Lemle, K. L.
The paper presents some pharmaceutical properties of Salvia officinalis, a plant belonging the Lamiaceae family, one of the oldest medicinal plants, which play an important role in improving the state of health.
Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan
cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.
Salvia officinalis L. is an essential oil containing plant, which does not wildly grow in the territories of the Czech and Slovak Republics but it can be successfully cultivated. It is a perennial half-shrub, from which non-flowering herbaceous sprouts or leaves are collected for pharmaceutical purposes. After drying at a temperature not exceeding 35 degrees C they are the plant drugs Herba salviae or Folium salviae. In PhBs, Herba salviae is official. The drug contains mainly ethereal oil (1-2%), diterpenes, triterpenes and tannin. The pharmacopoeial criterion of quality is the content of essential oil, which is produced in an increased amount in the plant in warm summer months. Herba salviae and the extracts prepared from it are used as an antiseptic agent, an antiphlogistic agent, in the inflammations of the oral cavity and gingivitis and also as a stomachic and an antihydrotic agent. Its utilization in cosmetics and food industry is also of importance.
Sallam, Amal; Mira, Amira; Ashour, Ahmed; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi
Salvia officinalis is a traditionally used herb with a wide range of medicinal applications. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from S. officinalis, mainly phenolic diterpenes, which possess many biological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the phenolic diterpenes of S. officinalis to inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE) as well as their ability to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells. The phenolic diterpenes isolated from the aerial parts of S. officinalis were tested for their effect on melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cell lines. They were also tested for their ability to inhibit AChE using Ellman's method. Moreover, a molecular docking experiment was used to investigate the binding affinity of the isolated phenolic diterpenes to the amino acid residues at the active sites of AChE. Seven phenolic diterpenes-sageone, 12-methylcarnosol, carnosol, 7b-methoxyrosmanol, 7a-methoxyrosmanol, isorosmanol and epirosmanol-were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. officinalis. Isorosmanol showed a melanin-inhibiting activity as potent as that of arbutin. Compounds 7a-methoxyrosmanol and isorosmanol inhibited AChE activity by 50% and 65%, respectively, at a concentration of 500 µM. The results suggest that isorosmanol is a promising natural compound for further studies on development of new medications which might be useful in ageing disorders such as the declining of cognitive functions and hyperpigmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R
Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.
Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...
Nikmehr, Banafsheh; Ghaznavi, Habib; Rahbar, Amir; Sadr, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed
The anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves against extracellular (promastigote) and intracellular (amastigote) forms of Leishmania major were evaluated in this study. In the first stage, promastigote forms of L. major, were treated with different doses of the plant extracts in a 96-well tissue-culture microplate and IC50 values for each extract were measured with colorimetric MTT assay. In the second stage, macrophage cells were infected with L. major promastigotes. Infected macrophages were treated with plant extracts. Then the macrophages were stained with Gimsa and the number of infected macrophages and amastigotes were counted with a light microscope. The results indicated that the plant extracts inhibited the growth of promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major. Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for promastigote assay were 108.19, 155.15, and 184.32 μgmL(-1) for C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds and S. officinalis, respectively. The extracts also reduced the number of amastigotes in macrophage cells from 264 for control group to 88, 97, and 102 for test groups. Although the anti-leishmanial activity of the extracts were not comparable with the standard drug, miltefosine; but they showed significant efficiency in reducing the number of amastigotes in macrophages, in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). These plant extracts had lower toxicity compared with miltefosine. This study demonstrates the potential efficacy of the methanolic extracts of C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds, and S. officinalis leaves to control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad
Objectives: In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Materials and Methods: Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results: Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Conclusion: Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb. PMID:26693413
Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit
Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301
Lima, Cristovao F; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina
In this study, we evaluate the biosafety and bioactivity (antioxidant potential) of a traditional water infusion (tea) of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in vivo in mice and rats by quantification of plasma transaminase activities and liver glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) enzyme activities. The replacement of water by sage tea for 14 days in the diet of rodents did not affect the body weight and food consumption and did not induce liver toxicity. On the other hand, a significant increase of liver GST activity was observed in rats (24%) and mice (10%) of sage drinking groups. The antioxidant potential of sage tea drinking was also studied in vitro in a model using rat hepatocytes in primary culture. The replacement of drinking water with sage tea in the rats used as hepatocyte donors resulted in an improvement of the antioxidant status of rat hepatocytes in primary culture, namely a significant increase in GSH content and GST activity after 4 h of culture. When these hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 0.75 or 1 mM of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) for 1 h, some protection against lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion was conferred by sage tea drinking. However, the cell death induced by t-BHP as shown by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage was not different from that observed in cultures from control animals. This study indicates that the compounds present in this sage preparation contain interesting bioactivities, which improve the liver antioxidant potential.
Khedher, Med Raâfet Ben; Khedher, Saoussen Ben; Chaieb, Ikbal; Tounsi, Slim; Hammami, Mohamed
The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial, insecticidal and allelopathic activities of Tunisia Salvia officinalis essential oil (SoEO). The SoEO was characterized by the presence of 49 components with camphor (25.14 %), α-thujone (18.83 %), 1,8-cineole (14.14 %), viridiflorol (7.98 %), β-thujone (4.46 %) and β-caryophyllene (3.30 %) as the major components, determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The level of antioxidant activity, determined by complementary tests, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging (IC50= 6.7 mg/mL), linoleic acid peroxidation (IC50= 9.6 mg/mL) and ferric reducing assays (IC50= 28.4 mg/mL), was relatively moderate. The SoEO was also screened for its antimicrobial activity. Good to moderate inhibitions were recorded for most of tested microorganisms. It also exhibited important insecticidal activity against Spodoptera littoralis larvae and Tribolium castaneum adults with LC50 values of 55.99 and 97.43 µl/L air, respectively. The effect of the SoEO on seeds germination and growth showed different activities against radical and hypocotyl elongation of the tested species. These results suggest the potential use of the SoEO as natural antimicrobial preservative in cosmetic, pharmaceutical industry and in pest management. PMID:28507464
Bendifallah, Leila; Belguendouz, Rachida; Hamoudi, Latifa; Arab, Karim
The present work is conducted as part of the development and the valorization of bioactive natural substances from Algerian medicinal and aromatic spontaneous plants, a clean alternative method in biological control. For this purpose, the bio-acaricidal activity of Salvia officinalis (sage)essential oil (EO)was evaluated against the Varroa destructor , a major threat to the honey bee Apis mellifera ssp. intermissa . The aerial parts of S. officinalis L., 1753 were collected from the Chrea mountainous area in Northern Algeria. They were subjected to hydro distillation by a Clevenger apparatus type to obtain the EO, and screened for bio-acaricidal activity against Varroa destructor by the method of strips impregnated with the mixture EO and twin according to three doses. Pre-treatment results revealed infestation rates in the experimental site ranging from 3.76% to 21.22%. This showed the heterogeneity of infestations in hives according to the density of bees. This constituted a difficulty in monitoring the population dynamics of this parasite. After treatment, a difference in the acaricidal effect of Sage essential oil is noticed. It gives a mortality rate of 6.09% by the dose D1: 5%, 2.32% by the dose D2: 15%, and a low mortality rate of 0.9% by the dose D3: 20%. The chemical treatment carried out by Bayvarol gives a result close to that of the essential oil of Sage (9.97%).These results point to the fact that Sage essential oil treatments have a significant effect and good biological activity with regard to harmful species.
Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P; Reddy, Manju B; Hendrich, Suzanne
Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in Prunella vulgaris and Salvia officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeabilities and phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) for RA and RA in Prunella vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10(-6)cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10(-6)cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. P(app) for UA and UA in Salvia officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10(-6)cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10(-6)cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes
Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for α-/β-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Craft, Jonathan D; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N
Background: Common sage ( Salvia officinalis ) is a popular culinary and medicinal herb. A literature survey has revealed that sage oils can vary widely in their chemical compositions. The purpose of this study was to examine sage essential oil from different sources/origins and to define the possible chemotypes of sage oil. Methods: Three different samples of sage leaf essential oil have been obtained and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out on 185 sage oil compositions reported in the literature as well as the three samples in this study. Results: The major components of the three sage oils were the oxygenated monoterpenoids α-thujone (17.2-27.4%), 1,8-cineole (11.9-26.9%), and camphor (12.8-21.4%). The cluster analysis revealed five major chemotypes of sage oil, with the most common being a α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole chemotype, of which the three samples in this study belong. The other chemotypes are an α-humulene-rich chemotype, a β-thujone-rich chemotype, a 1,8-cineole/camphor chemotype, and a sclareol/α-thujone chemotype. Conclusions: Most sage oils belonged to the "typical", α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole, chemotype, but the essential oil compositions do vary widely and may have a profound effect on flavor and fragrance profiles as well as biological activities. There are currently no studies correlating sage oil composition with fragrance descriptions or with biological activities.
Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Karapandzova, Marija; Kulevanova, Svetlana; Satović, Zlatko
The essential oils of 25 populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from nine Balkan countries, including 17 indigenous populations (representing almost the entire native distribution area) and eight non-indigenous (cultivated or naturalized) populations were analyzed. Their essential-oil yield ranged from 0.25 to 3.48%. Within the total of 80 detected compounds, ten (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, camphor, borneol, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, viridiflorol, and manool) represented 42.60 to 85.70% of the components in the analyzed essential oils. Strong positive correlations were observed between the contents of trans-caryophyllene and α-humulene, α-humulene and viridiflorol, and viridiflorol and manool. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of the contents of the ten main compounds showed that four principal components had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and explained 79.87% of the total variation. Performing cluster analysis (CA), the sage populations could be grouped into four distinct chemotypes (A-D). The essential oils of 14 out of the 25 populations of Dalmatian sage belonged to Chemotype A and were rich in cis-thujone and camphor, with low contents of trans-thujone. The correlation between the essential-oil composition and geographic variables of the indigenous populations was not significant; hence, the similarities in the essential-oil profile among populations could not be explained by the physical proximity of the populations. Additionally, the southeastern populations tended to have higher EO yields than the northwestern ones. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Stešević, Danijela; Ristić, Mihailo; Nikolić, Vuko; Nedović, Marijana; Caković, Danka; Šatović, Zlatko
To identify how many chemotypes of Salvia officinalis exist in Montenegro, the chemical composition of the essential oils of 12 wild-growing populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 40 identified constituents, the most abundant were cis-thujone (16.98-40.35%), camphor (12.75-35.37%), 1,8-cineol (6.40-12.06%), trans-thujone (1.5-10.35%), camphene (2.26-9.97%), borneol (0.97-8.81%), viridiflorol (3.46-7.8%), limonene (1.8-6.47%), α-pinene (1.59-5.46%), and α-humulene (1.77-5.02%). The composition of the essential oils under study did not meet the ISO 9909 requirements, while the oils of populations P02-P04, P09, and P10 complied with the German Drug Codex. A few of the main essential-oil constituents appeared to be highly intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were observed between α-pinene and camphene, camphene and camphor, as well as between cis-thujone and trans-thujone. Strong negative correlations were evidenced between cis-thujone and α-pinene, cis-thujone and champhene, cis-thujone and camphor, as well as between trans-thujone and camphene. Multivariate analyses allowed the grouping of the populations into three distinct chemotypes, i.e., Chemotype A, rich in total thujones, Chemotype B, with intermediate contents of thujones, α-pinene, camphene, and camphor and high borneol contents, and Chemotype C, rich in camphor, camphene, and α-pinene. The chemotypes did not significantly differ in the total essential-oil content and the cis/trans-thujone ratio. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell
Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic herb that is internationally regulated. In this study, salvinorin A, the active compound in S. divinorum, was extracted from S. divinorum plant leaves using a 5-min extraction with dichloromethane. Four additional Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia guaranitica, Salvia splendens, and Salvia nemorosa) were extracted using this procedure, and all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentiation of S. divinorum from other Salvia species was successful based on visual assessment of the resulting chromatograms. To provide a more objective comparison, the total ion chromatograms (TICs) were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Prior to PCA, the TICs were subjected to a series of data pretreatment procedures to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. Successful discrimination of S. divinorum from the other four Salvia species was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot. To provide a numerical assessment of the discrimination, a series of statistical procedures such as Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores. The statistical procedures were then compared to determine the advantages and disadvantages for forensic applications.
Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Akbulut, Makbule Bilge; Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi
The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), a CHX/cetrimide solution (CHX+CTR), octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) and Salvia officinalis plant extract against Enterococcus faecalis. Seventy decoronated single-rooted human teeth were infected and divided into 6 test (n=10) and 2 control groups (n=5) (negative, sterile samples and positive, infected samples). Following irrigants were then applied to test groups: 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX, CHX+CTR, S. officinalis extract and OCT. The dentin chips were obtained from inner root canal walls and analyzed by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU). The 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX and OCT groups presented no bacterial growth (CFU=0). S. officinalis and CHX+CTR groups reduced the number of E. faecalis cells but could not eliminate all. OCT may have potential as an endodontic irrigant in treatment of infected root canals.
Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B
Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC₅₀ values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied.
Gören, Ahmet C; Topçu, Gülaçti; Oksüz, Sevil; Kökdil, Gamze; Voelter, Wolfgang; Ulubelen, Ayhan
Salvia ceratophylla L. has yielded four known and two new diterpenoids together with two triterpenic acids, a steroid and a flavone. The structures of the compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses. One of the known compounds candidissiol exhibited a high antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Proteus mirabilis.
Susan E. Meyer
The sage genus - Salvia contains about 700 species of annual and perennial herbs and shrubs and is worldwide in distribution. There are perhaps 20 woody species in the United States, principally in the Southwest and California (table 1) (Correll and Johnson 1970; Munz and Keck 1959). They are intricately branched, rounded or sprawling shrubs or subshrubs with often...
Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Delfine, Sebastiano; Cardile, Venera; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio
Salvia officinalis L. can be found worldwide and its leaves are commonly used as ingredient in food industry. Sage essential oil is applied in the treatment of a range of diseases and has been shown to possess different biological activities. The objectives of our research were to study the effects of environment on crop, chemical composition and anticancer activity on S. officinalis essential oil. Sage was cultivated at eighteen experimental sites in south-central Italy (Molise) in different growing environments. The essential oils (S1-S18), extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and CG/MS. Results show that the main components were α-thujone, camphor, borneol, γ-muurolene and sclareol for all the samples, but the percentages of these compounds varied depending on environmental factors such as altitude, water availability and pedo-climatic conditions. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the eighteen sage essential oils were evaluated in three human melanoma cell lines, A375, M14, and A2058. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Hendrich, Suzanne
Ethnopharmacological relevance Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. Aim of the study To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in P. vulgaris and S. officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Materials and methods The permeabilities and Phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. Results The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for RA and RA in P. vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10−6 cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Papp for UA and UA in S. officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10−6 cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10−6 cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. Conclusion RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. PMID:21798330
Radwan, Alzahraa; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk
In previous experiments, we demonstrated that the amount of monoterpenes in sage is increased massively by drought stress. Our current study is aimed to elucidate whether this increase is due, at least in part, to elevated activity of the monoterpene synthases responsible for the biosynthesis of essential oils in sage. Accordingly, the transcription rates of the monoterpene synthases were analyzed. Salvia officinalis plants were cultivated under moderate drought stress. The concentrations of monoterpenes as well as the expression of the monoterpene synthases were analyzed. The amount of monoterpenes massively increased in response to drought stress; it doubled after just two days of drought stress. The observed changes in monoterpene content mostly match with the patterns of monoterpene synthase expressions. The expression of bornyl diphosphate synthase was strongly up-regulated; its maximum level was reached after two days. Sabinene synthase increased gradually and reached a maximum after two weeks. In contrast, the transcript level of cineole synthase continuously declined. This study revealed that the stress related increase of biosynthesis is not only due to a "passive" shift caused by the stress related over-reduced status, but also is due - at least in part-to an "active" up-regulation of the enzymes involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W
Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects.
Beheshti-Rouy, Maryam; Azarsina, Mohadese; Rezaie-Soufi, Loghman; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Roshanaie, Ghodratollah; Komaki, Samira
The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis) extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM) causing dental plaque in school-aged children. A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35) using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35) using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance. Sage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001). Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn't significant. The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.
Stojanović-Radić, Z; Pejcić, M; Stojanović, N; Sharifi-Rad, J; Stanković, N
Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms, responsible for more than 60% of the chronic human infections and they represent one of the leading concerns in medicine. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is human pathogenic bacteria which causes numerous diseases and is known for its ability to produce biofilm. Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) and Salvia officinalis L. (sage) are widely used plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of different conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of basil and sage essential oils against P. aeruginosa biofilm producing strains. The efficacy of two essential oils on P. aeruginosa biofilm forming ability was determined using crystal violet method. Out of 15 strains isolated from different clinical biological samples, two were strong, 11 moderate and one weak biofilm producer. Good efficacy of sage essential oil towards strong and weak biofilm producers, but not of basil essential oil, was observed. In the case of moderate biofilm producers, 81.8% showed lower biofilm production after incubation with the sage oil, while 63.6% showed the reduction of biofilm production after basil essential oil treatment. The obtained results showed high potential of both oils for the treatment of persistent infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.
Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína
Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved
Schmiderer, Corinna; Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Grassi, Paolo; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes
Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, composed mainly of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone and camphor, is responsible for some of these effects. Gibberellins regulate diverse physiological processes in plants, such as seed germination, shoot elongation and cell division. In this study, we analyzed the effect of exogenously applied plant growth regulators, namely gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and daminozide, on leaf morphology and essential oil formation of two leaf stages during the period of leaf expansion. Essential oil content increased with increasing levels of gibberellins and decreased when gibberellin biosynthesis was blocked with daminozide. With increasing levels of gibberellins, 1,8-cineole and camphor contents increased. Daminozide blocked the accumulation of alpha- and beta-thujone. GA(3) at the highest level applied also led to a significant decrease of alpha- and beta-thujone. Monoterpene synthases are a class of enzymes responsible for the first step in monoterpene biosynthesis, competing for the same substrate geranylpyrophosphate. The levels of gene expression of the three most important monoterpene synthases in sage were investigated, 1,8-cineole synthase leading directly to 1,8-cineole, (+)-sabinene synthase responsible for the first step in the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, the first step in camphor biosynthesis. The foliar application of GA(3) increased, while daminozide significantly decreased gene expression of the monoterpene synthases. The amounts of two of the end products, 1,8-cineole and camphor, were directly correlated with the levels of gene expression of the respective monoterpene synthases, indicating transcriptional control, while the formation of alpha- and beta
Walch, Stephan G; Kuballa, Thomas; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W
The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of α- and β-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%). The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol), which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds.
An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...
An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...
Carrasco, Fábio Ricardo; Schmidt, Gustavo; Romero, Adriano Lopez; Sartoretto, Juliano Luiz; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura
The immunomodulatory effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), sage, Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) and clove, Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae), essential oils were evaluated by studying humor- and cell-mediated immune responses. Essential oils were administered to mice (once a day, orally, for a week) previously immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). Clove essential oil increased the total white blood cell (WBC) count and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in mice. Moreover, it restored cellular and humoral immune responses in cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed mice in a dose-dependent manner. Ginger essential oil recovered the humoral immune response in immunosuppressed mice. Contrary to the ginger essential oil response, sage essential oil did not show any immunomodulatory activity. Our findings establish that the immunostimulatory activity found in mice treated with clove essential oil is due to improvement in humor- and cell-mediated immune response mechanisms.
Fischedick, Justin T; Standiford, Miranda; Johnson, Delinda A.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.
Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate cytoprotective genes which may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In order to better understand the structure activity relationship of phenolic diterpenes from Salvia officinalis L., we isolated carnosic acid, carnosol, epirosmanol, rosmanol, 12-methoxy-carnosic acid, sageone, and carnosaldehyde using polyamide column, centrifugal partition chromatography, and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Isolated compounds were screened in-vitro for their ability to active the Nrf2 and general cellular toxicity using mouse primary cortical cultures. All compounds except 12-methoxy-carnosic acid were able to activate the antioxidant response element. Furthermore both carnosol and carnoasldehyde were able to induce Nrf2-dependent gene expression as well as protect mouse primary cortical neuronal cultures from H2O2 induced cell death. PMID:23507152
Šojić, B.; Ikonić, P.; Pavlić, B.; Zeković, Z.; Tomović, V.; Kocić-Tanackov, S.; Džinić, N.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.; Jokanović, M.; Tasić, T.
The effect of essential oil obtained from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal dust (a food industry by-product) (SEO), on the pH value, microbiological stability and sensory properties of fresh pork sausages prepared without chemical additives was evaluated during 8 days of aerobic storage at 3±1°C. The addition of SEO significantly (p<0.05) reduced the microbial growth in fresh pork sausages. Moreover, SEO added at a level of 0.05 µL/g had no negative effect on sensory properties of this meat product. Hence, the results of this study showed significant antimicrobial activity of SEO obtained from sage filter tea processing byproducts and the potential for utilising SEO in fresh pork sausages in order to enhance their stability and safety.
Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy on Intact Dried Leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.): Accelerated Chemotaxonomic Discrimination and Analysis of Essential Oil Composition.
Gudi, Gennadi; Krähmer, Andrea; Krüger, Hans; Schulz, Hartwig
Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is cultivated worldwide for its aromatic leaves, which are used as herbal spice, and for phytopharmaceutical applications. Fast analytical strategies for essential oil analysis, performed directly on plant material, would reduce the delay between sampling and analytical results. This would enhance product quality by improving technical control of cultivation. The attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) method described here provides a reliable calibration model for quantification of essential oil components [EOCs; R(2) = 0.96; root-mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) = 0.249 mL 100 g(-1) of dry matter (DM); and range = 1.115-5.280 mL 100 g(-1) of DM] and main constituents [e.g., α-thujone/β-thujone; R(2) = 0.97/0.86; RMSECV = 0.0581/0.0856 mL 100 g(-1) of DM; and range = 0.010-1.252/0.005-0.893 mL 100 g(-1) of DM] directly on dried intact leaves of sage. Except for drying, no further sample preparation is required for ATR-FTIR, and the measurement time of less than 5 min per sample contrasts with the most common alternative of hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatography analysis, which can take several hours per sample.
Hasanein, Parisa; Felehgari, Zhila; Emamjomeh, Abbasali
Learning and memory impairment occurs in diabetes. Salvia officinalis L. (SO) has been used in Iranian traditional medicine as a remedy against diabetes. We hypothesized that chronic administration of SO (400, 600 and 800mg/kg, p.o.) and its principal constituent, rosmarinic acid, would affect on passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory in streptozocin-induced diabetic and non-diabetic rats. We also explored hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of SO as the possible mechanisms. Treatments were begun at the onset of hyperglycemia. PAL was assessed 30days later. Retention test was done 24h after training. At the end, animals were weighed and blood samples were drawn for further analyzing of glucose and oxidant/antioxidant markers. Diabetes induced deficits in acquisition and retrieval processes. SO (600 and 800mg/kg) and rosmarinic acid reversed learning and memory deficits induced by diabetes and improved cognition of healthy rats. While the dose of 400mg/kg had no effect, the higher doses and rosmarinic acid inhibited hyperglycemia and lipid peroxidation as well as enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. SO prevented diabetes-induced acquisition and memory deficits through inhibiting hyperglycemia, lipid peroxidation as well as enhancing antioxidant defense systems. Therefore, SO and its principal constituent rosmarinic acid represent a potential therapeutic option against diabetic memory impairment which deserves consideration and further examination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rešetnik, Ivana; Baričevič, Dea; Batîr Rusu, Diana; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Gonceariuc, Maria; Grdiša, Martina; Greguraš, Danijela; Ibraliu, Alban; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Krasniqi, Elez; Liber, Zlatko; Murtić, Senad; Pećanac, Dragana; Radosavljević, Ivan; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Stešević, Danijela; Šoštarić, Ivan; Šatović, Zlatko
Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a well-known aromatic and medicinal Mediterranean plant that is native in coastal regions of the western Balkan and southern Apennine Peninsulas and is commonly cultivated worldwide. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Knowledge of its genetic diversity and spatiotemporal patterns is important for plant breeding programmes and conservation. We used eight microsatellite markers to investigate evolutionary history of indigenous populations as well as genetic diversity and structure within and among indigenous and cultivated/naturalised populations distributed across the Balkan Peninsula. The results showed a clear separation between the indigenous and cultivated/naturalised groups, with the cultivated material originating from one restricted geographical area. Most of the genetic diversity in both groups was attributable to differences among individuals within populations, although spatial genetic analysis of indigenous populations indicated the existence of isolation by distance. Geographical structuring of indigenous populations was found using clustering analysis, with three sub-clusters of indigenous populations. The highest level of gene diversity and the greatest number of private alleles were found in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, while decreases in gene diversity and number of private alleles were evident towards the northwestern Adriatic coast and southern and eastern regions of the Balkan Peninsula. The results of Ecological Niche Modelling during Last Glacial Maximum and Approximate Bayesian Computation suggested two plausible evolutionary trajectories: 1) the species survived in the glacial refugium in southern Adriatic coastal region with subsequent colonization events towards northern, eastern and southern Balkan Peninsula; 2) species survived in several refugia exhibiting concurrent divergence into three genetic groups. The insight into genetic
Rešetnik, Ivana; Baričevič, Dea; Batîr Rusu, Diana; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Gonceariuc, Maria; Grdiša, Martina; Greguraš, Danijela; Ibraliu, Alban; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Krasniqi, Elez; Liber, Zlatko; Murtić, Senad; Pećanac, Dragana; Radosavljević, Ivan; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Stešević, Danijela; Šoštarić, Ivan; Šatović, Zlatko
Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a well-known aromatic and medicinal Mediterranean plant that is native in coastal regions of the western Balkan and southern Apennine Peninsulas and is commonly cultivated worldwide. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Knowledge of its genetic diversity and spatiotemporal patterns is important for plant breeding programmes and conservation. We used eight microsatellite markers to investigate evolutionary history of indigenous populations as well as genetic diversity and structure within and among indigenous and cultivated/naturalised populations distributed across the Balkan Peninsula. The results showed a clear separation between the indigenous and cultivated/naturalised groups, with the cultivated material originating from one restricted geographical area. Most of the genetic diversity in both groups was attributable to differences among individuals within populations, although spatial genetic analysis of indigenous populations indicated the existence of isolation by distance. Geographical structuring of indigenous populations was found using clustering analysis, with three sub-clusters of indigenous populations. The highest level of gene diversity and the greatest number of private alleles were found in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, while decreases in gene diversity and number of private alleles were evident towards the northwestern Adriatic coast and southern and eastern regions of the Balkan Peninsula. The results of Ecological Niche Modelling during Last Glacial Maximum and Approximate Bayesian Computation suggested two plausible evolutionary trajectories: 1) the species survived in the glacial refugium in southern Adriatic coastal region with subsequent colonization events towards northern, eastern and southern Balkan Peninsula; 2) species survived in several refugia exhibiting concurrent divergence into three genetic groups. The insight into genetic
Hayouni, El Akrem; Chraief, Imed; Abedrabba, Manaf; Bouix, Marielle; Leveau, Jean-Yves; Mohammed, Hammami; Hamdi, Moktar
The essential oils (EOs) extracted from the aerial parts of cultivated Salvia officinalis L. and the berries of Schinus molle L. were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 68 and 67 constituents were identified, respectively. The major constituents were 1,8-cineole (33.27%), beta-thujone (18.40%), alpha-thujone (13.45%), borneol (7.39%) in S. officinalis oil and alpha-phellandrene (35.86%), beta-phellandrene (29.3%), beta-pinene (15.68%), p-cymene (5.43%) and alpha-pinene (5.22%) in S. molle oil. In its second part, the present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of both studied EOs. For this purpose, paper disc-diffusion method and broth microdilution test were used. The disc-diffusion method showed significant zone of lysis against all the pathogens studied (gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, yeast). These activities remained stable after six months, and decreased approximately by 20% after one year of storage of the EOs at 4 to 7 degrees C. On comparing the efficiency of both EOs, S. officinalis EO exhibited higher antibacterial activity against the majority of strains and especially against Candida albicans (two fold more active according to the inhibition zones values). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reported between 4.5 mg/ml and 72 mg/ml on nutrient broth. The particular chemotype of each EO may be involved in its specific antimicrobial behaviour. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of these EOs were evaluated against two foodborne pathogens belonging to Salmonella genus, experimentally inoculated (10(3) CFU/g) in minced beef meat, which was mixed with different concentrations of the EO and stored at 4 to 7 degrees C for 15 days. Although the antibacterial activities of both EOs in minced beef meat were clearly evident, their addition had notable effects on the flavour and taste of the meat at concentrations more than 2% for S. molle and 1.5% for S. officinalis. One solution to
Imanshahidi, Mohsen; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein
Salvia is an important genus consisting of about 900 species in the family Lamiaceae. Some species of Salvia have been cultivated world wide for use in folk medicine and for culinary purposes. The dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, for example, has been used extensively for the treatment of coronary and cerebrovascular disease, sleep disorders, hepatitis, hepatocirrhosis, chronic renal failure, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, carbuncles and ulcers. S. officinalis, S. leriifolia, S. haematodes, S. triloba and S. divinorum are other species with important pharmacological effects. In this review, the pharmacological effects of Salvia species on the central nervous system will be reviewed. These include sedative and hypnotic, hallucinogenic, skeletal muscle relaxant, analgesic, memory enhancing, anticonvulsant, neuroprotective and antiparkinsonian activity, as well as the inhibition of ethanol and morphine withdrawal syndrome.
A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E; Alexopoulos, Athanasios
Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8-28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage. Most efficient were the EOs
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae
Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E.; Alexopoulos, Athanasios
Background Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage
Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine
Salvia L. is widely known as the largest genus in the mint family. A morphological modification of the androecium (lever-like stamens) was used to support this genus. However, molecular data revealed that Salvia is polyphyletic. Since phylogenetic studies largely underrepresented Old World Salvia species, we filled this gap and combined new data with existing sequences. The aim of our study was the identification of well-supported clades that provide the basis for evolutionary and taxonomic conclusions. We included ITS data (internal transcribed spacer) from 220 Salvia species, 86 of which were sequenced for the first time. Additionally, the highly variable plastid marker rpl32-trnL was sequenced, providing new data for 100 Salvia species. These sequences were combined with the accessions available from GenBank. Old World Salvia is represented herein with 57% of its species. The two datasets were analyzed separately using BI and ML approaches. Our data confirm that Salvia is polyphyletic with four distinct evolutionary lineages (Clade I-IV), including five additional genera. The clades strongly reflect the geographical distribution, i.e., Clade IV (East Asia), Clade III (Southwest Asia to Northern Africa), and Clade II (America). The origin of Salvia s.s. (Clade I) is most likely Southwest Asia. A high degree of parallel character evolution was identified in most of the Old World sections. Based on our results, we reconstructed the evolution and biogeography of Salvia s.l. and propose to split this large group into six genera, each supported by geographical distribution, morphology, and karyology. Salvia s.l. is a polyphyletic group that was originally regarded as a genus because its species share a derived stamen structure. However, phylogenetic data clearly indicate that this floral trait and other morphological characters evolved in parallel. Our study illustrates that the combination of different data sets allows a comprehensive reconstruction of taxa and
Lange, James E; Daniel, Jason; Homer, Kestrel; Reed, Mark B; Clapp, John D
Salvia divinorum (salvia) is an intense, short-acting hallucinogenic plant gaining popularity among adolescents in the United States. There has been little scientific documentation of salvia's effects. The popular video-sharing website YouTube has received literally thousands of video-posts of people using salvia. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of salvia use through systematic observations of YouTube videos. A sample of salvia videos was obtained using the search term "salvia." The videos were further screened and only videos that captured the entire drug "trip" without video edits were included in the analyses described here (n=34). Three trained research assistants independently watched the videos and rated their observations on 42 effects in 30-s intervals. Onset of symptoms was quick (often less than 30s) and tended to dissipate within 8min. Further, there was a relationship between salvia dose and effect duration. Since salvia's effects on humans are largely undocumented, this study provides the look at users in a non-laboratory environment (e.g. self-taped videos) exhibiting impairments and behaviors consistent with this powerful hallucinogen. Also, this study demonstrates the feasibility and shortcomings of using YouTube videos to assess emerging drugs and drug effects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tyson, B. J.; Dement, W. A.; Mooney, H. A.
The study demonstrates significant terpene volatilisation from Salvia mellifera. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration were measured in an intact branch of a potted plant using a gas analysis system. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were determined for various temperatures. The rates were directly proportional to leaf temperature and were the same in both light and dark reactions. Using the temperature curve for the steady-state rate of terpene volatilisation and the gas exchange characteristics, the daily carbon gain and terpene loss were calculated.
Dan, Hong-mei; Qi, Jian-jun; Zhou, Li-li; Li, Xian-en
To establish a seed testing methods for Salvia miltiorrhiza. Referring to the International Seed Testing Rules made by ISTA and the Seed Testing for Crops (GB/T3543. 1-1995) issued by China. The seeds are selected by winnowing; the seed purity is about 50%-60%; 100 grain weight is used to determine the quality of the seed; the seed moisture content is determined by air drying, the drying hour is 3 h. Seed viability is tested by TFC method.
Cvetkovikj, I; Stefkov, G; Acevska, J; Stanoeva, J Petreska; Karapandzova, M; Stefova, M; Dimitrovska, A; Kulevanova, S
Although the knowledge and use of several Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, and Salvia pomifera) can be dated back to Greek Era and have a long history of culinary and effective medicinal use, still there is a remarkable interest concerning their chemistry and especially the polyphenolic composition. Despite the demand in the food and pharmaceutical industry for methods for fast quality assessment of the herbs and spices, even now there are no official requirements for the minimum content of polyphenols in sage covered by current regulations neither the European Pharmacopoeia monographs nor the ISO 11165 standard. In this work a rapid analytical method for extraction, characterization and quantification of the major polyphenolic constituents in Sage was developed. Various extractions (infusion - IE; ultrasound-assisted extraction - USE and microwave-assisted extraction - MWE) were performed and evaluated for their effectiveness. Along with the optimization of the mass-detector and chromatographic parameters, the applicability of three different reverse C18 stationary phases (extra-density bonded, core-shell technology and monolith column) for polyphenolics characterization was evaluated. A comprehensive overview of the very variable polyphenolic composition of 118 different plant samples of 68 populations of wild growing culinary Salvia species (S. officinalis: 101; S. fruticosa: 15; S. pomifera: 2) collected from South East Europe (SEE) was performed using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and more than 50 different compounds were identified and quantified. With this work the knowledge about polyphenols of culinary Sage was expanded thus the possibility for gaining an insight into the chemodiversity of culinary Salvia species in South East Europe was unlocked. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cui, Haiying; Zhang, Xuejing; Zhou, Hui; Zhao, Chengting; Lin, Lin
Nowadays, essential oils are recognized as safe substances and can be used as antibacterial additives. Salvia sclarea is one of the most important aromatic plants cultivated world-wide as a source of essential oils. In addition to being flavoring foods, Salvia sclarea essential oil can also act as antimicrobials and preservatives against food spoilage. Understanding more about the antibacterial performance and possible mechanism of Salvia sclarea essential oil will be helpful for its application in the future. But so far few related researches have been reported. In our study, Salvia sclarea oil showed obvious antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) of seven pathogens were 0.05 and 0.1 % respectively. In addition, Salvia sclarea oil also exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and meats. After treated with Salvia sclarea oil, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images can clearly see the damage of cell membrane; the intracellular ATP concentrations of E. coli and S. aureus reduced 98.27 and 69.61 % respectively, compared to the control groups; the nuclear DNA content of E. coli and S. aureus was significantly reduced to 48.32 and 50.77 % respectively. In addition, there was massive leakage of cellular material when E. coli and S. aureus were exposed to Salvia sclarea oil. Salvia sclarea essential oil damaged the cell membrane and changed the cell membrane permeability, leading to the release of some cytoplasm such as macromolecular substances, ATP and DNA. In general, the antimicrobial action of Salvia sclarea essential oil is not only attributable to a unique pathway, but also involves a series of events both on the cell surface and within the cytoplasm. Therefore, more experiments need to be done to fully understand the antimicrobial mechanism of Salvia sclarea essential oil.
Griffin, O Hayden; Miller, Bryan Lee; Khey, David N
The legal status of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been rapidly changing. Legal prohibitions on this plant native to Oaxaca, Mexico have emerged at the state level, a phenomenon that has not occurred since the passage of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Included will be a brief description of the plant that has only recently crept into the popular American consciousness, and a review of the different legal mechanisms through which states have controlled the plant and the pending legislation proposing controls. Lastly, the implications of various state laws are discussed.
Toxic essential oils. Part V: Behaviour modulating and toxic properties of thujones and thujone-containing essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.
Radulović, Niko S; Genčić, Marija S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Stojiljković, Nenad I
Neurotoxic thujones (α- and β-diastereoisomers) are common constituents of plant essential oils. In this study, we employed a statistical approach to determine the contribution of thujones to the overall observed behaviour-modulating and toxic effects of essential oils (Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.) containing these monoterpene ketones. The data from three in vivo neuropharmacological tests on rats (open field, light-dark, and diazepam-induced sleep), and toxicity assays (brine shrimp, and antimicrobial activity against a panel of microorganisms), together with the data from detailed chemical analyses, were subjected to a multivariate statistical treatment to reveal the possible correlation(s) between the content of essential-oil constituents and the observed effects. The results strongly imply that the toxic and behaviour-modulating activity of the oils (hundreds of constituents) should not be associated exclusively with thujones. The statistical analyses pinpointed to a number of essential-oil constituents other than thujones that demonstrated a clear correlation with either the toxicity, antimicrobial effect or the activity on CNS. Thus, in addition to the thujone content, the amount and toxicity of other constituents should be taken into consideration when making risk assessment and determining the regulatory status of plants in food and medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Currie, Cheryl L
Salvia divinorum is a potent, naturally occurring hallucinogen gaining popularity as a recreational drug in North America. To date, detailed epidemiologic information about the use of this substance among adolescents living outside the United States has been limited. This study provides information on the prevalence and correlates of Salvia divinorum use among adolesecents in Canada using a nationally representative sample. Data were obtained from a representative sample of 42,179 Canadian adolescents aged 12-17 years living across all 10 provinces who completed the Youth Smoking Survey in 2008-09. Overall, 3.8% of adolescents reported using Salvia in the past year and 6.2% had used the substance in their lifetime. A conservative estimate suggests 23.2% of youth were repeat users. Salvia use was highest among youth in British Columbia and Quebec. Comparatively, the prevalence of 12-month Salvia use was higher than 12-month cocaine and amphetamine use but lower than 12-month ecstasy, cannabis, and other hallucinogen use. Correlates of Salvia use included older age, male gender, high available spending money, binge drinking, illicit drug use and smoking in fully adjusted models. Findings suggest low self-esteem may be an important correlate specific to the use of this substance among youth. Salvia divinorum use is prevalent among Canadian adolescents. Salvia may be a significant public health issue in Canada given it is readily available, under limited regulation, and little is known about the abuse liability of the substance, interactions with other substances, and potential complications from use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A
The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), α-pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%), and β-pinene (3.8%) in Salvia apiana; borneol (17.4%), β-eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%), and guaiol (4.8%) in Salvia elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), β-caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%), and spathulenol (7.0%) in Salvia leucantha; α-thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), β-thujene (5.7%), and camphor (6.4%) in Salvia officinalis. In biting-deterrent bioassays, essential oils of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 μg/cm(2) showed activity similar to that of DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in two species of mosquitoes, whereas the activities of S. officinalis and S. apiana essential oils were lower than those of the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds β-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting-deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2), whereas the activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene was significantly lower than that of β-eudesmol, guaiol, or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except that of S. apiana, which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. On the basis of 95% CIs, all of the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than in Aedes aegypti. The essential oil of S. leucantha with an LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus.
Bisio, Angela; Schito, Anna Maria; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Hamburger, Matthias; Mele, Giacomo; Piatti, Gabriella; Romussi, Giovanni; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina
From the aerial parts of Salvia adenophora Fernald four derivatives of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (1-4) together with five clerodane diterpenoids (5, 6, 8-10), and one known diterpene (7) have been isolated. Compounds 1-6 and 8-10 are described for the first time. The structures were established by extensive 1D, 2D NMR and HRESI-TOFMS spectroscopic methods. Finally, the absolute configuration has been established by comparing of experimental and quantum chemical calculation of ECD spectra. Despite a total lack of antimicrobial activity of the plant extract, hinting to the existence of antagonistic interactions in the crude material, three oxylipins (2-4) displayed a promising inhibition on Gram-positive multidrug-resistant clinical strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and, particularly, Staphylococcus epidermidis, while the compounds 9 and 10 revealed a specific and strain-dependent activity against S. epidermidis. Interestingly, the inhibition provided by these compounds was independent of the resistance patterns of these pathogens to classic antibiotics. No action was reported on Gram-negative strains nor on Candida albicans. These results confirm that clerodanes and, particularly, prostaglandin-like compounds can be considered as interesting antimicrobial agents deserving further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bisio, Angela; Fraternale, Daniele; Damonte, Gianluca; Millo, Enrico; Lanteri, Anna Paola; Russo, Eleonora; Romussi, Giovanni; Parodi, Brunella; Ricci, Donata; De Tommasi, Nunziatina
A study has been carried out on the surface exudate of Salvia x jamensis, which showed a significant phytotoxic activity against Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena sativa L.. Bioguided separation of the exudate yielded active fractions from which 3 beta-hydroxy-isopimaric acid (1), hautriwaic acid (2), betulinic acid (3), 7,8 beta-dihydrosalviacoccin (4), isopimaric acid (5), 14 alpha-hydroxy-isopimaric acid (7), 15,16-epoxy-7 alpha, 10 beta-dihydroxy-clerod-3,13(16),14-trien-17,12;18,19-diolide (8), cirsiliol (5,3',4'-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone, 9) and two new neoclerodane diterpenes (6 and 10) were isolated. The structures of 6 and 10 were identified as 15,16-epoxy-10 beta-hydroxy-clerod-3,13(16),14-trien-17,12;18,19-diolide and 15,16-epoxy-7 alpha,10-dihydroxy-clerod-2,13(16),14-trien-17,12;18,19-diolide respectively on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds, but 7, 8 and 10, were active in inhibiting the germination of the tested species.
Bisio, Angela; De Mieri, Maria; Milella, Luigi; Schito, Anna M; Parricchi, Anita; Russo, Daniela; Alfei, Silvana; Lapillo, Margherita; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Hamburger, Matthias; De Tommasi, Nunziatina
A surface extract of the aerial parts of Salvia chamaedryoides afforded 13 diterpenes (1-13), with seven compounds (1, 3, 4, 7-9, 12) described for the first time. The structures of the new compounds were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic methods, HRESIMS, and ECD data. The potential hypoglycemic effects of the crude extract, fractions, and pure compounds from S. chamaedryoides were investigated by inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. The extract and its fractions showed a moderate dose-dependent inhibition; the pure compounds exhibited differential inhibitory activity against these two enzymes. Molecular modeling studies were also performed to suggest the interaction mode of compound 3 in the α-glucosidase enzyme active site. The antimicrobial activity of the purified compounds was investigated against 26 clinical pathogens. No activity was detected for the Gram-negative species tested nor on Candida albicans and C. glabrata, while variable susceptibilities were observed using Gram-positive staphylococcal and enterococcal species.
Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Quattropani, Maria C; Calapai, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino
Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia lavandulaefolia L. have a longstanding use as traditional herbal remedies that can enhance memory and improve cognitive functions. Pharmacological actions of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia on healthy subjects and on patients suffering of cognitive decline have been investigated. Aim of this review was to summarize published clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia in the enhancement of cognitive performance in healthy subjects and neurodegenerative illnesses. Furthermore, to purchase a more complete view on safety of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia, we collected and discussed articles regarding toxicity and adverse reactions. Eight clinical studies investigating on acute effects of S. officinalis on healthy subjects were included in the review. Six studies investigated on the effects of S. officinalis and S. lavandaeluaefolia on cognitive performance in healthy subjects. The two remaining were carried out to study the effects of sage on Azheimer's disease. Our review shows that S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia exert beneficial effects by enhancing cognitive performance both in healthy subjects and patients with dementia or cognitive impairment and is safe for this indication. Unfortunately, promising beneficial effects are debased by methodological issues, use of different herbal preparations (extracts, essential oil, use of raw material), lack of details on herbal products used. We believe that sage promising effects need further higher methodological standard clinical trials. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bisio, Angela; Damonte, Gianluca; Fraternale, Daniele; Giacomelli, Emanuela; Salis, Annalisa; Romussi, Giovanni; Cafaggi, Sergio; Ricci, Donata; De Tommasi, Nunziatina
Our ongoing research to identify natural growth inhibitors with diterpene and triterpene skeletons exuding from the surface of the aerial parts of Salvia species led us to study Salvia miniata Fernald. Ten clerodane diterpenoids were found, along with three known diterpenes. Most of the isolated compounds from S. miniata inhibited the germination of Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena sativa L. in Petri dish experiments. Parallel results have been obtained in experiments carried out to evaluate the subsequent growth of the seedlings of the target species in the presence of the tested compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil on milk somatic cell count, milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in Awassi sheep with subclinical mastitis.
Alekish, Myassar O; Ismail, Zuhair B; Awawdeh, Mofleh S; Shatnawi, Shoroq
The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of intramammary infusion of sage ( Salvia officinalis ) essential oil (EO) on milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in 20 Awassi ewes affected with subclinical mastitis. The dried leaves of sage were used to extract the EO by hydrodistillation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of sage EO against Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the broth dilution method. Ewes were divided randomly into three main groups and received one of the following treatments; Group 1 (n=5): Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone (5 ml; 0.2 ml of DMSO in 4.8 ml of saline), Group 2 (n=5): Amoxicillin alone (3 ml), and Group 3 (n=10): Sage EO (5 ml of sage EO solution [0.2 ml DMSO+1 ml EO+3.8 ml sterile saline]). All treatments were administered by intramammary infusion into each teat twice per day for 3 consecutive days. Milk samples for SCC and milk components determination and whole blood samples for hematology and serum biochemical analyses were collected before treatment (T0) and at 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) h after the last treatment. The MIC and MBC of sage EO against S. aureus were 12.5% and 6.1%, respectively. SCC was decreased significantly (p<0.05) at T24 and T48 h in sage EO and amoxicillin treated groups. Milk fat and lactose were increased significantly (p<0.05) in sage EO and amoxicillin treated ewes while no significant changes were observed in the percentages of solids-not-fat, protein and total solids. No significant effects of sage EO treatment on any of the hematology or serum biochemical parameters were observed. There were no local or systemic side effects observed in any of the treated ewes. However, further clinical trials are warranted to determine safety and possible withdrawal times in milk before its recommendation for use in organic operations. In this study, the intramammary infusion of
Bayram, Mustafa; Altuntas, Ebubekir; Yilar, Melih
Salvia seeds are promite to dietary and healthy oils because they contain essential fatty acids. Salvia seeds frequently produce mucilage on soaking, and this mucilage is used for the treatment of eye diseases in eastern countries. Salvia species studied for medicine, food and cosmetics, have the potential to be used in the various fields. In the present study, selected engineering (geometrical, volumetrical, colour and frictional) properties of 6 Salvia species seeds were determined and compared. This study was performed on selected engineering properties of seeds of 6 Salvia species ( Salvia viridis L., Salvia aethiopis L., Salvia cryptantha Montbert & Aucher ex Benthan., Salvia tomentosa Mill ., Salvia sclarea L., Salvia virgata Jacq.,) cultivated in Turkey. Plants were collected during the vegetation in 2012-2013 (May-Agust). The seeds were cleaned from foreign matter, dirt and broken seeds manually. The average length, width and thickness were found in the range of 2.61 to 3.53 mm, 1.59 to 2.92 mm and 1.14 to 2.52 mm, respectively. Salvia viridis L. specie had the lowest geometric mean diameter and surface area, whereas Salvia cryptantha L. had the least values among these 6 Salvia species for these properties. The bulk density, true density and the porosity were between 296.83 and 702.80 kg m -3 , 285.69 and 718.08 kg m -3 , 10.27 and 44.05%, respectively. The volume of unit seed and sphericity ranged between 2.56 and 13.64 mm 3 , 62.90 and 90.40%, respectively. The coefficient of friction of salvia species were largely influenced by the friction surfaces studied, and highest values were found for polywood in the Salvia crytantha L.. In the study, the static friction coefficient and the angle of repose of salvia species changed from 0.477 to 0.955, and from 14.09 to 23.57°, respectively. Determination of geometric, volumetric, colour and frictional properties of Salvia spp. seeds may increase their economic value.
Bayram, Mustafa; Altuntas, Ebubekir; Yilar, Melih
Background: Salvia seeds are promite to dietary and healthy oils because they contain essential fatty acids. Salvia seeds frequently produce mucilage on soaking, and this mucilage is used for the treatment of eye diseases in eastern countries. Salvia species studied for medicine, food and cosmetics, have the potential to be used in the various fields. In the present study, selected engineering (geometrical, volumetrical, colour and frictional) properties of 6 Salvia species seeds were determined and compared. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on selected engineering properties of seeds of 6 Salvia species (Salvia viridis L., Salvia aethiopis L., Salvia cryptantha Montbert & Aucher ex Benthan., Salvia tomentosa Mill., Salvia sclarea L., Salvia virgata Jacq.,) cultivated in Turkey. Plants were collected during the vegetation in 2012-2013 (May-Agust). The seeds were cleaned from foreign matter, dirt and broken seeds manually. Results: The average length, width and thickness were found in the range of 2.61 to 3.53 mm, 1.59 to 2.92 mm and 1.14 to 2.52 mm, respectively. Salvia viridis L. specie had the lowest geometric mean diameter and surface area, whereas Salvia cryptantha L. had the least values among these 6 Salvia species for these properties. The bulk density, true density and the porosity were between 296.83 and 702.80 kg m-3, 285.69 and 718.08 kg m-3, 10.27 and 44.05%, respectively. The volume of unit seed and sphericity ranged between 2.56 and 13.64 mm3, 62.90 and 90.40%, respectively. The coefficient of friction of salvia species were largely influenced by the friction surfaces studied, and highest values were found for polywood in the Salvia crytantha L.. In the study, the static friction coefficient and the angle of repose of salvia species changed from 0.477 to 0.955, and from 14.09 to 23.57°, respectively. Conclusion: Determination of geometric, volumetric, colour and frictional properties of Salvia spp. seeds may increase their economic
Volatile compounds from seven Salvia species and one interspecific hybrid growing at the Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, Texas, US, S. coccinea, S. farinacea, S. greggii, S. leucantha, S. longispicata × farinacea, S. madrensis, S. roemeriana and S. splendens were investigated for their chemic...
Kristin D. Huisinga
Although related taxa occur throughout the western United States, Salvia dorrii ssp. mearnsii is endemic to central Arizona. In part, its narrow distribution may be attributed to its limited fruit production, low seedling establishment, and germination requirements. Heavy herbivory pressures decreased the numbers of mature fruits in populations in two different...
Martínez-Francés, Vanessa; Hahn, Emeline; Ríos, Segundo; Rivera, Diego; Reich, Eike; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador
In Valencia Region (Spain), some wild and cultivated sages are used for medicinal purposes. Among them, Salvia officinalis subsp. lavandulifolia (SL) is widely employed and known for production of Spanish sage oil and herbal products. Nevertheless, it shares the market with S. blancoana subsp. mariolensis (SB) and, to a lesser extent, with their hybrid S. x hegelmaieri (SH). The knowledge on these two species is far low and confusion between them is possible. The aim of the present paper is to improve the ethnopharmacological, morphological and chemical knowledge of these sages, and to contribute to setting up quality specifications for improving identification and distinction from other Salvia species, such as, S. officinalis subsp. officinalis, S. x auriculata and S. microphylla var. microphylla. Samples were collected in Valencia Region and surrounding mountain areas during the ethnopharmacological field work. Twenty-nine medicinal uses were reported for SL, 13 of them being also recorded for SB. Of particular interest is a homemade liquor, used as digestive and known as “salvieta,” which is mainly prepared with SB. The macro- and microscopic characters are insufficient for identification of cut, crushed or powdered material. The study of the essential oil and a HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography) fingerprint of their extracts could help to distinguish SB from the other sages. The essential oil from dried aerial parts of SB (content: 1.8–4.5%) was characterized by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry) showing a composition close to that currently accepted for Spanish sage essential oil in the European Pharmacopoeia, ISO (International Standard Organization) and UNE (Una Norma Española) standards, with 1,8-cineole (13.7–45.7%) and camphor (12.1–28.6%) as major constituents. HPTLC methods, based on the analysis of hydroalcoholic and dichloromethane extracts
Identification of New Compounds from Sage Flowers (Salvia officinalis L.) as Markers for Quality Control and the Influence of the Manufacturing Technology on the Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Sage Flower Extracts.
Gericke, Sebastian; Lübken, Tilo; Wolf, Diana; Kaiser, Martin; Hannig, Christian; Speer, Karl
Parts of Salvia species such as its flowers and leaves are currently used as a culinary herb and for some medicinal applications. To distinguish the different sage extracts it is necessary to analyze their individual chemical compositions. Their characteristic compounds might be established as markers to differentiate between sage flowers and leaf extracts or to determine the manufacturing technology and storage conditions. Tri-p-coumaroylspermidine can be detected only in flowers and has been described here for Salvia and Lavandula species for the first time. Markers for oxidation processes are the novel compounds salviquinone A and B, which were generated from carnosol by exposure to oxygen. Caffeic acid ethyl ester was established as an indirect marker for the usage of ethanol as extraction solvent. The compounds were identified by LC-QTOF-HRESIMS, LC-MS, NMR, IR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction after isolation by semipreparative HPLC. Furthermore, sage flower resin showed interesting antibacterial in vitro activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Scholey, Andrew B; Tildesley, Nicola T J; Ballard, Clive G; Wesnes, Keith A; Tasker, Andrea; Perry, Elaine K; Kennedy, David O
Species of Salvia (sage) have a long-standing reputation in European medical herbalism, including for memory enhancement. In recent controlled trials, administration of sage extracts with established cholinergic properties improved cognitive function in young adults. This randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, five-period crossover study investigated the acute effects on cognitive performance of a standardised extract of Salvia officinalis in older adults. Twenty volunteers (>65 years of age, mean = 72.95) received four active doses of extract (167, 333, 666 and 1332 mg) and a placebo with a 7-day wash-out period between visits. Assessment involved completion of the Cognitive Drug Research computerised assessment battery. On study days, treatments were administered immediately following a baseline assessment with further assessment at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h post treatment. Compared with the placebo condition (which exhibited the characteristic performance decline over the day), the 333-mg dose was associated with significant enhancement of secondary memory performance at all testing times. The same measure benefited to a lesser extent from other doses. There also were significant improvements to accuracy of attention following the 333-mg dose. In vitro analysis confirmed cholinesterase inhibiting properties for the extract. The overall pattern of results is consistent with a dose-related benefit to processes involved in efficient stimulus processing and/or memory consolidation rather than retrieval or working memory efficiency. These findings extend those of the memory-enhancing effects of Salvia extracts in younger populations and warrant further investigation in larger series, in other populations and with different dosing regimes.
Hatipoglu, Seda Damla; Yalcinkaya, Burhanettin; Akgoz, Muslum; Ozturk, Turan; Goren, Ahmet C; Topcu, Gulacti
Salvia, an important and widely available member of Lamiaceae family. Although comparative analysis on secondary metabolites in several Salvia species from Turkey has been reported, their hallucinogenic chemicals have not been screened thoroughly. This study provides LC-MS/MS analysis of 40 Salvia species for screening their psychoactive constituents of salvinorin A and salvinorin B. 5S-rRNA gene non-coding region of Salvia plants was sequenced, aligned and compared with that sequence of Salvia divinorum plant. Targeted molecules of salvinorin A and salvinorin B were quantified, using LC-MS/MS, from all aerial parts of 40 Salvia species, collected from different parts of Turkey. Regions of 5S-rRNA gene from different species were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequences were aligned with Salvia divinorum DNA sequences. Very few of the Salvia species (S. recognita, S. cryptantha and S. glutinosa) contained relatively high levels of salvinorin A (212.86 ± 20.46 μg/g, 51.50 ± 4.95 μg/g and 38.92 ± 3.74 μg/g, respectively). Salvinorin B was also found in Salvia species of S. potentillifolia, S. adenocaulon and S. cryptantha as 2351.99 ± 232.22 μg/g, 768.78 ± 75.90 μg/g and 402.24 ± 39.71 μg/g, respectively. The sequences of 5S-rRNA gene of 40 different Salvia species were presented and it was found that none of the Salvia species in Turkey had similar DNA sequence to Salvia divinorum plant. This is the first report of screening 40 Salvia species in Turkey according to their psychoactive constituents, salvinorin A and salvinorin B and their genomic structures. It is possible that some of these Salvia species may exhibit some psycho activity. Thus, they need to be screened further. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Šulniūtė, Vaida; Pukalskas, Audrius; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas
Ten Salvia species, S. amplexicaulis, S. austriaca, S. forsskaolii S. glutinosa, S. nemorosa, S. officinalis, S. pratensis, S. sclarea, S. stepposa and S. verticillata were fractionated using supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized liquid (ethanol and water) extractions. Fifteen phytochemicals were identified using commercial standards (some other compounds were identified tentatively), 11 of them were quantified by ultra high pressure chromatography (UPLC) with quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF, TQ-S). Lipophilic CO 2 extracts were rich in tocopherols (2.36-10.07mg/g), while rosmarinic acid was dominating compound (up to 30mg/g) in ethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucuronide, caffeic and carnosic acids were quantitatively important phytochemicals in the majority other Salvia spp. Antioxidatively active constituents were determined by using on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis combined with 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (HPLC-DPPH). Development of high pressure isolation process and comprehensive characterisation of phytochemicals in Salvia spp. may serve for their wider applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhu, Nan; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Xinyu; Dong, Juan'e
We prepared protoplasts from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge suspension culture cells. Then, the protoplasts' vitality and functions were tested by fluorescein diacetate staining method and Fluo-3/AM flourescent probe. The optimal condition of protoplast isolation was Cellulase R-10 1.5%, Pectinase Y-23 0.3%, Macerozyme R-10 0.5%, 40 r/min 12 h, 600 r/min 5 min, and the protoplasts yield was 1.1x10(6) cells/g FW, the vitality was more than 95% by using fluorescein diacetate staining method. It has been confirmed that calcium fluorescent probe Fluo-3/AM can be successfully loaded into protoplasts.
Liang, Xiao; Liang, Zongsuo; Zhang, Meixiang; Shen, Shuang; Liu, Hongyun; Liu, Yan
Plants of the genus Salvia produce various types of phenolic compounds and tanshinones which are effective for treatment of coronary heart disease. Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib are two important members of the genus. In this study, metabolic profiles and cDNA-AFLP analysis of four samples were employed to identify novel genes potentially involved in phenolic compounds and tanshinones biosynthesis, including the red roots from the two species and two tanshinone-free roots from S. miltiorrhiza. The results showed that the red roots of S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib produced high contents of rosmarinic acid (21.77 mg/g) and tanshinone IIA (12.60 mg/g), but low content of salvianolic acid B (1.45 mg/g). The red roots of S. miltiorrhiza produced high content of salvianolic acid B (18.69 mg/g), while tanshinones accumulation in this sample was much less than that in S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib. Tanshinones were not detected in the two tanshinone-free samples, which produced high contents of phenolic compounds. A cDNA-AFLP analysis with 128 primer pairs revealed that 2300 transcript derived fragments (TDFs) were differentially expressed among the four samples. About 323 TDFs were sequenced, of which 78 TDFs were annotated with known functions through BLASTX searching the Genbank database and 14 annotated TDFs were assigned into secondary metabolic pathways through searching the KEGGPATHWAY database. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the expression of 9 TDFs was positively correlated with accumulation of phenolic compounds and tanshinones. These TDFs additionally showed coordinated transcriptional response with 6 previously-identified genes involved in biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic compounds in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots treated with yeast extract. The sequence data in the present work not only provided us candidate genes involved in phenolic compounds and tanshinones biosynthesis but also gave us
Süntar, Ipek; Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Keles, Hikmet; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan
Salvia L. species are widely used against wounds and skin infections in Turkish folk medicine. The aim of the present study is to evaluate wound healing activity of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts of Salvia cryptantha and Salvia cyanescens. For the assessment of wound healing activity linear incision and circular excision wound models were employed on rats and mice. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with the standard skin ointment Madecassol(®). Inhibition of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in skin aging, was achieved using ELISA microplate reader. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenger effect, ferrous ion-chelating ability, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests. The EtOH extract of Salvia cryptantha treated groups of animals showed 56.5% contraction, whereas the reference drug Madecassol(®) showed 100% contraction. On the other hand, the same extract on linear incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (33.2%) in wound tensile strength as compared to other groups. The results of histopathological examination maintained the upshot of linear incision and circular excision wound models as well. These findings specify that Salvia cryptantha for wound healing activity can be appealed further phytochemical estimation for spotting its active components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akaberi, M; Iranshahi, M; Mehri, S
The genus Salvia, from the Lamiaceae family, has diverse biological properties that are primarily attributable to their diterpene contents. There is no comprehensive review on the molecular signaling pathways of these active components. In this review, we investigated the molecular targets of bioactive Salvia diterpenes responsible for the treatment of nervous and cardiovascular diseases. The effects on different pathways, including apoptosis signaling, oxidative stress phenomena, the accumulation of amyloid beta plaques, and tau phosphorylation, have all been considered to be mechanisms of the anti-Alzheimer properties of Salvia diterpenes. Additionally, effects on the benzodiazepine and kappa opioid receptors and neuroprotective effects are noted as neuropharmacological properties of Salvia diterpenes, including tanshinone IIA, salvinorin A, cryptotanshinone, and miltirone. Tanshinone IIA, as the primary diterpene of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has beneficial activities in heart diseases because of its ability to scavenge free radicals and its effects on transcription factors, such as nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Additionally, tanshinone IIA has also been proposed to have cardioprotective properties including antiarrhythmic activities and effects on myocardial infarction. With respect to the potential therapeutic effects of Salvia diterpenes, comprehensive clinical trials are warranted to evaluate these valuable molecules as lead compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Salimikia, Iraj; Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Salek, Mehrnoosh
Background Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. Objectives This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca. Materials and Methods Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca. The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study
Siemann, H; Specka, M; Schifano, F; Deluca, P; Scherbaum, N
The German pages of the Internet were searched for the presence of the hallucinogenic herbal drug Salvia divinorum, which is not dealt with in current addiction medicine or psychiatric text books. The investigation is part of the EU sponsored project "Psychonaut" as preparatory work for the development of an Internet-based early warning system. The first 100 websites of the search using "Salvia divinorum" were compared with the search results for "cannabis" and "LSD". The following aspects of the sites were especially analyzed: the originator, marketing of drugs, and the attitude towards drug use. Salvia was offered for sale on approximately a third of the sites (29%); cannabis and LSD were not marketed on any sites. Official websites such as those from governmental organizations or universities were seldom found when searching for "Salvia divinorum", and then only under the last hits. The percentage of institutional sites (e. g. public organizations) were 12% with Salvia, 21% with cannabis, and 38% with LSD. A drug-friendly attitude was found at 64 % of the sites with regard to Salvia, 58% for cannabis, and 24% for LSD. The drug help system must be aware of that the Internet is a source of drug-related information, and of drug trade. As this investigation shows, sites often have a drug-friendly attitude. The low availability of official information on Salvia divinorum (also outside the Internet) relative to the presence of drug-friendly or drug trading sites is an indication that new trends of drug consumption can be tracked in the Internet before they will be found in official literature.
Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata
Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology. PMID:27536196
Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata
Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology.
Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Aragon-Martinez, Othoniel H; Díaz-Rubio, Laura; Franco-Cabrera, Santiago; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolas A; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Soto-Castro, Tely A; Martinez-Morales, Flavio; Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario
Due to the great global concern regarding bacterial resistance to antibiotics, an ongoing search for new molecules having antibacterial activity is necessary. This study evaluated the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of a hexane extract from the root of Salvia apiana. Salvia extracts at concentrations of 27, 13.5, 6.8 and 3.4mg/ml caused growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. However, no significant effect was observed on Escherichia coli and Candida tropicalis in comparison to vehicle. It was here demonstrated for the first time that Salvia apiana has an important antimicrobial effect on human pathogens of great clinical value, thus opening the field to continue the evaluation of this lamiaceous plant for its future use as a therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Salah, Karima Bel Hadj; Mahjoub, Mohamed Ali; Ammar, Samia; Michel, Laura; Millet-Clerc, Joelle; Chaumont, Jean Pierre; Mighri, Zine; Aouni, Mahjoub
This study examines the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of three Salvia species from Tunisia: Salvia aegyptiaca L., S. argentea L. and S. verbenaca Ssp. clandestina L. Pugsley. The extracts inhibited the growth of dermatophytes and of bacteria responsible for unpleasant odours to varying degrees; the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, the filamentous fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and selected dog otitis bacteria were all resistant to each of the extracts. The extracts were screened for their antioxidant activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) test systems, and gave positive results in both tests. The extracts of S. aegyptiaca were the most active in both tests, followed by those of S. verbenaca, then S. argentea. These results confirm the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the genus Salvia and underline the potential of these plants either as natural preservatives or in pharmaceutical applications.
Huang, Shu-Hua; Xu, Fu-Li; Wang, Wei-Ling; Du, Jun-Bo; Ru, Mei; Wang, Jing; Cao, Xian-Yan
Through the correlation analysis on the quantitative traits and their ratios of Salvia miltiorrhiza seedlings and seedling quality, a series of representative indices reflecting the seedling quality of the plant species were determined, and the seedling index suitable to the S. miltiorrhiza seedlings was ascertained by correlation degree analysis. Meanwhile, based on the relationships between the seedling index and the air temperature, solar radiation and air humidity, a simulation model for the seedling index of S. miltiorrhiza was established. The experimental data of different test plots and planting dates were used to validate the model. The results showed that the root diameter, stem diameter, crown dry mass, root dry mass, and plant dry mass had significant positive relationships with the other traits, and could be used as the indicators of the seedling's health. The seedling index of S. miltiorrhiza could be calculated by (stem diameter/root diameter + root dry mass/crown dry mass) x plant dry mass. The stem diameter, root dry mass, crown dry mass and plant dry mass had higher correlations with the seedling index, and thus, the seedling index determined by these indicators could better reflect the seedling's quality. The coefficient of determination (R2) between the predicted and measured values based on 1:1 line was 0.95, and the root mean squared error (RMSE) was 0.15, indicating that the model established in this study could precisely reflect the quantitative relationships between the seedling index of S. miltiorrhiza and the environmental factors.
Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine
Salvia is the largest genus in Lamiaceae and it has recently been found to be non-monophyletic. Molecular data on Old World Salvia are largely lacking. In this study, we present data concerning Salvia in Africa. The focus is on the colonization of the continent, character evolution and the switch of pollination systems in the genus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Analyses were based on two nuclear markers [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and one plastid marker (rpl32-trnL). Sequence data were generated for 41 of the 62 African taxa (66 %). Mesquite was used to reconstruct ancestral character states for distribution, life form, calyx shape, stamen type and pollination syndrome. Salvia in Africa is non-monophyletic. Each of the five major regions in Africa, except Madagascar, was colonized at least twice, and floristic links between North African, south-west Asian and European species are strongly supported. The large radiation in Sub-Saharan Africa (23 species) can be traced back to dispersal from North Africa via East Africa to the Cape Region. Adaptation to bird pollination in southern Africa and Madagascar reflects parallel evolution. The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent. Many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation, are reflected in this comparatively small group. The data presented in this study can help to understand the evolution of Salvia sensu lato and other large genera. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Qian, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Gao, Huanhuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Xu, Jiang; Pang, Xiaohui; Yao, Hui; Sun, Chao; Li, Xian'en; Li, Chuyuan; Liu, Juyan; Xu, Haibin; Chen, Shilin
Salvia miltiorrhiza is an important medicinal plant with great economic and medicinal value. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of Salvia miltiorrhiza, the first sequenced member of the Lamiaceae family, is reported here. The genome is 151,328 bp in length and exhibits a typical quadripartite structure of the large (LSC, 82,695 bp) and small (SSC, 17,555 bp) single-copy regions, separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 25,539 bp). It contains 114 unique genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and four rRNAs. The genome structure, gene order, GC content and codon usage are similar to the typical angiosperm cp genomes. Four forward, three inverted and seven tandem repeats were detected in the Salvia miltiorrhiza cp genome. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis among the 30 asterid cp genomes revealed that most SSRs are AT-rich, which contribute to the overall AT richness of these cp genomes. Additionally, fewer SSRs are distributed in the protein-coding sequences compared to the non-coding regions, indicating an uneven distribution of SSRs within the cp genomes. Entire cp genome comparison of Salvia miltiorrhiza and three other Lamiales cp genomes showed a high degree of sequence similarity and a relatively high divergence of intergenic spacers. Sequence divergence analysis discovered the ten most divergent and ten most conserved genes as well as their length variation, which will be helpful for phylogenetic studies in asterids. Our analysis also supports that both regional and functional constraints affect gene sequence evolution. Further, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a sister relationship between Salvia miltiorrhiza and Sesamum indicum. The complete cp genome sequence of Salvia miltiorrhiza reported in this paper will facilitate population, phylogenetic and cp genetic engineering studies of this medicinal plant.
Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine
Background and Aims Salvia is the largest genus in Lamiaceae and it has recently been found to be non-monophyletic. Molecular data on Old World Salvia are largely lacking. In this study, we present data concerning Salvia in Africa. The focus is on the colonization of the continent, character evolution and the switch of pollination systems in the genus. Methods Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Analyses were based on two nuclear markers [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and one plastid marker (rpl32-trnL). Sequence data were generated for 41 of the 62 African taxa (66 %). Mesquite was used to reconstruct ancestral character states for distribution, life form, calyx shape, stamen type and pollination syndrome. Key Results Salvia in Africa is non-monophyletic. Each of the five major regions in Africa, except Madagascar, was colonized at least twice, and floristic links between North African, south-west Asian and European species are strongly supported. The large radiation in Sub-Saharan Africa (23 species) can be traced back to dispersal from North Africa via East Africa to the Cape Region. Adaptation to bird pollination in southern Africa and Madagascar reflects parallel evolution. Conclusions The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent. Many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation, are reflected in this comparatively small group. The data presented in this study can help to understand the evolution of Salvia sensu lato and other large genera. PMID:24966353
Walker, Jay B.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.
Background and Aims The genus Salvia has traditionally included any member of the tribe Mentheae (Lamiaceae) with only two stamens and with each stamen expressing an elongate connective. The recent demonstration of the non-monophyly of the genus presents interesting implications for staminal evolution in the tribe Mentheae. In the context of a molecular phylogeny, the staminal morphology of the various lineages of Salvia and related genera is characterized and an evolutionary interpretation of staminal variation within the tribe Mentheae is presented. Methods Two molecular analyses are presented in order to investigate phylogenetic relationships in the tribe Mentheae and the genus Salvia. The first presents a tribal survey of the Mentheae and the second concentrates on Salvia and related genera. Schematic sketches are presented for the staminal morphology of each major lineage of Salvia and related genera. Key Results These analyses suggest an independent origin of the staminal elongate connective on at least three different occasions within the tribe Mentheae, each time with a distinct morphology. Each independent origin of the lever mechanism shows a similar progression of staminal change from slight elongation of the connective tissue separating two fertile thecae to abortion of the posterior thecae and fusion of adjacent posterior thecae. A monophyletic lineage within the Mentheae is characterized consisting of the genera Lepechinia, Melissa, Salvia, Dorystaechas, Meriandra, Zhumeria, Perovskia and Rosmarinus. Conclusions Based on these results the following are characterized: (1) the independent origin of the staminal lever mechanism on at least three different occasions in Salvia, (2) that Salvia is clearly polyphyletic, with five other genera intercalated within it, and (3) staminal evolution has proceeded in different ways in each of the three lineages of Salvia but has resulted in remarkably similar staminal morphologies. PMID:16926227
Shu, Guangwen; Zhao, Wenhao; Yue, Ling; Su, Hanwen; Xiang, Meixian
Salvia chinensis Benth (S. chinensis) is a traditional herb applied in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Polysaccharides abundantly exist in this plant. However, it remains poorly understood if polysaccharides from S. chinensis (PSSC) contribute to its anti-HCC activity. The in vivo anti-HCC activity of PSSC was evaluated in Kunming mice bearing H22 ascitic hepatoma cells. An array of physiological indexes was measured to evaluate toxicological effects on host animals. Subgroups of immune cells were purified by a magnetic-activated cell sorting system and analyzed by flow cytometry. Reverse transcription real-time PCR and immunoblotting were recruited to determine the effects of PSSC on the cellular signaling of different subgroup of immune cells. PSSC suppressed in vivo proliferation of H22 cells with undetectable toxic effects on tumor-bearing mice. PSSC alleviated tumor transplantation-induced CD4+ T cell apoptosis and dysregulation of serum cytokine profiles, which elevated cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8+ T cells. PSSC reduced serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Injection of exogenous PGE2 completely abrogated the antitumor immunostimulatory activity of PSSC. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is the second messager of PGE2. In CD4+ T cells, PSSC substantially declined intracellular cAMP. This event elevated protein levels of JAK3, enhancing STAT5 phosphorylation and STAT5-dependent expression of anti-apoptotic genes. Cyclooxygenase-2 is the key enzyme mediating biosynthesis of PGE2. PSSC suppressed the transcription and translation of cyclooxygenase-2 in tumor associated macrophages. Our data clearly showed antitumor immunostimulatory activity of PSSC against transplanted H22 HCC cells. Suppressing tumor transplantation-induced PGE2 production was implicated in the anti-tumor immunostimulatory activity of PSSC. These works provides novel insights into the traditional application of S. chinensis against HCC and supported
Lee, Tzung-Yan; Wang, Guei-Jane; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Han-Chieh
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is metabolized by cytochrome P450 to form a reactive trichloromethyl radical that triggers a chain of lipid peroxidation. These changes lead to cell injury, and chronic liver injury leads to excessive deposition of collagen in liver, resulting in liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term Salvia miltiorrhiza administration in CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Salvia miltiorrhiza (10, 25 or 50 mg kg(-1) twice a day) was given for 9 weeks, beginning at the same time as the injections of CCl4. Rats receiving CCl4 alone showed a decreased hepatic glutathione level and an increased glutathione-S-transferase content. The hepatic thiobarbituratic acid-reactive substance levels were increased. CCl4 also caused a prominent collagen deposition in liver histology that was further supported by the increased hepatic mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and procollagen I. Salvia miltiorrhiza administration led to a dose-dependent increase in hepatic glutathione levels and a decrease in peroxidation products. Additionally, it reduced the mRNA expression of markers for hepatic fibrogenesis. In conclusion, long-term administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza in rats ameliorated the CCl4-induced hepatic injury that probably related to a reduced oxidant stress and degree of hepatic fibrosis.
El-Khoury, Joseph; Sahakian, Nayiri
The association of substance abuse and psychotic disorders is of interest to clinicians, academics, and lawmakers. Commonly abused substances, such as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, and alcohol, have all been associated with substance-induced psychosis. Hallucinogens can induce desired psychedelic effects and undesirable psychomimetic reactions. These are usually transient and resolve once the duration of action is over. Sometimes, these effects persist, causing distress and requiring intervention. This article focuses on the hallucinogenic substance Salvia divinorum, the use of which has been observed, particularly among youth worldwide. We present background information based on a review of the literature and on our own clinical encounters, as highlighted by two original case reports. We hypothesize that consumption of Salvia divinorum could be associated with the development of psychotic disorders. We propose that clinicians routinely inquire about the use of Salvia in patients with substance use disorders or psychotic illnesses. More research is required to assess any relationship between Salvia divinorum and psychosis. Additionally, we advocate increased public and medical awareness of this substance and other emerging drugs of abuse.
Addy, Peter H; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Metzger, Matthew; Wade, Jenny
This study examined the overall psychological effects of inebriation facilitated by the naturally-occurring plant hallucinogen Salvia divinorum using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty healthy individuals self-administered Salvia divinorum via combustion and inhalation in a quiet, comfortable research setting. Experimental sessions, post-session interviews, and 8-week follow-up meetings were audio recorded and transcribed to provide the primary qualitative material analyzed here. Additionally, post-session responses to the Hallucinogen Rating Scale provided a quantitative groundwork for mixed-methods discussion. Qualitative data underwent thematic content analysis, being coded independently by three researchers before being collaboratively integrated to provide the final results. Three main themes and 10 subthemes of acute intoxication emerged, encompassing the qualities of the experience, perceptual alterations, and cognitive-affective shifts. The experience was described as having rapid onset and being intense and unique. Participants reported marked changes in auditory, visual, and interoceptive sensory input; losing normal awareness of themselves and their surroundings; and an assortment of delusional phenomena. Additionally, the abuse potential of Salvia divinorum was examined post hoc. These findings are discussed in light of previous research, and provide an initial framework for greater understanding of the subjective effects of Salvia divinorum, an emerging drug of abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.
Four diterpenes with biological activity were isolated from Salvia deserta roots. Taxodione was considered leishmanicidal, with IC50 value of 0.46 µg/mL against Leishimania donovani and also exhibited antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Ferruginol displayed the greatest activity (24-h IC50 1.29...
Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Shu-Rui; Hou, Jun-Ling; Wang, Wen-Quan; Xu, Zhen-Guang; Song, Yan; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Li, Jun
In this paper the contents of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, crytotanshinone, tanshinone II(A) in samples of different original processed Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were determined by HPLC. Different processing methods have varied influences on four active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Sun-drying reduced the content of crytotanshinone, tanshi-none II(A) and rosmarinic acid, integralsamples were better than those cut into segments. Oven dry method had great influence on water--soluble ingredients, high temperature (80-100 degrees C) could easily cause big loss of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B. The role of traditional processing method "fahan: was complicated, the content of rosmarinic acid decreased, crytotanshinone and tanshinone II(A) increased, and salvianolic acid B showed no difference after "fahan". Drying in the shade and oven dry under low temperatrure (40-60 degrees C) were all effective to keep active ingredients of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and, there was no difference between integral samples and samples cut into segments. Therefore, considering comprehensively the content of active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and processing costing etc., shade-drying or oven dry underlow temperature (40-60 degrees C) should be the most suitable original processing method.
Mora, S; Millán, R; Lungenstrass, H; Díaz-Véliz, G; Morán, J A; Herrera-Ruiz, M; Tortoriello, J
Behavioral effects of a hydroalcoholic (60% ethanol) extract from the leaves of Salvia elegans Vahl (Lamiaceae) were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract was administered intraperitoneally and its effects on spontaneous motor activity (total motility, locomotion, rearing and grooming behavior) were monitored. Putative anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of Salvia elegans were studied in the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) and in the forced swimming test (FST), respectively. Deleterious effects of Salvia elegans on learning and memory were also studied by using active and passive avoidance paradigms. The results revealed that all doses (3.12, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) of the extract caused a significant decrease in total motility, locomotion, rearing and grooming behavior. Only the dose of 12.5 mg/kg increased the exploration of the EPM open arms in a similar way to that of diazepam (1 mg/kg). In the FST, all doses of the extract induced a reduction of immobility, in a similar way to that of fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and imipramine (12.5 mg/kg), along with a significant increase in the time spent in swimming behavior. Acquisition of active avoidance responses was disrupted by pre-treatment with the extract, but retention of a passive avoidance response was not significantly modified. These results suggest that some of the components of the hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia elegans have psychotropic properties, which deserve further investigation.
Hao, Da Cheng; Chen, Shi Lin; Osbourn, Anne; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Liu, Li Wei; Jordán, Maria J
Salvia sclarea is a traditional medicinal and aromatic plant that grows in Europe and produces various economically important compounds, including phenylpropanoid derivatives and terpenoids. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is commonly used to elicit plant stress responses. However, how MeJA enhances production of secondary metabolites in S. sclarea is not well understood. We performed a genome-wide analysis of temporal gene expression in S. sclarea leaves and roots. The transcriptome profiles 0, 10 and 26 h after MeJA treatment were analyzed by Illumina RNA-Seq. A total of 16,142 isogenes (average length 866bp; N50 1035bp) were obtained by de novo assembly of 35,757,567 raw sequencing reads. When these sequencing reads were mapped onto the assembled Unigenes, 3236, 2792 and 798 Unigenes were found to be expressed differentially between 0 and 10h, 0 and 26 h, and 10 and 26h, respectively. These included many secondary metabolite biosynthesis, stress and defense-related genes. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression profiles of selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed by RNA-Seq data, and also extended our analysis of differential gene expression to 73 h. Our investigations revealed temporal differences in the responses of S. sclarea to MeJA treatment. MeJA treatment induced the expression of a large number of genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, especially between 0 and 10h, and 0 and 26 h. Additionally, many genes encoding transcription factors, cytochrome P450s, glycosyltransferases, methyltransferases and transporters were shown to respond to MeJA elicitation. DEGs related to structural molecule activity and cell death showed a significant temporal variation. A chromatographic analysis of metabolites at 26h, 73h and six days after MeJA treatment indicated that these transcriptomic changes precede MeJA-induced changes in secondary metabolite content. This study sheds light on the molecular mechanisms of MeJA elicitation and is helpful in
Bisio, Angela; Romussi, Giovanni; Russo, Eleonora; Cafaggi, Sergio; Schito, Anna Maria; Repetto, Barbara; De Tommasi, Nunziatina
As a part of our search for biologically active compounds from cultivated Salvia spp. we investigated Salvia corrugata Vahl. The activity of two isolated icetaxane diterpene quinones, fruticuline A and demethylfruticuline A, was assessed against 46 bacterial pathogens, mostly resistant to several primary antibiotics. The MIC for all the inhibited Gram-positive pathogens tested showed a very narrow distribution and ranged from 32 to 64 mg/L, regardless of their resistance patterns to other antibiotics. Demethylfruticuline A was shown to be highly bactericidal (>3 log(10) CFU decrease within 24 h) against Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis and bacteriostatic against Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. Fruticuline A manifested bacteriostatic activity against all tested strains. S. corrugata can be viewed as an interesting source for these diterpenes, which, if well tolerated in vivo, may represent new medical agents useful for the treatment of serious infections caused by resistant Gram-positive pathogens.
Wang, Linlin; Li, Yuanmin; Deng, Wen; Dong, Zhihui; Li, Xue; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Lijie; Fu, Weiguo; Cho, Kenka; Niu, Huaying; Guo, Dean; Cheng, Jinle; Jiang, Baohong
Myocardial infarction (MI) is considered as the major inducer to the morbidity and mortality related to coronary occlusion. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is widely applied in the clinic for the prevention and treatment of heart diseases. The preparation of traditional herb decoction (THD) is not only time consuming but also difficult to keep uniform for every time. New usage form of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge with characteristics of convenience, uniform and efficiency is needed. The aims of present study were to investigate the cardio-protection of ultrafine granular powder (UGP) of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge; and further compare the characteristics of UGP with THD. MI was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery near the main pulmonary artery. Cardio-protection of UGP or THD was evaluated based on two sets of experiments, one was acute myocardial infarction (AMI) through 7 days preventive administration, and the other one was chronic cardiac remodeling through 28 days therapeutic administration. Hemodynamic measurement was conducted to evaluate heart function and histopathological detection was used to evaluate heart structure. No significant improvement of heart structure and function was detected for preventive administration of UGP or THD on AMI rats. While, more significant improvements on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function were detected with therapeutic treatment with 0.81 g/kg UGP than same dose of THD on rats against chronic cardiac remodeling. Both UGP and THD showed the protective effects on heart structure, especially against fibrosis with long-term therapeutic treatment. As a new usage form of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, UGP showed significant cardio-protection against myocardial remodeling with therapeutic treatment. Comparing with THD, UGP also holds the advantages of uniform, convenience and efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stogner, John; Khey, David N; Griffin, O Hayden; Miller, Bryan Lee; Boman, John H
A plant with dissociative and psychoactive properties began to attract the attention of the media and United States policymakers following a well-publicized suicide in 2006 and reports that the plant served as a 'legal high' and substitute for cannabis. As a result, Salvia divinorum and its active ingredient, salvinorin A, were classified as Schedule I substances by the Florida Legislature on July 1, 2008. As of yet, no research has explored the efficacy of this policy or similar policies in other jurisdictions. Three self-report studies collected from young adults both prior to and following the policy's implementation are employed to investigate the potential relationship between the policy and usage rates. In addition, law enforcement personnel from the state's most populated areas were interviewed to determine the extent to which they were encountering salvia in their work. It was indicated that less than two-thirds of those surveyed were aware of the drug's legal status. Lifetime prevalence of salvia use was largely unchanged. However, the rates of self-reported past year and past month use in Florida were significantly lower following the scheduling. Though use of Salvia divinorum appears to have decreased, perceptions of peer use increased markedly. Law enforcement officers and laboratories reported rarely, if ever, dealing with cases of salvia possession. Data suggests the classification of Salvia divinorum as a Schedule I drug was followed by a substantial reduction in recreational use. We caution that other factors may have influenced use, that the efficacy of scheduling novel substances is likely to vary by drug type, that such a reduction in reported use may only exist transiently until a sophisticated illicit market develops to replace the legitimate one, and that a state's success in regulating salvia may be related to their regulation of and enforcement of other drug prohibitions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zomorodian, Kamiar; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Pakshir, Keyvan; Karami, Forough; Sabahi, Zahra
Resistance of many pathogens to available drugs is a global challenge and is leading to growing interest in natural alternative products. In this study, chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oil from Salvia mirzayanii were investigated. The chemical constituents of essential oil from S mirzayanii were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity was determined by broth microdilution. The main identified compounds were 1,8-cineole (41.2 ± 1.3%), linalool acetate (11.0 ± 0.5%), and α-terpinyl acetate (6.0 ± 0.4%) (mL of essential oil/g of plant material). The MIC 95 were 0.03 to 0.5 µL/mL and 16 to 128 µL/mL for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These results indicated that Salvia mirzayanii essential oil significantly inhibited the growth of standard and clinically isolated tested yeasts by MIC 50 0.03 to 1 µL/mL. Potent antibacterial and antifungal activities of Salvia mirzayanii essential oil may be considered in future study, particularly against antibiotic-resistant cases.
Al-Bakri, Amal G.; Othman, Ghadeer; Afifi, Fatma U.
Background: Several Salvia species are indigenous to Jordan and are widely used as beverages and spices and for their medicinal properties. The objective of the study was to establish the antimicrobial activities, including the antiadhesive and antibiofilm effects of seven different Salvia species. Materials and Methods: Methods used for planktonic culture included agar diffusion, broth microdilution, and minimal biocidal concentration determination while viable count was used for the determination of the antibiofilm and antiadhesion activities. Overnight cultures of reference strains of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus and clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were used as test microorganisms. Results: An antimicrobial activity toward planktonic cultures demonstrated a significant bacteriocidal activity (≥4 log cycle reduction) for the S. triloba extract against S. aureus including MRSA. Its volatile oil exhibited an antimicrobial activity covering all tested microorganisms with the exception of P. aeruginosa. S. triloba extract and volatile oil were successful in preventing and controlling the biofilm, demonstrating antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities, respectively. Conclusion: These reported activities for S. triloba extract and volatile oil allows their listing as potential antibiofilm and anti-MRSA natural agents. This might suggest their use as an antiseptic in the prophylaxis and treatment of S. aureus-associated skin infections. The antimicrobial activity of the other tested Salvia species was negligible. PMID:21120026
Al-Bakri, Amal G; Othman, Ghadeer; Afifi, Fatma U
Several Salvia species are indigenous to Jordan and are widely used as beverages and spices and for their medicinal properties. The objective of the study was to establish the antimicrobial activities, including the antiadhesive and antibiofilm effects of seven different Salvia species. Methods used for planktonic culture included agar diffusion, broth microdilution, and minimal biocidal concentration determination while viable count was used for the determination of the antibiofilm and antiadhesion activities. Overnight cultures of reference strains of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus and clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were used as test microorganisms. An antimicrobial activity toward planktonic cultures demonstrated a significant bacteriocidal activity (≥4 log cycle reduction) for the S. triloba extract against S. aureus including MRSA. Its volatile oil exhibited an antimicrobial activity covering all tested microorganisms with the exception of P. aeruginosa. S. triloba extract and volatile oil were successful in preventing and controlling the biofilm, demonstrating antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities, respectively. These reported activities for S. triloba extract and volatile oil allows their listing as potential antibiofilm and anti-MRSA natural agents. This might suggest their use as an antiseptic in the prophylaxis and treatment of S. aureus-associated skin infections. The antimicrobial activity of the other tested Salvia species was negligible.
Zomorodian, Kamiar; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Pakshir, Keyvan; Karami, Forough; Sabahi, Zahra
Resistance of many pathogens to available drugs is a global challenge and is leading to growing interest in natural alternative products. In this study, chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oil from Salvia mirzayanii were investigated. The chemical constituents of essential oil from S mirzayanii were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity was determined by broth microdilution. The main identified compounds were 1,8-cineole (41.2 ± 1.3%), linalool acetate (11.0 ± 0.5%), and α-terpinyl acetate (6.0 ± 0.4%) (mL of essential oil/g of plant material). The MIC95 were 0.03 to 0.5 µL/mL and 16 to 128 µL/mL for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These results indicated that Salvia mirzayanii essential oil significantly inhibited the growth of standard and clinically isolated tested yeasts by MIC50 0.03 to 1 µL/mL. Potent antibacterial and antifungal activities of Salvia mirzayanii essential oil may be considered in future study, particularly against antibiotic-resistant cases. PMID:28689440
Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammed, Shafi; Mehjabeen, -; Jahan, Noor
Most of the species of genus Salvia are famous for having medicinal properties due to their chemical constituents. Salvia bucharica (Lamiacea) is found in Balochistan near Quetta in Hannaurak and Kalat. It is used in traditional system of medicine and claims to cure liver ailments. In current study crude methanolic extract (CME) of Salvia bucharica was obtained from the leaves and tested for hepatoprotective activity and possible toxicity in rabbits. Liver toxicity was induced in rabbits by administration of carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) and evaluated by biochemical tests and histopathology of tissues. In this study rabbits were divided in to 3 groups (5 rabbit in each group). Rabbits of group I (control) were administered only vehicle (0.9% sodium chloride) orally. Rabbits of group II were given CCl4 and group III were treated with CCl4 and S. bucharica CME orally. For hepatoprotective effect serum enzyme level and total protein level were calculated. Histopathology of liver sections of rabbits was also carried out to observe protective effect. Biochemical, hematological and histoptahological parameters were studied on rabbits for toxicological studies. S. bucharica CME showed significant liver protection with reduction in total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT). And decrease in Albumin and globulin. In toxicological studies, biochemical and histoptahological parameters showed no significant toxicity in liver, heart and kidneys. It is concluded that S. bucharica CME showed hepatoprotective effects with nontoxic profile.
Armada, Elisabeth; Roldán, Antonio; Azcon, Rosario
The effectiveness of autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria was studied in Lavandula dentata and Salvia officinalis growing in a natural arid Mediterranean soil under drought conditions. These bacteria identified as Bacillus megaterium (Bm), Enterobacter sp. (E), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and Bacillus sp. (Bsp). Each bacteria has different potential to meliorate water limitation and alleviating drought stress in these two plant species. B. thuringiensis promoted growth and drought avoidance in Lavandula by increasing K content, by depressing stomatal conductance, and it controlled shoot proline accumulation. This bacterial effect on increasing drought tolerance was related to the decrease of glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) that resulted sensitive indexes of lower cellular oxidative damage involved in the adaptative drought response in B. thuringiensis-inoculated Lavandula plants. In contrast, in Salvia, having intrinsic lower shoot/root ratio, higher stomatal conductance and lower APX and GR activities than Lavandula, the bacterial effects on nutritional, physiological and antioxidant enzymatic systems were lower. The benefit of bacteria depended on intrinsic stress tolerance of plant involved. Lavadula demonstrated a greater benefit than Salvia to control drought stress when inoculated with B. thuringiensis. The bacterial drought tolerance assessed as survival, proline, and indolacetic acid production showed the potential of this bacteria to help plants to grow under drought conditions. B. thuringiensis may be used for Lavandula plant establishment in arid environments. Particular characteristic of the plant species as low shoot/root ratio and high stomatal conductance are important factors controlling the bacterial effectiveness improving nutritional, physiological, and metabolic plant activities.
Casselman, Ivan; Heinrich, Michael
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE AND AIMS: The traditional use of the Hallucinogenic sage, Salvia divinorum has been of ethnopharmalogical interest for some time. This plant, endemic to Oaxaca Mexico and traditionally used by the Mazatec, is now utilized worldwide for its psychoactive effects. This use demonstrates a novel use pattern which is distinctly different from Mazatec use. This study offers a new methodology to study emerging global plant use and assesses the users' experience with it. The aim of this research was to develop a new methodology to collect and analyze archived data on the World Wide Web, specifically videos which depict Salvia divinorum use. The basis of the methodology for this project was unobtrusive observation which allows the researcher to observe without influencing the event which is being observed. Qualitative, ethnographic data was used in conjunction with quantitative meta data collected by a customized web crawler programed to archive YouTube™ data. Using this methodology enabled us to understand reported uses and the users' experiences as expressed on the World Wide Web. The main result of this research was the documentation of a distinct, novel use pattern of Salvia divinorum which has developed outside of Oaxaca; a use pattern which differs in a number of ways from traditional, Mazatec use. The majority of the YouTube™ videos analyzed were found to present indications of a positive Salvia divinorum experience. This result highlighted the contradiction between ethnographic data and what is reported by the media. Finally the representation of Salvia divinorum on YouTube™ (and by inference the WWW as a whole) is a growing phenomena. While anthropological and more specifically medico-anthropological research has, for many years, embraced the dynamics of cultures, until recently, ethnopharmalogical research has generally focused on 'traditional' plant use, failing to capture the dynamic elements of plant/human interaction and
Demirezer, Lütfiye Ömür; Gürbüz, Perihan; Kelicen Uğur, Emine Pelin; Bodur, Mine; Özenver, Nadire; Uz, Ayse; Güvenalp, Zühal
To evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of the major molecule from Salvia sp., rosmarinic acid, as a drug candidate molecule for treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). The AChE inhibitory activity of different extracts from Salvia trichoclada, Salvia verticillata, and Salvia fruticosa was determined by the Ellman and isolated guinea pig ileum methods, and the antioxidant capacity was determined with DPPH. The AChE inhibitory activity of the major molecule rosmarinic acid was determined by in silico docking and isolated guinea pig ileum methods. The methanol extract of Salvia trichoclada showed the highest inhibition on AChE. The same extract and rosmarinic acid showed significant contraction responses on isolated guinea pig ileum. All the extracts and rosmarinic acid showed high radical scavenging capacities. Docking results of rosmarinic acid showed high affinity to the selected target, AChE. In this study in vitro and ex vivo studies and in silico docking research of rosmarinic acid were used simultaneously for the first time. Rosmarinic acid showed promising results in all the methods tested.
Liu, Song-Qing; Jiang, Hua-Ming; Guan, Tong-Wei; Qi, Shan-Shan; Gu, Yun-Fu; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping
Twenty-four endophytic actinomycetes strains were isolated from the Salvia przewalskii in Tibetan Plateau of China by tablet coating method. Fusarium moniliforme, Helminthosporium turcicum and Bipolaris maydis were selected as indicator fungi to test the antimicrobial activities of these endophytic actinomycetes by tablet confrontation method. The results showed that 21 strains can produce antimicrobial substances which accounts for 85.7% of the total separates number. Four strains of endogenous actinomyces have more obvious antifungi activity. According to results of morphology and culture properties and 16S rDNA sequences of endophytic actinomyces, it is concluded that all of the isolates were streptomycetes trains.
Kondrat'eva, v V; Voronkova, T V; Shelepova, O V; Olekhnovich, L S
Changes in the hormonal balance and the contents of carbohydrates, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in overwintering organs of the biennial herb clary (Salvia sclarea L.) have been studied in relation to the adverse influence of environmental factors. Weather-related changes in tissue contents of cytokinins (CTK), abscisic acid (ABA), water-soluble sugars, and mineral nutrients elements have been detected in these organs. Each overwintering organ (rosette leaves, the basal part of the stem with axillary growth buds, and the storage portion of the root) is characterized by specific dynamics of the compounds tested. The role of phytohormones and carbohydrates in realization of plant adaptation potential is discussed.
Tekeli, Yener; Karpuz, Esra; Danahaliloglu, Hatice; Bucak, Serbay; Guzel, Yelda; Erdmann, Helmuth
Antioxidants are of great importance for preventing oxidative stress that may cause several degenerative diseases. Studies have indicated phytochemicals have high free-radical scavenging activity, which helps to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The aim of the present study is the determination of antioxidant properties, polyphenolic content and multidrug resistant bacteria of Salvia verticcilata L. Methanol was used as the extraction solvent. The total phenolic content was calculated using Folin-Ciocalteau method and phenolic composition was determined by HPLC. The radical scavenging activity of plant was evaluated in vitro based on the reduction of the stable DPPH free radical. The reducing capacity was identified by using the FRAP method. The ability of Salvia verticcilata L. to increase the permeability of multidrug resistant bacterial cells was conducted by flow cytometric assay on Listeria innocua and E-coli. The amount of total phenolics was found to be 347.5 mg GA/g extract. The IC50 value and FRAP assay are 0.61, and 0.944 respectively, Free radical scavenging effect and FRAP values are less than synthetic antioxidant compounds (BHA and BHT). Eight phenolic compounds were found in Salvia verticcilata L. Intense concentration of S. verticcilata L. has destroyed 97 % of living cells for Listeria innocua and 94.86% for E-coli. This study shows that methanolic extracts of Salvia verticcilata L. is a potential source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agent and can form the basis for pharmacological studies.
Kristin D. Huisinga
Although related taxa occur throughout the western United States, Salvia dorrii ssp. mearnsii is endemic to central Arizona. In part, its narrow distribution may be attributed to prehistoric human influences. A spatial analysis was used to determine the relationship of archaeological sites and populations of S. dorrii ssp. mearnsii. In the lower Verde Valley,...
Wang, Z W; Gao, S Z; Cheng, B C
To explore the therapeutic mechanism of Salvia miltiorrhize, ligustrazine and Panax notoginseng in treating late hemorrhagic shock in rabbit. Rabbit hemorrhagic shock models (MPA 5.3 kPa) were set up according to Wiggers' method and administrated Salvia miltiorrhiza, ligustrazine, Panax notoginseng. The values of blood RBC superoxide dismutase (SOD) and blood lactate (BL), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and magnesium (Mg++) were continuously monitored before shock, 120 minutes after shock, 60 and 120 minutes after hydraulic dilatation. (1) In 120 minutes after shock, the level of SOD decreased and the concentrations of MDA, BL, Mg++ were markedly increased, which indicated that the cell membrane damage caused by oxygen free radicals in rabbit hemorrhagic shock. (2) Salvia miltiorrhiza, Ligustrazine or Panax notoginseng could alleviate lipidperoxidation injury to tissue. Compared with the single drug administration groups, the effects of oxygen free radicals scavangers by combined administration with half dose of 2 drugs were better than the single drug with full dose alone and the side effects such as depression of blood pressure and heart rates would be alleviated. Combined administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza, ligustrazine and Panax notoginseng would half the dosage, the blood pressure depression and heart rate reduction alleviated and better result obtained.
Niu, Min; Liu, Hong-Yan; Li, Jia; Zhang, Yong-qing
To explore the effective components represented by fingerprint contributed to allelopathic effect of different Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous concentration on seeds and seedlings of radish, grey relational analysis was used to establish the chromatography-efficacy relation. The results show that 15 peaks devote high allelopathic contribution to radish seeds and seedlings. The study will provide a new concept for allelochemicals screening and study.
Shen, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Qi; Yan, Zhu-Yun; Yang, Xin-Jie; Guo, Xiao-Heng; Chen, Xin; Wan, De-Guang
In order to investigate the content and distribution of available element in the rhizonsphere soil of the growing areas of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, the contents of available element (N,P,K,B,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn) in 26 soil samples were tested and evaluated. The results showed that the contents of available P and Fe were very plentiful, available K, Cu and Zn were rich, available N and Mn were deficient, available B was extremely deficient in all growing areas of S. miltiorrhiza of eight provinces in China. The correlation analysis showed that the contents of eight kinds of available elements were varying degree correlation. The stepwise regression analysis between the contents of available elements of rhizonsphere soil and ten kinds of active ingredients of Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma) were researched. The results showed that the rates of contribution of available N,B,Mn and Fe to quality of Danshen were relatively large and they were the significant factors, and the other factors did not show statistical significance. The recommended fertilizing strategies is that the usage of N,B and Mn fertilizers should be controlled according to different stages of growth of S. miltiorrhiza, and P fertilizer should be reduced in all growing areas of S. miltiorrhiza. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Travis, C R; Ray, G A; Marlowe, K F
Introduction. This is the first reported case of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with withdrawal after chronic use of this substance. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to a hospital with a 3-day history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. She reported no sick family members or contact with anyone who was ill. She did report smoking 3-5 cigarettes of the herb "Salvia" consistently for 3-4 months and quit approximately 48 hours before symptoms appeared. Her use of the herb had been consistent; she smoked several cigarettes each day. Laboratory results were essentially normal including the white blood cell count. She received symptomatic treatment and was released after one day. Discussion. Salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, is the major active ingredient of S. divinorum. The unique opioid properties of this herb may explain its ability to cause changes in intestinal transit time. Conclusion. A 51-year-old woman possibly developed gastrointestinal manifestations suggestive of withdrawal from Salvia divinorum after smoking the substance consistently for 3 to 4 months. The widespread use of this herb will make the potential for withdrawal syndromes more commonplace.
Wang, Lili; Ma, Rufeng; Liu, Chenyue; Liu, Haixia; Zhu, Ruyuan; Guo, Shuzhen; Tang, Minke; Li, Yu; Niu, Jianzhao; Fu, Min; Gao, Sihua; Zhang, Dongwei
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, also known as Danshen in Chinese, has been widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in China and other Asia countries. Here, we summarize literatures of the historical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interpretation of the action of Salvia miltiorrhiza, its use in current clinical trials, its main phytochemical constituents and its pharmacological findings by consulting Pubmed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, China Science and Technology Journal, and the Web of Science Databases. Since 2000, 39 clinical trials have been identified that used S. miltiorrhiza in TCM prescriptions alone or with other herbs for the treatment of patients with CVD. More than 200 individual compounds have been isolated and characterized from S. miltiorrhiza, which exhibited various pharmacological activities targeting different pathways for the treatment of CVD in various animal and cell models. The isolated compounds may provide new perspectives in alternative treatment regimes and reveal novel chemical scaffolds for the development of anti-CVD drugs. Meanwhile, there are also some rising concerns of the potential side effects and drug-drug interactions of this plant. The insights gained from this study will help us to better understanding of the actions of this herb for management of cardiovascular disorders. As an herb of red root, S. miltiorrhiza will act as a potential red light to prevent the development of CVD. PMID:27748194
Dai, Xin-Xin; Shen, Fei; Su, Shu-Lan; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Sheng; Jiang, Shu; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao
Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma residues were pre-treated with acid and alkali, degraded by using cellulose, and the effects of different processing methods on the extraction rate of tanshinones were compared to provide scientific basis for development and utilization of tanshinones from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma residues. The results showed that in the Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma residues without pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis time of 4.5 d could make most of the cellulose degraded when the concentration of substrate enzyme concentration was 6 U•mL-1, and the highest glucose concentration was 59.74 mg•g⁻¹. It was found that the best effect was achieved after alkali pre-treatment-cellulose C degradation among the different pre-treatment methods, and the glucose content reached 119.50 mg•g⁻¹, followed by the same concentration of acid pre-treatment-cellulose C degradation. The extraction amount of tanshinone ⅡA was increased by 82.54% after enzyme degradation, with a mass fraction of 2.451 mg•g⁻¹; extraction amount of tanshinone I was increased by 81.82% after enzyme degradation, with a mass fraction of 2.373 mg•g⁻¹; extraction amount of cryptotanshinone was increased by 64.4% after enzyme degradation, with a mass fraction of 1.080 mg•g⁻¹; extraction amount of dihydrotanshinone I was increased by 61.3% after enzyme degradation, with a mass fraction of 0.601 2 mg•g⁻¹. Acid and alkali pre-treatment combined with cellulose degradation could effectively improve the extraction rate of tanshinones from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma residues. This method is operable and practical, and it is beneficial for improving the utilization efficiency of tanshinones (resource based chemicals) from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma residues. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Cui, Yi-Ran; Liu, Xin; Shen, Dan; Yang, Hong-Jun; Tang, Shi-Huan
In this study, formulas containing Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Carthami Flos in the database of Dictionary of Chinese Medicine Prescription (DCMP) were extracted by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS). The drugs pairs and formula composition rules were analyzed with data mining methods, such as association rules, improved mutual information method and complex system entropy clustering. Totally 39 formulas were included in this study and involved 280 Chinese medicines. The top 5 Chinese medicines most frequently used were Danggui (Angelica sinensis), Chuanxiong (Ligusticum chuanxiong), Xiangfu (Cyperi Rhizoma), Baishao(Radix Paeoniae Alba), Taoren(Prunus persica) and Shengdihuang (Radix Rehmanniae Recens). Six core medicinal pairs were obtained through clustering analysis, namely Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma)-Xiangfu (Cyperi Rhizoma)-Honghua (Carthami Flos), Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma)-Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba)-Honghua (Carthami Flos), Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma)-Danggui (A. sinensis)-Xiagnfu (Cyperi Rhizoma)-Honghua (Carthami Flos), Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma)-Danggui (A. sinensis)-Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba)-Honghua (Carthami Flos), Honghua (Carthami Flos)-Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma)-Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba)-Danggui (A. sinensis), Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma)-Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba)-Honghua (Carthami Flos)-Danggui (A. sinensis). The support degree was set at 11 (38.46%), with a confidence coefficient of 80%, and then 38 associated pairs were screened. These results suggested that Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Carthami Flos is often combined with herbs for activating blood and promoting circulation of qi to treat gynecopathy, stasis blood pain syndrome, stroke and other syndromes. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wang, Tie-Lin; Guan, Wei; Sun, Kai; Wang, Sheng; Chi, Xiu-Lian; Guo, Lan-Ping
Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) is a perennial herbal plant as a bulk commodity of traditional Chinese medicinal material. With the growing market demand, the planting scale of Danshen has been fast enlarged. The occurance of diseases on Danshen has become as a major threaten of its production. Root diseases are most devastated on Danshen. Rootrot is the most important disease, and Fusarium wilt comes second. Leaf spot occurs most on aerial part of Danshen. In the Danshen industry, the chemical control is most commonly used, with biological agents as supplements. This review summarized the symptom, pathogen, epidemiology, and control method of 7 diseases on Danshen (rootrot, Fusarium wilt, southern blight, root knot nematode, leaf spot, leaf red and virus diseases), providing guidelines for disease diagnostics, pathogen isolation and identification, proper pesticide application and integrated control. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Celli, Marcos G.; Perotto, Maria C.; Martino, Julia A.; Flores, Ceferino R.; Conci, Vilma C.; Pardina, Patricia Rodriguez
Chia (Salvia hispanica), an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICTV taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification. DNA-A from Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 exhibited 96.1% nucleotide identity with a Bolivian isolate of Sida micrantha, and Tomato yellow spot virus showed 95.3% nucleotide identity with an Argentine bean isolate. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting chia as well as of the occurrence of Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 in Argentina. PMID:25243369
Nadir, Muhammad; Rasheed, Munawwer; Sherwani, Sikandar Khan; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin
In view of the reputation of genus Salvia in folklore medicine and its abundance in our region, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from S. santolinifolia Boiss. was analyzed. Chemical analysis, using gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry, retention indices and C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has resulted in identification of 116 constituents, comprising about 97% of the total constituents. Out of these 116, 78 constituents are hitherto unreported from this source. The species belongs to α-pinene chemotype. In antibacterial assay, gram negative gastropathogens (Shigella boydii, S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae); causative agent of urinary tract infection (Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris) and pneumonia (Klebsiella pneumoniae) were found sensitive to this essential oil while Corynebacteria species and Staphylococcus epidermidis were significantly inhibited in antibacterial assay against gram positive bacteria. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocol was used for determining antimicrobial activity. Thus the essential oil from this species can be utilized as potential chemotherapeutic agent.
Gong, Xing-Chu; Shen, Ji-Chen; Qu, Hai-Bin
Continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing is one of the development directions in international pharmaceutical technology. In this study, a continuous mixing technology of ethanol and concentrated extract in the ethanol precipitation of Salvia miltiorrhiza was realized by using a membrane dispersion method. The effects of ethanol flowrate, concentrated extract flowrate, and flowrate ratio on ethanol precipitation results were investigated. With the increase of the flowrates of ethanol and concentrated extract, retention rate of active phenolic acids components was increased, and the total solid removal rate was decreased. The purity of active components in supernatants was mainly affected by the ratio of ethanol flowrate and concentrated extract flowrate. The mixing efficiency of adding ethanol under continuous flow mixing mode in this study was comparable to that of industrial ethanol precipitation. Continuous adding ethanol by using a membrane dispersion mixer is a promising technology with many advantages such as easy enlargement, large production per unit volume, and easy control. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Ruffoni, Barbara; Bertoli, Alessandra; Pistelli, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa
Salvia wagneriana Polak is a tropical species native to Central America, well adapted to grow in the Mediterranean basin for garden decoration. Micropropagation has been assessed from axillary shoots of adult plants using a Murashige and Skoog basal medium, with the addition of 1.33-μM 6-benzylaminopurine for shoot proliferation; the subsequent rooting phase occurred in plant growth regulator-free medium. The plants were successfully acclimatised with high survival frequency. Hairy roots were induced after co-cultivation of leaf lamina and petiole fragments with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and confirmed by PCR. The establishment and proliferation of the selected HRD3 line were obtained in hormone-free liquid medium and the production of rosmarinic acid (RA) was evaluated after elicitation. The analysis of RA was performed by LC-ESI-DAD-MS in the hydroalcoholic extracts. The addition of casein hydrolysate increased the RA production, whereas no enrichment was observed after the elicitation with jasmonic acid.
Caissard, Jean-Claude; Olivier, Thomas; Delbecque, Claire; Palle, Sabine; Garry, Pierre-Philippe; Audran, Arthur; Valot, Nadine; Moja, Sandrine; Nicolé, Florence; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Legrand, Sylvain; Baudino, Sylvie; Jullien, Frédéric
Sclareol is a high-value natural product obtained by solid/liquid extraction of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) inflorescences. Because processes of excretion and accumulation of this labdane diterpene are unknown, the aim of this work was to gain knowledge on its sites of accumulation in planta. Samples were collected in natura or during different steps of the industrial process of extraction (steam distillation and solid/liquid extraction). Samples were then analysed with a combination of complementary analytical techniques (gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer, polarized light microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy). According to the literature, it is hypothesized that sclareol is localized in oil pockets of secretory trichomes. This study demonstrates that this is not the case and that sclareol accumulates in a crystalline epicuticular form, mostly on calyces.
Caissard, Jean-Claude; Olivier, Thomas; Delbecque, Claire; Palle, Sabine; Garry, Pierre-Philippe; Audran, Arthur; Valot, Nadine; Moja, Sandrine; Nicolé, Florence; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Legrand, Sylvain; Baudino, Sylvie; Jullien, Frédéric
Sclareol is a high-value natural product obtained by solid/liquid extraction of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) inflorescences. Because processes of excretion and accumulation of this labdane diterpene are unknown, the aim of this work was to gain knowledge on its sites of accumulation in planta. Samples were collected in natura or during different steps of the industrial process of extraction (steam distillation and solid/liquid extraction). Samples were then analysed with a combination of complementary analytical techniques (gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer, polarized light microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy). According to the literature, it is hypothesized that sclareol is localized in oil pockets of secretory trichomes. This study demonstrates that this is not the case and that sclareol accumulates in a crystalline epicuticular form, mostly on calyces. PMID:23133579
Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Canzoneri, Marisa; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice
The objectives of our research were to study the chemical composition and the in vitro anticancer effect of the essential oil of Salvia verbenaca growing in natural sites in comparison with those of cultivated (Sc) plants. The oil from wild (Sw) S. verbenaca presented hexadecanoic acid (23.1%) as the main constituent, while the oil from Sc plants contained high quantities of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (9.7%), scarce in the natural oil (0.7%). The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the essential oils from Sw and Sc S. verbenaca were evaluated in the human melanoma cell line M14, testing cell vitality, cell membrane integrity, genomic DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. Both the essential oils were able to inhibit the growth of the cancer cells examined inducing also apoptotic cell death, but the essential oil from cultivated samples exhibited the major effects.
Adams, James David; Wang, Rubin; Yang, Jun; Lien, Eric Jungchi
Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae, Laminaceae), danshen, is an annual sage mainly found in China and neighboring countries. The crude drug (dried root) and its preparations are currently used in China to treat patients suffering from heart attack, angina pectoris, stroke and some other conditions. The use of S. miltiorrhiza has been increasing in the management of stroke. Pharmacological examinations showed that the plant and its active ingredients, tanshinones and salvianolic acids, have anticoagulant, vasodilatory, increased blood flow, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging, mitochondrial protective and other activities. This review discusses the pharmacology, medicinal chemistry and clinical studies published, especially in China, for danshen and tanshinone preparations. Clinical examinations are evaluated in terms of S. miltiorrhiza preparation, dose, double blinding, control, clinical assessments of outcomes and other parameters. Meta-analyses of S. miltiorrhiza are also discussed. PMID:17302964
Wen, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yu, Chunhao; Zhang, Zhiyu; Calway, Tyler; Wang, Yunwei; Li, Ping; Yuan, Chun-Su
Inflammatory bowel disease increases the risks of human colorectal cancer. In this study, the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (SME) on chemically-induced colitis in a mouse model were evaluated. Chemical composition of SME was determined by HPLC analysis. A/J mice received a single injection of AOM 7.5 mg/kg. After one week, these mice received 2.5% DSS for 8 days, or DSS plus SME (25 or 50 mg/kg). DSS-induced colitis was scored with the disease activity index (DAI). Body weight and colon length were also measured. The severity of inflammatory lesions was further evaluated by colon tissue histological assessment. HPLC assay showed that the major constituents in the tested SME were danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid D and salvianolic acid B. In the model group, the DAI score reached its highest level on Day 8, while the SME group on both doses showed a significantly reduced DAI score (both P < 0.01). As an objective index of the severity of inflammation, colon length was reduced significantly from the vehicle group to model group. Treatment with 25 and 50 mg/kg of SME inhibited the reduction of colon in a dose-related manner (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). SME groups also significantly reduced weight reduction (P < 0.05). Colitis histological data supported the pharmacological observations. Thus, Salvia miltiorrhiza could be a promising candidate in preventing and treating colitis and in reducing the risks of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer. PMID:24117071
Wen, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yu, Chunhao; Zhang, Zhiyu; Calway, Tyler; Wang, Yunwei; Li, Ping; Yuan, Chun-Su
Inflammatory bowel disease increases the risks of human colorectal cancer. In this study, the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (SME) on chemically-induced colitis in a mouse model were evaluated. Chemical composition of SME was determined by HPLC analysis. A/J mice received a single injection of AOM 7.5 mg/kg. After one week, these mice received 2.5% DSS for eight days, or DSS plus SME (25 or 50 mg/kg). DSS-induced colitis was scored with the disease activity index (DAI). Body weight and colon length were also measured. The severity of inflammatory lesions was further evaluated by colon tissue histological assessment. HPLC assay showed that the major constituents in the tested SME were danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid D, and salvianolic acid B. In the model group, the DAI score reached its highest level on Day 8, while the SME group on both doses showed a significantly reduced DAI score (both p < 0.01). As an objective index of the severity of inflammation, colon length was significantly shorter in the model group than the vehicle group. Treatment with 25 and 50 mg/kg of SME inhibited the shortening of colon in a dose-related manner (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). SME groups also significantly reduced weight reduction (p < 0.05). Colitis histological data supported the pharmacological observations. Thus, Salvia miltiorrhiza could be a promising candidate in preventing and treating colitis and in reducing the risks of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer.
Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P
Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rapposelli, Emma; Melito, Sara; Barmina, Giovanni Gabriele; Foddai, Marzia; Azara, Emanuela; Scarpa, Grazia Maria
Salvia desoleana is a herbaceous perennial shrub endemic of Sardinia (Italy). The leaves are a source of essential oil, used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The therapeutic function of this species has been associated to the presence of essential oils rich in α/β-pinene, p-cimene, linalool, linalyl acetate and 1,8-cineole. Today.the industrial request of Salvia essential oils is increasing and most of the biomass is exploited from the natural populations which are under severe risk of genetic erosion. In order to improve the essential oil production, the study of the environmental parameters that influence composition, quality and quantity of the essential oils, turns out to be necessary. Soil physical and chemical structure represents one of the determinant factors in secondary metabolites production, and could also be involved in volatiles fraction composition in the same species. The main aim of this research was to explore the relationship between essential oil profiles and soil characteristics in S. desoleana populations. GC/MS analysis performed on the essential oil extracts identified 22 principal compounds, which were extremely variable among the five S. desoleana populations studied. The analysis of the essential oils revealed different compositions in the terpenes fractions: 68.2% of monoterpenes, 27.3% of sesquiterpenes and 4.5% of diterpenes. Analysis of chemical and physical soil parameters at the collection sites revealed that silt and sand contents were correlated with α-pinene and sclareol fractions and the total K20 was significantly correlated to several compounds belonging to the three terpene fractions identified. These results will provide guidelines for the in site conservation and for the improvement of the commercial value of the species.
Gutierrez, Kevin M; Cooper, Theodore V
Few studies have examined correlates related to the use of synthetic cannabinoids (e.g., Spice, K2) and Salvia divinorum. Two studies were conducted to investigate whether demographic, smoking-related, and substance-related variables were associated with the use of synthetic cannabinoids and Salvia. In Study 1, 185 participants (50% female; 83% Hispanic; Mage = 32 years; SD = 13.68) were recruited from a local health clinic and a university on the U.S./Mexico border for a smoking-cessation study targeting light and intermittent smokers. In Study 2, 675 participants (62.4% female; 89.1% Hispanic; Mage = 21.0, SD = 8.56) were recruited from a university on the U.S./Mexico border for an online study. In Study 1, 10% of the sample indicated they had ever used either synthetic cannabinoids or Salvia in their lifetime. Being male and dual/multiple use of tobacco products were significantly associated with having ever used synthetic cannabinoids or Salvia. In Study 2, 9%, 5%, and 3% of the sample indicated lifetime, past-year, and past 30-day use of synthetic cannabinoids, respectively. Five percent, 2%, and 1% of the sample indicated lifetime, past-year, and past 30-day use of Salvia, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that past 30-day marijuana use and past 30-day ecstasy use were significantly associated with use of synthetic cannabinoids and Salvia in one's lifetime. These findings suggest that the assessment of synthetic marijuana and Salvia use is warranted in studies of other addictive behaviors, particularly among current marijuana and ecstasy users. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Zengin, Gokhan; Senkardes, Ismail; Mollica, Adriano; Picot-Allain, Carene Marie Nancy; Bulut, Gizem; Dogan, Ahmet; Mahomoodally, M Fawzi
Salvia sclarea L. is traditionally used to manage common human ailments and is consumed as a food product. This study aimed to establish the phytochemical profile and antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Salvia sclarea. The inhibitory action of the extracts against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase was also investigated. Methanol extract showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (81.78 mg GAE/g extract and 40.59 mg RE/g extract, respectively). Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector analysis revealed that S. sclarea was rich in rosmarinic acid. The water extract exhibited the lowest inhibitory activity against α-amylase but the upmost activity against α-glucosidase (0.19 and 18.24 mmol ACAE/g extract, respectively). Experimental data showed that only the water extract (8.86 mg KAE/g extract) significantly inhibited tyrosinase. Docking studies showed that quercetin binds to tyrosinase by two hydrogen and a pi-pi bonds. Salvia sclarea showed interesting biological activity against key enzymes involved in the pathogenesis of common ailments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens , var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA ( ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL , and trnL-F ) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx .
Rupwate, Sunny D.; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA). At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb), with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO) terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG) classification, the major category was “Metabolism” (31.97%), of which the most prominent class was ‘carbohydrate metabolism and transport’ (5.81% of total KOG classifications) followed by ‘secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism’ (5.34%) and ‘lipid metabolism’ (4.57%). A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome
Wu, Li-Tzy; Woody, George E; Yang, Chongming; Li, Jih-Heng; Blazer, Dan G
Context Media and scientific reports have indicated an increase in recreational use of Salvia divinorum. Epidemiological data are lacking on the trends, prevalence, and correlates of S. divinorum use in large representative samples, as well as the extent of substance use and mental health problems among S. divinorum users. Objective To examine the national trend in prevalence of S. divinorum use and to identify sociodemographic, behavioral, mental health, and substance-use profiles of recent (past-year) and former users of S. divinorum. Design Analyses of public-use data files from the 2006–2008 United States National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 166,453). Setting Noninstitutionalized individuals aged 12 years or older were interviewed in their places of residence. Main measures Substance use, S. divinorum, self-reported substance use disorders, criminality, depression, and mental health treatment were assessed by standardized survey questions administered by the audio computer-assisted self-interviewing method. Results Among survey respondents, lifetime prevalence of S. divinorum use had increased from 0.7% in 2006 to 1.3% in 2008 (an 83% increase). S. divinorum use was associated with ages 18–25 years, male gender, white or multiple race, residence of large metropolitan areas, arrests for criminal activities, and depression. S. divinorum use was particularly common among recent drug users, including users of lysergic acid diethylamide (53.7%), ecstasy (30.1%), heroin (24.2%), phencyclidine (22.4%), and cocaine (17.5%). Adjusted multinomial logistic analyses indicated polydrug use as the strongest determinant for recent and former S. divinorum use. An estimated 43.0% of past-year S. divinorum users and 28.9% of former S. divinorum users had an illicit or nonmedical drug-use disorder compared with 2.5% of nonusers. Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that recent and former S. divinorum users had greater odds of having past-year depression and a
Benabdesslem, Yasmina; Hachem, Kadda; Kahloula, Khaled; Slimani, Miloud
An ethnobotanical study was carried out in the Saïda region among herbalists to evaluate the use of Salvia argentea (L.), a plant species native from North Africa belonging to the Lamiaceae family. Forty-two herbalists were interviewed individually, aged between 30 and 70 years, all males, 52.38% of them having received a secondary education level and having performing their duties for more than a decade. This study showed that Salvia argentea is used specifically in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system. The leaves are the most commonly used part, usually in the form of powder and exclusively administered orally. The preliminary results of the physicochemical characterization and the phytochemical screening of the powdered leaves of Salvia argentea attest to their safety and confer them a guarantee of phytotherapeutic quality.
Chae, H J; Chae, S W; Yun, D H; Keum, K S; Yoo, S K; Kim, H R
The preventive effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts (SMEs) on the progress of bone loss induced by ovariectomy (OVX) was studied in rats. We measured body weight and bone histomorphometry in sham, OVX or SMEs-administered OVX rats. From light microscopic analyses, a porous or erosive appearances were observed on the surface of trabecular bone of tibia in OVX rats, whereas those of the same bone in sham rats and in SMEs-administered rats were composed of fine particles. The trabecular bone area and trabecular thickness in OVX rats decreased by 50% from those in sham rats, these decreases were completely inhibited by administration of SMEs for 7 weeks. In this study, the mechanical strength in femur neck was significantly enhanced by the treatment of SMEs for 7 weeks. In OVX rats, free T3 was normal in all cases, whereas free T4 was significantly increased. Although there was no difference between OVX and SMEs-administered rats in T3 level, we have found significant difference between them in T4 level. These results strongly suggest that SMEs are effective in preventing the development of bone loss induced by OVX in rats.
Nicolin, V; Dal Piaz, F; Nori, S L; Narducci, P; De Tommasi, N
During the last decade, a more detailed knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in osteoclastogenesis has driven research efforts in the development and screening of compound libraries of several small molecules that specifically inhibit the pathway involved in the commitment of the osteoclast precursor cells. Natural compounds that suppress osteoclast differentiation may have therapeutic value in treating osteoporosis and other bone erosive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or metastasis associated with bone loss. In ongoing investigation into anti-osteoporotic compounds from natural products we have analyzed the effect of Tanshinone VI on osteoclasts differentiation, using a physiologic three-dimensional osteoblast/bone marrow model of cell co-culture. Tanshinone VI is an abietane diterpene extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae), a Chinese traditional crude drug, "Tan-Shen". Tashinone has been widely used in clinical practice for the prevention of cardiac diseases, arthritis and other inflammation-related disorders based on its pharmacological actions in multiple tissues. Although Tanshinone VI A has been used as a medicinal agent in the treatment of many diseases, its role in osteoclast-related bone diseases remains unknown. We showed previously that Tanshinone VI greatly inhibits osteoclast differentiation and suppresses bone resorption through disruption of the actin ring; subsequently, we intended to examine the precise inhibitory mechanism of Tanshinone VI on osteoclast differentiating factor. This study shows, for the first time, that Tanshinone VI prevents osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting RANKL expression and NFkB induction.
Sun, Xue-Gang; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Cai, Hong-Bing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Chun-Hua; Liu, Ya-Wei; Li, Ying-Jia; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Song, Yu-Hong; Lv, Zhi-Ping
This study was designed to investigate mechanisms of the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide (SMPS) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed mice. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis showed that three proteins are down-regulated and six proteins are up-regulated by SMPS. SMPS reduces the degree of liver injury by up-regulating the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, namely malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. LPS significantly increases nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and MDA level in BCG primed mice liver, whereas SMPS treatment protects against the immunological liver injury through inhibition of the NF-κB activation by up-regulation of PRDX6 and the subsequent attenuation of lipid peroxidation, iNOS expression and inflammation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jiang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Long; Zhang, Li; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Yonghong; Ding, Chunbang; Yang, Ruiwu; Wang, Xiaoli; Yu, Lin
In this study, the process of extracting polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge residue was optimized by using a Box-Behnken design. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of the three variables of the extraction process had significant effects. The optimal conditions are as follows: extracting time of 2.6 h, extraction temperature of 89 °C, and ratio of water to raw material of 32 mL/g. Moreover, a new polysaccharide with antioxidant activity [i.e., SMWP-1 (∼5.27×10(5) Da)] was isolated from S. miltiorrhiza residue. The carbohydrate, uronic acid, and protein contents of SMWP-1 were 90.11%, 0.13%, and 0.53%, respectively. The SMWP-1 is composed of glucose, xylose, mannose, and galactose. The preliminary structural characterization of SMWP-1 was determined via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. This polysaccharide exhibited strong reducing power and free-radical scavenging activities in vitro against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl. Therefore, SMWP-1 can be investigated further as a novel natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Wen-Hung; Hsuan, Kuo-Yu; Chu, Ling-Ya; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tyan, Yu-Chang; Chen, Zong-Shiow; Tsai, Wan-Chi
Researchers have reported significant effects from Danshen ( Salvia miltiorrhiza ) in terms of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinomas, promyelocytic leukemia, and clear cell ovary carcinomas. Here we report our data indicating that Danshen extracts, especially alcohol extract, significantly inhibited the proliferation of the human oral squamous carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines HSC-3 and OC-2. We also observed that Danshen alcohol extract activated the caspase-3 apoptosis executor by impeding members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family, but not by regulating the Bcl-2-triggered mitochondrial pathway in OSCC cells. Our data also indicate that the extract exerted promising effects in vivo, with HSC-3 tumor xenograft growth being suppressed by 40% and 69% following treatment with Danshen alcohol extract at 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, for 34 days. Combined, our results indicate appreciable anticancer activity and significant potential for Danshen alcohol extract as a natural antioxidant and herbal human oral cancer chemopreventive drug.
Borneo, Rafael; Aguirre, Alicia; León, Alberto E
This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, functional properties, and nutrient content of cakes made using chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel as a replacement for oil or eggs. Chia gel was used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of oil or eggs in a control cake formulation. Seventy-five untrained panelists participated in rating cakes on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing oil or eggs for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P<0.05). Post hoc analysis (using Fisher's least significant difference method) indicated that the 25% chia gel cakes were not significantly different from the control for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The 50% oil substituted (with chia gel) cake, compared to control, had 36 fewer kilocalories and 4 g less fat per 100-g portion. Cake weight was not affected by chia gel in the formulation, although cake volume was lower as the percentage of substitution increased. Symmetry was generally not affected. This study demonstrates that chia gel can replace as much as 25% of oil or eggs in cakes while yielding a more nutritious product with acceptable sensory characteristics. 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shen, Lihong; Ren, Jiahui; Jin, Wenfang; Wang, Ruijie; Ni, Chunhong; Tong, Mengjiao; Liang, Zongsuo; Yang, Dongfeng
To investigate roles of nitric oxide (NO) signal in accumulations of phenolic acids in abscisic.acid (ABA)-induced Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots, S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were treated with different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-an exogenous NO donor, for 6 days, and contents of phenolic acids in the hairy roots are determined. Then with treatment of ABA and NO scavenger (2-(4-carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1- oxyl-3-oxide, c-PTIO) or NO synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME), contents of phenolic acids and expression levels of three key genes involved in phenolic acids biosynthesis were detected. Phenolic acids production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots was most significantly improved by 100 µmoL/L SNP. Contents of RA and salvianolic acid B increased by 3 and 4 folds. ABA significantly improved transcript levels of PAL (phenylalanine ammonia lyase), TAT (tyrosine aminotransferase) and RAS (rosmarinic acid synthase), and increased phenolic acids accumulations. However, with treatments of ABA+c-PTIO or ABA+L-NAME, accumulations of phenolic acids and expression levels of the three key genes were significantly inhibited. Both NO and ABA can increase accumulations of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. NO signal probably mediates the ABA-induced phenolic acids production.
Benitez-Vieyra, Santiago; Fornoni, Juan; Pérez-Alquicira, Jessica; Boege, Karina; Domínguez, César A.
Within-individual variation in floral advertising and reward traits is a feature experienced by pollinators that visit different flowers of the same plant. Pollinators can use advertising traits to gather information about the quality and amount of rewards, leading to the evolution of signal–reward correlations. As long as plants differ in the reliability of their signals and pollinators base their foraging decisions on this information, natural selection should act on within-individual correlations between signals and rewards. Because birds and bees differ in their cognitive capabilities, and use different floral traits as signals, we tested the occurrence of adaptive divergence of the within-individual signal–reward correlations among Salvia species that are pollinated either by bees or by hummingbirds. They are expected to use different floral advertising traits: frontal traits in the case of bees and side traits in the case of hummingbirds. We confirmed this expectation as bee- and hummingbird-pollinated species differed in which specific traits are predominantly associated with nectar reward at the within-individual level. Our findings highlight the adaptive value of within-individual variation and covariation patterns, commonly disregarded as ‘environmental noise’, and are consistent with the hypothesis that pollinator-mediated selection affects the correlation pattern among floral traits. PMID:24648219
Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P < 0.05). The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber) and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber). The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber) and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber). In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry. PMID:26904622
Travis, C. R.; Ray, G. A.; Marlowe, K. F.
Introduction. This is the first reported case of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with withdrawal after chronic use of this substance. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to a hospital with a 3-day history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. She reported no sick family members or contact with anyone who was ill. She did report smoking 3–5 cigarettes of the herb “Salvia” consistently for 3-4 months and quit approximately 48 hours before symptoms appeared. Her use of the herb had been consistent; she smoked several cigarettes each day. Laboratory results were essentially normal including the white blood cell count. She received symptomatic treatment and was released after one day. Discussion. Salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, is the major active ingredient of S. divinorum. The unique opioid properties of this herb may explain its ability to cause changes in intestinal transit time. Conclusion. A 51-year-old woman possibly developed gastrointestinal manifestations suggestive of withdrawal from Salvia divinorum after smoking the substance consistently for 3 to 4 months. The widespread use of this herb will make the potential for withdrawal syndromes more commonplace. PMID:22611407
Li, Cun-Yu; Wu, Xin; Gu, Jia-Mei; Li, Hong-Yang; Peng, Guo-Ping
Based on the molecular sieving and solution-diffusion effect in nanofiltration separation, the correlation between initial concentration and mass transfer coefficient of three typical phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza was fitted to analyze the relationship among mass transfer coefficient, molecular weight and concentration. The experiment showed a linear relationship between operation pressure and membrane flux. Meanwhile, the membrane flux was gradually decayed with the increase of solute concentration. On the basis of the molecular sieving and solution-diffusion effect, the mass transfer coefficient and initial concentration of three phenolic acids showed a power function relationship, and the regression coefficients were all greater than 0.9. The mass transfer coefficient and molecular weight of three phenolic acids were negatively correlated with each other, and the order from high to low is protocatechualdehyde >rosmarinic acid> salvianolic acid B. The separation mechanism of nanofiltration for phenolic acids was further clarified through the analysis of the correlation of molecular weight and nanofiltration mass transfer coefficient. The findings provide references for nanofiltration separation, especially for traditional Chinese medicine with phenolic acids. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Torun, Mehmet; Dincer, Cuneyt; Topuz, Ayhan; Sahin-Nadeem, Hilal; Ozdemir, Feramuz
In the present study, aqueous extraction kinetics of total soluble solids (TSS), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) from Salvia fruticosa leaves were investigated throughout 150 min. of extraction period against temperature (60-80 °C), particle size (2-8 mm) and loading percentage (1-4 %). The extract yielded 25 g/100 g TSS which contained 30 g/100 g TPC and 25 g/100 g TFC. The extraction data in time course fit with reversible first order kinetic model. All tested variables showed significant effect on the estimated kinetic parameters except equilibrium concentration. Increasing the extraction temperature resulted high extraction rate constants and equilibrium concentrations of the tested variables notably above 70 °C. By using the Arrhenius relationship, activation energy of the TSS, TPC and TFC were determined as 46.11 ± 5.61, 36.80 ± 3.12 and 33.52 ± 2.23 kj/mol, respectively. By decreasing the particle size, the extraction rate constants and diffusion coefficients exponentially increased whereas equilibrium concentrations did not change significantly. The equilibrium concentrations of the tested parameters showed linear behavior with increasing the loading percentage of the sage, however; the change in extraction rates did not show linear behavior due to submerging effect of 4 % loading.
Wu, Wen-yu; Wang, Yi-ping
Salvia miltiorrhiza, a traditional medical herb known as danshen, has been widely used in China to improve blood circulation, relieve blood stasis, and treat coronary heart disease. S miltiorrhiza depside salt is a novel drug recently developed at the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica; it contains magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) and its analogs, rosmarinic acid (RA) and lithospermic acid (LA), as active components. The drug has been used in the clinic to improve blood circulation and treat coronary heart disease. The pharmacological effects of the depside salt from S miltiorrhiza and its components have been extensively investigated. Experimental studies have demonstrated that magnesium lithospermate B possesses a variety of biological activities, especially protective effects in the cardiovascular system such as attenuation of atherosclerosis and protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rosmarinic acid and lithospermic acid also show beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. This paper reviews the recent findings regarding the mechanisms underlying the pharmacological actions of the active components of S miltiorrhiza depside salt, based on published works and our own observations.
Benitez-Vieyra, Santiago; Fornoni, Juan; Pérez-Alquicira, Jessica; Boege, Karina; Domínguez, César A
Within-individual variation in floral advertising and reward traits is a feature experienced by pollinators that visit different flowers of the same plant. Pollinators can use advertising traits to gather information about the quality and amount of rewards, leading to the evolution of signal-reward correlations. As long as plants differ in the reliability of their signals and pollinators base their foraging decisions on this information, natural selection should act on within-individual correlations between signals and rewards. Because birds and bees differ in their cognitive capabilities, and use different floral traits as signals, we tested the occurrence of adaptive divergence of the within-individual signal-reward correlations among Salvia species that are pollinated either by bees or by hummingbirds. They are expected to use different floral advertising traits: frontal traits in the case of bees and side traits in the case of hummingbirds. We confirmed this expectation as bee- and hummingbird-pollinated species differed in which specific traits are predominantly associated with nectar reward at the within-individual level. Our findings highlight the adaptive value of within-individual variation and covariation patterns, commonly disregarded as 'environmental noise', and are consistent with the hypothesis that pollinator-mediated selection affects the correlation pattern among floral traits.
Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa
An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.
Wang, Yin-Yan; Li, Xi; Lai, Xiu-Jun; Li, Wei; Yang, Ya-Jing; Chu, Ting; Mao, Sheng-Jun
The feasibility of simultaneously loading both liposoluble and water-soluble components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in emulsion was discussed, in order to provide new ideas in comprehensive application of effective components in S. miltiorrhiza in terms of technology of pharmaceutics. With tanshinone II (A) and salvianolic acid B as raw materials, soybean phospholipid and poloxamer 188 as emulsifiers, and glycerin as isoosmotic regulator, the central composite design-response surface method was employed to optimize the prescription. The coarse emulsion was prepared with the high-speed shearing method and then homogenized in the high pressure homogenizer. The biphasic drug-loading intravenous emulsion was prepared to investigate its pharmaceutical properties and stability. The prepared emulsion is orange-yellow, with the average diameter of 241 nm and Zeta potential of -35.3 mV. Specifically, the drug loading capacity of tanshinone II (A) and salvianolic acid B were 0.5 g x L(-1) and 1 g x L(-1), respectively, with a good stability among long-term retention samples. According to the results, the prepared emulsion could load liposoluble tanshinone II (A) and water-soluble salvianolic acid B simultaneously, which lays a pharmaceutical foundation for giving full play to the efficacy of S. miltiorrhiza.
Schettino, Antonio; Perna, Roberto; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Ghezzi, Annalisa; Tassi, Luca; Cingolani, Sofia
We report on a combined magnetic-GPR survey performed in 2015 and 2016 at the ancient Roman city of Urbs Salvia, located in central Italy. The main objective of this survey was to reconstruct the urban organization of the city forum and determine possible sites of future excavations. We found a complex pattern of buried structures, possibly resulting from the coexistence of republican and imperial artifacts and burned structures. A test excavation at the location where we detected a long linear structure characterized by strong magnetic signal revealed the presence of thermal baths. GPR data were acquired in areas characterized by high magnetic noise induced by metallic infrastructures (e.g., fences), which prevented a correct acquisition of archaeological anomalies. These data not only allowed to overcome the magnetic noise, but provided interesting 3D reconstructions of the buried structures. A detailed GPR survey in the theatre area was also performed, with the aim to investigate the plan of the porticus post scaenam. This survey allowed to identify some interesting structures related to different chronological phases and confirms the epigraphic data related to the development of the monument.
Mendoza-Hernández, Pedro E.; Rosete-Rodríguez, Alejandra; Sánchez-Coronado, María E.; Orozco, Susana; Pedrero-López, Luis; Méndez, Ignacio; Orozco-Segovia, Alma
Human disturbance has disrupted the dynamics of plant communities. To restore these dynamics, we could take advantage of the microclimatic conditions generated by remaining patches of vegetation and plastic mulch. These microclimatic conditions might have great importance in restoring disturbed lava fields located south of Mexico City, where the rock is exposed and the soil is shallow. We evaluated the effects of both the shade projected by vegetation patches and plastic mulch on the mean monthly soil surface temperature ( T ss) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and on the survival and growth of Salvia mexicana throughout the year. This species was used as a phytometer of microsite quality. Shade reduced the T ss to a greater extent than mulch did. Both survival and growth were enhanced by shade and mulch, and the PPFD was related with seedling growth. During the dry season, plant biomass was lost, and there was a negative effect of PPFD on plant growth. At micro-meteorological scales, the use of shade projected by patches of vegetation and mulch significantly reduced the mortality of S. mexicana and enhanced its growth. Survival and growth of this plant depended on the environmental quality of microsites on a small scale, which was determined by the environmental heterogeneity of the patches and the landscape. For plant restoration, microsite quality must be evaluated on small scales, but on a large scale it may be enough to take advantage of landscape shade dynamics and the use of mulch to increase plant survival and growth.
Mendoza-Hernández, Pedro E; Rosete-Rodríguez, Alejandra; Sánchez-Coronado, María E; Orozco, Susana; Pedrero-López, Luis; Méndez, Ignacio; Orozco-Segovia, Alma
Human disturbance has disrupted the dynamics of plant communities. To restore these dynamics, we could take advantage of the microclimatic conditions generated by remaining patches of vegetation and plastic mulch. These microclimatic conditions might have great importance in restoring disturbed lava fields located south of Mexico City, where the rock is exposed and the soil is shallow. We evaluated the effects of both the shade projected by vegetation patches and plastic mulch on the mean monthly soil surface temperature (Tss) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and on the survival and growth of Salvia mexicana throughout the year. This species was used as a phytometer of microsite quality. Shade reduced the T ss to a greater extent than mulch did. Both survival and growth were enhanced by shade and mulch, and the PPFD was related with seedling growth. During the dry season, plant biomass was lost, and there was a negative effect of PPFD on plant growth. At micro-meteorological scales, the use of shade projected by patches of vegetation and mulch significantly reduced the mortality of S. mexicana and enhanced its growth. Survival and growth of this plant depended on the environmental quality of microsites on a small scale, which was determined by the environmental heterogeneity of the patches and the landscape. For plant restoration, microsite quality must be evaluated on small scales, but on a large scale it may be enough to take advantage of landscape shade dynamics and the use of mulch to increase plant survival and growth.
Boukhary, Rima; Ghoneim, Asser I.; Aboul-Ela, Maha; El-Lakany, Abdalla
Objectives. Salvia fruticosa Mill. (S. fruticosa) is widely used in folk medicine. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of S. fruticosa, and to determine the phenolic constituents of its extracts. Methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Total phenolic contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify phenolic constituents. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema was determined plethysmographically. Key Findings. Different plant extracts demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity, where the ethyl acetate extract had the highest value in the roots and the lowest in the aerial parts. This antioxidant activity was correlated to the total phenolic content of different extracts, where rutin and luteolin were the most abundant constituents. Interestingly, both the roots and aerial parts revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to diclofenac. Conclusions. This study is the first to demonstrate pharmacologic evidence of the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. fruticosa. This activity may partly be due to the radical scavenging effects of its polyphenolic contents. These findings warrant the popular use of the East Mediterranean sage and highlight the potential of its active constituents in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26881007
Porres-Martínez, María; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar
Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., known as "Spanish sage", has potential value in dementia for its sedative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticholinesterase properties. This work aimed to evaluate the in vitro neuroprotective activity of S. lavandulifolia essential oils, obtained from plants at different phenological stages (vegetative and flowering phases) and plants grown at different densities, against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells. The effect on cell viability and morphology, lipid peroxidation, GSH/GSSG ratio, intracellular ROS levels, antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GR, GPx, HO-1) and apoptotic enzymes was investigated. Comparing with H2O2-treated PC12 cells, pretreatments with essential oil samples attenuated morphological changes and loss of cell viability, decreased MDA levels and intracellular ROS production and increased GSH/GSSG ratio. Moreover, Spanish sage increased antioxidant status as evidenced in an increase of antioxidant enzyme activity and protein expression and inhibited caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, our results suggest that S. lavandulifolia essential oils are able to activate Nrf2 transcription factor. Collectively, the sample of essential oil obtained with the highest densities of planting and at flowering phase exerted the major neuroprotective activity. Our findings demonstrate that S. lavandulifolia essential oils may have therapeutic value for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luo, Ming-Hua; Hu, Jin-Yao; Wu, Qing-Gui; Yang, Jing-Tian; Su, Zhi-Xian
Taking the seedlings of Salvia miltiorrhiza cv. Sativa (SA) and S. miltiorrhiza cv. Silcestris (SI) as test materials, this paper studied the effects of drought stress on their leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. After 15 days of drought stress, the net photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) of SA were decreased by 66.42% and 10.98%, whereas those of SI were decreased by 29.32% and 5.47%, respectively, compared with the control, suggesting that drought stress had more obvious effects on the P(n) and F(v)/F(m) of SA than of SI. For SI, the reduction of P, under drought stress was mainly due to stomatal limitation; while for SA, it was mainly due to non-stomatal limitation. Drought led to a decrease of leaf stomatal conductance (G(s)), but induced the increase of water use efficiency (WUE), non-photochemical quenching coefficient (q(N)), and the ratio of photorespiration rate to net photosynthetic rate (P(r)/P(n)), resulting in the enhancement of drought resistance. The increment of WUE, q(N), and P(r)/P(n) was larger for SI than for SA, indicating that SI had a higher drought resistance capacity than SA.
Wang, Xue; Chen, Mei-Lan; Yang, Guang; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Peng-Ying; Chen, Min
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Glomus versiforme and Trichodema harzianum on the growth and quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza continuous cropping under field conditions. The field plot experiment was conducted, these active components in the plant were analyzed by HPLC, the root diseases incidence rate of S. miltiorrhiza determined by observation and counting, and relative parameters were measured. The data was statistically processed. The result showed that inoculation of G. versiforme and combined inoculation of G. versiforme with T. harzianum significantly decreased the root diseases incidence rate of S. miltiorrhiza, and combined inoculation of G. versiforme with T. harzianum was better than other treatments. All treatments improved accumulation of active ingredients in root. Inoculation of G. versiforme and combined inoculation of G. versiforme with T. harzianum significantly increased the content of salvianolic acid B and cryptotanshinone of root (P < 0.05), Inoculation of G. versiforme, T. harzianum and combined inoculation of G. versiforme with T. harzianum significantly enhanced the content of tanshinone I and tanshinone II(A) of the root (P < 0.05). It may conclude that inoculation of G. versiforme and combined inoculation of G. versiforme with T. harzianum can effectively reduce the root diseases incidence of continuous cropping S. miltiorrhiza, and improve the quality of S. miltiorrhiza.
Shi, Min; Huang, Fenfen; Deng, Changping; Wang, Yao; Kai, Guoyin
Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen in Chinese), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant, which is used as not only human medicine but also health-promotion food. Danshen has been extensively used for the treatment of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. As a major group of bioactive constituents from S. miltiorrhiza, water-soluble phenolic acids such as salvianolic acid B possessed good bioactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and other health-promoting activities. It is of significance to improve the production of phenolic acids by modern biotechnology approaches to meet the increasing market demand. Significant progresses have been made in understanding the biosynthetic pathway and regulation mechanism of phenolic acids in S.miltiorrhiza, which will facilitate the process of targeted metabolic engineering or synthetic biology. Furthermore, multiple biotechnology methods such as in vitro culture, elicitation, hairy roots, endophytic fungi and bioreactors have been also used to obtain pharmaceutically active phenolic acids from S. miltiorrhiza. In this review, recent advances in bioactivities, biosynthetic pathway and biotechnological production of phenolic acid ingredients were summarized and future prospective was also discussed.
Tohma, Hatice; Köksal, Ekrem; Kılıç, Ömer; Alan, Yusuf; Yılmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Gülçin, İlhami; Bursal, Ercan; Alwasel, Saleh H.
The identification and quantification of the phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of three Salvia L. species namely S. brachyantha (Bordz.) Pobed, S. aethiopis L., and S. microstegia Boiss. and Bal. were evaluated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, UV adsorption, and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS). In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of these species, cupric ions (Cu2+) reducing assay (CUPRAC) and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing assay (FRAP) were performed to screen the reducing capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity for both solvents. In further investigation, the antimicrobial activities of Salvia species were tested using the disc diffusion method against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative microbial species, as well as three fungi species. The results showed that there is a total of 18 detectable phenols, the most abundant of which was kaempferol in S. microstegia and rosmarinic acids in S. brachyantha and S aethiopis. The other major phenols were found to be apigenin, luteolin, p-coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid. All species tested showed moderate and lower antioxidant activity than standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extracts of Salvia species revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity. S. brachyantha and S. microstegia showed the highest antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis, whereas S. aethiopis was more effective on Y. lipolytica. None of the extracts showed anti-fungal activity against S. cerevisiae. Thus these species could be valuable due to their bioactive compounds. PMID:27775656
Kalaycıoğlu, Zeynep; Uzaşçı, Sesil; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Erim, F Bedia
During the last decade, ursolic and oleanolic acids have been of considerable interest because of their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and potential effects for treatment of type 2 diabetes. A simple and sensitive reversed-phase HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. The optimal mobile phase was selected as 85% acetonitrile solution. The limit of detection of the method for ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were 14 ng mL -1 and 13 ng mL -1 , respectively. The method showed good precision and accuracy with intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.54% and 7.33% for ursolic acid, intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.51% and 5.26% for oleanolic acid, and overall recoveries of 97.8% and 98.5% for ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, respectively. Application of the method to determine the ursolic acid and oleanolic acid contents in the Salvia species revealed both compounds, with varying amounts between 0.21-9.76 mg g -1 ursolic acid and 0.20-12.7 mg g -1 oleanolic acid, respectively, among 14 Salvia species analyzed. Additionally, the plant extracts were analyzed for their inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase. According to the results of this assay, the extracts showed considerable activity on α-glucosidase with IC 50 values from 17.6 to 173 μg mL -1 . A strong negative correlation was detected between the amounts of both acids and IC 50 values of extracts. Anatolian Salvia species have great potential as functional plants in the management of diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Deng, Ai-Ping; Peng, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi
Basically, Dao-di hers are produced in specific area which has a long history, good quality, good medicine, curative effect. However genuine medicinal material area in history is not static, this makes the establishment of genuine medicinal material origin and the in-depth research be very difficult. This paper has profoundly analyzed the origin of different historical periods taking Astragalus membranaceus and Salvia miltiorrhiza as examples, and then summarized the reasons of herbal origin changes from the humanities, social and natural three aspects. This paper provides a basis for establishment and the further research of high-quality genuine producing area. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Cárdenas-Ortega, Norma Cecilia; González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Figueroa-Brito, Rodolfo; Flores-Macías, Antonio; Romo-Asunción, Diana; Martínez-González, Diana Elizabeth; Pérez-Moreno, Víctor; Ramos-López, Miguel Angel
Essential oils can be used as an alternative to using synthetic insecticides for pest management. Therefore, the insectistatic and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of aerial parts of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae) were tested against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The results demonstrated insecticidal and insectistatical activities against this insect pest with concentrations at 80 µg·mL(-1) resulting in 20% larval viability and 10% pupal viability. The larval viability fifty (LV50) corresponded to a concentration of 128.8 µg·mL(-1). This oil also increased the duration of the larval phase by 5.5 days and reduced the pupal weight by 29.2% withrespect to the control. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of S. ballotiflora showed its main components to be caryophyllene oxide (15.97%), and β-caryophyllene (12.74%), which showed insecticidal and insectistatical activities against S. frugiperda. The insecticidal activity of β-caryophyllene began at 80 µg·mL(-1), giving a larval viability of 25% and viability pupal of 20%. The insectistatic activity also started at 80 µg·mL(-1) reducing the pupal weight by 22.1% with respect to control. Caryophyllene oxide showed insecticidal activity at 80 µg·mL(-1) giving a larval viability of 35% and viability pupal of 20%.The insectistatic activity started at 400 µg·mL(-1) and increased the larval phase by 8.8% days with respect to control. The LV50 values for these compounds were 153.1 and 146.5 µg·mL(-1), respectively.
Baggott, Matthew J; Erowid, Earth; Erowid, Fire; Galloway, Gantt P; Mendelson, John
There is growing use of Salvia divinorum (SD), a psychoactive plant that produces hallucinogen-like effects through a kappa opioid receptor (KOR) mechanism. Little is known about KOR agonist effects in humans and about users of SD. To characterize the reasons, methods, and reported consequences of SD use. Individuals reading SD-related pages of a drug-information website were invited to anonymously complete an online questionnaire if they had used SD. Participants (N=500) were 92.6% male and 23.4 ± 8.7 (mean ± s.d.) years old. They had used a median of six times (range 1-250). 80.6% probably or definitely would use SD again. Most participants (92.6%) typically smoked or vaporized SD product. When smoked, the drug's main effects were estimated to last 14.1 ± 12.8 (range 0.5-120) minutes. When asked to compare SD effects to other methods of altering consciousness, the most common answer was that SD was unique (38.4%). 25.8% reported persisting (≥ 24 h) positive effects (often described as increased sense of well-being) on at least one occasion. 4.4% reported persisting negative effects (most often anxiety). SD is typically smoked, acute effects are brief, and persistent adverse effects are uncommon. In addition to acute hallucinogenic effects, SD may produce subacute increases in subjective well-being. Such a subacute effect would be unusual for a drug that is used non-medically, as withdrawal from other drugs typically either does not affect mood or causes dysphoria. Findings from this convenience sample should be confirmed and extended using surveys of random samples and controlled clinical studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shen, Tao; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Liu, Hong; Li, Qing-Wang
Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharides (SMPs) were extracted from S. miltiorrhiza in this study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SMP on the motility of boar sperm, including the antioxidant effect of SMP on boar sperm and the effect of SMP on the in vivo fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Fifty ejaculates from 5 Swagger boars were collected and diluted with an extender, which contained 3% glycerol (v/v) with five concentrations of SMP (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL). The semen was frozen in 0.25mL straws at 1.0×10(9) cells/mL. Sixty gilts were inseminated using fresh semen, frozen semen with 0.4mg/mL of SMP and frozen semen without SMP. The results indicate that the addition of SMP to the extender results in a higher percentage of motile sperm post-thaw (P<0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease and catalase were all determined to be significantly higher than the control group after adding SMP to the extender (P<0.05). The artificial insemination (AI) results demonstrated that the litter size was significantly higher in the 0.4mg/mL of SMP group than in the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, during the process of freezing, SMP can protect boar sperm from peroxidative damage and increase sperm motility and litter size during the process of freezing-thawing. The optimal concentration of SMP for the frozen extenders in this study was determined to be 0.4mg/mL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Li, Caili; Li, Dongqiao; Shao, Fenjuan; Lu, Shanfa
WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors and play important regulatory roles in plant development and defense response. The WRKY gene family in Salvia miltiorrhiza has not been characterized. A total of 61 SmWRKYs were cloned from S. miltiorrhiza. Multiple sequence alignment showed that SmWRKYs could be classified into 3 groups and 8 subgroups. Sequence features, the WRKY domain and other motifs of SmWRKYs are largely conserved with Arabidopsis AtWRKYs. Each group of WRKY domains contains characteristic conserved sequences, and group-specific motifs might attribute to functional divergence of WRKYs. A total of 17 pairs of orthologous SmWRKY and AtWRKY genes and 21 pairs of paralogous SmWRKY genes were identified. Maximum likelihood analysis showed that SmWRKYs had undergone strong selective pressure for adaptive evolution. Functional divergence analysis suggested that the SmWRKY subgroup genes and many paralogous SmWRKY gene pairs were divergent in functions. Various critical amino acids contributed to functional divergence among subgroups were detected. Of the 61 SmWRKYs, 22, 13, 4 and 1 were predominantly expressed in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, respectively. The other 21 were mainly expressed in at least two tissues analyzed. In S. miltiorrhiza roots treated with MeJA, significant changes of gene expression were observed for 49 SmWRKYs, of which 26 were up-regulated, 18 were down-regulated, while the other 5 were either up-regulated or down-regulated at different time-points of treatment. Analysis of published RNA-seq data showed that 42 of the 61 identified SmWRKYs were yeast extract and Ag(+)-responsive. Through a systematic analysis, SmWRKYs potentially involved in tanshinone biosynthesis were predicted. These results provide insights into functional conservation and diversification of SmWRKYs and are useful information for further elucidating SmWRKY functions.
Chen, Ing-Gin J; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Ko, Chia-Yun; Chang, Wen-Te
The effect of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the production of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants and hairy roots is receiving much attention. The roots and rhizomes of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge are widely used for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The main components are liposoluble tanshinones and hydrophilic phenolic acids. Moreover, hairy root culture of S. miltiorrhiza has been used in research of valuable plant-derived secondary metabolites. In this study, we examined the effect of LEDs with different combinations of wavelengths on the content of the main components in hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza. Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA) content in hairy roots was significantly decreased with all light treatments containing blue light by >60% and was 9 times lower with LED treatment duration changed from 1 week to 3 weeks. HMGR, DXS2, DXR, GGPPS, CPS and CYP76AH1 genes involved in the tanshinone biosynthesis pathway were downregulated by blue light. Furthermore, light quality treatments have different effect on the accumulation of phenolic acids in hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza. The light treatments 6R3B, 6B3IR, 7RGB and 2R6BUV for 3 weeks could increase rosmarinic acid (RA) content slightly but not salvianolic acid B (SAB) content. Different secondary metabolite contents could be regulated by different wavelength combinations of LEDs. Blue light could reduce TSIIA content in hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza via gene regulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Xia, Gui-Hui; Wang, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Wen-Quan; Hou, Jun-Ling; Song, Qing-Yan; Luo, Lin; Zhang, Dou-Dou; Yang, Xiang
With annual Salvia miltiorrhiza seedlings as experimental material, using "3414" optimal regression design recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture and regularly watered with nutrient solution, through the dynamic sampling of S. miltiorrhiza in different growing stages, and the growth index, dry weight of plant root and content of active components were measured. The potted experiments were applied to study the effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus ratios on the growth, dry matter accumulation and accumulation of active components of S. miltiorrhiza, in order to explore a compatible fertilization method of nitrogen and phosphorus ratio that are suitable for production and quality of S. miltiorrhiza. The results reported as follows：①High concentrations of nitrogen fertilizer was beneficial to dry matter accumulation of S. miltiorrhiza aerial parts, and low concentration of nitrogen fertilizer transferred the dry matter accumulation to underground, and N1P1 could make the transfer ahead of time;②Regression analysis showed that in the early growth stage (before early July), we could use the nitrogen and phosphorus as basic fertilizer at a concentration of 1.521,0.355 g•L⁻¹ respectively to promote the growth of S. miltiorrhiza and at a concentration of 2.281,0.710 g•L⁻¹ respectively to promote the dry matter accumulation of root (after mid-August);③Five kinds of active components of S. miltiorrhiza decreased with the increase of nitrogen concentration, and increased with the increase of the concentration of phosphate fertilizer. Nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer in N-P=2∶3 ratio was more suitable for the accumulation of salvianolic acids, in N-P=1∶2 ratio was more suitable for the accumulation of tanshinone. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Ramos-Velázquez, Cinthia Saraí; Serrano-Vega, Roberto; Pérez-González, Cuauhtemoc; Sánchez-Mendoza, Ernesto; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud
A previous study demonstrated that the chloroform extract of Salvia connivens Epling (Lamiaceae) has anti-inflammatory activity. Identification of the active components in the dicholorometane extract (DESC), and, standardization of the extract based in ursolic acid. DESC was prepared by percolation with dichlromethane and after washed with hot hexane, its composition was determined by CG-MS and NMR, and standardized by HPLC. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested on acute TPA-induced mouse ear oedema at doses of 2.0 mg/ear. The cell viability of macrophages was evaluated by MTT method, and pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. Ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, dihydroursolic acid and eupatorin were identified in DESC, which was standardized based on the ursolic acid concentration (126 mg/g). The anti-inflammatory activities of DESC, the acid mixture, and eupatorin (2 mg/ear) were 60.55, 57.20 and 56.40% inhibition, respectively, on TPA-induced ear oedema. The IC 50 of DESC on macrophages was 149.4 μg/mL. DESC (25 μg/mL) significantly reduced TNF-α (2.0-fold), IL-1β (2.2-fold) and IL-6 (2.0-fold) in macrophages stimulated with LPS and increased the production of IL-10 (1.9-fold). Inflammation is a basic response to injuries, and macrophages are involved in triggering inflammation. Macrophage cells exhibit a response to LPS, inducing inflammatory mediators, and DESC inhibits the biosynthesis of the pro-inflammatory and promote anti-inflammatory cytokines. DESC has an anti-inflammatory effect; reduced the levels of IL-1β, Il-6 and TNF-α; and increases IL-10 in macrophages stimulated with LPS. Ursolic acid is a good phytochemical marker.
Ahmed, Hanaa H; Salem, Ahmed M; Sabry, Gilane M; Husein, Ahmed A; Kotob, Soheir E
This study aimed to investigate the role of Salvia triloba L. and Piper nigrum extracts in ameliorating neuroinflammatory insults characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in an experimentally induced rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into Group 1 (n=10): normal healthy animals serving as the negative control group; Group 2 (n=60): the AD-induced group. After AD induction, animals in the AD-induced group were divided randomly and equally into 6 subgroups. The first subgroup served as AD control; the second one, which served as positive control, was treated orally with the conventional therapy for AD (rivastigmine) at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) daily for 3 months. The third and fourth subgroups were, respectively, treated orally with the S. triloba extract at a dose of 750 and 375 mg/kg b.w. daily for 3 months. The fifth and sixth subgroups were, respectively, treated orally with the P. nigrum extract at a dose of 187.5 and 93.75 mg/kg b.w. daily for 3 months. Levels of brain acetylcholine (Ach), serum and brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, C-reactive protein (CRP), total nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were estimated. The results showed that administration of AlCl3 resulted in a significant elevation in the levels of AchE activity, CRP, NF-κB, and MCP-1 accompanied with a significant depletion in the Ach level. Treatment of AD rats with each of the selected medicinal plant extracts caused marked improvement in the measured biochemical parameters. In conclusion, S. triloba and P. nigrum methanolic extracts have potent anti-inflammatory effects against neuroinflammation characterizing AD.
Bisio, Angela; Fraternale, Daniele; Schito, Anna Maria; Parricchi, Anita; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Ricci, Donata; Giacomini, Mauro; Ruffoni, Barbara; De Tommasi, Nunziatina
Demethylfruticuline A and fruticuline A, the most abundant compounds from the surface extract of Salvia corrugata Vahl., have shown antibacterial, antitumor and cytotoxic activities. In order to obtain these icetexane diterpenes from in vitro cultures of S. corrugata, protocols were developed for callus production, micropropagation and shoot regeneration. Analysis of the regenerated shoots showed the presence of both icetexanes, micropropagated plants contained only fruticuline A, while the callus contained trace amounts of both diterpenes. The yield of fruticuline A was higher in the methanolic extract of regenerated shoots than in those of fresh leaves and fresh shoot tips. In addition to these diterpenes, the regenerated shoot and micropropagated plant extracts afforded seven other diterpenes, one icetexane and six abietanes, identified by UV, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR and HR-MS analysis. Five compounds (19-acetoxy-7α-hydroxyroyleanone, 7β,20-epoxy-11,12,19-trihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene, 7,20-dihydrofruticuline A, 7β-acetoxy-20-hydroxy-19,20-epoxyroyleanone, 7β-ethoxy-6β,20:19,20-diepoxyroyleanone) were previously undescribed. Although the crude plant surface extract did not possess any antibacterial activity, methanolic extracts of in vitro tissues and two compounds, namely 7β-acetoxy-20-hydroxy-19,20-epoxyroyleanone and 7β-ethoxy-6β,20:19,20-diepoxyroyleanone, isolated in suitable amounts, were active in varying degrees against multidrug resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, displaying MIC values ranging from 32, 64 to 128μg/mL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuźma, Łukasz; Wysokińska, Halina; Sikora, Joanna; Olszewska, Paulina; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta; Szymański, Paweł
Taxodione, an abietane diterpenoid, was isolated from Salvia austriaca transformed roots grown in in vitro conditions. The compound is known to have antibacterial, cytotoxic and anti-tumour properties. This study evaluates the ability of pure taxodione and extracts obtained from the S. austriaca hairy roots and roots from field-grown plants to inhibit human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Both extracts were found to have similar actions against acetylcholinesterase. The IC50 for extracts from transformed and untransformed roots were 142.5 and 139.5 µg ml(-1), respectively. The highest activity towards human acetylcholinesterase was demonstrated by taxodione (IC50 = 54.84 µg ml(-1)). With respect to BChE inhibition, the root extracts demonstrated stronger activity (IC50 = 23.6 µg ml(-1): field-grown plants and 41.6 µg ml(-1): transformed roots) than taxodione (IC50 = 195.9 µg ml(-1)). Taxodione showed significant cytotoxicity against A549 cell line (IC50 = 9.1 µg ml(-1)), whereas the activities for the extracts from S. austriaca roots of field-grown plants (IC50 = 75.7 µg ml(-1)) and hairy roots (IC50 = 86.2 µg ml(-1)) were lower. Computer modelling suggests that taxodione should not demonstrate cardiotoxic or genotoxic activity. It also indicates that taxodione should demonstrate very rapid transport from the body with very good blood-brain barrier penetration, but with no cumulative effect on the human body. The obtained results indicate that taxodione is a safe compound and may be used for further investigations in pharmacological activities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Arora, Gurpreet; Malik, Karan; Singh, Inderbir; Arora, Sandeep; Rana, Vikas
The aim of study was to prepare controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum as natural polymer. Tablets were formulated by direct compression technology employing the natural polymer in different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w). The prepared batches were evaluated for drug assay, diameter, thickness, hardness and tensile strength, swelling index, mucoadhesive strength (using texture analyzer) and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. Real-time stability studies were also conducted on prepared batches. In vitro drug release data were fitted in various release kinetic models for studying the mechanism of drug release. Tensile strength was found to increase from 0.808 ± 0.098 to 1.527 ± 0.10 mN/cm2 and mucoadhesive strength increased from 13.673 ± 1.542 to 40.378 ± 2.345 N, with an increase in the polymer concentration from 5 to 20% (A1 to A4). Swelling index was reported to increase with both increase in the concentration of gum and the time duration. The in vitro drug release decreased from 97.76 to 83.4% (A1 to A4) with the increase in polymer concentration. The drug release from the matrix tablets was found to follow zero-order and Higuchi models, indicating the matrix-forming potential of natural polymer. The value of n was found to be between 0.5221 and 0.8992, indicating the involvement of more than one drug release mechanism from the formulation and possibly the combination of both diffusion and erosion. These research findings clearly indicate the potential of S. plebeian gum to be used as binder, release retardant and mucoadhesive natural material in tablet formulations. PMID:22171313
Jang, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Cha Young; Hwang, Joo Tae; Choi, Jung Ho; Park, Jee Hun; Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual
This study investigated the chemical composition changes of Salvia plebeia R.Br. cultivated under different light sources, including florescent light and sunlight. The plants were exposed to fluorescent light for four months and sunlight and then examined for the next 5-7 months. Plants were harvested monthly during the seven months, and we examined whether the difference in light source affected the phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. A simple and reliable HPLC method using a PAH C 18 column was applied for the quantitative analysis of two triterpenoids from the S. plebeia groups. Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) showed good linearity ( R ² > 0.9999) within the test ranges (0.005-0.05 mg/mL), and the average percentage recoveries of the OA and UA were 95.1-104.8% and 97.2-107.1%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 2.0%. After exposure to sunlight, the phenolic contents, including rosmarinic acid, showed a reduced tendency, whereas the flavonoid contents, including homoplantaginin and luteolin 7-glucoside, were increased. The content of the triterpenoids also showed an increased tendency under sunlight irradiation, but the variance was not larger than those of the phenolic and flavonoid contents. Among experimental groups, the group harvested at six months, having been exposed to sunlight for two months, showed the most potent antioxidant activity. Therefore, these results showed that the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of S. plebeia R.Br. was affected from environmental culture conditions, such as light source. Our studies will be useful for the development of functional materials using S. plebeia R.Br.
Chand, Sukhmal; Yaseen, M; Rajkumari; Patra, D D
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effective utilization of tannery sludge for cultivation of clarysage (Salvia sclarea) at CIMAP research farm, Lucknow, India during the year 2012-2013. Six doses (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 tha(-1)) of processed tannery sludge were tested in randomised block design with four replications. Results revealed that maximum shoot, root, dry matter and oil yield were obtained with application of 80 tha(-1)of tannery sludge and these were 94, 113 and 61% higher respectively, over control. Accumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb) were relatively high in shoot portion of the plant than root. Among heavy metals, magnitude of chromium accumulation was higher than nickel, iron and lead in shoot as well as in root. Linalool, linalyl acetate and sclareol content in oil increased by 13,8 and 27% respectively over control, with tannery sludge application at 80 tha(-1). Heavy metals such as chromium, cadmium and lead content reduced in postharvest soil when compared to initial status. Results indicated that clarysage (Salvia sclarea) can be grown in soil amended with 80 tha(-1)sludge and this can be a suitable accumulator of heavy metals for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils.
Stiefel, Klaus M; Merrifield, Alistair; Holcombe, Alex O
THIS ARTICLE BRINGS TOGETHER THREE FINDINGS AND IDEAS RELEVANT FOR THE UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS: (I) Crick's and Koch's theory that the claustrum is a "conductor of consciousness" crucial for subjective conscious experience. (II) Subjective reports of the consciousness-altering effects the plant Salvia divinorum, whose primary active ingredient is salvinorin A, a κ-opioid receptor agonist. (III) The high density of κ-opioid receptors in the claustrum. Fact III suggests that the consciousness-altering effects of S. divinorum/salvinorin A (II) are due to a κ-opioid receptor mediated inhibition of primarily the claustrum and, additionally, the deep layers of the cortex, mainly in prefrontal areas. Consistent with Crick and Koch's theory that the claustrum plays a key role in consciousness (I), the subjective effects of S. divinorum indicate that salvia disrupts certain facets of consciousness much more than the largely serotonergic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Based on this data and on the relevant literature, we suggest that the claustrum does indeed serve as a conductor for certain aspects of higher-order integration of brain activity, while integration of auditory and visual signals relies more on coordination by other areas including parietal cortex and the pulvinar.
Yuce, E; Yildirim, N; Yildirim, N C; Paksoy, M Y; Bagci, E
The essential oil composition and in vitro antioxidant and antifungal activity of the Salvia sclarea L. from Munzur Valley in Tunceli, Turkey were evaluated in this research. The in vitro antifungal activity of ethanol, hexane and aqueous extracts of S. sclarea against pathogen fungi Epicoccum nigrum and Colletotrichum coccodes were investigated. The essential oil of aerial parts of S. sclarea was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analysed by GC and GC—MS. Total antioxidant status was determined by using Rel assay diagnostics TAS assay kit (Lot.RL024) by Multiscan FC (Thermo). 33 compounds were identified representing the 85.0% of the total oil. The most abundant components (>5%) of the S. sclarea essential oils were caryophyllene oxide (24.1%), sclareol (11.5%), spathulenol (11.4%), 1H-naphtho (2,1,6) pyran (8.6%) and b—caryophyllene (5.1%). The best antifungal and antioxidant effect was seen in ethanolic S. sclarea extract. It can be said that Salvia sclerae could be used as natural antioxidant.
Stiefel, Klaus M.; Merrifield, Alistair; Holcombe, Alex O.
This article brings together three findings and ideas relevant for the understanding of human consciousness: (I) Crick’s and Koch’s theory that the claustrum is a “conductor of consciousness” crucial for subjective conscious experience. (II) Subjective reports of the consciousness-altering effects the plant Salvia divinorum, whose primary active ingredient is salvinorin A, a κ-opioid receptor agonist. (III) The high density of κ-opioid receptors in the claustrum. Fact III suggests that the consciousness-altering effects of S. divinorum/salvinorin A (II) are due to a κ-opioid receptor mediated inhibition of primarily the claustrum and, additionally, the deep layers of the cortex, mainly in prefrontal areas. Consistent with Crick and Koch’s theory that the claustrum plays a key role in consciousness (I), the subjective effects of S. divinorum indicate that salvia disrupts certain facets of consciousness much more than the largely serotonergic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Based on this data and on the relevant literature, we suggest that the claustrum does indeed serve as a conductor for certain aspects of higher-order integration of brain activity, while integration of auditory and visual signals relies more on coordination by other areas including parietal cortex and the pulvinar. PMID:24624064
Li, Xiangping; Song, Zhouye; Zhong, Haiying; Gong, Zhicheng; Yin, Tao; Zhang, Zanling; Zhou, Boting
To exlpore the eff ect of depsides salts from Salvia miltiorrhiza on human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 xenograft tumors and the possible mechanisms. A total of 36 nude mice were divided into 6 groups: A model group, a negative control group, a positive control group, and 3 treatment groups at low, middle or high dose (n=6). The tumor model of nude mice was given depsides salts at a dose of 10, 20 or 50 mg/kg every 3 day for 16 days. Then samples of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice were collected. The morphological changes of tumor samples were observed by HE staining and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the tumor antigen Ki67 was detected by immunohistochemical method. The tumor growth was inhibited by all doses of depsides salts. The morphology of tumors was shrinkage, broken and irregularly arranged compared with the tumors in the model group and the negative control group. Morphological changes were more obvious in tumors with treatment at high dose. Expression of VEGF and Ki67 in treatment groups and the positive control group were lower than that in the model group and the negative control group, with a significant difference (P<0.05). Depsides salts from Salvia miltiorrhiza can inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 tumor in nude mice, which is related to the inhibition of Ki67 and VEGF.
Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hao; Cui, Lijing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yang; Chu, Xi; Liu, Zhenyi; Zhang, Jianping; Chu, Li
Iron overload cardiomyopathy results from iron accumulation in the myocardium that is closely linked to iron-mediated myocardial fibrosis. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM, also known as Danshen), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been widely used for hundreds of years to treat cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the effect and potential mechanism of SM on myocardial fibrosis induced by chronic iron overload (CIO) in mice. Kunming male mice (8 weeks old) were randomized to six groups of 10 animals each: control (CONT), CIO, low-dose SM (L-SM), high-dose SM (H-SM), verapamil (VRP) and deferoxamine (DFO) groups. Normal saline was injected in the CONT group. Mice in the other five groups were treated with iron dextran at 50 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally for 7 weeks, and those in the latter four groups also received corresponding daily treatments, including 3 g/kg or 6 g/kg of SM, 100 mg/kg of VRP, or 100 mg/kg of DFO. The iron deposition was estimated histologically using Prussian blue staining. Myocardial fibrosis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining and hydroxyproline (Hyp) quantitative assay. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and protein expression levels of type I collagen (COL I), type I collagen (COL III), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were analyzed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of SM against iron-overloaded fibrosis. Treatment of chronic iron-overloaded mice with SM dose-dependently reduced iron deposition levels, fibrotic area percentage, Hyp content, expression levels of COL I and COL III, as well as upregulated the expression of TGF- β1 and MMP-9 proteins in the heart. Moreover, SM treatment decreased MDA content and increased SOD activity. In conclusion, SM exerted activities against cardiac fibrosis induced by CIO, which may be attributed to its inhibition of iron deposition, as well as collagen metabolism and oxidative stress
Fei, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Si-Qi; Yang, Li-Jian; Qiu, Yan-Ying; Li, Yi-Ze; Liu, Wen-Yuan; Xi, Tao; Fang, Wei-Rong; Li, Yun-Man
Danshen is a crude herbal drug isolated from dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. This plant is widely used in oriental medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The supercritical CO 2 extract from Danshen (SCED) (57.85%, 5.67% and 4.55% for tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I and cryptotanshinone respectively) was studied in this article, whose potential molecular mechanism remains unclear, especially in anti-thrombosis. The present study was designed to observe the protective effect of SCED on ischemic stroke in rats and to explore the underlying anti-thrombosis mechanism. Following induction of cerebral ischemia in rats by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Neurological defect score, cerebral blood flow, infarct size, and brain edema were measured to evaluate the injury. Arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model and adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) induced acute pulmonary embolism model were conducted to estimate the antithrombotic effect of SCED. In order to investigate the effects of SCED on platelet aggregation, rat platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) were incubated with SCED prior to the addition of the stimuli (ADP or 9, 11-dideoxy-11α, 9α-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F2α (U46619)). Aggregation was monitored in a light transmission aggregometer. Inhibitory effect of SCED on thromboxane A2 (TXA 2 ) release was detected by ELISA kit. Phospholipase C (PLC)/ Protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway was analyzed by a Western blot technique. The effect of the SCED was also studied in vivo on bleeding time in mice. SCED improved the neurological defect score, increased cerebral blood flow, reduced infarct size and alleviated brain edema in rats exposed to pMCAO. After administration of SCED, thrombosis formation in arteriovenous shunt was inhibited and recovery time in pulmonary embolism was shortened. The inhibitory effect of SCED on platelet activation was further confirmed by TXB 2 ELISA kit and Western blot analysis of PLC
Li, Lai-Wei; Qi, Yan-Yan; Liu, Shi-Xi; Wu, Xing-De; Zhao, Qin-Shi
Four new neoclerodane diterpenoids, leucansalvialins FI (1-4), and one rare 18(4 → 3)-abeo-abietane diterpenoid, leucansalvialin J (5), were isolated from the aerial part of Salvia leucantha Cav., along with 14 known analogues. Leucansalvialin F (1) represents the first rearranged salvigenane type clerodane-17,12:18,6-diolide. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations of 1, 2, 3, and 5 were determinded by X-ray diffraction crystal analysis and the ECD technique. All of the isolated components were evaluated for their neurotrophic activities on PC12 cells and all new compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW480). Compounds 2 and 5 showed moderate neuroprotective effects in an in vitro assay. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Lin, L; Zheng, Y F; Qu, J H; Bao, G H
To observe the action of minimally modified low density lipoprotein (mm-LDL) on BKCa in ECV304 cell and the interfering effects of radix salviae miltiorrhizae extract powder 764-3 (30 micrograms/ml) and lingustrazine (200 micrograms/ml) on this action. The cell-attached configuration of patch clamp technique was applied. mm-LDL (100 micrograms/ml) potentiated the activity of BKCa in ECV304. While 764-3 and lingustrazine abolished it. mm-LDL acted on vascular endothelial cell ECV304 could rapidly activate the activity of BKCa and might result in the increase of electro-chemical gradient for the resting Ca2+ influx, thus resting cytoplasmic concentration of calcium could be elevated and endothelial dysfunction would be induced. 764-3 and lingustrazine might have the protective action through decreasing the activity of BKCa.
Hu, Xiangpeng; Rui, Wenjuan; Wu, Chao; He, Shufang; Jiang, Jiemei; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Yan
Previous studies showed Compound Astragalus and Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (CASE), extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Salvia miltiorhiza, significantly suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats induced by diethylinitrosamine (DEN), and in vitro experiments further demonstrated that CASE's anti-HepG2 cell invasion is associated with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). We hypothesized that CASE's suppression of HCC is modulated by TGF-β/Smad signaling, and we conducted this in vivo study to test this hypothesis. Rats were divided into the normal control, the DEN group, and three CASE (60, 120, and 240 mg/kg) treatment groups. The expression of phosphorylation(p) Smad both at C-terminal and linker region, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and Smad4 and Smad7 of liver tissues were measured and compared across the five groups. The positive staining of pSmad2L and pSmad3L increased both in hepatoma nodule areas and adjacent relatively normal liver tissues in rats treated with DEN, while the positive staining of pSmad2C and pSmad3C increased only in relatively normal liver tissues adjacent to hepatoma tissues. The elevated expression of pSmad2C, pSmad2L, pSmad3L, Smad4, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 proteins were suppressed by CASE in a dose-dependent manner. CASE treatment also significantly reduced the intranuclear amounts of pSmad2L and pSmad3L, and upregulated the elevation of pSmad3C positive cells and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that CASE significantly suppresses HCC progression by mediating TGF-β/Smad signaling, especially by modulating Smad3 phosphorylation both at the C-terminal and linker region. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Li, Jianzhong; Chen, Linlin; Wu, Hongyuan; Lu, Yiming; Hu, Zhenlin; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Liming; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH), which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA) of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA) of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50) SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.05) reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes) of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries. PMID:26501264
Naveed, Muhammad; Wenhua, Li; Gang, Wang; Mohammad, Imran Shair; Abbas, Muhammad; Liao, Xiaoqian; Yang, Mengqi; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaolin; Qi, Xiaoming; Chen, Yineng; Jiadi, Lv; Ye, Linlan; Zhijie, Wang; Ding, Chen Ding; Feng, Yu; Xiaohui, Zhou
A novel ventricular restraint is the non-transplant surgical option for the management of an end-stage dilated heart failure (HF). To expand the therapeutic techniques we design a novel ventricular restraint device (ASD) which has the ability to deliver a therapeutic drug directly to the heart. We deliver a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen Zhusheye) through active hydraulic ventricular support drug delivery system (ASD) and we hypothesize that it will show better results in HF management than the restraint device and drug alone. SD rats were selected and divided into five groups (n=6), Normal, HF, HF+SM (IV), HF+ASD, HF+ASD+SM groups respectively. Post myocardial infarction (MI), electrocardiography (ECG) showed abnormal heart function in all groups and HF+ASD+SM group showed a significant therapeutic improvement with respect to other treatment HF, HF+ASD, and HF+SM (IV) groups on day 30. The mechanical functions of the heart such as heart rate, LVEDP, and LVSP were brought to normal when treated with ASD+SM and show significant (P value<0.01) compared to other groups. BNP significantly declines in HF+ASD+SM group animals compared with other treatment groups. Masson's Trichrome staining was used to study histopathology of cardiac myocytes and quantification of fibrosis was assessed. The large blue fibrotic area was observed in HF, HF+ASD, and HF+SM (IV) groups while HF+ASD+SM showed negligible fibrotic myocyte at the end of study period (30days). This study proves that novel ASD device augments the therapeutic effect of the drug and delivers Salvia miltiorrhiza to the cardiomyocytes significantly as well as provides additional support to the dilated ventricle by the heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hamidpour, Mohsen; Hamidpour, Rafie; Hamidpour, Soheila; Shahlari, Mina
For a long time, sage (Salvia) species have been used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damages, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and virus infection, etc., Several studies suggest that sage species can be considered for drug development because of their reported pharmacology and therapeutic activities in many countries of Asia and Middle East, especially China and India. These studies suggest that Salvia species, in addition to treating minor common illnesses, might potentially provide novel natural treatments for the relief or cure of many serious and life-threatening diseases such as depression, dementia, obesity, diabetes, lupus, heart disease, and cancer. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of sage (Saliva).
Kaviani, Maasumeh; Maghbool, Shahla; Azima, Sara; Tabaei, Mohammad Hosein
Background: Using non-pharmacological pain relief methods for reducing labor pain has always been one of the major concerns in obstetrics and gynecology. Objective: Comparing the effects of aromatherapy with jasmine and salvia on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 156 nulliparous women in labor were randomly selected and divided into salvia, jasmine, and control groups (52 in each group). The study duration was 6 months (from October 2009 to March 2010). Each group underwent aromatherapy using an incense mask for 15 min (distilled water for the control group). Pain severity was measured before and 30 and 60 min after the incense aromatherapy. Also, duration of the first and second stages of labor, first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores of the baby, and the frequency of labor type were measured and recorded in each group. Results: In comparison to the other groups, pain severity and duration of the first and second stages of labor were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group of salvia 30 min after the intervention (P = 0.001). However, no significant difference was found among the three groups regarding pain severity 60 min after the aromatherapy, first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores of the baby, and the frequency of labor type. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that aromatherapy with saliva had beneficial effects on pain relief, shortened the labor stages, and had no negative impact on the baby's APGAR score. PMID:25558267
Khodadadi, Bahar; Bordbar, Maryam; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud
For the first time the extract of the plant of Salvia hydrangea was used to green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Apricot kernel shell as an environmentally benign support. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell as an effective catalyst was prepared through reduction of Pd 2+ ions using Salvia hydrangea extract as the reducing and capping agent and Pd NPs immobilization on Apricot kernel shell surface in the absence of any stabilizer or surfactant. According to FT-IR analysis, the hydroxyl groups of phenolics in Salvia hydrangea extract as bioreductant agents are directly responsible for the reduction of Pd 2+ ions and formation of Pd NPs. The as-prepared catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Elemental mapping, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized catalyst was used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Methyl Orange (MO), Methylene Blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB), and Congo Red (CR) at room temperature. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell showed excellent catalytic activity in the reduction of these organic dyes. In addition, it was found that Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaviani, Maasumeh; Maghbool, Shahla; Azima, Sara; Tabaei, Mohammad Hosein
Using non-pharmacological pain relief methods for reducing labor pain has always been one of the major concerns in obstetrics and gynecology. Comparing the effects of aromatherapy with jasmine and salvia on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women. In this randomized clinical trial, 156 nulliparous women in labor were randomly selected and divided into salvia, jasmine, and control groups (52 in each group). The study duration was 6 months (from October 2009 to March 2010). Each group underwent aromatherapy using an incense mask for 15 min (distilled water for the control group). Pain severity was measured before and 30 and 60 min after the incense aromatherapy. Also, duration of the first and second stages of labor, first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores of the baby, and the frequency of labor type were measured and recorded in each group. In comparison to the other groups, pain severity and duration of the first and second stages of labor were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group of salvia 30 min after the intervention (P = 0.001). However, no significant difference was found among the three groups regarding pain severity 60 min after the aromatherapy, first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores of the baby, and the frequency of labor type. The results of the present study indicated that aromatherapy with saliva had beneficial effects on pain relief, shortened the labor stages, and had no negative impact on the baby's APGAR score.
Modarres, Masoomeh; Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, Sedigheh; Taghavizadeh Yazdi, Mohammad Ehsan
Salvia leriifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant with hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Many of the beneficial effects of Salvia spp. are attributed to the phenolic compounds. In the present study, an efficient procedure has been developed for establishment of cell suspension culture of S. leriifolia as a strategy to obtain an in vitro phenolic acids producing cell line for the first time. The effect of growth regulators and various concentrations of sucrose have been analyzed, to optimize biomass growth and phenolic acids production. The callus used for this purpose was obtained from leaves of 15-day-old in vitro seedlings, on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with different hormone balances including benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole butyric acid (IBA); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and kinetin (KIN); naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and BAP. Modified MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L BAP and 5 mg/L NAA was the optimal condition for callus formation with the highest induction rate (100%), the best callus growth and the highest phenolic acids content. No callus induction was observed in combinations of IBA and BAP. Cell suspension cultures were established by transferring 0.5 g of callus to 30 mL liquid MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L BAP and 5 mg/L NAA. Dynamics of phenolic acids production has been investigated during the growth cycle of the suspension cultures. The maximum content of caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B were observed on the 15th day of the cultivation cycle while the highest amount of rosmarinic acid was observed on the first day. In response to various sucrose concentrations, cell cultures with 40 g/L sucrose not only produced the highest dry biomass but also the highest induction of caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B. The highest amount of rosmarinic acid was observed in media containing 50 g/L sucrose. These prepared cell suspension cultures provided a useful
Yalcin, Hasan; Ozturk, Ismet; Tulukcu, Eray; Sagdic, Osman
Clary sage seeds (Salvia sclarea L.) were obtained from plants cultivated, and 2.5, 4.0, 5.5, and 7.0 kGy doses of γ-irradiation were applied to the clary sage seeds. They were then analyzed for their protein, ash, oil and dry matter contents, and fatty acid composition. Additionally, the total phenolic contents, antiradical, antioxidant activities, and volatile compounds of the clary sage seed extract were determined. There was no significant difference in protein content. However, the moisture, oil, and ash contents of the samples were affected by irradiation. While the 7 kGy dose had a positive effect on the total phenolic content and antiradical activity of the sage seed extract, all doses have negative effects on the antioxidant activity of the sage seed. The main fatty acid of the sage seed was remarkably found as α-linolenic acid. The four irradiation levels caused significant differences in fatty acid composition by affecting all fatty acids except palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosenoic acids. The dominant volatile compounds of control sage seed were found as β-pinene (18.81%) and limonene (15.60%). Higher doses of the irradiation decreased volatile components of sage seed. Clary sage seed including high omega-3 can be irradiated with low doses (≤ 2.5 kGy) of γ-irradiation. Clary sage is one of the most popular Salvia species in Turkey and many countries. Clary sage seed has approximately 29% oil content and this oil contains >50% of α-linolenic acid. γ-Irradiation is widely applied in the preservation of spice quality. The present study shows that the antioxidant activity of the clary sage seed is decreased by γ-irradiation. Additionally, higher doses of irradiation also decreased the volatile components of sage seed. Therefore, we suggest that clary sage seed which includes high levels of omega-3 should be irradiated with low doses (≤ 2.5 kGy) of γ-irradiation. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Gao, Hongwei; Sun, Wen; Zhao, Jianping; Wu, Xiaxia; Lu, Jin-Jian; Chen, Xiuping; Xu, Qiong-Ming; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Yang, Shilin
Four novel compounds (1-4) as well as fourteen reported compounds (5-18) were isolated and purified from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen). The structures of novel compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS data, etc. The anti-inflammatory properties of all the compounds on RAW264.7 macrophages and their cytotoxicity on H1299 and Bel-7402 cell lines coupled with a structure-activity relationship (SAR) were investigated. Compound 4 demonstrated the best anti-inflammatory activity and was chosen for further research. Compound 4 greatly suppressed secretion of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by LPS. Additionally, the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was decreased and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB was attenuated after treatment with compound 4 in vitro. Compound 4 was able to dramatically inhibit LPS-induced activation of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 and remarkably disrupted the TLR4 dimerization in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Thus, the new compound 4 suppressed LPS-induced inflammation partially is due to the blocking TLR4 dimerization. In addition, the anti-cancer activity investigation indicated that most of isolated compounds exhibited cytotoxicity and the SAR analysis showed that the intact D ring was indispensable and unsaturated D ring played vital role.
Li, Wenyuan; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Cui, Guanghong; Shao, Aijuan; Huang, Luqi
To study the mechanism of secondary metabolites of some phenolic acids in the hairy roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza induced by methyl jasmonate. The hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza were induced with methyl jasmonate (100 micromol x L(-1)) and collected at 0, 12, 24, 36 h after treatment. Real-time quantitative PCR was used for detecting the mRNA expression level of the key enzyme genes on the secondary metabolites pathway of rosmarinic acid, while a LC-MS method was developed to determine the content of rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B. The concentration of phenolic acids grew up and accumulated quickly in the hairy roots with exogenous signal molecule MJ induced, and it was showed that the content of CA and RA reached the maximum after 24 h and the content of LAB reached the maximum in 36 h by MJ induced. The induction mechanism may be activated with different levels of RA synthesis in PAL, 4CL, C4H genes on the key enzyme phenylalanine pathway and TAT, HPPR genes on tyrosine pathway. The time of gene expression was different, among them, 4CL and PAL genes were more important. In a word, the result can provide some basis data about the mechanism of secondary metabolites of phenolic acids for further research.
Liang, Zongsuo; Ma, Yini; Xu, Tao; Cui, Beimi; Liu, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Yang, Dongfeng
Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal plants because of its excellent performance in treating coronary heart disease. Phenolic acids mainly including caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B are a group of active ingredients in S. miltiorrhiza. Abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA) and ethylene are three important phytohormones. In this study, effects of the three phytohormones and their interactions on phenolic production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were investigated. The results showed that ABA, GA and ethylene were all effective to induce production of phenolic acids and increase activities of PAL and TAT in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Effects of phytohormones were reversed by their biosynthetic inhibitors. Antagonistic actions between the three phytohormones played important roles in the biosynthesis of phenolic acids. GA signaling is necessary for ABA and ethylene-induced phenolic production. Yet, ABA and ethylene signaling is probably not necessary for GA3-induced phenolic production. The complex interactions of phytohormones help us reveal regulation mechanism of secondary metabolism and scale-up production of active ingredients in plants.
Xu, Tao; Cui, Beimi; Liu, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Yang, Dongfeng
Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal plants because of its excellent performance in treating coronary heart disease. Phenolic acids mainly including caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B are a group of active ingredients in S. miltiorrhiza. Abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA) and ethylene are three important phytohormones. In this study, effects of the three phytohormones and their interactions on phenolic production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were investigated. The results showed that ABA, GA and ethylene were all effective to induce production of phenolic acids and increase activities of PAL and TAT in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Effects of phytohormones were reversed by their biosynthetic inhibitors. Antagonistic actions between the three phytohormones played important roles in the biosynthesis of phenolic acids. GA signaling is necessary for ABA and ethylene-induced phenolic production. Yet, ABA and ethylene signaling is probably not necessary for GA3-induced phenolic production. The complex interactions of phytohormones help us reveal regulation mechanism of secondary metabolism and scale-up production of active ingredients in plants. PMID:24023778
Summary In this work, autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) dough and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidification and proteolytic activity. Strain no. C8, identified as Lactobacillus plantarum C8, was selected and used as starter to obtain chia sourdough. Lactic acid fermentation increased the organic acid mass fractions (lactic, acetic and phenyl lactic acids to 12.3 g, 1.0 g and 23.8 µg per kg of dough respectively), and antioxidant activities, which increased by approx. 33–40% compared to unfermented chia flour dough. In addition, total phenolic content increased 25% and its composition was strongly modified after 24 h of fermentation by L. plantarum C8. Chlorogenic acid was only found in the fermented dough (2.5 mg/g), while ferulic acid was detected from the beginning of fermentation, being 32% higher in chia sourdough (5.6 mg/g). The use of fermented chia sourdough improved the overall characteristics of white bread, including physical (e.g. reduced hardness and chewiness of the crumb) and antioxidant properties (25% on average), compared to the white bread. These results indicate that the use of chia sourdough could be a promising alternative to improve the technological and antioxidant properties of wheat bread. In addition, this work has shown, for the first time, that lactic acid bacterium is able to ferment chia dough, improving its overall characteristics. PMID:29089851
Zhang, Chao; Yi, Yang-Lei; Hao, Kai; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue
The present study was to isolate and identify a potent algicidal compound from extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza and study the potential inhibition mechanism on Microcystis aeruginosa. Column chromatography and bioassay-guided fractionation methods were carried out to yield neo-przewaquinone A, which was identified by spectral analysis. The EC50 of neo-przewaquinone A on M. aeruginosa were 4.68 mg L(-1). In addition, neo-przewaquinone A showed relatively higher security on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus, with the EC50 values of 14.78 and 10.37 mg L(-1), respectively. For the potential inhibition mechanisms, neo-przewaquinone A caused M. aeruginosa cells morphologic damage or lysis, increased malondialdehyde content and decreased the soluble protein content, total antioxidant and superoxide dismutase activity, and significantly inhibited three photosynthesis-related genes (psaB, psbD, and rbcL). The results demonstrated the algicidal effect of neo-przewaquinone A on M. aeruginosa and provided the possible inhibition mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Jue; Liu, Mengjun; Wang, Qi; Du, Huizhi; Zhang, Liwei
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have attracted significant attention as a promising green media. In this work, twenty-five kinds of benign choline chloride-based DESs with microwave-assisted methods were applied to quickly extract active components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae . The extraction factors, including temperature, time, power of microwave, and solid/liquid ratio, were investigated systematically by response surface methodology. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients were extracted simultaneously under the optimized conditions: 20 vol% of water in choline chloride/1,2-propanediol (1:1, molar ratio) as solvent, microwave power of 800 W, temperature at 70 °C, time at 11.11 min, and solid/liquid ratio of 0.007 g·mL -1 . The extraction yield was comparable to, or even better than, conventional methods with organic solvents. The microstructure alteration of samples before and after extraction was also investigated. The method validation was tested as the linearity of analytes ( r ² > 0.9997 over two orders of magnitude), precision (intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) < 2.49 and inter-day RSD < 2.96), and accuracy (recoveries ranging from 95.04% to 99.93%). The proposed DESs combined with the microwave-assisted method provided a prominent advantage for fast and efficient extraction of active components, and DESs could be extended as solvents to extract and analyze complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples.
Song, Zhenqiao; Guo, Linlin; Liu, Tian; Lin, Caicai; Wang, Jianhua
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this study, two S. miltiorrhiza genotypes (BH18 and ZH23) with different phenolic acid concentrations were used for de novo RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 170,787 transcripts and 56,216 unigenes were obtained. There were 670 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified between BH18 and ZH23, 250 of which were upregulated in ZH23, with genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway being the most upregulated genes. Nine genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway were upregulated in BH18 and thus result in higher lignin content in BH18. However, expression profiles of most genes involved in the core common upstream phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were higher in ZH23 than that in BH18. These results indicated that genes involved in the core common upstream phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway might play an important role in downstream secondary metabolism and demonstrated that lignin biosynthesis was a putative partially competing pathway with phenolic acid biosynthesis. The results of this study expanded our understanding of the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:28194403
Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress.
Cuevas, E; Rosas-Guerrero, V
Nectar robbing occurs when floral visitors remove floral nectar through floral damage and usually without providing pollination in return. Even though nectar robbing may have negative, neutral or even positive effects on plant fitness, few studies have investigated temporal and spatial variation in robbing rate and their consequences, particularly in the tropics. In this study, robbing levels were estimated during 3 years in four populations of Salvia gesneriflora, a hummingbird-pollinated shrub endemic to central Mexico that is mainly robbed by birds, carpenter bees and bumblebees. The effect of robbing on nectar availability, flower longevity and on visitation rate by floral visitors was also evaluated. Our results indicate great variation in robbing levels across years and populations and a positive relationship between robbing level and flower abundance per population. Moreover, our results show that nectar availability is about eight times higher in unrobbed flowers than in robbed flowers, and that nectar robbers prefer younger flowers, although lifespan of robbed and unrobbed flowers did not differ statistically. Primary and secondary nectar robbers showed a higher visitation rate compared to legitimate visitors, and neither legitimate nor illegitimate floral visitors seem to discriminate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. These results suggest that robbers may respond to food availability and that no floral visitors apparently could differentiate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. Finally, results show that nectar robbers prefer the youngest flowers, which suggests that strong competition for access to nectar between pollinators and robbers might occur, mainly at the first stages of the flowers. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
Li, Chun Guang; Sheng, Shu Jun; Pang, Edwin C K; May, Brian; Xue, Charlie Chang Li
The plant density-dependent variations in the root yield and content, and the yield of biomarkers in Australian grown Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, were investigated in a field trial involving six different plant densities. The key biomarker compounds cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and salvianolic acid B were quantified by a validated RP-HPLC method, and the root yields were determined per plant pair or unit area. There were significant variations (p<0.05) in the root yields and contents and the yields of the biomarkers between the different plant densities. Positive linear correlations were observed between the contents of the three tanshinones, whereas negative linear correlations were revealed between the contents of the tanshinones and salvianolic acid B. The highest root yield per plant pair was achieved when the plants were grown at 45×30 cm or 45×40 cm, whereas the highest root production par unit area was obtained for a plant density of 30×30 cm. The highest contents of the three tanshinones and the most abundant production of these tanshinones per unit area were achieved when the plants were grown at 30×30 cm. However, the highest content of salvianolic acid B was found for a density of 45×40 cm, while its highest yield per unit area was obtained for densities of 30×40 cm or 45×30 cm. The findings suggest that the plant density distinctly affects the root yield and content and the yield of tanshinones and salvianolic acid B in Australian grown S. miltiorrhiza, which may be used as a guide for developing optimal agricultural procedures for cultivating this herb. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Johnson, Matthew W; MacLean, Katherine A; Reissig, Chad J; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Griffiths, Roland R
Salvinorin A is a potent, selective nonnitrogenous kappa opioid agonist and the known psychoactive constituent of Salvia divinorum, a member of the mint family that has been used for centuries by Mazatec shamans of Mexico for divination and spiritual healing. S. divinorum has over the last several years gained increased popularity as a recreational drug. This is a double-blind, placebo controlled study of salvinorin A in 4 psychologically and physically healthy hallucinogen-using adults. Across sessions, participants inhaled 16 ascending doses of salvinorin A and 4 intermixed placebo doses under comfortable and supportive conditions. Doses ranged from 0.375 μg/kg to 21 μg/kg. Subject-rated drug strength was assessed every 2 min for 60 min after inhalation. Orderly time- and dose-related effects were observed. Drug strength ratings peaked at 2 min (first time point) and definite subjective effects were no longer present at approximately 20 min after inhalation. Dose-related increases were observed on questionnaire measures of mystical-type experience (Mysticism Scale) and subjective effects associated with classic serotonergic (5-HT2(A)) hallucinogens (Hallucinogen Rating Scale). Salvinorin A did not significantly increase heart rate or blood pressure. Participant narratives indicated intense experiences characterized by disruptions in vestibular and interoceptive signals (e.g., change in spatial orientation, pressure on the body) and unusual and sometimes recurring themes across sessions such as revisiting childhood memories, cartoon-like imagery, and contact with entities. Under these prepared and supportive conditions, salvinorin A occasioned a unique profile of subjective effects having similarities to classic hallucinogens, including mystical-type effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liang, Junling; Meng, Jie; Guo, Mengzhe; Yang, Zhi; Wu, Shihua
Modern counter-current chromatography (CCC) originated from the helical coil planet centrifuge. Recently, spiral coils were found to possess higher separation efficiency in both the retention of stationary phase and solutes resolution than other CCC coils like the helical and toroidal coils used on type-J CCC and cross-axis CCC. In this work, we built a novel conical coil CCC for the preparative isolation and purification of tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The conical coils were wound on three identical upright tapered holders in head-to-tail and left-handed direction and connected in series. Compared with helical and spiral coil CCC, conical coil CCC not only placed CCC column in a two-dimensional centrifugal field, but also provided a potential centrifugal force gradient both in axial and radial directions. The extra centrifugal gradient made mobile phase move faster and enabled CCC much higher retention of stationary phase and better resolution. As a result, higher efficiency has been obtained with the solvent system of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) with the volume ratio of 5:5:7:3 by using conical coil CCC apparatus. Four tanshinones, including cryptotanshinone (1), tanshinone I (2), 1,2-dihydrotanshinquinone (3) and tanshinone IIA (4), were well resolved from 500mg to 1g crude samples with high purity. Furthermore, the conical coil CCC can make a much higher solid phase retention, which makes it to be a powerful separation tool with high throughput. This is the first report about conical coil CCC for separation of tanshinones and it may also be an important advancement for natural products isolation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Lin; Yang, DongFeng; Liang, TongYao; Zhang, HaiHua; He, ZhiGui; Liang, ZongSuo
Phosphate starvation increased the production of phenolic acids by inducing the key enzyme genes in a positive feedback pathway in Saliva miltiorrhiza hairy roots. SPX may be involved in this process. Salvia miltiorrhiza is a wildly popular traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of coronary heart diseases and inflammation. Phosphate is an essential plant macronutrient that is often deficient, thereby limiting crop yield. In this study, we investigated the effects of phosphate concentration on the biomass and accumulation of phenolic acid in S. miltiorrhiza. Results show that 0.124 mM phosphate was favorable for plant growth. Moreover, 0.0124 mM phosphate was beneficial for the accumulation of phenolic acids, wherein the contents of danshensu, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B were, respectively, 2.33-, 1.02-, 1.68-, and 2.17-fold higher than that of the control. By contrast, 12.4 mM phosphate inhibited the accumulation of phenolic acids. The key enzyme genes in the phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway were investigated to elucidate the mechanism of phosphate starvation-induced increase of phenolic acids. The results suggest that phosphate starvation induced the gene expression from the downstream pathway to the upstream pathway, i.e., a feedback phenomenon. In addition, phosphate starvation response gene SPX (SYG1, Pho81, and XPR1) was promoted by phosphate deficiency (0.0124 mM). We inferred that SPX responded to phosphate starvation, which then affected the expression of later responsive key enzyme genes in phenolic acid biosynthesis, resulting in the accumulation of phenolic acids. Our findings provide a resource-saving and environmental protection strategy to increase the yield of active substance in herbal preparations. The relationship between SPX and key enzyme genes and the role they play in phenolic acid biosynthesis during phosphate deficiency need further studies.
Aximoff, Izar Araujo; Freitas, Leandro
Background and Aims The period between the beginning of anthesis and flower senescence modulates the transport of pollen by pollinators among conspecific flowers, and its length may therefore influence reproductive success. This study evaluated whether floral longevity favours pollen removal from the anthers over fecundity (seed set) in an ornithophilous species that does not undergo pollen limitation. Methods Field investigations were conducted on floral longevity, nectar production, pollinator behaviour, and variations in fruit set (FS), mean number of seeds per fruit (MSF) and pollen removal by hummingbirds (PR) during the anthesis of Salvia sellowiana in south-east Brazil. Key Results Anthesis of flowers exposed to pollinators lasted 4 d, as well as on flowers with pollen removed from the anthers or deposited on the stigma. The longevity of bagged flowers was significantly higher (approx. 9 d). FS and PR reached 87·2 and 90 %, respectively, in natural conditions. PR increased gradually over the period of anthesis; however, FS and MSF reached their maxima in the first hours of anthesis. Nectar production was continuous, but the secretion rate was reduced after pollination. The removal of nectar from non-pollinated flowers stimulated its production. Conclusions The longevity of anthesis in S. sellowiana seems to be related to the mechanism of gradual dispensing of pollen, resulting in greater male reproductive success. This is in agreement with the pollen-donation hypothesis. The small number of ovules (four) of S. sellowiana and the high frequency and the foraging mode of its pollinators may favour the selection for floral longevity driven by male fitness in this system. PMID:20622254
Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds contain an important amount of edible oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Fast and alternative extraction techniques based on polar solvents, such as ethanol or water, have become relevant for oil extraction in recent years. However, chia seeds also contain a large amount of soluble fiber or mucilage, which makes difficult an oil extraction process with polar solvents. For that reason, the aim of this study was to develop a gentle extraction method for mucilage in order to extract chia oil with polar solvents using pressurized liquids and compare with organic solvent extraction. The proposed mucilage extraction method, using an ultrasonic probe and only water, was optimized at mild conditions (50 °C and sonication 3 min) to guarantee the omega-3 oil quality. Chia oil extraction was performed using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with different solvents and their mixtures at five different extraction temperatures (60, 90, 120, 150, and 200 °C). Optimal PLE conditions were achieved with ethyl acetate or hexane at 90 °C in only 10 min of static extraction time (chia oil yield up to 30.93%). In addition, chia oils extracted with nonpolar and polar solvents by PLE were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid composition at different extraction conditions. Chia oil contained ∼65% of α-linolenic acid regardless of mucilage extraction method, solvent, or temperature used. Furthermore, tocopherols and tocotrienols were also analyzed by HPLC in the extracted chia oils. The mucilage removal allowed the subsequent extraction of the chia oil with polar or nonpolar solvents by PLE producing chia oil with the same fatty acid and tocopherol composition as traditional extraction.
Sanna, Cinzia; Cagliero, Cecilia; Ballero, Mauro; Civra, Andrea; Donalisio, Manuela; Bicchi, Carlo; Lembo, David
Salvia desoleana Atzei & V. Picci is an indigenous species in Sardinia island used in folk medicine to treat menstrual, digestive and central nervous system diseases. Nowadays, it is widely cultivated for the pleasant smell of its essential oil (EO), whose antimicrobial and antifungal activities have already been screened. This study evaluated the in vitro anti-Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) activity of S. desoleana EO, fractions and main components: linalyl acetate, alpha terpinyl acetate, and germacrene D. Phytochemical composition of S. desoleana EO was studied by GC-FID/MS analysis and the active fraction(s) and/or compounds in S. desoleana EO were identified with a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure through in vitro assays on cell viability and HSV-2 and RSV inhibition. S. desoleana EO inhibits both acyclovir sensitive and acyclovir resistant HSV-2 strains with EC50 values of 23.72 μg/ml for the former and 28.57 μg/ml for the latter. Moreover, a significant suppression of HSV-2 replication was observed with an EC50 value of 33.01 μg/ml (95% CI: 26.26 to 41.49) when the EO was added post-infection. Among the fractions resulting from flash column chromatography on silica gel, the one containing 54% of germacrene D showed a similar spectrum of activity of S. desoleana EO with a stronger suppression in post-infection stage. These results indicated that S. desoleana EO can be of interest to develop new and alternative anti-HSV-2 products active also against acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strains. PMID:28207861
Chen, Haimei; Zhang, Jianhui; Yuan, George; Liu, Chang
Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most widely used medicinal plants. As a first step to develop a chloroplast-based genetic engineering method for the over-production of active components from S. miltiorrhiza, we have analyzed the genome, transcriptome, and base modifications of the S. miltiorrhiza chloroplast. Total genomic DNA and RNA were extracted from fresh leaves and then subjected to strand-specific RNA-Seq and Single-Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing analyses. Mapping the RNA-Seq reads to the genome assembly allowed us to determine the relative expression levels of 80 protein-coding genes. In addition, we identified 19 polycistronic transcription units and 136 putative antisense and intergenic noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes. Comparison of the abundance of protein-coding transcripts (cRNA) with and without overlapping antisense ncRNAs (asRNA) suggest that the presence of asRNA is associated with increased cRNA abundance (p<0.05). Using the SMRT Portal software (v1.3.2), 2687 potential DNA modification sites and two potential DNA modification motifs were predicted. The two motifs include a TATA box–like motif (CPGDMM1, “TATANNNATNA”), and an unknown motif (CPGDMM2 “WNYANTGAW”). Specifically, 35 of the 97 CPGDMM1 motifs (36.1%) and 91 of the 369 CPGDMM2 motifs (24.7%) were found to be significantly modified (p<0.01). Analysis of genes downstream of the CPGDMM1 motif revealed the significantly increased abundance of ncRNA genes that are less than 400 bp away from the significantly modified CPGDMM1motif (p<0.01). Taking together, the present study revealed a complex interplay among DNA modifications, ncRNA and cRNA expression in chloroplast genome. PMID:24914614
Chen, Haimei; Zhang, Jianhui; Yuan, George; Liu, Chang
Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most widely used medicinal plants. As a first step to develop a chloroplast-based genetic engineering method for the over-production of active components from S. miltiorrhiza, we have analyzed the genome, transcriptome, and base modifications of the S. miltiorrhiza chloroplast. Total genomic DNA and RNA were extracted from fresh leaves and then subjected to strand-specific RNA-Seq and Single-Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing analyses. Mapping the RNA-Seq reads to the genome assembly allowed us to determine the relative expression levels of 80 protein-coding genes. In addition, we identified 19 polycistronic transcription units and 136 putative antisense and intergenic noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes. Comparison of the abundance of protein-coding transcripts (cRNA) with and without overlapping antisense ncRNAs (asRNA) suggest that the presence of asRNA is associated with increased cRNA abundance (p<0.05). Using the SMRT Portal software (v1.3.2), 2687 potential DNA modification sites and two potential DNA modification motifs were predicted. The two motifs include a TATA box-like motif (CPGDMM1, "TATANNNATNA"), and an unknown motif (CPGDMM2 "WNYANTGAW"). Specifically, 35 of the 97 CPGDMM1 motifs (36.1%) and 91 of the 369 CPGDMM2 motifs (24.7%) were found to be significantly modified (p<0.01). Analysis of genes downstream of the CPGDMM1 motif revealed the significantly increased abundance of ncRNA genes that are less than 400 bp away from the significantly modified CPGDMM1motif (p<0.01). Taking together, the present study revealed a complex interplay among DNA modifications, ncRNA and cRNA expression in chloroplast genome.
A novel photo-biological engineering method for Salvia miltiorrhiza-mediated fabrication of silver nanoparticles using LED lights sources and its effectiveness against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae and microbial pathogens
In this study, Salvia miltiorrhiza-synthesized Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) fabricated using sunlight or various LED lights were studied for their biophysical features and evaluated as larvicides against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and growth inhibitors on different species of microbial pathogens. AgNPs pr...
Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Avola, Rosanna; Bruno, Maurizio; Rigano, Daniela
Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in men, and research to find more effective and less toxic drugs has become necessary. In the frame of our ongoing program on traditionally used Salvia species from the Mediterranean Area, here we report the biological activities of Salvia aurea , S. judaica and S. viscosa essential oils against human prostate cancer cells (DU-145). The cell viability was measured by 3(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was used to quantify necrosis cell death. Genomic DNA, caspase-3 activity, expression of cleaved caspase-9, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) proteins were analyzed in order to study the apoptotic process. The role of reactive oxygen species in cell death was also investigated. We found that the three essential oils, containing caryophyllene oxide as a main constituent, are capable of reducing the growth of human prostate cancer cells, activating an apoptotic process and increasing reactive oxygen species generation. These results suggest it could be profitable to further investigate the effects of these essential oils for their possible use as anticancer agents in prostate cancer, alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents.
Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C. E.; Avola, Rosanna; Bruno, Maurizio
Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in men, and research to find more effective and less toxic drugs has become necessary. In the frame of our ongoing program on traditionally used Salvia species from the Mediterranean Area, here we report the biological activities of Salvia aurea, S. judaica and S. viscosa essential oils against human prostate cancer cells (DU-145). The cell viability was measured by 3(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was used to quantify necrosis cell death. Genomic DNA, caspase-3 activity, expression of cleaved caspase-9, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) proteins were analyzed in order to study the apoptotic process. The role of reactive oxygen species in cell death was also investigated. We found that the three essential oils, containing caryophyllene oxide as a main constituent, are capable of reducing the growth of human prostate cancer cells, activating an apoptotic process and increasing reactive oxygen species generation. These results suggest it could be profitable to further investigate the effects of these essential oils for their possible use as anticancer agents in prostate cancer, alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents. PMID:29351194
Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Jianhua; Zhou, Hongying; Jiang, Xingkai; Zhu, Lixiang; Gao, Xin
An optimized microwave-assisted extraction method using water (MAE-W) as the extractant and an efficient HPLC analysis method were first developed for the fast extraction and simultaneous determination of D(+)-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) lactic acid (Dla), salvianolic acid B (SaB), and lithospermic acid (La) in radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae. The key parameters of MAE-W were optimized. It was found that the degradation of SaB was inhibited when using the optimized MAE-W and the stable content of Dla, La, and SaB in danshen was obtained. Furthermore, compared to the conventional extraction methods, the proposed MAE-W is a more rapid method with higher yield and lower solvent consumption with a reproducibility (RSD <6%). In addition, using water as extractant is safe and helpful for environment protection, which could be referred to as green extraction. The separation and quantitative determination of the three compounds was carried out by a developed reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection. Highly efficient separation was obtained using gradient solvent system. The optimized HPLC analysis method was validated to have specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The results indicated that MAE-W followed by HPLC-UV determination is an appropriate alternative to previously proposed method for quality control of radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.
Huang, Wendong; Yang, Yongfei; Zeng, Zhi; Su, Meiling; Gao, Qi; Zhu, Banghao
Salvia miltiorrhiza and ligustrazine are traditional Chinese medicines that have been used in combination for treatment of cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease, cardiac angina and atherosclerosis in Asia, in particular, China. The present study aimed to determine the effect of S. miltiorrhiza and ligustrazine injection (SLI) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injuries via the Akt serine/threonine kinase (Akt)‑endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly assigned into six groups: i) Sham group; ii) I/R group; iii) Low‑SLI group (6.8 mg/kg/day, i.p.); iv) Medium‑SLI group (20.4 mg/kg/day, i.p.); v) High‑SLI group (61.2 mg/kg/day, i.p.); vi) verapamil group (6 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Prior to surgery, the aforementioned groups were pretreated with a homologous drug once per day for 3 days. The effect of SLI following 35 min coronary artery occlusion and 2 h reperfusion was evaluated by determining infarct size, hemodynamics, biochemical values and histological observations. Additionally, cell viability, caspase‑3 expression, B cell leukemia/lymphoma‑2 (Bcl‑2)/Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) ratio, phosphorylated (p‑)Akt and p‑eNOS were also investigated following 2 h simulated ischemia and 2 h simulated reperfusion in H9C2 cardiomyocyte cells. Pretreatment with SLI significantly improved cardiac function in a dose‑dependent manner and reduced myocardial infarct size, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde levels in blood serum. Additionally, myocardial histopathology changes in the rat model were also alleviated in SLI treatment groups. The present in vitro study revealed that treatment with SLI reduced the apoptotic rate of H9C2 cells by inhibiting the activation of caspase‑3 and increasing the Bcl‑2/Bax ratio. The effect of SLI was associated with increased phosphorylation of the
Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream samples were prepared by partially replacing the milk fat with olein fraction of chia oil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 ), respectively. Ice cream prepared from 100% milk fat was kept as control. Ice cream samples stored at -18 °C for 60 days were analysed at 0, 30 and 60 days of the storage period. Fatty acid profile, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value and sensory characteristics of ice cream samples was studied. Concentration of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in T 4 was 13.24, 0.58, 0.42 and 0.31%, respectively. Total phenolic contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were recorded 0.12, 1.65, 3.17, 5.19 and 7.48 mg GAE/mL, respectively. Total flavonoid content of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were found 0.08, 0.64, 1.87, 3.16 and 4.29 mg Quercetin Equivalent/mL. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was noted 5.61, 17.43, 36.84, 51.17 and 74.91%, respectively. After 60 days of storage period, the highest peroxide value of 1.84 (MeqO 2 /kg) was observed in T 4 , which was much less than allowable limit of 10 (MeqO 2 /kg). Flavour score was non-significant after 30 days of storage period. Supplementation of ice cream with olein fraction of chia oil enhanced the concentration of
Park, Bongkyun; Song, Hae Seong; Kwon, Jeong Eun; Cho, Se Min; Jang, Seon-A; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kang, Se Chan
Extracts from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat coronary heart disease, chronic renal failure, atherosclerosis, myocardial infraction, angina pectoris, myocardial ischemia, dysmenorrheal, neurasthenic insomnia, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-RANK signal effect of the combination of S.miltiorrhiza Bunge (SME) and liquefied calcium (LCa) supplement with ovariectomized (OVX-SML) mice, a osteoporosis animal model. Results were compared to 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) treatment. A total of 70 female ICR strain mice (7 weeks) were randomly divided into 10 groups with 7 mice in each group as follows: (1) sham-operated control mice (sham) received daily oral phosphate-buffered-saline (PBS) of equal volumes through oral administration. (2) OVX mice received a daily oral administration of PBS (OVX). (3) OVX mice treated daily with 50 mg/kg b.w./ day of SME (4) with 100 mg/kg b.w./day of SME or (5) with 200 mg/kg b.w./day of SME via oral administration. (6) OVX mice treated daily with 50 mg/kg b.w./day of SML (7) with 100 mg/kg b.w./day of SML or (8) with 200 mg/kg b.w./day of SML via oral administration. (9) OVX mice treated daily with 10 ml/kg b.w./day of LCa (10) OVX mice received i.p. injections of 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) (0.1 mg/kg b.w./day) three times per week for 12 weeks. micro-CT analysis revealed that oral administration of SML inhibited tibial bone loss, sustained trabecular bone state, and ameliorated bone biochemical markers. In addition, SML administration compared to SEM and LCa reduced serum levels of RANKL, osteocalcin and BALP through increased serum levels of OPG and E 2 in OVX mice. SML also had more beneficial effects on protection of estrogen-dependent bone loss through blocking expression of TRAF6 and NFTAc1 and produces cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor to develop osteoclast differentiation. These data suggest that S. miltiorrhiza Bunge combined with
de Souza Ferreira, Cynthia; dd Sousa Fomes, Lucilia de Fátima; da Silva, Gilze Espirito Santo; Rosa, Glorimar
chia is a seed rich in such nutrients as proteins, n-3 fatty acids and especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), minerals, fibers and antioxidants. Efforts have been made to assess whether human consumption of chia can reduce cardiovascular risk factors; however, it has not been established as effective and the findings of the few studies to have looked into the matter are inconsistent. to systematize the findings of studies assessing the effect the consumption of chia seed, either milled or whole, has in the prevention/control of cardiovascular risk factors in humans. this is a systematic literature review (SLR) with no meta-analysis. The articles scrutinizedwere identified in the electronic databases Lilacs, Medline (Pub- Med version), Cochrane, Scielo, Scopus, and Web of Science under the keywords"dyslipidemia" or "dislipidemia", "hyperlipidemia" or "hiperlipidemia", "obesity" or "obesidade", "salvia"or"salviahispanica", "Lamiaceae" or "chia", "hypertension" or "hipertensão", "hypertrygliceridemia" or "hipertrigliceridemia", and "riscocardiovascular" or "cardiovascularrisk." We chose for our selection English-, Portuguese- or Spanish-language articles about clinical trials on humans and published within the last ten years. The biases of risk analysis were carried out considering 6 of the 8 criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1. seven studies (n = 200) fit our inclusion criteria. Of the chosen clinical trials, only one was not randomized. Five of the studies were blind experiments. Two of the studies were acute trials, both of them randomized. Of the chia seed interventions, one study showed a significant drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and inflammatory markers, yet there was no change in body mass, lipid profile or blood sugar. In four of the studies reviewed there was a significant spike in ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with no significant change to other parameters. In the acute trials, post
Yan, Ying-Ying; Yang, Yi-Heng; Wang, Wei-Wei; Pan, Yu-Ting; Zhan, Si-Yan; Sun, Ming-Yang; Zhang, Hong; Zhai, Suo-Di
Salvia Miltiorrhiza Depside Salt for Infusion (SMDS) is made of a group of highly purified listed drugs. However, its safety data is still reported limitedly. Compared with the clinical trials, its safety in the real world setting is barely assessed. To investigate the safety issues, including adverse events (AEs), adverse events related to SMDS (ADEs), and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of the SMDS in the real world clinical practice. This is a prospective, multicenter, pharmacist-led, cohort study in the real world setting. Consecutive patients prescribed with SMDS were all included in 36 sites. Pharmacists were well trained to standardized collect the patients information, including demographics, medical history, prescribing patterns of SMDS, combined medications, adverse events, laboratory investigations, outcomes of the treatment when discharge, and interventions by pharmacists. Adverse events and adverse drug reactions were collected in details. Multivariate possion regression analysis was applied to identify risk factors associated with ADEs using the significance level (α) 0.05. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01872520. Thirty six hospitals were participated in the study and 30180 consecutive inpatients were included. The median age was 62 (interquartile range [IQR], 50-73) years, and male was 17384 (57.60%) among the 30180 patients. The incidences of the AEs, ADEs and ADRs were 6.40%, 1.57% and 0.79%, respectively. There were 9 kinds of new ADEs which were not on the approved label found in the present study. According to the multivariate analysis, male (RR = 1.381, P = 0.009, 95%CI [1.085~1.759]), more concomitant medications (RR = 1.049, P<0.001, 95%CI [1.041~1.057]), longer duration of SMDS therapy (RR = 1.027, P<0.001, 95%CI [1.013~1.041]), higher drug concentration (RR = 1.003, P = 0.014, 95%CI [1.001~1.006]), and resolvent unapproved (RR = 1.900, P = 0.002, 95%CI [1.260~2.866]) were the independent risk factors of the ADEs. Moreover, following the
Kostić, Milica; Kitić, Dušanka; Petrović, Milica B; Jevtović-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Jović, Marko; Petrović, Aleksandar; Živanović, Slavoljub
Salvia sclarea L., clary, is an aromatic plant traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases and conditions. Although it has been primarily used as a stomachic, there are data on traditional use of S. sclarea as an agent against gingivitis, stomatitis and aphthae. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the S. sclarea ethanolic extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontitis in rats from the immunological and histopathological standpoint. Periodontal inflammation in rats was induced by repeated injections of LPS from Escherichia coli into the interdental papilla between the first and second right maxillary molars. The extract was administered two times a day by oral gavage (200mg/kg body weight). The inflammatory status was assessed by the measurements of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of gingival tissues and descriptive analysis of histological sections of periodontium. Chemical characterization of the extract was determined using high performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC). Antioxidant activity of the extract was estimated with two in vitro complementary methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene/linoleic acid models. Treatment with S. sclarea extract, compared to the untreated group of the rats, significantly diminished the process of inflammation decreasing the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, reducing the gingival tissue lesions and preserving bone alveolar resorption. Considerably smaller number of inflammatory cells and larger number of fibroblasts was noticed. The administration of the extract three days earlier did not have significant preventive effects. Rosmarinic acid was the predominant compound in the extract. The extract showed strong antioxidant effects in both test systems. S. sclarea extract manifested anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-induced periodontitis suggesting that it may have a role as a
Hernández-Pérez, M; Rabanal, R M; de la Torre, M C; Rodríguez, B
Aethiopinone (1), an o-naphthoquinone diterpene from Salvia aethiopis L. roots and two hemisynthetic derivatives 2 and 3 have been evaluated for toxicity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and haemostatic activities. The compounds tested showed low toxicity and a pharmacological profile similar to other NSAI substances on reducing the edema induced by carrageenan and contractions induced by phenyl-p-quinone; the most active compounds were 1 and 2. In the same way and as expected with these types of substances, the bleeding time increased. In the TPA-induced ear inflammation model, the three compounds showed a moderate reduction of edema, and 1 produced a significant increase in the reaction time against thermal painful stimuli in the tail immersion test. The results demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory, peripheral and central analgesic properties for 1, as well as antiedematose topical action and peripheral analgesic properties for 2 and 3.
Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Comparisons of Multi-Ingredients after Oral Administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Extract, Hawthorn Extract, and a Combination of Both Extracts to Rats
Liu, Yu-Qiang; Cai, Qian; Liu, Chang; Bao, Feng-Wei; Zhang, Zhen-Qiu
A simple and sensitive HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of danshensu (DSS), rosmarinic acid (RA), lithospermic acid (LA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and hyperoside (HP) in rat plasma. This method validated was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the main active ingredients after oral administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract (SME), hawthorn extract (HTE), and a combination of both extracts (2.5 : 1) to rats. The results indicated that there have been great differences in pharmacokinetics between a single extract and a combination of both extracts. A combination of both extracts can enhance their bioavailabilities and delay the elimination of SAB and DSS in rats. PMID:24660090
Guo, Y X; Han, J; Zhang, D Y; Wang, L H; Zhou, L L
We studied the effect of ultrasonication extraction technology combined with ammonium sulfate/ethanol aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for the separation of lithospermic acid B (LAB) from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. According to the literature and preliminary studies, ammonium sulfate concentration, ethanol concentration, pH, ultrasonication power, ultrasonication time and the ratio of solvent-to-solid were investigated using a single factor design to identify the factors affecting separation. Taking into consideration a simultaneous increase in LAB recovery (R (%)) and partition coefficient (K), the best performance of the ATPS was obtained at 25°C and pH 2 using ammonium sulfate 22% (w/w) and ethanol 30% (w/w). To keep the solvent-to-solid ratio at 10, response surface methodology was used to find the optimal ultrasonication power and ultrasonication time. Quadratic models were predicted for LAB yield in the upper phase. Optimal conditions of 572.1 W ultrasonication power and 42.2 min produced a maximum yield of LAB of 42.16 mg g(-1) sample. There was no obvious degradation of LAB with ultrasound under the applied conditions, and the experimental yield of LAB was 42.49 mg g(-1) sample and the purity was 55.28% (w/w), which was much higher than that obtained using conventional extraction. The present study demonstrated that ultrasound coupled with aqueous two-phase systems is very efficient tool for the extraction and purification of LAB from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Cui-ying; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Yu; Ren, Wei-guang; Chen, Heng-wen
A study was made on the pharmacokinetic regularity of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CR) in rats, so as to discuss the compatibility mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and intravenously injected with 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B for the single SMRR extracts group, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the single CR extracts group and 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B + 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the SMRR and CR combination group. The blood samples were collected at different time points and purified by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. With chloramphenicol as internal standard (IS), UPLC was adopted to determine concentrations of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid. The pharmacokinetic parameters of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid were calculated with WinNonlin 6.2 software and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. The UPLC analysis method was adopted to determine salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma, including linear equation, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery. The established sample processing and analysis methods were stable and reliable, with significant differences in major pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (t(1/2)). According to the experimental results, the combined application of SMRR and CR can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of their effective components in rats and promote the wide distribution, shorten the action time and prolong the in vivo action time of salvianolic acid B and increase the blood drug concentration and accelerate the clearance of ferulic acid in vivo.
van Poppel, Pleun C. M.; Breedveld, Pauline; Abbink, Evertine J.; Roelofs, Hennie; van Heerde, Waander; Smits, Paul; Lin, Wenzhi; Tan, Aaitje H.; Russel, Frans G.; Donders, Rogier; Tack, Cees J.; Rongen, Gerard A.
Purpose Danshen is the dried root extract of the plant Salvia Miltiorrhiza and it is used as traditional Chinese medicinal herbal product to prevent and treat atherosclerosis. However, its efficacy has not been thoroughly investigated. This study evaluates the effect of Danshen on hyperlipidemia and hypertension, two well known risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. Methods This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study performed at a tertiary referral center. Participants were recruited by newspaper advertisement and randomized to treatment with Danshen (water-extract of the Salvia Miltiorrhiza root) or placebo for 4 consecutive weeks. There was a wash out period of 4 weeks. Of the 20 analysed participants, 11 received placebo first. Inclusion criteria were: age 40-70 years, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. At the end of each treatment period, plasma lipids were determined (primary outcome), 24 hours ambulant blood pressure measurement (ABPM) was performed, and vasodilator endothelial function was assessed in the forearm. Results LDL cholesterol levels were 3.82±0.14 mmol/l after Danshen and 3.52±0.16 mmol/l after placebo treatment (mean±SE; p<0.05 for treatment effect corrected for baseline). Danshen treatment had no effect on blood pressure (ABPM 138/84 after Danshen and 136/87 after placebo treatment). These results were further substantiated by the observation that Danshen had neither an effect on endothelial function nor on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose metabolism, hemostasis and blood viscosity. Conclusion Four weeks of treatment with Danshen (water-extract) slightly increased LDL-cholesterol without affecting a wide variety of other risk markers. These observations do not support the use of Danshen to prevent or treat atherosclerosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01563770 PMID:26192328
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Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad; Manzoor, Muhammad Faisal; Javed, Amna; Ali, Zafar; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Ali, Muhammad; Hussain, Yasir
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds have been described as a good source of lipids, protein, dietary fiber, polyphenolic compounds and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The consumption of chia seed oil helps to improve biological markers related to metabolic syndrome diseases. The oil yield and fatty acids composition of chia oil is affected by several factors such as pre-treatment method and size reduction practices. Therefore, the main mandate of present investigate was to study the effect of different seed pre-treatments on yield, fatty acids composition and sensory acceptability of chia oil at different storage intervals and conditions. Raw chia seeds were characterized for proximate composition. Raw chia seeds after milling were passed through sieves to obtain different particle size fractions (coarse, seed particle size ≥ 10 mm; medium, seed particle size ≥ 5 mm; fine, seed particle size ≤ 5 mm). Heat pre-treatment of chia seeds included the water boiling (100 C°, 5 min), microwave roasting (900 W, 2450 MHz, 2.5 min), oven drying (105 ± 5 °C, 1 h) and autoclaving (121 °C, 15 lbs, 15 min) process. Extracted oil from pre-treated chia seeds were stored in Tin cans at 25 ± 2 °C and 4 ± 1 °C for 60-days and examined for physical (color, melting point, refractive index), oxidative (iodine value, peroxide value, free fatty acids), fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic) composition and sensory (appearance, flavor, overall acceptability) parameters, respectively. The proximal composition of chia seeds consisted of 6.16 ± 0.24 % moisture, 34.84 ± 0.62 % oil, 18.21 ± 0.45 % protein, 4.16 ± 0.37 % ash, 23.12 ± 0.29 % fiber, and 14.18 ± 0.23 % nitrogen contents. The oil yield as a result of seed pre-treatments was found in the range of 3.43 ± 0.22 % (water boiled samples) to 32.18 ± 0.34 % (autoclaved samples). The oil samples at day 0 indicated the
Caniard, Anne; Zerbe, Philipp; Legrand, Sylvain; Cohade, Allison; Valot, Nadine; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Bohlmann, Jörg; Legendre, Laurent
Sclareol is a diterpene natural product of high value for the fragrance industry. Its labdane carbon skeleton and its two hydroxyl groups also make it a valued starting material for semisynthesis of numerous commercial substances, including production of Ambrox® and related ambergris substitutes used in the formulation of high end perfumes. Most of the commercially-produced sclareol is derived from cultivated clary sage (Salvia sclarea) and extraction of the plant material. In clary sage, sclareol mainly accumulates in essential oil-producing trichomes that densely cover flower calices. Manool also is a minor diterpene of this species and the main diterpene of related Salvia species. Based on previous general knowledge of diterpene biosynthesis in angiosperms, and based on mining of our recently published transcriptome database obtained by deep 454-sequencing of cDNA from clary sage calices, we cloned and functionally characterized two new diterpene synthase (diTPS) enzymes for the complete biosynthesis of sclareol in clary sage. A class II diTPS (SsLPPS) produced labda-13-en-8-ol diphosphate as major product from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) with some minor quantities of its non-hydroxylated analogue, (9 S, 10 S)-copalyl diphosphate. A class I diTPS (SsSS) then transformed these intermediates into sclareol and manool, respectively. The production of sclareol was reconstructed in vitro by combining the two recombinant diTPS enzymes with the GGPP starting substrate and in vivo by co-expression of the two proteins in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Tobacco-based transient expression assays of green fluorescent protein-fusion constructs revealed that both enzymes possess an N-terminal signal sequence that actively targets SsLPPS and SsSS to the chloroplast, a major site of GGPP and diterpene production in plants. SsLPPS and SsSS are two monofunctional diTPSs which, together, produce the diterpenoid specialized metabolite sclareol in a two-step process. They
Background Sclareol is a diterpene natural product of high value for the fragrance industry. Its labdane carbon skeleton and its two hydroxyl groups also make it a valued starting material for semisynthesis of numerous commercial substances, including production of Ambrox® and related ambergris substitutes used in the formulation of high end perfumes. Most of the commercially-produced sclareol is derived from cultivated clary sage (Salvia sclarea) and extraction of the plant material. In clary sage, sclareol mainly accumulates in essential oil-producing trichomes that densely cover flower calices. Manool also is a minor diterpene of this species and the main diterpene of related Salvia species. Results Based on previous general knowledge of diterpene biosynthesis in angiosperms, and based on mining of our recently published transcriptome database obtained by deep 454-sequencing of cDNA from clary sage calices, we cloned and functionally characterized two new diterpene synthase (diTPS) enzymes for the complete biosynthesis of sclareol in clary sage. A class II diTPS (SsLPPS) produced labda-13-en-8-ol diphosphate as major product from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) with some minor quantities of its non-hydroxylated analogue, (9 S, 10 S)-copalyl diphosphate. A class I diTPS (SsSS) then transformed these intermediates into sclareol and manool, respectively. The production of sclareol was reconstructed in vitro by combining the two recombinant diTPS enzymes with the GGPP starting substrate and in vivo by co-expression of the two proteins in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Tobacco-based transient expression assays of green fluorescent protein-fusion constructs revealed that both enzymes possess an N-terminal signal sequence that actively targets SsLPPS and SsSS to the chloroplast, a major site of GGPP and diterpene production in plants. Conclusions SsLPPS and SsSS are two monofunctional diTPSs which, together, produce the diterpenoid specialized metabolite sclareol
Shao, Xin; Ai, Ni; Xu, Donghang; Fan, Xiaohui
Human serum albumin (HSA) binding is one of important pharmacokinetic properties of drug, which is closely related to in vivo distribution and may ultimately influence its clinical efficacy. Compared to conventional drug, limited information on this transportation process is available for medicinal herbs, which significantly hampers our understanding on their pharmacological effects, particularly when herbs and drug are co-administrated as polytherapy to the ailment. Several lines of evidence suggest the existence of Salvia miltiorrhiza-Warfarin interaction. Since Warfarin is highly HSA bound in the plasma with selectivity to site I, it is critical to evaluate the possibility of HSA-related herb-drug interaction. Herein an integrated approach was employed to analyze the binding of chemicals identified in S. miltiorrhiza to HSA. Molecular docking simulations revealed filtering criteria for HSA site I compounds that include docking score and key molecular determinants for binding. For eight representative ingredients from the herb, their affinity and specificity to HSA site I was measured and confirmed fluorometrically, which helps to improve the knowledge of interaction mechanisms between this herb and HSA. Our results indicated that several compounds in S. miltiorrhiza were capable of decreasing the binding constant of Warfarin to HSA site I significantly, which may increase free drug concentration in vivo, contributing to the herb-drug interaction observed clinically. Furthermore, the significance of HSA mediated herb-drug interactions was further implied by manual mining on the published literatures on S. miltiorrhiza.
Kim, Jeong-Mi; Noh, Eun-Mi; Song, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Minok; Lee, Soo Ho; Park, Sueng Hyuk; Ahn, Chan-Keun; Lee, Guem-San; Byun, Eui-Baek; Jang, Beom-Su; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Lee, Young-Rae
Cancer cell invasion is crucial for metastasis. A major factor in the capacity of cancer cell invasion is the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the extracellular matrix. Salvia miltiorrhiza has been used as a promotion for blood circulation to remove blood stasis. Numerous previous studies have demonstrated that S. miltiorrhiza extracts (SME) decrease lipid levels and inhibit inflammation. However, the mechanism behind the effect of SME on breast cancer invasion has not been identified. The inhibitory effects of SME on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced MMP-9 expression were assessed using western blotting, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and zymography assays. MMP-9 upstream signal proteins, including mitogen-activated protein kinases and activator protein 1 (AP-1) were also investigated. Cell invasion was assessed using a matrigel invasion assay. The present study demonstrated the inhibitory effects of the SME ethanol solution on MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in TPA-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. SME suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and MCF-7 cell invasion by blocking the transcriptional activation of AP-1. SME may possess therapeutic potential for inhibiting breast cancer cell invasiveness. PMID:28927117
Kim, Jeong-Mi; Noh, Eun-Mi; Song, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Minok; Lee, Soo Ho; Park, Sueng Hyuk; Ahn, Chan-Keun; Lee, Guem-San; Byun, Eui-Baek; Jang, Beom-Su; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Lee, Young-Rae
Cancer cell invasion is crucial for metastasis. A major factor in the capacity of cancer cell invasion is the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the extracellular matrix. Salvia miltiorrhiza has been used as a promotion for blood circulation to remove blood stasis. Numerous previous studies have demonstrated that S. miltiorrhiza extracts (SME) decrease lipid levels and inhibit inflammation. However, the mechanism behind the effect of SME on breast cancer invasion has not been identified. The inhibitory effects of SME on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced MMP-9 expression were assessed using western blotting, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and zymography assays. MMP-9 upstream signal proteins, including mitogen-activated protein kinases and activator protein 1 (AP-1) were also investigated. Cell invasion was assessed using a matrigel invasion assay. The present study demonstrated the inhibitory effects of the SME ethanol solution on MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in TPA-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. SME suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and MCF-7 cell invasion by blocking the transcriptional activation of AP-1. SME may possess therapeutic potential for inhibiting breast cancer cell invasiveness.
Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel G; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Escandón-Rivera, Sonia; Vargas-Ramírez, Alba L; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan P; Soriano-García, Manuel
The multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype is considered as a major cause of the failure in cancer chemotherapy. The acquisition of MDR is usually mediated by the overexpression of drug efflux pumps of a P-glycoprotein. The development of compounds that mitigate the MDR phenotype by modulating the activity of these transport proteins is an important yet elusive target. Here, we screened the saponification and enzymatic degradation products from Salvia hispanica seed's mucilage to discover modulating compounds of the acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic in breast cancer cells. Preparative-scale recycling HPLC was used to purify the hydrolysis degradation products. All compounds were tested in eight different cancer cell lines and Vero cells. All compounds were noncytotoxic at the concentration tested against the drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cells (IC 50 > 29.2 μM). For the all products, a moderate vinblastine-enhancing activity from 4.55-fold to 6.82-fold was observed. That could be significant from a therapeutic perspective. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhang, Hui; Luo, Li-Ping; Song, Hui-Peng; Hao, Hai-Ping; Zhou, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun
Generation of a high-purity fraction library for efficiently screening active compounds from natural products is challenging because of their chemical diversity and complex matrices. In this work, a strategy combining high-resolution peak fractionation (HRPF) with a cell-based assay was proposed for target screening of bioactive constituents from natural products. In this approach, peak fractionation was conducted under chromatographic conditions optimized for high-resolution separation of the natural product extract. The HRPF approach was automatically performed according to the predefinition of certain peaks based on their retention times from a reference chromatographic profile. The corresponding HRPF database was collected with a parallel mass spectrometer to ensure purity and characterize the structures of compounds in the various fractions. Using this approach, a set of 75 peak fractions on the microgram scale was generated from 4mg of the extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza. After screening by an ARE-luciferase reporter gene assay, 20 diterpene quinones were selected and identified, and 16 of these compounds were reported to possess novel Nrf2 activation activity. Compared with conventional fixed-time interval fractionation, the HRPF approach could significantly improve the efficiency of bioactive compound discovery and facilitate the uncovering of minor active components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Determination of quantitative retention-activity relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and biological effectiveness fingerprints of Salvia miltiorrhiza constituents using biopartitioning and microemulsion high-performance liquid chromatography.
Gao, Haoshi; Huang, Hongzhang; Zheng, Aini; Yu, Nuojun; Li, Ning
In this study, we analyzed danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) constituents using biopartitioning and microemulsion high-performance liquid chromatography (MELC). The quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRARs) of the constituents were established to model their pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and chromatographic retention data, and generate their biological effectiveness fingerprints. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established to determine the abundance of the extracted danshen constituents, such as sodium danshensu, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic aldehyde, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA. And another HPLC protocol was established to determine the abundance of those constituents in rat plasma samples. An experimental model was built in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and calculated the corresponding PK parameterst with 3P97 software package. Thirty-five model drugs were selected to test the PK parameter prediction capacities of the various MELC systems and to optimize the chromatographic protocols. QRARs and generated PK fingerprints were established. The test included water/oil-soluble danshen constituents and the prediction capacity of the regression model was validated. The results showed that the model had good predictability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Al-Kalaldeh, Jelnar Z; Abu-Dahab, Rana; Afifi, Fatma U
Medicinal plants and culinary herbs have gained importance in the last decade as cytotoxic and antitumor agents. We hypothesized that some of the commonly used spices with reported antimicrobial activity might have antiproliferative activity. In the present study, selected spices used in Jordan were chemically analyzed and investigated for their antiproliferative activity to the adenocarcinoma of breast cell line (MCF7). The composition of the essential oils of Laurus nobilis L, Origanum syriacum L, Origanum vulgare L, and Salvia triloba L was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antiproliferative activities of the hydrodistilled volatile oils and the crude ethanol and water extracts were evaluated using the sulphorhodamine B assay. 1,8-Cineol was the major constituent in the hydrodistilled oils of both plants, L nobilis and S triloba, with concentrations of 40.91% and 45.16%, respectively. The major constituent of O syriacum was the carvacrol (47.10%), whereas that of O vulgare was trans-sabinene hydrate (27.19%). The ethanol crude extracts of O syriacum, L nobilis, and S triloba showed antiproliferative activity to MCF7 with IC(50) values 6.40, 24.49, and 25.25 microg/mL, respectively. However, none of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the tested plant species or their aqueous extracts demonstrated cytotoxic activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xia, Hongrui; Sun, Longru; Lou, Hongxiang; Rahman, M Mukhlesur
Salvianolic acid A (Sal A), an important constituent of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM), is effective for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease due to its potential in the improvement of acute myocardial ischemia. However, its content is very low in RSM. So it is obvious to find a rich source of Sal A or to improve its content by conversion of other related components into Sal A modifying reaction conditions. In this research we focused on the conversion of Sal B into Sal A in aqueous solutions of RSM by using different reaction conditions including pH, temperature, pressure and humidity. During the reactions, the contents of Sal A, Sal B and danshensu in the RSM were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). The results indicated that the conversion of Sal B into Sal A in RSM tissues under the conditions of a high temperature, high pressure and high humidity was efficient and thereby, was readily utilized to prepare rich Sal A materials in practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Liang, Wenyi; Chen, Wenjing; Wu, Lingfang; Li, Shi; Qi, Qi; Cui, Yaping; Liang, Linjin; Ye, Ting; Zhang, Lanzhen
Danshen, the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., is a widely used commercially available herbal drug, and unstable quality of different samples is a current issue. This study focused on a comprehensive and systematic method combining fingerprints and chemical identification with chemometrics for discrimination and quality assessment of Danshen samples. Twenty-five samples were analyzed by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-MS n . Forty-nine components were identified and characteristic fragmentation regularities were summarized for further interpretation of bioactive components. Chemometric analysis was employed to differentiate samples and clarify the quality differences of Danshen including hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and partial least squares discriminant analysis. Consistent results were that the samples were divided into three categories which reflected the difference in quality of Danshen samples. By analyzing the reasons for sample classification, it was revealed that the processing method had a more obvious impact on sample classification than the geographical origin, it induced the different content of bioactive compounds and finally lead to different qualities. Cryptotanshinone, trijuganone B, and 15,16-dihydrotanshinone I were screened out as markers to distinguish samples by different processing methods. The developed strategy could provide a reference for evaluation and discrimination of other traditional herbal medicines.
Lee, Heung-Shick; Kim, Younhee
Candidiasis has posed a serious health risk to immunocompromised patients owing to the increase in resistant yeasts, and Candida albicans is the prominent pathogen of fungal infections. Therefore, there is a critical need for the discovery and characterization of novel antifungals to treat infections caused by C. albicans. In the present study, we report on the antifungal activity of the ethanol extract from Salvia miltiorrhiza against C. albicans and the possible mode of action against C. albicans. The increase in the membrane permeability was evidenced by changes in diphenylhexatriene binding and release of both 260-nm-absorbing intracellular materials and protein. In addition, inhibition of cell wall synthesis was demonstrated by the enhanced minimal inhibitory concentration in the presence of sorbitol and reduced (1,3)-β-D-glucan synthase activity. The above evidence supports the notion that S. miltiorrhiza has antifungal activity against C. albicans by the synergistic activity of targeting the cell membrane and cell wall. These findings indicate that S. miltiorrhiza displays effective activity against C. albicans in vitro and merits further investigation to treat C. albicans-associated infections.
Seol, Geun Hee; Lee, Yun Hee; Kang, Purum; You, Ji Hye; Park, Mira; Min, Sun Seek
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inhalation of Salvia sclarea (clary sage; clary) or Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil vapors on autonomic nervous system activity in female patients with urinary incontinence undergoing urodynamic assessment. STUDY DESIGN, LOCATION, AND SUBJECTS: This study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial carried out in 34 female patients with urinary incontinence. The subjects were randomized to inhale lavender, clary, or almond (control) oil at concentrations of 5% (vol/vol) each. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and salivary cortisol were measured before and after inhalation of these odors for 60 minutes. The clary oil group experienced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure compared with the control (p=0.048) and lavender oil (p=0.026) groups, a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure compared with the lavender oil group (p=0.034) and a significant decrease in respiratory rate compared with the control group (p<0.001). In contrast, the lavender oil group tended to increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the control group. Compared with the control group, inhalation of lavender oil (p=0.045) and clary oil (p<0.001) resulted in statistically significant reductions in respiratory rate. These results suggest that lavender oil inhalation may be inappropriate in lowering stress during urodynamic examinations, despite its antistress effects, while clary oil inhalation may be useful in inducing relaxation in female urinary incontinence patients undergoing urodynamic assessments.
Gao, Shouhong; Saechao, Saengking; Di, Peng; Chen, Junfeng; Chen, Wansheng
Rational engineering to produce biologically active plant compounds has been greatly impeded by our poor understanding of the regulatory and metabolic pathways underlying the biosynthesis of these compounds. Here we capitalized on our previously described gene-to-metabolite network in order to engineer rosmarinic acid (RA) biosynthesis pathway for the production of beneficial RA and lithospermic acid B (LAB) in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures. Results showed their production was greatly elevated by (1) overexpression of single gene, including cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (c4h), tyrosine aminotransferase (tat), and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase (hppr), (2) overexpression of both tat and hppr, and (3) suppression of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hppd). Co-expression of tat/hppr produced the most abundant RA (906 mg/liter) and LAB (992 mg/liter), which were 4.3 and 3.2-fold more than in their wild-type (wt) counterparts respectively. And the value of RA concentration was also higher than that reported before, that produced by means of nutrient medium optimization or elicitor treatment. It is the first report of boosting RA and LAB biosynthesis through genetic manipulation, providing an effective approach for their large-scale commercial production by using hairy root culture systems as bioreactors. PMID:22242141
Rapid profiling of polymeric phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza by hybrid data-dependent/targeted multistage mass spectrometry acquisition based on expected compounds prediction and fragment ion searching.
Shen, Yao; Feng, Zijin; Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Han, Sumei; Hou, Jinjun; Li, Zhenwei; Wu, Wanying; Guo, De-An
Phenolic acids are the major water-soluble components in Salvia miltiorrhiza (>5%). According to previous studies, many of them contribute to the cardiovascular effects and antioxidant effects of S. miltiorrhiza. Polymeric phenolic acids can be considered as the tanshinol derived metabolites, e.g., dimmers, trimers, and tetramers. A strategy combined with tanshinol-based expected compounds prediction, total ion chromatogram filtering, fragment ion searching, and parent list-based multistage mass spectrometry acquisition by linear trap quadropole-orbitrap Velos mass spectrometry was proposed to rapid profile polymeric phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza. More than 480 potential polymeric phenolic acids could be screened out by this strategy. Based on the fragment information obtained by parent list-activated data dependent multistage mass spectrometry acquisition, 190 polymeric phenolic acids were characterized by comparing their mass information with literature data, and 18 of them were firstly detected from S. miltiorrhiza. Seven potential compounds were tentatively characterized as new polymeric phenolic acids from S. miltiorrhiza. This strategy facilitates identification of polymeric phenolic acids in complex matrix with both selectivity and sensitivity, which could be expanded for rapid discovery and identification of compounds from complex matrix. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Li, Caili; Li, Dongqiao; Li, Jiang; Shao, Fenjuan; Lu, Shanfa
Salvia miltiorrhiza is a well-known material of traditional Chinese medicine. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism are important for S. miltiorrhiza quality improvement. We report here that S. miltiorrhiza contains 19 polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), forming the largest PPO gene family in plant species to our knowledge. Analysis of gene structures and sequence features revealed the conservation and divergence of SmPPOs. SmPPOs were differentially expressed in plant tissues and eight of them were predominantly expressed in phloem and xylem, indicating that some SmPPOs are functionally redundant, whereas the others are associated with different physiological processes. Expression patterns of eighteen SmPPOs were significantly altered under MeJA treatment, and twelve were yeast extract and Ag+-responsive, suggesting the majority of SmPPOs are stress-responsive. Analysis of high-throughput small RNA sequences and degradome data showed that miR1444-mediated regulation of PPOs existing in P. trichocarpa is absent from S. miltiorrhiza. Instead, a subset of SmPPOs was posttranscriptionally regulated by a novel miRNA, termed Smi-miR12112. It indicates the specificity and significance of miRNA-mediated regulation of PPOs. The results shed light on the regulation of SmPPO expression and suggest the complexity of SmPPO-associated phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism. PMID:28304398
Li, Caili; Li, Dongqiao; Li, Jiang; Shao, Fenjuan; Lu, Shanfa
Salvia miltiorrhiza is a well-known material of traditional Chinese medicine. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism are important for S. miltiorrhiza quality improvement. We report here that S. miltiorrhiza contains 19 polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), forming the largest PPO gene family in plant species to our knowledge. Analysis of gene structures and sequence features revealed the conservation and divergence of SmPPOs. SmPPOs were differentially expressed in plant tissues and eight of them were predominantly expressed in phloem and xylem, indicating that some SmPPOs are functionally redundant, whereas the others are associated with different physiological processes. Expression patterns of eighteen SmPPOs were significantly altered under MeJA treatment, and twelve were yeast extract and Ag + -responsive, suggesting the majority of SmPPOs are stress-responsive. Analysis of high-throughput small RNA sequences and degradome data showed that miR1444-mediated regulation of PPOs existing in P. trichocarpa is absent from S. miltiorrhiza. Instead, a subset of SmPPOs was posttranscriptionally regulated by a novel miRNA, termed Smi-miR12112. It indicates the specificity and significance of miRNA-mediated regulation of PPOs. The results shed light on the regulation of SmPPO expression and suggest the complexity of SmPPO-associated phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Grzeszczuk, Monika; Salachna, Piotr; Meller, Edward
Salvia coccinea (Lamiaceae) is a promising source of potential antioxidants, and its extracts can be used in pharmaceutical industry, as well as in food products and cosmetics. Salicylic acid (SA) affects many physiological and metabolic processes in vascular plants under salinity stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of S. coccinea to either SA, or sodium chloride (NaCl), or a combination of both. The plants were sprayed with a solution of 0.5 or 1.0 mM SA and watered with 0, 100, 200, or 300 mM NaCl. Exogenous application of SA increased the number of branches, fresh herbal weight, and total chlorophyll content vs control plants. Salinity-exposed plants showed reduced growth, content of photosynthetic pigments total polyphenols, and antioxidant activity. However, foliar application of SA relieved the adverse effects of 100 mM NaCl, as demonstrated by increased number of branches, greater fresh herbal weight, higher content of total chlorophyll, total carotenoids, and total polyphenols, as well as antioxidant potential, detected using ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2.2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), compared with untreated plants.
Lin, Hsin-Fu; Chou, Chun-Chung; Chao, Hsiao-Han; Tanaka, Hirofumi
Muscle damage induced by an acute bout of eccentric exercise results in transient arterial stiffening. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of progressive eccentric resistance exercise training on vascular functions, and whether herb supplementation would enhance training adaptation by ameliorating the arterial stiffening effects. By using a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled design, older adults were randomly assigned to either the Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza supplementation group (N=12) or the placebo group (N=11). After pre-training testing, all subjects underwent 12 weeks of unilateral eccentric-only exercise training on knee extensor. Maximal leg strength and muscle quality increased in both groups (P<0.05). Relative increases in muscle mass were significantly greater in the placebo group than in the herb supplement group. Eccentric exercise training did not elicit any significant changes in muscle damage, oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers. There were no significant changes in blood pressure or endothelium-dependent vasodilation. None of the measures of arterial stiffness changed significantly with eccentric resistance training in both groups. These results suggest that Chinese herb supplementation does not appear to modulate vascular, and inflammatory adaptations to eccentric exercise training in middle-aged and older adults. However, Chinese herb supplementation abolished the increase in muscle mass induced by eccentric resistance training. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02007304. Registered Dec. 5, 2013). Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wei, Tao; Deng, Kejun; Wang, Hongbin; Zhang, Lipeng; Wang, Chunguo; Song, Wenqin; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Chengbin
In our previous study, drought-resistant transgenic plants of Salvia miltiorrhiza were produced via overexpression of the transcription factor AtDREB1A. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underpinning elevated drought tolerance in transgenic plants, in the present study we compared the global transcriptional profiles of wild-type (WT) and AtDREB1A -expressing transgenic plants using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Using cluster analysis, we identified 3904 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Compared with WT plants, 423 unigenes were up-regulated in pRD29A::AtDREB1A-31 before drought treatment, while 936 were down-regulated and 1580 and 1313 unigenes were up- and down-regulated after six days of drought. COG analysis revealed that the 'signal transduction mechanisms' category was highly enriched among these DEGs both before and after drought stress. Based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation, DEGs associated with "ribosome", "plant hormone signal transduction", photosynthesis", "plant-pathogen interaction", "glycolysis/gluconeogenesis" and "carbon fixation" are hypothesized to perform major functions in drought resistance in AtDREB1A -expressing transgenic plants. Furthermore, the number of DEGs associated with different transcription factors increased significantly after drought stress, especially the AP2/ERF, bZIP and MYB protein families. Taken together, this study substantially expands the transcriptomic information for S. miltiorrhiza and provides valuable clues for elucidating the mechanism of AtDREB1A-mediated drought tolerance in transgenic plants.
Pintado, T; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Carmona, P; Herrero, A M
This paper reports on the development of olive oil-in-water emulsion gels containing chia (Salvia hispanica L.) (flour or seed) and cold gelling agents (transglutaminase, alginate or gelatin). The technological and structural characteristics of these emulsion gels were evaluated. Both structural and technological changes in emulsion gels resulting from chilled storage were also determined. The color and texture of emulsion gels depend on both the cold gelling agents used and chilled storage. Lipid oxidation increased (p < 0.05) during storage in emulsion gels containing transglutaminase or alginate. Analyses of the half-bandwidth of the 2923 cm(-1) band and the area of the 3220 cm(-1) band suggest that the order/disorder of the oil lipid chain related to lipid interactions and droplet size in the emulsion gels could be decisive in determining their textural properties. The half-bandwidth of 2923 cm(-1) band and area of 3220 cm(-1) band did not show significant differences during chilled storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yuejin; Guo, Lijun; Shu, Zhiming; Sun, Yiyue; Chen, Yuanyuan; Liang, Zongsuo; Guo, Hongbo
Consistent grain yield in drought environment has attracted wide attention due to global climate change. However, the important drought-related traits/genes in crops have been rarely reported. Many near-isogenic lines (NILs) of male sterile and fertile Salvia miltiorrhiza have been obtained in our previous work through testcross and backcross in continuous field experiments conducted in 2006–2009. Both segregating sterile and fertile populations were subjected to bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with 384 and 170 primer combinations, respectively. One out of 14 AFLP markers (E9/M3246) was identified in treated fertile population as tightly linked to the drought stress gene with a recombination frequency of 6.98% and at a distance of 7.02 cM. One of 15 other markers (E2/M5357) was identified in a treated sterile population that is closely associated with the drought stress gene. It had a recombination frequency of 4.65% and at a distance of 4.66 cM. Interestingly, the E9/M3246 fragment was found to be identical to another AFLP fragment E11/M4208 that was tightly linked to the male sterile gene of S. miltiorrhiza with 95% identity and e-value 4 × 10−93. Blastn analysis suggested that the drought stress gene sequence showed higher identity with nucleotides in Arabidopsis chromosome 1–5. PMID:23525049
Zhang, Shuncang; Ma, Pengda; Yang, Dongfeng; Li, Wenjing; Liang, Zongsuo; Liu, Yan; Liu, Fenghua
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is one of the most renowned traditional medicinal plants in China. Phenolic acids that are derived from the rosmarinic acid pathway, such as rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B, are important bioactive components in S. miltiorrhiza. Accumulations of these compounds have been reported to be induced by various elicitors, while little is known about transcription factors that function in their biosynthetic pathways. We cloned a subgroup 4 R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene (SmMYB39) from S. miltiorrhiza and characterized its roles through overexpression and RNAi-mediated silencing. As the results showed, the content of 4-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A and total phenolics was dramatically decreased in SmMYB39-overexpressing S. miltiorrhiza lines while being enhanced by folds in SmMYB39-RNAi lines. Quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme activities analyses showed that SmMYB39 negatively regulated transcripts and enzyme activities of 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT). These data suggest that SmMYB39 is involved in regulation of rosmarinic acid pathway and acts as a repressor through suppressing transcripts of key enzyme genes. PMID:24039895
Nishida, Nami; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Nagata, Noriko; Saito, Chieko; Sakai, Atsushi
Salvia leucophylla, a shrub observed in coastal south California, produces several volatile monoterpenoids (camphor, 1,8-cineole, beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, and camphene) that potentially act as allelochemicals. The effects of these were examined using Brassica campestris as the test plant. Camphor, 1,8-cineole, and beta-pinene inhibited germination of B. campestris seeds at high concentrations, whereas alpha-pinene and camphene did not. Root growth was inhibited by all five monoterpenoids in a dose-dependent manner, but hypocotyl growth was largely unaffected. The monoterpenoids did not alter the sizes of matured cells in either hypocotyls or roots, indicating that cell expansion is relatively insensitive to these compounds. They did not decrease the mitotic index in the shoot apical region, but specifically lowered mitotic index in the root apical meristem. Moreover, morphological and biochemical analyses on the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine into DNA demonstrated that the monoterpenoids inhibit both cell-nuclear and organelle DNA synthesis in the root apical meristem. These results suggest that the monoterpenoids produced by S. leucophylla could interfere with the growth of other plants in its vicinity through inhibition of cell proliferation in the root apical meristem.
Villa, C; Trucchi, B; Bertoli, A; Pistelli, L; Parodi, A; Bassi, A M; Ruffoni, B
Salvia somalensis Vatke, a wild sage native of Somalia, has been studied with the aim of assessing the potential cosmetic application of its essential oil, recovered from fresh aerial parts by solvent-free microwave extraction - SFME. To evaluate the efficiency and reliability of this eco-friendly procedure, the recovery of the essential oil was also processed by conventional hydrodistillation (HD) and the results compared. The essential oils obtained by both SFME and HD were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using apolar and polar capillary columns. The essential oil recovered by SFME was submitted to an odour evaluation that revealed peculiar olfactive characteristics interesting in alcoholic male perfumery and body detergents.In vitro cytotoxicity assays were carried out using NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes as target cells. The oil displayed slight cytotoxic effects, which were three orders of magnitude lower than those found for sodium dodecyl sulphate positive control. The promising results in terms of chemical composition, scent and safety seem to indicate this essential oil as an interesting potential functional ingredient useful in a cosmetic context.
A Chinese patent medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza depside salts for infusion combined with conventional treatment for patients with angina pectoris: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Zhang, Yili; Xie, Yanming; Liao, Xing; Jia, Qiulei; Chai, Yan
Currently, many trials have been conducted to investigate the beneficial and harmful effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza depside salts for infusion for treating patients with angina pectoris. It is important to systematically and criticallyevaluate the existing literature into providing a pooled effect to examine outcomes of angina pectoris with Salvia miltiorrhiza depside salts for infusion. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine the clinical curative effect and safety of Salvia miltiorrhiza depside salts for infusion for angina pectoris and provide clear evidence to inform clinical practice. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other four electronic Chinese databases were searched to identify relevant randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality and reporting quality of eligible studies was evaluated by using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool and CONSORT for traditional Chinese medicine respectively. Meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3 software. Fifty-six randomized controlled trials involving 5503 patients were included. Most of the trials were classified as having an unclear risk of bias because of poor reported methodology. The main outcomes are improvements in angina symptoms, ECG improvement and reduction of nitroglycerin use. CHD mortality or rate of CHD events was not reported in any trial. Meta-analysis showed that Salvia miltiorrhiza depside salts for infusion combined with conventional treatment was better than conventional treatment alone in improving angina symptoms (RR= 1.28, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.31, p < 0.00001), the frequency of angina attack (time/week)(WMD=-1.47, 95% CI -2.16 to -0.78), reducing clinical symptom scores (WMD=-0.55, 95% CI -0.57 to -0.53, p < 0.000011), increasing physical limitation scores (WMD= 7.68, 95% CI 1.48 to 13.88, p = 0.02), improving ECG (RR= 1.32,95% CI 1.27 to 1.38, p < 0.00001) and reducing dosage of nitroglycerin (RR= 1.50, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.77, p < 0
Wijesundara, Niluni M; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha
In the present study, essential oils (EOs) extracted from oregano, sage, cloves, and ginger were evaluated for the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EOs. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined using MTT assay and fixed biofilms were observed through scan electron microscopy. The oregano and sage EOs showed the lowest MIC as well as MBC of 0.25-0.5 mg/mL. Time kill assay results showed that oregano and sage EOs exhibited bactericidal effects within 5 min and 4 h, respectively. Both oregano and sage extracts acts as a potent anti-biofilm agent with dual actions, preventing and eradicating the biofilm. The microscopic visualization of biofilms treated with EOs have shown morphological and density changes compared to the untreated control. Oregano EO was constituted predominantly carvacrol (91.6%) and in sage EO, higher levels of α-thujone (28.5%) and camphor (16.6%) were revealed. EOs of oregano and sage inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of S. pyogenes. Effective concentrations of oregano and sage EOs and their phytochemicals can be used in developing potential plant-derived antimicrobial agents in the management of streptococcal pharyngitis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas
The simultaneous optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (SAG) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in sunflower oil (SO) was performed using central composite and rotatable design coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical parameters viz., peroxide value, anisidine value, free fatty acids, induction period, total polar matter, antioxidant capacity and conjugated diene value were considered as response variables. PCA reduced the original set of correlated responses to few uncorrelated principal components (PC). The PC1 (eigen value, 5.78; data variance explained, 82.53 %) was selected for optimization using RSM. The quadratic model adequately described the data (R (2) = 0. 91, p < 0.05) and lack of fit was insignificant (p > 0.05). The contour plot of PC 1 score indicated the optimal synergistic combination of 1289.19 and 218.06 ppm for SAG and AP, respectively. This combination of SAG and AP resulted in shelf life of 320 days at 25 °C estimated using linear shelf life prediction model. In conclusion, the versatility of PCA-RSM approach has resulted in an easy interpretation in multiple response optimizations. This approach can be considered as a useful guide to develop new oil blends stabilized with food additives from natural sources.
Zhang, L; Lin, Y H; Leng, X J; Huang, M; Zhou, G H
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sage, at levels of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% (w/w), on the oxidative stability of Chinese-style sausage stored at 4°C for 21 days. The results showed that inclusion of sage in sausages resulted in lower L* values (P<0.05) and higher a* values (P<0.05) compared to the control. During refrigerated storage, sausages containing sage showed significantly retarded increases in TBARS values, and in the formation of protein carbonyls (P<0.05), but showed accelerated losses of thiol groups (P<0.05). Addition of sage to the sausages at levels of 0.1% and 0.15% reduced textural deterioration during refrigerated storage (P<0.05). Sage used in this study had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kodadová, Alexandra; Vitková, Zuzana; Herdová, Petra; Ťažký, Anton; Oremusová, Jarmila; Grančai, Daniel; Mikuš, Peter
This study deals with the formulation of natural drugs into hydrogels. For the first time, compounds from the sage essential oil were formulated into chitosan hydrogels. A sample preparation procedure for hydrophobic volatile analytes present in a hydrophilic water matrix along with an analytical method based on the gas chromatography coupled with the mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and applied for the evaluation of the identity and quantity of essential oil components in the hydrogels and saline samples. The experimental results revealed that the chitosan hydrogels are suitable for the formulation of sage essential oil. The monoterpene release can be effectively controlled by both chitosan and caffeine concentration in the hydrogels. Permeation experiment, based on a hydrogel with the optimized composition [3.5% (w/w) sage essential oil, 2.0% (w/w) caffeine, 2.5% (w/w) chitosan and 0.1% (w/w) Tween-80] in donor compartment, saline solution in acceptor compartment, and semi-permeable cellophane membrane, demonstrated the useful permeation selectivity. Here, (according to lipophilicity) an enhanced permeation of the bicyclic monoterpenes with antiflogistic and antiseptic properties (eucalyptol, camphor and borneol) and, at the same time, suppressed permeation of toxic thujone (not exceeding its permitted applicable concentration) was observed. These properties highlight the pharmaceutical importance of the developed chitosan hydrogel formulating sage essential oil in the dermal applications.
Lee, Hak Sung; Son, Woo-Chan; Ryu, Jae-Eun; Koo, Bon Am; Kim, Yeong Shik
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of standardized extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SME) on gene and protein expression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related factors in activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSC), and in mice with steatohepatitis induced by a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were placed on an MCD or control diet for 8 weeks and SME (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally every other day for 4 or 6 weeks. HSCs from the LX-2 cell line were treated with transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) or TGF-β1 plus SME (0.1-10 μg/mL). To investigate the effect of SME on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced condition, LX-2 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2 plus SME (0.1-100 μg/mL). MCD administration for 12 weeks increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), TGF-β1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. TGF-β1-induced LX-2 cells exhibited similar gene expression patterns. SME treatment significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression of NASH-related factors in the mouse model and HSCs. Histopathological liver analysis showed improved non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity and fibrosis score in SME-treated mice. The in vivo studies showed that SME had a significant effect at low doses. These results suggest that SME might be a potential therapeutic candidate for NAFLD treatment.
Ye, Zhong-Ming; Jin, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Qing-Feng; Yang, Chun-Feng; Inouye, David W
It has been suggested that the dynamics of nectar replenishment could differ for flowers after being nectar robbed or visited legitimately, but further experimental work is needed to investigate this hypothesis. This study aimed to assess the role of nectar replenishment in mediating the effects of nectar robbing on pollinator behaviour and plant reproduction. Plant-robber-pollinator interactions in an alpine plant, Salvia przewalskii , were studied. It is pollinated by long-tongued Bombus religiosus and short-tongued B. friseanus , but robbed by B. friseanus . Nectar production rates for flowers after they were either robbed or legitimately visited were compared, and three levels of nectar robbing were created to detect the effects of nectar robbing on pollinator behaviour and plant reproduction. Nectar replenishment did not differ between flowers that had been robbed or legitimately visited. Neither fruit set nor seed set was significantly affected by nectar robbing. In addition, nectar robbing did not significantly affect visitation rate, flowers visited within a plant per foraging bout, or flower handling time of the legitimate pollinators. However, a tendency for a decrease in relative abundance of the pollinator B. religiosus with an increase of nectar robbing was found. Nectar robbing did not affect female reproductive success because nectar replenishment ensures that pollinators maintain their visiting activity to nectar-robbed flowers. Nectar replenishment might be a defence mechanism against nectar robbing to enhance reproductive fitness by maintaining attractiveness to pollinators. Further studies are needed to reveal the potential for interference competition among bumble bees foraging as robbers and legitimate visitors, and to investigate variation of nectar robbing in communities with different bumble bee species composition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For
Ye, Zhong-Ming; Jin, Xiao-Fang; Inouye, David W.
Background and Aims It has been suggested that the dynamics of nectar replenishment could differ for flowers after being nectar robbed or visited legitimately, but further experimental work is needed to investigate this hypothesis. This study aimed to assess the role of nectar replenishment in mediating the effects of nectar robbing on pollinator behaviour and plant reproduction. Methods Plant–robber–pollinator interactions in an alpine plant, Salvia przewalskii, were studied. It is pollinated by long-tongued Bombus religiosus and short-tongued B. friseanus, but robbed by B. friseanus. Nectar production rates for flowers after they were either robbed or legitimately visited were compared, and three levels of nectar robbing were created to detect the effects of nectar robbing on pollinator behaviour and plant reproduction. Key Results Nectar replenishment did not differ between flowers that had been robbed or legitimately visited. Neither fruit set nor seed set was significantly affected by nectar robbing. In addition, nectar robbing did not significantly affect visitation rate, flowers visited within a plant per foraging bout, or flower handling time of the legitimate pollinators. However, a tendency for a decrease in relative abundance of the pollinator B. religiosus with an increase of nectar robbing was found. Conclusions Nectar robbing did not affect female reproductive success because nectar replenishment ensures that pollinators maintain their visiting activity to nectar-robbed flowers. Nectar replenishment might be a defence mechanism against nectar robbing to enhance reproductive fitness by maintaining attractiveness to pollinators. Further studies are needed to reveal the potential for interference competition among bumble bees foraging as robbers and legitimate visitors, and to investigate variation of nectar robbing in communities with different bumble bee species composition. PMID:28158409
Jung, Yu Ri; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, So Ra; An, Hye Jin; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Tanaka, Takashi; Kim, Nam Deuk; Yokozawa, Takako; Park, Jin Nam; Chung, Hae Young
Skin is in direct contact with the environment and therefore undergoes aging as a consequence of environmentally induce damage. Wrinkle formation is a striking feature of intrinsic and photo-induced skin aging, which are both associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The present study was undertaken to identify the mechanisms responsible for the anti-wrinkle effects of MLB, and thus, we investigated whether magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) from Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE associated with wrinkle formation caused by intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging using Sprague-Dawley rats aged 5 and 20 months and ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated human skin fibroblasts cells, respectively. The results obtained showed that the oral administration of MLB significantly upregulated the level of type I procollagen and downregulated the activities and expressions of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) in rat skin. In fibroblasts, MLB suppressed the transactivation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) and activator protein 1(AP-1), which are the two transcription factors responsible for MMP expression, by suppressing oxidative stress and the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Our results show that the antioxidant effect of MLB is due to the direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its inhibitory effects on NF-kB-dependent inflammation genes, such as, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. MLB was found to reverse both age- and UVB-related reductions in skin procollagen levels by suppressing the expressions and activities of NF-kB and AP-1-dependent MMPs by modulating ROS generation and the MAPK signaling pathway. We suggest that MLB potentially has anti-wrinkle and anti-skin aging effects. PMID:25099178
Javaid, Muhammad Mansoor; Ali, Hafiz Haider; Weller, Sandra
Salvia verbenaca (wild sage) is a commonly cultivated herbal medicine plant, which is native to the Mediterranean climate regions of Europe, Africa, Asia and the Middle East. However, it has become an invasive species in semi-arid and arid regions of southern Australia. Two varieties are present in this region, var. verbenaca and var. vernalis, each of which can be distinguished by differences in morphology and flowering period. Following trials to determine the optimum temperate regime for germination and response to light and dark, seeds of both varieties were tested for their response to variations in pH, moisture stress, salinity, and burial depth. The temperature and light trial was carried out using three different temperature regimes; 30/20°C, 25/15°C and 20/12°C, and two light regimes; 12 hours light/12 hours dark and 24 hours dark, with var. vernalis responding to relatively higher temperatures than var. verbenaca. The germination rate of neither species was significantly inhibited by complete darkness when compared to rates under periodic light exposure. Both varieties germinated at near optimum rates strongly to very strongly in all pH buffer solutions, from pH 5 to pH 10, but they responded most strongly at neutral pH. Var. vernalis showed slightly more tolerance to reduced moisture availability, moderate to strong salinity, and burial depth, compared to var. verbenaca. However, even a fairly shallow burial depth of 2 cm completely inhibited germination of both varieties. Thus, in circumstances where both varieties are present in a soil seedbank, var. vernalis could be expected to establish in more challenging conditions, where moisture is limited and salinity is ‘moderate to high’, implying that it is a more serious threat for invasive weed in conditions where crop plants are already challenged. PMID:29566039
Lee, Yun Hee; Kang, Purum; You, Ji Hye; Park, Mira; Min, Sun Seek
Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inhalation of Salvia sclarea (clary sage; clary) or Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil vapors on autonomic nervous system activity in female patients with urinary incontinence undergoing urodynamic assessment. Study design, location, and subjects This study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial carried out in 34 female patients with urinary incontinence. Outcome measure The subjects were randomized to inhale lavender, clary, or almond (control) oil at concentrations of 5% (vol/vol) each. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and salivary cortisol were measured before and after inhalation of these odors for 60 minutes. Results The clary oil group experienced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure compared with the control (p=0.048) and lavender oil (p=0.026) groups, a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure compared with the lavender oil group (p=0.034) and a significant decrease in respiratory rate compared with the control group (p<0.001). In contrast, the lavender oil group tended to increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the control group. Compared with the control group, inhalation of lavender oil (p=0.045) and clary oil (p<0.001) resulted in statistically significant reductions in respiratory rate. Conclusions These results suggest that lavender oil inhalation may be inappropriate in lowering stress during urodynamic examinations, despite its antistress effects, while clary oil inhalation may be useful in inducing relaxation in female urinary incontinence patients undergoing urodynamic assessments. PMID:23360656
Xue, Yufei; Chen, Baojun; Win, Aung Naing; Fu, Chun; Lian, Jianping; Liu, Xue; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Xingcui
Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD, D15D) is a key enzyme for α-linolenic acid (ALA) biosynthesis. Both chia (Salvia hispanica) and perilla (Perilla frutescens) contain high levels of ALA in seeds. In this study, the ω-3 FAD gene family was systematically and comparatively cloned from chia and perilla. Perilla FAD3, FAD7, FAD8 and chia FAD7 are encoded by single-copy (but heterozygous) genes, while chia FAD3 is encoded by 2 distinct genes. Only 1 chia FAD8 sequence was isolated. In these genes, there are 1 to 6 transcription start sites, 1 to 8 poly(A) tailing sites, and 7 introns. The 5’UTRs of PfFAD8a/b contain 1 to 2 purine-stretches and 2 pyrimidine-stretches. An alternative splice variant of ShFAD7a/b comprises a 5’UTR intron. Their encoded proteins harbor an FA_desaturase conserved domain together with 4 trans-membrane helices and 3 histidine boxes. Phylogenetic analysis validated their identity of dicot microsomal or plastidial ω-3 FAD proteins, and revealed some important evolutionary features of plant ω-3 FAD genes such as convergent evolution across different phylums, single-copy status in algae, and duplication events in certain taxa. The qRT-PCR assay showed that the ω-3 FAD genes of two species were expressed at different levels in various organs, and they also responded to multiple stress treatments. The functionality of the ShFAD3 and PfFAD3 enzymes was confirmed by yeast expression. The systemic molecular and functional features of the ω-3 FAD gene family from chia and perilla revealed in this study will facilitate their use in future studies on genetic improvement of ALA traits in oilseed crops. PMID:29351555
Tian, Jinzhou; Shi, Jing; Wei, Mingqing; Qin, Renan; Ni, Jingnian; Zhang, Xuekai; Li, Ting; Wang, Yongyan
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common subtype of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Currently, there are no medications approved for treating patients with VaD. Fufangdanshen (FFDS) tablets (Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae formula tablets) are a traditional Chinese medicine that has been reported to improve memory. However, the existing evidence for FFDS tablets in clinical practice derives from methodologically flawed studies. To further investigate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of FFDS tables in the treatment of mild to moderate VaD, we designed and reported the methodology for a 24-week randomized, double-blind, parallel, multicenter study. This ongoing study is a double-blind, randomized, parallel placebo-controlled trial. A total of 240 patients with mild to moderate VaD will be enrolled. After a 2-week run-in period, the eligible patients will be randomized to receive either three FFDS or placebo tablets three times per day for 24 weeks, with a follow-up 12 weeks after the last treatment. The primary efficacy measurement will be the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and the Clinician Interview-Based Impression of Change (CIBIC-plus). The secondary efficacy measurements will include the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and activities of daily living (ADL). Adverse events will also be reported. This randomized trial will be the first rigorous study on the efficacy and safety of FFDS tablets for treating cognitive symptoms in patients with VaD using a rational design. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01761227 . Registered on 2 January 2013.
Di Marsico, A; Scrano, L; Amato, M; Gàmiz, B; Real, M; Cox, L
The objective of this work was to determine the effect of the mucilage extracted from Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) as soil amendment on soil physical properties and on the sorption-desorption behaviour of four herbicides (MCPA, Diuron, Clomazone and Terbuthylazine) used in cereal crops. Three soils of different texture (sandy-loam, loam and clay-loam) were selected, and mercury intrusion porosimetry and surface area analysis were used to examine changes in the microstructural characteristics caused by the reactions that occur between the mucilage and soil particles. Laboratory studies were conducted to characterise the selected herbicides with regard their sorption on tested soils added or not with the mucilage. Mucilage amendment resulted in a reduction in soil porosity, basically due to a reduction in larger pores (radius>10μm) and an important increase in finer pores (radius<10μm) and in partcles' surface. A higher herbicide sorption in the amended soils was ascertained when compared to unamended soils. The sorption percentage of herbicides in soils treated with mucilage increased in the order; sandy-loam
Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaofei; Qin, Jia'an; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Hongzheng; Wang, Yong; Guo, Weiying; Ma, Zhijie; Kong, Weijun
A simple and rapid gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) method was developed for the determination of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in Salvia miltiorrhizae by using ultrasonication assisted one-step extraction (USAE) without any clean-up steps. Some crucial parameters such as type of extraction solvent were optimized to improve the method performance for trace analysis. Any clean-up steps were negligent as no interferences were detected in the GC-FPD chromatograms for sensitive detection. Under the optimized conditions, limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) for all pesticides were in the range of 0.001-0.002mg/kg and 0.002-0.01mg/kg and 0.002-0.01mg/kg, respectively, which were all below the regulatory maximum residue limits suggested. RSDs for method precision (intra- and inter-day variations) were lower than 6.8% in approval with international regulations. Average recovery rates for all pesticides at three fortification levels (0.5, 1.0 and 5.0mg/kg) were in the range of 71.2-101.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) <13%. The developed method was evaluated for its feasibility in the simultaneous pre-concentration and determination of 12 OPPs in 32 batches of real S. miltiorrhizae samples. Only one pesticide (dimethoate) out of the 12 targets was simultaneously detected in four samples at concentrations of 0.016-0.02mg/kg. Dichlorvos and omethoate were found in the same sample from Sichuan province at 0.004 and 0.027mg/kg, respectively. Malathion and monocrotophos were determined in the other two samples at 0.014 and 0.028mg/kg, respectively. All the positive samples were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. The simple, reliable and rapid USAE-GC-FPD method with many advantages over traditional techniques would be preferred for trace analysis of multiple pesticides in more complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jia, Yanyan; Bai, Zhenqing; Pei, Tianlin; Ding, Kai; Liang, Zongsuo; Gong, Yuehua
Subclass III members of the sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) play essential roles in both the abscisic acid signaling and abiotic stress responses of plants by phosphorylating the downstream ABA-responsive element (ABRE)-binding proteins (AREB/ABFs). This comprehensive study investigated the function of new candidate genes, namely SmSnRK2.3, SmSnRK2.6, and SmAREB1, with a view to breeding novel varieties of Salvia miltiorrhiza with improved stress tolerance stresses and more content of bioactive ingredients. Exogenous ABA strongly induced the expression of these genes. PlantCARE predicted several hormones and stress response cis-elements in their promoters. SmSnRK2.6 and SmAREB1 showed the highest expression levels in the leaves of S. miltiorrhiza seedlings, while SmSnRK2.3 exhibited a steady expression in their roots, stems, and leaves. A subcellular localization assay revealed that both SmSnRK2.3 and SmSnRK2.6 were located in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus, whereas SmAREB1 was exclusive to the nucleus. Overexpressing SmSnRK2.3 did not significantly promote the accumulation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B) in the transgenic S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. However, overexpressing SmSnRK2.6 and SmAREB1 increased the contents of RA and Sal B, and regulated the expression levels of structural genes participating in the phenolic acid-branched and side-branched pathways, including SmPAL1, SmC4H, Sm4CL1, SmTAT, SmHPPR, SmRAS, SmCHS, SmCCR, SmCOMT, and SmHPPD. Furthermore, SmSnRK2.3 and SmSnRK2.6 interacted physically with SmAREB1. In summary, our results indicate that SmSnRK2.6 is involved in stress responses and can regulate structural gene transcripts to promote greater metabolic flux to the phenolic acid-branched pathway, via its interaction with SmAREB1, a transcription factor. In this way, SmSnRK2.6 contributes to the positive regulation of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. PMID:28848585
Conti, Barbara; Benelli, Giovanni; Leonardi, Michele; Afifi, Fatma U; Cervelli, Claudio; Profeti, Raffaele; Pistelli, Luisa; Canale, Angelo
Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) has been one of the fastest spreading insects over the past 20 years. Its medical importance is due to the aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and the ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, Eastern Equine encephalitis and West Nile viruses. In this research, the essential oils (EOs) extracted from fresh air dried leaves of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) were evaluated for their repellent activity against A. albopictus by using the human-bait technique. The EOs chemical composition was also investigated, and EOs were divided in three different profiles on the basis of their chemical composition: EO with large amount of monoterpenes from S. sclarea, EO rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes from S. dorisiana, and S. longifolia EO characterized by similar percentages of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The efficacy protection from S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs, at dosages ranging from 0.004 to 0.4 μL cm(-2) of skin, was evaluated during 120 min of observation. Results indicated that S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs had a significant repellent activity (RD(50) =0.00035, 0.00049, and 0.00101 μL cm(-2), respectively), with differences in repellency rates, as a function of oil, dosage, and observation time. S. dorisiana was the most effective oil: at the two higher dosages, it gave almost complete protection (with a protective efficacy of 90.99% and 95.62%, respectively) for 90 min. The best protection time was achieved with S. dorisiana essential oil. It ranged from 9.2 to 92.4 min. Protection times of S. longifolia and S. sclarea oils ranged from 3.2 to 60 min, and from 3.6 to 64.2 min, respectively. Our findings clearly reveal that these EOs have a good repellent activity against A. albopictus, therefore they can be proposed to improve the efficacy of repellent formulations against the Asian tiger mosquito.
Azadniya, Ebrahim; Morlock, Gertrud E
An affordable bioanalytical workflow supports the collection of data on active ingredients, required for the understanding of health-related food, superfood and traditional medicines. Targeted effect-directed responses of single compounds in a complex sample highlight this powerful bioanalytical hyphenation of planar chromatography with (bio)assays. Among many reports about biological properties of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge root (Danshen) and their analytical methods, the highly efficient direct bioautography (DB) workflow has not been considered so far. There was just one TLC-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) method with a poor zone resolution apart from our two HPTLC-DB studies, however, all methods were focused on the nonpolar extracts of Danshen (tanshinones) only. The current study on HPTLC-UV/Vis/FLD-(bio)assay-HRMS, followed by streamlined scale-up to preparative layer chromatography (PLC)- 1 H-NMR, aimed at an even more streamlined, yet comprehensive bioanalytical workflow. It comprised effect-directed screening of both, its polar (containing phenolics) and nonpolar extracts (containing tanshinones) on the same HPTLC plate, the biochemical and biological profiling with four different (bio)assays and elucidation of structures of known and unidentified active compounds. The five AChE inhibitors, salvianolic acid B (SAB), lithiospermic acid (LSA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) as well as cryptotanshinone (CT) and 15,16-dihydrotanshinone I (DHTI) were confirmed, but also unidentified inhibitors were observed. In the polar extracts, SAB, LSA and RA exhibited free radical scavenging properties in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. CT, DHTI and some unidentified nonpolar compounds were found active against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Aliivibrio fischeri (LOD 12 ng/band for CT, and 5 ng/band for DHTI). For the first time, the most multipotent unidentified active compound zone in the B. subtilis, A. fischeri and AChE fingerprints of the nonpolar
Combination of multivariate curve resolution and multivariate classification techniques for comprehensive high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array absorbance detection fingerprints analysis of Salvia reuterana extracts.
Hakimzadeh, Neda; Parastar, Hadi; Fattahi, Mohammad
In this study, multivariate curve resolution (MCR) and multivariate classification methods are proposed to develop a new chemometric strategy for comprehensive analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array absorbance detection (HPLC-DAD) fingerprints of sixty Salvia reuterana samples from five different geographical regions. Different chromatographic problems occurred during HPLC-DAD analysis of S. reuterana samples, such as baseline/background contribution and noise, low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), asymmetric peaks, elution time shifts, and peak overlap are handled using the proposed strategy. In this way, chromatographic fingerprints of sixty samples are properly segmented to ten common chromatographic regions using local rank analysis and then, the corresponding segments are column-wise augmented for subsequent MCR analysis. Extended multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) is used to obtain pure component profiles in each segment. In general, thirty-one chemical components were resolved using MCR-ALS in sixty S. reuterana samples and the lack of fit (LOF) values of MCR-ALS models were below 10.0% in all cases. Pure spectral profiles are considered for identification of chemical components by comparing their resolved spectra with the standard ones and twenty-four components out of thirty-one components were identified. Additionally, pure elution profiles are used to obtain relative concentrations of chemical components in different samples for multivariate classification analysis by principal component analysis (PCA) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN). Inspection of the PCA score plot (explaining 76.1% of variance accounted for three PCs) showed that S. reuterana samples belong to four clusters. The degree of class separation (DCS) which quantifies the distance separating clusters in relation to the scatter within each cluster is calculated for four clusters and it was in the range of 1.6-5.8. These results are then
Liu, Haimei; Ma, Shuli; Xia, Hongrui; Lou, Hongxiang; Zhu, Faliang; Sun, Longru
The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba (Lamiaceae) (RSMA) are used as the Danshen, a traditional Chinese medicine, to treat the vascular diseases at local clinics, especially for the remedy of thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) more than 100 years. Phenolic acids are one of the major effective constituents of RSMA, and some studies have linked phenolic acids with anti-inflammatory functions. The purpose of this research was to isolate phenolic acids from RSMA and investigate their anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanisms. Nine already known compounds were obtained from RSMA. Their structures were elucidated through the spectroscopic analysis and comparing the reported data. The anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanisms were investigated in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells, using salvianolic acid B (SalB) as the positive control. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to determine the secretory protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). And quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the mRNA levels of these inflammatory cytokines. The expression of TLR4, p65, p-p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα were measured using western blot. All these compounds, except for rosmarinic acid (5) and isosalvianolic acid (6) for IL-6 protein levels, rosmarinic acid-o-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) for IL-6 mRNA, and rosmarinic acid-o-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), rosmarinic acid (5) and isosalvianolic acid (6) for TNF-α mRNA levels, remarkably inhibited the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the concentration of 5 and 25μM in the mRNA and protein levels. Lithospermic acid (7) showed the strongest inhibitory effect among them and was similar to that of SalB. In particular, lithospermic acid (7) and SalB markedly downregulated the expressions of TLR4, p-p65, and p-IκBα induced by LPS in THP-1 macrophages. All the phenolic acids displayed anti-inflammatory properties
Yu, Xi-Yong; Lin, Shu-Guang; Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Liang, Jun; Duan, Wei; Chowbay, Balram; Wen, Jing-Yuan; Chan, Eli; Cao, Jie; Li, Chun-Guang; Zhou, Shu-Feng
Cryptotanshinone (CTS), a major constituent from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), is widely used in the treatment of coronary heart disease, stroke and less commonly Alzheimer's disease. Our recent study indicates that CTS is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (PgP/MDR1/ABCB1). This study has investigated the nature of the brain distribution of CTS across the brain-blood barrier (BBB) using several in vitro and in vivo rodent models. A polarized transport of CTS was found in rat primary microvascular endothelial cell (RBMVEC) monolayers, with facilitated efflux from the abluminal side to luminal side. Addition of a PgP (e.g. verapamil and quinidine) or multi-drug resistance protein 1/2 (MRP1/2) inhibitor (e.g. probenecid and MK-571) in both luminal and abluminal sides attenuated the polarized transport. In a bilateral in situ brain perfusion model, the uptake of CTS into the cerebrum increased from 0.52 +/- 0.1% at 1 min to 11.13 +/- 2.36 ml/100 g tissue at 30 min and was significantly greater than that of sucrose. Co-perfusion of a PgP/MDR1 (e.g. verapamil) or MRP1/2 inhibitor (e.g. probenecid) significantly increased the brain distribution of CTS by 35.1-163.6%. The brain levels of CTS were only about 21% of those in plasma, and were significantly increased when coadministered with verapamil or probenecid in rats. The brain levels of CTS in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and rats treated with quinolinic acid (a neurotoxin) were about 2- to 2.5-fold higher than the control rats. Moreover, the brain levels in mdr1a(-/-) and mrp1(-/-) mice were 10.9- and 1.5-fold higher than those in the wild-type mice, respectively. Taken collectively, these findings indicate that PgP and Mrp1 limit the brain penetration of CTS in rodents, suggesting a possible role of PgP and MRP1 in limiting the brain penetration of CTS in patients and causing drug resistance to Danshen therapy and interactions with conventional drugs that are substrates of PgP and MRP1
Li, Mei-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Bo; Zuo, Huan; Liu, Li-Li; Niu, Jing-Zhong
The present study was to investigate the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. f. alba (SMA) pharmacological pretreatment on apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons from neonate rats under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Cultured hippocampal neurons were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6): normal plasma group, low dose SMA plasma (2.5%) group, middle dose SMA plasma (5%) group, high dose SMA plasma (10%) group and control group. The hippocampal neurons were cultured and treated with plasma from adult Wistar rats intragastrically administered with saline or aqueous extract of SMA. The apoptosis of neurons was induced by glucose-free Earle's solution containing 1 mmol/L Na2S2O4 and labeled by MTT and Annexin V/PI double staining. Moreover, protein expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by immunofluorescence. The results showed that few apoptotic cells were observed in control group, whereas the number of apoptotic cells was greatly increased in normal plasma group and low dose SMA plasma group. Both middle and high dose SMA plasma could protect cultured hippocampal neurons from apoptosis induced by OGD (P < 0.05). The protective effect of high dose SMA plasma was stronger than that of middle one (P < 0.05). Compared to control, normal plasma and low dose SMA plasma groups, middle and high dose SMA plasma groups both showed significantly higher levels of Bcl-2 (P < 0.05 or 0.01), whereas expressions of Bax was opposite. There were no significant differences of Bcl-2 and Bax expressions between middle and high dose SMA plasma groups. Number of Bcl-2- and Bax-positive cells had similar tendency. Bcl-2/Bax (number of positive cells) ratio was higher in high dose SMA plasma group than those of all the other groups (P < 0.05 or 0.01). These results suggest that pharmacological pretreatment of blood plasma containing middle and high dose SMA could raise viability and inhibit apoptosis of OGD-injured hippocampal neurons by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2
Jia, Yanyan; Bai, Zhenqing; Pei, Tianlin; Ding, Kai; Liang, Zongsuo; Gong, Yuehua
Subclass III members of the sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) play essential roles in both the abscisic acid signaling and abiotic stress responses of plants by phosphorylating the downstream ABA-responsive element (ABRE)-binding proteins (AREB/ABFs). This comprehensive study investigated the function of new candidate genes, namely SmSnRK2.3 , SmSnRK2.6 , and SmAREB1 , with a view to breeding novel varieties of Salvia miltiorrhiza with improved stress tolerance stresses and more content of bioactive ingredients. Exogenous ABA strongly induced the expression of these genes. PlantCARE predicted several hormones and stress response cis -elements in their promoters. SmSnRK2.6 and SmAREB1 showed the highest expression levels in the leaves of S. miltiorrhiza seedlings, while SmSnRK2.3 exhibited a steady expression in their roots, stems, and leaves. A subcellular localization assay revealed that both SmSnRK2.3 and SmSnRK2.6 were located in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus, whereas SmAREB1 was exclusive to the nucleus. Overexpressing SmSnRK2.3 did not significantly promote the accumulation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B) in the transgenic S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. However, overexpressing SmSnRK2.6 and SmAREB1 increased the contents of RA and Sal B, and regulated the expression levels of structural genes participating in the phenolic acid-branched and side-branched pathways, including SmPAL1 , SmC4H , Sm4CL1 , SmTAT , SmHPPR , SmRAS , SmCHS , SmCCR , SmCOMT , and SmHPPD . Furthermore, SmSnRK2.3 and SmSnRK2.6 interacted physically with SmAREB1. In summary, our results indicate that SmSnRK2.6 is involved in stress responses and can regulate structural gene transcripts to promote greater metabolic flux to the phenolic acid-branched pathway, via its interaction with SmAREB1 , a transcription factor. In this way, SmSnRK2.6 contributes to the positive regulation of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots.
Modulation of mecA Gene Expression by Essential Oil from Salvia sclarea and Synergism with Oxacillin in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Carrying Different Types of Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec
Chovanová, Romana; Mikulášová, Mária; Vaverková, Štefánia
The essential oil (EO) from Salvia sclarea was shown to increase the susceptibility of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) isolates to oxacillin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of EO from S. sclarea on expression of mecA gene of MRSE carrying different types of staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCCmec) and to evaluate potential synergistic effect of EO with oxacillin. Using real-time PCR we found that EO alone inhibited the expression of the resistant genes mecA, mecR1, and mecI and blaZ, blaR1, and blaI. The use of the combination of EO with oxacillin resulted in significantly inhibited expression of mecA gene in all tested strains with different types of SCCmec. Using time-kill assay and checkerboard assay we confirmed synergistic effect of EO from S. sclarea and oxacillin in MRSE. PMID:26880926
A novel approach to rapidly explore analytical markers for quality control of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract granules by robust principal component analysis with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Zhou, Yan; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Chen, Shi-Lin; Xu, Hong-Xi
In a well-controlled experiment, outliers discriminated by robust principal component analysis (RPCA) represent contents in samples which are of particular quality distinguishable from the rest of the others, therefore chemical constituents in a natural product causing discrimination between outliers and the majority of samples could be considered as analytical markers for quality control. Based on this strategy, a novel approach for rapidly exploring characteristic analytical markers was proposed for the quality control of extract granules of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (EGRSM). In this study, large sizes of samples were analyzed via high-throughput ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-UV-Q-Tof MS). RPCA was first performed on the three groups of samples: RSM (the raw material), the in-house prepared aqueous extract of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (AERSM) and commercial product of EGRSM, to determine the variation of specific constituents between raw material and the final products as well as the effect of manufacturing process on the overall quality. Then RPCA was performed on the commercial products of EGRSM to explore the applicability of identified characteristic markers for the quality control of EGRSM. Candidate markers were extracted by RPCA, and their molecular formulae were determined by high resolution electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) analysis. The suitability of identified markers was then evaluated by determining the relationship between quantities of the identified markers with their antioxidant activities biologically, and further confirmed in a variety of samples. In conclusion, the combination of RPCA with UHPLC-UV-Q-Tof MS is a reliable means to identify chemical markers for evaluating quality of herbal medicines. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
;Utilization of Tabula Rasa to stabilize bulk lifetimes in n-Cz silicon for high-performance solar cell /SiOx/pc-Si passivated contacts to n-type Si solar cells." Presented at the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic , and P. Stradins. "Heterojunction rear passivated contact for high efficiency n-Cz Si solar cells
Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers based on silica modified by deep eutectic solvents for the rapid simultaneous magnetic-based solid-phase extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge, Glycine max (Linn.) Merr and green tea.
Li, Guizhen; Wang, Xiaoqin; Row, Kyung Ho
Novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) with multiple-template based on silica were modified by four types of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for the rapid simultaneous magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of tanshinone Ⅰ, tanshinone ⅡA, and cryptotanshinone from Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge; glycitein, genistein, and daidzein from Glycine max (Linn.) Merr; and epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin gallate from green tea, respectively. The synthesized materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Single factor experiments were to explore the relationship between the extraction efficiency and four factors (the sample solution pH, amount of DESs for modification, amount of adsorbent, and extraction time). It was showed that the DES4-MMIPs have better extraction ability than the MMIPs without DESs and the other three DESs-modified MMIPs. The best extraction recoveries with DES4-MMIP were tanshinone Ⅰ (85.57%), tanshinone ⅡA (80.58%), cryptotanshinone (92.12%), glycitein (81.65%), genistein (87.72%), daidzein (92.24%), epicatechin (86.43%), epigallocatechin gallate (80.92%), and epicatechin gallate (93.64%), respectively. The novel multiple-template MMIPs materials modified by DES for the rapid simultaneous MSPE of active compounds were proved to reduce the experimental steps than single-template technique, and increase the extraction efficiency. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Separation and analysis of phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and its related preparations by off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Sun, Wanyang; Tong, Ling; Miao, Jingzhuo; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Li, Yunfei; Xiao, Hongting; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kaishun
Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is one of the most widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Active constituents of SM mainly contain hydrophilic phenolic acids (PAs) and lipophilic tanshinones. However, due to the existing of multiple ester bonds and unsaturated bonds in the structures, PAs have numerous chemical conversion products. Many of them are so low-abundant that hard to be separated using conventional methods. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed to separate PAs in SM and its related preparations. In the first dimension, samples were fractionated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) (Acchrom×Amide, 4.6×250mm, 5μm) mainly based on the hydrogen bonding effects. The fractions were then separated on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) (Acquity HSS T3, 2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) according to hydrophobicity. For the selective identification of PAs, diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) were employed. Practical and effective peak capacities of all the samples were greater than 2046 and 1130, respectively, with the orthogonalities ranged from 69.7% to 92.8%, which indicated the high efficiency and versatility of this method. By utilizing the data post-processing techniques, including mass defect filter, neutral loss filter and product ion filter, a total of 265 compounds comprising 196 potentially new PAs were tentatively characterized. Twelve kinds of derivatives, mainly including glycosylated compounds, O-alkylated compounds, condensed compounds and hydrolyzed compounds, constituted the novelty of the newly identified PAs. The HILIC×RP-LC/TOF-MS system expanded our understanding on PAs of S. miltiorrhiza and its related preparations, which could also benefit the separation and characterization of polar constituents in complicated herbal extracts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Simultaneous determination of polysaccharides and 21 nucleosides and amino acids in different tissues of Salvia miltiorrhiza from different areas by UV-visible spectrophotometry and UHPLC with triple quadrupole MS/MS.
Xiang, Xiang; Sha, Xiuxiu; Su, Shulan; Zhu, Zhenhua; Guo, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao
Salvia miltiorrhiza, a traditional Chinese medicine, is a widely used herbal medicine to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In this study, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry analytical methods were used for rapid quantification of polysaccharides and 21 nucleosides and amino acids in S. miltiorrhiza to determine 17 samples of different tissues from different areas. Based on the total contents, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal components analysis were performed to classify these samples. The established methods were validated with good linearity, precision, repeatability, stability, and recovery. Chemical analysis revealed a higher content of total analytes in the sample of inflorescence from Nanjing (34.17 mg/g), sample of root and rhizome from Shaanxi (34.13 mg/g) and sample of stem and leaf from Nanjing (31.14 mg/g), respectively, indicating that root and rhizome from Shaanxi and the aerial parts from Nanjing exhibited the highest quality due to their highest content. In addition, contents of nucleosides and amino acids in the aerial parts (14.67 mg/g) were much higher than that in roots and rhizomes (9.17 mg/g). This study suggested that UV-visible spectrophotometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry are effective techniques to analyze polysaccharides, nucleosides, and amino acids in plants, and they provided valuable information for the development and utilization value of the aerial parts of S. miltiorrhiza. This analysis would also provide useful information for the quality control of S. miltiorrhiza. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Application of response surface methodology to optimize pressurized liquid extraction of antioxidant compounds from sage (Salvia officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).
Hossain, M B; Brunton, N P; Martin-Diana, A B; Barry-Ryan, C
The present study optimized pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) conditions using Dionex ASE® 200, USA to maximize the antioxidant activity [Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)] and total polyphenol content (TP) of the extracts from three spices of Lamiaceae family (sage, basil and thyme). Optimal conditions with regard to extraction temperature (66-129 °C) and solvent concentration (32-88% methanol) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM). For all three spices, results showed that 129 °C was the optimum temperature with regard to antioxidant activity. Optimal methanol concentrations with respect to the antioxidant activity of sage and basil extracts were 58% and 60% respectively. Thyme showed a different trend with regard to methanol concentration and was optimally extracted at 33%. Antioxidant activity yields of the optimal PLE were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than solid/liquid extracts. Predicted models were highly significant (p < 0.05) for both total phenol (TP) and FRAP values in all the spices with high regression coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.651 to 0.999.
Involvement of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein 1 in the transport of tanshinone IIB, a primary active diterpenoid quinone from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, across the blood-brain barrier.
Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Xiao; Liang, Jun; Yu, Xi-Yong; Wen, Jing-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng
Tanshinone IIB (TSB) is a major constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is widely used in treatment of cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke. This study aimed to investigate the role of various drug transporters in the brain penetration of TSB using several in vitro and in vivo mouse and rat models. The uptake and efflux of TSB in rat primary microvascular endothelial cells (RBMVECs) were ATP-dependent and significantly altered in the presence of a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or multidrug resistance associated protein (Mrp1/2) inhibitor. A polarized transport of TSB was found in RBMVEC monolayers with facilitated efflux from the abluminal to luminal side. Addition of a P-gp inhibitor (e.g. verapamil) in both abluminal and luminal sides attenuated the polarized transport. In an in situ rat brain perfusion model, TSB crossed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier at a greater rate than that for sucrose, and the brain penetration was increased in the presence of a P-gp or Mrp1/2 inhibitor. The brain levels of TSB were only about 30% of that in the plasma and it could be increased to up to 72% of plasma levels when verapamil, quinidine, or probenecid was co-administered in rats. The entry of TSB to CNS increased by 67-97% in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion or treatment with the neurotoxin, quinolinic acid, compared to normal rats. Furthermore, The brain levels of TSB in mdr1a(-/-) and mrp1(-/-) mice were 28- to 2.6-fold higher than those in the wild-type mice. TSB has limited brain penetration through the BBB due to the contribution of P-gp and to a lesser extent of Mrp1 in rodents. Further studies are needed to confirm whether these corresponding transporters in humans are involved in limiting the penetration of TSB across the BBB and the clinical relevance.
Ulubelen, A; Oksüz, S; Topcu, G; Gören, A C; Bozok-Johansson, C; Celik, C; Kökdil, G; Voelter, W
From the roots of Saliva caespitosa Montbret and Aucher ex. Bentham a new diterpene 6beta-hydroxyisopimaric acid (1) has been isolated together with four known diterpenes, one new triterpenoid, 3-acetylvergatic acid (2), as well as five known triterpenoids, two steroids and a flavone. The structures of the compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses. The isolated compounds were tested against standard bacterial strains. Only the new diterpene, 6beta-hydroxyisopimaric acid has strong activity (MIC 9 microg/ml) against S. aureus and (MIC 18 microg/ml) against S. epidermidis as well as against B. subtilis (MIC 9 microg/ml).
The powdery mildews Golovinomyces echinopis on Echinops exaltatus (tall globethistle), and G. biocellatus on Salvia officinalis (common sage), are documented for the first time in Washington State. Golovinomyces cynoglossi on Cynoglossum officinale (houndstongue) is documented for the first time in ...
Chovanová, Romana; Vaverková, Štefánia
The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260 nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:24222768
Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan
The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples. PMID:28231089
Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan
The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica . Aroma components of the S. officinalis , L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica , respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica , respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples.
Alaniia, M; Shalashvili, K; Sagareishvili, T; Kavtaradze, N; Sutiashvili, M
The antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from different parts of Georgian flora species Hamamelis virginiana L., Astragalus caucasicus Pall., Astragalus microcephalus Willd., Vitis vinifera L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Rhododendron Ungernii Trautv., Ginkgo biloba L., Salvia officinalis L., Querqus iberica Stev., Maclura aurantiaca Nutt., Cotinus coggygria Ledeb., Fraxinus ornus L., Urtica dioica L., Rhododendron caucasicum Pall., Pueraria hirsuta Matsum., Geranium pusillum L., Astragalus Tanae Sosn., Pinus silvestris L. has been studied. Comparison with ethylentetraacetate and α-tocopherole revealed high efficacy of all extracts studied. 45 individual phenolic compounds were isolated and described by chemical examination of biologically active objects. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) extract turned out as the most active (200 %). The chemical study revealed the dominant content of condensed tannins and low molecular phenolic compounds, which may be attributed to the high antioxidant activity. Biologically active antiatherosclerotic food additive "Salbin" was developed on the basis of Common sage - Salvia officinalis L. phenolic compounds.
Orifici, Stefania C; Capitani, Marianela I; Tomás, Mabel C; Nolasco, Susana M
Chia mucilage has potential application as a functional ingredient; advances on maximizing its extraction yield could represent a significant technological and economic impact for the food industry. Thus, first, the effect of mechanical agitation time (1-3 h) on the exudation of chia mucilage was analyzed. Then, response surface methodology was used to determine the optimal combination of the independent variables temperature (15-85 °C) and seed: water ratio (1: 12-1: 40.8 w/v) for the 2 h exudation that give maximum chia mucilage yield. Experiments were designed according to central composite rotatable design. A second-order polynomial model predicted the variation in extraction mucilage yield with the variables temperature and seed: water ratio. The optimal operating conditions were found to be temperature 85 °C and a seed: water ratio of 1: 31 (w/v), reaching an experimental extraction yield of 116 ± 0.21 g kg -1 (dry basis). The mucilage obtained exhibited good functional properties, mainly in terms of water-holding capacity, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability. The results obtained show that temperature, seed: water ratio, and exudation time are important variables of the process that affect the extraction yield and the quality of the chia mucilage, determined according to its physicochemical and functional properties. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
Capitani, Marianela I; Ixtaina, Vanesa Y; Nolasco, Susana M; Tomás, Mabel C
The micromorphology and anatomy of nutlets, myxocarpy (mucilage exudation) and mucilage structure of Argentinean chia were described using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proximal composition of nutlets and mucilage was also studied. Chia nutlets are made up of a true seed and a pericarp enclosing the seed; they are small, glabrous, elliptic and apically rounded. The pericarp has cuticle, exocarp, mesocarp and bone cells vertically arranged and endocarp. The myxocarpy was carefully recorded by SEM. After 5 min in contact with water, the cuticle of nutlets is broken and the exocarp cell content gradually surrounds the rest of the nutlet. The proximal composition of chia nutlets was studied; fat is the major component (327 ± 8.0 g kg(-1)) followed by protein (293 ± 4.0 g kg(-1)) and fiber (276 ± 1.0 g kg(-1)). Extractions of chia nutlets with water at room temperature yielded 38 ± 1.0 g kg(-1) (dry basis) of mucilage. The fresh mucilage structure was similar to a network of open pores. The freeze-dried crude mucilage contained more ash, residual fat and protein than commercial guar and locust bean gum. The solubility of 10.0 g L(-1) w/v solution of chia freeze-dried crude mucilage in water increased with temperature, being maximal at 60 °C (870 g kg(-1)). The results obtained show a fast exudation of chia mucilage when nutlets are in contact with water. The freeze-dried crude mucilage hydrates easily in water, even at low temperatures. Chia nutlets have mucilaginous substances, with interesting functional properties from a technological and physiological point of view. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma; Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; B Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Burkitt Leukemia; Central Nervous System Lymphoma; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Mycosis Fungoides; Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Primary Effusion Lymphoma; Sezary Syndrome; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Subcutaneous Panniculitis-Like T-Cell Lymphoma; Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; T Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma; Transformed Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Lozano, E; Strauss, M; Spina, R; Cifuente, D; Tonn, C; Rivarola, H W; Sosa, M A
The search for new compounds with trypanocidal activity is crucial for the treatment of Chagas' disease. Previous in vitro studies have shown that the diterpene 5-epi-icetexone (ICTX) is active against Trypanosoma cruzi. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ICTX on the parasites in infected mice, in an experimental model that mimics the acute phase of the disease. Swiss albino mice were infected with T. cruzi and treated daily with 10mg/kg/day ICTX (i.p.). Infected mice and mice injected with either saline or the vehicle DMSO were used as controls. Animals' survival and parasitemia were monitored once a week and histological studies were made at necropsy by the 5th week after infection. It was observed that the administration of ICTX increased the survival of mice infected, and induced a significant decrease in the parasitemia, as compared to controls. A similar protective effect was observed when animals were treated orally with benznidazole (BZN, used as a control of antiparasitic effect). By the 5th week post-infection, the presence of amastigote nests was observed within the fibers of the cardiac and skeletal muscle in controls, but not in animals treated with either ICTX or BZN. In addition, inflammatory infiltrates were observed in the tissues of controls, but not in animals treated with the drugs. We conclude that ICTX has an antiparasitic effect against T. cruzi, thus constituting an interesting option for the treatment of Chagas' disease, alone or combined with other drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kai, Guoyin; Hao, Xiaolong; Cui, Lijie; Ni, Xiaoling; Zekria, David; Wu, Jian-Yong
This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zani, F; Massimo, G; Benvenuti, S; Bianchi, A; Albasini, A; Melegari, M; Vampa, G; Bellotti, A; Mazza, P
Genotoxic properties of essential oils from Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Satureja hortensis L., Satureja montana L., Thymus capitatus L., Thymus citriodorus Schreb., Thymus vulgaris L., Citrus bergamia Risso, were studied with Bacillus subtilis rec-assay and Salmonella/microsome reversion assay. The essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus L. "Piemontese" turned out to be active in the rec-assay but not in the Salmonella test. DNA-damaging activity was demonstrated to be due to the estragol component of the oil. Advantages of the combined use of these two short-term microbial assays in genotoxic studies are discussed.
Xing, Zhan-Fen; Cheng, Hong-Da; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Gong, Lei; Ma, Li-Ya
To establish an HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower for its quality control. Hypersil ODS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase in a gradient mode at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 220 nm and the temperature of column was set at 35 degrees C. The similarity was analyzed with the Estimating System of Similarity on the Chinese Medicine Fingerprint Chromatogram. The HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower containing eleven peaks was set up. The similarity of Calendula officinalis flower from different habitats was greater than 0.90. This method is easy and reliable, which can be used to judge the habitat and control the quality of Calendula officinalis flower.
Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey
In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (ω3) and omega-6 (ω6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ω3 (linolenic acid) and ω6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and α-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Falco, Bruna; Fiore, Alberto; Rossi, Roberta; Amato, Mariana; Lanzotti, Virginia
Chia is a food plant producing seeds which have seen increasing interest owing to their health benefits. This work is the first report on the metabolite profile, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of chia seeds, determined by ultrasound-assisted extraction, coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (UAE GC-MS). Different chia sources were compared: two commercial (black and white) and three early flowering (G3, G8 and G17) mutant genotypes. Organic extracts were mainly composed of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids with alpha-linolenic being the most abundant. Polar extracts contained sucrose, methylgalactoside and glucose as main sugars. Antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic content were correlated. Chemical composition and yield potential of early flowering genotypes were different from commercial chia, and while white chia showed the highest content of omega-3 fatty acids, the high content of nutraceuticals in G17 and G8 suggests them as a potential source of raw materials for the food/feed industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Velázquez-Gutiérrez, Sandra Karina; Figueira, Ana Cristina; Rodríguez-Huezo, María Eva; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Carrillo-Navas, Hector; Pérez-Alonso, César
Freeze-dried chia mucilage adsorption isotherms were determined at 25, 35 and 40°C and fitted with the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The integral thermodynamic properties (enthalpy and entropy) were estimated with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Pore radius of the mucilage, calculated with the Kelvin equation, varied from 0.87 to 6.44 nm in the temperature range studied. The point of maximum stability (minimum integral entropy) ranged between 7.56 and 7.63kg H2O per 100 kg of dry solids (d.s.) (water activity of 0.34-0.53). Enthalpy-entropy compensation for the mucilage showed two isokinetic temperatures: (i) one occurring at low moisture contents (0-7.56 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s.), controlled by changes in water entropy; and (ii) another happening in the moisture interval of 7.56-24 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s. and was enthalpy driven. The glass transition temperature Tg of the mucilage fluctuated between 42.93 and 57.93°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calendula Officinalis Extract is an extract of the flowers of Calendula officinalis, the common marigold, whereas Calendula Officinalis is described as plant material derived from the flowers of C. officinalis. Techniques for preparing Calendula Officinalis Extract include gentle disintegration in soybean oil. Propylene glycol and butylene glycol extractions were also reported. Components of these ingredients are variously reported to include sugars, carotenoids, phenolic acids, sterols, saponins, flavonoids, resins, sterins, quinones, mucilages, vitamins, polyprenylquinones, and essential oils. Calendula Officinalis Extract is reported to be used in almost 200 cosmetic formulations, over a wide range of product categories. There are no reported uses of Calendula Officinalis. Acute toxicity studies in rats and mice indicate that the extract is relatively nontoxic. Animal tests showed at most minimal skin irritation, and no sensitization or phototoxicity. Minimal ocular irritation was seen with one formulation and no irritation with others. Six saponins isolated from C. officinalis flowers were not mutagenic in an Ames test, and a tea derived from C. officinalis was not genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. No carcinogenicity or reproductive and developmental toxicity data were available. Clinical testing of cosmetic formulations containing the extract elicited little irritation or sensitization. Absent any basis for concluding that data on one member of a botanical ingredient group can be extrapolated to another in a group, or to the same ingredient extracted differently, these data were not considered sufficient to assess the safety of these ingredients. Additional data needs include current concentration of use data; function in cosmetics; ultraviolet (UV) absorption data; if absorption occurs in the UVA or UVB range, photosensitization data are needed; gross pathology and histopathology in skin and other major organ systems associated with repeated dermal
Hentschel, C; Dressler, S; Hahn, E G
Fumaria officinalis-fumitory or earth smoke-is a medicinal plant which has long had a role to play in empirical medicine in numerous countries. A review of the literature, however, reveals very few studies that support its use for dermatological indications (milk crust, eczema, scabies, etc.) or as a diuretic or laxative. This contrasts with its use to treat functional diseases of the biliary system. Although no placebo-controlled studies have been done, a number of empirical reports, clinical case reports and animal experimental studies have been published. Accordingly, in Germany, Fumaria officinalis is approved for the indication "colicky pain affecting the gallbladder and biliary system, together with the gastrointestinal tract".
Pullela, Srinivas V; Choi, Young Whan; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A
The chloroform extract of Valeriana officinalis led to the isolation of clionasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and a mixture of 6'-O-acyl-beta-D-glucosyl-clionasterols. The acyl moieties were identified as hexadecanoyl, 8 E,11 E-octadecadienoyl and 14-methylpentadecanoyl by alkaline hydrolysis followed by GC-MS analysis. The isolated compounds did not exhibit any anti-inflammatory, anticancer or cytotoxic activity when tested in a variety of in vitro cell-based assays.
Jiang, Xia; Zhang, Jian-chao; Liu, Yan-wen; Fang, Yin
From Valeriana officinalis L., 4 compounds were isolated and identified by various spectral analysis and chemical conversion, as valerenic acid, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, 4, 4', 8, 8'-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxyl-dibenzyl-ditetrahydrofuran and caryophyllene acide,valerane, naphthalene, linoleic acid, ethyl ester, myrtenyl acetate were identified by GC-MS. Ursolic acid and 4, 4', 8, 8'-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxyl-dibenzyl-ditetrahydrofuran were discovered in this plant for the first time.
Kennedy, David O; Little, Wendy; Haskell, Crystal F; Scholey, Andrew B
Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian) have been used both traditionally and contemporaneously as mild sedatives, anxiolytics and hypnotics. Recent research has suggested that both may attenuate laboratory induced stress. As the two herbs are most often sold in combination with each other the current study assessed the anxiolytic properties of such a combination during laboratory-induced stress. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, balanced cross-over experiment, 24 healthy volunteers received three separate single doses (600 mg, 1200 mg, 1800 mg) of a standardized product containing M. officinalis and V. officinalis extracts, plus a placebo, on separate days separated by a 7 day wash out period. Modulation of mood and anxiety were assessed during pre-dose and 1 h, 3 h and 6 h post-dose completions of a 20 min version of the Defined Intensity Stressor Simulation (DISS) battery. Cognitive performance on the four concurrent tasks of the battery was also assessed. The results showed that the 600 mg dose of the combination ameliorated the negative effects of the DISS on ratings of anxiety. However, the highest dose (1800 mg) showed an increase in anxiety that was less marked but which reached significance during one testing session. In addition, all three doses led to decrements in performance on the Stroop task module within the battery, and the two lower doses led to decrements on the overall score generated on the DISS battery. These results suggest that a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis possesses anxiolytic properties that deserve further investigation. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The methanol extracts of eight species of medicinal plants were tested for insecticidal activity in third instar larvae of Egyptian cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis). All extracts showed a certain degree of larval toxicity. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis appeared to be highly toxic. The extracts significantly affected the growth indexes [relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD)].
Malva, João O; Santos, Sandra; Macedo, Tice
Valeriana officinalis have been used in traditional medicine for its sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects. There are several reports in the literature supporting a GABAergic mechanism of action for valerian. The rationale of the present work is based on the concept that by decreasing neuronal network excitability valerian consumption may contribute to neuroprotection. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis against the toxicity induced by amyloid beta peptide 25-35 Abeta(25-35). Cultured rat hippocampal neurons were exposed to Abeta(25-35) (25 microM) for 24-48 h, after which morphological and biochemical properties were evaluated. The neuronal injury evoked by Abeta, which includes a decrease in cell reducing capacity and associated neuronal degeneration, was prevented by valerian extract. Analysis of intracellular free calcium (Ca(2+)i) indicated that the neuroprotective mechanisms may involve the inhibition of excess influx of Ca2+ following neuronal injury. Moreover, membrane peroxidation in rat hippocampal synaptosomes was evaluated, and our data indicate that valerian extract partially inhibited ascorbate/iron-induced peroxidation. In conclusion we show evidence that the signalling pathways involving Ca(2+)i and the redox state of the cells may play a central role in the neuroprotective properties of V. officinalis extract against Abeta toxicity. The novelty of the findings of the present work, indicating neuroprotective properties of valerian against Abeta toxicity may, at the long-term, contribute to introduction of a new relevant use of valerian alcoholic extract to prevent neuronal degeneration in aging or neurodegenerative disorders.
Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard
This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.
Peter L. Weaver
Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq., called palo de pollo in Puerto Rico, bloodwood in Guyana and Panama, and by numerous other names throughout its extensive range, is an evergreen tree that reaches 40m in height
Ji, Zi-yang; Yang, Yan-xia; Zhuang, Fang-fang; Yan, Fu-lin; Wang, Chang-hong
To investigate the chemical constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves. The chemical constituents were separated by silica gel column chromatography and their structures were determined by spectroscopic experiments. 13 compounds were isolated and identified as protocatechuyl aldehyde(1), serratagenic acid(2), vanillin(3), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid(4), ursolic acid(5), oleanolic acid(6), daucosterol(7),2α,3β,23,29-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid-29-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside(8), luteolin(9) rosmarinic acid(10), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (11), β-stitosterol(12) and palmitic acid(13). Compounds 1 ~ 8 are separated from this plant for the first time and compounds 1-4 and 8 are isolated from this genus for the first time.
... Phencyclidine) Peyote and Mescaline Psilocybin Rohypnol Salvia Divinorum Spice/ K2, Synthetic Marijuana Steroids U-47700 Amphetamines Barbiturates ... Phencyclidine) Peyote and Mescaline Psilocybin Rohypnol Salvia Divinorum Spice/ K2, Synthetic Marijuana Steroids U-47700 Aerosol cans ...
Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes
Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268
Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Fachinetto, Roselei; Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Felix Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira
Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian) is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep. Although V. officinalis have been well documented as promising pharmacological agent; the exact mechanisms by which this plant act is still unknown. Limited literature data have indicated that V. officinalis extracts can exhibit antioxidant properties against iron in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, there is no data available about the possible antioxidant effect of V. officinalis against other pro-oxidants in brain. In the present study, the protective effect of V. officinalis on lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by different pro-oxidant agents with neuropathological importance was examined. Ethanolic extract of valerian (0-60 microg/ml) was tested against quinolinic acid (QA); 3-nitropropionic acid; sodium nitroprusside; iron sulfate (FeSO4) and Fe2+/EDTA induced LPO in rat brain homogenates. The effect of V. officinalis in deoxyribose degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also investigated. In brain homogenates, V. officinalis inhibited thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by all pro-oxidants tested in a concentration dependent manner. Similarly, V. officinalis caused a significant decrease on the LPO in cerebral cortex and in deoxyribose degradation. QA-induced ROS production in cortical slices was also significantly reduced by V. officinalis. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in modulating LPO induced by different pro-oxidant agents. These data may imply that V. officinalis extract, functioning as antioxidant agent, can be beneficial for reducing insomnia complications linked to oxidative stress.
Crowley, Rachel Saylor; Riley, Andrew P; Sherwood, Alexander M; Groer, Chad E; Shivaperumal, Nirajmohan; Biscaia, Miguel; Paton, Kelly; Schneider, Sebastian; Provasi, Davide; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Filizola, Marta; Prisinzano, Thomas E
Opioids are widely used to treat millions suffering from pain, but their analgesic utility is limited due to associated side effects. Herein we report the development and evaluation of a chemical probe exhibiting analgesia and reduced opioid-induced side effects. This compound, kurkinorin (5), is a potent and selective μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist (EC 50 = 1.2 nM, >8000 μ/κ selectivity). 5 is a biased activator of MOR-induced G-protein signaling over β-arrestin-2 recruitment. Metadynamics simulations of 5's binding to a MOR crystal structure suggest energetically preferred binding modes that differ from crystallographic ligands. In vivo studies with 5 demonstrate centrally mediated antinociception, significantly reduced rewarding effects, tolerance, and sedation. We propose that this novel MOR agonist may represent a valuable tool in distinguishing the pathways involved in MOR-induced analgesia from its side effects.
Li, Jiang; Li, Caili; Lu, Shanfa
DEMETER-like DNA glycosylases (DMLs) initiate the base excision repair-dependent DNA demethylation to regulate a wide range of biological processes in plants. Six putative SmDML genes, termed SmDML1-SmDML6, were identified from the genome of S. miltiorrhiza, an emerging model plant for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) studies. Integrated analysis of gene structures, sequence features, conserved domains and motifs, phylogenetic analysis and differential expression showed the conservation and divergence of SmDMLs. SmDML1, SmDML2 and SmDML4 were significantly down-regulated by the treatment of 5Aza-dC, a general DNA methylation inhibitor, suggesting involvement of SmDMLs in genome DNA methylation change. SmDML1 was predicted and experimentally validated to be target of Smi-miR7972. Computational analysis of forty whole genome sequences and almost all of RNA-seq data from Lamiids revealed that MIR7972s were only distributed in some plants of the three orders, including Lamiales, Solanales and Boraginales, and the number of MIR7972 genes varied among species. It suggests that MIR7972 genes underwent expansion and loss during the evolution of some Lamiids species. Phylogenetic analysis of MIR7972s showed closer evolutionary relationships between MIR7972s in Boraginales and Solanales in comparison with Lamiales. These results provide a valuable resource for elucidating DNA demethylation mechanism in S. miltiorrhiza.
Bustamante, Mariela; Oomah, B Dave; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina
Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7.5:0.6:7.5%, w/w/w), respectively. These ternary blends protected the probiotics and enhanced their resistance to simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Probiotics encapsulated with the ternary blends incorporated in instant juice powder exhibited high viability (>9Log10CFU/g) after 45days refrigerated storage. Encapsulation with the ternary blends reduced particle size of the probiotic powders thereby offering additional functional benefits. Our results reveal that chia seed and flaxseed are excellent sources of probiotic encapsulating agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jia, Yongliang; Leung, Siu-Wai
More than 230 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of danshen dripping pill (DSP) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) in treating angina pectoris after the first preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses-compliant comprehensive meta-analysis were published in 2010. Other meta-analyses had flaws in study selection, statistical meta-analysis, and evidence assessment. This study completed the meta-analysis with an extensive assessment of the evidence. RCTs published from 1994 to 2016 on DSP and ISDN in treating angina pectoris for at least 4 weeks were included. The risk of bias (RoB) of included RCTs was assessed with the Cochrane's tool for assessing RoB. Meta-analyses based on a random-effects model were performed on two outcome measures: symptomatic (SYM) and electrocardiography (ECG) improvements. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, metaregression, and publication bias analysis were also conducted. The evidence strength was evaluated with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method. Among the included 109 RCTs with 11,973 participants, 49 RCTs and 5042 participants were new (after 2010). The RoB of included RCTs was high in randomization and blinding. Overall effect sizes in odds ratios for DSP over ISDN were 2.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.53-3.41) on SYM (n = 108) and 2.37 (95% CI: 2.08-2.69) by ECG (n = 81) with significant heterogeneities (I 2 = 41%, p < 0.0001 on SYM and I 2 = 44%, p < 0.0001 on ECG). Subgroup, sensitivity, and metaregression analyses showed consistent results without publication bias. However, the evidence strength was low in GRADE. The efficacy of DSP was still better than ISDN in treating angina pectoris, but the confidence decreased due to high RoB and heterogeneities.
Vuksan, V; Choleva, L; Jovanovski, E; Jenkins, A L; Au-Yeung, F; Dias, A G; Ho, H V T; Zurbau, A; Duvnjak, L
Flax and Salba-chia seeds have risen in popularity owing to their favorable nutrient composition, including a high fiber content. Despite having comparable nutritional profiles, preliminary observations suggest differences in gelling properties, an attribute that may alter the kinetics of food digestion. Thus, we compared the effect of two seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety scores. Fifteen healthy participants (M/F: 5/10; age: 23.9±3 years; BMI: 22.2±0.8 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to receive a 50 g glucose challenge, alone or supplemented with either 25 g ground Salba-chia or 31.5 g flax, on three separate occasions. Blood glucose samples and satiety ratings were collected at fasting and over 2-h postprandially. In addition, in vitro viscosity of the beverages was assessed utilizing standard rheological methodology. Both Salba-chia and flax reduced blood glucose area under the curve over 120 min by 82.5±19.7 mmol/l (P<0.001) and 60.0±19.7 mmol/l (P=0.014), respectively, relative to a glucose control. Salba-chia reduced peak glucose (-0.64±0.24 mmol/l; P=0.030) and increased time to peak (11.3±3.8 min; P=0.015) compared with flax. Salba-chia significantly reduced the mean ratings of desire to eat (-7±2 mm; P=0.005), prospective consumption (-7±2 mm; P=0.010) and overall appetite score (-6±2 mm; P=0.012), when compared with flax. The viscosity of Salba-chia, flax and control was 49.9, 2.5, and 0.002 Pa·s, respectively. Despite the similarities in nutritional composition, Salba-chia appears to have the ability to convert glucose into a slow-release carbohydrate and affect satiety to a greater extent than flax, possibly due to the higher fiber viscosity. Incorporation of either flax or Salba-chia into the diet may be beneficial, although use of Salba-chia may confer additional benefit.
Neves, Josynaria Araújo; Neves, Josyanne Araújo; Oliveira, Rita de Cassia Meneses
Rosmarinus officinalis L. is an aromatic plant with a number of biological properties. Recently, has been studied regarding its therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on R. officinalis essential oil for its pharmacological properties and biotechnological applications. Areas covered: The databases were searched for articles (Science Direct, Pub Med and Web of Science) and patents (INPI, WIPO and EPO) with publications on R. officinalis and associations with essential oil (EO-Ro), cardiovascular system, hypertension and cyclodextrin. We selected 305 articles on EO-Ro in the most diverse subjects and six articles with of R. officinalis associated with hypertension. 59 patents were analyzed. The results demonstrate how extensive the studies are on the biological activities with the extract and EO-Ro. These have shown effects antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and other. The properties exhibited by EO-Ro reinforce the use of this plant as a phytotherapeutic agent. Expert opinion: Although there are several pharmacological properties, studies on the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases with EO-Ro are scarce, especially to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of EO-Ro. It has also become clear that EO-Ro can be exploited in different commercial products as supplement, cosmetics and new formulations.
Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...
García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana
Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.
Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David
Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.
O'Brien, Caitlin E; Mezrai, Nawel; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Dickel, Ludovic
Though a mollusc, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis possesses a sophisticated brain, advanced sensory systems, and a large behavioral repertoire. Cuttlefish provide a unique perspective on animal behavior due to their phylogenic distance from more traditional (vertebrate) models. S. officinalis is well-suited to addressing questions of behavioral ontogeny. As embryos, they can perceive and learn from their environment and experience no direct parental care. A marked progression in learning and behavior is observed during late embryonic and early juvenile development. This improvement is concomitant with expansion and maturation of the vertical lobe, the cephalopod analog of the mammalian hippocampus. This review synthesizes existing knowledge regarding embryonic and juvenile development in this species in an effort to better understand cuttlefish behavior and animal behavior in general. It will serve as a guide to future researchers and encourage greater awareness of the utility of this species to behavioral science. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Duan, Xue-Yun; Gong, Zhan-Feng; Chen, Shu-He; Fang, Ying; Liu, Yan-Wen
To establish HPLC fingerprints of the Antiarrhythmic fraction of Valeriana officinalis. Agilent C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column was used and the acetonitrile-water was chosen as the mobile phase in a gradient mode. The column temperature was 380 degrees C and the detection wavelength was 218 nm. The detection time was 70 min, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/ min. Fifteen characteristic peaks were indicated in HPLC fingerprints. The relative retention time and the ranges of relative areas of the common peaks were also determined. This method is simple and accurate with a good reproducibility and provides a reference standard for the quality control of Valeriana officinalis.
Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H; Lopez, Elizabeth M; McFeeters, Robert L; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-Kaf, Ali G; Setzer, William N
Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%-37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%-29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%-16.9%), (-)-borneol (2.1%-6.9%), (-)-camphor (0.7%-7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%-4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.
Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R
In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang, Weilin; Dong, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Ma, Rongrong; Huang, Fudeng; Wang, Changchun; Hu, Haitao; Li, Chunshou; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping
Host-plant resistance is the most practical and economical approach to control the rice planthoppers. However, up to date, few rice germplasm accessions that are resistant to the all three kinds of planthoppers (1) brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål), (2) the small brown planthopper (SBPH; Laodelphax striatellus Fallen), and (3) the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) have been identified; consequently, the genetic basis for host-plant broad spectrum resistance to rice planthoppers in a single variety has been seldom studied. Here, one wild species, Oryza officinalis (Acc. HY018, 2n = 24, CC), was detected showing resistance to the all three kinds of planthoppers. Because resistance to WBPH and BPH in O. officinalis has previously been reported, the study mainly focused on its SBPH resistance. The SBPH resistance gene(s) was (were) introduced into cultivated rice via asymmetric somatic hybridization. Three QTLs for SBPH resistance detected by the SSST method were mapped and confirmed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12, respectively. The allelic/non-allelic relationship and relative map positions of the three kinds of planthopper resistance genes in O. officinalis show that the SBPH, WBPH, and BPH resistance genes in O. officinalis were governed by multiple genes, but not by any major gene. The data on the genetics of host-plant broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers in a single accession suggested that the most ideally practical and economical approach for rice breeders is to screen the sources of broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers, but not to employ broad spectrum resistance gene for the management of planthoppers. Pyramiding these genes in a variety can be an effective way for the management of planthoppers.
Dharmaratne, H Ranjith; Nanayakkara, N P; Khan, Ikhlas A
Chemical investigation of the root extract of Valeriana officinalis afforded a new bicyclic sesquiterpene acid, (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid together with valerenic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data and confirmed by partial synthesis of its methyl ester from valerenic acid. Methyl (-)-3 alpha,4 alpha-epoxyvalerenate was obtained as a minor product from the above reaction.
Boyadzhiev, L; Kancheva, D; Gourdon, C; Metcheva, D
Extraction of valerenic acids (valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic) from dry ground rhizomes of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) was studied. The effect of ethanol concentration in the solvent, extraction temperature and drug particle size on extraction kinetics were investigated and the optimum values of these process parameters were determined for the case of intensively stirred two-phase dispersion. It was found that increased processing temperature favors extraction kinetics, but provokes moderate degradation of valerenic acids.
Rani, Sunita; Khan, Suroor A; Ali, M
Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation of three new phytoconstituents, identified as n-hexacos-2-enyl-1,5-olide (altheahexacosanyl lactone), 2beta-hydroxycalamene (altheacalamene) and 5,6-dihydroxycoumarin-5-dodecanoate-6beta-D-glucopyranoside (altheacoumarin glucoside), along with the known phytoconstituents lauric acid, beta-sitosterol and lanosterol. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical reactions.
Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas
In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 μM) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ling, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Mao, Qinqing; Ji, Qingxin
Five species of landscape plants which are scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens were used as experimental materials to study their removal effects on nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and suspended solids (SS) in urban river water. The results show that the 5 landscape plants have good adaptability and vitality in water body, among them, water hyacinth had the best life signs than the other 4 plants, and its plant height and root length increased significantly. They have certain removal effects on the nitrogen, phosphorus, CODMn (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Substance) in the landscape water of Dalong Lake, Xuzhou. Scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens on the removal rate of total nitrogen were 76.69%, 78.57%, 71.42%, 69.64%, 67.86%; the ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 71.06%, 74.28%, 67.85%, 63.02%, 59.81%;the total phosphorus removal rate were 78.70%, 81.48%, 73.15%, 72.22%, 68.52%;the orthophosphate removal rates were 78.37%, 80.77%, 75.96%, 75.96%, 71.15%;the removal rate of CODMn was 52.5%, 55.35%, 46.02%, 45.42%, 44.19%; the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, 86%, 79.1%, 76.7%, 74.42%.The purification effect of 5 kinds of landscape plants of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou City: water hyacinth> scindapsus aureus>cockscomb>calendula officinalis>salvia splendens.
Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S
Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Wang, Peng-Cheng; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, He-Zhong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing
Two new iridoids, volvaltrates A and B (1 and 2), and three new sesquiterpenoids, E-(-)-3beta,4beta-epoxyvalerenal (3), E-(-)-3beta,4beta-epoxyvalerenyl acetate (4), and mononorvalerenone (5), together with five known iridoids and two known sesquiterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis. The structures and relative configurations of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence. Compound 1 was an unusual iridoid with an oxygen bridge connecting C-3 and C-10, forming a cage-like structure, and compound 5 was a mononorsesquiterpenoid.
Nikfarjam, Masoud; Rakhshan, Reza
Introduction Major depressive disorder is a chronic disease which may be associated with other mental illnesses. Lavandula officinalis and venlafaxine, herbal and chemical drugs respectively, are used to treat depression. Despite pharmacotherapy, major depressive disorder has a complicated pattern of resistance and recurrence. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L. officinalis and venlafaxine in treating depression. Materials and Methods For this study, 120 patients referred to the psychiatry clinic of the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran, were randomly selected. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups: venlafaxine (Control Group), venlafaxine + L. officinalis (L. officinalis Group), and venlafaxine + placebo (Placebo Group). All the patients underwent treatment for six weeks. Depression test was administered to the three groups at different time intervals before the treatment, four weeks after the treatment and at completion of the treatment. The data were analysed by SPSS version17.0. Results Depression scores of all the groups decreased over time (p=0.001). The depression scores were significantly different between the control and L. officinalis groups (p=0.004), and the control and placebo groups (p=0.002), but were not significantly different between the L. officinalis and placebo groups (p=0.95). Conclusion Adding L. officinalis or a placebo is equally effective in decreasing mean depression score and venlafaxine obviously decreased this score. PMID:28892932
Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714
İnce, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma; Gündeşlioğlu, Ayşe Özlem; Dadacı, Mehmet; Kozacıoğlu, Sümeyye
Background Skin flaps are commonly used in soft-tissue reconstruction; however, necrosis can be a frequent complication. Several systemic and local agents have been used in attempts to improve skin flap survival, but none that can prevent flap necrosis have been identified. Aims This study aims to determine whether the use of systemic Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) extract can prevent flap necrosis and improve skin flap recovery. Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were divided in five groups. A rectangular random-pattern flaps measuring 8×2 cm was elevated from the back of each rat. Group I was the control group. In Group II, 0.2 ml of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2h before surgery. R. officinalis oil was then applied orally twice a day for a week. In Group III, R. officinalis oil was given orally twice a day for one week before surgery. At the end of the week, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2 h before surgery. In Group IV, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. In Group V, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week prior to surgery. At the end of the week, one last 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil injection was administered subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. Results The mean percentage of viable surface area was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Mean vessel diameter was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Conclusion We have determined that, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, R. officinalis has vasodilatory effects that contribute to increased skin flap survival. PMID:27994918
Sadighara, Parisa; Gharibi, Soraya; Moghadam Jafari, Amir; Jahed Khaniki, Golamreza; Salari, Samira
There has been a growing interest in finding plants with biological active ingredients for medicinal application. Three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis (A. officinalis) flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total antioxidant activity and ﬂavonoids content. The reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white. Findings suggest that the dark color can serve as an indicator of antioxidant content of the plant. Flavonoid content was highest in white flower thus this result indicated that flowers with light color can be considered for medicinal uses.
Zitterl-Eglseer, K; Reznicek, G; Jurenitsch, J; Novak, J; Zitterl, W; Franz, C
The main compounds of lipophilic extracts of flower heads of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) are triterpendiol esters, mainly faradiol laurate, faradiol myristate and faradiol palmitate. These faradiol-3-O-monoesters have been quantified for the first time by means of reversed phase HPLC with internal standardisation in different parts of C. officinalis plants, namely ray florets, disk florests, involucral bracts, receptacles, levaes and seeds. The amounts of the esters were highest in ray florets, approximately 10 times lower in disk florets than in the ray florets, and approximately 10 times lower in involucral bracts than in the disk florets. In the leaves only traces of the esters could be detected, and in the receptacles no esters could be detected at all. Quantification in the seed was not possible using this method because of interfering fatty compounds. Concerning the faradiol esters, the dried ray and disk florets only should be preferred as primary products for remedies as demanded in the recently published supplement of the Pharmacopoiea Europaea (1999). Breeding work should focus on varieties with a greater number of ray florets in order to improve the quality of herbal medicinal products derived from marigoid.
Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Vartiainen, Nina; Bremner, Paul; Gibbons, Simon; Koistinaho, Jari; Heinrich, Michael
Valeriana officinalis (Valerianaceae) has been of great interest for its therapeutic uses for treating mild nervous tension and temporary sleeping problems. In traditional European medicine it has been also reported as an antiinflammatory remedy. This study reports that the EtOAc extract of the underground parts of V. officinalis showed inhibitory activity against NF-kappaB at 100 microg/mL in the IL-6/Luc assay on HeLa cells and provided protection against excitotoxicity in primary brain cell cultures at micromolar concentrations. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract led to the isolation of three known sesquiterpenes: acetylvalerenolic acid (1), valerenal (2) and valerenic acid (3), 1 and 3 were active as inhibitors of NF-kappaB at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. Acetylvalerenolic acid (1) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 4%, whereas valerenic acid (3) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 25%. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H.; Lopez, Elizabeth M.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-kaf, Ali G.; Setzer, William N.
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%), (−)-borneol (2.1%–6.9%), (−)-camphor (0.7%–7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities. PMID:28273883
Tanideh, Nader; Tavakoli, Parisa; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Amanat, Dariush; Tadbir, Azadeh Andisheh; Samani, Soleiman Mohammadi; Tamadon, Amin
This study assessed the potential of topical Calendula officinalis extract on the healing of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced in 60 male hamsters by 5-FU (60 mg/kg) on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Macroscopic and microscopic scores and weights were evaluated. Microscopic and macroscopic scores of mucositis were lower in the 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel groups than in the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Weight gain was noted in the treatment groups compared with the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Calendula officinalis extract accelerated the healing of oral mucositis in hamsters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Suiqing; Lu, Xiaolei; Wang, Lili
To establish sequence characterized amplified region markers of Cornus officinalis and provide a scientific basis for molecular identification of C. officinalis. The random primer was screened through RAPD to obtain specific RAPD marker bands. The RAPD marker bands were separated, extracted, cloned and sequenced. Both ends of the sequence of RAPD marker bands were determined. A pair of specific primers was designed for conventional PCR reaction, and SCAR marker was acquired. Four pairs of primers were designed based on the sequence of RAPD marker bands. The DNA of the seven varieties of C. officinalis was amplified by using YST38 and YST43 primer. The results showed that seven varieties of C. officinalis were able to produce a single PCR product. It was an effective way to identify C. officinalis. The varieties with cylindrical and long-pear shape fruits amplified by YST38 showed a specific band, which could be used as the evidence of variety identification. Seven varieties of C. oficinalis were amplified by using primer YST39. But the size of band of the variety with spindly shape fruit (35,0400 bp) was about 300 bp, which was shorter than those of the variety with the other shape fruits of C. officinalis (650-700 bp). The variety with the spindly shape fruit could be identified through this difference. The primer YST92 could produce a fragment from 600-700 bp in the varieties with cylindrical and long-pear shape fruits, a fragment from 200-300 bp in the varieties with oval and short-cylindrical shape fruits and had no fragment in the varieties with long cylindrical, elliptic and short-pear shape fruits, which could be used to select the different shapes of C. officinalis. SCAR mark is established and can be used as the basis for breeding and distinguishing the verieties of C. officinalis.
Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W
Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.
Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida
To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2 000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.
Beltrán-Villalobos, Karla Lyzet; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; González-Trujano, María Eva; Martínez-Salazar, María Fernanda; Ramírez-Cisneros, María de Los Ángeles; Rios, María Yolanda; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Mirtaceae) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) are both medicinal plants used for centuries to alleviate pain. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the therapeutic potential utility of herb-drug association of S. aromaticum essential oil or R. officinalis ethanolic extract coadministered with ketorolac. Antinociceptive pharmacological interaction was investigated by an isbolographic study using the formalin test in rats. Both alone and in combination with ketorolac; S. aromaticum and R. officinalis produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive response. To plot the isobologram, we used the effective dose 50 of each one component in a fixed 1:1 ratio. The isobolographic analysis showed that, in both combinations, ketorolac plus essential oil S. aromaticum and ketorolac plus ethanolic extract R. officinalis, the experimental value (Z exp ) was lower than the theoretical value (Z add ). In addition, this study shows that eugenol, a metabolite present in S. aromaticum, and ursolic acid, a metabolite present in R. officinalis, also synergized the antinociceptive effect of ketorolac. While, the oleanolic acid present in both medicinal species did not show a synergistic antinociceptive effect in combination with ketorolac. No adverse effects were observed with these herb-drug interactions. These findings suggest that essential oil S. aromaticum and ethanolic extract R. officinalis could be useful in combination with ketorolac for the treatment of inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ho, K Y; Tsai, C C; Chen, C P; Huang, J S; Lin, C C
The antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol, the main constituents of Magnolia officinalis was investigated. The antimicrobial activity was assayed by the agar dilution method using brain heart infusion medium and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined for each compound using a twofold serial dilution assay. The results showed that honokiol and magnolol have a marked antimicrobial effect (MIC = 25 microg/mL) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, but did not show antimicrobial activity (MIC > or = 100 microg/mL) for Shigella flexneii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results indicate that honokiol and magnolol, although less potent than tetracycline, show a significant antimicrobial activity for periodontal pathogens. Hence we suggest that honokiol and magnolol might have the potential to be an adjunct in the treatment of periodontitis. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Gelus, Dominique; Pécoul, Nathalie; Perrot, Hubert; Lédion, Jean; Horner, Olivier; Sadoun, Jonathan; Cachet, Xavier; Litaudon, Marc; Roussi, Fanny
The formation of calcium carbonate in water has important implications in industry. Chemical antiscalant is usually used to control scale depositions. Plant extracts have been recently used as new green antiscalant agents, as they can be easily prepared and are environmentally friendly. In this study, stock aqueous solutions of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis, two plants used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent urolithiasis, were obtained by infusion. The antiscaling properties of these extracts towards CaCO3 formation were tested by using chronoamperometry and Fast Controlled Precipitation methods. The aqueous solution of S. rubra was further fractionated to isolate compounds of lower polarity. Their efficiency towards CaCO3 precipitation was characterized by Fast Controlled Precipitation method. The inhibiting efficiency of this fractionated solution was greater than that of the stock aqueous solution.
Mikell, J R; Ganzera, M; Khan, I A
A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method permitting the determination of the main sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis has been developed. A separation of valerenic acid and its hydroxy and acetoxy derivatives, three compounds characteristic for the species, was achieved using a 40 mM phosphate-borate buffer at pH 8.5, which contained 10% isopropanol as organic modifier. Applied temperature and voltage were 35 degrees C and 17.5 kV, respectively. This setup allowed a baseline separation of the three compounds within 8 min, with a detection limit of 5.8 micrograms/ml or less. Out of six market products analyzed, only one contained a detectable amount of the marker compounds, with 0.54% of hydroxyvalerenic acid and 0.13% valerenic acid, respectively. The quantitative results were comparable to those obtained by HPLC.
Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Rui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Liu, Yu-Qing; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Jiang, He-Zhong; Chen, Zhong-Quan; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing
Two new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids, valerol A (1) and kessyl 3-acetate (2), together with nine known compounds, valeracetate (3), anismol A (4), orientalol C (5), spatulenol (6), 4α,10α-epoxyaromadendrane (7), (+)-8-hydroxypinoresinol (8), pinorespiol (9), pinoresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), and 8-hydroxypinoresinol 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (11) were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis. The structures and relative configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR). These compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Fiorito, Graziano; Sykes, António V; Shashar, Nadav
A moving object is considered conspicuous because of the movement itself. When moving from one background to another, even dynamic camouflage experts such as cephalopods should sacrifice their extraordinary camouflage. Therefore, minimizing detection at this stage is crucial and highly beneficial. In this study, we describe a background-matching mechanism during movement, which aids the cuttlefish to downplay its presence throughout movement. In situ behavioural experiments using video and image analysis, revealed a delayed, sigmoidal, colour-changing mechanism during movement of Sepia officinalis across uniform black and grey backgrounds. This is a first important step in understanding dynamic camouflage during movement, and this new behavioural mechanism may be incorporated and applied to any dynamic camouflaging animal or man-made system on the move. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian
Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.
Soliman, Amel M.; Fahmy, Sohair R.; Sayed, Amany A.; Abd El-Latif, Asmaa A.
Background: Sepsis remains a major problem for both scientists and clinicians. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) is considered the gold standard for animal models of sepsis. The undesirable side effects of certain antibiotics have forced scientists to discover new, natural, and safe antimicrobial agents, such as cephalopods, which are known to display significant antimicrobial activity. Objectives: The present investigation aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial and antiseptic efficacy of Sepia officinalis body tissue (SOBT) extract and S. officinalis polysaccharide (SOP) from its cuttlebone. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight rats were divided into 4 groups, and starting 2 hours after CLP, treatments were given for 2 days as follows: sham control rats treated orally with distilled water, septic rats treated orally distilled water, septic rats treated orally methanolic extract of SOBT (500 mg/kg b.wt) suspended in distilled water, and septic rats treated orally SOP extract (200 mg /kg b.wt) dissolved in distilled water. On the third day, half of the rats in each group were euthanized for blood collection. The other half were kept alive and used for the survival study. Results: The present study revealed that the SOBT and SOP extracts showed in vitro bactericidal activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, administration of SOBT and SOP increased the rats’ survival rates by 66.7% and 83.33%, respectively, as compared to the untreated CLP-septic rats. Treatment of the CLP-septic rats with SOBT and SOP significantly alleviated alterations in procalcitonin levels and in some hematological parameters induced by CLP. Conclusions: SOBT and SOP had profound antiseptic efficacy. PMID:27099690
Rahmati, Batool; Khalili, Mohsen; Roghani, Mehrdad; Ahghari, Parisa
Repeated application of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) has been recommended for a long time in Iranian traditional medicine for some of nervous disorders like epilepsy and dementia. However, there is no available report for the effect of chronic administration of Lavandula extract in development (acquisition) of epilepsy. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the anti-epileptogenic and antioxidant activity of repeated administration of Lavandula officinalis extract on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling seizures in mice model. Lavandula officinalis was tested for its ability (i) to suppress the seizure intensity and lethal effects of PTZ in kindled mice (anti-epileptogenic effect), (ii) to attenuate the PTZ-induced oxidative injury in the brain tissue (antioxidant effect) when given as a pretreatment prior to each PTZ injection during kindling development. Valproate (Val), a major antiepileptic drug, was also tested for comparison. Val and Lavandula officinalis extract showed anti-epileptogenic properties as they reduced seizure score of kindled mice and PTZ-induced mortality. In this regard, Lavandula officinalis was more effective than Val. Both Lavandula officinalis and Val suppressed brain nitric oxide (NO) level of kindled mice in comparison with the control and PTZ group. Meanwhile, Lavandula officinalis suppressed NO level more than Val and Lavandula officinalis also decreased brain MDA level relative to PTZ group. This is the first report to demonstrate NO suppressing and anti-epileptogenic effect of chronic administration of Lavandula officinalis extract on acquisition of epilepsy in PTZ kindling mice model. In this regard, Lavandula officinalis extract was more effective than Val, possibly and in part via brain NO suppression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M
There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema.
Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Baronti, Ilenia; Najar, Basma; Pisseri, Francesca; Bandeira Reidel, Rose Vanessa; Papini, Roberto; Perrucci, Stefania; Mancianti, Francesca
Several plants extracts from Mediterranean countries are traditionally employed in skin troubles both in humans and in animals. Malassezia pachydermatis is a lipophylic yeast responsible for otitis externa and dermatitis in dogs and for cutaneous and systemic disease in humans. Five mixtures of essential oils obtained from Mediterranean plants (Citrus paradisi, Salvia sclarea, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Citrus limon, Anthemis nobilis, Lavandula hybrida and Thymus vulgaris) provided with antifungal and/or anti-inflammatory action assayed in vitro, were tested in vivo versus M. pachydermatis to treat once daily for 2 weeks 25 atopic dogs with Malassezia otitis externa. Mixture composed by C. limon 1%, S. sclarea 0,5%, R. officinalis 1%, A. nobilis 0,5% yielded excellent results in all treated dogs. Despite of clinical resolution after all treatments the number of blastospores did not decrease. This study confirms recent findings suggesting a multifactorial alternative approach for the management of canine Malassezia otitis.
Tardugno, Roberta; Pellati, Federica; Iseppi, Ramona; Bondi, Moreno; Bruzzesi, Giacomo; Benvenuti, Stefania
In this study, the activity of essential oils (EOs) against microorganisms involved in oral diseases was evaluated. Fourteen EOs were selected and subjected to gas chromatographic analysis, including Illicium verum, Eucaliptus globulus, Eugenia caryophyllata, Leptospermum scoparium, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Myrtus communis, Salvia officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula x intermedia, Thymus capitatus and Thymus vulgaris. These EOs were tested for their antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species clinically isolated from dental surgery patients. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by means of the disc diffusion and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Five EOs, having shown an interesting antimicrobial activity, were selected for a second screening in combination between them and with chlorhexidine. From the second assays, two EO-EO and three EO-chlorhexidine associations gave interesting results as potential constituents of mouthwashes, especially for the contribution of oxygenated monoterpenes, including menthol, thymol and carvacrol.
Bicu, A.; Drumea, V.; Mihaiescu, D. E.; Purcareanu, B.; Florea, M. A.; Trică, B.; Vasilievici, G.; Draga, S.; Buse, E.; Olariu, L.
Our present work is concerned with the validation and quality testing efforts of mesoporous silica - plant extracts composites, in order to sustain the standardization process of plant-based pharmaceutical products. The synthesis of the silica support were performed by using a TEOS based synthetic route and CTAB as a template, at room temperature and normal pressure. The silica support was analyzed by advanced characterization methods (SEM, TEM, BET, DLS and FT-IR), and loaded with Calendula officinalis and Salvia officinalis standardized extracts. Further desorption studies were performed in order to prove the sustained release properties of the final materials. Intermediate and final product identification was performed by a FT-IR classification method, using the MID-range of the IR spectra, and statistical representative samples from repetitive synthetic stages. The obtained results recommend this analytical method as a fast and cost effective alternative to the classic identification methods.
Rachel Pérez; Tamara Heartsill Scalley
In Puerto Rico, brackish water wetlands were dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis previous to extensive deforestation due to agriculture. Today remnant wetlands are limited to small areas that are threatened by rise in sea level. We examined the root nodules of P. officinalis in montane and coastal sites and at 0, 10, 20 cm from the surface to determine if site...
Ernesto Medina; Elvira Cuevas; Ariel Lugo
Pterocarpus officinalis L. is a dominant tree of freshwater coastal wetlands in the Caribbean and the Guiana regions. It is frequently associated with mangroves in areas with high rainfall and/or surface run-off. We hypothesized that P. officinalis is a freshwater swamp species that when occurring in association with mangroves occupies low-salinity soil microsites, or...
Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Bednarski, Waldemar; Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Morkunas, Iwona
The aim of this study was to investigate whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in leaves of one- and two-month-old plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Argenteuil infested by Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) at a varied population size. The pest B. asparagi has been described as the most damaging species feeding on asparagus. Analyses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrated generally higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals with g-values of 2.0045 ± 0.0005 and 2.0026 ± 0.0005 in Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) leaves after Brachycorynella asparagi (B. asparagi) infestation than in the control. Observations of leaves under a confocal microscope showed a post-infestation enhanced generation of the superoxide anion radical (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in comparison to the control. Strong fluctuations in Mn2+ ion levels detected by EPR spectroscopy versus time were detected in leaves infested by aphids, which may indicate the involvement of these ions in the control of O2•− production. An enhanced superoxide dismutase activity is an important element in leaf defense against oxidative stress. Visible symptoms were found in aphid-infested A. officinalis. Damage to leaves of one- and two-month-old A. officinalis plants by the aphid B. asparagi was dependent on the intensity, duration of infestation and plant age. PMID:27775613
Buzzi, M; de Freitas, F; de Barros Winter, M
Non-healing venous leg ulcers (VLUs) have a significant effect on patients' quality of life and substantially increase expenditures in health-care systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the Calendula officinalis extract, Plenusdermax, in the treatment of VLUs. Patients treated with Calendula officinalis extract (n=38) and control patients (n=19) were evaluated every two weeks for 30 weeks or until their ulcers healed. Assessments included determination of the wound area by planimetry, infection control, and evaluation of the clinical aspects of the wounds. The percentage of healing velocity per week (%HVw), taking the initial area at baseline into account, was also determined. The proportion of the treatment patients achieving complete epithelialisation was 72 % and 32 % in the treatment and control groups, respectively. The average healing time was approximately 12 weeks in the treatment group and 25 % in control patients. Patients with ulcers treated with Calendula officinalis extract had a significant 4-fold increase in percentage healing velocity per week, 7.4 %, compared with 1.7 % in the control group. No adverse events were observed during the Calendula officinalis extract treatment. Our findings indicate that Calendula officinalis extract is an effective treatment for VLUs. The authors have no conflict of interest.
Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S
Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p < 0.05) increased, decreased and decreased, respectively for all tested times. The best response observed in 30, 45 and 60 min. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula.
Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica
Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed.A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder's physical stability.The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds.
Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira
Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood.
Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica
Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947
Liu, R; Zhang, H H; Chen, Z X; Shahid, M Q; Fu, X L; Liu, X D
Oryza officinalis has proven to be a natural gene reservoir for the improvement of domesticated rice as it carries many desirable traits; however, the transfer of elite genes to cultivated rice by conventional hybridization has been a challenge for rice breeders. In this study, the conserved sequence of plant stress-related NAC transcription factors was selected as a probe to screen the O. officinalis genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome library by Southern blot; 11 positive transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were subsequently detected. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an indica rice variety, Huajingxian 74 (HJX74), was transformed with a TAC clone harboring a NAC gene-positive genomic fragment from O. officinalis. Molecular analysis revealed that the O. officinalis genomic fragment was integrated into the genome of HJX74. The transgenic lines exhibited high tolerance to drought stress. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of stress-related transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones, coupled with a transgenic validation approach, is an effective method of transferring agronomically important genes from O. officinalis to cultivated rice.
Navolokin, N. A.; Polukonova, A. V.; Plastun, I. L.; Mudrak, D. A.; Bokarev, A. N.; Afanasyeva, G. A.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Polukonova, N. V.
This study focuses on the effect of the flavonoid-containing Gratiola officinalis L. extract with antitumor activity on the intensity of peroxidation and the content of vitamin E in the blood serum of animals with transplanted liver cancer PC-1. Intramuscular and oral administrations of the Gratiola officinalis extract in a dose of 110 mg/kg reduce MDA concentration (more than 20 times) and lipid hydroperoxide (more than 1.5 times) in rats with transplanted tumors. This effect leads to decrease in intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in animals. The Gratiola officinalis extract administration increases the vitamin E concentration (more than 1.3 times) in the serum of rats. This result enables to suggest that the extract of Gratiola officinalis contains the tocopherols. Thus, the study of mechanisms of the Gratiola officinalis extract influence on the activity of peroxidation processes and on the activation of the antioxidant system is promising.
Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi
Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Arana, Lide; Salado, Clarisa; Vega, Sandra; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; de la Arada, Igor; Suarez, Tatiana; Usobiaga, Aresatz; Arrondo, José Luis R; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M; Alkorta, Itziar
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid or arachidic acid), Epikuron 200 (purified phosphatidylcholine), and bile salts (cholate, taurocholate or taurodeoxycholate) have been prepared by dilution of a microemulsion. A total of five different systems were prepared, and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. The SLN formulation showing optimal properties (lowest size and polydispersity index and highest zeta potential) was obtained with stearic acid and taurodeoxycholate as cosurfactant. This formulation was loaded with Calendula officinalis extract, a natural compound used on ophthalmic formulations given its anti-inflammatory, emollient, and wound repairing activity. Calendula-loaded SLN preparations were characterized in order to determine loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity and wound healing efficacy of Calendula-loaded SLN compared to that of a free plant extract were evaluated on a conjunctival epithelium cell line WKD. Our results suggest that this SLN formulation is a safe and solvent-free Calendula extract delivery system which could provide a controlled therapeutic alternative for reducing disease-related symptoms and improving epithelium repair in ocular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K
Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNFα. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease.
Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio
In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044
Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu
Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231
Han, Zhu-zhen; Yan, Zhao-hui; Liu, Qing-xin; Hu, Xian-qing; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-liang; Zhang, Wei-dong
Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia resulted in the isolation and characterization of six new acylated iridoids, (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (1), (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-10-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (2), (5S,8S,9S)-10-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (3), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-6-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-1,3-diol (4), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-1,3-isovaleroxy-Δ4,11-1,3-diol (5), and (5S,6S,8S,9R)-3-isovaleroxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-1,3-diol (6). Their structures were determined mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. We also report herein for the first time the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 1. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), SK-BR-3 (human breast carcinoma), and HepG2 (human hepatoma) cell lines. Compound 6 showed weak cell growth inhibition of A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2 cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Circosta, Clara; De Pasquale, Rita; Samperi, Stefania; Pino, Annalisa; Occhiuto, Francesco
The anticoronaryspastic and antibronchospastic activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. roots were investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs and the results were correlated with the qualitative/quantitative chemical composition of the extracts in order to account for some of the common uses of this plant. The protective effects of orally administered ethanolic and aqueous extracts (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were evaluated against pitressin-induced coronary spasm and pressor response in guinea-pigs and were compared with those of nifedipine. Furthermore, the protective effects against histamine-induced and Oleaceae antigen challenge-induced bronchospasm were evaluated. Finally, the two valerian extracts were analytically characterized by qualitative and quantitative chromatographic analysis. The results showed that the two valeriana extracts possessed significant anticoronaryspastic, antihypertensive and antibronchospastic properties. These were similar to those exhibited by nifedipine and are due to the structural features of the active principles they contain. This study justifies the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of some respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.
Song, Dongyan; Wu, Guohai; Vrinten, Patricia; Qiu, Xiao
Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb that produces a high level of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in its seed oil. Due to the recognized health benefits of GLA, borage is now commercially cultivated worldwide. However, an herbicide-tolerant variety for effective weed management has not yet been developed. Here we report the generation and characterization of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) induced borage mutant lines tolerant to the herbicide imidazolinone. An EMS-mutagenized borage population was generated by using a series of concentrations of EMS to treat mature borage seeds. Screening of the M2 and M3 borage plants using an herbicide treatment resulted in the identification of two imidazolinone-tolerant lines. Sequence analysis of two acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) genes, AHAS1 and AHAS2, from the mutant (tolerant) and wild type (susceptible) borage plants showed that single nucleotide substitutions which resulted in amino acid changes occurred in AHAS1 and AHAS2, respectively in the two tolerant lines. A KASP marker was then developed to differentiate the homozygous susceptible, homozygous tolerant and heterozygous borage plants. An in vitro assay showed that homozygous tolerant borage carrying the AHAS1 mutation retained significantly higher AHAS activity than susceptible borage across different imazamox concentrations. A herbicide dose response test indicated that the line with the AHAS1 mutation could tolerate four times the normally used field concentration of "Solo" herbicide. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Elhajili, M; Baddouri, K; Elkabbaj, S; Meiouat, F; Settaf, A
The diuretic activity of an infusion of Lavandula officinalis was studied in the Wistar rat. Thus, the kinetics of hydroelectrolytic elimination in response to the oral administration of an infusion of pharmaceutical lavender flowers were measured in the rats. Experiments were completed under similar conditions using a synthetic pharmacological diuretic, Diamox. The aqueous extract of this aromatic plant accelerated the elimination of the water overload. At the peak of the diuretic response, urinary osmolarity was significantly less than that of controls (111+/-14 vs. 195+/-11 mosmol x kg(-1)). Sodium excretion was moderate following administration of the infusion when compared to the synthetic diuretic. The stability of the aldosterone concentrations in the plasma and the absence of correlation with plasma sodium concentrations, coupled with the observed clearance of the free water (0.055+/-0.007 vs. 0.045+/-0.012 mL x min(-1)) show that the increase in diuresis and the moderate increase in sodium excretion are of tubular origin. The result of the phytochemical analysis of hexane extracts in the infusion and in urine indicated that four or five chemical factors may be involved in the diuretic effect of lavender.
Bone, Q; Brown, E; Travers, G
The respiratory flow of water over the gills of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at rest is produced by the alternate activity of the radial muscles of the mantle and the musculature of the collar flaps; mantle circular muscle fibres are not involved. Inspiration takes place as the radial fibres contract, thinning the mantle and expanding the mantle cavity. The rise in mantle cavity pressure (up to 0.15 kPa), expelling water via the siphon during expiration, is brought about by inward movement of the collar flaps and (probably) mainly by elastic recoil of the mantle connective tissue network 'wound up' by radial fibre contraction during inspiration. Sepia also shows a second respiratory pattern, in which mantle cavity pressures during expiration are greater (up to 0.25 kPa). Here, the mantle circular fibres are involved, as they are during the large pressure transients (up to 10 kPa) seen during escape jetting. Active contraction of the muscles of the collar flaps is seen in all three patterns of expulsion of water from the mantle cavity, electrical activity increasing with increasing mantle cavity pressures. Respiratory expiration in the resting squid Loligo vulgaris is probably driven as in Sepia, whereas in the resting octopus Eledone cirrhosa, the mantle circular musculature is active during expiration. The significance of these observations is discussed.
Murase, Kohji; Shigenobu, Shuji; Fujii, Sota; Ueda, Kazuki; Murata, Takanori; Sakamoto, Ai; Wada, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Kanno, Akira; Ozaki, Yukio; Takayama, Seiji
Dioecy is a plant mating system in which individuals of a species are either male or female. Although many flowering plants evolved independently from hermaphroditism to dioecy, the molecular mechanism underlying this transition remains largely unknown. Sex determination in the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis is controlled by X and Y chromosomes; the male and female karyotypes are XY and XX, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of A. officinalis buds showed that a MYB-like gene, Male Specific Expression 1 (MSE1), is specifically expressed in males. MSE1 exhibits tight linkage with the Y chromosome, specific expression in early anther development and loss of function on the X chromosome. Knockout of the MSE1 orthologue in Arabidopsis induces male sterility. Thus, MSE1 acts in sex determination in A. officinalis. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.
Jing, Xiaolian; Huang, Jiale; Wu, Lingfeng; Sun, Daohua; Li, Qingbiao
Flat Ag nanoflowers were directly synthesized from the bioreduction of AgNO3 using Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract without any additional stabilizer or protective agent at room temperature. Effects of concentrations of the Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract on the Ag nanostructures were investigated. The main components containing flavone, polyphenol, protein, and reducing sugar in the plant extract were thoroughly determined before and after the reaction, and the dialysis experiments were also conducted. The results of components analysis and dialysis showed that gallic acid representing polyphenols played an important role in the biosynthesis of silver nanoplates. Trisodium citrate combined gallic acid solution, instead of Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract, was employed and successfully simulated the biosynthesis process of the flat Ag nanoflowers.
Majeed, Muhammed; Bhat, Beena; Jadhav, Atul N; Srivastava, Jyotish S; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam
The fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae), also known as amla in Ayurveda, are considered to be a rich source of ascorbic acid. However, the antioxidant activities exhibited by E. officinalis extract are superior to those of ascorbic acid itself. Low molecular hydrolyzable tannins emblicanins A and B have been suggested in the earlier literature to be the contributory antioxidant molecules in the extract. This work finds no evidence for the presence of emblicanins A and B in the extract. In addition, the high content of ascorbic acid is also questionable due to previous nonidentification of coeluting mucic acid gallates. This paper reports a new HPLC method to detect even trace amounts of ascorbic acid in E. officinalis fruit juice or extract.
Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida
Objective To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2 000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential. PMID:23570019
Zhang, Hongxia; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y.; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din Ahmed
Asparagus officinalis are perennial plants that require re-planting every 10–20 years. The roots are traditionally mulched in the soil or treated as waste. The A. officinalis roots (AR) contain valuable bioactive compounds that may have some health benefiting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) and antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays) activities of New Zealand AR extract. The antioxidant activity decreased with a longer extraction time. PMID:29617287
Fernández, Sebastián; Wasowski, Cristina; Paladini, Alejandro C; Marder, Mariel
We have recently reported the presence of the anxiolytic flavone 6-methylapigenin (MA) and of the sedative and sleep-enhancing flavanone glycoside 2S (-) hesperidin (HN) in Valeriana officinalis and Valeriana wallichii. MA, in turn, was able to potentiate the sleep-inducing properties of HN. The present paper reports the identification in V. officinalis of the flavone glycoside linarin (LN) and the discovery that it has, like HN, sedative and sleep-enhancing properties that are potentiated by simultaneous administration of valerenic acid (VA). These effects should be taken into account when considering the pharmacological actions of valeriana extracts.
Chen, Heng-Wen; Chen, Li; Li, Bin; Yin, Hai-Long; Tian, Ying; Wang, Qiong; Xiao, Yan-Hua; Dong, Jun-Xing
Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenal F (1), volvalerenal G (2) and volvalerenic acid D (3), along with five known compounds 4-8, were isolated from the CHCl₃ soluble partition of the ethanol extract of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, as well as mass spectrometry. The eight germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids showed nerve growth factor (NGF) potentiating activity, which mediates the neurite outgrowth in PC 12D cells. This study intends to reveal the chemical basis of the use of V. officinalis var. latiofolia as a dietary supplement.
Shakeri, Abolfazl; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javadi, Behjat
Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant that has long been used in different ethno-medical systems especially in the European Traditional Medicine and the Iranian Traditional Medicine for the treatment of several diseases. It is also widely used as a vegetable and to add flavor to dishes This review aimed to provide a summary on the botanical characterization, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, pharmacokinetics and toxicity of M. officinalis, and discusses research gaps and future opportunities for investigations on this plant. We extensively reviewed major unpublished old texts, and published and electronic literature on traditional medicines of different regions of the world to find traditional uses of M. officinalis. Electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scopus were searched to find articles (published between 1956 and 2015) on pharmacology and phytochemistry of M. officinalis. Traditional uses of M. officinalis have been recorded mostly in European countries, Mediterranean region and Middle East countries. Phytochemical investigations revealed that this plant contains volatile compounds, triterpenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from M. officinalis exhibited numerous pharmacological effects, from which only anxiolytic, antiviral and antispasmodic activities of this plant as well as its effects on mood, cognition and memory have been shown in clinical trials. AChE inhibitory activity, stimulation of the acetylcholine and GABAA receptors, as well as inhibition of matrix metallo proteinase-2 are the main mechanisms proposed for the widely discussed neurological effects of this plant. Modern pharmacological studies have now validated many traditional uses of M. officinalis. The data reviewed here revealed that M. officinalis is a potential source for the treatment of a wide range of diseases especially anxiety and some other CNS disorders
Alam, M I; Gomes, A
The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was significantly neutralized by both plant extracts. No precipitating bands were observed between the plant extract and snake venom. The above observations confirmed that the plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and need further investigation.
Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash
The objectives were to study the potential of Althaea officinalis radix in production of silver NPs, and the effect of the extract ethanol concentration on the produced NPs. Seventy and ninety-six percent hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. The extract was concentrated by rotary evaporator and then freeze-dried. Silver ions were determined using atomic absorption analysis. The NPs were characterized by Nano-Zeta Sizer and TEM. Both of 70% and 96% of hydroalcoholic extracts of A. officinalis radix successfully synthesized spherical and poly-dispersed silver NPs. The conversion was fast and almost completed in 5 h.
Liu, Hong-Liang; Yan, Ren-Yi; Guo, Jian; Shao, Ai-Juan; Yang, Bin
To digitalize the changes in characters of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex after perspiration with colorimeter and electronic nose. With perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex as objective, colorimeter and electronic nose were used to detect their color characteristic parameter and odor characteristic parameter. Finally, an identification model was established. In terms of drug color, the color characteristic parameter model was established for perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex on the basis of L*, a*, b* color spaces. The range of 90% of reference values of perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex: L* (52.22-59.42), a* (5.36-7.68), b* (22.04-27.05). The range of 90% of reference values of non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex: L* (38.42-47.31), a* (9.63-11.85), b* (18.48-25.53). In terms of drug odor, the principal component analysis (PCA) and the partial least squares method (PLS) showed significant difference between perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex. The difference in drug color and odor of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex before and after perspiration can be digitalized according to color and odor characteristic parameters tested with colorimeter and electronic nose.
Saini, Pragtipal; Al-Shibani, Nouf; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Weiping; Song, Fengyu; Gregson, Karen S; Windsor, L Jack
Calendula officinalis is commonly called the marigold. It is a staple topical remedy in homeopathic medicine. It is rich in quercetin, carotenoids, lutein, lycopene, rutin, ubiquinone, xanthophylls, and other anti-oxidants. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Quercetin, one of the active components in Calendula, has been shown to inhibit recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL), IL-6 and IL-8 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore-stimulated human mast cells. To examine the effects of Calendula on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) mediated collagen degradation and MMP activity. Lactate dehydrogenate assays were performed to determine the non-toxic concentrations of Calendula, doxycycline and quercetin. Cell-mediated collagen degradation assays were performed to examine the inhibitory effect on cell-mediated collagen degradation. Gelatin zymography was performed to examine their effects on MMP-2 activity. The experiments were repeated three times and ANOVA used for statistical analyses. Calendula at 2-3% completely inhibited the MMP-2 activity in the zymograms. Doxycycline inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05%, and MMP-2 activity completely at 0.05%. Quercetin inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02%, and MMP-2 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Calendula inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the same correlated concentration of pure quercetin. Calendula inhibits HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the corresponding concentration of quercetin. This may be attributed to additional components in Calendula other than quercetin. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi
Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and risk ratio. Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O.
Mineo, Ludovico; Concerto, Carmen; Patel, Dhaval; Mayorga, Tyrone; Paula, Michael; Chusid, Eileen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Battaglia, Fortunato
Valeriana officinalis extract (VE) is a popular herbal medicine used for the treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. Although the anxiolytic and sedative effects are mainly attributed to the modulation of GABA-ergic transmission, the mechanism of action has not been fully investigated in humans. Noninvasive brain stimulation protocols can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of psychoactive substances at the cortical level in humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of a single dose of VE on cortical excitability as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were required to take either 900 mg of VE (valerenic acid 0.8%) or placebo (an equal dose of vitamin E). Motor cortex excitability was studied by single and paired TMS before and at 1 h and 6 h after the oral administration. Cortical excitability was assessed using different TMS parameters: resting motor threshold, motor-evoked potential amplitude, cortical silent period, short-interval intracortical inhibition, and intracortical facilitation. Furthermore, we assessed sensorimotor integration by short-latency and long-latency afferent inhibition. We found a significant reduction in ICF, without any significant changes in other TMS measures of motor cortex excitability. The amount of ICF returned to baseline value 6 h after the intake of the VE. A single oral dose of VE modulates intracortical facilitatory circuits. Our results in healthy subjects could be predictive markers of treatment response in patients and further support the use of pharmaco-TMS to investigate the neuropsychiatric effects of herbal therapies in humans. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.
This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.
Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi
Background: Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. Patients and Methods: A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and risk ratio. Results: Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusions: S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O. PMID:25414900
Dinda, Manikarna; Dasgupta, Uma; Singh, Namrata; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Karmakar, Parimal
Calendula officinalis, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a flowering plant and has been used for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. The mode of action of C. officinalis tincture on wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of C. officinalis tincture (CDOT) on cell viability and wound closure. C. officinalis tincture stimulated both proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in a statistically significant manner in a PI3K-dependent pathway. The increase in phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr 397) and Akt (Ser 473) was detected after treatment of CDOT. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway by wortmannin and LY294002 decreased both cell proliferation and cell migration. HPLC-ESI MS revealed the presence of flavonol glycosides as the major compounds of CDOT. Altogether, our results showed that CDOT potentiated wound healing by stimulating proliferation and migration of fibroblast in a PI3K-dependent pathway, and the identified compounds are likely to be responsible for wound healing activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Uribe-Fentanes, Laura K; Soriano-Padilla, Fernando; Pérez-Frutos, Jorge Raúl; Veras-Hernández, Miriam Alejandra
Calendula officinalis is a phytodrug used as analgesic, antiseptic and wound-healing agent due to its collagenogenic effect, which is why it is a convenient and affordable treatment that promotes alveolar bone preservation after tooth extraction in vivo. The aim of this study was to use Calendula officinalis during and after tooth extraction to determine its ability to preserve bone after this procedure. We established two groups matched by age, gender and position of the third molar. We used with patients on the experimental group Calendula officinalis diluted 10% as an irrigant during surgical extraction of third molars. We performed the conventional way with the control group irrigating with saline solution. Subsequently, both groups continued to make mouthwash for a week with the irrigating agent. Every week for a month, each patient underwent periapical radiography, out of which we took measurements of alveolar ridges and depth of alveolar bone, which were compared. There is statistically significant evidence to state that Calendula officinalis favorably affects bone preservation after extraction.
Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia
This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180
Marukami, T; Kishi, A; Yoshikawa, M
Following the characterization of hypoglycemic, gastric emptying inhibitory, and gastroprotective principles and the structure elucidation of calendasaponins A, B, C, and D, two new ionone glucosides (officinosides A and B), and two sesquiterpene oligoglycosides (officinosides C and D), were isolated from the flowers of Egyptian Calendula officinalis. The structures of the officinosides were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.
Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia
This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.
Huang, Wen-hua; Guo, Bao-lin; Si, Jin-ping
To study the chemical characteristic, to identify the different forms and to establish the new standard for the quality control of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. HPLC method was used with acetonitrile-water (63:37) as the mobile phase at room temperature. The chromatographic column was Lichrospher 100 RP-18e (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). The flow rate was 1 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was 294 nm. The chromatograms of 45 individuals from 13 seed resources of Cortex Magnolia Officinalis were recorded. The chemical characteristics analysis and comparability' s calculation of seed resources were made. It was proposed that the area ratio of peak 5 to 6 (characteristic I) and the area ratio of peak 5 and 6 to the total peak areas (characteristic II) are the identification characteristics for different seed resources of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. This method can be used effectively to identify the high quality seed resource of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.
From the roots of ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS two flavonoid glycosides were separated. Phenolic acids and coumarins were investigated chromatographically. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR) as hypolaetin 8-glucoside and the new flavonoid sulphate - isoscutellarein 4'-methyl ether 8-glucoside-2''-SO (3)K.
Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh
The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267
Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Allameh, Abdolamir; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections.
Nostro, A; Cannatelli, M A; Morelli, I; Musolino, A D; Scuderi, F; Pizzimenti, F; Alonzo, V
To verify the efficiency of Calamintha officinalis essential oil as natural preservative in two current formulations. The 1.0 and 2.0% (v/v) C. officinalis essential oil was assayed for its preservative activity in two product types (cream and shampoo). The microbial challenge test was performed following the standards proposed by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission (E.P.) concerning topical preparations using standard micro-organisms and in addition wild strains, either in single or mixed cultures were used. The results clearly demonstrated that the C. officinalis essential oil at 2.0% concentration reduced the microbial inoculum satisfying the criterion A of the E.P. in the cream formulation and the criterion B in the shampoo formulation. Standard and wild strains showed a behaviour similar, both in cream and in shampoo formulation, with no significant difference (gerarchic variance, P > 0.05). C. officinalis essential oil confirmed its preservative properties but at higher concentration than that shown in previous studies on cetomacrogol cream. The nature of the formulation in which an essential oil is incorporated as preservative could have considerable effect on its efficacy.
Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili
Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats. PMID:26831607
Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats.
The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...
Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS
Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060
Ahmad, Haroon; Khan, Ibrar; Wahid, Abdul
Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the body due to the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins and oxidation is associated with aging and diabetes mellitus. In this study we wanted to investigate the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of two medicinal plants: Juglans regia and Calendula officinalis. In-vitro investigation was carried out to discover the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of J. regia and C. officinalis. Using an Ultraviolet Double-beam Spectrophotometer, we evaluated the antiglycation property of the crude methanolic extracts of J. regia and C. officinalis by assessing their ability to inhibit the Maillard reaction. Employing the same instrument we also measured the antioxidation potential of these plant extracts using the nitric oxide (NO) free radical-scavenging assay. J. regia had greater antiglycation ability, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 28 microg/mL as compared with that of C. officinalis (270 microg/mL). C. officinalis had greater antioxidation potential (26.10, 22.07 and 16.06% at 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.125 mg, respectively, as compared with 18.15, 16.50 and 16.06% of J. regia, respectively). J. regia and C. officinalis inhibited the Maillard reaction and prevented oxidation in-vitro. Hence, the extracts of these plants could have therapeutic uses in curbing chronic diabetic complications and slowing down aging.
Caudal, Dorian; Guinobert, Isabelle; Lafoux, Aude; Bardot, Valérie; Cotte, César; Ripoche, Isabelle; Chalard, Pierre; Huchet, Corinne
Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE) of V. officinalis had myorelaxant effects by decreasing skeletal muscle strength and/or neuromuscular tone in mice. Mice received an acute dose of V. officinalis SE (2 or 5 g/kg per os) or tetrazepam (10 mg/kg ip), a standard myorelaxant drug. Thirty minutes later, the maximal muscle strength was measured using a grip test, while global skeletal muscle function (endurance and neuromuscular tone) was assessed in a wire hanging test. Compared to tetrazepam, both doses of V. officinalis SE induced a pronounced decrease in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly.
Dugaheh, Mehdi Ansari; Meisami, Faramarz; Torabian, Zahra; Sharififar, Fariba
The roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been used as a substitute for valerian in Iranian traditions. Moreover, six species from Valeriana genus such as V. sisymbriifolia grow in Iran which has not been studied yet. We aimed to study of antioxidant effect of Valeriana officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Valeriana sisymbriifolia and comparing their content of valerenic acid and valepotriate. Antioxidant effect was evaluated using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition and beta carotene-bleaching assays. Identification of valepotriates was achieved using chemical and TLC method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of valerenic acid was performed using TLC and spectrophotometry methods. Among the tested samples, V. Officinalis showed the highest DPPH inhibition effect with IC(50) value of 38mg/mL. All of the tested plants potentially inhibited beta-carotene oxidation. The calibration curve of authentic valerenic acid was linear in the range of 2-51 mg L(-1). The most and least amount of valepotraites was detectable in V. officinalis and V. sisymbriifolia respectively. Total valerenic acid in different plant species ranged from 0.02% in V. sisymbriifolia to 0.07% (w/w) in V. Officinalis. Our results indicated that all three tested plants contain different amount of valepotriates and valerenic acid. The highest percentage of valepotriates and valerenic acid was detectable in V. officinalis. Overall can conclude that N. jatamansii and V. sisymbriifolia would be a good candidate for substitutation of V. officinalis with noticeable antioxidant effect.
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Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO₂ Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content.
Molnar, Maja; Jerković, Igor; Suknović, Dragica; Bilić Rajs, Blanka; Aladić, Krunoslav; Šubarić, Drago; Jokić, Stela
Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane) extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH), and supercritical CO₂ extraction (SC-CO₂) targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs) content (by Folin-Ciocalteu assay). The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO₂. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g) was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO₂ extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO₂ extracts of S. officinalis , R. graveolens , A. archangelica , and L. officinalis . EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO₂ extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO₂ extracts were the most potent (95.7%). EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g from H. italicum ) in comparison to hexane or SC-CO₂ extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.
Chlabicz, J; Gałasiński, W
An investigation of an inhibiting activity of a substance(s) in a tanninless extract from Melissa officinalis leaves on protein biosynthesis in-vitro has been made. At least two components which inhibited protein biosynthesis were present in the extract; these were caffeic acid and an unidentified glycoside. Freshly prepared buffered solutions of caffeic acid inhibited protein biosynthesis less than solutions stored for several days at room temperature (20 degrees C). In this case derivatives of caffeic acid were formed, which may be responsible for the increase in the inhibitory effect of stored caffeic acid solution. An inhibitor, in the homogeneous state, was also isolated from the glycoside fraction of M. officinalis. Studies on the mechanism of the action of this inhibitor revealed its effect is to use the result of a direct interaction with elongation factor EF-2, and the blocking of the binding reaction of EF-2 with ribosomes.
Centeno, S; Calvo, M A; Adelantado, C; Figueroa, S
The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were tested against strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, since these two species are common contaminants of cereals and grains and are able to produce and accumulate mycotoxins. The methodology used is based on measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC). The results obtained suggest that the assayed extracts affect the proper development of A. flavus and A. ochraceus; leading to a lower MIC (1200 ppm) and MFC (2400 ppm) for T. vulgaris extract against A. ochraceus than against A. flavus. The results show, that the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris used at low concentrations could have significant potential for the biological control of fungi in foodstuffs.
Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina
Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the
Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhao, You-Xing
Volvalerine A (1), a novel N-containing bisesquiterpenoid derivative with a dihydroisoxazole ring, and its possible biosynthetic precursor, 1-hydroxy-1,11,11-trimethyldecahydrocyclopropane azulene-10-one (2), were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were identified using spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 is also presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Rui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing
Eight new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenals A-E (2-6) and volvalerenic acids A-C (7-9), along with four known compounds, were isolated from a chloroform extract of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. The structures and relative configurations of 2-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. The effects of all compounds isolated on acetylcholinesterase were evaluated.
Pedro, Dalila F N; Ramos, Alice A; Lima, Cristovao F; Baltazar, Fatima; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina
Salvia officinalis and some of its isolated compounds have been found to be preventive of DNA damage and increased proliferation in vitro in colon cells. In the present study, we used the azoxymethane model to test effects of S. officinalis on colon cancer prevention in vivo. The results showed that sage treatment reduced the number of ACF formed only if administered before azoxymethane injection, demonstrating that sage tea drinking has a chemopreventive effect on colorectal cancer. A decrease in the proliferation marker Ki67 and in H2 O2 -induced and azoxymethane-induced DNA damage to colonocytes and lymphocytes were found with sage treatment. This confirms in vivo the chemopreventive effects of S. officinalis. Taken together, our results show that sage treatment prevented initiation phases of colon carcinogenesis, an effect due, at least in part, to DNA protection, and reduced proliferation rates of colon epithelial cell that prevent mutations and their fixation through cell replication. These chemopreventive effects of S. officinalis on colon cancer add to the many health benefits attributed to sage and encourage its consumption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hao, Qing-Xiu; Kang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Yu, Yi; Hu, Ming-Hua; Ma, Fang-Li; Zhou, Jie; Guo, Lan-Ping
In this paper, an approach was applied for separation and identification of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How by Ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with collision energy. The separation was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Amide C₁₈(2.1mm×100 mm，1.7 μm) with gradient elution using acetonitrile(A) and water(B) containing 0.1% ammonia as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL·min⁻¹. The column temperature was maintained at 40 °C. The information of accurate mass and characteristic fragment ion were acquired by MSE in ESI negative mode in low and high collision energy. The chemical structures and formula of oligosaccharides were obtained and identified by the software of UNIFI and Masslynx 4.1 based on the accurate mass, fragment ions, neutral losses, mass error, reference substance, isotope information, the intensity of fragments, and retention time. A total of 19 inulin oligosaccharide structures were identified including D(+)-sucrose, 1-kestose, nystose, 1F-fructofuranosyl nystose and other inulin oligosaccharides (DP 5-18). This research provided important information about the inulin oligosaccharides in M. officinalis. The results would provide scientific basis for innovative utilization of M. officinalis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Kurzawińska, H; Duda-Surman, J
The aim of the two-years field's examinations was the evaluation of the fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS--trifloxystrobin 50%) in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum. Mentioned fungicide was applied at three concentrations: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2%. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (biologically active substances BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. In every year of research work the four protective treatments were carried out. The estimation of infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum was made 5 times. Before each treatment four analysis were done, whereas the last analysis--the fifth one was executed after 10 days from the last protective spraying. According to the results, it was found that investigated preparations significant reduced the mean infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum compared to the control. The results pointed, that in protection of the mentioned plant by the powdery mildew the 0.2% dose of Zato 50WG showed the best suitability.
Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza
Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at P<0.05. The results revealed that the acute and chronic pain behavior score in test groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats.
Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad
Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318
Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia
We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677
Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T
We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains.
de Oliveria, Diêgo Madureira; Barreto, George; De Andrade, Deyse Valverde G; Saraceno, Ezequiel; Aon-Bertolino, Laura; Capani, Francisco; Dos Santos El Bachá, Ramon; Giraldez, Lisandro Diego
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most important neurodegenerative worldwide disorders. The potential cytoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Valeriana officinalis on rotenone-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were demonstrated. The cytotoxicity, cell viability and analysis of cellular morphology were performed by MTT-tetrazole (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and phase contrast microscopy, respectively. Significant changes in the cellular morphology, and condensation of the cell body could be observed when cells were treated with 300 nM rotenone for 48 h. Three different concentrations of Valeriana officinalis extract were used (0.049, 0.098 and 0.195 mg/mL). These extracts brought about an increase of 7.0 +/- 1.3%, 14.5 +/- 1.3% and 14.5 +/- 3.2% in cell viability. Our results indicated that neuroprotector action of the Valeriana officinalis extract provides support for later studies as they help understanding this drug for the development of cytoprotective various therapies in PD.
Murphy, K; Kubin, Z J; Shepherd, J N; Ettinger, R H
Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular and widely available herbal supplement, primarily used to treat insomnia and anxiety. Until recently, its mechanism of action has remained unknown. Neurobiological research has begun to show that the herb, with its active valerenic acid, interacts with the GABA(A)-ergic system, a mechanism of action similar to the benzodiazepine drugs. This series of experiments sought to corroborate these findings with behavioral measures, compare them to the benzodiazepine diazepam, and to analyze the chemical composition of Valeriana officinalis. Rats were administered either ethanol (1 ml/kg), diazepam (1mg/kg), valerian root extract (3 ml/kg), valerenic acid (3mg/kg), or a solution of valerenic acid and exogenous GABA (75 microg/kg and 3.6 microg/kg, respectively) and assessed for the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of an elevated plus maze. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in anxious behavior when valerian extract or valerenic acid exposed subjects were compared to the ethanol control group. The evidence supports Valeriana officinalis as a potential alternative to the traditional anxiolytics as measured by the elevated plus maze. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Hage-Sleiman, Rouba; Mroueh, Mohamad; Daher, Costantine F
Althaea officinalis Linn. (Malvaideae) flower is commonly used in folk medicine in Lebanon and neighboring countries. Although most of the studies have been conducted on the mucilage-rich roots, little is known about the flower. This study investigates the potential role of aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower in lipemia, gastric ulcer, inflammation, and platelet aggregation using the rat model. Blood lipid profile and liver function were assessed after 1 month of extract intake via drinking water. Anti-inflammatory activity was tested against acute and chronic inflammation induced by carrageenan and formalin, respectively. Antiulcer activity was evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Antiplatelet activity was investigated in vitro using the adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation bioassay. The 50 mg/kg body weight dose resulted in significant increase in serum HDL cholesterol level with no effects on stool cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Increasing the dose to 500 mg/kg body weight caused a significant decrease in stool water content. No adverse effect on liver enzymes was observed. Significant anti-inflammatory (acute and chronic inflammation) and antiulcerogenic activities were observed at all used doses (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg body). Time-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation was demonstrated at 500 µg/ml concentration. The aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower demonstrated potential benefits in lipemia, inflammation, gastric ulcer, and platelet aggregation with no visible adverse effect.
Fachinetto, Roselei; Villarinho, Jardel G; Wagner, Caroline; Pereira, Romaiana P; Avila, Daiana Silva; Burger, Marilise E; Calixto, João Batista; Rocha, João B T; Ferreira, Juliano
Chronic treatment with classical neuroleptics in humans can produce a serious side effect, known as tardive dyskinesia (TD). Here, we examined the effects of V. officinalis, a medicinal herb widely used as calming and sleep-promoting, in an animal model of orofacial dyskinesia (OD) induced by long-term treatment with haloperidol. Adult male rats were treated during 12 weeks with haloperidol decanoate (38 mg/kg, i.m., each 28 days) and with V. officinalis (in the drinking water). Vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), locomotor activity and plus maze performance were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment produced VCM in 40% of the treated rats and the concomitant treatment with V. officinalis did not alter either prevalence or intensity of VCMs. The treatment with V. officinalis increased the percentage of the time spent on open arm and the number of entries into open arm in the plus maze test. Furthermore, the treatment with haloperidol and/or V. officinalis decreased the locomotor activity in the open field test. We did not find any difference among the groups when oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment significantly decreased [(3)H]-dopamine uptake in striatal slices and V. officinalis was not able to prevent this effect. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanism involving the reduction of dopamine transport in the maintenance of chronic VCMs in rats. Furthermore, chronic treatment with V. officinalis seems not produce any oxidative damage to central nervous system (CNS), but it also seems to be devoid of action to prevent VCM, at least in the dose used in this study.
Cunha, Francisco; Tintino, Saulo R; Figueredo, Fernando; Barros, Luiz; Duarte, Antonia E; Vega Gomez, Maria Celeste; Coronel, Cathia Cecilia; Rolón, Mírian; Leite, Nadghia; Sobral-Souza, Celestina E; Brito, S V; Waczuc, Emily Pansera; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Franco, Jéferson
Context Melissa officinalis subsp. inodora Bornm. (Lamiaceae) has been used since ancient times in folk medicine against various diseases, but it has not been investigated against protozoa. Objective To evaluate the activities of M. officinalis against Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi as well as its cytotoxicity in fibroblast cell line. Materials and methods The fresh leaves were chopped into 1 cm(2) pieces, washed and macerated with 99.9% of ethanol for 72 h at room temperature. Antiparasitic activity of M. officinalis was accessed by direct counting of cells after serial dilution, while the cytotoxicity of M. officinalis was evaluated in fibroblast cell line (NCTC929) by measuring the reduction of resazurin. The test duration was 24 h. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to characterise the extract. Results The extract at concentrations of 250 and 125 μg/mL inhibited 80.39 and 54.27% of promastigote (LC50 value = 105.78 μg/mL) form of L. infantum, 80.59 and 68.61% of L. brasiliensis (LC50 value = 110.69 μg/mL) and against epimastigote (LC50 value = 245.23 μg/mL) forms of T. cruzi with an inhibition of 54.45 and 22.26%, respectively, was observed. The maximum toxicity was noted at 500 μg/mL with 95.41% (LC50 value = 141.01 μg/mL). The HPLC analysis identified caffeic acid and rutin as the major compounds. Discussion The inhibition of the parasites is considered clinically relevant (< 500 μg/mL). Rutin and caffeic acids may be responsible for the antiprotozoal effect of the extract. Conclusion The ethanol extract of M. officinalis can be considered a potential alternative source of natural products with antileishmania and antitrypanosoma activities.
Yones, Doaa A; Taher, Gamal A; Ibraheim, Zedan Z
The present work evaluated the effects of alcoholic extracts of salvia (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and 2 pure compounds (thymol and menthol) on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro. Four different concentrations of each extract (2,500, 1,500, 1,000, and 500 µg/ml) and 3 different concentrations each of thymol and menthol (50, 10, and 1 µg/ml) were used. Concentration of 2,500 µg/ml of both extracts showed a significant protoscolicidal activity on the 6th day. Complete loss of viability of protoscolices occurred with 500 µg/ml concentration of both extracts at day 6 and day 7 post-treatment (PT), respectively. Pure compounds, i.e., menthol and thymol, showed potent effects with 50 µg/ml concentration at day 2 and day 5 PT, respectively. These effects were compared with those of albendazole sulfoxide (800 µg/ml), a commonly used treatment drug for hydatidosis. Krebs-Ringer solution and the hydatid cystic fluid at a ratio of 4:1 was a good preservative solution which kept the protoscolices viable for 15 days.
Background Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. Methods The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts. Results The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards. Conclusions The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula
Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes
In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424
Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes
In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.
Miguel, María; Barros, Lillian; Pereira, Carla; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Garcia, Pablo A; Castro, MaÁngeles; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
The chemical composition and bioactive properties of two plants (Calendula officinalis L. and Mentha cervina L.) were studied. Their nutritional value revealed a high content of carbohydrates and low fat levels, and very similar energy values. However, they presented different profiles in phenolic compounds and fatty acids; C. officinalis presented mainly glycosylated flavonols and saturated fatty acids, while M. cervina presented mainly caffeoyl derivatives and polyunsaturated fatty acids. M. cervina showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds while C. officinalis presented higher amounts of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were obtained for the hydromethanolic extract of M. cervina, which presented the lowest values of EC50 and exhibited cytotoxicity against the four tumor cell lines tested. Infusions showed no cytotoxicity for the tumor cell lines, and none of the extracts showed toxicity against non-tumor cells. This study contributes to expand the knowledge on both natural sources and therefore their use.
Pazhohideh, Zahra; Mohammadi, Solmaz; Bahrami, Nosrat; Mojab, Faraz; Abedi, Parvin; Maraghi, Elham
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common disorder among women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the effect of a Calendula officinalis extract-based cream and metronidazole on BV among women of reproductive age. In this study, 80 women of reproductive age with BV were randomly assigned to the C. officinalis (n = 40) or metronidazole (n = 40). Diagnosis of BV was confirmed when at least 3 of the 4 Amsel criteria were met (pH >4.5, whitish grey or thin homogeneous discharge, release of a fishy odor on adding 10% KOH, and detection of clue cells on microscopic examination). For each group, either a methanol extract of C. officinalis or metronidazole vaginal cream (5 g) was used for 1 week intravaginally, and all signs and symptoms were assessed 1 week after treatment completion. Before the intervention, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to vaginal burning, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, but itching was significantly more common in the C. officinalis group than in the metronidazole group (22.5% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.01). One week after the intervention, all women in both groups were free of symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia. None of the women in either group suffered any side effects from C. officinalis or metronidazole. C. officinalis was effective for the treatment of BV in women of reproductive age, without any side effects. This herb could be recommended for women of reproductive age who uncomfortable with the potential side effects of synthetic drugs. PMID:29441319
Darvish-Mofrad-Kashani, Zahra; Emaratkar, Elham; Hashem-Dabaghian, Fataneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Aliasl, Jale; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Hasheminejad, Seyed Abbas; Eftekhar, Tahere; Zafarghandi, Nafise
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most prevalent female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and its bio-psychosocial multifactorial etiology justifies its multifaceted treatment. In Persian Medicine (PM), the weakness of the main organs (heart, brain and liver) is one of the important causes of lack of sexual desire; hence, their strengthening is a priority during treatment. Melissa officinalis is one of the medicinal plants with tonic characteristics for the main organs in PM and was used for treatment in this study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of M. officinalis in the improvement of HSDD in women. Eighty nine (89) eligible women suffering from decreased sexual desire were randomly assigned to groups. The participants received medication (500 mg of aqueous extract of M. officinalis) or placebo 2 times a day for 4 weeks. Changes in scores of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain were evaluated at the end of 4 weeks of treatment using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire in the two groups. Forty three participants completed the study. The increase in desire (P < 0.001), arousal (P < 0.001), lubrication (P < 0.005), orgasm (P < 0.001), satisfaction (P < 0.001), pain (P < 0.002) and FSFI total score (P < 0.001) in the M. officinalis group was significantly more than that of the placebo group. The willingness to continue treatment was significantly higher in the M. officinalis as compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001). M. officinalis may be a safe and effective herbal medicine for the improvement of HSDD in women. PMID:29796033
Hughes, Rachel R; Scown, David; Lenehan, Claire E
Plant extracts containing high levels of antioxidants are desirable due to their reported health benefits. Most techniques capable of determining the antioxidant activity of plant extracts are unsuitable for rapid at-line analysis as they require extensive sample preparation and/or long analysis times. Therefore, analytical techniques capable of real-time or pseudo real-time at-line monitoring of plant extractions, and determination of extraction endpoints, would be useful to manufacturers of antioxidant-rich plant extracts. To develop a reliable method for the rapid at-line extraction monitoring of antioxidants in plant extracts. Calendula officinalis extracts were prepared from dried flowers and analysed for antioxidant activity using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The intensity of CL emission from the reaction of acidic potassium permanganate with antioxidants within the extract was used as the analytical signal. The SIA-CL method was applied to monitor the extraction of C. officinalis over the course of a batch extraction to determine the extraction endpoint. Results were compared with those from ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Pseudo real-time, at-line monitoring showed the level of antioxidants in a batch extract of Calendula officinalis plateaued after 100 min of extraction. These results correlated well with those of an offline UHPLC study. SIA-CL was found to be a suitable method for pseudo real-time monitoring of plant extractions and determination of extraction endpoints with respect to antioxidant concentrations. The method was applied at-line in the manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ehsani, Ali; Alizadeh, Omar; Hashemi, Mohammad; Afshari, Asma; Aminzare, Majid
Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils with considerable antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties of Melissa officinalis and Deracocephalum moldavica essential oils (EOs). The identification of chemical constituents of the EOs was carried out using gas chromato-graphy-mass spectrometry analysis and antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion assay as well as determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration against four important food-borne bacteria: Salmonella typhimorium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus . Antioxidant activity of the EOs was also determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzo thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and β-carotene bleaching tests. The major compounds of D. moldavica were geranial (28.52%), neral (21.21%), geraniol (19.60%), geranyl acetate (16.72%) and the major compounds of M. officinalis EO were citronellal (37.33%), thymol (11.96%), citral (10.10%) and β-caryophyllene (7.27%). The underlying results indicated strong antimicrobial effects of the oils against tested bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus with the lowest MIC value (0.12 mg mL -1 ) for both EOs was the most sensitive bacterium, although, antibacterial effect of M. officinalis EO was stronger than D. moldavica . In addition, the results of the antioxidant activity showed that both EOs had notable antioxidant properties. In conclusion, both EOs are appropriate alternatives as potential sources of natural preservative agents with the aim of being applied in food industries.
Martins, Catarina P. P.; Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Á.; Villanueva, Roger
The eggs of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, develop attached to the seafloor in shallow water habitats and possess a relatively thick black capsule that protects them from the surrounding environment. Since embryological development may take several months, eggs are vulnerable to a variety of threats present in shallow waters, including predation. This study investigates predation of S. officinalis eggs by benthic invertebrates. Twenty-eight invertebrate species from 6 different phyla and with diverse feeding habits were tested as potential predators under laboratory conditions. We also investigated how the feeding traits of these species are related to the mechanical ability to break the egg capsule and prey upon cuttlefish embryos. Species that fed on cuttlefish eggs were the sea snail Bolinus brandaris, the crab Cancer pagurus, the hermit crab Dardanus arrosor, the lobster Homarus gammarus, the invasive blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the shrimp Squilla mantis, the sea urchins Echinus melo, Cidaris sp. and Paracentrotus lividus and the starfish Astropecten aranciacus. It is of note that C. sapidus is a potential predatory crab, which raises the concern that this invasive species may constitute a novel threat for cuttlefish eggs as more populations become established in NE Atlantic waters. Of the biological traits examined, prey capture tools in the tested species best explained the experimental feeding results, suggesting that predation of S. officinalis eggs was determined generally by a mechanical factor and highlighting the importance of the protective egg capsule against predators. However, chemosensory factors are likely to be implicated as well. Thus, this work contributes to the understanding of the ecology of early life stages of cuttlefish and the factors that can affect offspring survival and subsequently impact the recruitment of this species.
Ehsani, Ali; Alizadeh, Omar; Hashemi, Mohammad; Afshari, Asma; Aminzare, Majid
Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils with considerable antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties of Melissa officinalis and Deracocephalum moldavica essential oils (EOs). The identification of chemical constituents of the EOs was carried out using gas chromato-graphy-mass spectrometry analysis and antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion assay as well as determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration against four important food-borne bacteria: Salmonella typhimorium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Antioxidant activity of the EOs was also determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzo thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and β-carotene bleaching tests. The major compounds of D. moldavica were geranial (28.52%), neral (21.21%), geraniol (19.60%), geranyl acetate (16.72%) and the major compounds of M. officinalis EO were citronellal (37.33%), thymol (11.96%), citral (10.10%) and β-caryophyllene (7.27%). The underlying results indicated strong antimicrobial effects of the oils against tested bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus with the lowest MIC value (0.12 mg mL-1) for both EOs was the most sensitive bacterium, although, antibacterial effect of M. officinalis EO was stronger than D. moldavica. In addition, the results of the antioxidant activity showed that both EOs had notable antioxidant properties. In conclusion, both EOs are appropriate alternatives as potential sources of natural preservative agents with the aim of being applied in food industries. PMID:29085610
Hamburger, M; Adler, S; Baumann, D; Förg, A; Weinreich, B
A method for the efficient preparative purification of faradiol 3-O-laurate, palmitate and myristate, the major anti-inflammatory triterpenoid esters in the flower heads of the medicinal plant Calendula officinalis has been developed. Gram quantities of the individual compounds were obtained with 96 to 98% purity by a combination of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), normal-phase and reversed-phase column chromatography. During the work-up of the faradiol esters, accompanying minor compounds of the triterpene ester fraction were purified and identified by spectroscopic means as maniladiol 3-O-laurate and myristate.
Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I
An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.
Williamson, Christopher James; Perkins, Rupert; Voller, Matthew; Yallop, Marian Louise; Brodie, Juliet
Calcified macroalgae are critical components of marine ecosystems worldwide, but face considerable threat both from climate change (increasing water temperatures) and ocean acidification (decreasing ocean pH and carbonate saturation). It is thus fundamental to constrain the relationships between key abiotic stressors and the physiological processes that govern coralline algal growth and survival. Here we characterize the complex relationships between the abiotic environment of rock pool habitats and the physiology of the geniculate red coralline alga, Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Paired assessment of irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, with C. officinalis net production (NP), respiration (R) and net calcification (NG) was performed in a south-western UK field site, at multiple temporal scales (seasonal, diurnal and tidal). Strong seasonality was observed in NP and night-time R, with a Pmax of 22.35 µmol DIC (g DW)-1 h-1, Ek of 300 µmol photons m-2 s-1 and R of 3.29 µmol DIC (g DW)-1 h-1 determined across the complete annual cycle. NP showed a significant exponential relationship with irradiance (R2 = 0.67), although was temperature dependent given ambient irradiance > Ek for the majority of the annual cycle. Over tidal emersion periods, dynamics in NP highlighted the ability of C. officinalis to acquire inorganic carbon despite significant fluctuations in carbonate chemistry. Across all data, NG was highly predictable (R2 = 0.80) by irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, providing a NGmax of 3.94 µmol CaCO3 (g DW)-1 h-1 and Ek of 113 µmol photons m-2 s-1. Light NG showed strong seasonality and significant coupling to NP (R2 = 0.65) as opposed to rock pool water carbonate saturation. In
Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl
Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study.
Stege, Patricia W; Sombra, Lorena L; Messina, Germán; Martinez, Luis D; Silva, María F
The finding of melatonin, the often called "hormone of darkness" in plants opens an interesting perspective associated to the plethora of health benefits related to the moderate consumption of red wine. In this study, the implementation of a new method for the determination of melatonin in complex food matrices by CEC with immobilized carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as stationary phase is demonstrated. The results indicated high electrochromatographic resolution, good capillary efficiencies and improved sensitivity respect to those obtained with conventional capillaries. In addition, it was demonstrated highly reproducible results between runs, days and columns. The LOD for melatonin was 0.01 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to the determination of melatonin in red and white wine, grape skin and plant extracts of Salvia officinalis L.
Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brkić, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D
The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.
Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Acevska, Jelena; Karapandzova, Marija; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Kulevanova, Svetlana
Quality assessment of essential oil (EO) from culinary sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is limited by the long pharmacopoeial procedure. The aim of this study was to employ headspace (HS) sampling in the quality assessment of sage EO. Different populations (30) of culinary sage were assessed using GC/FID/MS analysis of the hydrodistilled EO (pharmacopoeial method) and HS sampling directly from leaves. Compound profiles from both procedures were evaluated according to ISO 9909 and GDC standards for sage EO quality, revealing compliance for only 10 populations. Factors to convert HS values, for the target ISO and GDC components, into theoretical EO values were calculated. Statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship between HS and EO values for seven target components. Consequently, HS sampling could be used as a complementary extraction technique for rapid screening in quality assessment of sage EOs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Ping; Chen, Chip-Ping; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong
Traditional Chinese medicines have been widely investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because none of the current therapies-either the cholinesterase inhibitors or antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors-has profound effects on halting the progression of AD. In recent years, scientists have isolated many active compounds from herbs, which can alleviate dementia and neurodegenerative syndrome with fewer side effects than conventional drugs and, thus, are regarded as promising drug candidates for AD therapy. In this review, we summarize the latest research progress on six herbs for AD therapy-Huperzia serrata, Amaryllidaceae family, Ginkgo biloba, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Polygala tenuifolia, and Salvia officinalis-and focus on the analysis of their active components and possible mechanisms of pharmacological actions on AD. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R
The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pushpanathan, Thambusamy; Jebanesan, Arulsamy; Govindarajan, Marimuthu
Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from Zingiber officinalis was evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h treated for late third instar. The LC50 value was 50.78 ppm. Skin repellent test at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mg/cm2 concentration of Z. officinalis gave 100% protection up to 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. These results clearly reveal that the essential oil of Z. officinalis served as a potential larvicidal and repellent agent against filarial vector C. quinquefasciatus.
Shetty, K; Labbe, R G
Infectious diseases transmitted by food have become a major public health concern in recent years. In the USA alone, there are an estimated 6-33 million cases each year. The list of responsible agents continues to grow. In the past 20 years some dozen new pathogens that are primarily food-borne have been identified. Fruits and vegetables, often from the global food market, have been added to the traditional vehicles of food-borne illness; that is, undercooked meat, poultry, seafood, or unpasteurized milk. Such products are minimally processed and have fewer barriers to microbial growth such as salt, sugar or preservatives. The evolution of the epidemiology of food-borne illness requires a rethinking of traditional, though still valid, solutions for their prevention. Among various strategies to prevent food-borne pathogens, use of dietary phytochemicals is promising. The major obstacle in the use of dietary phytochemical is the consistency of phytochemicals in different foods due to their natural genetic variation. We have developed a novel tissue-culture-based selection strategy to isolate elite phenolic phytochemical-producing clonal lines of species belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Among several species we have targeted elite clonal lines of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) against Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfrigens in fresh and processed meats. We are also evaluating high phenolic profile-containing clonal lines of basil (Ocimum basilicum) to inhibit gastric ulcer-causing Helicobacter pylori. Other elite lines of the members of the family Lamiaceae, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and salvia (Salvia officinalis) also hold promise against a wide range of food pathogens such as Salmonella species in poultry products and Vibrio species in seafood.
Andrade, Joana M; Faustino, Célia; Garcia, Catarina; Ladeiras, Diogo; Reis, Catarina P; Rijo, Patrícia
The worldwide interest in the use of medicinal plants has been growing, and its beneficial effects being rediscovered for the development of new drugs. Based on their vast ethnopharmacological applications, which inspired current research in drug discovery, natural products can provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets. This work pioneers an extensive and an updated literature review on the current state of research on Rosmarinus officinalis L., elucidating which compounds and biological activities are the most relevant. Therefore, a search was made in the databases PubMed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science with the terms ‘rosemary’, ‘Rosmarinus officinalis’, ‘rosmarinic acid’ ‘carnosol’ and ‘carnosic acid’, which included 286 articles published since 1990 about rosemary's pharmacological activities and their isolated compounds. According to these references, there has been an increasing interest in the therapeutic properties of this plant, regarding carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid and the essential oil. The present manuscript provides an updated review upon the most reported activities on R. officinalis and its active constituents. PMID:29682318
Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon
The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 μg/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 μg/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 μg/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 μg/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 μg/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 μg/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 μg/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method.
Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Liu, Jianv; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Song
The popular ornamental plant Calendula officinalis L was studied for its potential application in the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils. Enhancements to the Cd accumulation by the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) to the soil were investigated. Under these chemically enhanced treatments, EDTA was observed to be toxic to the plants leading to retarded growth. However, the application of SDS and/or EGTA was shown to result in significantly increased plant biomass (p < 0.05). Most of the chemical treatments resulted in increases to the shoot and root Cd concentrations, with the root Cd concentration being consistently higher than that shoot Cd concentration. Almost all of the investigated chemical treatments containing SDS or and EGTA were shown to lead to an increase in the total Cd content in the plants (p < 0.05). The application of EGTA alone led to an observed total Cd increase of up to 217%. This investigation revealed considerable efficiency of chemical enhancement and correspondingly increased potential of Calendula officinalis L. for applications of phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sites.
Qiu, Xiao; Reed, Darwin W.; Hong, Haiping; MacKenzie, Samuel L.; Covello, Patrick S.
Two homologous cDNAs, CoFad2 and CoFac2, were isolated from a Calendula officinalis developing seed by a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy. Both sequences share similarity to FAD2 desaturases and FAD2-related enzymes. In C. officinalis plants CoFad2 was expressed in all tissues tested, whereas CoFac2 expression was specific to developing seeds. Expression of CoFad2 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) indicated it encodes a Δ12 desaturase that introduces a double bond at the 12 position of 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z). Expression of CoFac2 in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme acts as a fatty acid conjugase converting 18:2(9Z, 12Z) to calendic acid 18:3(8E, 10E, 12Z). The enzyme also has weak activity on the mono-unsaturates 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z) producing compounds with the properties of 8,10 conjugated dienes. PMID:11161042
Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel
The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7 h, and 3.3 g/200 mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid. PMID:26064122
Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm. PMID:22540963
Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521
Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Escalon, Enrique; Melnick, Steven J
Ethnobotanical evidence suggests that herbs such as brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) may possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. We compared the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of supercritical extract of Bacopa monnieri and rosemary antioxidant extract obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis as well as their combination to examine the effects on human glial (U-87 MG) and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cells. Bacopa monnieri extract, rosemary antioxidant extract, and their combination (1:1) are not cytotoxic in both glial and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell lines up to 200 μg/mL concentration. The combination of extracts of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant has better antioxidant potential and antilipid peroxidation activity than either agent alone. Although the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant showed almost similar inhibition of phospho tau expression as Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract alone, the combination has better inhibitory effect on amyloid precursor protein synthesis and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in hypothalamus cells than single agents. These results suggest that the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant is more neuroprotective than Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract.
Stabili, Loredana; Licciano, Margherita; Longo, Caterina; Corriero, Giuseppe; Mercurio, Maria
This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological accumulation capability of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica. Six microbiological parameters were researched in two sampling periods in the water and in reared sponge samples coming from sites with different degrees of microbial contamination: an off-shore fish farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Southern Adriatic Sea) and a no-impacted area displaced into the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Apulian coast-Ionian Sea). We detected the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C on Plate Count Agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total and fecal coliforms as well as fecal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. Bacterial densities were always higher in the sponge homogenates compared with the corresponding seawater in the sampling points and in both sampling periods. As regard vibrios, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C and fecal streptococci concentrations, the highest values were observed in the sponge samples coming from the off-shore fish farm during the summer period. The ability of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica to accumulate the microbial pollution indicators suggests that this species can be employed as a bioindicator for monitoring water quality.
Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata
Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities.
Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata
Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413
de Jesús Ruíz-Baltazar, Álvaro; Reyes-López, Simón Yobbany; Larrañaga, Daniel; Estévez, Miriam; Pérez, Ramiro
The exceptional properties of the silver nanoparticles offer several applications in the biomedicine field. The development of antibiotics which are clinically useful against bacteria and drug resistant microorganisms, it is one of the main approaches of silver nanoparticles. However, it is necessary to develop environmentally friendly methods for their synthesis. In this sense, the main objective of this work is focused on to propose a simplified and efficient green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with proven antibacterial properties. The green synthesis route is based on the use of the Melissa officinalis as reducing agent of the silver ions in aqueous solution at room temperature. Complementary, the antibacterial activity of the silver nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was confirmed. The silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The observed results suggested that using Melissa officinalis, it is possible to performed silver nanoparticles with controlled characteristics and with significant inhibitory activity against the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
Akkaynak, Derya; Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Hanlon, Roger T
Cephalopods are renowned for their ability to adaptively camouflage on diverse backgrounds. Sepia officinalis camouflage body patterns have been characterized spectrally in the laboratory but not in the field due to the challenges of dynamic natural light fields and the difficulty of using spectrophotometric instruments underwater. To assess cuttlefish color match in their natural habitats, we studied the spectral properties of S. officinalis and their backgrounds on the Aegean coast of Turkey using point-by-point in situ spectrometry. Fifteen spectrometry datasets were collected from seven cuttlefish; radiance spectra from animal body components and surrounding substrates were measured at depths shallower than 5 m. We quantified luminance and color contrast of cuttlefish components and background substrates in the eyes of hypothetical di- and trichromatic fish predators. Additionally, we converted radiance spectra to sRGB color space to simulate their in situ appearance to a human observer. Within the range of natural colors at our study site, cuttlefish closely matched the substrate spectra in a variety of body patterns. Theoretical calculations showed that this effect might be more pronounced at greater depths. We also showed that a non-biological method ("Spectral Angle Mapper"), commonly used for spectral shape similarity assessment in the field of remote sensing, shows moderate correlation to biological measures of color contrast. This performance is comparable to that of a traditional measure of spectral shape similarity, hue and chroma. This study is among the first to quantify color matching of camouflaged cuttlefish in the wild.
Ricigliano, Vincent; Kumar, Santosh; Kinison, Scott; Brooks, Christopher; Nybo, S Eric; Chappell, Joe; Howarth, Dianella G
The medicinal properties of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root preparations are attributed to the anxiolytic sesquiterpenoid valerenic acid and its biosynthetic precursors valerenal and valerenadiene, as well as the anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenoid β-caryophyllene. In order to study and engineer the biosynthesis of these pharmacologically active metabolites, a binary vector co-transformation system was developed for V. officinalis hairy roots. The relative expression levels and jasmonate-inducibility of a number of genes associated with sesquiterpenoid metabolism were profiled in roots: farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (VoFPS), valerendiene synthase (VoVDS), germacrene C synthase (VoGCS), and a cytochrome P450 (CYP71D442) putatively associated with terpene metabolism based on sequence homology. Recombinant hairy root lines overexpressing VoFPS or VoVDS were generated and compared to control cultures. Overexpression of the VoFPS cDNA increased levels of the corresponding transcript 4- to 8-fold and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon accumulation by 1.5- to 4-fold. Overexpression of the VoVDS cDNA increased the corresponding transcript levels 5- to 9-fold and markedly increased yields of the oxygenated sesquiterpenoids valerenic acid and valerenal. Our findings suggest that the availability of cytoplasmic farnesyl diphosphate and valerenadiene are potential bottlenecks in Valeriana-specific sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, which is also subject to regulation by methyl jasmonate elicitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pakrokh Ghavi, Peyman
Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90 °C) and time (6-30 h), particle size (6-24 mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R(2) values (> 0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P < 0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90 °C, extraction time 12.01 h, particle size 12.0mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Linka, Wojciech Andrzej; Wojtaszek, Ilona; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj; Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof
Dry extracts are now frequently used in medicine as an alternative to synthetic drugs. In the case of tablet technology with dry plant extracts, the proper selection of disintegrants (superdisintegrants) is particularly important. Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the polymers constituting superdisintegrants (Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Polyplasdone XL) in uncoated tablet formulation of alcoholic extracted from Asparagus officinalis. Dry the ethanol extract of Asparagus officinalis, Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Vivapur®, Kollidon VA64, Polyplasdone XL, magnesium stearate. Direct compression. Paddle method was carried out to study pharmacopoeial parameters and pharmaceutical availability. The calculation of equivalency factors: similarity [f2] and the difference [f1]. Approximation results. Tablets brownish-green, with a smooth and uniform surface, without stains, chipping and damage. The determined average weight of the tablets compiled with the standards. The test friability and crushing strength revealed that the most mechanically strong tablets contained Vivasol, Vivastar, Polyplasdone XL. These tablets also have a longer disintegration and dissolution time compared with tablets containing only Vivasol. These differences are also confirmed by the calculated f2 and f1. The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol significantly increases the mechanical strength of the tablets (crushing strength, resistance to crushing). The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol paradoxically increases the disintegration time of tablets (11.1 min). Single superdisintegrant breaks up the tablet more effectively than a mixture of superdisintegrants.
Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Xinghai
Ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. RSM results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction time of 31.49823 min, microwave power of 99.39769 W, and water-to-raw material ratio of 28.16273. The COP yield was 11.38±0.31% using the modified optimal conditions, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. The crude COP was purified by DEAE-Cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Five fractions, namely, crude COP, COP-1, COP-2, COP-3, and COP-4, were obtained. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that the COP was composed of glucose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, mannose, and rhamnose. Preliminary structural characterizations of COP were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Valentim, D S S; Duarte, J L; Oliveira, A E M F M; Cruz, R A S; Carvalho, J C T; Solans, C; Fernandes, C P; Tavares-Dias, M
Monogeneans are ectoparasites that may cause losses in production and productivity in the aquaculture of Colossoma macropomum. Chemotherapeutics used in aquaculture usually have major adverse effects on fish; hence, the use of essential oils has been considered advantageous, but these are not soluble in water. Thus, the use of nanostructures to enhance water solubility of compounds and improve bioactivity may be very promising. This study investigated the antiparasitic activity of nanoemulsion prepared with Copaifera officinalis oleoresin (50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 mg/L), against monogenean parasites from the gills of C. macropomum. The particle size distribution and zeta potential suggested that a potentially kinetic stable system was generated. The nanoemulsion from C. officinalis oleoresin achieved high efficacy (100%) at low concentrations (200 and 300 mg/L) after 15 min of exposure. This was the first time that a nanoemulsion was generated from C. officinalis oleoresin using a solvent-free, non-heating and low-energy method. Moreover, this was the first time that an antiparasitic against monogeneans on fish gills, based on nanoemulsion of C. officinalis oleoresin, was tested. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira
The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…
Masaki, H; Sakaki, S; Atsumi, T; Sakurai, H
To find antioxidative compounds present in plants, 65 types of plant extract were tested using the neotetrazolium method for evidence of superoxide anion-scavenging effects and 7 plant extracts were selected for further investigation. The activity of active-oxygen scavengers such as superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygens and lipid peroxides in the 7 plant extracts (Aeseclus hippocastanum L., Hamamelis virginiana L. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb., Quercus robur L., Rosemarinous officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Sanguisorba officinalis L.) was examined in detail by both ESR spin-trapping and malondialdehyde generation. Furthermore, the active-oxygen scavenging activity of these plant extracts was evaluated using a murine dermal fibroblast culture system. Both Aeseclus hippocastanum L. and Hamamelis virginia L. were found to have strong active-oxygen scavenging activity of and protective activity against cell damage induced by active oxygen. Both Aeseclus hippocastanum L. and Hamamelis virginiana L. are proposed