam induced current (LBIC) measurements of minicell samples, and their correlation to dark current voltage characteristics, are discussed.

  11. Process Research ON Semix Silicon Materials (PROSSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Warfield, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    A cost effective process sequence was identified, equipment was designed to implement a 6.6 MW per year automated production line, and a cost analysis projected a $0.56 per watt cell add-on cost for this line. Four process steps were developed for this program: glass beads back clean-up, hot spray antireflective coating, wave soldering of fronts, and ion milling for edging. While spray dopants were advertised as an off the shelf developed product, they were unreliable with shorter than advertised shelf life.

  12. Process Research ON Semix Silicon Materials (PROSSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Warfield, D. B.

    1982-02-01

    A cost effective process sequence was identified, equipment was designed to implement a 6.6 MW per year automated production line, and a cost analysis projected a $0.56 per watt cell add-on cost for this line. Four process steps were developed for this program: glass beads back clean-up, hot spray antireflective coating, wave soldering of fronts, and ion milling for edging. While spray dopants were advertised as an off the shelf developed product, they were unreliable with shorter than advertised shelf life.

  13. Forcing functions governing salt transport processes in coastal navigation canals and connectivity to surrounding marshes in South Louisiana using Houma Navigation Canal as a surrogate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snedden, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how circulation and mixing processes in coastal navigation canals influence the exchange of salt between marshes and coastal ocean, and how those processes are modulated by external physical processes, is critical to anticipating effects of future actions and circumstance. Examples of such circumstances include deepening the channel, placement of locks in the channel, changes in freshwater discharge down the channel, changes in outer continental shelf (OCS) vessel traffic volume, and sea level rise. The study builds on previous BOEM-funded studies by investigating salt flux variability through the Houma Navigation Canal (HNC). It examines how external physical factors, such as buoyancy forcing and mixing from tidal stirring and OCS vessel wakes, influence dispersive and advective fluxes through the HNC and the impact of this salt flux on salinity in nearby marshes. This study quantifies salt transport processes and salinity variability in the HNC and surrounding Terrebonne marshes. Data collected for this study include time-series data of salinity and velocity in the HNC, monthly salinity-depth profiles along the length of the channel, hourly vertical profiles of velocity and salinity over multiple tidal cycles, and salinity time series data at three locations in the surrounding marshes along a transect of increasing distance from the HNC. Two modes of vertical current structure were identified. The first mode, making up 90% of the total flow field variability, strongly resembled a barotropic current structure and was coherent with alongshelf wind stress over the coastal Gulf of Mexico. The second mode was indicative of gravitational circulation and was linked to variability in tidal stirring and the longitudinal salinity gradients along the channel’s length. Diffusive process were dominant drivers of upestuary salt transport, except during periods of minimal tidal stirring when gravitational circulation became more important. Salinity in the

  14. Research and Theory on Predecision Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-30

    consider the disease that you actually have, the whole treatment regime may be inappropriate, or even dangerous to your health. Therefore, one...imagination, as discussec extensively in chapter 3.. Tais ",ik-tnrougn’" process involves the construction of a scenario where-the act generator...a "silent" disease , similar to high blood pressure, of which the patient is not aware. This topic is discussed at greater length in chapter 8, where

  15. Engineering therapeutic processes: from research to commodity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Robert L.

    2014-03-01

    Three of the most important forces driving medical care are: patient specificity, treatment specificity and the move from discovery to design. Engineers while trained in specificity, efficiency, and design are often not trained in either biology or medical processes. Yet they are increasing critical to medical care. For example, modern medical imaging at US hospitals generates 1 exabyte (10^18 bytes) of data per year clearly beyond unassisted human analysis. It is not desirable to involve engineers in the acquisition, storage and analysis of this data, it is essential. While in the past we have nibbled around the edges of medical care, it is time and perhaps past time to insert ourselves more squarely into medical processes, making them more efficient, more specific and more robust. This requires engineers who understand biology and physicians who are willing to step away from classic medical thinking to try new approaches. But once the idea is proven in a laboratory, it must move into use and then into common practice. This requires additional engineering to make the process robust to noisy data and imprecise practices as well as workflow analysis to get the new technique into operating and treatment rooms. True innovation and true translation will require physicians, engineers, other medical stakeholders and even corporate involvement to take a new, important idea and move it not just to a patient but to all patients.

  16. The Difference of Chemical Components and Biological Activities of the Crude Products and the Salt-Processed Product from Semen Cuscutae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Song; Xu, Hefang; Zhao, Baosheng; Li, Shasha; Li, Tingting; Xu, Xinfang; Zhang, Tianjiao; Lin, Ruichao

    2016-01-01

    Semen Cuscutae is a well-known Chinese medicine which has been used to nourish kidney in China for thousands of years. The crude product of semen Cuscutae (CP) and its salt-processed product (SPP) are separately used in clinic for their different effects. The study was designed to investigate the influence of processing from semen Cuscutae on chemical components and biological effects. The principal component analysis and quantitative analysis were used to study the differences of the chemical components. The effects of nourishing kidney were detected to compare the differences between the CP and SPP. The PCA results showed that the obvious separation was achieved in the CP and SPP samples. The results of quantitative analysis showed that quercetin and total flavonoids had significantly increased after salt processing while hyperoside had decreased. The comparison of CP and SPP on biological activities showed that both of them could ameliorate the kidney-yang deficiency syndrome by restoring the level of sex hormone, improving the immune function and antioxidant effect. However, SPP was better in increasing the level of T and the viscera weight of testicle and epididymis, improving the antioxidant effect. The results suggested that salt processing changed its chemical profile, which in turn enhanced its biological activities. PMID:27610186

  17. Riding the Wave: Student Researcher Reflection on the Action Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Andrea; Thomas, Jonathan; Woods, Angie; Suess, Robert; Dole, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is the exploration of and an explanation of student researchers' affect and activity in an action research project. Using a hermeneutical theoretical framework we argue that the researcher group as a whole constructs a wave process and at the same time each individual researcher in the group creates a wave process that…

  18. Process Improvement For Inter-Institutional Research Contracting

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Michael; Logan, Jennifer; Bjorklund, Todd; Whitfield, Jesse; Reed, Peggy; Lesher, Laurie; Sikalis, Amy; Brown, Brent; Drollinger, Sandy; Larrabee, Kristine; Thompson, Kristie; Clark, Erin; Workman, Michael; Boi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sponsored research increasingly requires multi-institutional collaboration. However, research contracting procedures have become more complicated and time-consuming. The perinatal research units of two co-located healthcare systems sought to improve their research contracting processes. METHODS The Lean Process, a management practice that iteratively involves team members in root cause analyses and process improvement, was applied to the research contracting process, initially using Process Mapping and then developing Problem Solving Reports. RESULTS Root Cause Analyses revealed that the longest delays were the individual contract legal negotiations. In addition, the ‘business entity’ was the research support personnel of both healthcare systems whose ‘customers’ were investigators attempting to conduct inter-institutional research. Development of mutually acceptable research contract templates and language, chain of custody templates, and process development and refinement formats decreased the Notice of Grant Award to Purchase Order time from a mean of 103.5 days in the year prior to LEAN Process implementation to 45.8 days in the year after implementation (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS The Lean Process can be applied to inter-institutional research contracting with significant improvement in contract implementation. PMID:26083433

  19. Process Research On Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Performance limiting mechanisms in polycrystalline silicon are investigated by fabricating a matrix of solar cells of various thicknesses from polycrystalline silicon wafers of several bulk resistivities. The analysis of the results for the entire matrix indicates that bulk recombination is the dominant factor limiting the short circuit current in large grain (greater than 1 to 2 mm diameter) polycrystalline silicon, the same mechanism that limits the short circuit current in single crystal silicon. An experiment to investigate the limiting mechanisms of open circuit voltage and fill factor for large grain polycrystalline silicon is designed. Two process sequences to fabricate small cells are investigated.

  20. Salt weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, E.

    Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974

  1. Effect of iron salt counter ion in dose-response curves for inactivation of Fusarium solani in water through solar driven Fenton-like processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurioles-López, Verónica; Polo-López, M. Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; López-Malo, Aurelio; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    The inactivation of Fusarium solani in water was assessed by solar driven Fenton-like processes using three different iron salts: ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). The experimental conditions tested were [Fe] ≈ 5 mg L-1, [H2O2] ≈ 10 mg L-1 and [Fe] ≈ 10 mg L-1; [H2O2] ≈ 20 mg L-1 mild and high, respectively, and pH 3.0 and 5.0, under solar radiation. The highest inactivation rates were observed at high reaction conditions for the three iron salts tested at pH 5.0 with less than 3.0 kJ L-1 of accumulate energy (QUV) to achieve over 99.9% of F. solani inactivation. Fe(acac)3 was the best iron salt to accomplishing F. solani inactivation. The modified Fermi equation was used to fix the experimental inactivation, data showed it was helpful for modeling the process, adequately describing dose-response curves. Inactivation process using FeSO4 at pH 3.0 was modeled fairly with r2 = 0.98 and 0.99 (mild and high concentration, respectively). Fe(acac)3, FeCl3 and FeSO4 at high concentration (i.e. [Fe] ≈ 10 mg L-1; [H2O2] ≈ 20 mg L-1) and pH 5.0 showed the highest fitting values (r2 = 0.99). Iron salt type showed a remarkable influence on the Fenton-like inactivation process.

  2. Effect of temperature & salt concentration on salt tolerant nitrate-perchlorate reducing bacteria: Nitrate degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Shelir; Nguyen, Thi Hau; Roberts, Deborah J

    2015-10-15

    The sustainability of nitrate-contaminated water treatment using ion-exchange processes can be achieved by regenerating the exhausted resin several times. Our previous study shows that the use of multi-cycle bioregeneration of resin enclosed in membrane is an effective and innovative regeneration method. In this research, the effects of two independent factors (temperature and salt concentration) on the biological denitrification rate were studied. The results of this research along with the experimental results of the previous study on the effect of the same factors on nitrate desorption rate from the resin allow the optimization of the bioregeneration process. The results of nitrate denitrification rate study show that the biodegradation rate at different temperature and salt concentration is independent of the initial nitrate concentration. At each specific salt concentration, the nitrate removal rate increased with increasing temperature with the average value of 0.001110 ± 0.0000647 mg-nitrate/mg-VSS.h.°C. However, the effect of different salt concentrations was dependent on the temperature; there is a significant interaction between salt concentration and temperature; within each group of temperatures, the nitrate degradation rate decreased with increasing the salt concentration. The temperature affected the tolerance to salinity and culture was less tolerant to high concentration of salt at low temperature. Evidenced by the difference between the minimum and maximum nitrate degradation rate being greater at lower temperature. At 35 °C, a 32% reduction in the nitrate degradation rate was observed while at 12 °C this reduction was 69%. This is the first published study to examine the interaction of salt concentration and temperature during biological denitrification.

  3. Recovery of 238PuO2 by Molten Salt Oxidation Processing of 238PuO2 Contaminated Combustibles (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remerowski, Mary Lynn; Dozhier, C.; Krenek, K.; VanPelt, C. E.; Reimus, M. A.; Spengler, D.; Matonic, J.; Garcia, L.; Rios, E.; Sandoval, F.; Herman, D.; Hart, R.; Ewing, B.; Lovato, M.; Romero, J. P.

    2005-02-01

    Pu-238 heat sources are used to fuel radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) used in space missions. The demand for this fuel is increasing, yet there are currently no domestic sources of this material. Much of the fuel is material reprocessed from other sources. One rich source of Pu-238 residual material is that from contaminated combustible materials, such as cheesecloth, ion exchange resins and plastics. From both waste minimization and production efficiency standpoints, the best solution is to recover this material. One way to accomplish separation of the organic component from these residues is a flameless oxidation process using molten salt as the matrix for the breakdown of the organic to carbon dioxide and water. The plutonium is retained in the salt, and can be recovered by dissolution of the carbonate salt in an aqueous solution, leaving the insoluble oxide behind. Further aqueous scrap recovery processing is used to purify the plutonium oxide. Recovery of the plutonium from contaminated combustibles achieves two important goals. First, it increases the inventory of Pu-238 available for heat source fabrication. Second, it is a significant waste minimization process. Because of its thermal activity (0.567 W per gram), combustibles must be packaged for disposition with much lower amounts of Pu-238 per drum than other waste types. Specifically, cheesecloth residues in the form of pyrolyzed ash (for stabilization) are being stored for eventual recovery of the plutonium.

  4. Therapeutic Process and Outcome: The Interplay of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbel, Holly

    2008-01-01

    From Freud through to modern times researchers have aimed to develop a clearer understanding of therapeutic processes and outcomes. Despite this continued interest in the field, the representation of psychotherapy processes and the applicability of research findings and recommendations to the therapeutic field continue to prove difficult.…

  5. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrystalline silicon solar cells are summarized. Very small grain or short minority-carrier diffusion length silicon was used. Hydrogenated solar cells fabricated from this material appear to have effective minority-carrier diffusion lengths that are still not very long, as shown by the open-circuit voltages of passivated cells that are still significantly less than those of single-crystal solar cells. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. However, the open-circuit voltage, which is sensitive to grain boundary recombination, is sometimes 20 to 40 mV less. The goal was to minimize variations in open-circuit voltage and fill-factor caused by defects by passivating these defects using a hydrogenation process. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystaline silicon solar cells.

  6. Ground based research in microgravity materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

    1994-01-01

    The core activities performed during this time period have been concerned with tracking the TEMPEST experiments on the shuttle with drops of Zr, Ni, and Nb alloys. In particular a lot of Zr drops are being made to better define the recalescence characteristics of that system so that accurate comparisons of the drop tube results with Tempest can be made. A new liner, with minimal reflectivity characteristics, has been inserted into the drop tube in order to improve the recalescence measurements of the falling drops. The first installation to make the geometric measurements to ensure a proper fit has been made. The stovepipe sections are currently in the shop at MSFC being painted with low reflectivity black paint. Work has also continued on setting up the MEL apparatus obtained from Oak Ridge in the down stairs laboratory at the Drop Tube Facilities. Some ground-based experiments on the same metals as are being processed on TEMPEST are planned for the MEL. The flight schedules for the KC-135 experiments are still to be determined in the near future.

  7. Combined Evaporation and Salt Precipitation in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbrod, N.; Dragila, M. I.; Nachshon, U.; Or, D.; Shaharani, E.; Grader, A.

    2012-12-01

    heterogeneity lessens the salt effect on evaporation as coarse pore regions are relatively free of salt crystals, facilitating vapor transport towards the atmosphere. This was verified by the thermography analysis that enabled independent quantification of evaporation rates from coarse and fine sections of the media during salt precipitation. This is in contrast to homogeneous conditions, where the salt is distributed homogeneously in the matrix's upper parts, resulting in an increase in matrix resistivity to vapor flow. This research sheds new light on the dynamics of the evaporation process of a saline solution and the importance of considering that natural pore solutions typically include electrolytes.

  8. Maculate Conceptions: Power, Process, and Creativity in Participatory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Alexandra; Bell, Michael; Croll, Nora Swan; Jackson, Randall; Gratton, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Justifiably concerned about power dynamics between researchers and participants in participatory research, much of the literature proposes guidelines for including participant voices at every step of the research process. We find these guidelines insufficient for dealing with constraints set up by the social organizational structures in which…

  9. New Academics and Identities: Research as a Process of "Becoming"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Heather; Badenhorst, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    We are new academics involved in the process of becoming researchers. We believe that gathering, reflecting, sharing and producing knowledge are important parts of constructing a strong identity as a researcher that we produce and own rather than being produced by the prevailing academic discourse. We decenter research as a product and bring into…

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF SALT PARTICLE INDUCED CORROSION PROCESSES BY SYNCHROTRON GENERATED X-RAY FLUORESCENCE AND COMPLEMENTARY SURFACE ANALYSIS TOOLS.

    SciTech Connect

    NEUFELD, A.K.; COLE, I.S.; BOND, A.M.; ISAACS, H.S.; FURMAN, S.A.

    2001-03-25

    The benefits of using synchrotron-generated X-rays and X-ray fluorescence analysis in combination with other surface analysis techniques have been demonstrated. In studies of salt-induced corrosion, for example, the detection of Rb ions in the area of secondary spreading when salt-containing micro-droplets are placed on zinc surfaces, further supports a mechanism involving cation transport during the corrosion and spreading of corrosive salt on exposed metal surfaces. Specifically, the new analytical data shows that: (a) cations are transported radially from a primary drop formed from a salt deposit in a thin film of secondary spreading around the drop; (b) subsequently, micro-pools are formed in the area of secondary spreading, and it is likely that cations transported within the thin film accumulate in these micro-pools until the area is dehydrated; (c) the mechanism of cation transport into the area of secondary spreading does not include transport of the anions; and (d) hydroxide is the counter ion formed from oxygen reduction at the metal surface within the spreading layer. Data relevant to iron corrosion is also presented and the distinct differences relative to the zinc situation are discussed.

  11. CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 Membrane with Enhanced Molten Salt Corrosion Resistance for Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xingli; Li, Xin; Shen, Bin; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu; Ding, Weizhong

    2017-02-01

    Innovative CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 membrane has been successfully developed and used in the solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process for green metallic materials production. The x mol pct ceria/(8- x) mol pct yttria-costabilized zirconia ( xCe(8- x)YSZ, x = 0, 1, 4, or 7) membranes have been fabricated and investigated as the membrane-based inert anodes to control the SOM electroreduction process in molten salt. The characteristics of these fabricated xCe(8- x)YSZ membranes including their corrosion resistances in molten salt and their degradation mechanisms have been systematically investigated and compared. The results show that the addition of ceria in the YSZ-based membrane can inhibit the depletion of yttrium during the SOM electrolysis, which thus makes the ceria-reinforced YSZ-based membranes possess enhanced corrosion resistances to molten salt. The ceria/yttria-costabilized zirconia membranes can also provide reasonable oxygen ion conductivity during electrolysis. Further investigation shows that the newly modified 4Ce4YSZ ceramic membrane has the potential to be used as novel inert SOM anode for the facile and sustainable production of metals/alloys/composites materials such as Si, Ti5Si3, TiC, and Ti5Si3/TiC from their metal oxides precursors in molten CaCl2.

  12. NASA/MSFC FY-82 atmospheric processes research review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC FY-82 Atmospheric Processes Research Program was reviewed. The review covered research tasks in the areas of upper atmosphere, global weather, and severe storms and local weather. Also included was research on aviation safety environmental hazards. The research project summaries, in narrative outline form, supplied by the individual investigators together with the agenda and other information about the review are presented.

  13. Integrating Stakeholders and Users into the Geography Discipline's Research Process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hermans, Caroline M.; Taketa, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Future research priorities of Geography emphasize the discipline's leadership role in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in multidisciplinary and integrated research on human and environmental systems and how these systems are interrelated and respond to change Geography's research priorities also emphasize providing science that is usable to society and creating decision support products applicable to given customer problems. To achieve these goals, we must understand the relationship between our research and our customer, and how to integrate the customer into the research process. This report details the elements of the research process that help achieve the degree of stakeholder involvement necessary to ensure a successful end-product. It offers suggestions that can help researchers better understand stakeholders and customers and involve them in the research process more effectively, while preserving the integrity of the science. Its aim is to help researchers understand the problems and challenges faced by our customers and communicate the ways in which Geography can help address their problems. Adopting these guidelines can improve the efficiency of the research process and lead to higher quality output. We will be able to conduct better research because we will have an improved understanding of the research problem and the stakeholders involved. This report covers a broad range of topics, from identifying and communicating with stakeholders and users, to the use of language, to how to effectively present scientific information to the user. It does not offer a 'one size fits all' method. Instead, perhaps only specific sections are suitable for a given project and customers, depending on project scope and needs. This report is based on the objectives of Geography's strategic plan, U. S. Geological Survey's strategic plan, and Department of Interior's strategic plan. Section 2 of these guidelines describes the purpose of the research process in Geography and

  14. NASA/MSFC FY-84 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W. (Compiler); Porter, F. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The two main areas of focus for NASA/MSFC's atmospheric research program are: (1) global scale processes (geophysical fluid processes, satellite Doppler lidar wind profiler, and satellite data analyses) and (2) mesoscale processes (atmospheric electricity (lightning), ground/airborne Doppler lidar wind measurements, and mesoscale analyses and space sensors). Topics within these two general areas are addressed.

  15. A Cognitive Architecture for Human Performance Process Model Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Architecture for Human Performance Process Model C - F33615-91 -D-0009 Research PE - 62205F PR- 1710 6. AUTHOR(S) TA - 00 Michael J. Young WU - 60 7...OF PAGES cognitive architectures human performance process models 4 1 cognitive psychology Implementation architectures 16. PRICE CODE computational...1 Human Performance Process Models ............................................................ 2

  16. Global Biology Research Program: Biogeochemical Processes in Wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. S. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The results of a workshop examining potential NASA contributions to research on wetland processes as they relate to global biogeochemical cycles are summarized. A wetlands data base utilizing remotely sensed inventories, studies of wetland/atmosphere exchange processes, and the extrapolation of local measurements to global biogeochemical cycling processes were identified as possible areas for NASA support.

  17. Monitoring environmental controls on salt-marsh foraminifera in Tuckerton, NJ: implications for sea-level research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Jennifer; Khan, Nicole; Shaw, Timothy; Garcia-Artola, Ane; Dura, Tina; Horton, Ben

    2016-04-01

    Salt-marsh foraminifera have been widely used as proxies to reconstruct sea-level trends because their modern distribution is strongly linked with tidal elevation, and they are relatively abundant and have a high preservation potential in intertidal sediments. To determine former sea levels, the relation between contemporary foraminifera and their controlling environmental variables must be determined and the influence of post-depositional changes elucidated. Duration and frequency of tidal exposure, while the dominant control, is not the only environmental variable controlling the distribution of foraminifera. Complex interactions between organisms and their environment factor into foraminifera species distributions and these factors will vary over space and time. Here we present preliminary results of a spatial and temporal ecological study to monitor short-term, seasonal, and interannual variations in salt-marsh foraminifera assemblages along a salinity gradient of an intertidal zone of New Jersey, USA. The temporal nature is beneficial in recording potential lags in response to changes in environmental conditions compared with one-time sampling. Live foraminifera assemblage samples are compared with measured environmental parameters (porewater chemistry, porewater nutrients, tidal inundation, grain size) and experiments (bioturbation, overwash deposit, and infaunal) to determine the controlling environmental variables on foraminifera and how these variables and the foraminifera assemblages change through time. Ultimately, this multi-year monitoring experiment provides a more comprehensive understanding of environmental controls on salt-marsh foraminifera and will provide a background data set of salt-marsh foraminifera to compare with future studies and with sampling after large events such as storms. A greater understanding of salt-marsh foraminifera in their environment will contribute to sea-level reconstructions. Since sea-level records use the distribution

  18. Trends in Psychotherapy Process Research: Samples, Measures, Researchers, and Classic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clara E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychotherapy studies published in "Journal of Counseling Psychology" (JCP) and "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" (JCCP) between 1978 and 1992. Found that JCP published mostly process, outcome, and analogue research, whereas JCCP published mostly outcome research. Most process and process-outcome studies across journals were…

  19. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium if you have heart disease. Fluid retention (edema): Avoid using phosphate salts that contain sodium if ... heart failure, or other conditions that can cause edema. High levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia): ...

  20. Bath Salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... panic attacks depression suicidal thoughts paranoia delusions and hallucinations distorted sense of reality decreased ability to think ... of bath salts may cause people to have hallucinations, hear voices, feel paranoid, and develop a psychosis ...

  1. Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

    2012-01-01

    Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

  2. DC electrophoresis and viscosity of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions: non-equilibrium dissociation-association processes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Reina, Emilio; Carrique, Félix; Lechuga, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Most of the suspensions usually found in industrial applications are concentrated, aqueous and in contact with the atmospheric CO2. The case of suspensions with a high concentration of added salt is relatively well understood and has been considered in many studies. In this work we are concerned with the case of concentrated suspensions that have no ions different than: (1) those stemming from the charged colloidal particles (the added counterions, that counterbalance their surface charge); (2) the H(+) and OH(-) ions from water dissociation, and (3) the ions generated by the atmospheric CO2 contamination. We call this kind of systems "realistic salt-free suspensions". We show some theoretical results about the electrophoretic mobility of a colloidal particle and the electroviscous effect of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions. The theoretical framework is based on a cell model that accounts for particle-particle interactions in concentrated suspensions, which has been successfully applied to many different phenomena in concentrated suspensions. On the other hand, the water dissociation and CO2 contamination can be described following two different levels of approximation: (a) by local equilibrium mass-action equations, because it is supposed that the reactions are so fast that chemical equilibrium is attained everywhere in the suspension, or (b) by non-equilibrium dissociation-association kinetic equations, because it is considered that some reactions are not rapid enough to ensure local chemical equilibrium. Both approaches give rise to different results in the range from dilute to semidilute suspensions, causing possible discrepancies when comparing standard theories and experiments concerning transport properties of realistic salt-free suspensions.

  3. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration in cooperation with Todd Pacific Shipyards...AUG 1985 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program Process Analysis Via...lighting, retraining work- ers, or other such approaches. This product of A/C is called process or method analysis. Process analysis involves a

  4. Materials Science and Technology (MST) Division, Nuclear Materials Process Technology Group (MST-12), chemical process research and development report

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, D.G.

    1984-04-01

    A process for the recovery of plutonium and americium from molten salt extraction (MSE) salt residues has been demonstrated. It is based upon a new chloride anion-exchange process at low acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. The Los Alamos americium oxide production line has been improved to give more product with a concurrent lowering of personnel radiation exposure. A cost study has been made for the disposal of americium-contaminated calcium metal buttons that were obtained by pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from MSE salts. The waste form used in the study conforms to WIPP-Facility standards and current state-of-the-art radioactive waste disposal. The cost estimate is approx. $300/g /sup 241/Am. Plutonium decontamination factors of approx. 300 have been obtained from lead-platinum alloy dissolution experiments carried out in alumina crucibles using lead oxide slag to getter the plutonium.

  5. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  6. Consultation and Decision Processes in a Research and Development Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clagett G.

    1970-01-01

    Study of relationship between consultation and decision processes in an industrial research laboratory showed the efficacy of multidirectional consultation coupled with a pattern of shared, decentralized decision making. (Author/KJ)

  7. Clean Salt integrated flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, T.R.

    1994-09-27

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is a novel waste management scheme that removes sodium nitrate and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as decontaminated (low specific activity) salts from Hanford`s high-level waste (HLW). The full scale process will separate the bulk of the waste that exists as sodium salts from the small portion of the waste that is by definition radioactive and dangerous. This report presents initial conceptual CSP flowsheets and demonstrates the benefit of integrating the process into the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Reference Flowsheet. Total HLW and low-level (LLW) volumes are reported for two different CSP integration options and are compared to the TWRS Reference Flowsheet values. The results for a single glass option eliminating LLW disposal are also reported.

  8. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin Jay

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  9. Device research task (processing and high-efficiency solar cells)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This task has been expanded since the last 25th Project Integration Meeting (PIM) to include process research in addition to device research. The objective of this task is to assist the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project in meeting its near- and long-term goals by identifying and implementing research in the areas of device physics, device structures, measurement techniques, material-device interactions, and cell processing. The research efforts of this task are described and reflect the deversity of device research being conducted. All of the contracts being reported are either completed or near completion and culminate the device research efforts of the FSA Project. Optimazation methods and silicon solar cell numerical models, carrier transport and recombination parameters in heavily doped silicon, development and analysis of silicon solar cells of near 20% efficiency, and SiN sub x passivation of silicon surfaces are discussed.

  10. Experiencing the Research Process in a Single Class Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Books and courses on research methods, statistics, or both, often necessarily focus on one topic at a time. This compartmentalized approach prevents students from seeing the big picture. To address this shortcoming, I developed an exercise through which students experience the whole research process in a single class period. From posing a…

  11. Complexity, Methodology and Method: Crafting a Critical Process of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhadeff-Jones, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines a theoretical framework aiming to support the actions and reflections of researchers looking for a "method" in order to critically conceive the complexity of a scientific process of research. First, it starts with a brief overview of the core assumptions framing Morin's "paradigm of complexity" and Le…

  12. The Research Process: Parents, Kids, and Teachers as Ethnographers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Anita; Makuluni, Anita H.; Nieves, Monica

    2000-01-01

    Forms part of a themed issue describing "Parent-Kid-Teacher Investigators," a program in which parents, children, and teachers gather regularly to use language and literacy for action research projects. Offers a classroom portrait of these weekly meetings, looking at the process of research and the impact that "learning how to learn" had on all…

  13. Processing Perspectives in SLA Research and Their Compatibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pienemann, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    Truscott and Sharwood-Smith's (henceforth T&SS's) paper offers an interesting set of hypotheses about one possible processing perspective in research on language acquisition. What is striking about this exposition of their model is that it ignores almost entirely the context of previous research on this issue. Embedding their exposition in its…

  14. Natural Language Processing in Game Studies Research: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagal, Jose P.; Tomuro, Noriko; Shepitsen, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language as input and/or output. The authors propose that NLP can also be used for game studies research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of NLP and describe some research possibilities…

  15. A Study of Research Utilization Processes in British Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, R.L.

    This study, done in England and Wales, was a first step in developing a model or set of models for describing processes by which agricultural research findings are put into practice. It was decided that the model should be based on actual instances of transmission and use of research. Models by the author and by others were used in developing…

  16. TAFE Curriculum Research: A Review of Group Process Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tony; Jones, Neil

    The issue of how to react quickly to the educational needs arising from technological change has been deemed a central problem facing Technical and Further Education (TAFE) in Australia. Therefore, a national study examined various curriculum research methods that hold promise for speeding up the curriculum research and development process. The…

  17. Recent Research Re Language Learning and Classroom Processes. No. 162.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillion, B.; Wright, E. N.

    A selective view of recent major areas of research into school processes related to language outcomes supports the contention of the Bullock Report and of many educational theorists who say that there is no one best way to improve language and literacy, but that schools and school variables can and do make differences. The research that is…

  18. Relevance as Process: Judgements in the Context of Scholarly Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Theresa Dirndorfer

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This paper discusses how exploring the research process in-depth and over time contributes to a fuller understanding of interactions with various representations of information. Method. A longitudinal ethnographic study explored decisions made by two informants involved in scholarly research. Relevance assessment and information…

  19. The Research Roadmap: A Primer to the Approach and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burian, Philip E.; Rogerson, Lynda; Maffei, Francis R., III.

    2010-01-01

    Performing research can be an overwhelming and challenging endeavor. It's easy to get confused just from collecting, reading and deciphering textbooks and journal articles. Getting organized and mapping out the entire process would be extremely helpful and more importantly provide a path for accomplishing the research project. This paper will…

  20. Part one: An introduction to the research process.

    PubMed

    Quick, Julie; Hall, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Research modules have become a common inclusion to graduate healthcare programmes. To the novice researcher, undertaking a study or dissertation can appear daunting. This article is the first of a series of four that aims to help perioperative practitioners feel more positive about undertaking a project by examining the research process and the theoretical frameworks of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The final of the four articles provides advice on writing a dissertation.

  1. Parallel processing research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Snyder, L.; Wolcott, P.

    1992-03-01

    This technical assessment report examines strengths and weaknesses of parallel processing research and development in the Soviet Union from the 1980s to June 1991. The assessment was carried out by panel of US scientists who are experts on parallel processing hardware, software, algorithms, and applications, and on Soviet computing. Soviet computer research and development organizations have pursued many of the major avenues of inquiry related to parallel processing that the West has chosen to explore. But, the limited size and substantial breadth of their effort have limited the collective depth of Soviet activity. Even more serious limitations (and delays) of Soviet achievement in parallel processing research can be traced to shortcomings of the Soviet computer industry, which was unable to supply adequate, reliable computer components. Without the ability to build, demonstrate, and test embodiments of their ideas in actual high-performance parallel hardware, both the scope of activity and the success of Soviet parallel processing researchers were severely limited. The quality of the Soviet parallel processing research assessed varied from very sound and interesting to pedestrian, with most of the groups at the major hardware and software centers to which the work is largely confined doing good (or at least serious) research. In a few instances, interesting and competent parallel language development work was found at institutions not associated with hardware development efforts. Unlike Soviet mainframe and minicomputer developers, Soviet parallel processing researchers have not concentrated their efforts on reverse- engineering specific Western systems. No evidence was found of successful Soviet attempts to use breakthroughs in parallel processing technology to ``leapfrog`` impediments and limitations that Soviet industrial weakness in microelectronics and other computer manufacturing areas impose on the performance of high-end Soviet computers.

  2. Parallel processing research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Snyder, L.; Wolcott, P.

    1992-03-01

    This technical assessment report examines strengths and weaknesses of parallel processing research and development in the Soviet Union from the 1980s to June 1991. The assessment was carried out by panel of US scientists who are experts on parallel processing hardware, software, algorithms, and applications, and on Soviet computing. Soviet computer research and development organizations have pursued many of the major avenues of inquiry related to parallel processing that the West has chosen to explore. But, the limited size and substantial breadth of their effort have limited the collective depth of Soviet activity. Even more serious limitations (and delays) of Soviet achievement in parallel processing research can be traced to shortcomings of the Soviet computer industry, which was unable to supply adequate, reliable computer components. Without the ability to build, demonstrate, and test embodiments of their ideas in actual high-performance parallel hardware, both the scope of activity and the success of Soviet parallel processing researchers were severely limited. The quality of the Soviet parallel processing research assessed varied from very sound and interesting to pedestrian, with most of the groups at the major hardware and software centers to which the work is largely confined doing good (or at least serious) research. In a few instances, interesting and competent parallel language development work was found at institutions not associated with hardware development efforts. Unlike Soviet mainframe and minicomputer developers, Soviet parallel processing researchers have not concentrated their efforts on reverse- engineering specific Western systems. No evidence was found of successful Soviet attempts to use breakthroughs in parallel processing technology to leapfrog'' impediments and limitations that Soviet industrial weakness in microelectronics and other computer manufacturing areas impose on the performance of high-end Soviet computers.

  3. Central Processing Dysfunctions in Children: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfant, James C.; Scheffelin, Margaret A.

    Research on central processing dysfunctions in children is reviewed in three major areas. The first, dysfunctions in the analysis of sensory information, includes auditory, visual, and haptic processing. The second, dysfunction in the synthesis of sensory information, covers multiple stimulus integration and short-term memory. The third area of…

  4. Longitudinal Field Research Methods for Studying Processes of Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Ven, Andrew H.; Huber, George P.

    1990-01-01

    This and the next issue of "Organization Science" contain eight papers that deal with the process of organizational change. The five papers in this issue feature the theory of method and practice of researchers engaged in longitudinal field studies aimed at understanding processes of organizational change. (MLF)

  5. Collaborative Practices in Dance Research: Unpacking the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores the numerous and diverse ways collaborative practices in dance research can unfold. Strengths and challenges within the collaborative process are discussed as emphasis is given to the multiple perspectives and types of relationships that evolve from and within the process. These core elements offer scholars a rich array of…

  6. Advances in soil erosion research: processes, measurement, and modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion by the environmental agents of water and wind is a continuing global menace that threatens the agricultural base that sustains our civilization. Members of ASABE have been at the forefront of research to understand erosion processes, measure erosion and related processes, and model very...

  7. Measuring Student Gains in Understanding the Process of Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, Travis A.; Krok, M.; Young, M.

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a "Research-Based Science Education" (RBSE) curriculum in which undergraduate non-science majors participate in authentic astrophysical research in the "astro 101" setting. The primary goal of the RBSE curriculum is to develop a student's understanding of the nature of scientific research; i.e. that science is not just a body of knowledge but a process by which knowledge is gained. The RBSE curriculum is now being tested at seven partner institutions. To measure student gains in understanding the process of scientific research we use a modified concept mapping methodology. We will present the methodology, identified student misconceptions about the process of science, and initial results on measured student gains. This work is supported through NSF DUE-CCLI grant 0920293.

  8. Location for the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This diagram shows the planned locations of the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory (SERPL) and the Space Station Commerce Park at Kennedy Space Center. The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for the planned 400- acre commerce park.

  9. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  10. Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passi, B. K.; Mishra, Sudarshan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research…

  11. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  12. Using Computers in Educational and Psychological Research: Using Information Technolgies to Support the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jerry; Kim, Seung H.

    2006-01-01

    This book has been designed to assist researchers in the social sciences and education fields who are interested in learning how information technologies can help them successfully navigate the research process. Most researchers are familiar with the use of programs like SPSS to analyze data, but many are not aware of other ways information…

  13. Microbial community of salt crystals processed from Mediterranean seawater based on 16S rRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Baati, Houda; Guermazi, Sonda; Gharsallah, Neji; Sghir, Abdelghani; Ammar, Emna

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate for the first time the structure of the microbial community that inhabits salt crystals retrieved from the bottom of a solar saltern, located in the coastal area of the Mediterranean Sea (Sfax, Tunisia). This community lives in an extremely salty environment of 250-310 g/L total dissolved salt. A total of 78 bacterial 16S rRNA clone sequences making up to 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), determined by the DOTUR program to 97% sequence similarity, was analyzed. These OTUs were affiliated to Bacteroidetes (71.4% of OTUs), and gamma-Proteobacteria and alpha-Proteobacteria (equally represented by 14.2% of the OTUs observed). The archaeal community composition appeared more diverse with 68 clones, resulting in 44 OTUs, all affiliated with the Euryarchaeota phylum. Of the bacterial and archaeal clones showing <97% 16S rRNA sequence identity with sequences in public databases, 47.6% and 84.1% respectively were novel clones. Both rarefaction curves and diversity measurements (Simpson, Shannon-Weaver, Chao) showed a more diverse archaeal than bacterial community at the Tunisian solar saltern pond. The analysis of an increasing clone's number may reveal additional local diversity.

  14. Pharmaceutical salts: a summary on doses of salt formers from the Orange Book.

    PubMed

    Saal, C; Becker, A

    2013-07-16

    Over half of the active pharmaceutical ingredients currently approved within the US are pharmaceutical salts. Selection of suitable pharmaceutical salts is carried out during late research or early development phase. Therefore several properties of different pharmaceutical salts of a new chemical entity are assessed during salt screening and salt selection. This typically includes physico-chemical behavior, dissolution rate and pharmacokinetics of a pharmaceutical salt. Beyond these properties also toxicological aspects have to be taken into account. As a starting point for a toxicological assessment we present an overview of the usage of pharmaceutical salts as described in the FDA's Orange Book including maximum daily doses for the most important administration routes.

  15. Research on cognitive, social and cultural processes of written communication.

    PubMed

    Arroyo González, Rosario; Salvador Mata, Francisco

    2009-08-01

    This article compiles the investigations carried out by a Research Group of the University of Granada, Spain. Its different projects on writing's cognitive social and cultural processes have been supported by the Spanish Government. This line of research joined together linguistic, psychological, social and cultural contributions to the development of writing from the 1970s. Currently, this line of research develops in collaboration with other European Universities: (a) Interuniversity Centre for Research On Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial Systems (ECONA), "La Sapienza" University of Rome (Italy); (b) Anadolu University, (Eskisehir, Turkey); (c) Coimbra University (Portugal); (d) University of Zaragoza (Spain); (e) the Institute of Education of the University of London (United Kingdom). The aforementioned collaboration is materializing into projects like the International Master on Multilingual Writing: Cognitive, Intercultural and Technological Processes of Written Communication ( http://www.multilingualwriting.com ) and the International Congress: Writing in the twenty-first Century: Cognition, Multilinguisim and Technologies, held in Granada ( http://www.asprogrades.org ). This research line is focussed on the development of strategies in writing development, basic to train twenty-first century societies' citizens. In these societies, participation in production media, social exchange and the development of multilingual written communication skills through new computer technologies spread multicultural values. In order to fulfil the social exigencies, it is needed to have the collaboration of research groups for designing and applying international research projects.

  16. "We-Research": Adopting a Wiki to Support the Processes of Collaborative Research among a Team of International Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Perez, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the adoption of a wiki to support the processes of collaborative research between members of an international team involved in the project MyPlace: MyMusic. The focus is on how new technological communications, here specifically the wiki, can enable and transform the methods and processes of research. We propose two main…

  17. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  18. Communications, Signal Processing, and Telemetering Research Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Communications, Signal Processing, and Telemetering Research Program Review was held on February 23, 1999. Research conducted under the grant was presented and reviewed, for progress, and for possible technology transfers. The research reviewed was in the following areas: (1) Bandwidth-efficient Modulation and nonlinear equalization; (2) Investigation of an architecture for parallel signal processing applicable to communications problems; (3)Coded partial response over satellites; (4) synchronization at Low SNR; (5) Serial concatenated convolutional codes and some implementation issues on high rate turbo codes; (6) Flight experiments; (7) Real time doppler tracking; (8) Space protocol testing; (9) Lightweight optical communications without carrying a laser in space. The presentations are given by the graduate students who performed the research.

  19. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  20. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  1. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  2. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  3. Research Update: Comparison of salt- and molecular-based iodine treatments of PbS nanocrystal solids for solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jähnig, Fabian; Bozyigit, Deniz; Yarema, Olesya; Wood, Vanessa

    2015-02-01

    Molecular- and salt-based chemical treatments are believed to passivate electronic trap states in nanocrystal-based semiconductors, which are considered promising for solar cells but suffer from high carrier recombination. Here, we compare the chemical, optical, and electronic properties of PbS nanocrystal-based solids treated with molecular iodine and tetrabutylammonium iodide. Surprisingly, both treatments increase—rather than decrease—the number density of trap states; however, the increase does not directly influence solar cell performance. We explain the origins of the observed impact on solar cell performance and the potential in using different chemical treatments to tune charge carrier dynamics in nanocrystal-solids.

  4. Researching on the process of remote sensing video imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He-rao; Zheng, Xin-qi; Sun, Yi-bo; Jia, Zong-ren; Wang, He-zhan

    Unmanned air vehicle remotely-sensed imagery on the low-altitude has the advantages of higher revolution, easy-shooting, real-time accessing, etc. It's been widely used in mapping , target identification, and other fields in recent years. However, because of conditional limitation, the video images are unstable, the targets move fast, and the shooting background is complex, etc., thus it is difficult to process the video images in this situation. In other fields, especially in the field of computer vision, the researches on video images are more extensive., which is very helpful for processing the remotely-sensed imagery on the low-altitude. Based on this, this paper analyzes and summarizes amounts of video image processing achievement in different fields, including research purposes, data sources, and the pros and cons of technology. Meantime, this paper explores the technology methods more suitable for low-altitude video image processing of remote sensing.

  5. Hardware development process for Human Research facility applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. .

  6. Refining the Enrolment Process in Emergency Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Sahan, Kate M; Channon, Keith M; Choudhury, Robin P; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Lee, Regent; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Research in the emergency setting involving patients with acute clinical conditions is needed if there are to be advances in diagnosis and treatment. But research in these areas poses ethical and practical challenges. One of these is the general inability to obtain informed consent due to the patient’s lack of mental capacity and insufficient time to contact legal representatives. Regulatory frameworks which allow this research to proceed with a consent ‘waiver’, provided patients lack mental capacity, miss important ethical subtleties. One of these is the varying nature of mental capacity among emergency medicine patients. Not only is their capacity variable and often unclear, but some patients are also likely to be able to engage with the researcher and the context to varying degrees. In this paper we describe the key elements of a novel enrolment process for emergency medicine research that refines the consent waiver and fully engages with the ethical rationale for consent and, in this context, its waiver. The process is verbal but independently documented during the ‘emergent’ stages of the research. It provides appropriate engagement with the patient, is context-sensitive and better addresses ethical subtleties. In line with regulation, full written consent for on-going participation in the research is obtained once the emergency is passed. PMID:27499840

  7. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  8. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  9. Partnering with Indigenous student co-researchers: improving research processes and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Shelagh K.; Willows, Noreen; Jardine, Cindy G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the contribution of student co-researchers to a community-based participatory Photovoice investigation of Indigenous children's food-related lived experience. We examine co-researchers’ contributions to the research process, their role in knowledge co-generation and dissemination, and factors that fostered research partnership with the teenage co-researchers. Methods High school students attending a First Nation community school in Canada were trained as research partners. They contributed to aspects of research design, conducted interviews with grades 3 and 4 Photovoice participants, and participated in data analysis and the development of a culturally relevant photobook. The study was initiated by the community's research committee. It is informed by critical consciousness theory and the positive youth development framework. Results Student co-researchers incorporated culturally appropriate strategies as they interviewed participants. Co-researchers adopted conversational approaches, built rapport by articulating personal and cultural connections, and engaged in mentoring and health promotion as they interviewed participants. They made critical contributions to dissemination by developing photobook content that promoted the importance of traditional foods and the vital role of family and community in healthy eating practices. Relationships and “dialogic” space were important to building partnership with and promoting capacity development among youth co-researchers. Conclusions Partnership between university researchers and Indigenous student co-researchers holds great promise for health promotion in communities. Co-researchers developed research and leadership skills, gained understanding of health challenges facing their community, and initiated health and cultural promotion through the project's Photobook. This investigation supports the powerful potential of student co-researchers to meaningfully contribute to research processes and

  10. Structure and process of federal funding for AD research.

    PubMed

    Wells, N; Hurley, A C

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines the structure of the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) agency that funds a majority of Alzheimer disease (AD) research, and the process of submitting a federal grant application. The multiple steps of the grant application process, both for the investigator preparing the application and the review process at NIH, are described. The importance of speaking with a program officer from an institute and incorporating reviewers' comments into grant applications to strengthen the proposal is stressed.

  11. Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

  12. External Influences on an Internal Process: Supporting Preservice Teacher Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ann; Klipfel, Lyndsay Halpin

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to better understand how participating in teacher research as a student teacher compares to conducting it as a practicing teacher, a teacher educator and her former teacher education student engaged in a collaborative dialogue. They focus their reflections in this article on the impact of external forces on the process of teacher…

  13. Conceptual Frameworks in the Doctoral Research Process: A Pedagogical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Jeanette; Smyth, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to consideration of the role of conceptual frameworks in the doctoral research process. Through reflection on the two authors' own conceptual frameworks for their doctoral studies, a pedagogical model has been developed. The model posits the development of a conceptual framework as a core element of the doctoral…

  14. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research.

    PubMed

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-04-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  15. Nurturing the Imagination: Creativity Processes and Innovative Qualitative Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Thalia M.; Swaminathan, Raji

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the creativity processes involved in designing and analyzing innovative qualitative research projects and evaluates examples of recent models and typologies that illustrate a variety of ways to approach qualitative inquiry. Using Gardner's Five Minds (2006) typology, Boyer's Model of Scholarship (1997) and Bloom's Taxonomy of…

  16. The Effect and Importance of Technology in the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuff, Ed

    2014-01-01

    From elementary schooling to doctoral-level education, technology has become an integral part of the learning process in and out of the classroom. With the implementation of the Common Core Learning Standards, the skills required for research are more valuable than ever, for they are required to succeed in a college setting, as well as in the…

  17. Reclaiming Queerness: Self, Identity, and the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janna Marie

    2007-01-01

    This article explores some of the challenges and benefits of doing a dissertation with participants from a population to which I belong and on a topic some consider controversial, that of gay and lesbian educators. I describe the homophobia I experienced and how that homophobia affected my choice of topic, the research process, and my job…

  18. The Peer Seminar, a Spoken Research Process Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Marta

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to report on another research process genre, namely the peer seminar. Work exists [English for Specific Purposes, 12 (1993) 23; 18 (1999) 63] which studies different aspects of the seminar as understood in the Anglo-Saxon world (an expert-to-novice situation with an asymmetrical status of participants) but little attention has been…

  19. A Garbage Can Model of the Psychological Research Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joanne

    1981-01-01

    Reviews models commonly used in psychological research, and, particularly, in organizational decision making. An alternative model of organizational decision making is suggested. The model, referred to as the garbage can model, describes a process in which members of an organization collect the problems and solutions they generate by dumping them…

  20. Organizing an Integrated Planning, Research and Marketing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Richard; Dock, Stephen

    Several sets of outlines, charts, and diagrams present an overview of a comprehensive institutional program at Delaware County Community College (DCCC) which incorporates planning, research, and marketing strategies. The first set of documents outlines the objective-based planning process, describes the organizational framework, defines…

  1. [Required procedure for nominal data files processing in biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Chambon-Savanovitch, C; Dubray, C; Albuisson, E; Sauvant, M P

    2001-12-01

    To date, biomedical research using nominal data files for the data collection, data acquisition or data processing has had to comply with 2 French laws (Law of December, 20, 1988, modified, relating to the protection of patients participating in biomedical research, and the Law of January, 6, 1978, completed by the Law of July 1, 1994 n degrees 94-548, chapter V bis). This later law dictates rules not only for the establishment of nominal data files, but also confer individual rights to filed persons. These regulations concern epidemiological research, clinical trials, drug watch studies and economic health research. In this note, we describe the obligations and specific general and simplified procedure required for conducting biomedical research. Included in the requirements are an information and authorization procedure with the local and national consultative committees on data processing in biomedical research (CCTIRS, Comité Consultatif sur le Traitement de l'Information en Recherche Biomédicale, and CNIL, Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés).

  2. Metal and alloy nanoparticles by amine-borane reduction of metal salts by solid-phase synthesis: atom economy and green process.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Udishnu; Jagirdar, Balaji R

    2012-12-03

    A new solid state synthetic route has been developed toward metal and bimetallic alloy nanoparticles from metal salts employing amine-boranes as the reducing agent. During the reduction, amine-borane plays a dual role: acts as a reducing agent and reduces the metal salts to their elemental form and simultaneously generates a stabilizing agent in situ which controls the growth of the particles and stabilizes them in the nanosize regime. Employing different amine-boranes with differing reducing ability (ammonia borane (AB), dimethylamine borane (DMAB), and triethylamine borane (TMAB)) was found to have a profound effect on the particle size and the size distribution. Usage of AB as the reducing agent provided the smallest possible size with best size distribution. Employment of TMAB also afforded similar results; however, when DMAB was used as the reducing agent it resulted in larger sized nanoparticles that are polydisperse too. In the AB mediated reduction, BNH(x) polymer generated in situ acts as a capping agent whereas, the complexing amine of the other amine-boranes (DMAB and TMAB) play the same role. Employing the solid state route described herein, monometallic Au, Ag, Cu, Pd, and Ir and bimetallic CuAg and CuAu alloy nanoparticles of <10 nm were successfully prepared. Nucleation and growth processes that control the size and the size distribution of the resulting nanoparticles have been elucidated in these systems.

  3. Synthesis of hollow cobalt oxide nanopowders by a salt-assisted spray pyrolysis process applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion and their electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyeon Seok; Cho, Jung Sang; Kim, Jong Hwa; Choi, Yun Ju; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-12-21

    A new concept for preparing hollow metal oxide nanopowders by salt-assisted spray pyrolysis applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion is introduced. The composite powders of metal oxide and indecomposable metal salt are prepared by spray pyrolysis. Post-treatment under a reducing atmosphere and subsequent washing using distilled water produce aggregation-free metal nanopowders. The metal nanopowders are then transformed into metal oxide hollow nanopowders by nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. Co3O4 hollow nanopowders are prepared as first target materials. A cobalt oxide-NaCl composite powder prepared by spray pyrolysis transforms into several Co3O4 hollow nanopowders by several treatment processes. The discharge capacities of the Co3O4 nanopowders with filled and hollow structures at a current density of 1 A g(-1) for the 150th cycle are 605 and 775 mA h g(-1), respectively. The hollow structure formed by nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion improves the lithium-ion storage properties of Co3O4 nanopowders.

  4. Materials processing in space programs tasks. [NASA research tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E.

    1981-01-01

    Active research tasks as of the end of fiscal year 1981 of the materials processing in space program, NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications are summarized to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program, its history, strategy, and overall goal are described the organizational structures and people involved are identified and a list of recent publications is given for each research task. Four categories: Crystal Growth; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluids, Transports, and Chemical Processes, and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies are used to group the tasks. Some tasks are placed in more than one category to insure complete coverage of each category.

  5. The economics of salt cake recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, D.; Hryn, J.N.; Daniels, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    The Process Evaluation Section at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a major program aimed at developing cost-effective technologies for salt cake recycling. This paper addresses the economic feasibility of technologies for the recovery of aluminum, salt, and residue-oxide fractions from salt cake. Four processes were assessed for salt recovery from salt cake: (1) base case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with evaporation to crystallize salts; (2) high-temperature case: leaching in water at 250{degree}C, with flash crystallization to precipitate salts; (3) solventlantisolvent case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, concentrating by evaporation, and reacting with acetone to precipitate salts; and (4) electrodialysis: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with concentration and recovery of salts by electrodialysis. All test cases for salt recovery had a negative present value, given current pricing structure and 20% return on investment. Although manufacturing costs (variable plus fixed) could reasonably be recovered in the sales price of the salt product, capital costs cannot. The economics for the recycling processes are improved, however, if the residueoxide can be sold instead of landfilled. For example, the base case process would be profitable at a wet oxide value of $220/metric ton. The economics of alternative scenarios were also considered, including aluminum recovery with landfilling of salts and oxides.

  6. Effects of metal salt addition on odor and process stability during the anaerobic digestion of municipal waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Timothy; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective way to recover energy and nutrients from organic waste; however, several issues including the solubilization of bound nutrients and the production of corrosive, highly odorous and toxic volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in AD biogas can limit its wider adoption. This study explored the effects of adding two different doses of ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide directly to the feed of complete mix semi-continuously fed mesophilic ADs on eight of the most odorous VSCs in AD biogas at three different organic loading rates (OLR). Ferric chloride was shown to be extremely effective in reducing VSCs by up to 87%, aluminum sulfate had the opposite effect and increased VSC levels by up to 920%, while magnesium hydroxide was not shown to have any significant impact. Ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide were effective in reducing the concentration of orthophosphate in AD effluent although both levels of alum addition caused digester failure at elevated OLRs. Extensive foaming was observed within the magnesium hydroxide dosed digesters, particularly at higher doses and high OLRs. Certain metal salt additions may be a valuable tool in overcoming barriers to AD and to meet regulatory targets.

  7. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants` effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site.

  8. The role of research in coastal westlands management: Salt Marshes of Santoña and Noja (Spain).

    PubMed

    Castillo-Lopez, Elena; Valle, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Coastal environments, such as marshes, dunes, or estuaries, are characterized by their high natural values that usually cause them to be subjected to high protection levels, affecting activities taking place within them. This is why the action in these spaces must be based on the use of proper techniques and approaches, which integrate ecology with practical engineering necessities. In this context, the Department of Sciences and Techniques of the Water and Environment of the University of Cantabria, through methods developed in the natural reserve of the Salt Marshes of Santoña and Noja, proposes the use of a working methodology based on the discipline of "ecosystem management" combined with the "adaptive management" methodologies; the application of mathematical, statistical, and specific predictive instruments; and the utilization of an "ecologic niche" as a union between the scientific knowledge of the littoral environments and the true actuation scale of the projects and activities carried out within them.

  9. Nearshore transport processes affecting the dilution and fate of energy-related contaminants. Progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, J. O.

    1980-07-15

    Research was conducted on physical oceanograhic processes off the Georgia Coast. Spatral variations in momentum and salt flux were measured to determine their importance in generating flow and salt transport. Analyses of data are presently underway.

  10. Psychometric Test Theory and Cognitive Processes: A Theoretical Scrutiny and Empirical Research. Research Bulletin No. 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leino, Jarkko

    This report is the third in a series of research projects concerning abilities and performance processes, particularly in school mathematics. A theoretical scrutiny of traditional psychometric testing, cognitive processes, their interrelationships, and an empirical application of the theoretical considerations on the level of junior secondary…

  11. Semantic processing of EHR data for clinical research.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Depraetere, Kristof; De Roo, Jos; Mels, Giovanni; De Vloed, Boris; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Colaert, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing need to semantically process and integrate clinical data from different sources for clinical research. This paper presents an approach to integrate EHRs from heterogeneous resources and generate integrated data in different data formats or semantics to support various clinical research applications. The proposed approach builds semantic data virtualization layers on top of data sources, which generate data in the requested semantics or formats on demand. This approach avoids upfront dumping to and synchronizing of the data with various representations. Data from different EHR systems are first mapped to RDF data with source semantics, and then converted to representations with harmonized domain semantics where domain ontologies and terminologies are used to improve reusability. It is also possible to further convert data to application semantics and store the converted results in clinical research databases, e.g. i2b2, OMOP, to support different clinical research settings. Semantic conversions between different representations are explicitly expressed using N3 rules and executed by an N3 Reasoner (EYE), which can also generate proofs of the conversion processes. The solution presented in this paper has been applied to real-world applications that process large scale EHR data.

  12. Surgery and Research: A Practical Approach to Managing the Research Process.

    PubMed

    Swiatek, Peter R; Chung, Kevin C; Mahmoudi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Following a practical project management method is essential in completing a research project on time and within budget. Although this concept is well developed in the business world, it has yet to be explored in academic surgical research. Defining and adhering to a suitable workflow would increase portability, reusability, and therefore efficiency of the research process. In this article, the authors briefly review project management techniques. The authors specifically underline four main steps of project management-definition and organization, planning, execution, and evaluation-using practical examples from their own multidisciplinary plastic surgery research team.

  13. Surgery and Research: A Practical Approach to Managing the Research Process

    PubMed Central

    Swiatek, Peter R.; Chung, Kevin C.; Mahmoudi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Following a practical project management method is essential in completing a research project on time and within budget. Although this concept is well developed in the business world, it has yet to be explored in academic surgical research. Defining and adhering to a suitable workflow would increase portability, reusability, and therefore, efficiency of the research process. In this article, we briefly review project management techniques. We specifically underline four main steps of project management: (1) definition and organization, (2) planning, (3) execution, and (4) evaluation, using practical examples from our own multidisciplinary plastic surgery research team. PMID:26710037

  14. Effect of the type of emulsifying salt on microstructure and rheological properties of "requeijão cremoso" processed cheese spreads.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Clarissa R; Alcântara, Maria Regina; Viotto, Walkiria H

    2012-08-01

    The role of different types of emulsifying salts-sodium citrate (TSC), sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP)-on microstructure and rheology of "requeijão cremoso" processed cheese was determined. The cheeses manufactured with TSC, TSPP, and STPP behaved like concentrated solutions, while the cheese manufactured with SHMP exhibited weak gel behavior and the lowest values for the phase angle (G"/G'). This means that SHMP cheese had the protein network with the largest amount of molecular interactions, which can be explained by its highest degree of fat emulsification. Rotational viscometry indicated that all the spreadable cheeses behaved like pseudoplastic fluids. The cheeses made with SHMP and TSPP presented low values for the flow behavior index, meaning that viscosity was more dependent on shear rate. Regarding the consistency index, TSPP cheese showed the highest value, which could be attributed to the combined effect of its high pH and homogeneous fat particle size distribution.

  15. Research on data capture, processing, and application of ADS40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Miaozhong; Tu, Xinru

    2008-12-01

    ADS40 from Leica Geosystems is new-type airborne digital camera, which has aggregated worldwide focus in application fields of aerial photogrammetry and remote sensing nowadays, with its noticeable superiority in interpreting and mapping the comprehensive conditions of ground surface. At the same time, its special characteristics make the data processing some complicated. Based on the long-team research and the experiment on usage of ADS40, the paper presented the workflow in details including data capture, processing and application of ADS40, described some problem and exercise in practice.

  16. ISS and Shuttle Payload Research Development and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Kyle A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's ISS and Spacecraft Processing Directorate (UB) is charged with the performance of payload development for research originating through NASA, ISS international partners, and the National Laboratory. The Payload Development sector of the Directorate takes biological research approved for on orbit experimentation from its infancy stage and finds a way to integrate and implement that research into a payload on either a Shuttle sortie or Space Station increment. From solicitation and selection, to definition, to verification, to integration and finally to operations and analysis, Payload Development is there every step of the way. My specific work as an intern this summer has consisted of investigating data received by separate flight and ground control Advanced Biological Research Systems (ABRS) units for Advanced Plant Experiments (APEX) and Cambium research. By correlation and analysis of this data and specific logbook information I have been working to explain changes in environmental conditions on both the flight and ground control unit. I have then, compiled all of that information into a form that can be presentable to the Principal Investigator (PI). This compilation allows that PI scientist to support their findings and add merit to their research. It also allows us, as the Payload Developers, to further inspect the ABRS unit and its performance

  17. 77 FR 36983 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...-0021] Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and... approved information collection National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program....

  18. [Strengthening the interdisciplinary process in student's research programs].

    PubMed

    Mazon, L; Trevizan, M A

    2001-07-01

    The modern disciplinary focus is based on specific processes and presents a tendency to reduce knowledge by describing it as a consequence of a highly rational scientific posture that has promoted excessive specialization and fragmentation in detriment of the human being. With the development of societies and the perspective of knowledge interconnection which searches for institutions with global and broad dimensions in the spheres of knowing and doing, disciplinarity will be transcended. In this sense, the purpose of this work is to report the experience of an undergraduate students' research program in the view of interdisciplinarity. Playing the roles of advisor and student from different areas--Nursing and Administration respectively--we are experiencing an interdisciplinary process through the exchange of ideas, actions and the investigation on human resources and their management in the Nursing area. We believe that the dissemination of this experience can contribute to strengthen interdisciplinarity in the context of research in undergraduate programs.

  19. Research of aerohydrodynamic and aeroelastic processes on PNRPU HPC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modorskii, V. Ya.; Shevelev, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    Research of aerohydrodynamic and aeroelastic processes with the High Performance Computing Complex in PNIPU is actively conducted within the university priority development direction "Aviation engine and gas turbine technology". Work is carried out in two areas: development and use of domestic software and use of well-known foreign licensed applied software packets. In addition, the third direction associated with the verification of computational experiments - physical modeling, with unique proprietary experimental installations is being developed.

  20. Coal liquefaction process research quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Bickel, T.C.; Curlee, R.M.; Granoff, B.; Stohl, F.V.; Thomas, M.G.

    1980-03-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the activities of Sandia's continuing program in coal liquefaction process research. The overall objectives are to: (1) provide a fundamental understanding of the chemistry of coal liquefaction; (2) determine the role of catalysts in coal liquefaction; and (3) determine the mechanism(s) of catalyst deactivation. The program is composed of three major projects: short-contact-time coal liquefaction, mineral effects, and catalyst studies. These projects are interdependent and overlap significantly.

  1. Evaluation of climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes in the Salt River Basin, Missouri, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes at the watershed scale is needed by land managers and policy makers to properly assess potential adaptation strategies. While numerous studies have been conducted on hydrologic processes in the Midwest, only a few have analyzed the l...

  2. Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: a call for translational research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lucy J; Nielsen, Darci M; Schoen, Sarah A; Brett-Green, Barbara A

    2009-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE EXPLORES THE CONVERGENCE OF TWO FIELDS, WHICH HAVE SIMILAR THEORETICAL ORIGINS: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is sensory processing disorder (SPD). In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI) refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term MSI in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.

  3. Perspectives on Sensory Processing Disorder: A Call for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lucy J.; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.; Brett-Green, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is sensory processing disorder (SPD). In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI) refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term MSI in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families. PMID:19826493

  4. Separation of CsCl and SrCl2 from a ternary CsCl-SrCl2-LiCl via a zone refining process for waste salt minimization of pyroprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Moonsoo; Choi, Ho Gil; Yi, Kyung Woo; Hwang, Il Soon; Lee, Jong Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    The purification of LiCl salt mixture has traditionally been carried out by a melt crystallization process. To improve the throughput of zone refining, three heaters were installed in the zone refiner. The zone refining method was used to grow pure LiCl salt ingots from LiCl-CsCl-SrCl2 salt mixture. The main investigated parameters were the heater speed and the number of passes. A change in the LiCl crystal grain size was observed according to the horizontal direction. From each zone refined salt ingot, samples were collected horizontally. To analyze the concentrations of Sr and Cs, an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer were used, respectively. The experimental results show that Sr and Cs concentrations at the initial region of the ingot were low and reached their peak at the final freezing region of the salt ingot. Concentration results of zone refined salt were compared with theoretical results yielded by the proposed model to validate its predictions. The keff of Sr and Cs were 0.13 and 0.11, respectively. The decontamination factors of Sr and Cs were 450 and 1650, respectively.

  5. Developing a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Batjargal, Jamayan; Chimedsuren, Ochir; Tsogzolmaa, Bayandorj; Anderson, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The increase in prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension has contributed to an incremental rise in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Mongolia over recent decades, such that they now account for 80% of all deaths in the country. Salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden of NCDs. Methods In 2011, the Ministry of Health (MOH) instigated the development of a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia. As part of a 2-week national consultation and training program on salt reduction, it established an inter-sectoral working party and organized a series of bilateral meetings and visits to factories. Actions arising included a baseline survey of population salt consumption patterns and the implementation of a series of pilot salt reduction initiatives. Results The results of the baseline assessment revealed that average daily intake of salt, based on 24 hour urine samples from a representative national sample (n=1,027), was 11.06±5.99 g in 2011, more than double the World Health Organization (WHO) five grams recommendation. Moreover, while most participants knew that salt was bad for health, few were taking efforts to reduce intake, and many were consuming highly salty meals and tea; salt in tea alone was estimated to contribute 30% of daily salt intake. A pilot Pinch Salt intervention to reduce salt consumption of factory workers was undertaken in Ulaanbaatar (UB) city between 2012 and 2013, and was associated with a reduction of 2.8 g of salt intake. Ongoing food industry initiatives have led to significant reductions in salt levels in bread, and companies producing processed meat have indicated a willingness to reduce salt. Relevant stakeholders have also supported the campaign by participating in annual World Salt Awareness Week events. The activities to date have demonstrated the potential for action and there is now a need scale these up to a national level to ensure that Mongolia is in a strong

  6. Molecular biology of cyanobacterial salt acclimation.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    High and changing salt concentrations represent major abiotic factors limiting the growth of microorganisms. During their long evolution, cyanobacteria have adapted to aquatic habitats with various salt concentrations. High salt concentrations in the medium challenge the cell with reduced water availability and high contents of inorganic ions. The basic mechanism of salt acclimation involves the active extrusion of toxic inorganic ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes, including sucrose, trehalose, glucosylglycerol, and glycine betaine. The kinetics of these physiological processes has been exceptionally well studied in the model Synechocystis 6803, leading to the definition of five subsequent phases in reaching a new salt acclimation steady state. Recent '-omics' technologies using the advanced model Synechocystis 6803 have revealed a comprehensive picture of the dynamic process of salt acclimation involving the differential expression of hundreds of genes. However, the mechanisms involved in sensing specific salt stress signals are not well resolved. In the future, analysis of cyanobacterial salt acclimation will be directed toward defining the functions of the many unknown proteins upregulated in salt-stressed cells, identifying specific salt-sensing mechanisms, using salt-resistant strains of cyanobacteria for the production of bioenergy, and applying cyanobacterial stress genes to improve the salt tolerance of sensitive organisms.

  7. The Iterative Research Cycle: Process-Based Model Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrugt, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The ever increasing pace of computational power, along with continued advances in measurement technologies and improvements in process understanding has stimulated the development of increasingly complex physics based models that simulate a myriad of processes at different spatial and temporal scales. Reconciling these high-order system models with perpetually larger volumes of field data is becoming more and more difficult, particularly because classical likelihood-based fitting methods lack the power to detect and pinpoint deficiencies in the model structure. In this talk I will give an overview of our latest research on process-based model calibration and evaluation. This approach, rooted in Bayesian theory, uses summary metrics of the calibration data rather than the data itself to help detect which component(s) of the model is (are) malfunctioning and in need of improvement. A few case studies involving hydrologic and geophysical models will be used to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

  8. Research on pre-processing of QR Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haixing; Xia, Haojie; Dong, Ning

    2013-10-01

    QR code encodes many kinds of information because of its advantages: large storage capacity, high reliability, full arrange of utter-high-speed reading, small printing size and high-efficient representation of Chinese characters, etc. In order to obtain the clearer binarization image from complex background, and improve the recognition rate of QR code, this paper researches on pre-processing methods of QR code (Quick Response Code), and shows algorithms and results of image pre-processing for QR code recognition. Improve the conventional method by changing the Souvola's adaptive text recognition method. Additionally, introduce the QR code Extraction which adapts to different image size, flexible image correction approach, and improve the efficiency and accuracy of QR code image processing.

  9. EFFECT OF NUTRIENT LOADING ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROCESSES IN A NEW ENGLAND HIGH SALT MARSH, SPARTINA PATNES, (AITON MUHL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal marshes represent an important transitional zone between uplands and estuaries and can assimilate nutrient inputs from uplands. We examined the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization on biogeochemical and microbial processes during the summer growing sea...

  10. Phase equilibria in the system H{sub 2}O-NaCl-KCl-MgCl{sub 2} relevant to salt cake processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnar, R.J.; Vityk, M.O.; Hryn, J.N.; Mavrogenes, J.

    1997-02-01

    One waste product in recycling of Al is salt cake, a mixture of Al, salts, and residue oxides. Several methods have been proposed to recycle salt cake, one involving high-temperature leaching of salts from the salt cake. The salt composition can be approximated as a mixture predominantly of NaCl and KCl salts, with lesser amounts of Mg chloride. In order to better assess the feasibility of recycling salt cake, an experimental study was conducted of phase equilibria in the system H{sub 2}O-NaCl-KCl-MgCl{sub 2} at pressure (P), temperature (T), and composition conditions appropriate for high- temperature salt cake recycling. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of small amounts (2-10 wt%) of MgCl{sub 2} on solubilities of halite (NaCl) and sylvite (KCl) in saturated solutions (30-50 wt% NaCl+KCl; NaCl:KCl = 1:1 and 3:1) at elevated P and T.

  11. Materials processing research opportunities in powder injection molding

    SciTech Connect

    German, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    Materials processing is an active area with many research opportunities for advanced instrumentation, control, and modeling. Among new materials processing routes, powder injection molding (PIM) has rapidly grown from a curiosity to a viable production technique over just a few years. This manufacturing technique is applicable to all materials, and is the preferred fabrication route for many complex-shaped, high-performance components for surgical tools, computer hardware, automotive systems, consumer products, and turbine components. This presentation introduces the use of a computer controlled injection molding machine to shape powders (metal, carbide, composite, and ceramic) in a high productivity setting. After molding the organic is extracted and the powder structure is sintered to full density. Much research is needed in process modeling, control, inspection, and optimization. This presentation summarizes the basic technology and several important factors relevant to manufacturing. An important development is in minimization of molding defects via closed-loop feedback control using pressure, temperature, and optical sensors. Recent progress has occurred using in situ guided waves for ultrasonic inspection of the molded part. Neural networks are being generated to allow assessment of processing changes as required from the integrated robot, visual imaging, pressure, and ultrasonic sensors. Similar, but less refined efforts are occurring in die compaction technology. As another example, computer simulation of heat transfer is needed during sintering to understand sources of component warpage during densification. A furnace equipped with visual imaging and residual gas analysis is being used to assist in verification of such computer simulations. These tools are still in the research stage, so future integration into the manufacturing environment will bring new challenges.

  12. Research as a Recursive Process: Reconsidering "The Composing Processes of Unskilled College Writers" 35 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Sondra Perl's retrospective review of the composing processes of unskilled college writers and whether her assumptions and values in the designing of research projects have changed over her long teaching career. She uses her college dissertation "Five Writers Writing" as the basis to reflect on the authors and…

  13. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  14. Evaluation Criteria for Solid Waste Processing Research and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, J. A.; Alazraki, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary list of criteria is proposed for evaluation of solid waste processing technologies for research and technology development (R&TD) in the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. Completion of the proposed list by current and prospective ALS technology developers, with regard to specific missions of interest, may enable identification of appropriate technologies (or lack thereof) and guide future development efforts for the ALS Program solid waste processing area. An attempt is made to include criteria that capture information about the technology of interest as well as its system-wide impacts. Some of the criteria in the list are mission-independent, while the majority are mission-specific. In order for technology developers to respond to mission-specific criteria, critical information must be available on the quantity, composition and state of the waste stream, the wast processing requirements, as well as top-level mission scenario information (e.g. safety, resource recovery, planetary protection issues, and ESM equivalencies). The technology readiness level (TRL) determines the degree to which a technology developer is able to accurately report on the list of criteria. Thus, a criteria-specific minimum TRL for mandatory reporting has been identified for each criterion in the list. Although this list has been developed to define criteria that are needed to direct funding of solid waste processing technologies, this list processes significant overlap in criteria required for technology selection for inclusion in specific tests or missions. Additionally, this approach to technology evaluation may be adapted to other ALS subsystems.

  15. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  16. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Gadbury, Casey

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  17. A Process Study of the Development of Virtual Research Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, I.; Cooper, K.; McGrath, R.; Griego, G.; Poole, M. S.; Hanisch, R. J.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, cyberinfrastructures have been deployed to create virtual research environments (VREs) - such as the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) - to enhance the quality and speed of scientific research, and to foster global scientific communities. Our study utilizes process methodology to study the evolution of VREs. This approach focuses on a series of events that bring about or lead to some outcome, and attempts to specify the generative mechanism that could produce the event series. This paper briefly outlines our approach and describes initial results of a case study of the VAO, one of the participating VREs. The case study is based on interviews with seven individuals participating in the VAO, and analysis of project documents and online resources. These sources are hand tagged to identify events related to the thematic tracks, to yield a narrative of the project. Results demonstrate the event series of an organization through traditional methods augmented by virtual sources.

  18. Access to Archived Astronaut Data for Human Research Program Researchers: Update on Progress and Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. R.; Montague, K. A.; Charvat, J. M.; Wear, M. L.; Thomas, D. M.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA directive to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for astronaut medical data has increased greatly. LSAH and LSDA personnel are working with Human Research Program on many fronts to improve data access and decrease lead time for release of data. Some examples include the following: Feasibility reviews for NASA Research Announcement (NRA) data mining proposals; Improved communication, support for researchers, and process improvements for retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocols; Supplemental data sharing for flight investigators versus purely retrospective studies; Work with the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) to develop acceptable data sharing and crew consent processes and to organize inter-agency data coordinators to facilitate requests for international crewmember data. Current metrics on data requests crew consenting will be presented, along with limitations on contacting crew to obtain consent. Categories of medical monitoring data available for request will be presented as well as flow diagrams detailing data request processing and approval steps.

  19. Student Inquiry in the Research Process, Part 4: Inquiry Research Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preddy, Leslie B.

    2003-01-01

    Explains a hands-on, classroom teacher/library media specialist collaborative model for implementing the inquiry approach to the research process into the classroom and school library media center. Topics include the investigation phase; source notes; primary sources; interviews; community resources; storyboards; and peer conferences. (LRW)

  20. The research on image processing technology of the star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-ming; Li, Chun-jiang; Zheng, Ran; Li, Xiao; Yang, Jun

    2014-11-01

    As the core of visual sensitivity via imaging, image processing technology, especially for star tracker, is mainly characterized by such items as image exposure, optimal storage, background estimation, feature correction, target extraction, iteration compensation. This paper firstly summarizes the new research on those items at home and abroad, then, according to star tracker's practical engineering, environment in orbit and lifetime information, shows an architecture about rapid fusion between multiple frame images, which can be used to restrain oversaturation of the effective pixels, which means star tracker can be made more precise, more robust and more stable.

  1. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1994-12-31

    The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

  2. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, vitro processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    To determine the potential impacts of the proposed golf course expansion on the south side of the Vitro site, ground water data from the UMTRA Vitro processing site were evaluated in response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office request. Golf in the Round, Inc., has proposed an expansion of the present driving range to include a 9-hole golf course on the UMTRA Vitro processing site, which is owned by the Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF). An expanded golf course would increase irrigation and increase the amount of water that could infiltrate the soil, recharging the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in the shallow ground water could then migrate off the site or discharge to surface water in the area. Dewatering of the unconfined aquifer on CVWRF property could also impact site contaminant migration; a significant amount of ground water extraction at CVWRF could reduce the amount of contaminant migration off the site. Since 1978, data have been collected at the site to determine the distribution of tailings materials (removed from the site from 1985 to 1987) and to characterize the presence and migration of contaminants in sediments, soils, surface water, and ground water at the former Vitro processing site. Available data suggest that irrigating an expanded golf course may cause contamination to spread more rapidly within the unconfined aquifer. The public is not at risk from current Vitro processing site activities, nor is risk expected due to golf course expansion. However, ecological risk could increase with increased surface water contamination and the development of ground water seeps.

  3. Selective Methane Oxidation Catalyzed by Platinum Salts in Oleum at Turnover Frequencies of Large-Scale Industrial Processes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Tobias; Soorholtz, Mario; Bilke, Marius; Schüth, Ferdi

    2016-09-28

    Direct catalytic methane functionalization, a "dream reaction", is typically characterized by relatively low catalyst activities. This also holds for the η(2)-(2,2'-bipyrimidyl)dichloroplatinum(II) [(bpym)PtCl2, 1] catalyst which oxidizes methane to methyl bisulfate in sulfuric acid. Nevertheless, it is arguably still one of the best systems for the partial oxidation of methane reported so far. Detailed studies of the dependence of activity on the SO3 concentration and the interplay with the solubility of different platinum compounds revealed potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K2PtCl4) as an extremely active, selective, and stable catalyst, reaching turnover frequencies (TOFs) of more than 25,000 h(-1) in 20% oleum with selectivities above 98%. The TOFs are more than 3 orders of magnitude higher compared to the original report on (bpym)PtCl2 and easily reach or exceed those realized in commercial industrial processes, such as the Cativa process for the carbonylation of methanol. Also space-time-yields are on the order of large-scale commercialized processes.

  4. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  5. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  6. 2005 Research Briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  7. Process research on non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with he process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-CZ sheet material are investigated. All investigations are being performed using dendritic web silicon, but all processes are directly applicable to other ribbon forms of sheet material. The technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CZ silicon using liquid dopant techniques was determined. Numerous commercially available liquid phosphorus and boron dopant solutions are investigated. Temperature-time profiles to achieve N(+) and P(+) sheet resistivities of 60 + or - 10 and 40 + or - s10 ohms per square centimeter respectively are established. A study of the optimal method of liquid dopant application is performed. The technical feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask was also determined.

  8. Optical information processing at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.; Bualat, Maria G.; Cho, Young C.; Downie, John D.; Gary, Charles K.; Ma, Paul W.; Ozcan, Meric; Pryor, Anna H.; Spirkovska, Lilly

    1993-01-01

    The combination of analog optical processors with digital electronic systems offers the potential of tera-OPS computational performance, while often requiring less power and weight relative to all-digital systems. NASA is working to develop and demonstrate optical processing techniques for on-board, real time science and mission applications. Current research areas and applications under investigation include optical matrix processing for space structure vibration control and the analysis of Space Shuttle Main Engine plume spectra, optical correlation-based autonomous vision for robotic vehicles, analog computation for robotic path planning, free-space optical interconnections for information transfer within digital electronic computers, and multiplexed arrays of fiber optic interferometric sensors for acoustic and vibration measurements.

  9. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non- CZ sheet material were investigated. All work was performed using dendritic web silicon. The following tasks are discussed and associated technical results are given: (1) determining the technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CT silicon using dopant techniques; (2) determining the feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask; (3) determining the feasibility of applying liquid anti-reflective solutions using meniscus coating equipment; (4) studying the production of uniform, high efficiency solar cells using ion implanation junction formation techniques; and (5) quantifying cost improvements associated with process improvements.

  10. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... you cook, replace salt with other seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon are good choices. Avoid packaged spice blends. They often contain salt. Use garlic and onion powder, not garlic and onion salt. ...

  11. Rain or snow: hydrologic processes, observations, prediction, and research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, Adrian A.; Kaplan, Michael L.; Zion Klos, P.; Link, Timothy; McNamara, James P.; Rajagopal, Seshadri; Schumer, Rina; Steele, Caitriana M.

    2017-01-01

    The phase of precipitation when it reaches the ground is a first-order driver of hydrologic processes in a watershed. The presence of snow, rain, or mixed-phase precipitation affects the initial and boundary conditions that drive hydrological models. Despite their foundational importance to terrestrial hydrology, typical phase partitioning methods (PPMs) specify the phase based on near-surface air temperature only. Our review conveys the diversity of tools available for PPMs in hydrological modeling and the advancements needed to improve predictions in complex terrain with large spatiotemporal variations in precipitation phase. Initially, we review the processes and physics that control precipitation phase as relevant to hydrologists, focusing on the importance of processes occurring aloft. There is a wide range of options for field observations of precipitation phase, but there is a lack of a robust observation networks in complex terrain. New remote sensing observations have the potential to increase PPM fidelity, but generally require assumptions typical of other PPMs and field validation before they are operational. We review common PPMs and find that accuracy is generally increased at finer measurement intervals and by including humidity information. One important tool for PPM development is atmospheric modeling, which includes microphysical schemes that have not been effectively linked to hydrological models or validated against near-surface precipitation-phase observations. The review concludes by describing key research gaps and recommendations to improve PPMs, including better incorporation of atmospheric information, improved validation datasets, and regional-scale gridded data products. Two key points emerge from this synthesis for the hydrologic community: (1) current PPMs are too simple to capture important processes and are not well validated for most locations, (2) lack of sophisticated PPMs increases the uncertainty in estimation of hydrological

  12. Research Experiences for Undergraduates in Estuarine and Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, J. Y.

    2009-12-01

    Our program in the School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences at Stony Brook University is unique in emphasizing the interdisciplinary study of coastal ocean and atmospheric processes. We attract a large number of both male and female undergraduate applicants representing diverse ethnic groups from across the country. Many are multi-discipline majors merging geology, biology, chemistry, or physics with engineering, and/or mathematics and welcome the opportunity to combine their academic training to examine environmental problems. Our goal is a program reflective of today’s world and environmental challenges, one that provides a ‘hands-on’ research experience which illustrates the usefulness of scientific research for understanding real-world problems or phenomena, and one in which students are challenged to apply their academic backgrounds to develop intuition about natural systems and processes. Projects this past summer focused on assessing climate change and its effects on coastal environments and processes. Projects addressed the implications of a changing global climate over the next 50 years on hydrologic cycles and coastal environments like barrier islands and beaches, on seasonal weather conditions and extreme events, on aerosols and the Earth’s radiative balance, and on aquatic habitats and biota. Collaborative field and laboratory or computer-based projects involving two or three REU students, graduate students, and several mentors, enable undergraduate students appreciate the importance of teamwork in addressing specific scientific questions or gaining maximum insight into a particular phenomenon or process. We believe that our approach allows students to understand what their role will be as scientists in the next phase of our earth’s evolution.

  13. Workflow for the integration of a realistic 3D geomodel in process simulations using different cell types and advanced scientific visualization: Variations on a synthetic salt diapir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görz, Ines; Herbst, Martin; Börner, Jana H.; Zehner, Björn

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to use one complex geological 3D model for numerical simulations of various physical processes in process-specific simulation software. To do this, the 3D model has to be discretized according to different cell types, depending on the requirements of the simulation method. We used a salt structure with a diapir and its deformed host rock to produce two 3D models describing the boundary surfaces of the structure: one very simplified model consisting of cuboid surfaces and a realistic model consisting of irregular boundary surfaces. We provide a workflow for how to generate hexahedral, tetrahedral and spherical volume representations of these two geometries. We utilized the volume representations to simulate temperature, displacement and transient electromagnetic fields. We can show that the simulation results closely reflect the input geometry and that it is worth the effort to produce geometric models that are as realistic as possible. Additionally, we provide a workflow for simultaneous visualization and analysis of the simulation results. Scientific visualization is an important tool for deriving knowledge from complex investigations.

  14. Simulating calcium salt precipitation in the nephron using chemical speciation.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Allen L; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham; Tiselius, Hans-Göran

    2011-08-01

    Theoretical modeling of urinary crystallization processes affords opportunities to create and investigate scenarios which would be extremely difficult or impossible to achieve in in vivo experiments. Researchers have previously hypothesized that calcium renal stone formation commences in the nephron. In the present study, concentrations of urinary components and pH ranges in different regions of the nephron were estimated from concentrations in blood combined with a knowledge of the renal handling of individual ions. These were used in the chemical speciation program JESS to determine the nature of the solution complexes in the different regions of the nephron and the saturation index (SI) of the stone-forming salts calcium oxalate (CaOx), brushite (Bru), hydroxyapatite (HAP) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP). The effect of independent precipitation of each of the latter on the SI values of other salts was also investigated. HAP was the only salt which was supersaturated throughout the nephron. All of the other salts were supersaturated only in the middle and distal regions of the collecting duct. Supersaturations were pH sensitive. When precipitation of CaOx, Bru and OCP was simulated in the distal part of the collecting duct, little or no effect on the SI values of the other stone forming salts was observed. However, simulation of HAP precipitation caused all other salts to become unsaturated. This suggests that if HAP precipitates, a pure stone comprising this component will ensue while if any of the other salts precipitates, a mixed CaOx/CaP stone will be formed. Application of Ostwald's Rule of Stages predicts that the mixed stone is likely to be CaOx and Bru. Our modelling demonstrates that precipitation of stone-forming salts in the nephron is highly dependent on the delicate nature of the chemical equilibria which prevail and which are themselves highly dependent on pH and component concentrations.

  15. Ground water elevation monitoring at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In February 1994, a ground water level monitoring program was begun at the Vitro processing site. The purpose of the program was to evaluate how irrigating the new golf driving range affected ground water elevations in the unconfined aquifer. The program also evaluated potential impacts of a 9-hole golf course planned as an expansion of the driving range. The planned golf course expansion would increase the area to be irrigated and, thus, the water that could infiltrate the processing site soil to recharge the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in ground water could migrate off the site or could discharge to bodies of surface water in the area. The potential effects of expanding the golf course have been evaluated, and a report is being prepared. Water level data obtained during this monitoring program indicate that minor seasonal mounding may be occurring in response to irrigation of the driving range. However, the effects of irrigation appear small in comparison to the effects of precipitation. There are no monitor wells in the area that irrigation would affect most; that data limitation makes interpretations of water levels and the possibility of ground water mounding uncertain. Limitations of available data are discussed in the conclusion.

  16. External research and energy efficiency in the process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaarsberg, T.M.; Foust, T.D.

    1997-07-01

    The process industries in the US are under enormous pressure. These industries, even more than US industry on average, face skyrocketing environmental costs, a rapidly changing electricity market, potential climate change policies, aging infrastructure and strong international competition. To be profitable they must reduce their costs and environmental impacts while increasing their product quality, turnaround time, productivity and output. Most of these industries have already cut costs and labor as much as possible. Therefore, to survive, these industries must innovate. History shows that industries that are the most innovative are the most successful. These industries are vital to the US economy. For example, the metals, pulp and paper, chemicals and the petroleum refining industries account for more than $800 billion in products shipped and employ more than three million workers. Although the US has shifted dramatically toward services with 77% of workers and 74% of GDP now in the service sector, what many have missed is that the process industries are important customers for many of these new services. ServOnly the last two years of NSF industrial R and D data provide any breakout of non-manufacturing R and D. This paper discusses the past, current and possible future role of eternal research and development (R and D)--much of which is now in the service sector--in fostering innovation and thus energy efficiency in these industries. The authors suggest that these industries are more innovative than previously thought because of external research.

  17. 75 FR 6131 - Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... promotion, research, and information program for processed raspberries. The proposed program, Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Proposed Order), was submitted to the Department...

  18. Translational Research in Pediatrics IV: Solid Tissue Collection and Processing.

    PubMed

    Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Zielke, H Ronald; Fraser, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    Solid tissues are critical for child-health research. Specimens are commonly obtained at the time of biopsy/surgery or postmortem. Research tissues can also be obtained at the time of organ retrieval for donation or from tissue that would otherwise have been discarded. Navigating the ethics of solid tissue collection from children is challenging, and optimal handling practices are imperative to maximize tissue quality. Fresh biopsy/surgical specimens can be affected by a variety of factors, including age, gender, BMI, relative humidity, freeze/thaw steps, and tissue fixation solutions. Postmortem tissues are also vulnerable to agonal factors, body storage temperature, and postmortem intervals. Nonoptimal tissue handling practices result in nucleotide degradation, decreased protein stability, artificial posttranslational protein modifications, and altered lipid concentrations. Tissue pH and tryptophan levels are 2 methods to judge the quality of solid tissue collected for research purposes; however, the RNA integrity number, together with analyses of housekeeping genes, is the new standard. A comprehensive clinical data set accompanying all tissue samples is imperative. In this review, we examined: the ethical standards relating to solid tissue procurement from children; potential sources of solid tissues; optimal practices for solid tissue processing, handling, and storage; and reliable markers of solid tissue quality.

  19. Operating The Central Process Systems At Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, Carly P.

    2004-01-01

    As a research facility, the Glenn Research Center (GRC) trusts and expects all the systems, controlling their facilities to run properly and efficiently in order for their research and operations to occur proficiently and on time. While there are many systems necessary for the operations at GRC, one of those most vital systems is the Central Process Systems (CPS). The CPS controls operations used by GRC's wind tunnels, propulsion systems lab, engine components research lab, and compressor, turbine and combustor test cells. Used widely throughout the lab, it operates equipment such as exhausters, chillers, cooling towers, compressors, dehydrators, and other such equipment. Through parameters such as pressure, temperature, speed, flow, etc., it performs its primary operations on the major systems of Electrical Dispatch (ED), Central Air Dispatch (CAD), Central Air Equipment Building (CAEB), and Engine Research Building (ERB). In order for the CPS to continue its operations at Glenn, a new contract must be awarded. Consequently, one of my primary responsibilities was assisting the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) with the process of awarding the recertification contract of the CPS. The job of the SEB was to evaluate the proposals of the contract bidders and then to present their findings to the Source Selecting Official (SSO). Before the evaluations began, the Center Director established the level of the competition. For this contract, the competition was limited to those companies classified as a small, disadvantaged business. After an industry briefing that explained to qualified companies the CPS and type of work required, each of the interested companies then submitted proposals addressing three components: Mission Suitability, Cost, and Past Performance. These proposals were based off the Statement of Work (SOW) written by the SEB. After companies submitted their proposals, the SEB reviewed all three components and then presented their results to the SSO. While the

  20. Improving the informed consent process in international collaborative rare disease research: effective consent for effective research

    PubMed Central

    Gainotti, Sabina; Turner, Cathy; Woods, Simon; Kole, Anna; McCormack, Pauline; Lochmüller, Hanns; Riess, Olaf; Straub, Volker; Posada, Manuel; Taruscio, Domenica; Mascalzoni, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The increased international sharing of data in research consortia and the introduction of new technologies for sequencing challenge the informed consent (IC) process, adding complexities that require coordination between research centres worldwide. Rare disease consortia present special challenges since available data and samples may be very limited. Thus, it is especially relevant to ensure the best use of available resources but at the same time protect patients' right to integrity. To achieve this aim, there is an ethical duty to plan in advance the best possible consent procedure in order to address possible ethical and legal hurdles that could hamper research in the future. Therefore, it is especially important to identify key core elements (CEs) to be addressed in the IC documents for international collaborative research in two different situations: (1) new research collections (biobanks and registries) for which information documents can be created according to current guidelines and (2) established collections obtained without IC or with a previous consent that does not cover all CEs. We propose here a strategy to deal with consent in these situations. The principles have been applied and are in current practice within the RD-Connect consortia – a global research infrastructure funded by the European Commission Seventh Framework program but forward looking in terms of issues addressed. However, the principles established, the lessons learned and the implications for future research are of direct relevance to all internationally collaborative rare-disease projects. PMID:26860059

  1. Surface and subsurface flows and fluxes in a Florida salt marsh: Measurements, mass balances and process modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meile, C. D.; Esch, M.; Gray, E. R.; Cable, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal wetlands play an important role in the exchange of carbon and nutrients between terrestrial and marine environments, with estimates exceeding 10% of the global ocean C inputs being attributed to wetlands. Constraining such contributions is challenging, as fluxes are bound to vary substantially over a range of timescales, including tidal inundation and seasons. An important factor determining export fluxes are subsurface processes, because fluid passing through the marsh subsurface becomes enriched in inorganic and organic carbon as well as nutrients released during decomposition of organic matter. Thus, even a modest flux of pore water to tidal creeks can lead to a significant loading of carbon and nutrients to the coastal ocean. Here, we present our efforts to quantify the role of groundwater in a microtidal saltmarsh located in the Big Bend region of the Florida Gulf Coast. We established a regional water balance, and from a survey of flow and dissolved organic carbon in tidal creeks between Econfina and Aucilla Rivers provide an estimate of DOC export, indicating that DOC significantly contributes to marsh carbon export. To constrain the role of subsurface processes, we also quantify seepage fluxes of pore water from tidal creek banks, using a combination of field experiments and modeling. Field work involved deploying devices designed to capture pore water seeping from creek banks at multiple heights of the bank. Results show that seepage varies dynamically with the tide, and indicate substantial spatial variability. Additionally, numerical flow modeling was used to assess the experimental design and the impact of the positioning of the seepage collector at the creek bank. Simulation results show significant variation in seepage with vertical position in the creek bank. This information on flow magnitude and dynamics was then combined with concentration measurements in creek and pore waters to scale up from individual observations to provide estimates

  2. Improving crop salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Flowers, T J

    2004-02-01

    tolerance, where properly established, is due to the chance alteration of a factor that is limiting in a complex chain or an effect on signalling remains to be elucidated. After ten years of research using transgenic plants to alter salt tolerance, the value of this approach has yet to be established in the field.

  3. Quantitative research on the primary process: method and findings.

    PubMed

    Holt, Robert R

    2002-01-01

    Freud always defined the primary process metapsychologically, but he described the ways it shows up in dreams, parapraxes, jokes, and symptoms with enough observational detail to make it possible to create an objective, reliable scoring system to measure its manifestations in Rorschach responses, dreams, TAT stories, free associations, and other verbal texts. That system can identify signs of the thinker's efforts, adaptive or maladaptive, to control or defend against the emergence of primary process. A prerequisite and a consequence of the research that used this system was clarification and elaboration of the psychoanalytic theory of thinking. Results of empirical tests of several propositions derived from psychoanalytic theory are summarized. Predictions concerning the method's most useful index, of adaptive vs. maladaptive regression, have been repeatedly verified: People who score high on this index (who are able to produce well-controlled "primary products" in their Rorschach responses), as compared to those who score at the maladaptive pole (producing primary-process-filled responses with poor reality testing, anxiety, and pathological defensive efforts), are better able to tolerate sensory deprivation, are more able to enter special states of consciousness comfortably (drug-induced, hypnotic, etc.), and have higher achievements in artistic creativity, while schizophrenics tend to score at the extreme of maladaptive regression. Capacity for adaptive regression also predicts success in psychotherapy, and rises with the degree of improvement after both psychotherapy and drug treatment. Some predictive failures have been theoretically interesting: Kris's hypothesis about creativity and the controlled use of primary process holds for males but usually not for females. This body of work is presented as a refutation of charges, brought by such critics as Crews, that psychoanalysis cannot become a science.

  4. Particle formation above natural and simulated salt lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamilli, Katharina; Ofner, Johannes; Sattler, Tobias; Krause, Torsten; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Held, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    formation above Australian salt lakes. This work was funded by German Research Foundation (DFG) under grants HE 5214/5-1 and ZE792/5-2. References: Buxmann, J., Balzer, N., Bleicher, S., Platt, U., and Zetzsch, C.: Observations of bromine explosions in smog chamber experiments above a model salt pan, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 44, 312-326, 2012. Junkermann, W., Hacker, J., Lyons, T., and Nair, U.: Land use change suppresses precipitation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6531-6539, 2009. Ofner, J., Balzer, N., Buxmann, J., Grothe, H., Schmitt-Kopplin, Ph., Platt, U., and Zetzsch, C.: Halogenation processes of secondary organic aerosol and implications on halogen release mechanisms, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5787-5806, 2012.

  5. EUPHORE: Research facility to study tropospheric transformation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, K.

    2003-04-01

    The EUPHORE simulation chamber consists of two half-spherical Teflon bags, each with a volume of 200 m^3 and a base diameter of 9.2 m. The FEP Teflon has a transmission of about 75% at 280 nm and of more than 80% above 300 nm. Purified and dried ambient air is used to fill the chamber and flush it between experiments. The humidity in the chamber is measured by a dew point hygrometer, and the temperature is monitored by several thermocouples located at different positions inside the chamber. The solar flux is monitored with spectral resolution in the photochemically active spectral region. The simulation chamber is equipped with a number of analytical instruments for the measurement of single VOC components, NO, NO_2, O_3 and other species. In-situ measurements in the ppb range are performed using long-path absorption spectroscopy, in the UV/VIS by DOAS and in the IR by FT-IR. A GC-MS system is used for the sensitive analysis of a variety of reaction products. A newly installed LIF technique allows the in situ measurement of OH and HO_2 radicals during the reaction processes. The technological concept and the organisation structure of the EUPHORE facility will be presented. The integration of quality control measures is an obvious and necessary second step for the successful exploitation of the technically advanced outdoor smog chamber EUPHORE as a research tool. This will underline the leadership of the European scientific community in the important research areas of investigating transformation processes in the troposphere and tracking the influence of human activities on photooxidant formation and its interaction with processes related to global change. In the coming years the main scientific focus will be on testing chemical mechanisms in order to improve the models which describe the atmospheric processes of complex chemical systems. The collaborative work at the EUPHORE outdoor simulation chamber will provide all the users of the installation with a basic

  6. Precipitation of jarosite-type double salts from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, G.

    1990-09-21

    The precipitation of jarosite compounds to remove Na, K, Fe, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} impurities from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process was studied. Simple heating of model solutions containing Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} caused jarosite (KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}). Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the Fe, and about 30% of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} could be precipitated from those solutions at 95{degree}C, while little or no Na was removed. However, simple heating of model solutions containing only Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} up to 95{degree}C for {le}12 hours produced low yields of jarosite compounds, and the Fe concentration in the solution had to be increased to avoid the formation of undesirable Fe compounds. Precipitate yields could be increased dramatically in model solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} containing excess Fe by using either CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, or ZnO to neutralize H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} released during hydrolysis of the Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and during the precipitation reactions. Results obtained from the studies with model solutions were applied to spent acids produced during laboratory countercurrent washing of coal which had been leached with a molten NaOH/KOH mixture. Results indicated that jarosite compounds can be precipitated effectively from spent acid solutions by heating for 6 hours at 80{degree}C while maintaining a pH of about 1.5 using CaCO{sub 3}.

  7. Screening and optimization of some inorganic salts for the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium species using surface culture fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Memuna Ghafoor; Nadeem, Muhammad; Baig, Shahjehan; Cheema, Tanzeem Akbar; Atta, Saira; Ghafoor, Gul Zareen

    2016-03-01

    The present study deals with the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum, using surface culture fermentation process. Impact of various inorganic salts was tested on the production of ergot alkaloids during the optimization studies of fermentation medium such as impact of various concentration levels of succinic acid, ammonium chloride, MgSO4, FeSO4, ZnSO4, pH and the effect of various incubation time periods was also determined on the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum. Highest yield of ergot alkaloids was obtained when Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum that were grown on optimum levels of ingredients such as 2 g succinic acid, 1.5 and 2 g NH4Cl, 1.5 g MgSO4, 1 g FeSO4, 1 and 1.5 g ZnSO4 after 21 days of incubation time period using pH 5 at 25(°)C incubation temperature in the fermentation medium. Ergot alkaloids were determined using Spectrophotometry and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) techniques.

  8. Structure and Properties of a Non-processive, Salt-requiring, and Acidophilic Pectin Methylesterase from Aspergillus niger Provide Insights into the Key Determinants of Processivity Control*

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Lisa M.; Loo, Trevor S.; Melton, Laurence D.; Mercadante, Davide; Williams, Martin A. K.; Jameson, Geoffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Many pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are expressed in plants to modify plant cell-wall pectins for various physiological roles. These pectins are also attacked by PMEs from phytopathogens and phytophagous insects. The de-methylesterification by PMEs of the O6-methyl ester groups of the homogalacturonan component of pectin, exposing galacturonic acids, can occur processively or non-processively, respectively, describing sequential versus single de-methylesterification events occurring before enzyme-substrate dissociation. The high resolution x-ray structures of a PME from Aspergillus niger in deglycosylated and Asn-linked N-acetylglucosamine-stub forms reveal a 10⅔-turn parallel β-helix (similar to but with less extensive loops than bacterial, plant, and insect PMEs). Capillary electrophoresis shows that this PME is non-processive, halophilic, and acidophilic. Molecular dynamics simulations and electrostatic potential calculations reveal very different behavior and properties compared with processive PMEs. Specifically, uncorrelated rotations are observed about the glycosidic bonds of a partially de-methyl-esterified decasaccharide model substrate, in sharp contrast to the correlated rotations of processive PMEs, and the substrate-binding groove is negatively not positively charged. PMID:26567911

  9. Probabilistic structural mechanics research for parallel processing computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sues, Robert H.; Chen, Heh-Chyun; Twisdale, Lawrence A.; Martin, William R.

    1991-01-01

    Aerospace structures and spacecraft are a complex assemblage of structural components that are subjected to a variety of complex, cyclic, and transient loading conditions. Significant modeling uncertainties are present in these structures, in addition to the inherent randomness of material properties and loads. To properly account for these uncertainties in evaluating and assessing the reliability of these components and structures, probabilistic structural mechanics (PSM) procedures must be used. Much research has focused on basic theory development and the development of approximate analytic solution methods in random vibrations and structural reliability. Practical application of PSM methods was hampered by their computationally intense nature. Solution of PSM problems requires repeated analyses of structures that are often large, and exhibit nonlinear and/or dynamic response behavior. These methods are all inherently parallel and ideally suited to implementation on parallel processing computers. New hardware architectures and innovative control software and solution methodologies are needed to make solution of large scale PSM problems practical.

  10. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  11. SEPARATION OF INORGANIC SALTS FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Katzin, L.I.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1958-06-24

    A process is described for recovering the nitrates of uranium and plutonium from solution in oxygen-containing organic solvents such as ketones or ethers. The solution of such salts dissolved in an oxygen-containing organic compound is contacted with an ion exchange resin whereby sorption of the entire salt on the resin takes place and then the salt-depleted liquid and the resin are separated from each other. The reaction seems to be based on an anion formation of the entire salt by complexing with the anion of the resin. Strong base or quaternary ammonium type resins can be used successfully in this process.

  12. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  13. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  14. Research progress in tofu processing: From raw materials to processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Wang, Chenzhi; Li, Bokang; Li, Lin; Lin, Derong; Chen, Hong; Liu, Yaowen; Li, Suqing; Qin, Wen; Liu, Jiang; Liu, Weiguo; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-12-15

    As a traditional soybean product with good quality and a healthy food with many functional components, tofu is increasingly consumed in people's daily life. Traditional tofu processing consists of numerous steps, including the soaking and grinding of soybean seeds, heating of the soybean slurry, filtering, and addition of coagulants, and others. The properties of soybean seeds, processing scale, soaking and heating conditions, type and concentration of coagulant and other factors collectively impact the processing steps and the final tofu quality. The generation of whole soybean tofu with more nutritive value comparing with traditional tofu has been successfully reported by several studies. As one of the most important functional component, isoflavones and their presence in tofu are also influenced by the above-mentioned factors, which influence the nutritive value of tofu. Research investigating the influence of tofu processing conditions on the quality and isoflavone profiles of tofu are the subject of this review. Issues that should be further studied to investigate the influence of processing conditions on the quality and nutritive value of tofu are also introduced.

  15. Community solar salt production in Goa, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa’s riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans. Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1–2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested. Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced. The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa’s history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the

  16. Community solar salt production in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Mani, Kabilan; Salgaonkar, Bhakti B; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith M

    2012-12-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa's riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans.Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1-2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested.Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced.The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa's history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the biota

  17. Heat Transfer Salts for Nuclear Reactor Systems - Chemistry Control, Corrosion Mitigation, and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane; Peterson, Per; Calderoni, Pattrick; Scheele, Randall; Casekka, Andrew; McNamara, Bruce

    2015-01-22

    The concept of a molten salt reactor has existed for nearly sixty years. Previously all work was done during a large collaborative effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, culminating in a research reactor which operated for 15,000 hours without major error. This technical success has garnished interest in modern, high temperature, reactor schemes. Research using molten fluoride salts for nuclear applications requires a steady supply of high grade molten salts. There is no bulk supplier of research grade fluoride salts in the world, so a facility which could provide all the salt needed for testing at the University of Wisconsin had to be produced. Two salt purification devices were made for this purpose, a large scale purifier, and a small scale purifier, each designed to clean the salts from impurities and reduce their corrosion potential. As of now, the small scale has performed with flibe salt, hydrogen, and hydrogen fluoride, yielding clean salt. This salt is currently being used in corrosion testing facilities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin. Working with the beryllium based salts requires extensive safety measures and health monitoring to prevent the development of acute or chronic beryllium disease, two pulmonary diseases created by an allergic reaction to beryllium in the lungs. Extensive health monitoring, engineering controls, and environment monitoring had to be set up with the University of Wisconsin department of Environment, Health and Safety. The hydrogen fluoride required for purification was also an extreme health hazard requiring thoughtful planning and execution. These dangers have made research a slow and tedious process. Simple processes, such as chemical handling and clean-up, can take large amounts of ingenuity and time. Other work has complemented the experimental research at Wisconsin to advance high temperature reactor goals. Modeling work has been performed in house to re

  18. NASA/MSFC FY-80 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Three general areas of research were discussed: Global Weather, Upper Atmosphere, and Severe Storms and Local Weather. Research project summaries, in narrative outline form, stating objectives, significant accomplishments, and recommendations for future research are presented.

  19. Fewer adults add salt at the table after initiation of a national salt campaign in the UK: a repeated cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Jennifer; Edwards, Phil; Shankar, Bhavani; Dangour, Alan D

    2013-08-28

    In 2003, the UK Food Standards Agency and the Department of Health began attempts to reduce national salt intakes via reformulation of processed foods and a consumer awareness campaign on the negative impacts of salt on health. The present study uses large nationally representative samples of households in England to assess whether discretionary salt use was affected by the national salt reduction campaign. Large cross-sectional datasets from the Health Survey for England were used to analyse trends in adults adding salt at the table between 1997 and 2007. Since 1997, there has been a steady decline in salt use at the table. Ordinal logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, total household income, region, ethnicity and background trends revealed that the reduction in salt use was significantly greater after the campaign (OR 0·58; 95% CI 0·54, 0·63). Women (OR 0·71; 95% CI 0·68, 0·74), non-white ethnic groups (OR 0·69; 95% CI 0·62, 0·77), high-income households (OR 0·75; 95% CI 0·69, 0·82), middle-income households (OR 0·79; 95% CI 0·75, 0·84) and households in central (OR 0·90; 95% CI 0·84, 0·98) or the south of England (OR 0·82; 95% CI 0·77, 0·88) were less likely to add salt at the table. The results extend previous evidence of a beneficial response to the salt campaign by demonstrating the effect on salt use at the table. Future programmatic and research efforts may benefit from targeting specific population groups and improving the evidence base for evaluating the impact of the campaign.

  20. Salt Complexation in Block Copolymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim,S.; Misner, M.; Yang, L.; Gang, O.; Ocko, B.; Russell, T.

    2006-01-01

    Ion complexation within cylinder-forming block copolymer thin films was found to affect the ordering process of the copolymer films during solvent annealing, significantly enhancing the long-range positional order. Small amounts of alkali halide or metal salts were added to PS-b-PEO, on the order of a few ions per chain, where the salt complexed with the PEO block. The orientation of the cylindrical microdomains strongly depended on the salt concentration and the ability of the ions to complex with PEO. The process shows large flexibility in the choice of salt used, including gold or cobalt salts, whereby well-organized patterns of nanoparticles can be generated inside the copolymer microdomains. By further increasing the amount of added salts, the copolymer remained highly ordered at large degrees of swelling and demonstrated long-range positional correlations of the microdomains in the swollen state, which holds promise as a route to addressable media.

  1. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center. Report for FY 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The work described, while involving research in the broad field of materials processing, has two common features: the problems are closed related to space precessing of materials and have both practical and fundamental significance. An interesting and important feature of many of the projects is that the interdisciplinary nature of the problem mandates complementary analytical modeling/experimental approaches. An other important aspect of many of the projects is the increasing use of mathematical modeling techniques as one of the research tools. The predictive capability of these models, when tested against measurements, plays a very important role in both the planning of experimental programs and in the rational interpretation of the results. Many of the projects described have a space experiment as their ultimate objective. Mathematical models are proving to be extremely valuable in projecting the findings of ground - based experiments to microgravity conditions.

  2. Field-scale Thermal Testing in a Generic Salt Disposal Environment Underground Research Laboratory (URL): Delineation of Principal Purpose Objectives and Hypotheses

    SciTech Connect

    Sassani, David C.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L; MacKinnon, Robert J.

    2015-02-01

    The amount of brine present in domal salt formation is far less than in bedded salts (e.g., 0.01 to 0.1% compared with 1 to 3%). In salt domes, shear deformation associated with diapirism has caused existing brine to coalesce, leading to flow and expulsion. Brine migration behavior was investigated in bedded salt at WIPP (Nowak and McTigue 1987, SAND87-0880), and in domal salt at Asse (Coyle et al. 1987, BMI/ONWI-624). Test methods were not standardized, and the tests involved large diameter boreholes (17 to 36 in. diameter) and large apparatus. The tested intervals were proximal to mined openings (within approximately 1 diameter) where in situ stresses are redistributed due to excavation. The tests showed that (1) brine inflow rates can range over at least 2 orders of magnitude for domal vs. bedded salt, (2) that brine inflow is strongly associated with clay and interbedded permeable layers in bedded salt, and (3) that measurement systems can readily collect very small quantities of moisture over time frames of 2 years or longer. Brine inflow rates declined slightly with time in both test series, but neither series approached a state of apparent depletion. This range of flow magnitude could be significant to repository design and performance assessment, especially if inflow rates can be predicted using stratigraphic and geomechanical inputs, and can be shown to approach zero in a predictable manner.

  3. Best Practices and Processes for Choosing Research Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Individuals, teams, departments, organizations, funding agencies, committees, and others all need to select desirable research priorities from many possible alternatives. One cannot do everything, one cannot afford everything, so what to select? Essays and reports since Weinberg (1963) have suggested criteria for choosing science topics. Popper et al (2000) reviewed and summarized all that had gone before in the subject of setting priorities; their main conclusions were that the underlying principles were the promotion of excellence and relevance. Sea Change (2015) from the NRC/OSB focused on four criteria. From most important to least important, they were transformative science, societal impacts, readiness, and partnership potential; these four criteria embodied the essence of the suggestions from Weinberg on, framed with the pragmatism of ORPISS (2007). Getting to the final set of priorities from many candidates involves a sequence of formal or informal processes, only the last of which is the application of the selected, weighted criteria. As developed by professional prioritization experts, the best-practice steps and processes are: Collection of input candidates from the community. Clustering and parsing/rephrasing of the input to eliminate redundancy and repetition and develop statements at a useful level of specificity. (NOTE:there is no counting of input to see how many times a particular topic was mentioned. The goal is diversity in the input, not a popularity contest.) Development of the selection criteria, and weighting the chosen criteria. Application of the selection criteria to the clustered/adjusted candidates. Finally, two more best practices: Do continuing sanity checks, to avoid losing sight of the goals of the effort. Resist the temptation to just sit around a table and talk about it to arrive at the priorities, which depends too much on who the specific members of the prioritization team are, and provides no transparency or explanation of why

  4. Helping crops stand up to salt

    SciTech Connect

    Raeburn, P.

    1985-05-01

    A new approach to the problem of increasing soil salinity is to raise salt-tolerant plants. The search for such plants involves finding new applications for naturally occurring salt-resistant plants (halophytes), using conventional breeding techniques to identify and strengthen crop varieties known to have better-than-average salt tolerance, and applying recombinant DNA methods to introduce salt resistance into existing plants. One promising plant is salicornia, which produces oil high in polyunsaturates at a greater yield than soybeans. Two varieties of atriplex yield as much animal feed as alfalfa and can be harvested several times a year. Seed companies are supporting the research.

  5. Investigation of salt loss from the Bonneville Salt Flats, northwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, James L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    The Bonneville Salt Flats study area is located in the western part of the Great Salt Lake Desert in northwestern Utah, about 110 miles west of Salt Lake City. The salt crust covers about 50 square miles, but the extent varies yearly as a result of salt being dissolved by the formation and movement of surface ponds during the winter and redeposited with the evaporation of these ponds during the summer.A decrease in thickness and extent of the salt crust on the Bonneville Salt Flats has been documented during 1960-88 (S. Brooks, Bureau of Land Management, written commun., 1989). Maximum salt-crust thickness was 7 feet in 1960 and 5.5 feet in 1988. No definitive data are available to identify and quantify the processes that cause salt loss. More than 55 million tons of salt are estimated to have been lost from the salt crust during the 28-year period. The Bureau of Land Management needs to know the causes of salt loss to make appropriate management decisions.

  6. Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass, Bioenergy Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-01-01

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique facility dedicated to researching thermochemical processes to produce fuels from biomass.

  7. Rheological contrasts in salt and their effects on flow in salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2014-05-01

    The majority of numerical and analogue models of salt tectonics assume homogeneous rheological models, and consequently produce simple internal structures. This is in contrast to observations in salt mines and 3D seismic, showing complex folding at a wide range of scales, in combination with boudinage and fracturing, which point to large rheological contrasts in salt bodies. The rheology of rock salt during slow deformation can be both Newtonian and Power law. Dislocation creep and dissolution-precipitation processes, such as solution-precipitation creep and dynamic recrystallisation, both play a significant role and grain boundary healing in deforming salt may result in cyclic softening and hardening behaviour. The switch between these processes can cause major changes in rock salt rheology, at time scales both relevant to geologic evolution and subsurface operations. In the dislocation creep field, a compilation of laboratory data show that different rock salts can creep at four orders of magnitude different strain rates under otherwise the same conditions. Potassium - Magnesium salts are in turn much weaker, and Anhydrite much stronger than rock salt. Anhydrite - carbonate inclusions embedded in deforming salt bodies respond to the movements of the salt in a variety of ways including boudinage and folding. New methods of microstructure analysis integrated with paleorheology indicators observed in natural laboratories allows an integration of these data and the development of a unified model for salt creep for both underground cavities and natural deformation, including the effect of high fluid pressures in salt which lead to a dramatic increases in permeability. For example, modeling of anhydrite stringer sinking is an important way to obtain the long term rheology of the halite, indicating that the rheology of Zechstein salt during the Tertiary was dominated by dislocation creep. These form the basis of a new generation of mechanical models to predict the

  8. Salt reduction in vegetable fermentation: reality or desire?

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Rantsiou, K; Garrido-Fernández, A; Cocolin, L; Arroyo-López, F N

    2013-08-01

    NaCl is a widely used chemical in food processing which affects sensory characteristics and safety; in fact, its presence is frequently essential for the proper preservation of the products. Because the intake of high contents of sodium is linked to adverse effects on human health, consumers demand foods with low-sodium content. A 1st step to reduce the use of salt would imply the proper application of this compound, reducing its levels to those technologically necessary. In addition, different chloride salts have been evaluated as replacers for NaCl, but KCl, CaCl2 , and ZnCl2 show the most promising perspectives of use. However, prior to any food reformulation, there is a need for exhaustive research before its application at industrial level. Salt reduction may lead to an increased risk in the survival/ growth of pathogens and may also alter food flavor and cause economic losses. This review deals with the technological, microbiological, sensorial, and health aspects of the potential low-salt and salt-substituted vegetable products and how this important segment of the food industry is responding to consumer demand.

  9. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  10. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  11. Natural Language Processing Technologies in Radiology Research and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively "mine" these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. "Intelligent" search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications.

  12. Natural Language Processing Technologies in Radiology Research and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; Rybicki, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively “mine” these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. “Intelligent” search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications. ©RSNA, 2016 PMID:26761536

  13. 75 FR 13238 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Delay of Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Delay of Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... importers of processed raspberries approve the issuance of the proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion..., Research and Promotion Branch, By, AMS, USDA, Stop 0244, Room 0634-S, 1400 Independence Avenue,...

  14. Human research ethics in practice: deliberative strategies, processes and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Lynn; Guillemin, Marilys; Bolitho, Annie; Rosenthal, Doreen

    2009-03-01

    In theory, HREC members should use the ethical guidelines in the National Statement on the Ethical Conduct of Research Involving Humans as the basis for their decisions, and researchers should design their research in accordance with these guidelines. However, very little is known about what researchers and HREC members actually do in practice. In this paper, we report some of the key findings of the study "Human Research Ethics in Practice", a qualitative interview-based study of health researchers and HREC members in Victoria. The findings shed light on how researchers and HREC members conceptualise ethics, how they use the National Statement, and what deliberative strategies they employ to assess the ethical appropriateness of research studies. The findings also reveal differences and similarities between health researchers' and HREC members' perceptions of the roles of HRECs, and point to some sources of misunderstanding and tension. We examine the implications of some of these findings for the ways in which HRECs carry out their task, and research institutions support and promote ethical conduct in research amongst their staff and students. The focus of this study is on health research, but we suggest that the findings are highly relevant to all other research areas where human participants are involved.

  15. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  16. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  17. Research into Practice: The Consumer-Validation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaker, Robert; Huffman, James

    1982-01-01

    The Consumer-Validation approach to applying educational research in classroom settings is described. The model, developed in Murfreesboro (Tennessee), provides a way to disseminate research findings as well as to allow teachers to test the validity of findings drawn from classroom research. (CJ)

  18. Conjecture Mapping to Optimize the Educational Design Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Helen

    2015-01-01

    While educational design research promotes closer links between practice and theory, reporting its outcomes from iterations across multiple contexts is often constrained by the volumes of data generated, and the context bound nature of the research outcomes. Reports tend to focus on a single iteration of implementation without further research to…

  19. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Amy B.; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Stauffer, Philip H.

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  20. Impact of Salt Intake on the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rust, Petra; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2016-10-19

    Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown. Various mechanisms for salt-dependent hypertension have been put forward including volume expansion, modified renal functions and disorders in sodium balance, impaired reaction of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system and the associated receptors, central stimulation of the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, and possibly also inflammatory processes.Not every person reacts to changes in dietary salt intake with alterations in blood pressure, dividing people in salt sensitive and insensitive groups. It is estimated that about 50-60 % of hypertensives are salt sensitive. In addition to genetic polymorphisms, salt sensitivity is increased in aging, in black people, and in persons with metabolic syndrome or obesity. However, although mechanisms of salt-dependent hypertensive effects are increasingly known, more research on measurement, storage and kinetics of sodium, on physiological properties, and genetic determinants of salt sensitivity are necessary to harden the basis for salt reduction recommendations.Currently estimated dietary intake of salt is about 9-12 g per day in most countries of the world. These amounts are significantly above the WHO recommended level of less than 5 g salt per day. According to recent research results a moderate reduction of daily salt intake from current intakes to 5-6 g can reduce

  1. 76 FR 25618 - Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1208 RIN 0581-AC79 Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research... establishment of an industry-funded promotion, research, and information program for processed raspberries. The proposed program, Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Proposed Order),...

  2. Using Constructivist Case Study Methodology to Understand Community Development Processes: Proposed Methodological Questions to Guide the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauckner, Heidi; Paterson, Margo; Krupa, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Often, research projects are presented as final products with the methodologies cleanly outlined and little attention paid to the decision-making processes that led to the chosen approach. Limited attention paid to these decision-making processes perpetuates a sense of mystery about qualitative approaches, particularly for new researchers who will…

  3. Effects of non-equilibrium association-dissociation processes in the dynamic electrophoretic mobility and dielectric response of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions.

    PubMed

    Carrique, Félix; Ruiz-Reina, Emilio; Lechuga, Luis; Arroyo, Francisco J; Delgado, Ángel V

    2013-12-01

    Electrokinetic investigations in nanoparticle suspensions in aqueous media are most often performed assuming that the liquid medium is a strong electrolyte solution with specified concentration. The role of the ions produced by the process of charging the surfaces of the particles is often neglected or, at most, the concentrations of such ions are estimated in some way and added to the concentrations of the ions in the externally prepared solution. The situation here considered is quite different: no electrolyte is dissolved in the medium, and ideally only the counterions stemming from the particle charging are assumed to be in solution. This is the case of so-called salt-free systems. With the aim of making a model for such kind of dispersions as close to real situations as possible, it was previously found to consider the unavoidable presence of H(+) and OH(-) coming from water dissociation, as well as the (almost unavoidable) ions stemming from the dissolution of atmospheric CO2. In this work, we extend such approach by considering that the chemical reactions involved in dissociation and recombination of the (weak) electrolytes in solution must not necessarily be in equilibrium conditions (equal rates of forward and backward reactions). To that aim, we calculate the frequency spectra of the electric permittivity and dynamic electrophoretic mobility of salt-free suspensions considering realistic non-equilibrium conditions, using literature values for the rate constants of the reactions. Four species are linked by such reactions, namely H(+) (from water, from the--assumed acidic--groups on the particle surfaces, and from CO2 dissolution), OH(-) (from water), HCO3(-) and H2CO3 (again from CO2). A cell model is used for the calculations, which are extended to arbitrary values of the surface charge, the particle size, and particle volume fraction, in a wide range of the field frequency ω. Both approaches predict a high frequency relaxation of the counterion

  4. A qualitative systematic review of studies using the normalization process theory to research implementation processes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a well-recognized need for greater use of theory to address research translational gaps. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a set of sociological tools to understand and explain the social processes through which new or modified practices of thinking, enacting, and organizing work are implemented, embedded, and integrated in healthcare and other organizational settings. This review of NPT offers readers the opportunity to observe how, and in what areas, a particular theoretical approach to implementation is being used. In this article we review the literature on NPT in order to understand what interventions NPT is being used to analyze, how NPT is being operationalized, and the reported benefits, if any, of using NPT. Methods Using a framework analysis approach, we conducted a qualitative systematic review of peer-reviewed literature using NPT. We searched 12 electronic databases and all citations linked to six key NPT development papers. Grey literature/unpublished studies were not sought. Limitations of English language, healthcare setting and year of publication 2006 to June 2012 were set. Results Twenty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria; in the main, NPT is being applied to qualitatively analyze a diverse range of complex interventions, many beyond its original field of e-health and telehealth. The NPT constructs have high stability across settings and, notwithstanding challenges in applying NPT in terms of managing overlaps between constructs, there is evidence that it is a beneficial heuristic device to explain and guide implementation processes. Conclusions NPT offers a generalizable framework that can be applied across contexts with opportunities for incremental knowledge gain over time and an explicit framework for analysis, which can explain and potentially shape implementation processes. This is the first review of NPT in use and it generates an impetus for further and extended use of NPT. We recommend that in future

  5. Salt tectonics on Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

    1986-05-01

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

  6. Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) Data Processing Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Brock, John C.; Nagle, David

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an example of a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) system that utilizes a blue-green wavelength (532 nanometers) to determine the distance to an object. The distance is determined by recording the travel time of a transmitted pulse at the speed of light (fig. 1). This system uses raster laser scanning with full-waveform (multi-peak) resolving capabilities to measure submerged topography and adjacent coastal land elevations simultaneously (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). This document reviews procedures for the post-processing of EAARL data using the custom-built Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). ALPS software was developed in an open-source programming environment operated on a Linux platform. It has the ability to combine the laser return backscatter digitized at 1-nanosecond intervals with aircraft positioning information. This solution enables the exploration and processing of the EAARL data in an interactive or batch mode. ALPS also includes modules for the creation of bare earth, canopy-top, and submerged topography Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The EAARL system uses an Earth-centered coordinate and reference system that removes the necessity to reference submerged topography data relative to water level or tide gages (Nayegandhi and others, 2006). The EAARL system can be mounted in an array of small twin-engine aircraft that operate at 300 meters above ground level (AGL) at a speed of 60 meters per second (117 knots). While other systems strive to maximize operational depth limits, EAARL has a narrow transmit beam and receiver field of view (1.5 to 2 milliradians), which improves the depth-measurement accuracy in shallow, clear water but limits the maximum depth to about 1.5 Secchi disk depth (~20 meters) in clear water. The laser transmitter [Continuum EPO-5000 yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] produces up to 5,000 short-duration (1.2 nanosecond), low-power (70 microjoules) pulses each second

  7. Making DATA Work: A Process for Conducting Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita; Kaffenberger, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual model introduces a process to help school counselors use data to drive decision making and offers examples to implement the process. A step-by-step process is offered to help school counselors and school counselor supervisors address educational issues, close achievement gaps, and demonstrate program effectiveness. To illustrate…

  8. Gender Differences in Processing Speed: A Review of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2011-01-01

    A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and…

  9. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  10. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... risks of using synthetic cathinones (bath salts)? Another danger of bath salts is that they might contain ... Drugs: Is There a Way to Reduce the Dangers? June 09, 2015 / The NIDA Blog Team Concert ...

  11. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  12. Enhanced ethanol production by fermentation of Gelidium amansii hydrolysate using a detoxification process and yeasts acclimated to high-salt concentration.

    PubMed

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jung, Jang Hyun; Sunwoo, In Yung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    A total monosaccharide concentration of 59.0 g/L, representing 80.1 % conversion of 73.6 g/L total fermentable sugars from 160 g dw/L G. amansii slurry was obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. Subsequent adsorption treatment using 5 % activated carbon with an adsorption time of 2 min was used to prevent the inhibitory effect of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) >5 g/L in the medium. Ethanol production decreased with increasing salt concentration using C. tropicalis KCTC 7212 non-acclimated or acclimated to a high concentration of salt. Salt concentration of 90 psu was the maximum concentration for cell growth and ethanol production. The levels of ethanol production by C. tropicalis non-acclimated or acclimated to 90 psu high-salt concentration were 13.8 g/L with a yield (YEtOH) of 0.23, and 26.7 g/L with YEtOH of 0.45, respectively.

  13. Use of agar diffusion assay to measure bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

  14. Use of agar diffusion assay to evaluate bactericidal activity of formulations of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids (FA). Wells in agar media seeded with bacteria were filled with FA-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, plates were incubated, and zones of inhibition were measured. The relationship between bacteric...

  15. I-NERI ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    S. Frank

    2009-09-01

    An attractive alternative to the once-through disposal of electrorefiner salt is to selectively remove the active fission products from the salt and recycle the salt back to the electrorefiner (ER). This would allow salt reuse for some number of cycles before ultimate disposal of the salt in a ceramic waste form. Reuse of ER salt would, thus, greatly reduce the volume of ceramic waste produced during the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This final portion of the joint I-NERI research project is to demonstrate the separation of fission products from molten ER salt by two methods previously selected during phase two (FY-08) of this project. The two methods selected were salt/zeolite contacting and rare-earth fission product precipitation by oxygen bubbling. The ER salt used in these tests came from the Mark-IV electrorefiner used to anodically dissolved driver fuel from the EBR-II reactor on the INL site. The tests were performed using the Hot Fuel Dissolution Apparatus (HFDA) located in the main cell of the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels complex on the INL site. Results from these tests were evaluated during a joint meeting of KAERI and INL investigators to provide recommendations as to the future direction of fission product removal from electrorefiner salt that accumulate during spent fuel treatment. Additionally, work continued on kinetic measurements of surrogate quaternary salt systems to provide fundamental kinetics on the ion exchange system and to expand the equilibrium model system developed during the first two phases of this project. The specific objectives of the FY09 I-NERI research activities at the INL include the following: • Perform demonstration tests of the selected KAERI precipitation and INL salt/zeolite contacting processes for fission product removal using radioactive, fission product loaded ER salt • Continue kinetic studies of the quaternary Cs/Sr-LiCl-KCl system to determine the rate of ion

  16. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  17. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  18. Keeping and Using Reflective Journals in the Qualitative Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortlipp, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The problem of bias in qualitative research particularly is still debated in methodology texts and there is a lack of agreement on how much researcher influence is acceptable, whether or not it needs to be "controlled", and how it might be accounted for. Denzin (1994) refers to this as the "interpretive crisis" (p. 501). I…

  19. Connecting Complex Processes: A Decade of Research on Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    This review examines research on immigrant families in the United States from the past decade from multiple disciplinary perspectives. This work has used variations on assimilation and acculturation perspectives. In the case of the assimilation perspectives, the focus has largely been on family formation, whereas research using acculturation…

  20. Expert Panel Reviews of Research Centers: The Site Visit Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrenz, Frances; Thao, Mao; Johnson, Kelli

    2012-01-01

    Site visits are used extensively in a variety of settings within the evaluation community. They are especially common in making summative value decisions about the quality and worth of research programs/centers. However, there has been little empirical research and guidance about how to appropriately conduct evaluative site visits of research…

  1. Murder, Mischief, and Mayhem: A Process for Creative Research Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, W. Keith

    Assuming that freshman research papers can be interesting as well as educational, this book presents ten sample student papers selected from classes in which research methods were taught through the use of newspapers and periodicals. The paper topics, based on real people and actual events, range from bizaare murder cases and treasure expeditions…

  2. Teaching Freshmen To Understand Research as a Process of Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Karen

    Freshmen often approach research papers by selecting a "giant topic" and going to the library to confront swamps and mountains of resources. A different approach to teaching research is designed to help students begin to shift the often counter-productive paradigm under which they operate. The classroom strategy proposed is 3-fold.…

  3. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  4. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  5. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  6. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  7. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  8. QUO Vadis Tectonophysics? With a pinch of salt!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, C. J.

    1992-10-01

    Tectonophysics is the study of the materials and forces that deform planetary architectures. Tectonophysics is therefore the link between all the natural sciences that treat the planets as their laboratory. Defined in these terms, deformation studies are the essence of most natural science. Two groups of tectonophysicians are currently making great strides: backward modellers (mappers) and forward modellers. Their mutual Nirvana is where backward and forward models of the processes responsible for the same architecture close into loops. Their new world view will be knitted by closed loops for other architectures on all scales. Some of the routes into the future are indicated using the map offered by salt tectonophysics. The properties of rocksalt are so extraordinary that deformation processes in other rocks occur so much faster in salt that we could be monitoring them. Thus general mantle convection, extra- and intra-lithospheric decoupling, metamorphic nappes, igneous plutons, solid state crustal domes and negative (volume-loss) structures, are all echoed in the microcosm of salt tectonophysics. Not least among the extraordinary properties of salt tectonics is its ability to attract the interest of two international energy producers; the oil and nuclear power industries. Both are (hopefully) replacing the defence industry as drivers for research in tectonophysics. Both are working towards closing particular modelling loops that will inspire other branches of tectonophysics.

  9. NASA/MSFC FY-81 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Progress in ongoing research programs and future plans for satellite investigations into global weather, upper atmospheric phenomena, and severe storms and local weather are summarized. Principle investigators and publications since June 1980 are listed.

  10. Research of Curriculum Content, Data Processing Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoehr, Keith; And Others

    A study was conducted to assess the relationship between data processing competencies taught in Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education District Data Processing programs and on-the-job demands, as a basis for curriculum review and revision. A sample of program graduates, their employers, and instructors were asked to rate 75…

  11. The Language Translation Process in Survey Research: A Cost Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Scott B.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Groff, Janet Y.; Reyes, Yesenia; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a cost analysis from an institutional perspective of translating an English-language survey instrument to Spanish. The authors conduct a process flow analysis of the steps required to create and validate a 30-page survey instrument with 211 items. The identified steps in the translation process cost $10,426.…

  12. A Research Program on Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephanopoulos, George

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of artificial intelligence systems in process engineering. Describes a new program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology which attempts to advance process engineering through technological advances in the areas of artificial intelligence and computers. Identifies the program's hardware facilities, software support,…

  13. Process Diagnostics: Materials, Combustion Fusion. Volume 117. Materials Research Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    reference volume for professionals working in the area of materials process control as well as a graduate level textbook for a course in applied ... spectroscopy or process engineering that might be given as part of a chemistry, physics, chemical or materials engineering curriculum.

  14. V5 AND V10 CONTACTOR TESTING WITH THE NEXT GENERATION (CSSX) SOLVENT FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Restivo, M.; Peters, T.; Pierce, R.; Fondeur, F.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Giddings, B.; Hickman, B.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium (Cs) from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A Modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive, called a suppressor, is used to improve stripping performance. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008. Subsequent development efforts by ORNL identified an improved solvent system that can raise the expected decontamination factor (DF) in MCU from {approx}200 to more than 40,000. The improved DF is attributed to an improved distribution ratio for cesium [D(Cs)] in extraction from {approx}15 to {approx}60, an increased solubility of the calixarene in the solvent from 0.007 M to >0.050 M, and use of boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) stripping that also yields improved D(Cs) values. Additionally, the changes incorporated into the Next Generation CSSX Solvent (NGS) are intended to reduce solvent entrainment by virtue of more favorable physical properties. The MCU and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) facilities are actively pursuing the changeover from the current CSSX solvent to the NGS solvent. To support this integration of the NGS into the MCU and SWPF facilities, the Savannah River Remediation (SRR)/ARP/MCU Life Extension Project requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform testing of the new solvent for the removal of Cs from the liquid salt waste stream. Additionally, SRNL was tasked with characterizing both strip (20-in long, 10 micron pore size) and extraction (40-in long, 20 micron pore size) coalescers. SRNL designed a pilot-scale experimental

  15. Helping International Students Succeed Academically through Research Process and Plagiarism Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Van Ullen, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    Workshops on the research process and plagiarism were designed to meet the needs of international students at the University at Albany. The research process workshop covered formulating research questions, as well as locating and evaluating sources. The plagiarism workshop focused on acknowledging sources, quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing…

  16. 78 FR 79703 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Application Process for Clinical Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Application Process for Clinical Research Training and Medical... contact: Robert M. Lembo, MD, Deputy Director, Office of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education... Process for Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center and its Impact...

  17. Korean solar salts reduce obesity and alter its related markers in diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jaehyun; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Eui-Seong; Do, Myoung-Sool

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this experiments was to show anti-obesity effects of Korean solar salt from different salt fields in diet-induced obese mice. SUBJECTS/METHODS Diet-induced obesity (DIO) was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% cal from fat) in C57BL/6J mice for eight weeks. The mice were fed with the designated diets (chow diet for Normal, HFD for Control, 0.47%-salt-mixed HFD for purified salt (PS), Guerande solar salt from France (SS-G), solar salt from Y salt field (SS-Y), solar salts from T salt field (SS-T) and S salt field (SS-S)) for another eight weeks. We checked body weight, food efficiency ratio (FER) and tissue weights (liver and epididymal adipose tissue (EAT)), and observed serum concentrations of triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), leptin and insulin. We also evaluated gene expressions of adipogenic / lipogenic mRNAs of C/EBPα, PPARγ and FAS and beta-oxidation-related factors (PPARα and CPT-1) in liver and EAT. The mineral composition of salt samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). RESULTS SS-T and SS-S significantly reduced body weight gain, FER, and weight of EAT compared to control and other samples (P < 0.05). SS-T and SS-S also significantly decreased serum levels of TG, TC, leptin and insulin (P < 0.05). SS-T and SS-S suppressed expressions of adipogenic / lipogenic mRNAs in liver and EAT, while promoting expression of beta-oxidation-related factors. The lowest sodium concentration was observed in SS-T (30.30 ± 0.59%), and the lowest sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio was found in SS-S (17.81). CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that well-processed Korean solar salt may have anti-obesity effects in vivo, probably owing to its differences in mineral composition and other components, presumably resulting from the manufacturing processes. Further research is needed into the mechanism and to explore optimal manufacturing processes. PMID:27909561

  18. Process research of non-Czochralski silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous diffusion of liquid precursors containing phosphorus and boron into dendritic web silicon to form solar cell structures was investigated. A simultaneous junction formation techniques was developed. It was determined that to produce high quality cells, an annealing cycle (nominal 800 C for 30 min) should follow the diffusion process to anneal quenched-in defects. Two ohm-cm n-base cells were fabricated with efficiencies greater than 15%. A cost analysis indicated that the simultansous diffusion process costs can be as low as 65% of the costs of the sequential diffusion process.

  19. Basic Research on Processing of Ceramics for Space Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-31

    converted to three-dimensional ones 3 using the Schwartz- Saltykov method , assuming a spherical geometry (Underwood, 1970). Even though the grains were...176 Experimental Method ................................... 178IPowders............................................. 178 Processing and...Introduction......................................... 200 Experimental Methods ................................. 201 Results and Discussion

  20. Research on the processing speed of cam grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Baoying; Han, Qiushi

    2010-12-01

    Cam Grinding is a special kind of non-circular machining. The processing speed of cam grinding has a major influence on cam machining precision. In this paper, decomposed the X-axis feed speed and C-axis velocity by the tangential speed and normal speed in accordance with the curvature circle at the point of cam profile grinding. Proposed the cam grinding processing speed model and linear velocity calculation formula, the processing experiment on the CNC camshaft grinding machine results show that the cam grinding speed model is correct. Constant angular speed grinding and constant linear speed grinding are analyzed respectively, which provides a theoretical basis for cam grinding processing speed optimization.