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Sample records for same-sex marriage laws

  1. In sickness and in health: same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comment on "The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands".

    PubMed

    Dinno, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer.

  3. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-02-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law.

  4. "Let's Talk about the Institution": Same-Sex Common-Law Partners Negotiating Marriage Equality and Relationship Legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Katherine A; Frohard-Dourlent, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    The 2005 Canada-wide legalization of same-sex marriage provided same-sex couples with access to an institution they had previous been excluded from. Yet not all couples choose to marry. In this paper, we examine why this is the case, considering the role of personal, political, and historical factors. We draw on 22 interviews with people in common-law same-sex relationships in Toronto to examine how they understand their relationship within the new context of marriage equality. We find that participants feel they are held accountable to marriage as a default relationship legitimacy norm, indicating that this new institutional access is accompanied by a set of social expectations. Despite their awareness of the need to navigate a social context favoring marriage, participants individualize their relationship decisions as personal rather than political. Participants often contradict themselves as they articulate what marriage means to them, suggesting that, in this period of legal and social transition, people are negotiating multiple meanings, societal messages, and traditions when it comes to making sense of their relationship. We discuss the implications of these findings for LGBQ activism and the framing of sexuality-based inequalities in Canadian society. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  5. Same-sex marriage and mental health.

    PubMed

    Liangas, Georgios; Athanasou, James A

    2016-12-01

    It has been proposed that legislation for same-sex marriage has a positive mental health benefit. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the empirical and conceptual links between same-sex marriage and mental health. There are substantive methodological issues in the four surveys and comparisons undertaken. Difficulties with the validity of the evidence are discussed. Conceptual difficulties in the arguments relating to victimisation as well as the psychology of marriage are highlighted. It was concluded that it is premature to make claims of causality vis-a-vis same-sex marriage legislation and mental health. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  6. Heterosexual attitudes toward same-sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia.

  7. Heterosexual Attitudes towards Same-Sex Marriage

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, David A.; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic towards lesbians than towards gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996

  8. Same-sex marriage: a new social phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Chamie, Joseph; Mirkin, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Same-sex marriage (SSM) is a new social phenomenon. In modern times SSM did not exist until the 21st century when an increasing number of countries began permitting same-sex couples to marry legally. This study presents statistical and related evidence concerning SSM worldwide, with special attention to the United States, where SSM has evolved into a major political and legal issue. In addition to examining data on levels and trends, differentials between men and women are investigated. The study also considers common arguments for and against SSM and likely changes in laws and policies that may occur. Although same-sex marriage now exists in a small number of countries and US states, its consequences and implications are being felt far beyond the borders of those countries and areas. In coming years same-sex marriage will remain a controversial and salient part of the legal, political, and cultural landscape, locally, nationally, and internationally.

  9. Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Health Care Use and Expenditures in Sexual Minority Men: A Quasi-Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Kenneth; Safren, Steven; Bradford, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether health care use and expenditures among gay and bisexual men were reduced following the enactment of same-sex marriage laws in Massachusetts in 2003. Methods. We used quasi-experimental, prospective data from 1211 sexual minority male patients in a community-based health center in Massachusetts. Results. In the 12 months after the legalization of same-sex marriage, sexual minority men had a statistically significant decrease in medical care visits (mean = 5.00 vs mean = 4.67; P = .05; Cohen's d = 0.17), mental health care visits (mean = 24.72 vs mean = 22.20; P = .03; Cohen's d = 0.35), and mental health care costs (mean = $2442.28 vs mean = $2137.38; P = .01; Cohen's d = 0.41), compared with the 12 months before the law change. These effects were not modified by partnership status, indicating that the health effect of same-sex marriage laws was similar for partnered and nonpartnered men. Conclusions. Policies that confer protections to same-sex couples may be effective in reducing health care use and costs among sexual minority men. PMID:22390442

  10. Effect of same-sex marriage laws on health care use and expenditures in sexual minority men: a quasi-natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Kenneth; Safren, Steven; Bradford, Judith

    2012-02-01

    We sought to determine whether health care use and expenditures among gay and bisexual men were reduced following the enactment of same-sex marriage laws in Massachusetts in 2003. We used quasi-experimental, prospective data from 1211 sexual minority male patients in a community-based health center in Massachusetts. In the 12 months after the legalization of same-sex marriage, sexual minority men had a statistically significant decrease in medical care visits (mean = 5.00 vs mean = 4.67; P = .05; Cohen's d = 0.17), mental health care visits (mean = 24.72 vs mean = 22.20; P = .03; Cohen's d = 0.35), and mental health care costs (mean = $2442.28 vs mean = $2137.38; P = .01; Cohen's d = 0.41), compared with the 12 months before the law change. These effects were not modified by partnership status, indicating that the health effect of same-sex marriage laws was similar for partnered and nonpartnered men. Policies that confer protections to same-sex couples may be effective in reducing health care use and costs among sexual minority men.

  11. The influence of same-sex marriage on the understanding of same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Lannutti, Pamela J

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which legally recognized same-sex marriage affects the understanding of same-sex romantic relationships for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) individuals. Participants (N = 288) responded to an open-ended Web-based survey asking them to describe how legally recognized same-sex marriage influenced their view of their own romantic relationship or romantic relationships in general. Results indicate that legally recognized same-sex marriage impacted participants' understanding of romantic relationships by making existing relationships seem more real and by serving as a tool through which participants realized their desires for ideal potential partner and relationship characteristics. The results suggest that legally recognized same-sex marriage is seen as both beneficial and challenging for samesex couples.

  12. Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians.

  13. Children in Same-Sex Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solodnikov, V. V.; Chkanikova, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In Russia, sociologists do not have reliable statistical data as to the number of same-sex unions and the number of children being brought up in these families, and non-Russian studies on the topic are flawed and misleading. Russians are said to be antagonistic to the idea of children being raised in same-sex households. People are concerned over…

  14. Framing Classroom Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…

  15. Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting, and America's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…

  16. Black LGB Identities and Perceptions of Same-Sex Marriage.

    PubMed

    Lee PhD Canditate, Jess

    2018-01-10

    The 2015 SCOTUS ruling legalizing same-sex marriage was hailed as a universal victory for the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) community, but the pervasive support mobilized to achieve this goal may mask important dissension and inequality within the community. Specifically, how race may shape or perpetuate inequalities in the LGB community through same-sex marriage largely has been absent from the discussion. Focusing on the perceived impact of same-sex marriage in respondents' lives, I investigate the relationship between Black LGBs' perception of same-sex marriage legalization and their intersectional identities and community membership. Drawing from the 2010 Social Justice Sexuality Project survey, I explain the complexity of the attitudes of Black LGBs to the legalization of same-sex marriage and illustrate that (1) Black LGBs exhibit heterogeneous interpretation of the effects of same-sex marriage legalization on their lives based on their racial and sexual identities, and (2) same-sex marriage may provide Black LGBs the rationale to affirm their racial community membership as sexual minorities. This study pushes our understanding of the relationship between intersectional identities and individuals' perceptions of the self, identity-based community memberships, and social institutions.

  17. Public Health Implications of Same-Sex Marriage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Significantly compromised health care delivery and adverse health outcomes are well documented for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States compared with the population at large. LGBT individuals subject to societal prejudice in a heterosexist world also suffer from the phenomenon known as “minority stress,” with its attendant negative mental and physical health effects. Reports in the medical and social science literature suggest that legal and social recognition of same-sex marriage has had positive effects on the health status of this at-risk community. Improved outcomes are to be expected because of the improved access to health care conferred by marriage benefits under federal or state law and as a result of attenuating the effects of institutionalized stigma on a sexual minority group. PMID:21493934

  18. Public health implications of same-sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Buffie, William C

    2011-06-01

    Significantly compromised health care delivery and adverse health outcomes are well documented for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States compared with the population at large. LGBT individuals subject to societal prejudice in a heterosexist world also suffer from the phenomenon known as "minority stress," with its attendant negative mental and physical health effects. Reports in the medical and social science literature suggest that legal and social recognition of same-sex marriage has had positive effects on the health status of this at-risk community. Improved outcomes are to be expected because of the improved access to health care conferred by marriage benefits under federal or state law and as a result of attenuating the effects of institutionalized stigma on a sexual minority group.

  19. Gay marriage, same-sex parenting, and America's children.

    PubMed

    Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children. To evaluate that concern, William Meezan and Jonathan Rauch review the growing body of research on how same-sex parenting affects children. After considering the methodological problems inherent in studying small, hard-to-locate populations--problems that have bedeviled this literature-the authors find that the children who have been studied are doing about as well as children normally do. What the research does not yet show is whether the children studied are typical of the general population of children raised by gay and lesbian couples. A second important question is how same-sex marriage might affect children who are already being raised by same-sex couples. Meezan and Rauch observe that marriage confers on children three types of benefits that seem likely to carry over to children in same-sex families. First, marriage may increase children's material well-being through such benefits as family leave from work and spousal health insurance eligibility. It may also help ensure financial continuity, should a spouse die or be disabled. Second, same-sex marriage may benefit children by increasing the durability and stability of their parents' relationship. Finally, marriage may bring increased social acceptance of and support for same-sex families, although those benefits might not materialize in communities that meet same-sex marriage with rejection or hostility. The authors note that the best way to ascertain the costs and benefits of the effects of same-sex marriage on children is to compare it with the alternatives. Massachusetts is marrying same-sex couples, Vermont and Connecticut are offering civil unions, and several

  20. Provision of Healthcare Services to Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nigeria: Students' Attitudes Following the Passage of the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Law.

    PubMed

    Sekoni, Adekemi O; Jolly, Kate; Gale, Nicola K; Ifaniyi, Oluwafemi A; Somefun, Esther O; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Fakayode, Victoria A

    2016-08-01

    After signing of the Same-Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act 2013 in Nigeria, media reports portray widespread societal intolerance toward the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population. This study was conducted to assess the attitudes of university undergraduates in Lagos state, Nigeria, toward provision of healthcare services for men who have sex with men (MSM), because the 2014 same-sex marriage prohibition law stipulates a jail sentence for organizations providing services to MSM. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires to collect information, including homophobic attitudes and views on access to healthcare, from 4000 undergraduates in 10 randomly selected faculties in two universities. During analysis, inter-university and inter-faculty comparison was carried out between medical and nonmedical students. Outright denial of healthcare services to MSM was supported by 37.6% of the 3537 undergraduates who responded, whereas denial of HIV prevention services was supported by 32.5%. However, compared with 38.7% and 34.1% of undergraduates from other faculties, 23.7% and 18.2% of medical students agreed that healthcare providers should not provide services to MSM and that MSM should not have access to HIV prevention services, respectively (P = 0.000). Although a significant proportion of the medical students supported the statement that doctors and other healthcare workers should be compelled to give priority to other groups before MSM (29.4% of medical vs. 47.2% of students from other faculties), a statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups of students. The homophobic statement with the highest support was that doctors and healthcare workers should be compelled to report MSM who come to access treatment (48.1% of medical vs. 57.4% of students from other faculties). A very high proportion of the undergraduate students had a negative attitude toward provision of healthcare services to MSM in

  1. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  2. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    PubMed Central

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536

  3. Will Marriage Matter? Effects of Marriage Anticipated by Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay

    2012-01-01

    The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex…

  4. Voting to Ban Same-Sex Marriage: Interests, Values, and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.

    2009-01-01

    From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…

  5. Different Rights, Different Perspectives: Observations on the Same-Sex Marriage Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, J. Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how…

  6. Interactional dynamics of same-sex marriage legislation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhradeep; Abaid, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how people form opinions and make decisions is a complex phenomenon that depends on both personal practices and interactions. Recent availability of real-world data has enabled quantitative analysis of opinion formation, which illuminates phenomena that impact physical and social sciences. Public policies exemplify complex opinion formation spanning individual and population scales, and a timely example is the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States. Here, we seek to understand how this issue captures the relationship between state-laws and Senate representatives subject to geographical and ideological factors. Using distance-based correlations, we study how physical proximity and state-government ideology may be used to extract patterns in state-law adoption and senatorial support of same-sex marriage. Results demonstrate that proximal states have similar opinion dynamics in both state-laws and senators' opinions, and states with similar state-government ideology have analogous senators' opinions. Moreover, senators' opinions drive state-laws with a time lag. Thus, change in opinion not only results from negotiations among individuals, but also reflects inherent spatial and political similarities and temporal delays. We build a social impact model of state-law adoption in light of these results, which predicts the evolution of state-laws legalizing same-sex marriage over the last three decades.

  7. Interactional dynamics of same-sex marriage legislation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how people form opinions and make decisions is a complex phenomenon that depends on both personal practices and interactions. Recent availability of real-world data has enabled quantitative analysis of opinion formation, which illuminates phenomena that impact physical and social sciences. Public policies exemplify complex opinion formation spanning individual and population scales, and a timely example is the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States. Here, we seek to understand how this issue captures the relationship between state-laws and Senate representatives subject to geographical and ideological factors. Using distance-based correlations, we study how physical proximity and state-government ideology may be used to extract patterns in state-law adoption and senatorial support of same-sex marriage. Results demonstrate that proximal states have similar opinion dynamics in both state-laws and senators’ opinions, and states with similar state-government ideology have analogous senators’ opinions. Moreover, senators’ opinions drive state-laws with a time lag. Thus, change in opinion not only results from negotiations among individuals, but also reflects inherent spatial and political similarities and temporal delays. We build a social impact model of state-law adoption in light of these results, which predicts the evolution of state-laws legalizing same-sex marriage over the last three decades. PMID:28680669

  8. Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation.

    PubMed

    Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men.

  9. Same-Sex Marriage and the Assimilationist Dilemma: A Research Agenda on Marriage Equality and the Future of LGBTQ Activism, Politics, Communities, and Identities.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Mary

    2018-01-10

    This special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality, examines the impact of the marriage equality movement and the resulting landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision, Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) that legalized same-sex marriage in the U.S., on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) activism, politics, communities, and identities. The articles in this issue examine the complicated ways in which the discourse used in same-sex marriage court cases is related to heteronormative discursive frames; the lived reality of married same-sex couples and the complex ways in which they think about marriage and heteronormativity; the ways that heteronormativity is racialized, which affects how African Americans perceive the impact of same-sex marriage on their lives; how same-sex marriage has influenced public opinion and the likelihood of anti-gay backlash; and the impact of same-sex marriage on family law. In this article, I draw on the empirical research from these articles to develop a theoretical framework that expands a multi-institutional (MIP) approach to understanding social movements and legal change. I build on and develop three conceptual tools: the assimilationist dilemma, discursive integration and cooptation, and truth regime. I conclude by laying out an agenda for future research on the impact of same-sex marriage on LGBTQ movements, politics, identities, and communities.

  10. Marriage and Family: LGBT Individuals and Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Though estimates vary, as many as 2 million to 3.7 million U.S. children under age 18 may have a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender parent, and about 200,000 are being raised by same-sex couples. Much of the past decade's legal and political debate over allowing same-sex couples to marry has centered on these couples' suitability as parents,…

  11. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  12. In Defense of Tradition: Religiosity, Conservatism, and Opposition to Same-Sex Marriage in North America

    PubMed Central

    van der Toorn, Jojanneke; Jost, John T.; Packer, Dominic J.; Noorbaloochi, Sharareh; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2017-01-01

    Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In five studies conducted in the United States and Canada (combined N = 1,673), we observed that religious opposition to same-sex marriage was explained, at least in part, by conservative ideology and linked to sexual prejudice. In Studies 1 and 2, we discovered that the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage was mediated by explicit sexual prejudice. In Study 3, we saw that the mediating effect of sexual prejudice was linked to political conservatism. Finally, in Studies 4a and 4b we examined the ideological underpinnings of religious opposition to same-sex marriage in more detail by taking into account two distinct aspects of conservative ideology. Results revealed that resistance to change was more important than opposition to equality in explaining religious opposition to same-sex marriage. PMID:28918711

  13. In Defense of Tradition: Religiosity, Conservatism, and Opposition to Same-Sex Marriage in North America.

    PubMed

    van der Toorn, Jojanneke; Jost, John T; Packer, Dominic J; Noorbaloochi, Sharareh; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2017-10-01

    Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In five studies conducted in the United States and Canada (combined N = 1,673), we observed that religious opposition to same-sex marriage was explained, at least in part, by conservative ideology and linked to sexual prejudice. In Studies 1 and 2, we discovered that the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage was mediated by explicit sexual prejudice. In Study 3, we saw that the mediating effect of sexual prejudice was linked to political conservatism. Finally, in Studies 4a and 4b we examined the ideological underpinnings of religious opposition to same-sex marriage in more detail by taking into account two distinct aspects of conservative ideology. Results revealed that resistance to change was more important than opposition to equality in explaining religious opposition to same-sex marriage.

  14. Scientific consensus, the law, and same sex parenting outcomes.

    PubMed

    adams, Jimi; Light, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    While the US Supreme Court was considering two related cases involving the constitutionality of same-sex marriage, one major question informing that decision was whether scientific research had achieved consensus regarding how children of same-sex couples fare. Determining the extent of consensus has become a key aspect of how social science evidence and testimony is accepted by the courts. Here, we show how a method of analyzing temporal patterns in citation networks can be used to assess the state of social scientific literature as a means to inform just such a question. Patterns of clustering within these citation networks reveal whether and when consensus arises within a scientific field. We find that the literature on outcomes for children of same-sex parents is marked by scientific consensus that they experience "no differences" compared to children from other parental configurations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Same-sex marriage and context-specific kinship terms.

    PubMed

    Ould, Patricia; Whitlow, C Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether married gays and lesbians in Massachusetts are using the kinship terms commonly associated with marriage in referring to and introducing their marriage partners and, if not, whether alternative terms are being used in a variety of social contexts. We demonstrate through survey and interview data that marriage-related terms are used discriminately, are consciously chosen, and are context specific. Choices are dependent on a variety of factors related to personal demographics, speech community associations, intimacy, identity, and safety. A significant difference in the use of terms after legal marriage has occurred suggesting a shift in attitude.

  16. State-Level Marriage Equality and the Health of Same-Sex Couples

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Katie L.; Wright, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the association between the health of people in same-sex relationships and the degree and nature of the legal recognition of same-sex relationships offered in the states in which they resided. Methods. We conducted secondary data analyses on the 2010 to 2013 Current Population Survey and publicly available data from Freedom to Marry, Inc. We estimated ordered logistic regression models in a 4-level framework to assess the impact of states’ legal stances toward same-sex marriage on self-assessed health. Results. Our findings indicated, relative to states with antigay constitutional amendments, that same-sex couples living in states with legally sanctioned marriage reported higher levels of self-assessed health. Conclusions. Our findings suggested that full legal recognition of same-sex relationships through marriage might be an important legal and policy strategy for improving the health of same-sex couples. PMID:25880959

  17. State-level marriage equality and the health of same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Kail, Ben Lennox; Acosta, Katie L; Wright, Eric R

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the association between the health of people in same-sex relationships and the degree and nature of the legal recognition of same-sex relationships offered in the states in which they resided. We conducted secondary data analyses on the 2010 to 2013 Current Population Survey and publicly available data from Freedom to Marry, Inc. We estimated ordered logistic regression models in a 4-level framework to assess the impact of states' legal stances toward same-sex marriage on self-assessed health. Our findings indicated, relative to states with antigay constitutional amendments, that same-sex couples living in states with legally sanctioned marriage reported higher levels of self-assessed health. Our findings suggested that full legal recognition of same-sex relationships through marriage might be an important legal and policy strategy for improving the health of same-sex couples.

  18. The Case for Same-Sex Marriage Before the European Court of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Frances

    2017-09-26

    For proponents of same-sex marriage, this essay sets forward a critical analysis of relevant arguments before the European Court of Human Rights. The privacy aspect of Article 8 European Convention of Human Rights will never be a successful argument with reference to marriage, which involves a public status. The equality argument (Article 14) is useful in addressing this issue with its close connections with citizenship, symbolic value, and proven record internationally. Difficulties remain with the equality argument; its conditional status, the width of the margin of appreciation allocated, and the need for an equality comparator. The equality argument needs reinforcement by use alongside a developing family law argument under Article 8 and a dynamically interpreted Article 12 (right to marry) argument. Ultimately, the success of any argument depends on convincingly influencing the European Court to consider that sufficient consensus has developed among Member States of the Council of Europe.

  19. Are Survey Respondents Lying about Their Support for Same-Sex Marriage? Lessons from a List Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Lax, Jeffrey R.; Phillips, Justin H.; Stollwerk, Alissa F.

    2016-01-01

    Public opinion polls consistently show that a growing majority of Americans support same-sex marriage. Critics, however, raise the possibility that these polls are plagued by social desirability bias, and thereby may overstate public support for gay and lesbian rights. We test this proposition using a list experiment embedded in the 2013 Cooperative Congressional Election Study. List experiments afford respondents an anonymity that allows them to provide more truthful answers to potentially sensitive survey items. Our experiment finds no evidence that social desirability is affecting overall survey results. If there is social desirability in polling on same-sex marriage, it pushes in both directions. Indeed, our efforts provide new evidence that a national opinion majority favors same-sex marriage. To evaluate the robustness of our findings, we analyze a second list experiment, this one focusing on the inclusion of sexual orientation in employment nondiscrimination laws. Again, we find no overall evidence of bias. PMID:27274575

  20. Are Survey Respondents Lying about Their Support for Same-Sex Marriage? Lessons from a List Experiment.

    PubMed

    Lax, Jeffrey R; Phillips, Justin H; Stollwerk, Alissa F

    2016-01-01

    Public opinion polls consistently show that a growing majority of Americans support same-sex marriage. Critics, however, raise the possibility that these polls are plagued by social desirability bias, and thereby may overstate public support for gay and lesbian rights. We test this proposition using a list experiment embedded in the 2013 Cooperative Congressional Election Study. List experiments afford respondents an anonymity that allows them to provide more truthful answers to potentially sensitive survey items. Our experiment finds no evidence that social desirability is affecting overall survey results. If there is social desirability in polling on same-sex marriage, it pushes in both directions. Indeed, our efforts provide new evidence that a national opinion majority favors same-sex marriage. To evaluate the robustness of our findings, we analyze a second list experiment, this one focusing on the inclusion of sexual orientation in employment nondiscrimination laws. Again, we find no overall evidence of bias.

  1. Intact Marriages in which One Partner Dis-Identifies with Experiences of Same-Sex Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Pawlowski, Lisa M.; Tan, Erica S. N.

    2003-01-01

    This study is of heterosexually married couples in which one partner reports having experienced same-sex attraction and both partners report satisfaction with their marriage despite facing such constraints. Analysis suggested a number of themes related to how spouses learned about their partners' experiences of same-sex attraction, motivations for…

  2. "Never in Our Lifetime": Legal Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Long-Term Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porche, Michelle V.; Purvin, Diane M.

    2008-01-01

    We present data from 4 lesbian and 5 gay male same-sex couples who have been together 20 years or more. Couples included those legally married and unmarried, with and without children, and were interviewed within the first year legalized same-sex marriage was enacted in Massachusetts. Using life course theory and case study methodology, we…

  3. The Political Divide Over Same-Sex Marriage: Mating Strategies in Conflict?

    PubMed

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie

    2016-04-01

    Although support for same-sex marriage has grown dramatically over the past decade, public opinion remains markedly divided. Here, we propose that the political divide over same-sex marriage represents a deeper divide between conflicting mating strategies. Specifically, we propose that opposition to same-sex marriage can be explained in terms of (a) individual differences in short-term mating orientation and (b) mental associations between homosexuality and sexual promiscuity. We created a novel Implicit Association Test to measure mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity. We found that mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity, at both the implicit and the explicit levels, interacted with short-term mating orientation to predict opposition to same-sex marriage. Our model accounted for 42.3% of the variation in attitudes toward same-sex marriage, and all predictors remained robust when we controlled for potential confounds. Our results reveal the centrality of mating psychology in attitudes toward same-sex marriage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Childhood Adversity, Daily Stress, and Marital Strain in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Marriages

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Rachel; Umberson, Debra; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity has enduring consequences for individuals throughout life, including increased reactivity to stress that may contribute to marital strain in adulthood. Past research on gendered experiences of heterosexual spouses raises questions about how the influence of childhood adversity might differ for men and women in same-sex marriages. We analyze dyadic diary data from 756 individuals in 106 male same-sex, 157 female same-sex, and 115 different-sex marriages to consider how childhood adversity moderates the association between daily stress and marital strain. Results suggest that the negative consequences of daily stress for marital strain are amplified by past childhood adversity with variation for men and women in same- and different-sex unions, such that women and those in same-sex marriages may experience some protection from the adverse consequences of childhood adversity.

  5. Body size at birth and same-sex marriage in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Morten; Zdravkovic, Slobodan

    2010-02-01

    An unexplained excess of overweight has been reported among lesbians. In contrast, reports suggest that gay men may be, on average, slightly lighter and shorter than heterosexual men. We studied associations between weight, length, and body mass index (BMI) at birth and same-sex marriage in young adulthood among 818,671 Danes. We used linear regression to calculate differences in mean body measures at birth and Poisson regression analysis to calculate confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of same-sex marriage according to body measures at birth. Overall, 739 persons entered same-sex marriage at age 18-32 years during 5.6 million person-years of follow-up. Birth year-adjusted mean body measures at birth were similar for same-sex married and other women. However, same-sex marriage rates were 65% higher among women of heavy birth weight (IRR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.18-2.31, for > or =4000 vs. 3000-3499 g, p = .02), and rates were inversely associated with birth length (p (trend) = .04). For same-sex married men, birth year-adjusted mean weight (-72 g, p = .03), length (-0.3 cm, p = .04), and BMI (-0.1 kg/m(2), p = .09) at birth were lower than for other Danish men. Same-sex marriage rates were increased in men of short birth length (IRR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.01-2.08, for < or =50 vs. 51-52 cm), although not uniformly so (p (trend) = .16). Our population-based findings suggest that overweight in lesbians may be partly rooted in constitutional factors. Novel findings of smaller average body measures at birth in same-sex marrying men need replication. Factors affecting intrauterine growth may somehow influence sexual and partner-related choices in adulthood.

  6. Committee Opinion No. 574: Marriage equality for same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Same-sex couples encounter barriers to health care that include concerns about confidentiality and disclosure, stigma and discriminatory attitudes and treatment, limited access to health care and health insurance, and often a limited understanding of their health risks. Same-sex couples and their families are adversely affected by the lack of legal recognition of their relationships, a problem with major implications for the health of same-sex couples and their families. Tangible harm has come from the lack of financial and health care protections granted to legal spouses, and children are harmed by the lack of protections afforded to families in which partners are married. However, the recent Supreme Court ruling, The United States v Windsor, which afforded equal treatment for legally married same-sex couples will provide many important health and financial benefits. Evidence suggests that marriage confers health benefits to individuals and families, yet a sizable proportion of individuals do not experience these health benefits because of their sexual orientation. Additional data suggest that same-sex couples who live in states with bans on same-sex unions experience adverse health outcomes. Civil marriage is currently available to same-sex couples in only thirteen states and the District of Columbia and honored by one state. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists endorses marriage equality for same-sex couples and equal treatment for these couples and their families and applauds the Supreme Court's decision as an important step in improving access to benefits received by legally married same-sex couples. However, additional efforts are necessary to ensure that same-sex couples in every state can receive these same benefits.

  7. Shall we marry? Legal marriage as a commitment event in same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Ellen; Tracy, Allison J; Page, Konjit V; Luong, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    This study is a part of an exploratory study of 50 married and unmarried same-sex couples in Massachusetts conducted by the Wellesley Centers for Women following legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts in 2004. This article examines whether and how legalization of same-sex marriage impacted same-sex partners' commitment to one another, presentation to others as a couple, and treatment as a couple by others. Roughly one-quarter of the couples studied chose not to mark their commitment with ceremonies of any kind, while nearly three-fourths of the couples had either commitment (non-legal) ceremonies, legal weddings, or both. While decisions to legally marry largely were based on gaining legal protections, unforeseen impacts on self and relationships with family, friends, and the larger society revealed multiple layers of meaning. Implications of the study for public policy and social change are discussed.

  8. The Significance of Living Together and Importance of Marriage in Same-Sex Couples.

    PubMed

    Haas, Stephen M; Whitton, Sarah W

    2015-01-01

    Because marriage has been denied to same-sex couples, it is likely that the meaning and significance ascribed to non-marital cohabitation may be unique. Further, it is unclear whether same-sex couples view marriage as important to their relationships, and if they do, why. Using qualitative data from 526 individuals in cohabiting same-sex relationships across 47 states, we explored (1) the meaning and significance of cohabitation and (2) the perceived importance of legal marriage to the relationship. Participants viewed cohabitation as significant, most commonly because it indicates long-term commitment, provides emotional support, makes the couple a family, and allows them to share life together. Marriage was perceived as important to a majority (90%), most commonly because it confers financial and legal benefits, relational legitimacy, and demonstrates the same commitment as different-sex couples. Overall, findings highlight the symbolic significance of cohabitation and importance of access to legal marriage to adults in same-sex relationships.

  9. Religion and attitudes toward same-sex marriage among U.S. Latinos.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Christopher G; Acevedo, Gabriel A; Ramos-Wada, Aida I

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines links between multiple aspects of religious involvement and attitudes toward same-sex marriage among U.S. Latinos. The primary focus is on variations by affiliation and participation, but the possible mediating roles of biblical beliefs, clergy cues, and the role of religion in shaping political views are also considered.Methods. We use binary logistic regression models to analyze data from a large nationwide sample of U.S. Latinos conducted by the Pew Hispanic Forum in late 2006.Results. Findings highlight the strong opposition to same-sex marriage among Latino evangelical (or conservative) Protestants and members of sectarian groups (e.g., LDS), even compared with devout Catholics. Although each of the hypothesized mediators is significantly linked with attitudes toward same-sex marriage, for the most part controlling for them does not alter the massive affiliation/attendance differences in attitudes toward same-sex marriage.Conclusions. This study illustrates the importance of religious cleavages in public opinion on social issues within the diverse U.S. Latino population. The significance of religious variations in Hispanic civic life is likely to increase with the growth of the Latino population and the rising numbers of Protestants and sectarians among Latinos.

  10. Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples: Counseling Psychologists as Social Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostosky, Sharon S.; Riggle, Ellen D. B.

    2011-01-01

    The denial of civil marriage rights is a specific example of minority stress that can negatively affect the psychosocial well-being of self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals in same-sex partnerships, their families, and their allies. Counseling psychologists have an important role in addressing the…

  11. Identity, Discourse, and Safety in a High School Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Terence A.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have called for discussions of same-sex marriage in schools as one way of ending the curricular silence around lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people. Yet, concerns about how students might talk about LGBTQ people can contribute to teachers' reluctance to initiate such discussions. Queer theory suggests that…

  12. 'Solemnis(ing) beginnings': theories of same-sex marriage in the USA and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores arguments for and against same-sex marriage as 'movement advocacy' in the USA as a backdrop to the proposition that, despite the influence of US discourses on South African debates about same-sex marriage, US discussions are less important to understanding South African responses than controversies about marriage itself in the country. The paper works in two sections. First it sketches legal and critical tensions within the USA around the implications of same-sex marriage activism, drawing on work from Franke, Brandzel, Grossman, Puar and others. Second, it notes arguments on queer homonationalisms, made most forcefully by Puar, concerning the effects and interests of 'exporting' US legal ideals to countries elsewhere, especially poorer countries. It then moves to offer suggestions for ways of nuancing this argument through stronger critical attention to context concerning radically shifting notions of marriage within those countries themselves, using South Africa as a case study. This section draws on recent work by Judge, van Zyl, Scott, Mkhize and Adebayo and Nyameza, among others.

  13. Direct democracy and minority rights: same-sex marriage bans in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. A common critique of direct democracy posits that minority rights are endangered by citizen legislative institutions. By allowing citizens to directly create public policy, these institutions avoid the filtering mechanisms of representative democracy that provide a check on the power of the majority. Empirical research, however, has produced conflicting results that leave the question of direct democracy's effect on minority rights open to debate. This article seeks to empirically test this critique using a comparative, dynamic approach.Methods. I examine the diffusion of same-sex marriage bans in the United States using event-history analysis, comparing direct-democracy states to non-direct-democracy states.Results. The results show that direct-democracy states are significantly more likely than other states to adopt same-sex marriage bans.Conclusion. The findings support the majoritarian critique of direct democracy, suggesting that the rights of minority groups are at relatively higher risk under systems with direct democracy.

  14. An analysis of factors affecting attitudes toward same-sex marriage: do the media matter?

    PubMed

    Lee, Tien-Tsung; Hicks, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of more than 5,000 American consumers, this study examines connections between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and media consumption. A positive attitude is predicted by being liberal and less religious, supporting gender and racial equality, willing to try anything once, considering television the primary form of entertainment, watching political talk shows, and reading blogs. The theoretical and methodological contributions and real-world implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Attitudes towards same-sex marriage in Portugal: predictors and scale validation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, João Manuel; Lopes, Diniz; Cameira, Miguel; Nogueira, Conceição

    2014-12-19

    The goal of the present research was to validate a Portuguese version of Pearl and Galupo's (2007) Attitudes toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ATSM). Participants were 1,402 heterosexual men and women that completed an on-line questionnaire. The final 15-item scale formed a single factor showing high internal consistency (α = .95). This one factor structure was backed-up by a confirmatory factorial analysis. In a general way, the results indicate a clearly positive attitude toward same-sex marriage (overall mean was 63.79, SD = 12.66, above the scale mid-point, t(1401) = 55.55, p < .001). Furthermore, analysis of the scale's predictors demonstrates how a left-wing orientation (β = .22, p < .001) and the level of denial of deservingness for lesbian/gay discrimination (β = .30, p < .001) prove to be the best predictors of attitudes towards same-sex marriage. On the whole, these results indicate that the Portuguese ATSM version is a reliable instrument for carrying out scientific research and measuring and monitoring public opinion on this subject.

  16. Legal Marriage, Unequal Recognition, and Mental Health among Same-Sex Couples.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Allen J; Frost, David M; Bowen, Kayla

    2018-04-01

    The authors examined whether the perception of unequal relationship recognition, a novel, couple-level minority stressor, has negative consequences for mental health among same-sex couples. Data came from a dyadic study of 100 ( N = 200) same-sex couples in the U.S. Being in a legal marriage was associated with lower perceived unequal recognition and better mental health; being in a registered domestic partnership or civil union - not also legally married - was associated with greater perceived unequal recognition and worse mental health. Actor Partner Interdependence Models tested associations between legal relationship status, unequal relationship recognition, and mental health (nonspecific psychological distress, depressive symptomatology, and problematic drinking), net controls (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income). Unequal recognition was consistently associated with worse mental health, independent of legal relationship status. Legal changes affecting relationship recognition should not be seen as simple remedies for addressing the mental health effects of institutionalized discrimination.

  17. The Interaction of Same-Sex Marriage Access With Sexual Minority Identity on Mental Health and Subjective Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Alexander K

    2017-01-01

    Previous psychological and public health research has highlighted the impact of legal recognition of same-sex relationships on individual identity and mental health. Using a sample of U.S. sexual minority (N = 313) and heterosexual (N = 214) adults, participants completed a battery of mental health inventories prior to the nationwide legalization of same-sex marriage. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) examining identity revealed sexual minority participants living in states where same-sex marriage was banned experienced significantly higher levels of internalized homonegativity than sexual minority participants living in states where same-sex marriage was legal, even after controlling for state-level political climate. Mental health ANCOVAs revealed sexual minority participants residing in states without same-sex marriage experienced greater anxiety and lower subjective wellbeing compared to sexual minority participants residing in states with same-sex marriage and heterosexual participants residing in states with or without same-sex marriage. Implications for public policy and future research directions are discussed.

  18. Perceptions of Same-Sex Relationships and Marriage as Gender Role Violations: An Examination of Gendered Expectations (Sexism).

    PubMed

    Doyle, Carol M; Rees, Amy M; Titus, Tana L

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to add to the literature that has demonstrated a link between sexism and sexual prejudice. The study evaluated whether a community sample with an age range of 19-64 (n = 122), including 32% sexual minority participants, believe that dating, sex, and marriage with same-sex partners are perceived to be gender role violations. Results varied by participant sexual/gender identity (LGBTQ or heterosexual) and political ideology. Liberal LGBTQ persons do not see same-sex relationships as gender role violations; LGBTQ non-liberals and heterosexual liberals rated same-sex relationships as mild violations; and non-liberal heterosexuals perceive same-sex relationships as "moderate" violations. Our results suggest both positive movement in attitudes toward same-sex relationships, including same-sex marriage, and broader recognition that gender identity, gender role expression, and sexual orientation are separate and distinct components of one's overall sexual identity.

  19. Difference-in-Differences Analysis of the Association Between State Same-Sex Marriage Policies and Adolescent Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Raifman, Julia; Moscoe, Ellen; Austin, S. Bryn; McConnell, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Adolescents who are sexual minorities experience elevated rates of suicide attempts. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between state same-sex marriage policies and adolescent suicide attempts. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study used state-level Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) data from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2015, which are weighted to be representative of each state that has participation in the survey greater than 60%. A difference-in-differences analysis compared changes in suicide attempts among all public high school students before and after implementation of state policies in 32 states permitting same-sex marriage with year-to-year changes in suicide attempts among high school students in 15 states without policies permitting same-sex marriage. Linear regression was used to control for state, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and year, with Taylor series linearized standard errors clustered by state and classroom. In a secondary analysis among students who are sexual minorities, we included an interaction between sexual minority identity and living in a state that had implemented same-sex marriage policies. INTERVENTIONS Implementation of state policies permitting same-sex marriage during the full period of YRBSS data collection. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Self-report of 1 or more suicide attempts within the past 12 months. RESULTS Among the 762 678 students (mean [SD] age, 16.0 [1.2] years; 366 063 males and 396 615 females) who participated in the YRBSS between 1999 and 2015, a weighted 8.6% of all high school students and 28.5% of students who identified as sexual minorities reported suicide attempts before implementation of same-sex marriage policies. Same-sex marriage policies were associated with a 0.6–percentage point (95% CI, −1.2 to −0.01 percentage points) reduction in suicide attempts, representing a

  20. Difference-in-Differences Analysis of the Association Between State Same-Sex Marriage Policies and Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Raifman, Julia; Moscoe, Ellen; Austin, S Bryn; McConnell, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Adolescents who are sexual minorities experience elevated rates of suicide attempts. To evaluate the association between state same-sex marriage policies and adolescent suicide attempts. This study used state-level Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) data from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2015, which are weighted to be representative of each state that has participation in the survey greater than 60%. A difference-in-differences analysis compared changes in suicide attempts among all public high school students before and after implementation of state policies in 32 states permitting same-sex marriage with year-to-year changes in suicide attempts among high school students in 15 states without policies permitting same-sex marriage. Linear regression was used to control for state, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and year, with Taylor series linearized standard errors clustered by state and classroom. In a secondary analysis among students who are sexual minorities, we included an interaction between sexual minority identity and living in a state that had implemented same-sex marriage policies. Implementation of state policies permitting same-sex marriage during the full period of YRBSS data collection. Self-report of 1 or more suicide attempts within the past 12 months. Among the 762 678 students (mean [SD] age, 16.0 [1.2] years; 366 063 males and 396 615 females) who participated in the YRBSS between 1999 and 2015, a weighted 8.6% of all high school students and 28.5% of students who identified as sexual minorities reported suicide attempts before implementation of same-sex marriage policies. Same-sex marriage policies were associated with a 0.6-percentage point (95% CI, -1.2 to -0.01 percentage points) reduction in suicide attempts, representing a 7% relative reduction in the proportion of high school students attempting suicide owing to same-sex

  1. A critical appraisal of assimilationist and radical ideologies underlying same-sex marriage in LGBT communities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yep, Gust A; Lovaas, Karen E; Elia, John P

    2003-01-01

    Debates over same-sex marriage have reached the main stage of contemporary U.S. politics. The purpose of this essay is to identify and examine how sexual ideologies in U.S. LGBT communities inform and influence relationship construction in general and same-sex marriage in particular. To accomplish this, we first discuss the nature of sexual ideologies. Next, we identify current sexual ideologies in LGBT communities and examine some of their fundamental features and their implications for relationship construction with a focus on same-sex marriage. We conclude with a discussion of what is potentially gained and lost by same-sex matrimonial bonds and explore some of the prospects of relationship construction within LGBT communities in the future.

  2. Primary and Secondary Socialization Impacts on Support for Same-Sex Marriage after Legalization in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubbers, Marcel; Jaspers, Eva; Ultee, Wout

    2009-01-01

    Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one's attitude toward…

  3. LGBT Family Lawyers and Same-Sex Marriage Recognition: How Legal Change Shapes Professional Identity and Practice.

    PubMed

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2018-01-10

    Lawyers who practice family law for LGBT clients are key players in the tenuous and evolving legal environment surrounding same-sex marriage recognition. Building on prior research on factors shaping the professional identities of lawyers generally, and activist lawyers specifically, I examine how practice within a rapidly changing, patchwork legal environment shapes professional identity for this group of lawyers. I draw on interviews with 21 LGBT family lawyers to analyze how the unique features of LGBT family law shape their professional identities and practice, as well as their predictions about the development of the practice in a post-Obergefell world. Findings reveal that the professional identities and practice of LGBT family lawyers are shaped by uncertainty, characteristics of activist lawyering, community membership, and community service. Individual motivations and institutional forces work to generate a professional identity that is resilient and dynamic, characterized by skepticism and distrust coupled with flexibility and creativity. These features are likely to play a role in the evolution of the LGBT family lawyer professional identity post-marriage equality.

  4. Mortality among men and women in same-sex marriage: a national cohort study of 8333 Danes.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Morten; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    We studied overall mortality in a demographically defined, complete cohort of gay men and lesbians to address recent claims of markedly shorter life spans among homosexual persons. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) starting 1 year after the date of same-sex marriage for 4914 men and 3419 women in Denmark who married a same-sex partner between 1989 and 2004. Mortality was markedly increased in the first decade after same-sex marriage for men who married between 1989 and 1995 (SMR=2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.01, 2.50), but much less so for men who married after 1995, when efficient HIV/AIDS therapies were available (SMR=1.33; 95% CI=1.04, 1.68). For women who married their same-sex partner between 1989 and 2004, mortality was 34% higher than was mortality in the general female population (SMR=1.34; 95% CI=1.09, 1.63). For women, and for men marrying after 1995, the significant excess mortality was limited to the period 1 to 3 years after the marriage. Despite recent marked reduction in mortality among gay men, Danish men and women in same-sex marriages still have mortality rates that exceed those of the general population. The excess mortality is restricted to the first few years after a marriage, presumably reflecting preexisting illness at the time of marriage. Although further study is needed, the claims of drastically increased overall mortality in gay men and lesbians appear unjustified.

  5. Same-sex legal marriage and psychological well-being: findings from the California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Wight, Richard G; Leblanc, Allen J; Lee Badgett, M V

    2013-02-01

    We examined whether same-sex marriage was associated with nonspecific psychological distress among self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and whether it had the potential to offset mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals. Population-based data (weighted) were from the 2009 adult (aged 18-70 years) California Health Interview Survey. Within-group analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons included 1166 individuals (weighted proportion = 3.15%); within-group heterosexual analysis included 35 608 individuals (weighted proportion = 96.58%); and pooled analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals included 36 774 individuals. Same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons were significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship; married heterosexuals were significantly less distressed than nonmarried heterosexuals. In adjusted pairwise comparisons, married heterosexuals had the lowest psychological distress, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons who were not in legalized relationships had the highest psychological distress (P < .001). Psychological distress was not significantly distinguishable among same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in registered domestic partnerships, and heterosexuals. Being in a legally recognized same-sex relationship, marriage in particular, appeared to diminish mental health differentials between heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Researchers must continue to examine potential health benefits of same-sex marriage, which is at least in part a public health issue.

  6. "We are Two of the Lucky Ones": Experiences with Marriage and Wellbeing for Same-Sex Couples.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Heather R; Dalla, Rochelle L; Dreesman, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Happy marriages provide protective health benefits, and social support is a key factor in this association. However, previous research indicates one of the greatest differences between same- and different-sex couples is less social support for same-sex couples. Our goal was to examine the extent to which formal markers of couple status (e.g., marriage) impact wellbeing among same-sex married partners. Using a mixed-methods approach, data were collected from 218 primarily White gay and lesbian individuals in the Midwest. Quantitative analysis revealed individuals in a prior formal union with a different-sex partner reported the lowest levels of sexuality specific social support and acceptance. Qualitative analysis revealed four primary impacts of marriage on support from family, friends, and co-workers: no change, increased support, decreased support, and a synthesis of mixed support. Three mechanisms prompting change in the family were identified and are presented.

  7. Social Work Faculty Support for Same-Sex Marriage: A Cross-National Study of U.S. and Anglophone Canadian MSW Teaching Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Luke, Katherine P.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Gutierrez, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Attention to same-sex marriage has increased in the past decade. This study examines the perceptions of same-sex marriage among social work faculty. Faculty play a critical role in preparing future social workers for competent, ethical practice--including advocacy for social policies inclusive of sexual minorities. The present study investigates…

  8. Registered Domestic Partnerships, Same-Sex Marriage, and the Pursuit of Equality in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willetts, Marion C.

    2011-01-01

    Policies in California are examined to inform analysts of the process by which legal recognition of same-sex relationships may be achieved. Content analysis was conducted of relevant legislation, court cases, and voter initiatives, along with interviews with state legislators to gain an eyewitness understanding of the social climate surrounding…

  9. Commitment without Marriage: Union Formation among Long-Term Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reczek, Corinne; Elliott, Sinikka; Umberson, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The majority of Americans will marry in their lifetimes, and for many, marriage symbolizes the transition into long-term commitment. However, many Americans cannot legally marry. This article analyzes in-depth interviews with gays and lesbians in long-term partnerships to examine union formation and commitment-making histories. Using a life course…

  10. [Surrogate pregnancy with regard to marriage between persons of the same sex].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    After first defining surrogacy, distinguishing between cases in which the pregnancy results from the surrogate's own egg or a donor egg, and examining the different configurations of male homosexual families, the authors outline French and foreign legislation and provide a summary of the literature and of French working group hearings. Arguments for and against lifting the ban on surrogacy for gay couples are examined. The main arguments for lifting the ban are the following: 1) the same-sex couple's desire to start a family from their own gene pool, 2) current obstacles to adoption, 3) the notion of equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples, 4) frequent recourse to surrogacy abroad, which is not only very costly but also leaves the child in a state of legal limbo on its return to France, and 5) the lack of access to therapeutic alternatives. Some arguments against lifting the ban are of a medical nature: (1) physical and psychological risks for the surrogate, 2) the fact that exchanges between the mother and fetus during pregnancy are more complex than previously thought (microchimerism, epigenetics) and never negligible, and 3) the physical and psychological risks for the child. Other arguments are of an ethical nature: 1) surrogacy may undermine the status of motherhood, 2) surrogacy is becoming a societal rather than a medical issue, implying a profound bioethical upheaval, 3) the increasing commercialization of the human body, 4) subjugation of women to men's desires, 5) the risks for the surrogate's own couple and children, and for the host couple, 6) unavoidable financial aspects, and (7) the risk of abuse. The aim of this study is to bring together all the factors potentially influencing the health consequences of surrogacy, for both the mother and the child, especially if surrogacy were to be legalized for male homosexual couples. Surrogacy raises issues far beyond purely medical considerations and is primarily a societal issue that must be

  11. Same-Sex Couples' Decisions and Experiences of Marriage in the Context of Minority Stress: Interviews From a Population-Based Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Rostosky, Sharon S; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rothblum, Esther D; Balsam, Kimberly F

    2016-08-01

    In the emerging context of marriage equality, it is important to explore the reasons for and experience of marriage for long-term same-sex couples, including the role of minority stress. In Wave 3 of the population-based, longitudinal CUPPLES Study we interviewed 21 long-term same-sex couples (14 female, 7 male) who resided in 12 different states and who were legally married. Couple members ranged in age from 37 to 84 and reported being together as a couple from 15 to 41 years. Seven couples lived in states that did not recognize their marriage at the time of the interview. Legal protection and social validation emerged as the two primary domains that captured couples' lived experiences of marriage. Minority stress experiences emerged in the narratives in the context of couples' long-term commitment, the availability of civil marriage, and couples' participation in activist efforts on behalf of marriage equality for themselves and others.

  12. Same-sex marriage, autoimmune thyroid gland dysfunction and other autoimmune diseases in Denmark 1989-2008.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Morten; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been little studied in gay men and lesbians. We followed 4.4 million Danes, including 9,615 same-sex married (SSM) persons, for 47 autoimmune diseases in the National Patient Registry between 1989 and 2008. Poisson regression analyses provided first hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between SSM individuals and persons in other marital status categories. SSM individuals experienced no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the risk of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction was increased, notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis (women(SSM), RR = 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-4.55) and Graves' disease (men(SSM), RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.08-3.01). There was also an excess of primary biliary cirrhosis (women(SSM), RR = 4.09; 95% CI 1.01-10.7), and of psoriasis (men(SSM), RR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.77-3.36), rheumatic fever (men(SSM), RR = 7.55; 95% CI 1.87-19.8), myasthenia gravis (men(SSM), RR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.36-14.4), localized scleroderma (men(SSM), RR = 7.16; 95% CI 1.18-22.6) and pemphigoid (men(SSM), RR = 6.56; 95% CI 1.08-20.6), while Dupuytren's contracture was reduced (men(SSM), RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-0.99). The excess of psoriasis was restricted to same-sex married men with HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 10.5; 95% CI 6.44-15.9), whereas Graves' disease occurred in excess only among same-sex married men without HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.12-3.22). Lesbians and immunologically competent gay men in same-sex marriage face no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the observed increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in these lesbians and gay men deserves further study.

  13. Beyond Homonegativity: Understanding Hong Kong People's Attitudes About Social Acceptance of Gay/Lesbian People, Sexual Orientation Discrimination Protection, and Same-Sex Marriage.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Chu, Tsz Hang

    2017-09-13

    This study examined attitudes about social acceptance, discrimination protection, and marriage equality for gay/lesbian people with a representative sample of 1,008 Hong Kong Chinese adults via a telephone survey. Despite majority endorsement of homosexuality (52.29% positive vs. 34.12% negative) and discrimination protection (50.72% favorable vs. 14.64% opposed), attitudes toward same-sex marriage diverged (32.79% favorable vs. 39.41% opposed). There was a sharp distinction in accepting gay/lesbian people as co-workers (83.57%) and friends (76.92%) versus relatives (40.19%). Having more homosexual/bisexual friends or co-workers contributed to greater endorsement of social acceptance and discrimination protection but not same-sex marriage. Age, religion, political orientation, and homonegativity consistently predicted attitudes toward social acceptance, discrimination protection, and same-sex marriage, whereas gender-role beliefs, conformity to norms, and cultural orientations had varying impacts. This article informs theory and advocacy by disentangling homonegativity from attitudes about gay/lesbian issues and highlighting the centrality of family-kinship and relative-outsider delineation in Chinese societies.

  14. Same-sex sexual behaviors among male migrants in a context of male "marriage squeeze": results from an exploratory survey in urban Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Yang, Bo

    2012-11-01

    The male marriage squeeze in China may increase the prevalence of male same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants who lack stable female sexual partners. The same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants appear to be at high risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly because of a lack of knowledge of these diseases. Using data from the "Survey on Reproductive Health and Family Life of Migrant Male Bachelors in Urban Areas" conducted in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, in December 2009 and January 2010, this study compares same-sex sexual behaviors of unmarried with that of married male migrants (including married but separated men who are migrating without their spouse or partner and cohabitating men who are migrating with their spouse or partner). It is reported that the prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried males reaches 11%, more than twice the 5.1% reported by married but separated men and thrice the 3.8% reported by cohabitating men. It also appears that the same-sex sexual behaviors is significantly associated with men's attitudes toward same-sex sexual behaviors (odds ratio = 1.59, p < .001), toward life-long bachelorhood (odds ratio = 1.35, p < .01), and with marital status (odds ratio = 0.37, p < .01). The frequency of condom use appears to be higher among unmarried men than among men who are married, whether or not they migrated with their wives, and is significantly associated with scores on knowledge about HIV/AIDS (estimated coefficient = .12, p < .001) and STIs (estimated coefficient = .22, p < .01). It is also associated with the likelihood of same-sex sexual behaviors (estimated coefficients = .83, p < .01) and marital status (estimated coefficients for married but separated = -.50, p < .05; estimated coefficients for cohabitating = -.77, p < .001).

  15. Does the "marriage benefit" extend to same-sex union?: Evidence from a sample of married lesbian couples in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Jamie K; Kollar, Marilou M

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between wellbeing and marital quality in a married lesbian sample from Massachusetts. Two hundred twenty five (225) participants responded to this mailed survey study. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Instrument (WHOQOL-Bref). DAS scores were a strong predictor of reported wellbeing in all quality of life domains including physical, psychological, and financial wellbeing. Results support the finding in the heterosexual marriage literature that healthy marriage is associated with distinct wellbeing benefits for lesbian couples. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Sexual Minority Stress and Same-Sex Relationship Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis of Research Prior to the U.S. Nationwide Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongjian; Zhou, Nan; Fine, Mark; Liang, Yue; Li, Jiayao; Mills-Koonce, W Roger

    2017-10-01

    Meta-analytic methods were used to analyze 179 effect sizes retrieved from 32 research reports on the implications that sexual minority stress may have for same-sex relationship well-being. Sexual minority stress (aggregated across different types of stress) was moderately and negatively associated with same-sex relationship well-being (aggregated across different dimensions of relationship well-being). Internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively associated with same-sex relationship well-being, whereas heterosexist discrimination and sexual orientation visibility management were not. Moreover, the effect size for internalized homophobia was significantly larger than those for heterosexist discrimination and sexual orientation visibility management. Sexual minority stress was significantly and negatively associated with same-sex relationship quality but not associated with closeness or stability. Sexual minority stress was significantly and negatively associated with relationship well-being among same-sex female couples but not among same-sex male couples. The current status of research approaches in this field was also summarized and discussed.

  17. The use and abuse of religious beliefs in dividing and conquering between socially marginalized groups: the same-sex marriage debate.

    PubMed

    Greene, Beverly

    2009-11-01

    This article discusses the use and abuse of religious beliefs and their role in divide-and-conquer strategies. Divide-and-conquer strategies are engaged to disrupt potential coalitions between and among marginalized group members, specifically sexual minority groups and people of color. Tensions between these groups have been exacerbated by the debate on same-sex marriage and comparisons between the discriminatory treatment of each group. A component of this discussion includes a brief exploration of one of the historical abuses of religious doctrine used to legitimize the marginalization of people of color and sexual minorities in the United States. For African Americans, one form of marginalization was reflected in criminalizing interracial marriage, and for members of sexual minority groups, a form of marginalization is denying group members the right to marry. The author also explores culturally competent and respectful disciplinary and clinical responses to religiously derived prejudice against sexual minority group members and people of color and discusses the implications for multicultural discourse. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association

  18. Structural stigma and the health and wellbeing of Australian LGB populations: Exploiting geographic variation in the results of the 2017 same-sex marriage plebiscite.

    PubMed

    Perales, Francisco; Todd, Abram

    2018-05-14

    Lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) people experience poorer life outcomes than heterosexual people, with ongoing debates about the aetiology of these differences. Minority stress theory draws attention to the importance of structural stigma, which concerns hostile social environments for sexual minorities that constrain their opportunity structures. Yet few studies have operationalised structural stigma and tested its influence, with most focusing on the US context; even fewer studies examine the underlying mechanisms. This study expands the available evidence to Australia, which constitutes an interesting case study due to the implementation in late 2017 of a national postal plebiscite on same-sex marriage legislation. It also adds to knowledge by theorising and testing the mediating role of perceived social support in explaining the association between structural stigma and the life outcomes of LGB people. The analyses leverage geographical variation at the electorate level (n = 150) in the share of 'No' voters in the plebiscite as a measure of structural stigma. This aggregate-level information is merged to individual-level data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, a large, national probability sample (n∽15,000). Multilevel regression models yield results which are consistent with minority stress theory and previous US scholarship: LGB people report comparatively worse life satisfaction, mental health and overall health in constituencies with higher shares of 'No' voters, controlling for a large set of individual- and aggregate-level confounds. Perceived social support mediates a large portion of the effects of structural stigma on LGB outcomes. These findings have significant implications for policy and practice, highlighting the need for interventions aimed at reducing community levels of structural stigma and increasing social support to LGB populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The immediate eff ect of the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement on HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men in Nigeria: analysis of prospective data from the TRUST cohort.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Nowak, Rebecca G; Orazulike, Ifeanyi; Keshinro, Babajide; Ake, Julie; Kennedy, Sara; Njoku, Ogbonnaya; Blattner, William A; Charurat, Manhattan E; Baral, Stefan D

    2015-07-01

    In January, 2014, the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act was signed into law in Nigeria, further criminalising same-sex sexual relationships. We aimed to assess the immediate effect of this prohibition act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement in HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. The TRUST cohort study uses respondent-driven sampling to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of engagement of MSM in HIV prevention and treatment services at a clinical site located with a community-based organisation trusted by the MSM community. TRUST is a prospective implementation research cohort of MSM (≥16 years) in Abuja, Nigeria. We compared HIV clinical outcomes and stigma, including fear and avoidance of health care, across baseline and quarterly visits before and after implementation of the the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act. Outcomes assessed were measures of stigma and discrimination, loss to follow-up, antiretroviral therapy status, and viral load. We compared outcomes before and after the legislation with χ2 statistics, and estimated incident stigma-related events and loss to follow-up with Poisson regression. Between March 19, 2013, and Aug 7, 2014, 707 MSM participated in baseline study procedures, contributing to 756 before legislation (prelaw) and 420 after legislation (postlaw) visits. Reported history of fear of seeking health care was significantly higher in postlaw visits than in prelaw visits (n=161 [38%] vs n=187 [25%]; p<0・0001), as was avoidance of health care (n=118 [28%] vs n=151 [20%]; p=0・001). In incidence analyses, of 192 MSM with follow-up data and no history of an event at baseline, reported fear of seeking health care was higher in the postlaw than the prelaw period (n=144; incidence rate ratio 2・57, 95% CI 1・29–5・10; p=0・007); loss to follow-up and incident healthcare avoidance were similar across periods. Of the 161 (89%) of 181 HIV-infected MSM with HIV viral loads

  20. The immediate effect of the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement on HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men in Nigeria: analysis of prospective data from the TRUST cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Nowak, Rebecca G; Orazulike, Ifeanyi; Keshinro, Babajide; Ake, Julie; Kennedy, Sara; Njoku, Ogbonnaya; Blattner, William A; Charurat, Manhattan E; Baral, Stefan D

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background In January, 2014, the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act was signed into law in Nigeria, further criminalising same-sex sexual relationships. We aimed to assess the immediate effect of this prohibition act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement in HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. Methods The TRUST cohort study uses respondent-driven sampling to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of engagement of MSM in HIV prevention and treatment services at a clinical site located with a community-based organisation trusted by the MSM community. TRUST is a prospective implementation research cohort of MSM (≥16 years) in Abuja, Nigeria. We compared HIV clinical outcomes and stigma, including fear and avoidance of health care, across baseline and quarterly visits before and after implementation of the the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act. Outcomes assessed were measures of stigma and discrimination, loss to follow-up, antiretroviral therapy status, and viral load. We compared outcomes before and after the legislation with χ2 statistics, and estimated incident stigma-related events and loss to follow-up with Poisson regression. Findings Between March 19, 2013, and Aug 7, 2014, 707 MSM participated in baseline study procedures, contributing to 756 before legislation (prelaw) and 420 after legislation (postlaw) visits. Reported history of fear of seeking health care was significantly higher in postlaw visits than in prelaw visits (n=161 [38%] vs n=187 [25%]; p<0.0001), as was avoidance of health care (n=118 [28%] vs n=151 [20%]; p=0.001). In incidence analyses, of 192 MSM with follow-up data and no history of an event at baseline, reported fear of seeking health care was higher in the postlaw than the prelaw period (n=144; incidence rate ratio 2.57, 95% CI 1.29–5.10; p=0.007); loss to follow-up and incident healthcare avoidance were similar across periods. Of the 161 (89%) of 181 HIV-infected MSM with

  1. Marriage, mental illness and law

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  2. ’Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’: The Law and Military Policy on Same-Sex Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-14

    created a legal avenue via which homosexuals could announce their sexuality without being discharged. Shortly afterward, the Department of Defense...increase in statement cases. Discharges for homosexual acts and marriages has declined by 20% over the past three years [1994-1997]. Second, most of those...continuation of homosexual discharges while addressing legal concerns over the wording of the previous policy.39 The active duty force numbered approximately

  3. 22 CFR 52.3 - Certification as to marriage laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification as to marriage laws. 52.3 Section 52.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS MARRIAGES § 52.3 Certification as to marriage laws. Although a consular officer may have knowledge respecting the laws of marriage...

  4. 22 CFR 52.3 - Certification as to marriage laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certification as to marriage laws. 52.3 Section 52.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS MARRIAGES § 52.3 Certification as to marriage laws. Although a consular officer may have knowledge respecting the laws of marriage...

  5. 22 CFR 52.3 - Certification as to marriage laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certification as to marriage laws. 52.3 Section 52.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS MARRIAGES § 52.3 Certification as to marriage laws. Although a consular officer may have knowledge respecting the laws of marriage...

  6. 20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized in a formal... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13...

  7. 20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized in a formal... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13...

  8. 20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized in a formal... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13...

  9. 20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized in a formal... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13...

  10. 20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized in a formal...

  11. Attitudes toward Gay Marriage in States Undergoing Marriage Law Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumbaugh, Stacey M.; Sanchez, Laura A.; Nock, Steven L.; Wright, James D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines attitudes toward gay marriage within the context of concern over the weakening of heterosexual marriage. We use data from a three-state survey conducted in 1998 - 2000 and designed to explore attitudes toward marriage and divorce reform (N = 976). We find that women, Whites, and younger persons are more approving of gay…

  12. China's Marriage Law: a model for family responsibilities and relationships.

    PubMed

    Hare-Mustin, R T

    1982-12-01

    China's Marriage Law of 1981 is presented with a brief commentary. The law encompasses the responsibilities of spouses, parents, children, grandparents, and siblings to one another. The new law is contrasted with the 1950 Marriage Law, which prohibited such feudal practices of former times as arranged marriages and child betrothals. The 1981 law is concerned with equality and the lawful needs of women, children, and the aged. Family planning is encouraged. Divorce is made easier to obtain. Adoptees and stepchildren are provided for. The law provides a legislative model for personal relationships.

  13. Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2015-02-01

    It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would affect (different-sex) family formation. In this article, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980-2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including the construction of counterfactuals using the synthetic control method. In addition, the country-by-country case studies provide evidence of homogeneity of the estimated effects.

  14. Minimum Marriage Age Laws and the Prevalence of Child Marriage and Adolescent Birth: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Maswikwa, Belinda; Richter, Linda; Kaufman, Jay; Nandi, Arijit

    2015-06-01

    The relationship of national laws that prohibit child marriage with the prevalence of child marriage and adolescent birth is not well understood. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys and from the Child Marriage Database created by the MACHEquity program at McGill University were used to examine the relationship between laws that consistently set the age for marriage for girls at 18 or older and the prevalence of child marriage and teenage childbearing in 12 Sub-Saharan African countries. Countries were considered to have consistent laws against child marriage if they required females to be 18 or older to marry, to marry with parental consent and to consent to sex. Associations between consistent laws and the two outcomes were identified using multivariate regression models. Four of the 12 countries had laws that consistently set the minimum age for marriage at 18 or older. After adjustment for covariates, the prevalence of child marriage was 40% lower in countries with consistent laws against child marriage than in countries without consistent laws against the practice (prevalence ratio, 0.6). The prevalence of teenage childbearing was 25% lower in countries with consistent minimum marriage age laws than in countries without consistent laws (0.8). Our results support the hypothesis that consistent minimum marriage age laws protect against the exploitation of girls.

  15. Your Legal Guide to Marriage and Other Relationships. You and the Law Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Public Education Div.

    With marriage laws in a state of flux, it is difficult to give unqualified answers to many of the serious and important questions people ask about law and marriage. To a great extent, each state is sovereign in the laws affecting marriage. Courts are playing an active role in defining and changing the legal consequences of marriage and other…

  16. Children's Judgments and Reasoning About Same-Sex Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C; Cosentino, Nicole

    2018-05-01

    Children's (5-, 7- to 8-, and 10- to 11-year-olds), and adolescents' (13- to 14-year-olds) judgments and reasoning about same-sex romantic relationships were examined (N = 128). Participants' beliefs about the acceptability and legal regulation of these relationships were assessed, along with their judgments and beliefs about excluding someone because of his or her sexual orientation and the origins of same-sex attraction. Older participants evaluated same-sex romantic relationships more positively and used more references to personal choice and justice/discrimination reasoning to support their judgments. Younger participants were less critical of a law prohibiting same-sex relationships and were more likely to believe it was not acceptable to violate this law. Beliefs about origins of same-sex attraction showed age-specific patterns in their associations with evaluations. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Same-sex reproduction: medical treatment options and psychosocial considerations.

    PubMed

    Greenfeld, Dorothy A; Seli, Emre

    2016-06-01

    This review provides an overview of the historical significance of assisted reproduction for gay men and women, discusses current reproductive options for same-sex couples, addresses psychosocial considerations unique to these couples, and reviews the current literature addressing medical and psychosocial aspects of same-sex reproduction. Growing numbers of men and women openly self-identify as gay and lesbian. Accompanying this openness is an increased public acceptance of same-sex relationships and same-sex marriage. The combination of gay/lesbian self-determination and mounting public acceptance of same-sex unions has led these individuals and couples to increasingly seek parenthood through assisted reproduction. Recent studies describe relationship satisfaction in gay couples after assisted reproduction and more positive functioning and less stress associated with parenthood when compared with heterosexual parents. Motivations for parenthood are the same for same-sex couples and heterosexual couples alike. However, achieving the goal of parenthood can be a much greater endeavor medically and psychologically for same-sex couples. Fertility treatment centers increasingly recognize issues unique to gay men and women and are increasingly welcoming.

  18. HIV Risk among MSM in Senegal: A Qualitative Rapid Assessment of the Impact of Enforcing Laws That Criminalize Same Sex Practices

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, Tonia; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ndaw, Marieme; Traore, Cheikh; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV in Senegal, with a prevalence of 21.5%. In December 2008, nine male HIV prevention workers were imprisoned for “acts against nature” prohibited by Senegalese law. This qualitative study assessed the impact of these arrests on HIV prevention efforts. A purposive sample of MSM in six regions of Senegal was recruited by network referral. 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in July–August 2009. 14 key informants were also interviewed. All participants reported pervasive fear and hiding among MSM as a result of the December 2008 arrests and publicity. Service providers suspended HIV prevention work with MSM out of fear for their own safety. Those who continued to provide services noticed a sharp decline in MSM participation. An effective response to the HIV epidemic in Senegal should include active work to decrease enforcement of this law. PMID:22194906

  19. Marriage in the People's Republic of China: Analysis of a New Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes those articles of China's marriage law that deal with marriage contracts. Articles relevant to arranged marriage, marriage by purchase and dowry customs, concubinage or polygamy, marriage restrictions, rituals, and residence customs are analyzed in terms of their contexts in traditional and modern China. Implications are discussed.…

  20. The death of marriage? The effects of new forms of legal recognition on marriage rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dillender, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    Some conservative groups argue that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the value of marriage to opposite-sex couples. This article examines how changes in U.S. legal recognition laws occurring between 1995 and 2010 designed to include same-sex couples have altered marriage rates in the United States. Using a difference-in-differences strategy that compares how marriage rates change after legal recognition in U.S. states that alter legal recognition versus states that do not, I find no evidence that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the opposite-sex marriage rate. Although the opposite-sex marriage rate is unaffected by same-sex couples marrying, it decreases when domestic partnerships are available to opposite-sex couples.

  1. The effects of unequal access to health insurance for same-sex couples in California.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Ninez A; Cochran, Susan D; Pizer, Jennifer C; Mays, Vickie M

    2010-08-01

    Inequities in marriage laws and domestic partnership benefits may have implications for who bears the burden of health care costs. We examined a recent period in California to illuminate disparities in health insurance coverage faced by same-sex couples. Partnered gay men are less than half as likely (42 percent) as married heterosexual men to get employer-sponsored dependent coverage, and partnered lesbians have an even slimmer chance (28 percent) of getting dependent coverage compared to married heterosexual women. As a result of these much lower rates of employer-provided coverage, partnered lesbians and gay men are more than twice as likely to be uninsured as married heterosexuals. The exclusion of gay men and women from civil marriage and the failure of domestic partnership benefits to provide insurance parity contribute to unequal access to health coverage, with the probable result that more health spending is pushed onto these individuals and onto the public.

  2. The Effects Of Unequal Access To Health Insurance For Same-Sex Couples In California

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Ninez A.; Cochran, Susan D.; Pizer, Jennifer C.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2013-01-01

    Inequities in marriage laws and domestic partnership benefits may have implications for who bears the burden of health care costs. We examined a recent period in California to illuminate disparities in health insurance coverage faced by same-sex couples. Partnered gay men are less than half as likely (42 percent) as married heterosexual men to get employer-sponsored dependent coverage, and partnered lesbians have an even slimmer chance (28 percent) of getting dependent coverage compared to married heterosexual women. As a result of these much lower rates of employer-provided coverage, partnered lesbians and gay men are more than twice as likely to be uninsured as married heterosexuals. The exclusion of gay men and women from civil marriage and the failure of domestic partnership benefits to provide insurance parity contribute to unequal access to health coverage, with the probable result that more health spending is pushed onto these individuals and onto the public. PMID:20576694

  3. Psychologists' Advocacy for the Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyer, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by G. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective." Herek provided a useful overview of psychological research relevant to the legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Another avenue of advocacy that the American Psychological Association could undertake…

  4. 75 FR 32247 - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees Memorandum for the Heads of Executive..., consistent with existing law, in order to extend benefits to the same-sex domestic partners of Federal employees, and, where applicable, to the children of same-sex domestic partners of Federal employees: (a...

  5. 3 CFR - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners... Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees Memorandum for the Heads of... the following actions, consistent with existing law, in order to extend benefits to the same-sex...

  6. Gender and Sexual Health: Same-Sex Relationships.

    PubMed

    Conniff, James

    2016-10-01

    A transformation in legal and cultural attitudes toward same-sex relationships is under way nationwide. As same-sex marriage has become legal, the unique social and medicolegal issues faced by individuals in same-sex relationships are evolving rapidly. National organizations have published recommendations for making clinical environments more inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) individuals and their families. Medical issues for patients in same-sex relationships include a higher risk of HIV infection for men who have sex with men (a majority of new cases of HIV infection occur within relationships), higher rates of obesity among women who have sex with women, and disproportionately high rates of mental health issues and alcohol and drug use. Screening and prevention strategies for reducing these risks include cancer and infectious disease screening, immunization for human papillomavirus, and preexposure prophylaxis for HIV. More LGBQ individuals are becoming parents. Clinicians can assist patients in this process by being aware of local resources for adoption, assisted reproductive techniques, and parenting. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  7. In-law Relationships Before and After Marriage

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Gilligan, Megan; VanderDrift, Laura; Pitzer, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Relationships with in-laws play an important role in individuals’ lives, but we do not know how these ties are formed. We considered two pathways through which early relationships with mothers-in-laws may affect subsequent in-law relationship qualities: a) dimensions of the early relationship and, b) beliefs and expectations of the future relationship. Sixty men and women engaged to be married and their mothers (N = 240) completed interviews prior to, and 6 to 8 months following the wedding. Measures at Time 1 assessed three dimensions of the in-law relationship: a) behavioral (contact by phone, in person), b) emotional (positive and negative relationship qualities), and c) cognitive (knowledge about the other person). Participants also described positive and negative expectations of their future tie. Multilevel models revealed that dimensions of the tie prior to the marriage were associated with post-wedding in-law relationship qualities. When the parties had individual contact with one another and positive feelings before the wedding, ties were stronger following the wedding. Data from open-ended descriptions of negative expectations obtained before the wedding predicted negative relationship qualities after the wedding. Husbands, wives, and mothers-in-law showed similar patterns with regard to relationship qualities. Discussion focuses on the role of early emotional qualities of the in-law tie for subsequent in-law relationships. PMID:23794954

  8. Overcoming Bias toward Same-Sex Couples: A Case Study from inside an MFT Ethics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Laurie L.; Thomas, Dina; Thornton, Matthew L.

    2005-01-01

    This article illustrates a teaching case in which a marriage and family therapy (MFT) trainee learned to develop cultural sensitivity toward same-sex couples despite religious beliefs that put her at risk of discriminating against that population. The case took place during a marriage and family therapy ethics course in the spring of 2003. From…

  9. "More Closeted Than Gayness Itself": The Depiction of Same-Sex Couple Violence in Newspaper Media.

    PubMed

    Estes, Michelle L; Webber, Gretchen R

    2017-10-01

    Same-sex intimate partner violence (IPV) lacks mainstream news media coverage. News media report on those stories that are most prominent, and these stories are often shaped and presented within a White, heterosexual, upper-class, male framework. This framework largely ignores or misrepresents those that do not fit these characteristics, resulting in a gap in research and coverage of same-sex IPV. This article explores whether U.S. newspapers cover same-sex IPV, how often, and how same-sex couple violence is portrayed in newspapers when covered. Twenty-five newspaper articles published from 2005 to 2015, 10 years prior to the U.S. Supreme Court decision that legalized same-sex marriage, were located and analyzed. Findings indicate sparse newspaper coverage of IPV in same-sex couples. Ten articles highlight the lack of coverage and knowledge related to same-sex couple IPV. Eighteen articles address same-sex IPV as a social issue and highlight resource concerns, police involvement, and heteronormativity and heterosexism. Sixteen articles depict specific instances of IPV in same-sex couples. The overall lack of coverage and how same-sex IPV is covered remains problematic and limited. More mainstream and accurate coverage is needed to effectively address this social issue. Limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.

  10. National and state-specific health insurance disparities for adults in same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Blewett, Lynn A

    2014-02-01

    We examined national and state-specific disparities in health insurance coverage, specifically employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage, for adults in same-sex relationships. We used data from the American Community Survey to identify adults (aged 25-64 years) in same-sex relationships (n = 31,947), married opposite-sex relationships (n = 3,060,711), and unmarried opposite-sex relationships (n = 259,147). We estimated multinomial logistic regression models and state-specific relative differences in ESI coverage with predictive margins. Men and women in same-sex relationships were less likely to have ESI than were their married counterparts in opposite-sex relationships. We found ESI disparities among adults in same-sex relationships in every region, but we found the largest ESI gaps for men in the South and for women in the Midwest. ESI disparities were narrower in states that had extended legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, and broad domestic partnerships. Men and women in same-sex relationships experience disparities in health insurance coverage across the country, but residing in a state that recognizes legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, or broad domestic partnerships may improve access to ESI for same-sex spouses and domestic partners.

  11. National and State-Specific Health Insurance Disparities for Adults in Same-Sex Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Blewett, Lynn A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined national and state-specific disparities in health insurance coverage, specifically employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage, for adults in same-sex relationships. Methods. We used data from the American Community Survey to identify adults (aged 25–64 years) in same-sex relationships (n = 31 947), married opposite-sex relationships (n = 3 060 711), and unmarried opposite-sex relationships (n = 259 147). We estimated multinomial logistic regression models and state-specific relative differences in ESI coverage with predictive margins. Results. Men and women in same-sex relationships were less likely to have ESI than were their married counterparts in opposite-sex relationships. We found ESI disparities among adults in same-sex relationships in every region, but we found the largest ESI gaps for men in the South and for women in the Midwest. ESI disparities were narrower in states that had extended legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, and broad domestic partnerships. Conclusions. Men and women in same-sex relationships experience disparities in health insurance coverage across the country, but residing in a state that recognizes legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, or broad domestic partnerships may improve access to ESI for same-sex spouses and domestic partners. PMID:24328616

  12. The Advantage of Same-Sex Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollam, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Considered are advantages of summer science programs limited to young high school women. Same sex courses are seen to eliminate unconscious gender bias in instruction and counter tendencies for female students to be less involved in science, mathematics, and computer activities. Four specific programs are briefly described. (DB)

  13. Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

  14. Moderate Effects of Same-Sex Legislation on Dependent Employer-Based Insurance Coverage among Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Linda Diem

    2016-01-01

    A difference-in-difference approach was used to compare the effects of same-sex domestic partnership, civil union, and marriage policies on same- and different-sex partners who could have benefitted from their partners’ employer-based insurance (EBI) coverage. Same-sex partners had 78% lower odds (ME=-21%) of having EBI compared to different-sex partners, adjusting for socioeconomic and health-related factors. Same-sex partners living in states that recognized same-sex marriage or domestic partnership had 89% greater odds of having EBI compared to those in states that did not recognize same-sex unions (ME=5%). The impact of same-sex legislation on increasing take-up of dependent EBI coverage among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals (LGBs) was modest, and domestic partnership legislation was equally as effective as same-sex marriage in increasing same-sex partner EBI coverage. Extending dependent EBI coverage to same-sex partners can mitigate gaps in coverage for a segment of the LGB population but will not eliminate them. PMID:26762647

  15. Moderate Effects of Same-Sex Legislation on Dependent Employer-Based Insurance Coverage Among Sexual Minorities.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem

    2016-12-01

    A difference-in-difference approach was used to compare the effects of same-sex domestic partnership, civil union, and marriage policies on same- and different-sex partners who could have benefitted from their partners' employer-based insurance (EBI) coverage. Same-sex partners had 78% lower odds (Marginal Effect = -21%) of having EBI compared with different-sex partners, adjusting for socioeconomic and health-related factors. Same-sex partners living in states that recognized same-sex marriage or domestic partnership had 89% greater odds of having EBI compared with those in states that did not recognize same-sex unions (ME = 5%). The impact of same-sex legislation on increasing take-up of dependent EBI coverage among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals was modest, and domestic partnership legislation was equally as effective as same-sex marriage in increasing same-sex partner EBI coverage. Extending dependent EBI coverage to same-sex partners can mitigate gaps in coverage for a segment of the lesbians, gay men, and bisexual population but will not eliminate them. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy; Brown, Susan; Stykes, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life. PMID:27383844

  17. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart

    2016-08-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.

  18. Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations.

  19. When Families Present with Concerns about an Adolescent's Experience of Same-Sex Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarhouse, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the American Association for Marital and Family Therapy's Code of Ethics to explore ways in which marriage and family therapists can provide services within the framework of existing ethical principles and standards for accountability and professionalism to families with an adolescent child experiencing same-sex attraction. (Author/MKA)

  20. Disparities in health insurance among children with same-sex parents.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Blewett, Lynn A

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine disparities in health insurance coverage for children with same-sex parents and to investigate how statewide policies such as same-sex marriage and second-parent adoptions affect children's private insurance coverage. We used data from the 2008-2010 American Community Survey to identify children (aged 0-17 years) with same-sex parents (n = 5081), married opposite-sex parents (n = 1369789), and unmarried opposite-sex parents (n = 101678). We conducted multinomial logistic regression models to estimate the relationship between family type and type of health insurance coverage for all children and then stratified by each child's state policy environment. Although 77.5% of children with married opposite-sex parents had private health insurance, only 63.3% of children with dual fathers and 67.5% with dual mothers were covered by private health plans. Children with same-sex parents had fewer odds of private insurance after controlling for demographic characteristics but not to the extent of children with unmarried opposite-sex parents. Differences in private insurance diminished for children with dual mothers after stratifying children in states with legal same-sex marriage or civil unions. Living in a state that allowed second-parent adoptions also predicted narrower disparities in private insurance coverage for children with dual fathers or dual mothers. Disparities in private health insurance for children with same-sex parents diminish when they live in states that secure their legal relationship to both parents. This study provides supporting evidence in favor of recent policy statements by the American Academy of Pediatricians endorsing same-sex marriage and second-parent adoptions.

  1. Windsor and Perry: reactions of siblings in same-sex and heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jennifer B; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rostosky, Sharon S; Rothblum, Esther D; Balsam, Kimberly F

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court decisions in U.S. v. Windsor (570 U.S. 307) and Hollingsworth v. Perry (570 U.S. 399) created a focal point for public discussion of marriage equality for same-sex couples. This article reports the results of an exploratory study of the reactions of individuals currently or previously in same-sex couple relationships and a heterosexual sibling who is currently or previously married (N = 371) to the Supreme Court decisions. Thematic content analysis was used to explore participants' responses to an open-ended question on a survey. Reactions of individuals from same-sex couples revealed the following themes: (1) longitudinal perspectives on the advancement of rights for same-sex couples; (2) emotional responses celebrating the decisions or expressing relief; (3) affirmation of their relationship or rights; (4) practical consequences of the extension of rights; and (5) minority stress related to anticipation of future prejudice or discrimination. Themes in the heterosexual siblings' responses were (1) ally support; (2) flat support without emotion or elaboration; (3) indifference to or ignorance about the decisions; and (4) disapproval of the decisions. These themes are compared and discussed in light of prior research on reactions to marriage restriction debates and marriage (in)equality and family relationships.

  2. When Do Laws Matter? National Minimum-Age-of-Marriage Laws, Child Rights, and Adolescent Fertility, 1989–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger; Nyseth, Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Using the case of adolescent fertility, we ask the questions of whether and when national laws have an effect on outcomes above and beyond the effects of international law and global organizing. To answer these questions, we utilize a fixed-effect time-series regression model to analyze the impact of minimum-age-of-marriage laws in 115 poor- and middle-income countries from 1989 to 2007. We find that countries with strict laws setting the minimum age of marriage at 18 experienced the most dramatic decline in rates of adolescent fertility. Trends in countries that set this age at 18 but allowed exceptions (for example, marriage with parental consent) were indistinguishable from countries that had no such minimum-age-of-marriage law. Thus, policies that adhere strictly to global norms are more likely to elicit desired outcomes. The article concludes with a discussion of what national law means in a diffuse global system where multiple actors and institutions make the independent effect of law difficult to identify. PMID:25525281

  3. Health insurance disparities among racial/ethnic minorities in same-sex relationships: an intersectional approach.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Ortiz, Kasim

    2015-06-01

    We examined disparities in health insurance coverage for racial/ethnic minorities in same-sex relationships. We used data from the 2009 to 2011 American Community Survey on nonelderly adults (aged 25-64 years) in same-sex (n = 32 744), married opposite-sex (n = 2 866 636), and unmarried opposite-sex (n = 268 298) relationships. We used multinomial logistic regression models to compare differences in the primary source of health insurance while controlling for key demographic and socioeconomic factors. Adults of all races/ethnicities in same-sex relationships were less likely than were White adults in married opposite-sex relationships to report having employer-sponsored health insurance. Hispanic men, Black women, and American Indian/Alaska Native women in same-sex relationships were much less likely to have employer-sponsored health insurance than were their White counterparts in married opposite-sex relationships and their White counterparts in same-sex relationships. Differences in coverage by relationship type and race/ethnicity may worsen over time as states follow different paths to implementing health care reform and same-sex marriage.

  4. Health Insurance Disparities Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Same-Sex Relationships: An Intersectional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined disparities in health insurance coverage for racial/ethnic minorities in same-sex relationships. Methods. We used data from the 2009 to 2011 American Community Survey on nonelderly adults (aged 25–64 years) in same-sex (n = 32 744), married opposite-sex (n = 2 866 636), and unmarried opposite-sex (n = 268 298) relationships. We used multinomial logistic regression models to compare differences in the primary source of health insurance while controlling for key demographic and socioeconomic factors. Results. Adults of all races/ethnicities in same-sex relationships were less likely than were White adults in married opposite-sex relationships to report having employer-sponsored health insurance. Hispanic men, Black women, and American Indian/Alaska Native women in same-sex relationships were much less likely to have employer-sponsored health insurance than were their White counterparts in married opposite-sex relationships and their White counterparts in same-sex relationships. Conclusions. Differences in coverage by relationship type and race/ethnicity may worsen over time as states follow different paths to implementing health care reform and same-sex marriage. PMID:25880954

  5. Cigarette Smoking in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions: The Role of Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Brown, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has long been a target of public health intervention because it substantially contributes to morbidity and mortality. Individuals in different-sex marriages have lower smoking risk (i.e., prevalence and frequency) than different-sex cohabiters. However, little is known about the smoking risk of individuals in same-sex cohabiting unions. We compare the smoking risk of individuals in different-sex marriages, same-sex cohabiting unions, and different-sex cohabiting unions using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1997–2010 National Health Interview Surveys (N = 168,514). We further examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in the relationship between union status and smoking. Estimates from multinomial logistic regression models reveal that same-sex and different-sex cohabiters experience similar smoking risk when compared to one another, and higher smoking risk when compared to the different-sex married. Results suggest that SES and psychological distress factors cannot fully explain smoking differences between the different-sex married and same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. Moreover, without same-sex cohabiter’s education advantage, same-sex cohabiters would experience even greater smoking risk relative to the different-sex married. Policy recommendations to reduce smoking disparities among same-sex and different-sex cohabiters are discussed. PMID:25346559

  6. Health Insurance Coverage among Puerto Rican Adults in Same-Sex Relationships.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to measure and compare health insurance coverage between nonelderly Puerto Rican adults in cohabiting same-sex relationships and their counterparts in cohabiting different-sex relationships. This study used data from the 2008-2014 Puerto Rican Community Survey on nonelderly adults (18-64 years) in cohabiting same-sex (n=274) and different-sex (n=58,128) relationships. Multinomial logistic regression models estimated differences in primary source of health insurance while controlling for key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Compared with men in different-sex relationships, men in same-sex relationships were less likely to have employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). Women in same-sex relationships were less likely than others to have ESI, insurance purchased directly from an insurer, and public health insurance after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Employment-based discrimination and policy barriers may have prevented same-sex couples from enjoying the full benefits associated with marriage and cohabitation in Puerto Rico, including employer-sponsored health insurance.

  7. School Progress Among Children of Same-Sex Couples.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Caleb S

    2018-06-01

    This study uses logit regressions on a pooled sample of children from the 2012, 2013, and 2014 American Community Survey to perform a nationally representative analysis of school progress for a large sample of 4,430 children who reside with same-sex couples. Odds ratios from regressions that compare children between different-sex married couples and same-sex couples fail to show significant differences in normal school progress between households across a variety of sample compositions. Likewise, marginal effects from regressions that compare children with similar family dynamics between different-sex married couples and same-sex couples fail to predict significantly higher probabilities of grade retention for children of same-sex couples. Significantly lower grade retention rates are sometimes predicted for children of same-sex couples than for different-sex married couples, but these differences are sensitive to sample exclusions and do not indicate causal benefits to same-sex parenting.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities for Research on Same-Sex Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.; Lodge, Amy Caroline; Xu, Minle

    2014-01-01

    Research on same-sex relationships has informed policy debates and legal decisions that greatly affect American families, yet the data and methods available to scholars studying same-sex relationships have been limited. In this article the authors review current approaches to studying same-sex relationships and significant challenges for this research. After exploring how researchers have dealt with these challenges in prior studies, the authors discuss promising strategies and methods to advance future research on same-sex relationships, with particular attention given to gendered contexts and dyadic research designs, quasi-experimental designs, and a relationship biography approach. Innovation and advances in the study of same-sex relationships will further theoretical and empirical knowledge in family studies more broadly and increase understanding of different-sex as well as same-sex relationships. PMID:25598552

  9. Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Parenting: An Effect of Gender.

    PubMed

    Webb, Stephanie N; Chonody, Jill M; Kavanagh, Phillip S

    2017-01-01

    The definition of family in Australia has been continuously changing over the past four decades. The 21 st century has brought with it various images of family, with an increase of awareness to same-sex families; however, the acceptance of such family structures does not appear to be widespread and is often determined by sex. Substantive literature demonstrates differences between men and women in attitudes toward same-sex parenting, with theory suggesting that gender role norms may explain this. Despite large efforts to determine sex differences in attitudes toward same-sex parenting, little research, and even less in Australia, has been done to investigate whether there are differences in reasons behind negative attitudes toward same-sex parenting between men and women. To further this understanding, an Australian sample (N= 790) ranging in age from 18-78 completed a survey regrading attitudes toward same-sex parenting, in addition to relevant demographic information. Participants reported more positive attitudes about parenting by lesbians as compared to parenting by gay men. Reasons behind attitudes toward same-sex parenting also differed between males and females. Results suggested that the impact of socially prescribed gender norms may affect prejudice toward same-sex families. Despite an increase in tolerance for sexual minorities recently, policies that continue to discriminate against same-sex parenting rights demonstrates the importance of continuing to identify potential influences of same-sex family prejudice to reduce the potentially negative impacts associated with the prejudice.

  10. [Experience assisting an AIDS-infected homosexual patient and his same-sex partner make a do-not-resuscitate decision].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Jang; Lai, Pei-Yu; Liou, Siao-Ying; Ko, Wen-Chien; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2012-10-01

    Family members play an important role in the process of writing advance directives. Homosexual men infected with HIV often wish to authorize their intimate same-sex partner or friends rather than immediate family members to make medical decisions on their behalf. Although same-sex marriage is currently illegal in Taiwan, HIV infected homosexual patients are able to write advance directives appointing their same-sex partner to be their surrogate decision maker for end-of-life medical decisions. This case report describes an experience assisting a homosexual patient with HIV to write his advance directives. The nurse assisted the patient and his partner to make a self-determined decision not to resuscitate. Family conferences held to discuss the patient's decisions regarding resuscitation helped legitimize his partner's primary role in making end-of-life healthcare decisions on his behalf. As an advocate for patient rights, nurses should understand the law as it relates to homosexuality and end-of-life decision making, inform patients on the durable power of autonomy, and help execute their advance directives.

  11. Same-Sex Adoption as a Welfare Alternative? Conservatism, Neoliberal Values, and Support for Adoption by Same-Sex Couples.

    PubMed

    Perry, Samuel L; Whitehead, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Despite conservatives' long-term opposition to gay and lesbian parenting, scholars theorize that a strong commitment to neoliberalism may influence conservative Americans to become more tolerant of same-sex adoption as a way to relieve the government from subsidizing poor families. Drawing on national survey data (2010 Baylor Religion Survey), we test whether holding neoliberal values is associated with greater support for same-sex adoption in general and across political or religious conservatives. We find no support for either theory-emphatically the opposite, in fact. Neoliberal values are negatively associated with support for same-sex adoption for Americans in general and among political and religious conservatives. We find little evidence of a tension among conservatives regarding same-sex adoption as both their neoliberal values and moral beliefs incline them to oppose same-sex adoption along with other same-sex family relationships.

  12. Suicide in married couples in Sweden: Is the risk greater in same-sex couples?

    PubMed

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Andersson, Gunnar; Dalman, Christina; Cochran, Susan; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2016-07-01

    Minority sexual orientation is a predictor of suicide ideation and attempts, though its association with suicide mortality is less clear. We capitalize on Sweden's extensively linked databases, to investigate whether, among married individuals, same-sex marriage is associated with suicide. Using a population-based register design, we analyzed suicide risk among same-sex married women and men (n = 6456), as compared to different-sex married women and men (n = 1181723) in Sweden. We selected all newly partnered or married individuals in the intervening time between 1/1/1996 and 12/31/2009 and followed them with regard to suicide until 12/31/2011. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The risk of suicide was higher among same-sex married individuals as compared to different-sex married individuals (IRR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.5-4.8), after adjustment for time at risk and socioeconomic confounding. Sex-stratified analyses showed a tentatively elevated risk for same-sex married women (IRR 2.5, 95 % CI 0.8-7.7) as compared to different-sex married women. Among same-sex married men the suicide risk was nearly three-fold greater as compared to different-sex married (IRR 2.895 % CI 1.5-5.5). This holds true also after adjustment for HIV status. Even in a country with a comparatively tolerant climate regarding homosexuality such as Sweden, same-sex married individuals evidence a higher risk for suicide than other married individuals.

  13. Similar Others in Same-Sex Couples' Social Networks.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Allen J; Frost, David M; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Bauermeister, Jose; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory R; de Vries, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Same-sex couples experience unique minority stressors. It is known that strong social networks facilitate access to psychosocial resources that help people reduce and manage stress. However, little is known about the social networks of same-sex couples, in particular their connections to other same-sex couples, which is important to understand given that the presence of similar others in social networks can ameliorate social stress for stigmatized populations. In this brief report, we present data from a diverse sample of 120 same-sex couples in Atlanta and San Francisco. The median number of other same-sex couples known was 12; couples where one partner was non-Hispanic White and the other a person of color knew relatively few other same-sex couples; and there was a high degree of homophily within the social networks of same-sex couples. These data establish a useful starting point for future investigations of couples' social networks, especially couples whose relationships are stigmatized or marginalized in some way. Better understandings of the size, composition, and functions of same-sex couples' social networks are critically needed.

  14. Romantic Attachment and Relationship Functioning in Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Jonathan J.; Selterman, Dylan; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate links between dimensions of romantic attachment and relationship functioning in a cross-sectional sample of people in same-sex relationships, with the goals of replicating basic findings from research on heterosexual couples and advancing understanding of unique issues faced by same-sex couples. The…

  15. Teaching "United States v. Windsor": The Defense of Marriage Act and Its Constitutional Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocchetti, Corey

    2014-01-01

    This article represents background material that can be used e along with the "United States v. Windsor" case to teach Constitutional Law (particularly federalism, due process, and equal protection) and the legal debate surrounding same-sex marriage in America. Professors may assign it as background reading before or after a…

  16. A Child's Right to Be Well Born: Venereal Disease and the Eugenic Marriage Laws, 1913-1935.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    An extensive literature describes the legal impact of America's eugenics movement, and the laws mandating sterilization, restriction of marriage by race, and ethnic bans on immigration. But little scholarship focuses on the laws adopted in more than 40 states that were commonly referred to as "eugenic marriage laws." Those laws conditioned marriage licenses on medical examinations and were designed to save innocent women from lives of misery, prevent stillbirth or premature death in children, and save future generations from the myriad afflictions that accompanied "venereal infection." Medical journals, legal journals, and every kind of public press outlet explained the "eugenic marriage laws" and the controversies they spawned. They were inextricably bound up in reform movements that attempted to eradicate prostitution, stamp out STIs, and reform America's sexual mores in the first third of the 20th century. This article will explain the pedigree of the eugenic marriage laws, highlight the trajectory of Wisconsin's 1913 eugenic enactment, and explore how the Wisconsin Supreme Court case upholding the law paved the way for the majority of states to regulate marriage on eugenic grounds.

  17. 76 FR 56786 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Law and Order on Indian Reservations-Marriage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... OMB Control Number 1076-0094, which expires December 31, 2011. DATES: Interested persons are invited... Number: 1076-0094. Title: Law and Order on Indian Reservations--Marriage & Dissolution Applications...

  18. Freedom to divorce or protection of marriage? The divorce laws in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Le Bouteillec, Nathalie; Bersbo, Zara; Festy, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In the period 1909-1927, new laws concerning divorce and marriage were enacted by the Scandinavian countries. Both at the time and more recently, these laws were considered as "liberal" as they promoted greater freedom to divorce based on individuality and gender equality. In this article, the authors first analyze the changes in these Family laws in the early twentieth century. Then, the authors study the effect of these laws on divorce and marriage patterns. As these laws did not modify the trend in divorce rates, the authors ask why this was the case. The authors' conclusions are that the laws were more concerned with preserving the sanctity of marriage and maintaining social order than with promoting individual freedom and gender equality.

  19. Addressing the Economic Security Issues Facing Same-Sex Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Elizabeth M.; Stum, Marlene S.; Rupured, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Provides educators and researchers with an awareness of the financial security issues faced by same-sex couples and offers suggestions for incorporating the discussion of these ideas into existing curricula and research. (Author/JOW)

  20. "Two men under one cloak"---the Sages permit it: homosexual marriage in Judaism.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jacob A; Ulmer, Rivka B Kern

    2008-01-01

    This article examines halakhic (Jewish legal) passages that relate to homosexuality and marriage between two males. The article sets forth the respective positions of contemporary Jewish denominations in regard to homosexual marriage. Homosexual marriage is a case of first impression in Judaism and requires new decisions and new marriage contracts. The principal thesis of the article is that contemporary Judaism can accommodate philosophically--but also legally--a halakhic framework of thinking, same-sex marriage between men. Judaism does not have to opt for the perspectives of Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism, which have, to a major extent, freed themselves from the traditions and rituals of Jewish law. After examining marriage contracts in Rabbinic literature, specific examples are presented of how homosexual marriage between two males may be implemented.

  1. A Research Note on Time With Children in Different- and Same-Sex Two-Parent Families.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Kate C; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Public debate on same-sex marriage often focuses on the disadvantages that children raised by same-sex couples may face. On one hand, little evidence suggests any difference in the outcomes of children raised by same-sex parents and different-sex parents. On the other hand, most studies are limited by problems of sample selection and size, and few directly measure the parenting practices thought to influence child development. This research note demonstrates how the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey (n=44,188) may help to address these limitations. Two-tier Cragg's Tobit alternative models estimated the amount of time that parents in different-sex and same-sex couples engaged in child-focused time. Women in same-sex couples were more likely than either women or men in different-sex couples to spend such time with children. Overall, women (regardless of the gender of their partners) and men coupled with other men spent significantly more time with children than men coupled with women, conditional on spending any child-focused time. These results support prior research that different-sex couples do not invest in children at appreciably different levels than same-sex couples. We highlight the potential for existing nationally representative data sets to provide preliminary insights into the developmental experiences of children in nontraditional families.

  2. Overcoming bias toward same-sex couples: a case study from inside an MFT ethics classroom.

    PubMed

    Charlés, Laurie L; Thomas, Dina; Thornton, Matthew L

    2005-07-01

    This article illustrates a teaching case in which a marriage and family therapy (MFT) trainee learned to develop cultural sensitivity toward same-sex couples despite religious beliefs that put her at risk of discriminating against that population. The case took place during a marriage and family therapy ethics course in the spring of 2003. From two first-person perspectives, the authors illustrate the processes that facilitated the student's change, addressing the class activities, discussions, and pivotal moments of teaching and learning that promoted the student's cultural competency and helped her to resolve this personal and ethical dilemma. A set of classroom techniques (creating a safe environment, using a stance of curiosity, finding alternative learning formats, extrapolating ideas from multiple sources, and capitalizing on students' experiences outside of class) used in the case are detailed throughout the article.

  3. Is homophobia associated with an implicit same-sex attraction?

    PubMed

    Macinnis, Cara C; Hodson, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Some theorists propose that homophobia stems from underlying same-sex attraction. A few studies have tested this hypothesis, yet without a clear measure of implicit sexual attraction, producing mixed results. For the first time, we test this attraction-based account of homophobia among both men and women using an implicit measure of sexual attraction. No evidence of an attraction-based account of homophobia emerged. Instead, implicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians among female participants. Even in targeted analyses examining the relation between implicit same-sex attraction and homosexual evaluations among only those theoretically most likely to demonstrate an attraction-based homophobic effect, implicit same-sex attraction was not associated with evaluations of homosexuals or was associated with more positive evaluations of homosexuals. In addition, explicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians for male participants. These results are more in keeping with the attitude-similarity effect (i.e., people like, rather than dislike, similar others).

  4. A Comparison of Intimate Partner Violence Strangulation Between Same-Sex and Different-Sex Couples.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jill T; Thomas, Kristie A; Ward-Lasher, Allison L; Brewer, Nathan Q

    2018-03-01

    Strangulation is a common and dangerous form of intimate partner violence (IPV). Nonfatal strangulation is a risk factor for homicide; can lead to severe, long-term physical and mental health sequelae; and can be an effective strategy of coercion and control. To date, research has not examined strangulation within same-sex couples. The objective of this cross-sectional, observational research is to identify whether and to what extent the detection of strangulation and coercive control differs between same-sex and different-sex couples in police reports of IPV. Data ( n = 2,207) were obtained from a single police department in the southwest United States (2011-2013). Bivariate analyses examined differences in victim and offender demographics, victim injury, violence, and coercive controlling behaviors between same-sex (male-male and female-female) and different-sex couples (female victim-male offender). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between strangulation, victim and offender demographics, coercive controlling behaviors, and couple configuration. Strangulation was reported significantly more often in different-sex (9.8%) than in female and male same-sex couple cases (5.2% and 5.3%, respectively; p < .05). Injury, however, was reported more frequently in same-sex than in different-sex couples ( p < .05). Couple configuration ( p < .05), coercive control ( p < .05), and injury ( p < .05) significantly predict strangulation. Findings suggest that nonfatal strangulation occurs within at least a minority of same-sex couples; it is possible that underdetection by law enforcement makes it appear less common than it actually is. Regardless of couple configuration, timely identification of strangulation and subsequent referral to medical and social service providers is essential for preventing repeated strangulation, life-threatening injury, and the long-term health effects of strangulation.

  5. Heterosexual College Students Who Hookup with Same-Sex Partners.

    PubMed

    Kuperberg, Arielle; Walker, Alicia M

    2018-07-01

    Individuals who identify as heterosexual but engage in same-sex sexual behavior fascinate both researchers and the media. We analyzed the Online College Social Life Survey dataset of over 24,000 undergraduate students to examine students whose last hookup was with a same-sex partner (N = 383 men and 312 women). The characteristics of a significant minority of these students (12% of men and 25% of women) who labelled their sexual orientation "heterosexual" differed from those who self-identified as "homosexual," "bisexual," or "uncertain." Differences among those who identified as heterosexual included more conservative attitudes, less prior homosexual and more prior heterosexual sexual experience, features of the hookups, and sentiments about the encounter after the fact. Latent class analysis revealed six distinctive "types" of heterosexually identified students whose last hookup was with a same-sex partner. Three types, comprising 60% of students, could be classified as mostly private sexual experimentation among those with little prior same-sex experience, including some who did not enjoy the encounter; the other two types in this group enjoyed the encounter, but differed on drunkenness and desire for a future relationship with their partner. Roughly, 12% could be classified as conforming to a "performative bisexuality" script of women publicly engaging in same-sex hookups at college parties, and the remaining 28% had strong religious practices and/or beliefs that may preclude a non-heterosexual identity, including 7% who exhibited "internalized heterosexism." Results indicate several distinctive motivations for a heterosexual identity among those who hooked up with same-sex partners; previous research focusing on selective "types" excludes many exhibiting this discordance.

  6. Factors in the Determination of Intimate Same-Sex Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Craig W.; Harwood, B. Thomas

    1977-01-01

    Five hundred unmarried male and female college students were administered a questionnaire and instructed to rate the importance of 39 variables in the formation of an intimate, same-sex friendship. Six factors emerged: Initial attraction, personableness, proximity, attitudinal similarity, intimate accessibility, and reciprocal candor. (BD)

  7. Same-Sex Parent Families and Children's Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…

  8. Domestic Violence between Same-Sex Partners: Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Linda M.; Dixon, Charlotte G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the dynamics of domestic violence between partners of the same sex. The social and cultural issues in the gay and lesbian communities play a large part in perpetuating the myths of domestic violence, which keeps the abuse hidden. This article is based on an extensive review of the literature and a clinical consensus among experts in the…

  9. Black Male Masculinity and Same-Sex Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Shanette M.

    1992-01-01

    Examines how African-American alternative masculine behaviors are expressed within same-sex peer groups and friendships. It is proposed that African-American males have adopted an alternative style of masculinity to cope with social and interpersonal pressures, even though it can sometimes be dysfunctional and associated with negative…

  10. Gender Differences in Same-Sex Friendships and Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, Norman R.; And Others

    An investigation of differences in the friendship patterns of men and of women reported that women appeared to be expressive in their friendship styles while men's same-sex friendships were best characterized as being instrumental. To examine these differences further, a study was conducted which investigated the relationship of friendship and…

  11. "Bessie done cut her old man": race, common-law marriage, and homicide in New Orleans, 1925-1945.

    PubMed

    Adler, Jeffrey S

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines domestic homicide in early twentieth-century New Orleans. African-American residents killed their domestic partners at eight times the rate of white New Orleanians, and these homicides were most often committed by women, who killed their partners at fifteen times the rate of white women. Common-law marriages proved to be especially violent among African-American residents. Based on nearly two hundred cases identified in police records and other sources as partner killings between 1925 and 1945, this analysis compares lethal violence in legal marriages and in common-law unions. It also explores the social and institutional forces that buffeted common-law marriages, making this the most violent domestic arrangement and contributing to the remarkably high rate of spousal homicide by African-American women in early twentieth-century New Orleans.

  12. Health Insurance and Disclosure of Same-Sex Sexual Behaviors Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Same-Sex Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Gay and bisexual men (GBM) have poorer health outcomes than the general population. Improved health outcomes will require that GBM have access to healthcare and that healthcare providers are aware of their sexual behaviors. This study sought to examine factors associated with having health insurance and disclosure of same-sex sexual behaviors to primary care providers (PCPs) among GBM in primary same-sex relationships. Methods: We conducted an online survey of a national sample of 722 men in same-sex couples living in the United States. Logistic regression and multinomial regression models were conducted to assess whether characteristic differences existed between men who did and did not have health insurance, and between men who did and did not report that their PCP knew about their same-sex sexual activity. Results: Our national sample of same-sex partnered men identified themselves predominantly as gay and white, and most reported having an income and health insurance. Having health insurance and disclosing sexual behavior to PCPs was associated with increasing age, higher education, and higher income levels. Insurance was less prevalent among nonwhite participants and those living in the south and midwest United States. Disclosure of sexual behavior was more common in urban respondents and in the western United States. In 25% of couples, one partner was insured, while the other was not. Conclusions: Having health insurance and disclosing one's sexual behavior to PCPs was suboptimal overall and occurred in patterns likely to exacerbate health disparities among those GBM already more heavily burdened with poorer health outcomes. These factors need to be considered by PCPs and health policymakers to improve the health of GBM. Patient- and provider-targeted interventions could also improve the health outcomes of GBM. PMID:26790018

  13. Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Same-Sex Couples Who Were Married in Massachusetts, Had Domestic Partnerships in California, or Had Civil Unions in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothblum, Esther D.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Solomon, Sondra E.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared 55 men and 78 women who had same-sex marriages in Massachusetts, 101 men and 120 women who had domestic partnerships in California, and 35 men and 86 women who had civil unions in Vermont, all in 2004. Couples were surveyed on demographic and relationship information, conflict, contact with family of origin, social support,…

  15. The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that marriage has undergone a process of deinstitutionalization - a weakening of the social norms that define partners' behavior - over the past few decades. Examples are presented involving the increasing number and complexity of cohabiting unions and the emergence of same-sex marriage. Two transitions in the meaning of…

  16. Effect of Registered Partnership on Labor Earnings and Fertility for Same-Sex Couples: Evidence From Swedish Register Data.

    PubMed

    Aldén, Lina; Edlund, Lena; Hammarstedt, Mats; Mueller-Smith, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The expansion of legal rights to same-sex couples is a foot in a number of Western countries. The effects of this rollout are not only important in their own right but can also provide a window on the institution of marriage and the rights bundled therein. In this article, using Swedish longitudinal register data covering 1994-2007, we study the impact of the extension of rights to same-sex couples on labor earnings and fertility. In 1994, registered partnership for same-sex couples was introduced, which conferred almost all rights and obligations of marriage--a notable exception being joint legal parenting, by default or election. The latter was added in the 2002 adoption act. We find registered partnership to be important to both gays and lesbians but for different reasons. For gays, resource pooling emerges as the main function of registered partnerships. For lesbians, registered partnership appears to be an important vehicle for family formation, especially after the 2002 adoption act. In contrast to heterosexual couples (included for comparison), we find no evidence of household specialization among lesbians. The lack of specialization is noteworthy given similar fertility effects of registered partnership (after 2002) and the fact that lesbian couples were less assortatively matched (on education) than heterosexual couples--children and unequal earnings power being two factors commonly believed to promote specialization.

  17. Relationship stigma and relationship outcomes in interracial and same-sex relationships: Examination of sources and buffers.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Starks, Tyrel J

    2015-12-01

    Interracial and same-sex romantic relationships are more common and socially accepted in the United States than ever before; yet, stigmatization of these relationships persists, with consequences for relationship dynamics. We conducted an online survey study with adults living in the United States in interracial and same-sex relationships to examine associations of relationship stigma from family, friends, and public with several relationship outcomes (i.e., investment, satisfaction, intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration, commitment, intimacy, trust, passion, love, sexual communication, and sexual satisfaction), as well as the potential buffering roles of egalitarianism and dyadic coping. Regression analyses with 480 participants support that above and beyond individually experienced discrimination and other well-known predictors of relationship outcomes, relationship stigma from friends in particular was associated with lower relationship commitment, trust, love, and sexual communication, as well as greater odds of intimate partner aggression victimization. Egalitarianism and dyadic coping moderated some of the associations of relationship stigma from family, friends, and public with relationship outcomes, supporting their potential roles as buffers. These findings suggest many avenues for future research and implications for clinicians working with interracial and same-sex couples, individuals in those couples, and their families. Given increasing prevalence of interracial and same-sex relationships and marriages, more work should continue to explore these couples' experiences and how best to support them. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. States of emergence: Writing African female same-sex sexuality.

    PubMed

    Munro, Brenna M

    2017-04-03

    Tracing a series of intertextually linked short stories from the 1990s to the present by women writers from Nigeria and its diaspora-Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Unoma Azuah, Chinelo Okparanta, and Lola Shoneyin-I suggest that although the figure of the African lesbian appears "new" in the context of heightened contemporary attention to the issue of homosexuality, this figure has a literary history. Ghanaian Ama Ata Aidoo's novel Our Sister Killjoy: Or, Reflections From A Black-Eyed Squint (1977) inaugurates this formation, in which the imagining of female same-sex desire is entangled with articulating the experience of migration under the shadow of imperial histories. In these short stories, the emphasis on the difficulties of love in puritanical times and transnational places produces the figure of the African lesbian as a symbol of appealingly human vulnerability, resilience, and complexity.

  19. Citizenship Education and the Politics of Public Participation: The Case of Same-Sex Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diorio, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Citizenship education programs promote political participation by young people. These programs risk misrepresenting politics to students by encouraging them to believe that there are universally accepted principles which govern the definition of citizenship and who is entitled to participate in its various dimensions. The article argues that…

  20. Secularism, Multiculturalism and Same-Sex Marriage: A Comment on Brenda Almond's "Education for Tolerance"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Although Almond argues that the contemporary West has lost touch with the value of tolerance, I argue that that value applied to those of different religions and sexual orientations is too minimal a standard for a pluralistic society. I suggest, in the spirit of the work of Charles Taylor and Tariq Modood, the more robust standard of respect and…

  1. Marriage and the Civilizing of Male Sexual Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosik, Christopher H.; Byrd, A. Dean

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by G. M. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States." There are many arguable contentions Herek made in his defense of same-sex marriage. We have chosen to focus on only one in this commentary: What is the active ingredient in marriage that serves the socially advantageous goal of civilizing…

  2. A simple marriage model for the power-law behaviour in the frequency distributions of family names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao-Yun; Chou, Chung-I.; Tseng, Jie-Jun

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, the frequency distributions of family names are found to decay as a power law with an exponent ranging from 1.0 to 2.2. In this work, we propose a simple marriage model which can reproduce this power-law behaviour. Our model, based on the evolution of families, consists of the growth of big families and the formation of new families. Preliminary results from the model show that the name distributions are in good agreement with empirical data from Taiwan and Norway.

  3. 76 FR 11684 - Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... 842 RIN 3206-AM20 Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners AGENCY: Office of... amend its regulations to include same-sex domestic partners to the class of persons for which an... employees with same-sex domestic partners from the evidentiary requirements in existing regulations for...

  4. Sex, Preference, and Family - Essays on Law and Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estlund, David M.; Nussbaum, Marth C.

    1998-06-01

    The public furor over issues of same sex marriages, gay rights, pornography, and single-parent families has erupted with a passion not seen since the 1960s. This book gathers seventeen eminent philosophers and legal scholars who offer commentary on sexuality (including sexual behavior, sexual orientation, and the role of pornography in shaping sexuality), on the family (including both same-sex and single-parent families), and on the proper role of law in these areas. The essayists are all fiercely independent thinkers and offer the reader a range of bold and thought-provoking proposals. Susan Moller Okin argues, for instance, that gender ought to be done away with--that differences in biological sex ought to have "no more social relevance than one's eye color or the length of one's toes"--and she urges that we look to same-sex couples as a model for households and families in a gender-free society. And Cass Sunstein suggests that the Supreme Court case Loving vs. Virginia (which overthrew the ban on interracial marriages in Virginia) might be a precedent for overturning laws that bar same-sex marriage: just as Loving overturned miscegenation laws because they were at the service of white supremacy, Sunstein shows, the laws against same-sex marriages and homosexuality are at the service of male supremacy, and might also be overturned. Of vital importance to anyone interested in sexuality, homosexuality, gender, feminism, and the family. Sex, Preference, and the Family both clarifies the current debate and points the way toward a less divisive future.

  5. Invisibility, safety and psycho-social distress among same-sex attracted women in rural South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Available work from North America indicates that same-sex attracted (SSA) individuals enjoy aspects of rural life but nonetheless report encountering homophobia and experiencing isolation from SSA networks. The experience of prejudice and social isolation are often associated with psycho-social distress among the general population of same-sex attracted individuals. Little is known of how SSA women experience life in rural areas of Australia and how this influences their psycho-social wellbeing. This was a small-scale qualitative study using guided interviews to explore the experience of SSA women living in rural areas of South Australia. Seven women identifying as same-sex attracted were interviewed. In addition, a woman who provides a counseling and support service for same-sex attracted women was also interviewed. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and were then analysed for emergent themes. Summaries of the interviews, based on the emergent themes, were sent to all interviewees so that they could verify or challenge the validity of the emergent themes, as well as to allow them to remove any information they felt might identify them. Most women had felt 'different' while growing up; almost unanimously describing themselves as having been 'tomboys'. However, the lack of visible SSA role models in rural areas, together with a lack of SSA social networks, did not allow some of the women to identify and name their same-sex attraction. For many of the women in this study, it was visits to the state capital, where they had the opportunity to meet other SSA women, which precipitated them identifying themselves as same-sex attracted. In light of this new knowledge, some women denied their same-sex attraction and entered into heterosexual relationships, often entailing marriage. Other women entered same-sex relationships but tried to keep them invisible within their communities. Rural communities are frequently close-knit environments, where

  6. Gender, Ethnicity, Religiosity, and Same-sex Sexual Attraction and the Acceptance of Same-sex Sexuality and Gender Non-conformity

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Merry, Michael S.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents’ acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents’ attitudes would function differently in adolescents with and without same-sex attractions. Data for this study were collected by means of a paper questionnaire completed by 1,518 secondary school students (mean age = 14.56 years, SD = 1.05) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample was 48.1% female and 51.9% male. Approximately one third of adolescents in the sample were of a non-Western ethnic background (32.3%, n = 491) and 7.5% of the participants (n = 114) reported experiencing same-sex attractions. Results of our analyses showed that adolescents in our sample who were male, of non-Western ethnicity, and who were more religious (as indicated by frequency of religious service attendance), were less accepting of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity in comparison to female, Western and less religious peers. We also found a significant interaction effect between religiosity and sexual attractions, but only in relation to evaluation of same-sex attracted, gender nonconforming females. The negative effect of religiosity on acceptance of same-sex attracted, gender non-conforming females was stronger among those adolescents who reported same-sex attractions. PMID:23687403

  7. Gender, Ethnicity, Religiosity, and Same-sex Sexual Attraction and the Acceptance of Same-sex Sexuality and Gender Non-conformity.

    PubMed

    Collier, Kate L; Bos, Henny M W; Merry, Michael S; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents' acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents' attitudes would function differently in adolescents with and without same-sex attractions. Data for this study were collected by means of a paper questionnaire completed by 1,518 secondary school students (mean age = 14.56 years, SD = 1.05) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample was 48.1% female and 51.9% male. Approximately one third of adolescents in the sample were of a non-Western ethnic background (32.3%, n = 491) and 7.5% of the participants ( n = 114) reported experiencing same-sex attractions. Results of our analyses showed that adolescents in our sample who were male, of non-Western ethnicity, and who were more religious (as indicated by frequency of religious service attendance), were less accepting of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity in comparison to female, Western and less religious peers. We also found a significant interaction effect between religiosity and sexual attractions, but only in relation to evaluation of same-sex attracted, gender nonconforming females. The negative effect of religiosity on acceptance of same-sex attracted, gender non-conforming females was stronger among those adolescents who reported same-sex attractions.

  8. [Access to Assisted Reproductive Technologies, surrogacy, same sex couple parenting].

    PubMed

    Belaisch Allart, J

    2012-08-01

    In France, access to Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) is strictly controlled. ART is only authorized for medical infertility. The revision of the law of bioethics has not modified access to ART. It is still forbidden to take charge of lesbian couples or gay-male couples, surrogacy is prohibited. The only change is that unmarried couples have no more to prove they live together since 2 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Marriage and Family Therapy and the Law: Discovering Systemic Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    Many important decisions regarding couples and families are made by the legal system. However, this system's adversarial nature often results in relational losses for clients, even when one "wins" a case. Some believe a solution may exist in legally-minded marriage and family therapists, who, as experts in family systems theory, are in a…

  10. Desirable rights: same-sex sexual subjectivities, socio-economic transformations, global flows and boundaries--in India and beyond.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sexual rights are increasingly and unevenly advanced internationally as constitutive of progressive legal possibilities for same-sex desiring subjects. Legislative progress in this area has taken place in the context of recognition of same-sex sexual subjects within the globalising flow of neo-liberal political-economic ideologies in some parts of the word, and resurgent homophobia as a countervailing trend elsewhere (or indeed even within the same context). Ambivalent responses to sexual rights praxis in people's day-to-day lives indicate complex relationships between sexual subjectivity, economy, law, the state, and people's most intimate aspirations. Rights on grounds of same-sex sexualities may or may not be perceived as universally desirable, even among those people who might otherwise be imagined as their beneficiaries. Given this, the relationship between sexual subjectivities, political economies, and rights must be understood in terms of multifaceted refractions, attending to generative and curtailing possibilities--imagined in people's differing responses to free-market capital, legislation, and possibilities for livelihood. These issues are explored in respect of ethnographic work in West Bengal, India, with a particular focus on male-bodied subjects who evince both masculine and feminine subjectivities, and in respect of recent contestations in law, polity, and sexual rights praxis.

  11. Marriage and Matrimonial Property Law Amendment Act (No. 3 of 1988), 25 February 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Act puts Black civil marriages on the same footing as those of the rest of the population of South Africa. Such marriages entered into after the commencement of the Act are automatically governed by a community property regime, rather than by separation of property, and subject to Chapters 2 and 3 of the Matrimonial Property Act (Number 88 of 1984), which increased the legal protection afforded to women in marriage. The Act also forbids a Black man and woman from marrying according to a civil ceremony, if the man is involved in a customary union with another woman. Although the Act as a whole is not retrospective in effect, it does authorize a court to direct that the assets of one spouse be made over to the other spouse on divorce when the spouses were married by civil ceremony under Section 22(6) of the Black Administration Act (No. 38 of 1927) before the commencement of this Act. Under the Act, a couple may choose by antenuptial agreement not to be governed by a community property regime, and a couple married under a separation of property regime may choose to change it. full text

  12. Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D

    2016-08-01

    The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines.

  13. Same-Sex Sexuality and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being: The influence of sexual orientation, early reports of same-sex attraction, and gender

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Justin; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research has shown that those of sexual-minority (SM) status (i.e., those exhibiting same-sex sexuality) report lower levels of psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess whether this relation is largely in place by the onset of adolescence, as it is for other social statuses, or whether it continues to emerge over the adolescent years, a period when SM youth face numerous challenges. Moreover, the moderating influence of sexual orientation (identification), early (versus later) reports of same-sex attractions, and gender were also examined. Using data from Add Health, multiple-group latent growth curve analyses were conducted to examine growth patterns in depressive affect and self-esteem. Results suggested that psychological well-being disparities between SM and non-SM were generally in place by early adolescence. For many, the remainder of adolescence was a recovery period when disparities narrowed over time. Early and stable reporting of same-sex attractions was associated with a greater initial deficit in psychological well-being, especially among males, but it was also associated with more rapid recovery. Independent of the timing and stability of reported same-sex attractions over time, actual sexual orientation largely failed to moderate the relation between SM status and psychological well-being. Importantly, the sizable yet understudied subgroup that identified as heterosexual but reported same-sex attractions appeared to be at substantial risk. PMID:22505839

  14. The Power and Limits of Marriage: Married Gay Men's Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocobock, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Same-sex marriage has received much scholarly attention in the United States in the past decade. Yet we know little about how same-sex couples experience marriage. In this article, I present findings from in-depth interviews with 32 legally married gay men in Iowa. I focus on their experiences with families of origin and investigate the…

  15. In Search of Emerging Same-Sex Sexuality: Romantic Attractions at Age 13 Years.

    PubMed

    Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood.

  16. Counselors' Attitudes toward Domestic Violence in Same-Sex versus Opposite-Sex Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Jamye R.; Fedewa, Alicia L.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence is often perceived to occur only in heterosexual relationships. However, domestic violence is also prevalent in same-sex relationships. The majority of the research indicates that counselors perceive same-sex domestic violence differently than heterosexual domestic violence. This literature review synthesizes the research…

  17. Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States: A Social Science Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.

    2006-01-01

    Whether and how civil society should recognize committed relationships between same-sex partners has become a prominent, often divisive, policy issue. The present article reviews relevant behavioral and social science research to assess the validity of key factual claims in this debate. The data indicate that same-sex and heterosexual…

  18. 77 FR 42909 - Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Parts 831 and 842 RIN 3206-AM20 Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is amending its regulations to add same-sex domestic partners...

  19. Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

  20. Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

  1. Client Discourses on the Process of Seeking Same-Sex Couple Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Jan; Peel, Elizabeth; Owen-Pugh, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    How same-sex couples manage the process of seeking help for their relationships is an under-researched area. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 people who had engaged in same-sex couple counselling, and were analysed using discourse analysis. The ways in which the couples positioned themselves as part of a "minority…

  2. Multiple Identity Considerations among African American Christian Men Experiencing Same-Sex Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…

  3. Psychosocial Adjustment, School Outcomes, and Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Russell, Stephen T.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and relationship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents…

  4. Restricted Freedom: Negotiating Same-Sex Identifications in the Residential Spaces of a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo; Jagessar, Valenshia

    2015-01-01

    International higher education research focused on students who claim same-sex identifications in university residential spaces has tended to prioritise the "gay as victim" discourse, often leading to the pathologising of same-sex identification. While there is emerging research seeking to challenge this dimension of scholarship by…

  5. Modes of (in)tolerance: South African Muslims and same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Bonthuys, Elsje; Erlank, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    In this study we interviewed members of a small, predominantly Muslim community in Johannesburg, South Africa, in order to ascertain attitudes towards people who engage in same-sex practices. We were interested in ascertaining whether community perceptions of homosexuality match the common (Western) assumption that Islam is profoundly homophobic. Our research, while preliminary, shows that although most people condemn same-sex practices on the grounds of religious principle, they also in practice did not act upon these views. Respondents held different views on whether a person is gay or lesbian as result of same-sex behaviour, on the one hand, or same-sex desire, on the other hand. This distinction accords with what was, for them, the difficulty of proving the same-sex practices had occurred given strict Muslim standards of proof. Community attitudes to homosexuality usually involve denial and secrecy in order to maintain the social fabric of daily life and relationships between community members.

  6. Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality: the role of risky impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Cross, Catharine P

    2010-12-23

    Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female) on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34) and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.

  7. Commitment Without Marriage

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Elliott, Sinikka; Umberson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Americans will marry in their lifetimes, and for many, marriage symbolizes the transition into long-term commitment. However, many Americans cannot legally marry. This article analyzes in-depth interviews with gays and lesbians in long-term partnerships to examine union formation and commitment-making histories. Using a life course perspective that emphasizes historical and biographical contexts, the authors examine how couples conceptualize and form committed relationships despite being denied the right to marry. Although previous studies suggest that commitment ceremonies are a way to form same-sex unions, this study finds that because of their unique social, historical, and biographical relationship to marriage and ceremonies, long-term same-sex couples do not follow normative commitment-making trajectories. Instead, relationships can transition more ambiguously to committed formations without marriage, public ceremony, clear-cut act, or decision. Such an understanding of commitment making outside of marriage has implications for theorizing alternative forms of union making. PMID:21814298

  8. Motivations and Experiences Related to Women's First Same-sex Sexual Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Amelia E.; Cook, Mackenzie A.; Schroy, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Using women's self-identified sexual identity, the current study compares motivations for first same-sex sexual encounters as well as associated experiential outcomes. We also examine whether relations between sexual motivations and experiential outcomes differ as a function of women's sexual identity status. Participants were women (N=123), ages 18-to-29 (M=21.59, SD=3.33), who self-reported a history of same-sex sexual contact. Approximately 27% of women identified as exclusively heterosexual (i.e., EH), 35% as primarily heterosexual (i.e., ‘mostly heterosexual’ [MH]), and 38% as exclusively or primarily lesbian/ gay, or bisexual (i.e., LGB). Participants completed an online survey. MH and LGB women reported first same-sex sexual encounters that were more motivated by intimacy and exploration motives, relative to EH women. Compared to MH and LGB women, EH also engaged in fewer sexual activities with their first same-sex partner. Intimacy and exploration motives were related to positive experiential outcomes during first same-sex contact. Associations between motivations and experiential outcomes were not moderated by sexual identity. Findings contribute to understanding motivations and experiences related to women's first same-sex sexual encounters and show that not all women with a history of same-sex sexual contact subsequently identify with a minority sexual identity label. PMID:29531637

  9. Same-sex partner preference in zebra finches: pairing flexibility and choice.

    PubMed

    Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Zatirka, Brendon P

    2014-11-01

    This study examined flexibility and choice in same-sex pair-bonding behavior in adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Zebra finches form life-long monogamous relationships and extra pair behavior is very low, making them an ideal species in which to study same-sex pairing. We examined same-sex behaviors using both semi-naturalistic choice paradigms and skewed sex ratios. In the first experiment, we allowed zebra finches to pair in aviaries with equal sex ratios as part of multiple experiments. On average, 6.4% (N = 78) of unmanipulated pairs were same-sex: all but one was female-female. In a second experiment, we identified pairs from same-sex cages and selected 20 total same-sex pairs (10 of each sex). We then gave pairs a chance to court and pair with members of the opposite sex and observed their behavior for three days. Females did not retain their partner, but most paired with males. In contrast, some males did retain their partner. Similarly, females were more likely to engage in pairing behaviors with males than with their partners or other females whereas males were equally likely to engage in same-sex and opposite-sex pairing behaviors. These findings suggest that same-sex partnerships in zebra finches can be facultative, based on the sex ratio of the group in which they live, but can also be a choice, when opportunities to pair with opposite-sex individuals are possible. Furthermore, it is possible that females are more flexible in this choice of same-sex partnerships than are males.

  10. Same-Sex Sexuality and Educational Attainment: The Pathway to College.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Research finds lower levels of academic performance among sexual minority high school students, but some studies suggest sexual minorities have higher levels of educational attainment in adulthood. To further our understanding of how and why sexual orientation is associated with educational success, this study turns attention to the pathways to college completion, examining points along educational trajectories in which sexual minorities fall behind or surpass their heterosexual peers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we find that sexual minority women are less likely than women with no same-sex sexuality to complete college, in part due to their high school performance and transition into college. Men who experience same-sex sexuality only in adolescence struggle in high school, but men who experience same-sex sexuality for the first time in adulthood are more likely to earn a college degree than men who do not experience same-sex sexuality.

  11. Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate.

  12. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted.

  13. Images of tactile intimacy in same-sex dyads elicit larger P2 and LPC amplitudes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Wei; Chen, Peifeng; Zhang, Qinglin

    2008-08-22

    There is considerable behavioral evidence suggesting that the tactile intimacy between same-sex dyads might be viewed negatively. However, there is no electrophysiological evidence. In order to address this issue, event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded when both male and female participants were asked to evaluate whether the behaviors in same-sex dyads were appropriate or not. Both participant groups responded faster when they evaluated intimate pictures showing two males. The female participants were more inclined to tolerate female same-sex intimate pictures than the male participants. The deflections of P2 (150-250 ms) and LPC (400-600 ms) were significantly amplified in the intimate condition than in the non-intimate one, indicating that same-sex intimate pictures elicited negative emotions in participants. The female intimate pictures elicited larger LPC (600-900 ms) than the male intimate pictures only in the case of the female participants, indicating that female participants might enjoy in same-sex interactions as the dyads shown in the picture, and greater processing resources were required in evaluating processes. Above all, behavioral and electrophysiological scalp data provided the evidence that the tactile intimacy between same-sex dyads was viewed negatively.

  14. Declining Segregation of Same-Sex Partners: Evidence from Census 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent media and scholarly attention describing the “disappearance” of traditionally gay neighborhoods, urban scholars have yet to quantify the segregation of same-sex partners and determine whether declining segregation from different-sex partners is a wide-spread trend. Focusing on the 100 most populous places in the United States, I use data from the 2000 and 2010 Decennial Census to examine the segregation of same-sex partners over time and its place-level correlates. I estimate linear regression models to examine the role of four place characteristics in particular: average levels of education, aggregate trends in the family life cycle of same-sex partners, violence and social hostility motivated by sexual orientation bias, and representation of same-sex partners in the overall population. On average, same-sex partners were less segregated from different-sex partners in 2010 than in 2000, and the vast majority of same-sex partners lived in environments of declining segregation. Segregation was lower and declined more rapidly in places that had a greater percentage of graduate degree holders. In addition, segregation of female partners was lower in places that had a greater share of female partner households with children. These findings suggest that sexual orientation should be considered alongside economic status, race, and ethnicity as an important factor that contributes to neighborhood differentiation and urban spatial inequality. PMID:24187412

  15. Birth cohort and the specialization gap between same-sex and different-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lisa; Nunley, John M; Schneebaum, Alyssa; Zietz, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the "specialization gap" between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples.

  16. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Declining Segregation of Same-Sex Partners: Evidence from Census 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Spring, Amy L

    2013-10-01

    Despite recent media and scholarly attention describing the "disappearance" of traditionally gay neighborhoods, urban scholars have yet to quantify the segregation of same-sex partners and determine whether declining segregation from different-sex partners is a wide-spread trend. Focusing on the 100 most populous places in the United States, I use data from the 2000 and 2010 Decennial Census to examine the segregation of same-sex partners over time and its place-level correlates. I estimate linear regression models to examine the role of four place characteristics in particular: average levels of education, aggregate trends in the family life cycle of same-sex partners, violence and social hostility motivated by sexual orientation bias, and representation of same-sex partners in the overall population. On average, same-sex partners were less segregated from different-sex partners in 2010 than in 2000, and the vast majority of same-sex partners lived in environments of declining segregation. Segregation was lower and declined more rapidly in places that had a greater percentage of graduate degree holders. In addition, segregation of female partners was lower in places that had a greater share of female partner households with children. These findings suggest that sexual orientation should be considered alongside economic status, race, and ethnicity as an important factor that contributes to neighborhood differentiation and urban spatial inequality.

  18. Same-sex attraction in a birth cohort: prevalence and persistence in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte; Herbison, Peter

    2003-04-01

    There is a continuing debate about the importance of social versus biological factors in the expression of same-sex attraction. Investigation of prevalence, continuities, and changes over time among young adults growing up in a country with a relatively accepting climate to homosexuality is likely to illuminate this debate. Analyses were therefore undertaken of self-reported same-sex attraction at age 21 and 26, in a cohort of about 1000 people born in 1972/3 in one New Zealand city. Participants were also asked about same-sex behaviour and attitudes to same-sex relationships. By age 26, 10.7% of men and 24.5% of women reported being attracted to their own sex at some time. This dropped to 5.6% of men and 16.4% of women who reported some current same-sex attraction. Current attraction predominantly to their own sex or equally to both sexes (major attraction) was reported by 1.6% of men and 2.1% of women. Occasional same-sex attraction, but not major attraction, was more common among the most educated. Between age 21 and 26, slightly more men moved away from an exclusive heterosexual attraction (1.9% of all men) than moved towards it (1.0%), while for women, many more moved away (9.5%) than towards (1.3%) exclusive heterosexual attraction. These findings show that much same-sex attraction is not exclusive and is unstable in early adulthood, especially among women. The proportion of women reporting some same-sex attraction in New Zealand is high compared both to men, and to women in the UK and US. These observations, along with the variation with education, are consistent with a large role for the social environment in the acknowledgement of same-sex attraction. The smaller group with major same-sex attraction, which changed less over time, and did not differ by education, is consistent with a basic biological dimension to sexual attraction. Overall these findings argue against any single explanation for homosexual attraction.

  19. Building healthcare workers' confidence to work with same-sex parented families.

    PubMed

    von Doussa, Henry; Power, Jennifer; McNair, Ruth; Brown, Rhonda; Schofield, Margot; Perlesz, Amaryll; Pitts, Marian; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of barriers and access to healthcare for same-sex attracted parents and their children. Focus groups were held with same-sex attracted parents to explore their experiences with healthcare providers and identify barriers and facilitators to access. Parents reported experiencing uncomfortable or anxiety-provoking encounters with healthcare workers who struggled to adopt inclusive or appropriate language to engage their family. Parents valued healthcare workers who were able to be open and honest and comfortably ask questions about their relationships and family. A separate set of focus groups were held with mainstream healthcare workers to identity their experiences and concerns about delivering equitable and quality care for same-sex parented families. Healthcare workers reported lacking confidence to actively engage with same-sex attracted parents and their children. This lack of confidence related to workers' unfamiliarity with same-sex parents, or lesbian, gay and bisexual culture, and limited opportunities to gain information or training in this area. Workers were seeking training and resources that offered information about appropriate language and terminology as well as concrete strategies for engaging with same-sex parented families. For instance, workers suggested they would find it useful to have a set of 'door opening' questions they could utilize to ask clients about their sexuality, relationship status or family make-up. This article outlines a set of guidelines for healthcare providers for working with same-sex parented families which was a key outcome of this study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Breaking up is hard to do: Women's experience of dissolving their same-sex relationship.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Rostosky, Sharon S; Riggle, Ellen D B

    2017-01-02

    While prior research has compared same-sex to heterosexual relationships, very little attention has been paid to the unique experiences of women dissolving same-sex relationships, especially in the context of shifting legal and social policies. The current study examined the experience of 20 women who dissolved their same-sex relationship between 2002 and 2014. Participants were drawn from a longitudinal sample of same-sex and heterosexual couples and were interviewed using a semi-structured protocol. Interviews focused on three primary research questions: reasons for dissolution, emotional reactions, and role of legal status. While reasons for dissolution largely mirrored literature on women in heterosexual relationships, emotional reactions and the role of legal status were both influenced by sexual minority-specific factors related to minority stress and the recent societal changes pertaining to legal relationship recognition. Results are interpreted in a framework of minority stress and the ongoing legacy of institutional discrimination experienced by women in same-sex relationships.

  1. Health Care Access Among Individuals Involved in Same-Sex Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E.; Sell, Randall L.; Gorin, Sherri Sheinfeld

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We used data from the National Health Interview Survey to compare health care access among individuals involved in same-sex versus opposite-sex relationships. Methods. We conducted descriptive and logistic regression analyses from pooled data on 614 individuals in same-sex relationships and 93418 individuals in opposite-sex relationships. Results. Women in same-sex relationships (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.39, 0.92) were significantly less likely than women in opposite-sex relationships to have health insurance coverage, to have seen a medical provider in the previous 12 months (OR=0.66; 95% CI=0.46, 0.95), and to have a usual source of health care (OR=0.50; 95% CI=0.35, 0.71); they were more likely to have unmet medical needs as a result of cost issues (OR=1.85; 95% CI=1.16, 2.96). In contrast, health care access among men in same-sex relationships was equivalent to or greater than that among men in opposite-sex relationships. Conclusions. In this study involving a nationwide probability sample, we found some important differences in access to health care between individuals in same-sex and opposite-sex relationships, particularly women. PMID:16670230

  2. Health care access among individuals involved in same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Heck, Julia E; Sell, Randall L; Gorin, Sherri Sheinfeld

    2006-06-01

    We used data from the National Health Interview Survey to compare health care access among individuals involved in same-sex versus opposite-sex relationships. We conducted descriptive and logistic regression analyses from pooled data on 614 individuals in same-sex relationships and 93418 individuals in opposite-sex relationships. Women in same-sex relationships (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.39, 0.92) were significantly less likely than women in opposite-sex relationships to have health insurance coverage, to have seen a medical provider in the previous 12 months (OR=0.66; 95% CI=0.46, 0.95), and to have a usual source of health care (OR=0.50; 95% CI=0.35, 0.71); they were more likely to have unmet medical needs as a result of cost issues (OR=1.85; 95% CI=1.16, 2.96). In contrast, health care access among men in same-sex relationships was equivalent to or greater than that among men in opposite-sex relationships. In this study involving a nationwide probability sample, we found some important differences in access to health care between individuals in same-sex and opposite-sex relationships, particularly women.

  3. Gender and the Stability of Same-Sex and Different-Sex Relationships Among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Kara; Manning, Wendy; Bogle, Ryan

    2017-12-01

    Most research on the stability of adult relationships has focused on coresidential (cohabiting or married) unions and estimates rates of dissolution for the period of coresidence. Studies examining how the stability of coresidential unions differs by sex composition have typically found that same-sex female couples have higher rates of dissolution than same-sex male couples and different-sex couples. We argue that the more elevated rates of dissolution for same-sex female couples are a by-product of the focus on coresidential unions. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to compare rates of dissolution based on the total duration of romantic and sexual relationships for same-sex male couples, same-sex female couples, and different-sex couples. Results from hazard models that track the stability of young adult relationships from the time they are formed demonstrate that male couples have substantially higher dissolution rates than female couples and different-sex couples. Results based on models restricted to the period of coresidence corroborate the counterintuitive finding from earlier studies that female couples have the highest rates of dissolving coresidential unions. This study underlines the importance of comparisons between these couple types for a better understanding of the role that institutions and gender play in the stability of contemporary relationships.

  4. Same-sex partner bereavement in older women: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Charlotte F A; Eccles, Fiona J R; Armitage, Jocelyn R; Murray, Craig D

    2017-09-01

    Due to the lack of existing literature, the current research explored experiences of same-sex partner bereavement in women over the age of 60. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three themes were identified which elaborated the experiences of older women who had lost a same-sex partner: (1) being left alone encapsulated feelings of isolation and exclusion; (2) navigating visibility centred on how homophobia led to a lack of recognition of the women's grief; and (3) finding new places to be authentic related women's need for new relationships in which they could be themselves. The findings indicate that existing models of partner bereavement may provide useful frameworks when seeking to understand the experiences of older women who have lost their same-sex partners. The findings indicate that in addition to the experiences of partner bereavement noted in research with heterosexual widows, older women who lose same-sex partners may face particular challenges, which can impact upon psychological well-being and adjustment to loss. These challenges appear to result from past and current homophobic and heterosexist attitudes within the UK culture. A range of interventions at individual, group, health service, and societal levels may be beneficial in improving the psychological well-being of older women who lose a same-sex partner.

  5. Same-Sex Domestic Violence: Prevalence, Unique Aspects, and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Carroll, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence is a significant public health issue. Prevalence rates for same-sex domestic violence vary because of methodological issues related to recruitment and definitions of sexual orientation. However, such prevalence rates are currently considered to be similar to slightly greater than other-sex prevalence rates. Research has identified differences between same-sex domestic violence and other-sex domestic violence, including internalized and externalized stressors associated with being a sexual minority that interact with domestic violence to create or exacerbate vulnerabilities, higher risk for complex trauma experiences, and difficulties accessing services. This review provides a critical review of the literature, focusing upon empirical findings regarding same-sex domestic violence.

  6. Characteristics of activities that affect the development of women's same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Davis-Delano, Laurel R

    2014-01-01

    The author utilized semistructured interviews with 56 women to explore how a wide range of activities affected the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships. The researcher was able to identify and describe some aspects of the process by which eight characteristics of activities that are more or less present in various social contexts have the potential to impact whether these contexts are more or less conducive or hindering to the development of women's same-sex attractions and relationships. Activities were more apt to nurture the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships when the activity (a) included lesbians, (b) was composed primarily of women, (c) affirmed women, (d) facilitated bonding, (e) featured a climate of acceptance of lesbians/gays/bisexuals, (f) did not feature a climate that emphasized heteronormativity, (g) was perceived as gender neutral, and (h) generated or drew participants who were similar to each other.

  7. Beliefs about children's adjustment in same-sex families: Spanish and Chilean university students.

    PubMed

    Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Cardenas-Castro, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of our study is to compare the beliefs of Spanish and Chilean university students about the effects that same-sex parents might have on their children. A total of 491 participants completed the study (208 Spaniards and 283 Chileans). The results indicate a kind of modern and subtle rejection based on hetero-normativity. Furthermore, the results indicated the effects of sex (men have a greater degree of rejection), traditional and sexist opinions linked to a greater rejection of same-sex parents, and the contact variable which inversely correlates with this rejection. The results show that the etiology of homosexual orientation also correlates with rejection of same-sex parents when it is believed that homosexuality is learned or can be changed.

  8. Same-Sex Parenting: Identification of Social Representations in a Sample of Portuguese Professionals.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Paula; Alberto, Isabel; Mendes, Francisco

    2017-11-14

    Although international scientific research and the position of professional associations reiterate that the parents' sexual orientation is not a criterion of parenting quality, the social recognition of same-sex parenting remains difficult in Portugal. Given the importance of forensic issues in this field, this study aims to identify the representations of psychologists, social workers, lawyers/attorneys, and judges regarding same-sex parenting. The study involves five homogeneous focus groups with a total of 19 professionals. Content analysis reveals reservations regarding same-sex couples' access to parenting, in particular among lawyers/attorneys. There also emerged narratives that highlight specific competencies in these families and that argue that sexual orientation does not define the quality of parenting. Social narratives are more expressive than scientific knowledge in support of professional representations. These findings have critical implications for professional practice and formation.

  9. The health perspectives of Australian adolescents from same-sex parent families: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Crouch, S R; Waters, E; McNair, R; Power, J

    2015-05-01

    Research involving adolescents from same-sex parent families provides an important contribution to the evidence base on their health, well-being and the impact of stigma. To date reports on the perspectives of adolescents with same-sex attracted parents have been limited. This study aimed to describe the multidimensional experiences of physical, mental and social well-being of adolescents living in this context. A mixed methods study of adolescents with same-sex attracted parents comprising of an adolescent-report survey of 10- to 17-year-olds and family interviews with adolescents and their parents. Data were collected in 2012 and 2013 as part of the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families. The findings from qualitative interviews with seven adolescents and responses to an open-ended survey question (n = 16) suggest four themes: perceptions of normality, positive concepts of health, spheres of life (including family, friends and community) and avoiding negativity. The quantitative sample of adolescents with same-sex attracted parents (n = 35) reported higher scores than population normative data on the dimensions general health and family activities within the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) as well as higher on the peer problems scale on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Perceived stigma correlates with lower health and well-being overall. Positive health outcomes are informed by the ways adolescents conceptualize health and how they construct their spheres of life. Peer relationships, and community perspectives of same-sex families, inform perceived stigma and its correlation with poorer health and well-being. Although adolescents see their families as essentially normal they are negatively affected by external societal stigma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Kenyan Religious Leaders’ Views on Same-Sex Sexuality and Gender Nonconformity: Religious Freedom versus Constitutional Rights

    PubMed Central

    Mbote, David Kuria; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Waweru, Esther; Zapfel, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Religion plays an important role in framing the public discourse on sexuality, especially in countries where religion fully permeates social life. We explored the perspectives of Kenyan religious leaders on sexual and gender diversity in their country’s specific context. Two hundred and twelve Catholic, Islam and Protestant leaders from urban centers and rural townships completed a self-administered questionnaire, specifically developed for this study. The leaders’ perspectives were predominantly negative. Limited acceptance was conditional on sexual minorities not engaging in same-sex practices or seeing such practices as sinful. A substantial minority (37%) endorsed the use of violence for maintaining social values, especially regarding homosexuality and gender nonconformity. The majority of religious leaders agreed on the difference between civil law and religious doctrine. Human rights principles enshrined in the Kenya Constitution were seen as also applicable to sexual and gender minorities. Decriminalization of same-sex sexuality was seen as against one’s religion. Perspectives were less negative if leaders were familiar with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. Interventions that promote intergroup contact could be effective in changing religious leaders’ mindsets and advancing human rights and health for sexual and gender minorities. PMID:27982708

  11. Kenyan Religious Leaders' Views on Same-Sex Sexuality and Gender Nonconformity: Religious Freedom versus Constitutional Rights.

    PubMed

    Mbote, David Kuria; Sandfort, Theo G M; Waweru, Esther; Zapfel, Andrew

    Religion plays an important role in framing the public discourse on sexuality, especially in countries where religion fully permeates social life. We explored the perspectives of Kenyan religious leaders on sexual and gender diversity in their country's specific context. A total of 212 Catholic, Islamic, and Protestant leaders from urban centers and rural townships completed a self-administered questionnaire specifically developed for this study. The leaders' perspectives were predominantly negative. Limited acceptance was conditional on sexual minorities not engaging in same-sex practices or seeing such practices as sinful. A substantial minority (37%) endorsed the use of violence for maintaining social values, especially regarding homosexuality and gender nonconformity. The majority of religious leaders agreed on the difference between civil law and religious doctrine. Human rights principles enshrined in Kenya's Constitution were considered to be applicable to sexual and gender minorities. Decriminalization of same-sex sexuality was seen as against one's religion. Perspectives were less negative if leaders were familiar with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. Interventions that promote intergroup contact could be effective in changing religious leaders' mind-sets and advancing human rights and health for sexual and gender minorities.

  12. Disparities in Health and Disability Among Older Adults in Same-Sex Cohabiting Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Methods Data were obtained on men (n=698) and women (n=630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health and disability status. Results Compared to their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with ADLs and IADLs, functional limitations, and psychological distress. Discussion This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. PMID:25253727

  13. Differential Associations and Daily Smoking of Adolescents: The Importance of Same-Sex Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nofziger, Stacey; Lee, Hye-Ryeon

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether the importance of parents, siblings, best friends, and romantic interests are sex-specific in predicting daily juvenile smoking. Juveniles who smoke daily are strongly influenced by prosmoking attitudes and behaviors of same-sex family members. However, peers remain the most important associations in predicting daily…

  14. Instrumentality, Expressivity, and Relational Qualities in the Same-Sex Friendships of College Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Lisa L.; Beesley, Denise; Hurst, Rebecca; Saldana, Star; Licuanan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Using the relational-cultural model (Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver, & Surrey, 1991), the authors hypothesized that instrumentality, expressivity, and the individual affective experience of same-sex friendships would predict increased relationship mutuality, with college women and men showing different predictive patterns. Overall, results…

  15. Same-Sex Attraction, Social Relationships, Psychosocial Functioning, and School Performance in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Hakvoort, Esther M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in …

  16. Attitudes towards same-sex parenting in Italy: the influence of traditional gender ideology.

    PubMed

    Ioverno, Salvatore; Baiocco, Roberto; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Verrastro, Valeria; D'Amore, Salvatore; Green, Robert-Jay

    2018-04-20

    This study aimed to examine the role of gender ideology, religiosity and political conservatism on attitudes toward same-sex parenting in Italy at a time when same-sex parent families are undergoing attacks from ideological campaigns opposing non-traditional gender roles and families. We collected data from 4,187 heterosexual respondents about attitudes towards two-father and two-mother parenting, homonegativity, attitudes toward traditional masculinity and femininity, religious involvement and political conservatism. We conducted multiple group structural equation model analyses to test whether sex moderated any of the estimated associations among variables. Results showed that traditional beliefs about femininity were directly associated with negative attitudes towards two-mother and two-father parenting, while traditional beliefs about masculinity had a significant direct effect only on two-father parenting. Homonegativity partially mediated the association between religiosity, political conservatism and traditional beliefs about masculinity and femininity on negative attitudes toward both types of same-sex parenting. Gender differences were found for the indirect effects of political conservatism and religiosity on attitudes towards same-sex parenting. The theoretical contributions and implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Do Children in Single-Parent Households Fare Better Living with Same-Sex Parents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Douglas B.; Powell, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Used data from National Educational Longitudinal Study (with 3,483 and 409 eighth graders living in mother-only and father-only homes, respectively) to test whether children in single-parent homes fare better living with same-sex parent. Of 35 social psychological and educational outcomes studied, found none in which both males and females…

  18. Children of Same-Sex Parents: In and out of the Closet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Juliet E.; Mourot, Jon E.; Aros, Megan

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 14 million children are parented by gay or lesbian couples. Research indicates that children of same-sex parents are as well adjusted as their peers of opposite-sex parents. However, previous research has yet to examine how these youth negotiate their own process of coming out about their families to others. We sought to identify the…

  19. Evaluating the welfare of the child in same-sex families.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Guido

    2011-07-01

    Within the field of medically assisted reproduction, the welfare of the child is advanced as the major argument to decide the acceptability of certain applications. This argument, however, needs a complex framework in order to be understood and used properly. The effect of empirical evidence regarding the welfare of the child on people's judgments about the acceptability of same-sex families will differ for utilitarians and deontologists. Deontologists who are opposed to same-sex families will not change their mind when confronted with reassuring evidence. However, utilitarians also frequently use the evidence wrongly or draw the wrong conclusions. The reasonable welfare standard is put forward to avoid counterintuitive judgments and to block comparative reasoning that may follow from the use of heterosexual families as a control in follow-up research. Finally, a number of problems related to the use of parental sexual orientation as a criterion are discussed. The discrimination against same-sex families will not be overturned by empirical evidence about the welfare of the children. Children in same-sex families are generally doing well but their situation could be improved if their parents' relationship were to be socially and legally recognized.

  20. Same Sex Attraction, Homophobic Bullying and Mental Health of Young People in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Helen; Lloyd, Katrina; Schubotz, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the relationship between same-sex attraction, experience of bullying in school and mental health measured using the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12). A random sample of 16 year olds, drawn from the Child Benefit Register, was invited to take part in the 2005 Young Life and Times survey, which is a…

  1. "It's a Catch-22": Same-Sex-Attracted Young People on Coming Out to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Explores teen-initiated communication with parents about same-sex attraction, coming out, and adolescent sexuality. Reports the findings of a qualitative study on teen and parent reactions as well as a number of strategies which emerged that may help maintain healthy relationships in the face of developing sexuality. (Author/SD)

  2. Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.

    PubMed

    Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-08-01

    To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Same-Sex Domestic Violence: Strategies for Change. Sage Series on Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Beth, Ed.; Lundy, Sandra E., Ed.

    While a great deal has been written on domestic violence, the focus has been primarily on the violence of men against their current or former wives or girlfriends. Yet studies have shown that partner abuse is as common and severe among same-sex couples as among heterosexual couples. This book examines a broad range of issues that confront victims…

  4. Adolescents' Acceptance of Same-Sex Peers Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Staccy S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' (N less than or equal to 264) judgments about the acceptability of same-sex peers who varied in terms of their sexual orientation (straight, gay or lesbian) and their conformity to gender conventions or norms in regard to appearance and mannerisms or activity. Overall, the results of…

  5. Patterns of Dominance in Same-Sex and Other-Sex Dyadic Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Raffler-Engel, Walburga; And Others

    A pilot experiment aimed at discovering sex-specific language patterns as exhibited by males and females in conversation with same-sex and other-sex partners falsified the hypothesis frequently stated in the literature that males hold the dominant role in mixed-sex verbal interaction, at least in regard to college students. Twelve dyadic…

  6. Relationship Quality and Domestic Violence in Women's Same-Sex Relationships: The Role of Minority Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature addressing relationship quality and domestic violence in women's same-sex relationships, few studies have empirically examined how stress specific to living as a lesbian or bisexual woman might correlate with these relationship variables. Degree of outness, internalized homophobia, lifetime and recent experiences…

  7. A scale on beliefs about children's adjustment in same-sex families: reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-I-Bort, Hector

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new instrument named Scale Beliefs about Children's Adjustment on Same-Sex Families (SBCASSF). The scale was developed to assess of the adults' beliefs about negative impacts on children who are raised by same-sex parents. An initial pool of 95 items was generated by the authors based on a review of the literature on homophobia and feedback from several focus groups. Research findings, based on a sample of 212 university students (mean age 22 years, SD = 8.28), supported the reliability and validity of the scale. The final versions of the SBCASSF included items reflecting the following two factors: individual opposition (α = .87) and normative opposition (α = .88). Convergent validity of the scale is demonstrated by predictable correlations with beliefs about the cause of same-sex sexual orientation and the support for gay and lesbian rights. Our study reveals a strong positive association between high scores on SBCASSF and beliefs that the origin of same-sex sexual orientation is learned and opposition to gay and lesbian rights.

  8. A Theoretical Analysis of Sex Differences In Same-Sex Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Robert J.; Kinder, Bill N.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates sex differences in same-sex friendships of 312 undergraduate students in terms of the intersection and social penetration model of relationship development, and Bem's theory of sex role orientation. Finds significant sex-related differences in depth, duration, and involvement. (FMW)

  9. Heterosexual experience prevents the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Chena-Becerra, Florencia; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-03-01

    Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4days for a total of three trials and resulted in four groups (Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced, QNP-naïve, QNP-experienced). Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced and QNP-experienced displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex). By contrast, only QNP-naïve males displayed a same-sex preference. Accordingly, QNP-experienced males were not affected by the conditioning process and continued to prefer females. We discuss the effects of copulation and D2 agonists on the facilitation and/or disruption of conditioned partner preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in Reported Sexual Orientation Following US States Recognition of Same-Sex Couples

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Spiegelman, Donna; Williams, Kerry; Austin, S. Bryn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare changes in self-reported sexual orientation of women living in states with any recognition of same-sex relationships (e.g., hospital visitation, domestic partnerships) with those of women living in states without such recognition. Methods. We calculated the likelihood of women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (n = 69 790) changing their reported sexual orientation between 1995 and 2009. Results. We used data from the Nurses’ Health Study II and found that living in a state with same-sex relationship recognition was associated with changing one’s reported sexual orientation, particularly from heterosexual to sexual minority. Individuals who reported being heterosexual in 1995 were 30% more likely to report a minority orientation (i.e., bisexual or lesbian) in 2009 (risk ratio = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.61) if they lived in a state with any recognition of same-sex relationships compared with those who lived in a state without such recognition. Conclusions. Policies recognizing same-sex relationships may encourage women to report a sexual minority orientation. Future research is needed to clarify how other social and legal policies may affect sexual orientation self-reports. PMID:27736213

  11. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  12. Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study.

    PubMed

    Power, Jennifer J; Perlesz, Amaryll; Schofield, Margot J; Pitts, Marian K; Brown, Rhonda; McNair, Ruth; Barrett, Anna; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2010-03-09

    While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories) caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time within internal family relationships and social supports. Further

  13. Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. Methods/Design The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories) caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. Discussion This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time within internal family

  14. Continental Margins and the Law of the Sea - an `Arranged Marriage' with Huge Research Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parson, L.

    2005-12-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) requires coastal states intending to secure sovereignty over continental shelf territory extending beyond 200 nautical miles to submit geological/geophysical data, along with their analysis and synthesis of the relevant continental margin in support of their claim. These submissions are scrutinised and assessed by a UN Commission of experts who decide if the claim is justified, and thereby ultimately allowing the exploitation of non-living resources into this extended maritime space. The amount of data required to support the case will vary from margin to margin, depending on the local geological evolution, but typically will involve the running of new, dedicated marine surveys, mostly bathymetric and seismic. Key geological/geophysical issues revolve around proof of `naturalness' of the prolongation of land mass (cue - wide-angle seismics, deep drilling and sampling programmes) and shelf and slope morphology and sediment section thickness (cue - swath bathymetry and multichannel seismics programmes). These surveys, probably primarily funded by government agencies anxious not to lose out on the `land grab', will generate datasets which will inevitably boost not only the research effort leading to increased understanding of margin evolution in academic terms, but also contribute to wider applied aspects of the work such as those leading to refinement of deepwater hydrocarbon resource potential. It is conservatively estimated that in the region of fifty coastal states world-wide have a significant potential for claiming continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles, and that the total area available as extended shelf could easily exceed 7 million square kilometres. However, while for the vast majority of these states a UNCLOS deadline of 2009 exists for submitting a claim - to date only four have done so (Russia, Brazil, Australia and Ireland). It is therefore predictable, if not inevitable, that within the

  15. A Review and Critique of Research on Same-Sex Parenting and Adoption.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R

    2016-12-01

    Are the outcomes for children of gay, lesbian, or bisexual parents in general the same as those for heterosexual parents? That controversial question is discussed here in a detailed review of the social science literature in three parts: (1) stability of same-sex parental relationships, (2) child outcomes, and (3) child outcomes in same-sex adoption. Relationship instability appears to be higher among gay and lesbian parent couples and may be a key mediating factor influencing outcomes for children. With respect to part 2, while parental self-reports usually present few significant differences, social desirability or self-presentation bias may be a confounding factor. While some researchers have tended to conclude that there are no differences whatsoever in terms of child outcomes as a function of parental sexual orientation, such conclusions appear premature in the light of more recent data in which some different outcomes have been observed in a few studies. Studies conducted within the past 10 years that compared child outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual adoptive parents were reviewed. Numerous methodological limitations were identified that make it very difficult to make an accurate assessment of the effect of parental sexual orientation across adoptive families. Because of sampling limitations, we still know very little about family functioning among same-sex adoptive families with low or moderate incomes, those with several children, or those with older children, including adolescents or how family functioning may change over time. There remains a need for high-quality research on same-sex families, especially families with gay fathers and with lower income. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Adolescent Same-Sex Attraction and Academic Outcomes: The Role of School Attachment and Engagement.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2007-11-01

    Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments.

  17. Predictors of school engagement among same-sex and heterosexual adoptive parents of Kindergarteners.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2014-10-01

    Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents' self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child's good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child's behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent-teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children's schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents' relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children's schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescent Same-Sex Attraction and Academic Outcomes: The Role of School Attachment and Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments PMID:20221417

  19. Brain activation associated to olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; García, Luis I; Toledo-Cárdenas, Rebeca; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    Sexual preferences can be strongly modified by Pavlovian learning. For instance, olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference can occur when a sexually naïve male cohabits with an scented male during repeated periods under the effects of enhanced D2-type activity. Preference is observed days later via social and sexual behaviors. Herein we explored brain activity related to learned same-sex preference (Fos-Immunoreactivity, IR) following exposure to a conditioned odor paired with same-sex preference. During conditioning trials males received either saline or the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) and cohabitated during 24 h with a stimulus male that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. In a drug-free final test we assessed socio/sexual partner preference between the scented male and a receptive female. The results indicated that QNP-conditioned males developed a same-sex preference observed via contact, time spent, olfactory investigations, and non-contact erections. By contrast, saline-conditioned and intact (non-exposed to conditioning) males expressed an unconditioned preference for the female. Four days later the males were exposed to almond scent and their brains were processed for Fos-IR. Results indicated that the QNP-conditioned group expressed more Fos-IR in the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh), medial preoptic area (MPA), piriform cortex (Pir) and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) as compared to saline-conditioned. Intact males expressed the lowest Fos-IR in AcbSh and VMH, but the highest in MPA and Pir. We discuss the role of these areas in the learning process of same-sex partner preferences and olfactory discrimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reflexive convention: civil partnership, marriage and family.

    PubMed

    Heaphy, Brian

    2017-09-14

    Drawing on an analysis of qualitative interview data from a study of formalized same-sex relationships (civil partnerships) this paper examines the enduring significance of marriage and family as social institutions. In doing so, it intervenes in current debates in the sociology of family and personal life about how such institutions are undermined by reflexivity or bolstered by convention. Against the backdrop of dominating sociological frames for understanding the links between the changing nature of marriage and family and same-sex relationship recognition, the paper analyses the diverse and overlapping ways (including the simple, relational, strategic, ambivalent and critical ways) in which same-sex partners reflexively constructed and engaged with marriage and family conventions. My analysis suggests that instead of viewing reflexivity and convention as mutually undermining, as some sociologists of family and personal life do, it is insightful to explore how diverse forms of reflexivity and convention interact in everyday life to reconfigure the social institutions of marriage and family, but do not undermine them as such. I argue the case for recognizing the ways in which 'reflexive convention', or reflexive investment in convention, contributes to the continuing significance of marriage and family as social institutions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  1. Couple-level Minority Stress: An Examination of Same-sex Couples' Unique Experiences.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; LeBlanc, Allen J; de Vries, Brian; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory

    2017-12-01

    Social stress resulting from stigma, prejudice, and discrimination-"minority stress"-negatively impacts sexual minority individuals' health and relational well-being. The present study examined how being in a same-sex couple can result in exposure to unique minority stressors not accounted for at the individual level. Relationship timeline interviews were conducted with 120 same-sex couples equally distributed across two study sites (Atlanta and San Francisco), gender (male and female), and relationship duration (at least six months but less than three years, at least three years but less than seven years, and seven or more years). Directed content analyses identified 17 unique couple-level minority stressors experienced within nine distinct social contexts. Analyses also revealed experiences of dyadic minority stress processes (stress discrepancies and stress contagion). These findings can be useful in future efforts to better understand and address the cumulative impact of minority stress on relational well-being and individual health.

  2. The Promise and Perils of Population Research on Same-Sex Families.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Spiker, Russell; Liu, Hui; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-12-01

    As a follow-up to our 2016 study, this article presents new findings examining the relationship between same-sex family structure and child health using the 2008-2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). After discussing NIHS data problems, we examine the relationship between family structure and a broad range of child well-being outcomes, including school days lost, behavior, parent-rated health, emotional difficulties, and activity limitations. We find both similarities (school days lost, behavior, parent-rated health) and differences (emotional difficulties and activity limitations) across our two studies using different survey years, but our overall conclusions are robust. We further discuss the implications of our findings for future research on this topic, including how to account for biological relatedness in a study on child health in same-sex families.

  3. Perceived Cross-Orientation Infidelity: Heterosexual Perceptions of Same-Sex Cheating in Exclusive Relationships.

    PubMed

    Compton, Benjamin L; Bowman, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    For individuals in exclusive romantic relationships, the dynamics of sexual experimentation are nuanced. Extradyadic behavior outside of a relationship may be perceived as cheating or infidelity, with much of those perceptions driven by the biological sex of the perceiver. This study significantly reframes seminal research on perceptions of cheating with third-party friends by Kruger et al. (2013), to further nuance an evolutionary threat-based model. In doing so, this furthers our understanding of the associated perceptions of individuals in heterosexual relationships when confronted by partners' cheating with their same-sex cross-orientation friends. Results indicate that perceptions of same-sex infidelity vary widely depending on the nature of the behaviors, with decreasing attribution given to sexual and erotic behaviors, close relational behaviors, and casual social interaction behaviors, respectively. Implications are discussed for a variety of sexual communities, as well as the impact of gender and relational status on perceptions of infidelity.

  4. Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, SEAN G.; MERRIWETHER, ANN M.; GARCIA, JUSTIN R.

    2013-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported. PMID:23667347

  5. Emotional Closeness in Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Relationships with Mothers, Fathers, and Same-Sex Friends

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Sue A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the associations between parent-adolescent relationships and friendships among Latinos is limited. Drawing on developmental and ecological perspectives, we examined bidirectional associations between parental warmth and friendship intimacy with same-sex peers from early to late adolescence using a longitudinal cross-lag panel design. Parent-adolescent immigration status and adolescent gender were examined as moderators of these associations. Home interviews were conducted with 246 Mexican American adolescents (51% female) when they were in early (M = 12.55; SD = .60 years), middle (M = 14.64; SD = .59 years), and late adolescence (M = 17.67; SD = .57 years). Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. Girls’ intimacy with same-sex friends also was high and stable from early to late adolescence, but boys’ intimacy with same-sex friends increased over this time period. In general, findings revealed that adolescents’ perceptions of parents’ warmth in early adolescence were associated positively with friendship intimacy in middle adolescence, and friendship intimacy in middle adolescence was associated positively with parental warmth in late adolescence. Some associations were moderated by adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth. These findings suggest that among Mexican American adolescents, their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends are intertwined closely and that gender and immigration status shape some of these associations during adolescence. PMID:23999997

  6. Emotional closeness in Mexican-origin adolescents' relationships with mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sue A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2014-12-01

    Research on the associations between parent-adolescent relationships and friendships among Latinos is limited. Drawing on developmental and ecological perspectives, we examined bidirectional associations between parental warmth and friendship intimacy with same-sex peers from early to late adolescence using a longitudinal cross-lag panel design. Parent-adolescent immigration status and adolescent gender were examined as moderators of these associations. Home interviews were conducted with 246 Mexican American adolescents (51 % female) when they were in early (M = 12.55; SD = .60 years), middle (M = 14.64; SD = .59 years), and late adolescence (M = 17.67; SD = .57 years). Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. Girls' intimacy with same-sex friends also was high and stable from early to late adolescence, but boys' intimacy with same-sex friends increased over this time period. In general, findings revealed that adolescents' perceptions of parents' warmth in early adolescence were associated positively with friendship intimacy in middle adolescence, and friendship intimacy in middle adolescence was associated positively with parental warmth in late adolescence. Some associations were moderated by adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth. These findings suggest that among Mexican American adolescents, their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends are intertwined closely and that gender and immigration status shape some of these associations during adolescence.

  7. Is There a Relationship Between the Concentration of Same-Sex Couples and Tobacco Retailer Density?

    PubMed Central

    Pan, William K.; Henriksen, Lisa; Goldstein, Adam O.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is markedly higher among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations than heterosexuals. Higher density of tobacco retailers is found in neighborhoods with lower income and more racial/ethnic minorities. Same-sex couples tend to live in similar neighborhoods, but the association of this demographic with tobacco retailer density has not been examined. Methods: For a national sample of 97 US counties, we calculated the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 persons and rates of same-sex couples per 1000 households in each census tract (n = 17 941). Using spatial regression, we examined the association of these variables in sex-stratified models, including neighborhood demographics and other environmental characteristics to examine confounding. Results: Results from spatial regression show that higher rates of both female and male same-sex couples were associated with a higher density of tobacco retailers. However the magnitude of this association was small. For female couples, the association was not significant after controlling for area-level characteristics, such as percent black, percent Hispanic, median household income, the presence of interstate highways, and urbanicity, which are neighborhood correlates of higher tobacco retailer density. For male couples, the association persisted after control for these characteristics. Conclusion: Same-sex couples reside in areas with higher tobacco retailer density, and for men, this association was not explained by neighborhood confounders, such as racial/ethnic composition and income. While lesbian, gay, and bisexual disparities in tobacco use may be influenced by neighborhood environment, the magnitude of the association suggests other explanations of these disparities remain important areas of research. PMID:25744959

  8. 25 CFR 11.603 - Invalid or prohibited marriages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Invalid or prohibited marriages. 11.603 Section 11.603... LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.603 Invalid or prohibited marriages. (a) The following marriages are prohibited: (1) A marriage entered into prior to the dissolution of an earlier marriage of one...

  9. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997–2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status—not same-sex status—that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  10. Female same-sex families in the dialectics of marginality and conformity.

    PubMed

    Sobočan, Ana Marija

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the continuum between the personal and public roles of families, where two women parent together in Slovenia, against the background of the current marginal position of same-sex families in regard to rights and symbolic status, in claiming the position of same-sex parenting in the context of family models as well as in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movement agendas. It briefly outlines the situation in Slovenia in regard to homosexuality, and then moves to discussing the outcomes of the processes and experiences of lesbian mothers that are transgressing the borders of parental and homosexual identities. These outcomes are: "justifying" and demonstrating the "appropriateness" of family life in non-heteronormative families, constructing strategies for claiming a joint parental identity, and building a sense of belonging by forming a community that is both homosexual and parental. The article draws extensively on the lived (motherhood) experiences and stories of families where parents are two female partners and reads them as negotiating a constantly shifting place between a marginal status in the broader society and a conformist character in the perspective of their non-normative sexuality. In the article, it is recognized that same-sex families in Slovenia are entering the political agenda and are thus involved in transforming both contexts-the family and homosexual identities.

  11. Etiology of homosexuality and attitudes toward same-sex parenting: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-I-Bort, Hector; Pascual-Soler, Marcos; Badenes-Ribera, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Attribution theory suggests the hypothesis that heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexual sexual orientation will be more negative when homosexuality is attributed to controllable causes. Our randomized study analyzed (a) whether beliefs about the genetic or environmental etiology of the homosexual sexual orientation can be immediately modified by reading a text and (b) the causal effect of attributions about the controllability (environmental etiology) or noncontrollability (genetic etiology) of homosexual sexual orientation on the rejection of same-sex parenting and their social rights. The sample was composed of 190 Spanish university students with a mean age of 22.07 years (SD = 8.46). The results show that beliefs about the etiology of the sexual orientation could be modified by means of a written text. Furthermore, participants who believed that sexual orientation had a genetic etiology showed greater support for social rights and less rejection of same-sex parenting. However, the effects were detected only when there was a traditional opposition to the family with same-sex parenting. When the opposition was normative, the effect was not statistically significant. Our results can be useful in planning variables for intervention programs designed to foster tolerance toward and normality of sexual diversity.

  12. Current active and passive smoking among adults living with same sex partners in Spain.

    PubMed

    Perales, Jaime; Checa, Irene; Espejo, Begoña

    2017-05-19

    To assess the association between current active and passive tobacco smoking and living with a same-sex partner in Spain. We analysed data from two cross-sectional national surveys of the Spanish population 15 years and older (2011-Encuesta Nacional de Salud en España and 2014-Encuesta Europea de Salud en España). Analyses included only people living with their partner. Associations were calculated using multiple logistic regressions adjusting for gender, social class and age. Current active and passive smoking were significantly associated with living with same sex partners (odds ratio: 2.71 and 2.88), and particularly strong among women. Spanish adults living with same-sex partners are at higher risk of active and passive smoking. This risk varies by gender. Spanish national surveys should include items on sexual orientation for improved data on health disparities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Mephedrone use among same-sex attracted young people in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lea, Toby; Reynolds, Robert; De Wit, John

    2011-07-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic stimulant that has recently emerged as a recreational drug. There is currently no Australian data on prevalence and patterns of mephedrone use. This paper aims to explore patterns of mephedrone use among a large sample of same-sex attracted young people in Sydney, Australia. An online survey was conducted with 572 same-sex attracted men (n= 318) and women (n = 254) aged 18 to 25 years, who lived or regularly spent time in Sydney. Data on mephedrone were collected as part of a larger study exploring sexuality and nightlife. Mephedrone had been used by 4.0% (n = 23) of respondents, 2.1% (n = 12) in the preceding 6 months, 1.4% (n = 8) in the preceding month. Typical routes of use were intranasal (n = 8) and ingestion (n = 6). No respondent reported ever injecting mephedrone. Three respondents reported polydrug use with mephedrone. The most common contexts of use were respondents' homes or friends' homes (n = 8) and gay bars and clubs (n = 7). This paper reports low levels of mephedrone use among a large sample of same-sex attracted young people. The proportion of respondents who had used mephedrone was much lower than reported in recent UK research. This may suggest that mephedrone has not infiltrated the Australian market to the same extent as in Europe. However, data from annual surveillance of drug users are required to better determine this. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Not a "mom thing": Predictors of gatekeeping in same-sex and heterosexual parent families.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Kristin K; Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi L

    2017-08-01

    The current study is the first to examine parental gatekeeping in both same-sex (57 female, 51 male) and heterosexual (n = 82) couples, all of whom became parents via adoption. Aspects of the individual, the couple, and the work context, measured preadoption, were examined as predictors of gatekeeping. Gatekeeping refers to attitudes and behaviors aimed at regulating and limiting the involvement of the other parent in housework and child care and was measured 2 years postadoption. Findings revealed that women in heterosexual relationships reported higher gatekeeping compared with all other groups, and men in same-sex relationships reported higher gatekeeping compared with women in same-sex relationships and men in heterosexual relationships. Across the full sample, lower job autonomy predicted higher gatekeeping in both housework and child care, whereas greater relationship ambivalence, greater perceived parenting skill, and lower perceived partner parenting skill predicted higher gatekeeping in child care. Findings provide insight into how gatekeeping behaviors and beliefs are enacted in diverse types of couples and suggest that work factors should be taken into account when conducting research on, and seeking to improve, coparenting relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Health Communication With Same-Sex and Other-Sex Friends in Emerging Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Brian; Mehta, Clare; Alfonso, Jacqueline

    2017-09-01

    Objective We examined health-related communication between same-sex and other-sex friends and how communication was related to health-related behavior. Participants Data from 243 emerging adults attending college ( Mage = 18.96, SD = 1.43; 55.6% male) were analyzed. Methods Participants completed measures assessing the frequency in which they talked about and made plans to engage in exercise and nutrition-related behaviors with friends, as well as how often they engaged in exercise and nutrition-related behaviors. Results In general, participants reported more health-related communication with same-sex friends. Health-related communication with same-sex friends was positively related to health behaviors for men and women. However, the pattern of results differed for men and women depending on the topic of communication and the behavior being examined. Conclusion Our study extends the literature by examining the role of sex of friends in health communication and planning and how interactions with friends relate to health-promoting behavior.

  16. Minority Stress and Same-Sex Relationship Satisfaction: The Role of Concealment Motivation.

    PubMed

    Pepping, Christopher A; Cronin, Timothy J; Halford, W Kim; Lyons, Anthony

    2018-04-30

    Most lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people want a stable, satisfying romantic relationship. Although many of the predictors of relationship outcomes are similar to those of heterosexual couples, same-sex couples face some additional challenges associated with minority stress that also impact upon relationship quality. Here, we investigate the association between minority stressors and relationship quality in a sample of 363 adults (M age = 30.37, SD = 10.78) currently in a same-sex romantic relationship. Internalized homophobia and difficulties accepting one's LGB identity were each negatively associated with relationship satisfaction via heightened concealment motivation. We also examined the protective role of identity affirmation on relationship quality, finding a direct positive relationship between the two variables. Minority stressors were negatively associated with couple relationship satisfaction via heightened concealment motivation. The finding that identity affirmation directly predicted increased couple satisfaction also highlights the important role of protective factors in same-sex couple relationships. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  17. Health Risks in Same-Sex Attracted Ugandan University Students: Evidence from Two Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Agardh, Anette; Ross, Michael; Östergren, Per-Olof; Larsson, Markus; Tumwine, Gilbert; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Simpson, Julie A.; Patton, George

    2016-01-01

    Widespread discrimination across much of sub-Saharan Africa against persons with same-sex sexuality, including recent attempts in Uganda to extend criminal sanctions against same-sex behavior, are likely to have profound effects on this group’s health, health care access, and well-being. Yet knowledge of the prevalence of same-sex sexuality in this region is scarce. This study aimed to systematically examine prevalence of same-sex sexuality and related health risks in young Ugandan adults. We conducted two cross-sectional survey studies in south-western Uganda targeting student samples (n = 980, n = 1954) representing 80% and 72% of the entire undergraduate classes attending a university in 2005 and 2010, respectively. A questionnaire assessed items concerning same-sex sexuality (same-sex attraction/fantasies, same-sex sexual relations), mental health, substance use, experience of violence, risky sexual behavior, and sexual health counseling needs. Our findings showed that same-sex sexual attraction/fantasies and behavior were common among male and female students, with 10–25% reporting having sexual attraction/fantasies regarding persons of the same-sex, and 6–16% reporting same-sex sexual relations. Experiences of same-sex sexuality were associated with health risks, e.g. poor mental health (2010, AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.3), sexual coercion (2010, AOR 2.9; CI: 1.9–4.6), and unmet sexual health counseling needs (2010, AOR 2.2; CI: 1.4–3.3). This first study of young adults in Uganda with same-sex sexuality found high levels of health needs but poor access to health care. Effective response is likely to require major shifts in current policy, efforts to reduce stigmatization, and reorientation of health services to better meet the needs of this vulnerable group of young people. PMID:26982494

  18. Effects of Same-Sex versus Coeducational Physical Education on the Self-Perceptions of Middle and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lirgg, Cathy D.

    1993-01-01

    Students from coeducational classes were assigned to a same-sex or a new coeducational physical education class for a 10-lesson unit of basketball. Group and individual analyses indicated that middle school students preferred same-sex classes, whereas high school students preferred coeducational classes. (SM)

  19. Stability of Self-Reported Same-Sex and Both-Sex Attraction from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yueqin; Xu, Yishan; Tornello, Samantha L

    2016-04-01

    This study examined how sexual attraction varied across age, gender of participant, and gender of romantic partner, from adolescence to early adulthood. Comparisons between same-sex and both-sex attracted individuals were of particular interest. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), we examined the responses of participants who reported experiencing same-sex attractions or both-sex attractions at least once within four waves (n = 1889). Results indicated that same-sex attractions became more stable over time, whereas both-sex attraction remained unstable even into adulthood. Compared with males, females were less stable in same-sex attraction, but more stable in both-sex attraction. The majority of people who reported same-sex attraction did not report having a same-sex romantic partner before they entered adulthood, and those who reported a same-sex romantic partner were more likely to maintain their same-sex attraction than those who did not. As males got older, the gender of their romantic partner tended to become more consistent with their sexual attraction. However, for females, the consistency between the gender of their romantic partner and sexual attraction did not change over time.

  20. Young men's perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction.

    PubMed

    Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2008-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM's (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support.

  1. What's wrong with me? Coming to terms with same sex attraction.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Many, if not all, young people question what is wrong with them when they begin to realise that they are attracted to people of the same sex. This can be because of feelings of confusion, guilt and shame, which can develop in reaction to the society in which they live; feelings that are often mirrored by the families of the young people concerned. This article explains the theories behind sexuality to help nurses provide unprejudiced, appropriate support and information to children and young people seeking help.

  2. Young men's perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction

    PubMed Central

    Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2011-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM’s (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support. PMID:21423842

  3. At Issue: Marriage. Exploring the Debate over Marriage Rights for Same-Sex Couples: A Curriculum Guide for High School Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network, New York, NY.

    The Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) aims to unite with educators in cultivating an informed citizenry and future generations of children who respect and accept all people, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity. By supporting educators in their efforts to build schools where information and expression flow…

  4. Marriage and the homosexual body: it's about race.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Any analogy between race and homosexuality cannot erase the fact that skin color has marked and continues to mark bodies for special punishment and necessary protection. Yet, the analogy has also been forged in the struggles against sexual discrimination and in the courts to recognize same-sex marriage as a basic civil right. My purposes here are, first, to review the role the race-sexual orientation analogy has played in same-sex marriage debates, second to examine the analogy within the context of race and queer theories and, finally, to suggest a racial dimension to sexuality that marks the homosexual body.

  5. The Impact of Marriage Equality on Sexual Minority Women's Relationships With Their Families of Origin.

    PubMed

    Riggle, Ellen D B; Drabble, Laurie; Veldhuis, Cindy B; Wootton, Angie; Hughes, Tonda L

    2018-01-01

    Support from family of origin is important to the health and wellbeing of sexual minority women (SMW) and structural stigma may impact that support. The recent extension of marriage rights to same-sex couples in all U.S. states provided an opportunity to examine whether this change in law would impact the relationship of SMW with their families of origin regarding their same-sex relationships, including marriage. Interviews with 20 SMW were conducted to learn about their perceptions of how support from families of origin had been impacted by or changed since the U.S. Supreme Court decision (Obergefell v. Hodges, 135 S. Ct. 2584, 2015). Thematic analysis of the narrative responses revealed stories of continued family support; increases in acceptance or support; mixed support/rejection or unclear messages; "don't ask, don't tell" or silence; and continued or increased family rejection. Most participant narratives included more than one theme. Implications for SMW's health and relationships are discussed.

  6. 20 CFR 222.14 - Deemed marriage relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... If a ceremonial or common-law marriage relationship cannot be established under State law, a claimant... went through the marriage ceremony in good faith. Good faith means that at the time of the ceremony the...

  7. 20 CFR 222.14 - Deemed marriage relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... If a ceremonial or common-law marriage relationship cannot be established under State law, a claimant... went through the marriage ceremony in good faith. Good faith means that at the time of the ceremony the...

  8. Human males appear more prepared than females to resolve conflicts with same-sex peers.

    PubMed

    Benenson, Joyce F; Kuhn, Melissa N; Ryan, Patrick J; Ferranti, Anthony J; Blondin, Rose; Shea, Michael; Charpentier, Chalice; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Wrangham, Richard W

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate sex differences in proximate mechanisms that precede the termination of conflicts. In Study 1, we asked women and men to report their intensity of anger in response to hypothetical, common transgressions involving a same-sex roommate. Direct verbal and physical aggression elicited the highest-intensity anger for both sexes, although overall women reported more intense anger than men to all transgressions. In Study 2, we examined sex differences in subjective and physiological reactions to a conflict using a role-playing scenario. Following recall of a conflict involving direct aggression and role-playing a reaction to it, compared with men, women reported their anger would dissipate less quickly and they would take longer to reconcile. Women also exhibited increased heart rate, but little change in cortisol, whereas men exhibited little change in heart rate but increased cortisol production. We interpret the results as indicating that women are less prepared than men to resolve a conflict with a same-sex peer.

  9. Olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference in female rats: Role of ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, M B; Barradas-Moctezuma, M; Herrera-Covarrubias, D; Carrillo, P; Corona-Morales, A A; Perez, C A; García, L I; Manzo, J; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-11-01

    The dopamine D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in males during cohabitation, but not in ovariectomized (OVX) females, primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P). Herein we tested the effects of QNP on OVX, EB-only primed females. Females received a systemic injection (every four days) of either saline (Saline-conditioned) or QNP (QNP-conditioned) and then cohabited for 24h with lemon-scented stimulus females (CS+), during three trials. In test 1 (female-female) preference was QNP-free, and females chose between the CS+ female and a novel female. In test 2 (male-female) they chose between the CS+ female and a sexually experienced male. In test 1 Saline-conditioned females displayed more hops & darts towards the novel female, but QNP-conditioned females displayed more sexual solicitations towards the CS+ female. In test 2 Saline-conditioned females displayed a clear preference for the male, whereas QNP-conditioned females displayed what we considered a bisexual preference. We discuss the effect of dopamine and ovarian hormones on the development of olfactory conditioned same-sex preference in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adolescent same-sex and both-sex romantic attractions and relationships: implications for smoking.

    PubMed

    Easton, Alyssa; Jackson, Kat; Mowery, Paul; Comeau, Dawn; Sell, Randall

    2008-03-01

    We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between smoking and romantic attractions and relationships. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess associations of smoking at Waves I and II with same-sex, both-sex, and opposite-sex romantic attractions or relationships as determined at Wave I. We used logistic regression to predict smoking at Wave II by sexual orientation. Both adolescent boys and adolescent girls with both-sex attractions or relationships were significantly more likely than those with opposite-sex attractions or relationships to be current smokers. Adolescent boys and girls with both-sex attractions or relationships who were nonsmokers at Wave I were more likely to be current smokers at Wave II than those with opposite-sex attractions or relationships. Our findings support previous research on smoking among youths who report same-sex or both-sex romantic attractions or relationships and demonstrate the increased risk bisexual youths have for smoking initiation and smoking prevalence. Tobacco use prevention programs targeting gay and bisexual youths are warranted, particularly among adolescent girls and boys who have had both-sex romantic attractions or relationships.

  11. Adolescent Same-Sex and Both-Sex Romantic Attractions and Relationships: Implications for Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Easton, Alyssa; Jackson, Kat; Mowery, Paul; Comeau, Dawn; Sell, Randall

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between smoking and romantic attractions and relationships. Methods. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess associations of smoking at Waves I and II with same-sex, both-sex, and opposite-sex romantic attractions or relationships as determined at Wave I. We used logistic regression to predict smoking at Wave II by sexual orientation. Results. Both adolescent boys and adolescent girls with both-sex attractions or relationships were significantly more likely than those with opposite-sex attractions or relationships to be current smokers. Adolescent boys and girls with both-sex attractions or relationships who were nonsmokers at Wave I were more likely to be current smokers at Wave II than those with opposite-sex attractions or relationships. Conclusions. Our findings support previous research on smoking among youths who report same-sex or both-sex romantic attractions or relationships and demonstrate the increased risk bisexual youths have for smoking initiation and smoking prevalence. Tobacco use prevention programs targeting gay and bisexual youths are warranted, particularly among adolescent girls and boys who have had both-sex romantic attractions or relationships. PMID:18235075

  12. Same-sex attraction, social relationships, psychosocial functioning, and school performance in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M; de Bruyn, Eddy H; Hakvoort, Esther M

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in psychosocial functioning resulted from differences in the quality of social relationships. Data were collected from 866 Dutch high school students (mean age 13.61 years) by means of a computer-based questionnaire. Of the participants, 74 (8.5%) reported having feelings of SSA. The participants with SSA rated the quality of their relationships with their fathers and their peers lower than did those without SSA. Participants with SSA also had poorer mental health (higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-esteem) and lower school performance. A mediation analysis revealed that differences in psychosocial functioning resulted from differences in the quality of the same-sex attracted youths' social relationships, especially with fathers and peers. Copyright (c) 2008 APA.

  13. Minority Stress and Stress Proliferation Among Same-Sex and Other Marginalized Couples

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Allen J.; Frost, David M.; Wight, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from 2 largely isolated approaches to the study of social stress—stress proliferation and minority stress—the authors theorize about stress and mental health among same-sex couples. With this integrated stress framework, they hypothesized that couple-level minority stressors may be experienced by individual partners and jointly by couples as a result of the stigmatized status of their same-sex relationship—a novel concept. They also consider dyadic minority stress processes, which result from the relational experience of individual-level minority stressors between partners. Because this framework includes stressors emanating from both status- (e.g., sexual minority) and role-based (e.g., partner) stress domains, it facilitates the study of stress proliferation linking minority stress (e.g., discrimination), more commonly experienced relational stress (e.g., conflict), and mental health. This framework can be applied to the study of stress and health among other marginalized couples, such as interracial/ethnic, interfaith, and age-discrepant couples. PMID:25663713

  14. Measurement, methods, and divergent patterns: Reassessing the effects of same-sex parents.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Simon; Powell, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Scholars have noted that survey analysis of small subsamples-for example, same-sex parent families-is sensitive to researchers' analytical decisions, and even small differences in coding can profoundly shape empirical patterns. As an illustration, we reassess the findings of a recent article by Regnerus regarding the implications of being raised by gay and lesbian parents. Taking a close look at the New Family Structures Study (NFSS), we demonstrate the potential for misclassifying a non-negligible number of respondents as having been raised by parents who had a same-sex romantic relationship. We assess the implications of these possible misclassifications, along with other methodological considerations, by reanalyzing the NFSS in seven steps. The reanalysis offers evidence that the empirical patterns showcased in the original Regnerus article are fragile-so fragile that they appear largely a function of these possible misclassifications and other methodological choices. Our replication and reanalysis of Regnerus's study offer a cautionary illustration of the importance of double checking and critically assessing the implications of measurement and other methodological decisions in our and others' research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Marriage equality is a mental health issue.

    PubMed

    Kealy-Bateman, Warren; Pryor, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    We aim to review marriage equality in New Zealand and Australia and critically evaluate the health impact of such a legal change. We undertook a review of the literature using the search terms "marriage equality", "same sex marriage" and "gay marriage" in combination with "health", "wellbeing", "psych*", "mental illness" and "distress". This search included medical literature, legal literature and mass media. This review indicates that Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) people disproportionately face negative health stressors and negative health events compared with the general population and this is related to the stress of being a stigmatised minority group. The evidence strongly supports the proposition that marriage equality is related to improved health outcomes. A diverse range of professional health groups advocate for the legislative progression to marriage equality. The authors found no evidence that marriage equality harms opposite-sex marriage. Marriage equality is still lacking in Australia and as a positive correlate of health should be strongly supported. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  16. A shot in the dark: same-sex sexual behaviour in a deep-sea squid.

    PubMed

    Hoving, Hendrik J T; Bush, Stephanie L; Robison, Bruce H

    2012-04-23

    Little is known about the reproductive habits of deep-living squids. Using remotely operated vehicles in the deep waters of the Monterey Submarine Canyon, we have found evidence of mating, i.e. implanted sperm packages, on similar body locations in males and females of the rarely seen mesopelagic squid Octopoteuthis deletron. Equivalent numbers of both sexes were found to have mated, indicating that male squid routinely and indiscriminately mate with both males and females. Most squid species are short-lived, semelparous (i.e. with a single, brief reproductive period) and promiscuous. In the deep, dark habitat where O. deletron lives, potential mates are few and far between. We suggest that same-sex mating behaviour by O. deletron is part of a reproductive strategy that maximizes success by inducing males to indiscriminately and swiftly inseminate every conspecific that they encounter.

  17. Denial of service to same-sex and interracial couples: Evidence from a national survey experiment.

    PubMed

    Powell, Brian; Schnabel, Landon; Apgar, Lauren

    2017-12-01

    Legislatures and courts are debating whether businesses can deny services to same-sex couples for religious reasons. Yet, little is known about public views on this issue. In a national survey experiment, Americans ( n = 2035) responded to an experimental vignette describing a gay or interracial couple refused service. Vignettes varied the reason for refusal (religion/nonreligious) and by business type (individual/corporation). Results confirm greater support of service refusal by the self-employed than by corporations and to gay couples than to interracial couples. However, religious reasons for refusal to gay couples elicit no more support than do nonreligious reasons. In the first national study to experimentally analyze views on service refusal to sexual minorities, we demonstrate that views vary by several factors but not by whether the refusal was for religious reasons.

  18. Adolescents' Acceptance of Same-Sex Peers Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression.

    PubMed

    Horn, Staccy S

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' (N ≤ 264) judgments about the acceptability of same-sex peers who varied in terms of their sexual orientation (straight, gay or lesbian) and their conformity to gender conventions or norms in regard appearance and mannerisms or activity. Overall, the results of this study suggest that adolescents' conceptions of the acceptability of their peers are related not just to sexual orientation but also conformity to gender conventions. Both straight and gay or lesbian individuals who were non-conventional in their appearance and mannerisms were rated as less acceptable than individuals who conformed to gender conventions or those who participated in non-conventional activities. Most surprisingly, for boys, the straight individual who was non-conforming in appearance was rated less acceptable than either the gay individual who conformed to gender norms or was gender non-conforming in choice of activity.

  19. Labeling Same-Sex Sexuality in a Tolerant Society That Values Normality: The Dutch Case.

    PubMed

    van Lisdonk, Jantine; Nencel, Lorraine; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2017-10-16

    Studies have pointed to a trend in Western societies toward the normalization of homosexuality and emerging "post-gayness" among young people, who no longer consider their sexual identity meaningful in defining themselves. This article takes a closer look at the Dutch case where tolerance is regarded as a national virtue, while society remains heteronormative. In 38 interviews with Dutch same-sex-attracted young people, we investigated the labels they used to describe their sexual orientation to reveal what they can tell us about normalization, tolerance, and heteronormativity. In their labeling strategies, participants de-emphasized their sexual identity, othered, and reinforced the hetero/homo binary. They preferred labels without connotations to gender expression. While post-gay rhetoric was ideologically appealing, its use was not an outcome of their sexual orientation having become insignificant; it rather enabled them to produce normality. We discuss the findings against the backdrop of "Dutch tolerance," which rests on an ideology of normality.

  20. Sex variations in the disclosure to parents of same-sex attractions.

    PubMed

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Ream, Geoffrey L

    2003-09-01

    The decision whether to disclose same-sex attractions to parents was explored through in-depth interviews with 164 young women and men. Participants were more likely to disclose to mothers than fathers, usually around age 19 years and in a face-to-face encounter. Mothers were told before fathers, largely because mothers asked or because youth wanted to share their life with them; fathers were told by someone other than their child or by the youth because it was time. The reason participants did not disclose to mothers was because it was not the right developmental time; the reason they did not disclose to fathers was because they were not close to them. Sons, more than daughters, feared the negative reactions of parents, who generally reacted in the same manner--supportive or slightly negative. Relationships with parents since disclosure generally had not changed or had improved. Sex of parent mattered more than sex of child on most domains.

  1. Three-Year Follow-Up of Same-Sex Couples Who Had Civil Unions in Vermont, Same-Sex Couples Not in Civil Unions, and Heterosexual Married Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Rothblum, Esther D.; Solomon, Sondra E.

    2008-01-01

    This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was a…

  2. Sickness-induced changes in physiology do not affect fecundity or same-sex behavior.

    PubMed

    Sylvia, Kristyn E; Báez Ramos, Patricia; Demas, Gregory E

    2018-02-01

    Previous work in our lab has shown that early-life infection affects female reproductive physiology and function (i.e., smaller ovaries, abnormal estrous cycles) and alters investigation and aggression towards male conspecifics in a reproductive context. Although many studies have investigated the effects of postnatal immune challenge on physiological and behavioral development, fewer studies have examined whether these changes have ultimate effects on reproduction. In the current study, we paired Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) and simulated a bacterial infection in early life by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to male and female pups on pnd3 and pnd5. In adulthood, hamsters were paired with novel individuals of the same sex, and we scored an array of social behaviors (e.g., investigation, aggression). We then paired animals with individuals of the opposite sex for 5 consecutive nights, providing them with the opportunity to mate. We found that females exhibited impaired reproductive physiology and function in adulthood (i.e., smaller ovaries and abnormal estrous cycles), similar to our previous work. However, both LPS-treated males and females exhibited similar same-sex social behavior when compared with saline-treated controls, they successfully mated, and there were no significant changes in fecundity. These data suggest that the physiological changes in response to neonatal immune challenge may not have long-term effects on reproductive success in a controlled environment. Collectively, the results of this study are particularly important when investigating the relationships between physiology and behavior within an ultimate context. Animals exposed to early-life stress may in fact be capable of compensating for changes in physiology in order to survive and reproduce in some contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using stem cell-derived gametes for same-sex reproduction: an alternative scenario.

    PubMed

    Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; Pennings, Guido; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo

    2017-10-01

    It has been suggested that future application of stem-cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes) might lead to the possibility for same-sex couples to have genetically related children. Still, for this to become possible, the technique of gamete derivation and techniques of reprogramming somatic cells to a pluripotent state (directly or via somatic cell nuclear transfer) would have to be perfected. Moreover, egg cells would have to be derived from male cells and sperm cells from female cells, which is believed to be particularly difficult, if not impossible. We suggest a more plausible scenario to provide same-sex couples with the possibility to parent a child who is genetically related to both parents. Although technical feasibility is an advantage (also in terms of safety), disadvantages are that cooperation of a donor of the opposite sex is still required and that the partners are genetically linked to the resulting child in a different degree. However, since in our scenario the donor's genetic contribution would not outweigh any of the parents' genetic contribution, this alternative route may ease the fear for a possible parental claim by the donor. Like many other applications in the field of infertility treatment, the goal to create SCD-gametes for reproductive purposes is largely based on the high value attributed to genetic parenthood. Although we believe that genetic relatedness is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for 'good' parenthood, we do believe that many people may consider our scenario a welcome alternative. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  5. Regulation of sexuality in Indonesian discourse: normative gender, criminal law and shifting strategies of control.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the regulation of sexuality in Indonesia in the period since 1980 as seen through state, religious and lesbian and gay activist discourses on sexuality. Three different eras during that period of Indonesian history are compared. Under the New Order regime of Suharto, the Indonesian state sought to control sexuality through a deployment of gender. During the 1990s, state Islamic discourses of sexuality shifted in response to international pressures to support same-sex marriage and sexual rights. During the third period following the end of the Suharto regime in 1998, a conservative Islamic minority pushed for more restrictive laws in the State Penal Code, initiating intense public debate on the role of the state in questions of sexuality and morality. Over this time period, the dominant discourse on sexuality moved from strategically linking normative gender with heterosexuality and marriage to direct attempts to legislate heterosexual marriage by criminalizing a wide range of sexual practices.

  6. Psychiatric symptoms and same-sex sexual attraction and behavior in light of childhood gender atypical behavior and parental relationships.

    PubMed

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Kenneth Sandnabba, N

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with equal levels of GAB were created of Finnish participants with either same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and participants without. The measures used were retrospective questionnaires. Ratings of maternal and paternal over-control and coldness differed as a function of same-sex sexual attraction or behavior. Childhood GAB was correlated with negative ratings of parental relationships. Both same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and a history of childhood GAB affected the reported levels of current depression and anxiety. Only gender typical participants with no same-sex sexual attraction or behavior reported significantly lower levels of symptoms. The findings suggest that childhood GAB is related to later distress both among hetero- and homosexual individuals. The elevated level of psychological distress among homosexual individuals, reported in several studies, might--to some extent--be caused by their generally higher levels of childhood GAB as opposed to a homosexual orientation per se.

  7. Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity.

  8. Emotional intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships

    PubMed Central

    Woodyatt, Cory R.; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus group discussions with gay and bisexual men (n=64) were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents, and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles, and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men. PMID:27109769

  9. A test of genetic models for the evolutionary maintenance of same-sex sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jessica L; Ritchie, Michael G; Bailey, Nathan W

    2015-06-22

    The evolutionary maintenance of same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) has received increasing attention because it is perceived to be an evolutionary paradox. The genetic basis of SSB is almost wholly unknown in non-human animals, though this is key to understanding its persistence. Recent theoretical work has yielded broadly applicable predictions centred on two genetic models for SSB: overdominance and sexual antagonism. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we assayed natural genetic variation for male SSB and empirically tested predictions about the mode of inheritance and fitness consequences of alleles influencing its expression. We screened 50 inbred lines derived from a wild population for male-male courtship and copulation behaviour, and examined crosses between the lines for evidence of overdominance and antagonistic fecundity selection. Consistent variation among lines revealed heritable genetic variation for SSB, but the nature of the genetic variation was complex. Phenotypic and fitness variation was consistent with expectations under overdominance, although predictions of the sexual antagonism model were also supported. We found an unexpected and strong paternal effect on the expression of SSB, suggesting possible Y-linkage of the trait. Our results inform evolutionary genetic mechanisms that might maintain low but persistently observed levels of male SSB in D. melanogaster, but highlight a need for broader taxonomic representation in studies of its evolutionary causes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Do the same risk and protective factors influence aggression toward partners and same-sex others?

    PubMed

    Bates, Elizabeth A; Archer, John; Graham-Kevan, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    The current studies examined whether several risk and protective factors operate similarly for intimate partner violence (IPV) and same-sex aggression (SSA) in the same sample, and to assess whether they show similar associations for men and women. Study 1 (N = 345) tested perceived benefits and costs, and instrumental and expressive beliefs about aggression: perceived costs predicted IPV and SSA for both men and women. Expressive beliefs predicted IPV (more strongly for women), and instrumental beliefs predicted SSA. Study 2 (N = 395) investigated self-control, anxiety and empathy, finding that self-control strongly predicted both types of aggression in both sexes. Study 3 (N = 364) found that primary psychopathy (involving lack of anxiety) was associated with IPV for men and SSA in both sexes, whereas secondary psychopathy (involving lack of self-control) was associated with IPV and SSA in both sexes. Overall there were both similarities and differences in the risk factors associated with IPV and SSA, and for men and women. The implications of the findings for theoretical debates about the study of IPV are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:163-175, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Conflict, negative emotion, and reports of partners' relationship maintenance in same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Ogolsky, Brian G; Gray, Christine R

    2016-03-01

    The literature on relationship maintenance has focused primarily on the beneficial outcomes of maintenance, and, as a result, little is known about relational processes that may interfere with reports of partners' maintenance. The authors examine how daily conflict influences individuals' reports of their partners' maintenance, and how a constructive communication style buffers this influence by reducing negative emotion on conflict days. In a daily diary study of 98 same-sex couples in romantic relationships, they found that the negative association between conflict and reports of a partner's relationship maintenance was mediated by negative emotion. That is, there was an indirect effect by which daily conflict was associated with higher levels of daily negative emotion, which was associated with reports of lower levels of partners' relationship maintenance. This indirect effect was moderated by couples' overall level of constructive communication such that higher levels diminished the degree to which couples experienced negative emotion on days with episodes of relational conflict. The authors discuss results in the context of interpersonal theory and provide implications for clinicians and practitioners. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Affectionless control by the same-sex parents increases dysfunctional attitudes about achievement.

    PubMed

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori

    2014-08-01

    The affectionless control parenting has been associated with depression in recipients. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of this parenting style on dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression. The subjects were 666 Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the care and protection subscales. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and affectionless control (low care/high protection). Dysfunctional attitudes were evaluated by the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which has the achievement, dependency and self-control subscales. Males with paternal affectionless control had higher achievement scores than those with paternal optimal parenting (P=.016). Similarly, females with maternal affectionless control had higher achievement scores than those with maternal optimal parenting (P=.016). The present study suggests that affectionless control by the same-sex parents increases dysfunctional attitudes about achievement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ACHESS--The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Simon Robert; Waters, Elizabeth; McNair, Ruth; Power, Jennifer; Davis, Elise

    2012-08-13

    There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS) is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and wellbeing of children with same-sex attracted parents.

  14. A Population-Based Comparison of Female and Male Same-Sex Parent and Different-Sex Parent Households.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny M W; Kuyper, Lisette; Gartrell, Nanette K

    2018-03-01

    This investigation compared Dutch same-sex parent and different-sex parent households on children's psychological well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing. It was also assessed whether associations among children's well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing were different in the two household types. Data were based on a nationally representative survey (N = 25,250). Matching was used to enhance similarity in background characteristics between both types of families. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 43 female same-sex parent, 52 male same-sex parent, and 95 different-sex parent households with offspring between 5 and 18 years old. No significant differences were found on children's well-being, problems in the parent-child relationship, being worried about the child, or the use of formal and informal support between mothers in same-sex and different-sex parent households or for fathers in same-sex and different-sex parent households. Regarding perceived confidence in child rearing, fathers in same-sex parent households and mothers in different-sex parent households felt less competent than their counterparts. Neither the associations between children's well-being and the predictors (parenting stress variables) nor those between support and the predictors (parenting stress and children's well-being) differed along household type. In this population-based study, the similarity in child outcomes regardless of household type confirms the results of prior investigations based on convenience samples. These findings are pertinent to family therapists, practitioners, court officials, and policymakers who seek information on parenting experiences and child outcomes in female and male same-sex parent families. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  15. Perceptions of Stigma and Self-Reported School Engagement In Same-Sex Couples with Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2014-01-01

    Little research has explored same-sex parents’ school engagement, although there is some evidence that same-sex parents’ perceptions of openness versus exclusion in the school setting –as well as other interrelated contexts – may have implications for their relationships with and perceptions of their children’s schools. The current cross-sectional study used multilevel modeling to examine the relationship between same-sex parents’ perceptions of stigma in various contexts and their self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, using a sample of 68 same-sex adoptive couples (132 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who perceived their communities as more homophobic reported higher levels of school-based involvement. Parents who perceived lower levels of sexual orientation-related stigma at their children’s schools reported higher levels of school satisfaction. Parents who perceived lower levels of exclusion by other parents reported higher levels of school-based involvement and better relationships with teachers. However, perceived exclusion interacted with parents’ level of outness with other parents, such that parents who were very out and reported high levels of exclusion reported the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Our findings have implications for scholars who study same-sex parent families at various stages of the life cycle, as well as for teachers and other professionals who work with diverse families. PMID:25221780

  16. Perceptions of Stigma and Self-Reported School Engagement In Same-Sex Couples with Young Children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2014-09-01

    Little research has explored same-sex parents' school engagement, although there is some evidence that same-sex parents' perceptions of openness versus exclusion in the school setting -as well as other interrelated contexts - may have implications for their relationships with and perceptions of their children's schools. The current cross-sectional study used multilevel modeling to examine the relationship between same-sex parents' perceptions of stigma in various contexts and their self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, using a sample of 68 same-sex adoptive couples (132 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who perceived their communities as more homophobic reported higher levels of school-based involvement. Parents who perceived lower levels of sexual orientation-related stigma at their children's schools reported higher levels of school satisfaction. Parents who perceived lower levels of exclusion by other parents reported higher levels of school-based involvement and better relationships with teachers. However, perceived exclusion interacted with parents' level of outness with other parents, such that parents who were very out and reported high levels of exclusion reported the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Our findings have implications for scholars who study same-sex parent families at various stages of the life cycle, as well as for teachers and other professionals who work with diverse families.

  17. Young Africans' representations of the origins of same-sex attraction and implications for sexual and mental health.

    PubMed

    Winskell, Kate; Sabben, Gaëlle; Pruitt, Kaitlyn L; Allen, Kristi; Findlay, Trinity; Stephenson, Rob

    2017-03-01

    Sexual minorities are stigmatised in much of sub-Saharan Africa, restricting their access to sexual health services and undermining their mental health. Although public attitudes and social representations inform the experience of sexual stigma, little is known about how young Africans make sense of sexual diversity. We conducted a thematic analysis of 56 texts contributed by young people from 10 countries in response to a prompt in a scriptwriting competition inviting participants to 'tell a story about someone who is attracted to people of the same sex'. We analysed accounts of the origins of same-sex attraction, a prominent theme in the narratives. Two-thirds of the texts provide an explicit or implicit explanation, presenting same-sex attraction as innate (15/38) and/or the consequence of environmental influences (32/38), including parental behaviour, gender separation, trauma, foreign influences and evil spirits. Expressions of the potential to avert or cure same-sex attraction are common. Young people's sense-making around sexual diversity draws on available sociocultural and symbolic resources, some of which may be highly stigmatising, and reflects local, national and transnational influences. The need to explain same-sex attraction and the preponderance of harmful explanatory frameworks compounds sexual minority youth's vulnerability to sexual stigma, harmful coping strategies and mental health challenges.

  18. Effects of same-sex versus coeducational physical education on the self-perceptions of middle and high school students.

    PubMed

    Lirgg, C D

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this field experiment was to investigate the effects of attending either a coeducational or a same-sex physical education class on several self-perception variables. Middle and high school youth who had previously been in coeducational classes were assigned to either a same-sex or a new coeducational physical education class for a 10-lesson unit of basketball. Analyses were conducted at both the group and the individual levels. Self-perception variables examined included perceived self-confidence of learning basketball, perceived usefulness of basketball, and perceived gender-appropriateness of basketball. Results of hierarchical linear model group level analyses indicated that the variability in groups for self-confidence could be explained by grade, class type, and the interaction between gender and class type. At the individual level, multivariate results showed that, after the unit, males in coeducational classes were significantly more confident in their ability to learn basketball than males in same-sex classes. Also, males in same-sex classes decreased in confidence from pretreatment to posttreatment. Perceived usefulness of basketball emerged as the strongest predictor of self-confidence for learning basketball for both genders. In general, middle school students preferred same-sex classes, whereas high school students preferred coeducational classes.

  19. 76 FR 15054 - Proposed Information Collection (Supporting Statement Regarding Marriage); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... (Supporting Statement Regarding Marriage); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... eligibility for benefits based on a common law marriage. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Supporting Statement Regarding Marriage, VA Form...

  20. Sexually antagonistic selection on genetic variation underlying both male and female same-sex sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Berger, David; You, Tao; Minano, Maravillas R; Grieshop, Karl; Lind, Martin I; Arnqvist, Göran; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-05-13

    Intralocus sexual conflict, arising from selection for different alleles at the same locus in males and females, imposes a constraint on sex-specific adaptation. Intralocus sexual conflict can be alleviated by the evolution of sex-limited genetic architectures and phenotypic expression, but pleiotropic constraints may hinder this process. Here, we explored putative intralocus sexual conflict and genetic (co)variance in a poorly understood behavior with near male-limited expression. Same-sex sexual behaviors (SSBs) generally do not conform to classic evolutionary models of adaptation but are common in male animals and have been hypothesized to result from perception errors and selection for high male mating rates. However, perspectives incorporating sex-specific selection on genes shared by males and females to explain the expression and evolution of SSBs have largely been neglected. We performed two parallel sex-limited artificial selection experiments on SSB in male and female seed beetles, followed by sex-specific assays of locomotor activity and male sex recognition (two traits hypothesized to be functionally related to SSB) and adult reproductive success (allowing us to assess fitness consequences of genetic variance in SSB and its correlated components). Our experiments reveal both shared and sex-limited genetic variance for SSB. Strikingly, genetically correlated responses in locomotor activity and male sex-recognition were associated with sexually antagonistic fitness effects, but these effects differed qualitatively between male and female selection lines, implicating intralocus sexual conflict at both male- and female-specific genetic components underlying SSB. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that widespread pleiotropy generates pervasive intralocus sexual conflict governing the expression of SSBs, suggesting that SSB in one sex can occur due to the expression of genes that carry benefits in the other sex.

  1. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society.

    PubMed

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda J; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-02-01

    Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20-40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt's adaptation of Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament's measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins.

  2. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society

    PubMed Central

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda J.; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20–40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt’s adaptation of Fishman’s three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament’s measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins. PMID:26689907

  3. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  4. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  5. 20 CFR 222.14 - Deemed marriage relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.14 Deemed marriage relationship. If a ceremonial or common-law marriage relationship cannot be established under State law, a claimant... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Deemed marriage relationship. 222.14 Section...

  6. 20 CFR 222.14 - Deemed marriage relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.14 Deemed marriage relationship. If a ceremonial or common-law marriage relationship cannot be established under State law, a claimant... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Deemed marriage relationship. 222.14 Section...

  7. 20 CFR 222.14 - Deemed marriage relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.14 Deemed marriage relationship. If a ceremonial or common-law marriage relationship cannot be established under State law, a claimant... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deemed marriage relationship. 222.14 Section...

  8. [The association of bullying with suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among adolescents with GLB or unsure sexual identity, heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior, or heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction or behavior].

    PubMed

    Montoro, Richard; Thombs, Brett; Igartua, Karine J

    Context Bullying is a known risk factor for suicidality, and suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents. Both are increased in sexual minority youth (SMY). As SMY are comprised of youth who self-identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB) or who have same-sex attractions or behaviors, our previous finding that different subgroups have different risks for suicidality is understandable. Given that the difference was along sexual identity lines (GLB vs heterosexual SMY), the analysis of bullying data in the same subgroups was felt to be important.Objective To compare the association of bullying and suicide among heterosexual students without same-sex attractions or behaviors, heterosexual students with same-sex attractions and behaviors, and students with gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) or unsure sexual identities.Design The 2004 Quebec Youth Risk Behavior Survey (QYRBS) questionnaire was based on the 2001 Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and included items assessing the three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction and behavior), health risk behaviors, experiences of harassment, and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts.Methods A total of 1852 students 14-18 years of age from 14 public and private high schools in Montréal Québec were surveyed anonymously during the 2004-2005 academic year.Main outcome measure Self reports of suicidal ideation, suicidal plan and suicide attempts in the last 12 months.Results In all, 117 students (6.3%) had a non-heterosexual identity (GLB or unsure) and 115 students (6.3%) had a heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior. Bullying occurred in 24% of heterosexual students without same-sex attraction or behavior, 32% of heterosexual students with same-sex attraction or behavior, and 48% of non-heterosexually identified students. In multivariable analysis, the common risk factors of age, gender, depressed mood, drug use, fighting, physical and sexual abuse, and

  9. Marriage Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems Sexual difficulties Conflicts about child rearing or blended families Substance abuse Anger Infidelity Marriage counseling might ... relationship this way, but you can benefit by learning more about your reactions and behavior. Therapy is ...

  10. Gender ideology, same-sex peer group affiliation and the relationship between testosterone and dominance in adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, J M; Vincke, J; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2010-07-01

    Although the role of testosterone in the aetiology of social dominance is often suggested, surprisingly few studies have addressed the relationship between sex steroid hormones and dominance as a personality trait. In this paper, the relationship between testosterone and dominance is studied in a sample of adolescent boys and girls, taking into account the moderating role of gender ideology and same-sex peer group orientation. A direct association between free testosterone (FT) and dominance was found in girls but not in boys. In boys, masculine ideology moderated the relationship between FT and dominance, while in girls the relationship between FT and dominance was moderated by same-sex peer group affiliation.

  11. We are family? Spanish law and lesbian normalization in Hospital Central.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Mónica; Escudero, Maite

    2009-01-01

    After four decades of a repressive dictatorial regime during which homosexuality was banned and punished with prison sentence and electroshock, Spain became a democratic country in 1978. The social, political, and legal debates previous to the passing of the law on same-sex marriage in June 2005 fueled lesbian visibility in the media. Considering that the emergence of lesbian representation has been linked to these social and political changes, our contribution centers on the ways in which the prime time TV series Hospital Central unravels as a vehicle for the normalization of lesbian relationships and families as addressed to a mostly heterosexual audience.

  12. Mental Health Differences between Young Adults with and without Same-Sex Contact: A Simultaneous Examination of Underlying Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has documented that sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexual people to experience mental health problems, but little is known about how these disparities emerge. Analysis of data from Miami-Dade County, Florida, shows that young adults reporting same-sex contact have higher levels of depressive symptoms and drug use…

  13. Same-Sex versus Other-Sex Best Friendship in Early Adolescence: Longitudinal Predictors of Antisocial Behavior throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndorfer, Cara Lee; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between having other-sex versus same-sex best friends and antisocial behavior throughout early adolescence. Participants (N = 955) were recruited in 6th grade and followed longitudinally through 7th, 8th, and 11th grades. Participants were 58% ethnically diverse youth and 48% girls. Results indicate that the…

  14. Perspectives on Same-Sex Sexualities and Self-Harm amongst Service Providers and Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the perspectives of service providers working with Chinese lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) young people in Hong Kong secondary schools and maps the relationships between same-sex sexualities, religion, education and self-harm. Sixteen service providers, including secondary school teachers, social workers based on and off…

  15. “Working together to reach a goal”: MSM's Perceptions of Dyadic HIV Care for Same-Sex Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Tamar; Clarke, Donato; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Same-sex serodiscordant male dyads represent a high priority risk group, with approximately one to two-thirds of new HIV infections among MSM attributable to main partnerships. Early initiation and adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a key factor in HIV prevention and treatment; however, adherence to HAART in the U.S. is low, with poor retention throughout the continuum of care. This study examines MSM's perceptions of dyadic HIV treatment across the continuum of care to understand preferences for how care may be sought with a partner. Methods We conducted five focus group discussions (FGDs) in Atlanta, GA with 35 men who report being in same-sex male partnerships. Participants discussed perceptions of care using scenarios of a hypothetical same-sex male couple who recently received serodiscordant or seroconcordant positive HIV results. Verbatim transcripts were segmented thematically and systematically analyzed to examine patterns in responses within and between participants and FGDs. Results Participants identified the need for comprehensive dyadic care and differences in care for seroconcordant positive versus serodiscordant couples. Participants described a reciprocal relationship between comprehensive dyadic care and positive relationship dynamics. This combination was described as reinforcing commitment, ultimately leading to increased accountability and treatment adherence. Discussion Results indicate that the act of same-sex male couples “working together to reach a goal” may increase retention to HIV care across the continuum if care is comprehensive, focuses on both individual and dyadic needs, and promotes positive relationship dynamics. PMID:24126448

  16. Relationship Satisfaction, Affectivity, and Gay-Specific Stressors in Same-Sex Couples Joined in Civil Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todosijevic, Jelica; Rothblum, Esther D.; Solomon, Sondra E.

    2005-01-01

    Relationship satisfaction, affect, and stress were examined in 313 same-sex couples who had had civil unions in Vermont during the first year of this legislation. Similarity between partners on age and on positive/negative affectivity was related to relationship satisfaction whereas there was no association with similarity in income, education,…

  17. Rewards and Costs in Adolescent Other-Sex Friendships: Comparisons to Same-Sex Friendships and Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Laura Shaffer; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-01-01

    This study used a social exchange framework to examine the features of non-romantic other-sex (OS) friendships compared with same-sex (SS) friendships and romantic relationships. High school seniors (N = 141) completed open-ended interviews about the benefits and costs of having OS friendships, SS friendships, and romantic relationships in…

  18. The Mamas and the Papas: The Invisible Diversity of Families with Same-Sex Parents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimalower, Lucy; Caty, Caren

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is intended for administrators, educators, and counselors to generate discussion and awareness of the issues facing families with same-sex parents in the United States, a demographic that is rapidly growing and needing service and attention from its communities. To provide educators with background into how these families…

  19. Genetic and environmental effects on same-sex sexual behavior: a population study of twins in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Långström, Niklas; Rahman, Qazi; Carlström, Eva; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2010-02-01

    There is still uncertainty about the relative importance of genes and environments on human sexual orientation. One reason is that previous studies employed self-selected, opportunistic, or small population-based samples. We used data from a truly population-based 2005-2006 survey of all adult twins (20-47 years) in Sweden to conduct the largest twin study of same-sex sexual behavior attempted so far. We performed biometric modeling with data on any and total number of lifetime same-sex sexual partners, respectively. The analyses were conducted separately by sex. Twin resemblance was moderate for the 3,826 studied monozygotic and dizygotic same-sex twin pairs. Biometric modeling revealed that, in men, genetic effects explained .34-.39 of the variance, the shared environment .00, and the individual-specific environment .61-.66 of the variance. Corresponding estimates among women were .18-.19 for genetic factors, .16-.17 for shared environmental, and 64-.66 for unique environmental factors. Although wide confidence intervals suggest cautious interpretation, the results are consistent with moderate, primarily genetic, familial effects, and moderate to large effects of the nonshared environment (social and biological) on same-sex sexual behavior.

  20. High School Religious Context and Reports of Same-Sex Attraction and Sexual Identity in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lindsey; Pearson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to understand the association between high school religious context in adolescence and the reporting of same-sex attraction and sexual identity in young adulthood and how these associations vary by gender. Previous studies have considered how high school contexts shape the well-being of sexual minority youth, yet…

  1. Discrimination, Internalized Homonegativity, and Attitudes Toward Children of Same-Sex Parents: Can Secure Attachment Buffer Against Stigma Internalization?

    PubMed

    Trub, Leora; Quinlan, Ella; Starks, Tyrel J; Rosenthal, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    With increasing numbers of same-sex couples raising children in the United States, discriminatory attitudes toward children of same-sex parents (ACSSP) are of increasing concern. As with other forms of stigma and discrimination, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are at risk for internalizing these societal attitudes, which can negatively affect parenting-related decisions and behaviors and the mental and physical health of their children. Secure attachment is characterized by positive views of the self as loveable and worthy of care that are understood to develop in early relationships with caregivers. Secure attachment has been associated with positive mental and physical health, including among LGB individuals and couples. This study aimed to test the potential buffering role of secure attachment against stigma internalization by examining associations among secure attachment, discrimination, internalized homonegativity (IH), and ACSSP in an online survey study of 209 U.S. adults in same-sex relationships. Bootstrap analyses supported our hypothesized moderated mediation model, with secure attachment being a buffer. Greater discrimination was indirectly associated with more negative ACSSP through greater IH for individuals with mean or lower levels, but not for individuals with higher than average levels of secure attachment, specifically because among those with higher levels of secure attachment, discrimination was not associated with IH. These findings build on and extend past research, with important implications for future research and clinical work with LGB individuals, same-sex couples, and their families, including potential implementation of interventions targeting attachment security. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  2. Family relationships and adolescent well-being: are families equally protective for same-sex attracted youth?

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2013-03-01

    Existing research suggests that sexual minority youth experience lower levels of well-being, in part because they perceive less social support than heterosexual youth. Sexual minority youth with strong family relationships may demonstrate resilience and increased well-being; however, it is also possible that the experience of sexual stigma may make these relationships less protective for sexual minority youth. Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we explore the links between same-sex attraction, family relationships, and adolescent well-being in a sample of over 13,000 7th-12th grade adolescents (51 % female, 52 % non-Latino/a white, 17 % Latino, 21 % African American, and 7 % Asian). Specifically, we examine whether lower levels of parental closeness, parental involvement, and family support among same-sex attracted youth explain in part why these youth experience increased depressive symptoms and risk behaviors, including binge drinking, illegal drug use, and running away from home, relative to other-sex attracted youth. Second, we ask whether family relationships are equally protective against depressive symptoms and risk behaviors for same-sex attracted and other-sex attracted youth. We find that same-sex attracted youth, particularly girls, report higher levels of depressive symptoms, binge drinking, and drug use in part because they perceive less closeness with parents and less support from their families. Results also suggest that parental closeness and parental involvement may be less protective against risk behaviors for same-sex attracted boys than for their other-sex attracted peers. Findings thus suggest that interventions targeting the families of sexual minority youth should educate parents about the potentially negative effects of heteronormative assumptions and attitudes on positive adolescent development.

  3. Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. Results 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate = 81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (β = 2.93, 95% CI = 0.35 to 5.52, P = .03; β = 5.60, 95% CI = 2.69 to 8.52, P = <.001; and β = 6.01, 95% CI = 2.84 to 9.17, P = <.001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups for all other scale scores. Physical activity, mental health, and family cohesion were all negatively associated with increased stigma (β = -3.03, 95% CI = -5.86 to -0.21, P = .04; β = -10.45, 95% CI = -18.48 to -2.42, P = .01; and β = -9.82, 95% CI = -17.86 to -1.78, P = .02 respectively) and the presence of emotional symptoms was positively associated with increased stigma (β =0.94, 95% CI = 0.08 to 1.81, P = .03). Conclusions Australian children with same-sex attracted parents score higher than population samples on a

  4. Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Simon R; Waters, Elizabeth; McNair, Ruth; Power, Jennifer; Davis, Elise

    2014-06-21

    It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate = 81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (β = 2.93, 95% CI = 0.35 to 5.52, P = .03; β = 5.60, 95% CI = 2.69 to 8.52, P = <.001; and β = 6.01, 95% CI = 2.84 to 9.17, P = <.001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups for all other scale scores. Physical activity, mental health, and family cohesion were all negatively associated with increased stigma (β = -3.03, 95% CI = -5.86 to -0.21, P = .04; β = -10.45, 95% CI = -18.48 to -2.42, P = .01; and β = -9.82, 95% CI = -17.86 to -1.78, P = .02 respectively) and the presence of emotional symptoms was positively associated with increased stigma (β =0.94, 95% CI = 0.08 to 1.81, P = .03). Australian children with same-sex attracted parents score higher than population samples on a number of parent-reported measures of child

  5. Equitable Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Gertrude Zemon

    1974-01-01

    The attempts to establish an equity in marriage---with no sacrificial lamb---not the husband, the wife or the children---has received little attention in professional journals. These shifts need careful study by clinicians so that we may help couples with options that lead to self realization and fulfillment for both. (Author)

  6. Identity Transformation During the Transition to Parenthood Among Same-Sex Couples: An Ecological, Stress-Strategy-Adaptation Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested. PMID:27458482

  7. Identity Transformation During the Transition to Parenthood Among Same-Sex Couples: An Ecological, Stress-Strategy-Adaptation Perspective.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested.

  8. Sexual desire, communication, satisfaction, and preferences of men and women in same-sex versus mixed-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Diane; Blair, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    In an online study, measures of subjective sexual experiences in one's current relationship were compared across four groups: Men and women in mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual) and same-sex (i.e., homosexual) relationships. Results indicated far more similarities than differences across the four groups, with groups reporting almost identical sexual repertoires, and levels of sexual communcation with partner. Men reported experiencing somewhat more sexual desire than women, while women reported slightly higher levels of general sexual satisfaction than men. Those in same-sex relationships reported slightly higher levels of sexual desire than those in mixed-sex relationships. Compared to the other three groups, heterosexual men reported deriving somewhat less satisfaction from the more tender, sensual, or erotic sexual activities. Implications of these findings for sex therapists are discussed.

  9. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese university students’ attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years) indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels), higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China. PMID:27790184

  10. Self-Employment among Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples in Canada.

    PubMed

    Waite, Sean; Denier, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    This study presents novel evidence on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-employment. Using data from the 2001 and 2006 Census of Canada and the 2011 Canadian National Household Survey, we explore the propensity for self-employment among same- and opposite-sex couples. We examine the demographic, human capital, and family characteristics of coupled gay men and lesbians relative to their coupled heterosexual counterparts to offer potential mechanisms generating differences in rates of self-employment. Our analysis further considers occupational variability in the likelihood of self-employment. We find that gay men are less likely and lesbians more likely than heterosexuals to be self-employed; however, there is significant variation across occupations. Gay men are more likely to be self-employed in arts and culture, sales and service, and natural and applied sciences, but less likely in business, finance, and health-related occupations. Lesbians are much more likely to be self-employed in health-related occupations, natural and applied sciences, and arts and culture. Marriage and having children are significant predictors of self-employment for coupled heterosexual women but not lesbians. Cette étude présente des évidences empiriques concernant la relation entre l'orientation sexuelle et le travail indépendant. Utilisant des données provenant du Recensement du Canada de 2001 et de 2006, ainsi que l'Enquête nationale auprès des ménages (ENM) de 2011, nous explorons la tendance du travail indépendant parmi les couples de même sexe et ceux de sexe opposé. Ainsi, nous examinons les caractéristiques démographiques, du capital humain et familiales des couples gais et lesbiens par rapport à leurs homologues hétérosexuels, afin de démontrer une corrélation entre l'orientation sexuelle et la probabilité d'être travailleur indépendant - une causation qui nous semble évident et que nous analysons plus en profondeur. Nous concluons d

  11. Piloting relationship education for female same-sex couples: Results of a small randomized waitlist-control trial.

    PubMed

    Whitton, Sarah W; Scott, Shelby B; Dyar, Christina; Weitbrecht, Eliza M; Hutsell, David W; Kuryluk, Amanda D

    2017-10-01

    Relationship education represents a promising, nonstigmatizing approach to promoting the health and stability of same-sex couples. A new culturally sensitive adaptation of relationship education was developed specifically for female same-sex couples (The Strengthening Same-Sex Relationships Program, Female version; SSSR-F). SSSR-F includes adaptations of evidence-based strategies to build core relationship skills (e.g., communication skills training) as well as new content to address unique challenges faced by this population (e.g., discrimination; low social support). A small randomized waitlist-control trial (N = 37 couples) was conducted to evaluate program feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy. Three proximal outcomes targeted by SSSR-F (communication, perceived stress, social support) and 3 distal outcomes (global relationship satisfaction, instability, and confidence) were assessed at pre- and posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Results of multilevel models accounting for nonindependence in dyadic data indicated statistically significant program effects on positive and negative couple communication, relationship satisfaction, and relationship confidence and small, nonsignificant program effects on stress, social support, and relationship instability. Analyses of follow-up data suggest maintenance of effects on the proximal but not the distal outcomes. Ratings of program satisfaction were high. Overall, findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of SSSR-F, highlighting the potential value of culturally sensitive relationship education for same-sex couples. Continued efforts are needed to increase sustainability of program effects on global relationship quality over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Representations of same-sex relationships between female characters in all-ages comics: Princess Princess Ever After and Lumberjanes.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, Erica

    2018-04-25

    Representations of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) characters in comics for an all-ages readership have emerged in the United States in the early twenty-first century. This essay examines the narrative constructions of same-sex relationships between female characters in two all-ages speculative fiction comics, Princess Princess Ever After by Katie O'Neill, and Lumberjanes, created by Shannon Watters, Grace Ellis, Noelle Stevenson, and Brooke Allen.

  13. A randomized waitlist-controlled trial of culturally sensitive relationship education for male same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Whitton, Sarah W; Weitbrecht, Eliza M; Kuryluk, Amanda D; Hutsell, David W

    2016-09-01

    Relationship education, effective in improving relationship quality among different-sex couples, represents a promising and nonstigmatizing approach to promoting the health and stability of same-sex couples. A new culturally sensitive relationship education program was developed specifically for male same-sex couples, which includes adaptations of evidence-based strategies to build core relationship skills (e.g., communication skills training) and newly developed content to address unique challenges faced by this group (e.g., discrimination; low social support). A small randomized waitlist-control trial (N = 20 couples) was conducted to evaluate the program. To assess program efficacy, dyadic longitudinal data (collected at pre- and postprogram and 3-month follow-up) were analyzed using multilevel models that accounted for nonindependence in data from indistinguishable dyads. Results indicated significant program effects in comparison to waitlist controls on couple constructive and destructive communication, perceived stress, and relationship satisfaction. Gains in each of these areas were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Although there was no evidence of within-person program effects on social support, satisfaction, or relationship instability immediately postprogram, all 3 showed within-person improvements by follow-up. Ratings of program satisfaction were high. In summary, study findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of the program and highlight the potential value of culturally sensitive adaptations of relationship education for same-sex couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Coming Out to Dad: Young Gay and Bisexual Men's Experiences Disclosing Same-Sex Attraction to Their Fathers.

    PubMed

    Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A; Pingel, Emily S; Harper, Gary W; Bauermeister, José A

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) and their fathers. Based on a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in YGBM's coming-out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers' responses compared with sons' expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers' responses. Semistructured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 24 years were conducted as part of a larger study; topics explored in the interview included experiences coming out to family and others. Nineteen participants' narratives included discussion about their fathers and were included in the current analyses. The YGBM who were interviewed perceived a complex range of responses upon coming out to their fathers, ranging from enthusiastic acceptance to physical violence. Participants spoke of fathers who were accepting in different manners and who often held contradictory attitudes about same-sex attraction. Fathers' responses commonly differed from sons' expectations, which were informed by homophobic talk and gendered expectations. Sons spoke about what informed their expectations as well as what they perceived as influencing their fathers' responses, including gender norms, beliefs regarding the cause of same-sex attraction, religious and sociopolitical views, and concerns about HIV/AIDS. Particularly striking was the pervasive influence of hegemonic masculinity throughout the YGBM's stories. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention development are discussed, as well as study strengths and limitations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Same-sex sexuality and psychiatric disorders in the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2).

    PubMed

    Sandfort, Theo G M; de Graaf, Ron; Ten Have, Margreet; Ransome, Yusuf; Schnabel, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Sexual orientation has been shown to be a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. This study compared whether sexual orientation-related disparities in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders are similar based on homosexual behavior versus attraction and tested whether, with increased acceptance of homosexuality, these disparities have diminished over time. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 was administered with a total of 6,646 Dutch persons, aged 18 to 64 years. Between 2.0% and 2.5% of the participants reported same-sex sexual behavior in the preceding year or same-sex attraction. Homosexually active persons and persons with same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of disorders than heterosexual persons. There were more disparities in the prevalence of disorders based on sexual attraction than based on sexual behavior. Comparing these results with a previous study, showed that no significant changes over time have occurred in the pattern of health disparities. Sexual orientation continues to be a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, stressing the need for understanding the origins of these disparities.

  16. Psychology and the politics of same-sex desire in the United States: an analysis of three cases.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Phillip L; Windell, Eric P

    2011-08-01

    Psychological science has assumed an increasingly explicit role in public policies related to same-sex desire in the United States. In this article, we present a historical analysis of the relationship between policy discourse and scientific discourse on homosexuality produced within U.S. psychology over the 20th and early 21st centuries through the lens of three cases: Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), Lawrence v. Texas (2003), and Perry v. Schwarzenegger (2010). Our analysis suggests that, for the majority of its disciplinary history, psychology produced knowledge that supported a status quo of legal and cultural subordination for same-sex-attracted individuals. The discipline's shift in understanding of homosexuality, reflected in a 1975 policy statement of the American Psychological Association, reversed this relationship and opened up space for advocacy for social and political change regarding homosexuality. Our analysis of policy decisions rendered by the courts reveals the increasingly important role psychological science has assumed in challenging the legal subordination of same-sex-attracted individuals, though the basis upon which psychological science has sought to inform policy remains limited. We conclude with a critical discussion of the type of knowledge claims psychologists have traditionally used to advocate for gay and lesbian rights, suggesting the vitality of a narrative approach which can reveal the meaning individuals make of legal subordination and political exclusion.

  17. Customary Marriages in Rural Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rehan, N; Qayyum, K

    2017-06-01

    Although the incidents of customary marriages are frequently reported in Pakistani press, yet no large scale community-based study has ever been conducted to gauge the magnitude of such marriages. The present study is the first-ever community based study on this topic. 4,385 ever-married women, aged 18-83 years, from six rural districts, were interviewed to enquire about the types of their marriages. The data was collected through interviews conducted by trained female interviewers and analysed through SPSS-20. Twelve percent marriages were the result of Vanni, Swara, Sang Chatti, Badal , Bazo i.e. to settle blood feuds; 58.7% were Watta-Satta / Pait Likhai i.e. exchange marriages and pledging a fetus; in 7.9% case bride was bought; 1.0% marriages were Badle-Sullah i.e to settle dispute other than murder and 0.1% women were married to Quran. The traditional marriages, where wishes of both families and consent of the couple to be married are also considered, constituted 20.3%. The prevalence of Vanni, Swara / Sang Chatti / Badal / Bazo was the highest in Balochistan (22-24%) followed by Sindh (5-17%) and the least in Punjab (0-4%). The other practices in Balochistan were selling the bride (10-17%), Badle-Sulah (3%) and marriage to Quran (1%). Watta Satta was most prevalent in Sindh (66-78%), where 3-13% brides were bought. In Punjab also Watta-Satta was common (44-47%), where 0.5-4% brides were bought and 0.3-3% marriages were Budle-Sullah. Since laws against these harmful customs exist but are not applied forcefully, there is a great need to create massive awareness against such customs.

  18. Finding erotic oases: locating the sites of men's same-sex anonymous sexual encounters.

    PubMed

    Tewksbury, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Because anonymous sexual relations between two men are widely considered deviant many men seeking such activities look to erotic oases-natural environments appropriated for covert, often furtive sexual purposes. Previous research on erotic oases has focused on characteristics of involved men and processes of locating, negotiating with, and consummating sexual relations with others. This study draws on one major Web site listing of "cruising places" in the United States to identify common locations for erotic oases. Results show that the most common locations identified as erotic oases by users are public parks, adult bookstores, health clubs, and college campuses. Locations most likely to be listed as believed to be under law enforcement surveillance are outdoor, high traffic locations. Based on these results existing research has only begun to examine the most common locations for this highly stigmatized, deviant behavior and subculture.

  19. Determinants of unmet needs for healthcare and sexual health counselling among Ugandan university students with same-sex sexuality experience.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Markus; Ross, Michael W; Tumwine, Gilbert; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7-5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.0, respectively). Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1-4.8), exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7-3.9), frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.8), and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04-3.3). The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1-8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-5.8) and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6-7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.4) persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of same-sex sexuality experienced students. Targeted interventions that integrate mental

  20. Determinants of unmet needs for healthcare and sexual health counselling among Ugandan university students with same-sex sexuality experience

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Markus; Ross, Michael W.; Tumwine, Gilbert; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Background Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. Objective To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. Design In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Results Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7–5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3–3.0, respectively). Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1–4.8), exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7–3.9), frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9–5.8), and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04–3.3). The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1–8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3–5.8) and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6–7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4–5.4) persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of same-sex sexuality

  1. Sample Errors Call Into Question Conclusions Regarding Same-Sex Married Parents: A Comment on "Family Structure and Child Health: Does the Sex Composition of Parents Matter?"

    PubMed

    Paul Sullins, D

    2017-12-01

    Because of classification errors reported by the National Center for Health Statistics, an estimated 42 % of the same-sex married partners in the sample for this study are misclassified different-sex married partners, thus calling into question findings regarding same-sex married parents. Including biological parentage as a control variable suppresses same-sex/different-sex differences, thus obscuring the data error. Parentage is not appropriate as a control because it correlates nearly perfectly (+.97, gamma) with the same-sex/different-sex distinction and is invariant for the category of joint biological parents.

  2. Attitudes on marriage and new relationships: Cross-national evidence on the deinstitutionalization of marriage

    PubMed Central

    Treas, Judith; Lui, Jonathan; Gubernskaya, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Consistent with the deinstitutionalization-of-marriage thesis, studies report a decline in support for marital conventions and increased approval of other relationship types. Generalizations are limited by the lack of cross-national research for a broad domain of attitudes on marriage and alternative arrangements, and by the lack of consensus on what counts as evidence. OBJECTIVE Acknowledging the conceptual distinction between expectations for behavior inside and outside marriage, we address the deinstitutionalization debate by testing whether support for marital conventions has declined for a range of attitudes across countries. METHODS Based on eleven International Social Survey Program items replicated between the late 1980s and the 2000s, OLS regressions evaluate attitude changes in up to 21 countries. RESULTS Consistent with the deinstitutionalization argument, disapproval declined for marital alternatives (cohabitation, unmarried parents, premarital and same-sex sex). For attitudes on the behavior of married people and the nature of marriage the results are mixed: despite a shift away from gender specialization, disapproval of extramarital sex increased over time. On most items, most countries changed as predicted by the deinstitutionalization thesis. CONCLUSIONS Attitude changes on ‘new relationships’ and marital alternatives are compatible with the deinstitutionalization of marriage. Beliefs arguably more central to the marital institution do not conform as neatly to this thesis. Because results are sensitive to the indicators used, the deinstitutionalization of marriage argument merits greater empirical and conceptual attention. PMID:26052248

  3. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  4. Civic Competence of Dutch Children in Female Same-Sex Parent Families: A Comparison With Children of Opposite-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Henny; Gartrell, Nanette; Roeleveld, Jaap; Ledoux, Guuske

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether Dutch children reared in families headed by female same-sex parents differ in civic competence from Dutch children reared by opposite-sex parents. The participants, drawn from a national sample, included 32 children (11-13 years old) parented by female same-sex couples who were matched on demographic characteristics…

  5. The Importance of Gender and Gender Nonconformity for Same-Sex-Attracted Dutch Youth's Perceived Experiences of Victimization across Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lisdonk, Jantine; van Bergen, Diana D.; Hospers, Harm J.; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    In this survey study, the impact of gender and gender nonconformity on Dutch same-sex-attracted youth's perceived experiences of same-sex sexuality-related victimization was systematically compared across social contexts. Participants were between ages 16 and 18 and enrolled in secondary education (n = 305). In contexts of school and strangers,…

  6. Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among Adolescents Reporting "Unsure" Sexual Identity or Heterosexual Identity Plus Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior: Forgotten Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years…

  7. "Because She Was My First Girlfriend, I Didn't Know Any Different": Making the Case for Mainstreaming Same-Sex Sex/Relationship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Catherine; Hester, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the case for those entering/considering same-sex relationships to be included in sex and relationship education in schools. The Government's Guidance on Sex and Relationship Education provides a rationale for including same-sex relationships when it says that schools should meet the needs of all their pupils "whatever…

  8. Same-sex sexual relationships in the national social life, health and aging project: making a case for data collection.

    PubMed

    Brown, Maria T; Grossman, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the previously unexplored subsample of respondents who reported at least 1 same-sex sexual relationship (SSSR) in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP collected data from 3,005 adults (aged 57-85). Approximately 4% (n = 102) of respondents reported at least one SSSR. These sexual minority elders were younger, more educated, were more likely to be working, had fewer social supports, and better physical health. Results may indicate crisis competence in sexual minority elders. Collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data in larger, US-based probability samples would inform the development of appropriate community-based services and supports.

  9. Coping with workplace minority stress: Associations between dyadic coping and anxiety among women in same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Randall, Ashley K; Totenhagen, Casey J; Walsh, Kelsey J; Adams, Caroline; Tao, Chun

    2017-01-02

    Sexual minorities are exposed to stressors in the workplace (workplace minority stress), which can be detrimental for well-being (e.g., levels of anxiety). The present study examined whether a particular set of relationship processes, dyadic coping, served to moderate the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Using a dyadic sample of 64 female same-sex couples, we found that partner problem-focused supportive dyadic coping (DC) and emotion-focused supportive DC (marginally) buffered, whereas partner delegated DC and negative DC did not moderate, the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Implications for relationship researchers and mental health practitioners are discussed.

  10. Marriage crisis in Syria.

    PubMed

    Yasin, B A

    1980-01-01

    The author examines some of the changing characteristics of marriage in Syria, including the deferment of age at first marriage and abstinence from marriage. Data are from the 1970 census and other official sources. Factors affecting these trends are discussed

  11. Health and Well-Being in Emerging Adults’ Same-Sex Relationships: Critical Questions and Directions for Research in Developmental Science

    PubMed Central

    Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Hammack, Phillip L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have yet to account for the potentially unique experiences of emerging adults who are in or seeking to be in a relationship with a same-sex romantic partner. This paper articulates an agenda for research focused on better understanding and addressing the health and well-being of emerging adults in or pursuing same-sex romantic relationships. We provide a general summary of what is known about health and well-being in same-sex relationships, followed by an overview of the current and changing social climate surrounding same-sex relationships. We point out how recent historical changes present sexual minority emerging adults with unique relational benefits and challenges that have not been examined within the social and health sciences. We conclude by proposing a set of research questions to help develop knowledge needed to improve the health and well-being of emerging adults in or pursuing same-sex relationships. PMID:27588221

  12. 20 CFR 404.725 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.725 Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. (a) General. A valid ceremonial marriage is one that follows procedures set by law in...

  13. Towards Bi-Inclusive Policies: Suggestions Based on Research on Dutch Same-Sex Attracted Young People.

    PubMed

    van Lisdonk, Jantine; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Dutch national LGBT policies are not bi-inclusive and this study provides suggestions for improvement, based on empirical research. Attention for bisexuality in policy appears simply to pay lip service and to endorse the construction of sexual orientation as a hetero/homo binary. The outcomes of our survey ( n  = 1449) and in-depth interviews ( n  = 38) of Dutch same-sex attracted young people suggest that special attention for bisexual people is warranted. Compared to exclusively same-sex attracted participants, the equally both-sex attracted participants scored worse on openness about their sexual attraction, visibility discomfort, perceived acceptance, and suicide attempts. Unique issues for bisexual-identified young people were identified as follows: marginalization of bisexuality; difficulty expressing bisexuality, particularly in relationships; and a lack of bisexual or bi-inclusive communities. These issues were all related to the hetero/homo binary and mononormativity. Suggested implications for more bi-inclusive policies focus on awareness of marginalization and invisibility of bisexuality, biphobia, community and capacity building, and comprehensive sexuality and gender education. Furthermore, rather than policies focusing on sameness, a comprehensive diversity perspective on sexuality and gender offers more space for bisexuality. This may be particularly relevant for young people who are exploring their sexuality and developing a sense of their sexual self.

  14. Increased Risks of Needing Long-Term Care Among Older Adults Living With Same-Sex Partners

    PubMed Central

    Brodoff, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether older individuals living with same-sex partners face greater risks of needing long-term care than their counterparts living with different-sex partners or spouses. Methods. With data on older couples (at least 1 individual aged 60 years or older) from the 2009 American Community Survey, we estimated logistic regression models of 2 activity limitations that signal a long-term care need: difficulty dressing or bathing and difficulty doing errands alone. Results. When we controlled for age, race/ethnicity, and education, older women who lived with female partners were statistically significantly more likely than those who lived with male partners or spouses to have difficulty dressing or bathing. Older men who lived with male partners were statistically significantly more likely than those who lived with female spouses or partners to need assistance with errands. Conclusions. Older individuals living with same-sex partners face greater risks of needing long-term care than those living with different-sex partners or spouses, but the role of relationship status differs by gender. These findings suggest more broadly that older gay men and lesbians may face greater risks of needing long-term care than their heterosexual counterparts. PMID:23763396

  15. Being both and acting 'man': exploring patterns of masculinisation among young same-sex-attracted men in Thailand.

    PubMed

    de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan W

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-five same-sex-attracted rural young Thai men were interviewed three times to investigate how their sexual subjectivity changed over an 18-month period after they completed high school and moved into a new life-phase. Many young men grew up with strong gender-based understandings of homosexuality, in which a masculine (top) partner is seen as complementing a feminine (bottom) partner. The discursive division between the masculine and feminine domains became increasingly blurred in the actual practice of dating, forcing the young men to develop new understandings of homosexuality and same-sex relations. The shift from a rural to urban environment, the use of the Internet and the experience of falling in love played important roles in this experimentation with new, increasingly masculine presentations of the self, also influenced by a modern urban masculine aesthetic. The paper concludes that the encounter between 'traditional' gender-based homosexuality and new ideas, in which masculine object-choice is important in defining sexual identity leads to a variety of fluid ideas and expressions. This process created confusion among some, and opportunities for exploration of new ways of defining sexual subjectivities among others.

  16. Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil.

  17. 'Struggling to be the alpha': sources of tension and intimate partner violence in same-sex relationships between men.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Finneran, Catherine; Hadley, Craig

    2016-08-01

    In countries such as the USA, gay and bisexual men experience high rates of intimate partner violence. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to this form of violence. In this study, we examine gay and bisexual men's perceptions of sources of tension in same-sex male relationships and how these may contribute to intimate partner violence. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA. Focus groups examined men's reactions to the short-form revised Conflicts Tactics Scale to determine if each item was considered to be intimate partner violence if it were to occur among gay and bisexual men. Analysts completed a thematic analysis, using elements of grounded theory. The sources of tension that men identified included: gender role conflict, dyadic inequalities (e.g. differences in income, age, education), differences in 'outness' about sexual identity, substance use, jealousy and external homophobic violence. Results suggest that intimate partner violence interventions for gay and bisexual men should address behavioural factors, while also focusing on structural interventions. Interventions that aim to reduce homophobic stigma and redefine male gender roles may help to address some of the tension that contributes to intimate partner violence in same-sex male relationships.

  18. Homophobia: An Impulsive Attraction to the Same Sex? Evidence From Eye-Tracking Data in a Picture-Viewing Task.

    PubMed

    Cheval, Boris; Radel, Remi; Grob, Emmanuelle; Ghisletta, Paolo; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Chanal, Julien

    2016-05-01

    Some models suggest that homophobia can be explained as a denied attraction toward same-sex individuals. While it has been found that homophobic men have same-sex attraction, these results are not consistent. This study drew on the dual-process models to test the assumption that sexual interest in homosexual cues among men high in homophobia will depend on their specific impulses toward homosexual-related stimuli. Heterosexual men (N = 38) first completed a scale measuring their level of homonegativity. Then, they performed a manikin task to evaluate their impulsive approach tendencies toward homosexual stimuli (IAHS). A picture-viewing task was performed with simultaneous eye-tracking recording to assess participants' viewing time of the visual area of interest (i.e., face and body). IAHS positively predicted the viewing time of homosexual photographs among men with a high score of homonegativity. Men with a high homonegativity score looked significantly longer at homosexual than at heterosexual photographs but only when they had a high IAHS. These findings confirm the importance of considering the variability in impulsive processes to understand why some (but not all) men high in homophobia have homosexual interest. These findings reinforce the theoretical basis for elaborating a dual-process model for behaviors in the sexual context. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Heterosexual Privilege Awareness, Prejudice, and Support of Gay Marriage among Diversity Course Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kim; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students…

  20. Depression and anxiety in patients with and without same-sex attraction: differences in clinical expression, lifestyle factors, and vulnerability indicators.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny M W; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare clinical expressions (severity and loneliness), lifestyle factors (substance use), and vulnerability indicators (stressful childhood experiences) in patients with any same-sex attraction versus heterosexual patients diagnosed with depression and/or anxiety disorder. Little is known about this, even though it is now well documented that depression and anxiety are more prevalent among persons with same-sex attraction. Data, derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), allowed us to compare patients with a same-sex (n = 122) and an exclusively opposite-sex (n = 1658) attraction. Persons with same-sex attraction included persons who were attracted to both sexes. Data were collected by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and paper-and pencil questionnaires. Seven percent of the patients reported any same-sex orientation. Clinical expression of depression and anxiety did not differ in relation to sexual attraction. Regarding substance use, same-sex attracted women reported more drug use than heterosexual women (drug use: 16.2% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.003). Regarding stressful childhood experiences, men with any same-sex attraction reported more sexual abuse during childhood than men with a heterosexual orientation (20.4% vs. 8.5%, P = 0.005). For women with same-sex attraction substance use (especially illicit drug use) might be a coping mechanism to deal with existing symptoms or with the minority stressors they have to deal with; for same-sex attracted men stressful childhood experiences might reflect an aspect of etiology.

  1. Depression and anxiety in patients with and without same-sex attraction: differences in clinical expression, lifestyle factors, and vulnerability indicators

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Henny M W; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare clinical expressions (severity and loneliness), lifestyle factors (substance use), and vulnerability indicators (stressful childhood experiences) in patients with any same-sex attraction versus heterosexual patients diagnosed with depression and/or anxiety disorder. Little is known about this, even though it is now well documented that depression and anxiety are more prevalent among persons with same-sex attraction. Method Data, derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), allowed us to compare patients with a same-sex (n = 122) and an exclusively opposite-sex (n = 1658) attraction. Persons with same-sex attraction included persons who were attracted to both sexes. Data were collected by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and paper-and pencil questionnaires. Results Seven percent of the patients reported any same-sex orientation. Clinical expression of depression and anxiety did not differ in relation to sexual attraction. Regarding substance use, same-sex attracted women reported more drug use than heterosexual women (drug use: 16.2% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.003). Regarding stressful childhood experiences, men with any same-sex attraction reported more sexual abuse during childhood than men with a heterosexual orientation (20.4% vs. 8.5%, P = 0.005). Conclusions For women with same-sex attraction substance use (especially illicit drug use) might be a coping mechanism to deal with existing symptoms or with the minority stressors they have to deal with; for same-sex attracted men stressful childhood experiences might reflect an aspect of etiology. PMID:26445702

  2. Stable Same-Sex Friendships with Higher Achieving Partners Promote Mathematical Reasoning in Lower Achieving Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and one year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal Actor-Partner Interdependence Models) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  3. Accuracy and Bias in Perception of Distress Level and Distress Change Among Same-Sex College Student Roommate Dyads.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Shrout, Patrick E

    2018-06-01

    University students often experience high levels of stress and, in some cases, the stress leads to tragic outcomes. An important question is whether roommates can perceive the level and change in distress in their peers. We examined self- and other-reports of 187 same-sex undergraduate dyads at two times in a spring semester. Using the truth and bias model, we found that roommates tended to underestimate their partner's distress at both time points, and that ratings were equally influenced by truth and self-focus bias forces. For change, however, there was no evidence of directional (average) bias, and perceived change was only significantly related to the truth force. There were no consistent moderation effects by closeness or gender. These findings are interpreted in the context of person perception theory and the practical need for early warning about extreme distress in college students.

  4. Homosexual inclinations and the passions: A Thomistic theory of the psychogenesis of same-sex attraction disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Robert Loyd

    2014-01-01

    The Catholic Church has held that every human being is a child of God, and every person deserves to be treated with dignity and love regardless of their actions. The phrase “love the sinner, hate the sin” is a simple summary of the approach the Church takes to loving all human beings. The Church has also held firmly that both homosexual acts and homosexual inclinations are disordered, although the origins or contributing factors of homosexual inclinations are not entirely understood. In this paper, I apply principles from St. Thomas Aquinas's treatise on the passions to show that habitual mis-identification of the cause of pleasure associated with the apprehension of beauty, or misjudgments, may be involved in the psychogenesis of same-sex attraction disorder. PMID:24899749

  5. The effectiveness of same-sex versus opposite-sex role models in advertisements to reduce alcohol consumption in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Bochner, S

    1994-01-01

    The differential effectiveness of same- versus opposite-sex role models in persuading teenagers to reduce alcohol consumption was investigated. Based on an actual set of commercials, four 1-min videos were constructed, in which either boys or girls discuss how alcohol adversely affects either boys or girls. These were shown to either teenage boys or girls, resulting in a 2(Sex of Source) x 2(Sex of Subjects [Ss]) factorial design. Ss rated the credibility of the source, the persuasibility of the message, said how much and how often they drank currently, and whether they intended to decrease their future alcohol consumption. Three studies were conducted, in a coeducational (N = 95), boys' (N = 98), and girls' (N = 102) school, respectively. The overall pattern in the data showed that as predicted, same-sex role models were more effective, and that moderate drinkers were more influenced than heavy drinkers; both findings having implications for teenage health education campaigns.

  6. Prevalence of Same-Sex Sexual Behavior and Associated Characteristics among Low-Income Urban Males in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jesse L.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Kegeles, Susan M.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Peru has a concentrated HIV epidemic in which men who have sex with men are particularly vulnerable. We describe the lifetime prevalence of same-sex sexual contact and associated risk behaviors of men in Peru's general population, regardless of their sexual identity. Methods and Results A probability sample of males from low-income households in three Peruvian cities completed an epidemiologic survey addressing their sexual risk behavior, including sex with other men. Serum was tested for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis. Urine was tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea. A total of 2,271 18–30 year old men and women were contacted, of whom 1,645 (72.4%) agreed to participate in the study. Among the sexually experienced men surveyed, 15.2% (85/558, 95% CI: 12.2%–18.2%) reported a history of sex with other men. Men ever reporting sex with men (MESM) had a lower educational level, had greater numbers of sex partners, and were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including unprotected sex with casual partners, paying for or providing compensated sex, and using illegal drugs. MESM were also more likely to have had previous STI symptoms or a prior STI diagnosis, and had a greater prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity. Conclusions Many low-income Peruvian men have engaged in same-sex sexual contact and maintain greater behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV/STI transmission than non-MESM. Improved surveillance strategies for HIV and STIs among MESM are necessary to better understand the epidemiology of HIV in Latin America and to prevent its further spread. PMID:17712426

  7. Intimate Partner Violence and Controlling Behavior Among Male Same-Sex Relationships in China: Relationship With Ambivalent Sexism.

    PubMed

    Li, Diandian; Zheng, Lijun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV), cold violence, and controlling behaviors in male same-sex relationships in China, with a focus on the characteristics of IPV and controlling behaviors, and their relationships with ambivalent sexism. IPV was categorized as psychological aggression, physical injury, physical assault, and sexual coercion and was measured using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an eight-item scale measuring cold violence that was designed specifically for this study. Controlling behaviors were measured using a 34-item scale that was designed for this study, and sexist attitudes toward women and men were assessed using the short forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI), respectively. Participants ( N = 272) reported instances of perpetration of or victimization by IPV and controlling behaviors within the past 6 months and indicated ambivalent sexism (hostile attitude toward men and women and benevolent attitude toward men and women [HM, HS, BM, and BS, respectively]). Almost 47.1% of the participants reported an experience of IPV, and the prevalence of cold violence and controlling behaviors was found to be 65.1% and 80.5%, respectively. Psychological aggression was the most common, followed sequentially by sexual coercion, physical assault, and injury in present study. We found a strong association between perpetration and victimization and that different forms of violence tend to co-occur in both IPV and controlling behaviors. As predicted, ambivalent sexism was positively correlated with IPV and controlling behaviors, specifically HS and HM. The results indicated the high prevalence of IPV and controlling behaviors among male same-sex relationships, and sexism contributing to this high prevalence.

  8. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Same-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Hamburger, Merle E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Choi, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV) perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer. Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics. Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types. Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. PMID:23930146

  9. Same-sex sexual behavior and psychiatric disorders: findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS).

    PubMed

    Sandfort, T G; de Graaf, R; Bijl, R V; Schnabel, P

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that homosexuality is associated with psychiatric morbidity. This study examined differences between heterosexually and homosexually active subjects in 12-month and lifetime prevalence of DSM-III-R mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders in a representative sample of the Dutch population (N = 7076; aged 18-64 years). Data were collected in face-to-face interviews, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Classification as heterosexual or homosexual was based on reported sexual behavior in the preceding year. Five thousand nine hundred ninety-eight (84.8%) of the total sample could be classified: 2.8% of 2878 men and 1.4% of 3120 women had had same-sex partners. Differences in prevalence rates were tested by logistic regression analyses, controlling for demographics. Psychiatric disorders were more prevalent among homosexually active people compared with heterosexually active people. Homosexual men had a higher 12-month prevalence of mood disorders (odds ratio [OR] = 2.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.54-5.57) and anxiety disorders (OR = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.44-4.74) than heterosexual men. Homosexual women had a higher 12-month prevalence of substance use disorders (OR = 4.05; 95% CI = 1.56-10.47) than heterosexual women. Lifetime prevalence rates reflect identical differences, except for mood disorders, which were more frequently observed in homosexual than in heterosexual women (OR = 2.41; 95% CI = 1.26-4.63). The proportion of persons with 1 or more diagnoses differed only between homosexual and heterosexual women (lifetime OR = 2.61; 95% CI = 1. 31-5.19). More homosexual than heterosexual persons had 2 or more disorders during their lifetimes (homosexual men: OR = 2.70; 95% CI = 1.66-4.41; homosexual women: OR = 2.09; 95% CI = 1.07-4.09). The findings support the assumption that people with same-sex sexual behavior are at greater risk for psychiatric disorders.

  10. Coming out to dad: Young gay and bisexual men’s experiences disclosing same-sex attraction to their fathers

    PubMed Central

    Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A.; Pingel, Emily S.; Harper, Gary; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men and their fathers. Using a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in young gay and bisexual men’s coming out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers’ responses compared with sons’ expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers’ responses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men ages 18–24 were conducted as part of a larger study; topics explored in the interview included experiences coming out to family and others. Nineteen participants’ narratives included discussion about their fathers and were included in the current analyses. The young gay and bisexual men who were interviewed perceived a complex range of responses upon coming out to their fathers, ranging from enthusiastic acceptance to physical violence. Participants spoke of fathers who were accepting in different manners and who often held contradictory attitudes about same-sex attraction. Fathers’ responses commonly differed from sons’ expectations, which were informed by homophobic talk and gendered expectations. Sons spoke about what informed their expectations as well as what they perceived as influencing their fathers’ response, including gender norms, beliefs regarding the cause of SSA, religious views, sociopolitical views, and concerns about HIV/AIDS. The pervasive influence of hegemonic masculinity throughout the young gay and bisexual men’s stories was particularly striking. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention development are discussed, as well as study strengths and limitations. PMID:24989422

  11. Sexual stigma and symbolic violence experienced, enacted, and counteracted in young Africans' writing about same-sex attraction.

    PubMed

    Winskell, Kate; Sabben, Gaëlle

    2016-07-01

    There is growing recognition of the health disparities faced by sexual minority populations and the critical role played by sexual stigma in increasing their vulnerability. Experienced, anticipated, and internalized, stigma based on sexual orientation reduces access to HIV/STI prevention and treatment services among African men who have sex with men and has been linked to compromised mental health, risk-taking, and HIV status. It is likely that similar processes undermine the health of sexual minority African women and transgender and non-binary people. There is a need for increased understanding of both the contextual factors and the cultural meanings, or symbolic violence, that inform sexual stigma and harmful stigma management strategies in contexts that are culturally and socio-politically oppressive for sexual and gender minorities. Using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies, we analyzed narratives and essays on same-sex attraction contributed by young people aged 13-24 from ten African countries to a Spring 2013 scriptwriting competition on HIV, sexuality, and related themes. Submitted by 27 male and 29 female authors, the texts were written in response to a prompt inviting participants to "Tell a story about someone who is attracted to people of the same sex". We analyzed the ways in which sexual stigma and its effects are described, enacted, and counteracted in the texts. The data provide insights into the social and symbolic processes that create and sustain sexual stigma in the context of broader transnational discourses. The data shed light on psychosocial challenges faced by sexual minority youth and identify both rhetoric, stereotypes, and discourse that devalue them and representations that counteract this symbolic violence. We share our findings in the hope they may inform education and communication programming as part of multi-level efforts to improve the health and human rights of sexual minority populations in sub

  12. Winners and losers in health insurance: access and type of coverage for women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships.

    PubMed

    Pals, Heili; Waren, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the American Community Survey, 2009 (N=580,754), we compared rates of health insurance coverage and types of coverage used between women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships. This large, national dataset also allowed us to investigate regional variation in insurance coverage for women in same-sex partnerships by comparing "gay-tolerant" states versus other states. Multivariate analyses revealed that women in same-sex partnerships consistently had lower rates of health insurance coverage than married women in opposite-sex partnerships, but always more than unmarried women in opposite-sex partnerships. We also found that state-level variation in gay tolerance did not contribute to the access or type of coverage used by women in same-sex partnerships.

  13. Homosexuality, Religion, and the Family: The Effects of Religion on Americans' Appraisals of the Parenting Abilities of Same-Sex Couples.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Andrew L

    2018-01-01

    Although a growing body of research focuses on Americans' attitudes toward same-sex couples as parents, very few include measures of religion, and those that do fail to capture its multidimensional nature. Furthermore, many past studies relied on convenience samples of college students, or samples gathered outside the United States. Multivariate analyses of the 2012 General Social Survey-a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States-reveal that a slim majority of Americans still do not believe same-sex couples can parent as well as male-female couples, and the religious beliefs, behaviors, and affiliations of Americans are significantly and at times differentially associated with appraisals of same-sex couples' parenting abilities. It appears that although religion is generally associated with more negative appraisals of the parenting abilities of same-sex couples, it is not uniformly so. Americans' immediate religious and cultural context can shape their appraisals of homosexuality in diverse ways.

  14. "I Liked Girls and I Thought They Were Pretty": Initial Memories of Same-Sex Attraction in Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Sara I; Rubin, Jennifer D; Bauermeister, José A

    2016-08-01

    There is little research on what is meant by the concept of "feeling attracted" and even less about what same-sex attraction looks and feels like for individuals. Without insight into the phenomenon of same-sex attraction, researchers risk misunderstanding the role of sexual attraction in sexual identity development and risk mis-categorizing individuals in research designs that compare LGBTQ and heterosexual samples. The current study draws from semi-structured interviews (n = 30) with young lesbian-, bisexual-, and queer-identified women (ages 18-24) about their initial memories of same-sex attraction. Two questions were pursued using qualitative analytic strategies. We examined the age that participants remembered first experiencing same-sex attraction using content analysis. Two age groups emerged as distinct: those with experiences of same-sex attraction in childhood and those with initial attractions in later adolescence. We also examined key elements in participants' descriptions of early same-sex attraction using thematic analysis. The role of embodied feelings, relationships with other young women, and social environments including media images emerged as central to initial experiences of attraction. Findings highlight how early experiences of same-sex attraction produced different types of interpretations within individuals and, in turn, these interpretations informed how participants did or did not take up LGBTQ identity labels. These findings may help guide the development of more refined measurement tools for researchers hoping to sample sexual minorities and can contribute to developing more effective supports for individuals who experience same-sex attraction but may not adopt LGBTQ identity labels and, as a result, are routinely missed in outreach efforts.

  15. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers' Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Pan, William K; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-07-28

    The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers' tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people.

  16. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers’ Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Pan, William K.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers’ tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people. PMID:26225987

  17. Environmental injustice and sexual minority health disparities: A national study of inequitable health risks from air pollution among same-sex partners.

    PubMed

    Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Morales, Danielle X

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution is deleterious to human health, and numerous studies have documented racial and socioeconomic inequities in air pollution exposures. Despite the marginalized status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, no national studies have examined if they experience inequitable exposures to air pollution. This cross-sectional study investigated inequities in the exposure of same-sex partner households to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. We examined cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs across 71,207 census tracts using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data. We calculated population-weighted mean cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs for same-sex male, same-sex female and heterosexual partner households. We used generalized estimating equations (GEEs) to examine multivariate associations between sociodemographics and health risks from HAPs, while focusing on inequities based on the tract composition of same-sex, same-sex male and same-sex female partners. We found that mean cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs for same-sex partners are 12.3% and 23.8% greater, respectively, than for heterosexual partners. GEEs adjusting for racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status, population density, urban location, and geographic clustering show that living in census tracts with high (vs. low) proportions of same-sex partners is associated with significantly greater cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs, and that living in same-sex male partner enclaves is associated with greater risks than living in same-sex female partner enclaves. Results suggest that some health disparities experienced by LGBT populations (e.g. cancer, asthma) may be compounded by environmental exposures. Findings highlight the need to extend the conceptual framework for explaining LGBT health disparities beyond psycho-behavioral mechanisms translating social stress into illness to include environmental mechanisms. Because psycho-behavioral and environmental

  18. Marriage and the well-being of children.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Jeremy R; Lantos, John D

    2013-03-01

    Children's well-being has become the focal consideration in legal and public policy debates regarding same-sex marriage. In this article, we critically examine and rebut the central moral argument made by opponents of same-sex marriage: that the state should not license any domestic arrangement other than "traditional marriage" because doing so would be detrimental to children's well-being. Although many have challenged the empirical premise that children raised by same-sex couples fare worse than children in other arrangements, we focus primarily on the normative premises for exclusively licensing traditional (that is, monogamous, heterosexual) marriage. We argue that even if the empirical support for its claims was strong, the argument is morally insufficient for denying state recognition to other types of relationships. Importantly, we affirm the state's vital role in promoting children's well-being. We question, however, the approach of delegitimizing certain relationships as a means to that end. Instead, we argue, the state should encourage and support individuals who want to care for children, presume that any couple or individual is capable of adequate child-rearing, and ensure that all adults who are raising children (whether married or not) have the material resources and support necessary to be good parents. Such a policy would (1) set a reasonable minimal threshold for state recognition, (2) be vigilant in identifying cases falling below this threshold, and then (3) either assist or disqualify underperforming arrangements. It would also, appropriately, decouple arguments about legitimate and illegitimate types of relationships from arguments about what is best for children.

  19. Stable same-sex friendships with higher achieving partners promote mathematical reasoning in lower achieving primary school children.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and 1 year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Social affiliation matters: both same-sex and opposite-sex relationships predict survival in wild female baboons

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Tung, Jenny; Clark, Michael; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Social integration and support can have profound effects on human survival. The extent of this phenomenon in non-human animals is largely unknown, but such knowledge is important to understanding the evolution of both lifespan and sociality. Here, we report evidence that levels of affiliative social behaviour (i.e. ‘social connectedness’) with both same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics predict adult survival in wild female baboons. In the Amboseli ecosystem in Kenya, adult female baboons that were socially connected to either adult males or adult females lived longer than females who were socially isolated from both sexes—females with strong connectedness to individuals of both sexes lived the longest. Female social connectedness to males was predicted by high dominance rank, indicating that males are a limited resource for females, and females compete for access to male social partners. To date, only a handful of animal studies have found that social relationships may affect survival. This study extends those findings by examining relationships to both sexes in by far the largest dataset yet examined for any animal. Our results support the idea that social effects on survival are evolutionarily conserved in social mammals. PMID:25209936

  1. Gender Nonconformity, Homophobic Peer Victimization and Mental Health: How Same-Sex Attraction and Biological Sex Matter

    PubMed Central

    van Beusekom, Gabriël; Baams, Laura; Bos, Henny M.W.; Overbeek, Geert J.; Sandfort, Theo G.M.

    2018-01-01

    We assessed whether homophobic name-calling accounts for the relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health (social anxiety and psychological distress) in a sample of 1,026 Dutch adolescents (boys: n = 517) aged 11–16 years (Mage = 13.4). We also explored whether this hypothesized mediation differs by sexual attraction and biological sex. Data were collected by means of paper–pencil questionnaires at five secondary schools located in urban areas in the Netherlands. Mediation analysis indicated that gender nonconformity was related with both social anxiety and psychological distress partially via homophobic name-calling. Moderated mediation analysis further showed that the mediating role of homophobic name-calling varied according to levels of same-sex attraction (SSA) and biological sex. The mediation effects increased in magnitude when levels of SSA increased and were significant only for adolescents with mean and high levels of SSA. The mediation effects were significant for boys and girls in general, although the mediation effects were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings emphasize the importance of research and school-level interventions to focus on factors that promote acceptance of cross-gender behaviour among adolescents. PMID:26099017

  2. Top, Bottom, and Versatile Anal Sex Roles in Same-Sex Male Relationships: Implications for Relationship and Sexual Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, David A; Garcia, Christopher P

    2018-06-01

    Across much of the gay and bisexual male research on sexual position self-label (i.e., calling oneself a top, bottom, or versatile), there exist two commonalities: (1) studies tend to focus almost entirely on individual, relationally single androphilic men; (2) studies rarely account for relationships and relationship dynamics. In response, we explored the role of self-label over sexual and relationship satisfaction among gay and bisexual partnered men. Specifically, we looked at whether adopted sexual position identities were consonant or dissonant (i.e., matching or mismatching) with enacted behavior in relationships and how that impacted men's attitudes toward different relational attributes. Through an online survey, we sampled 169 men in same-sex relationships, asking them questions about their ideal penetrative role identities and their reality penetrative roles with their partner. We then asked them to rate their relationship on 10 sexual and interpersonal attributes. Multiple regression modeling suggested ideal-reality penetrative role dissonance was predictive of sexual dissatisfaction among tops who bottomed in their relationships and, to a lesser extent, bottoms who topped. In contrast, penetrative role dissonance was predictive of relationship satisfaction among tops who bottomed in their relationship, but not bottoms who topped. We conclude that a potential reason for this paradox among tops who bottom may be sexual altruism. That is, men may be satisfied with other aspects within their relationships, understand their partner's anal sex preferences, and accommodate that position in response to their initial relationship satisfaction.

  3. "Same-sex relationship in a straight world": individual and societal influences on power and control in young men's relationships.

    PubMed

    Kubicek, Katrina; McNeeley, Miles; Collins, Shardae

    2015-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to experience higher rates of HIV infection than other populations. Recently, there have been recommendations to consider HIV prevention at the dyadic or couple level. Using a dyadic approach to HIV prevention would also address an unaddressed concern related to intimate partner violence (IPV) among YMSM. Although research on IPV among YMSM is still in its infancy, great strides have been made in the past 10 years to describe the prevalence and related correlates of IPV within older adult same-sex relationships. These studies have found rates of IPV among MSM to be similar to rates among heterosexual women, and to be on the rise. The present study is designed to provide insight into how power is conceptualized within YMSM relationships and the role it may play in relationship challenges. This study draws from qualitative data collected from 11 focus groups with 86 YMSM and 26 individual semi-structured interviews to understand relationship challenges and the experiences of YMSM involved in partner violence. YMSM described relationship power as stemming from numerous sources including sexual positioning, gender roles, education, income, prior relationship experiences, and internalized homophobia. The findings have a number of implications for service providers and program design. Interventionists and other researchers need to consider power dynamics and other contextual elements of IPV before effective interventions can be developed for YMSM and other sexual minority populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Gender Nonconformity, Homophobic Peer Victimization, and Mental Health: How Same-Sex Attraction and Biological Sex Matter.

    PubMed

    van Beusekom, Gabriël; Baams, Laura; Bos, Henny M W; Overbeek, Geertjan; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2016-01-01

    We assessed whether homophobic name-calling accounts for the relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health (social anxiety and psychological distress) in a sample of 1,026 Dutch adolescents (boys: n = 517) ages 11 to 16 (Mage = 13.4). We also explored whether this hypothesized mediation differs by sexual attraction and biological sex. Data were collected by means of paper-and-pencil questionnaires at five secondary schools located in urban areas in the Netherlands. Mediation analysis indicated that gender nonconformity was related to both social anxiety and psychological distress partially via homophobic name-calling. Moderated mediation analysis further showed that the mediating role of homophobic name-calling varied according to levels of same-sex attraction (SSA) and biological sex. The mediation effects increased in magnitude when levels of SSA increased and were significant only for adolescents with mean and high levels of SSA. The mediation effects were significant for boys and girls in general, although the mediation effects were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings emphasize the importance of research and school-level interventions to focus on factors that promote acceptance of cross-gender behavior among adolescents.

  5. The Relationship Between Internalized Homophobia and Intimate Partner Violence in Same-Sex Relationships: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Longobardi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between internalized homophobia and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization in same-sex relationships. The literature search and the application of the inclusion criteria made it possible to identify 10 studies, 2 of which were excluded due to missing data. Therefore, eight studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed positive and statistically significant associations between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration and victimization, indicating that higher levels of internalized homophobia were related to higher levels of IPV. Specifically, the pooled effect size for the relationship between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration (all forms), it was r + = .147, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [.079, .214]; for the association between internalized homophobia and physical/sexual IPV perpetration, it was r + = .166, 95% CI [.109, .221]; p < .0001; for the relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological IPV perpetration, it was r + = .145, 95% CI [.073, .216]; and for the association between internalized homophobia and any type of IPV victimization, it was r + = .102, 95% CI [.030, .173]. Implications of these results for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  6. “The Cooties Effect”: Amygdala Reactivity to Opposite-versus Same-sex Faces Declines from Childhood to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Telzer, Eva H.; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Goff, Bonnie; Gabard-Durman, Laurel; Gee, Dylan G.; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important social identities that children learn to define themselves and others by is sex, becoming a salient social category by early childhood. Although older children begin to show greater flexibility in their gendered behaviors and attitudes, gender rigidity intensifies again around the time of puberty. In the current study, we assessed behavioral and neural biases to sex across a wide age group. Ninety-three youth (ages 7–17 years) provided behavioral rating of same- and opposite-sex attitudes, and 52 youth (ages 4–18 years) underwent an fMRI scan as they matched the emotion of same- and opposite-sex faces. We demonstrate significant age-related behavioral biases of sex that are mediated by differential amygdala response to opposite-sex relative to same-sex faces in children, an effect that completely attenuates by the teenage years. Moreover, we find a second peak in amygdala sensitivity to opposite-sex faces around the time of puberty. Thus, the amygdala codes for developmentally dependent and motivationally relevant social identification across development. PMID:25848681

  7. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Parent Households and Child Health Outcomes: Findings from the National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny M W; Knox, Justin R; van Rijn-van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette K

    2016-04-01

    Using the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health data set, we compared spouse/partner relationships and parent-child relationships (family relationships), parenting stress, and children's general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior (child outcomes) in households of same-sex (female) versus different-sex continuously coupled parents with biological offspring. We assessed whether associations among family relationships, parenting stress, and child outcomes were different in the 2 household types. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 95 female same-sex parent and 95 different-sex parent households with children 6 to 17 years old. One parent per household was interviewed by telephone. Multivariate analyses of variance and multiple linear regressions were conducted. No differences were observed between household types on family relationships or any child outcomes. Same-sex parent households scored higher on parenting stress (95% confidence interval = 2.03-2.30) than different-sex parent households (95% confidence interval = 1.76-2.03), p = .006. No significant interactions between household type and family relationships or household type and parenting stress were found for any child outcomes. Children with female same-sex parents and different-sex parents demonstrated no differences in outcomes, despite female same-sex parents reporting more parenting stress. Future studies may reveal the sources of this parenting stress.

  8. Essentialism and Islamic Theology of Homosexuality: A Critical Reflection on an Essentialist Epistemology toward Same-Sex Desires and Acts in Islam.

    PubMed

    Alipour, M

    2017-01-01

    Although most traditional Muslim scholars condemn same-sex desires and acts, revisionist Muslim scholars have offered a more tolerant approach on this issue over the last two decades. Building on an essentialist approach to same-sex desires and acts, these scholars have argued that Islam accepts difference and diversity, including sexual diversity, as part of God's creation. Homosexuality, which in their view is an innate disposition to the same sex, is an alternative sexuality and, thus, accepted by the Qur'an and Islam. This article argues that an essentialist approach is not suitable to defend all manifestations of same-sex desires and acts, not only because it is narrow (as it excludes both bisexual Muslims and homosexual Muslims who believe that their sexual orientation is socially constructed), but also because it cannot even argue the case for the view of homosexuality as inborn. This article proposes to open up the debate beyond essentialism and constructivism, which both have their limitations, to accommodate a more inclusive and tolerant Islamic approach to same-sex desires and acts.

  9. Marriage (In)equality: The Perspectives of Adolescents and Emerging Adults with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    The debate over whether same-sex couples should be allowed to enter into civil marriages continues in the United States. Forty-nine adolescents and emerging adults (ages 14-29) with lesbian, gay, and bisexual parents were interviewed for the current exploratory study, which examined how individuals perceived themselves and their families as being…

  10. Correlates of a Single-Item Indicator Versus a Multi-Item Scale of Outness About Same-Sex Attraction

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Syed W.; Galos, Dylan L.; Simon Rosser, B. R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated if a single-item indicator measured the degree to which people were open about their same-sex attraction (“out”) as accurately as a multi-item scale. For the multi-item scale, we used the Outness Inventory, which includes three subscales: family, world, and religion. We examined correlations between the single- and multi-item measures; between the single-item indicator and the subscales of the multi-item scale; and between the measures and internalized homonegativity, social attitudes towards homosexuality, and depressive symptoms. In addition, we calculated Tjur’s R2 as a measure of predictive power of the single-item indicator, multi-item scale, and subscales of the multi-item scale in predicting two health-related outcomes: depressive symptoms and condomless anal sex with multiple partners. There was a strong correlation between the single- and multi-item measures (r = 0.73). Furthermore, there were strong correlations between the single-item indicator and each subscale of the multi-item scale: family (r = 0.70), world (r = 0.77), and religion (r = 0.50). In addition, the correlations between the single-item indicator and internalized homonegativity (r = −0.63), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = −0.38), and depression (r = −0.14) were higher than those between the multi-item scale and internalized homonegativity (r = −0.55), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = −0.21), and depression (r = −0.13). Contrary to the premise that multi-item measures are superior to single-item measures, our collective findings indicate that the single-item indicator of outness performs better than the multi-item scale of outness. PMID:26292840

  11. Contrasting effects of opposite- versus same-sex housing on hormones, behavior and neurogenesis in a eusocial mammal.

    PubMed

    Peragine, Deane E; Yousuf, Yusef; Fu, Yi; Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Ginzberg, Keren; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-05-01

    Competitive interactions can have striking and enduring effects on behavior, but the mechanisms underlying this experience-induced plasticity are unclear, particularly in females. Naked mole-rat (NMR) colonies are characterized by the strictest social and reproductive hierarchy among mammals, and represent an ideal system for studies of social competition. In large matriarchal colonies, breeding is monopolized by one female and 1-3 males, with other colony members being socially subordinate and reproductively suppressed. To date, competition for breeding status has been examined in-colony, with female, but not male, aggression observed following the death/removal of established queens. To determine whether this sex difference extends to colony-founding contexts, and clarify neural and endocrine mechanisms underlying behavioral change in females competing for status, we examined neurogenesis and steroid hormone concentrations in colony-housed subordinates, and NMRs given the opportunity to transition status via pair-housing. To this end, Ki-67 and doublecortin immunoreactivity were compared in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) of colony-housed subordinates, and subordinates housed with a same-sex (SS) or opposite-sex (OS) conspecific. Results suggest that OS pairing in eusocial mammals promotes cooperation and enhances hippocampal plasticity, while SS pairing is stressful, resulting in enhanced HPA activation and muted hippocampal neurogenesis relative to OS pairs. Data further indicate that competition for status is confined to females, with female-female housing exerting contrasting effects on hippocampal and amygdalar neurogenesis. These findings advance understanding of social stress effects on neuroplasticity and behavior, and highlight the importance of including female-dominated species in research on aggression and intrasexual competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk of Sex-Specific Cancers in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in Denmark and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda J.; Skytthe, Axel; Möller, Sören; Czene, Kamila; Adami, Hans-Olov; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Petersen, Inge; Christensen, Kaare; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence shows that some cancers originate in utero. It is hypothesized that elevated exposure to some steroid hormones might increase cancer risk and that hormone transfer between twin fetuses could result in different prenatal exposure to testosterone. Methods This large-scale prospective twin study compared opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins to test the impact of intrauterine exposures on cancer risk. On the basis of the Danish and Swedish twin and cancer registries, we calculated incidence rate ratios for OS and SS twins, whereas standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for OS/SS twins compared with the general population. Results Atotal of 18,001 cancers were identified during 1943–2009. No significant differences were observed between OS and SS twins, neither for the sex-specific cancers nor for cancer at all sites. All-cause cancer was slightly reduced for OS and SS twins compared with the general population, significant for OS males (SIR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92–0.98) and for SS males and females (SIR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94–0.99). Conclusions Our data suggest that having a male co-twin—which may entail higher exposure to prenatal testosterone—does not increase the risk of sex-specific cancers in OS females. Furthermore, the study supports that twinning per se is not a risk factor of cancer. Impact Findings are reassuring, as they fail to provide evidence for the hypothesis that endocrine or other difference in the in utero milieu affects the risk of sex-specific cancers. PMID:26282631

  13. Academic performance of opposite-sex and same-sex twins in adolescence: A Danish national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Petersen, Inge; Johnson, Wendy; Christensen, Kaare

    2015-03-01

    Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n=1812) and SS (n=4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n=13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06-.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33-.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45-.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Academic performance of opposite-sex and same-sex twins in adolescence: A Danish national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Inge; Johnson, Wendy; Christensen, Kaare

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n = 1812) and SS (n = 4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n = 13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06–.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33–.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45–.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25655669

  15. Satisfaction and Condomless Anal Sex at Sexual Debut and Sexual Risk among Young Black Same-Sex Attracted Men (YBSSAM)

    PubMed Central

    Oidtman, J; Sherman, SG; Morgan, A; German, D; Arrington-Sanders, R

    2017-01-01

    First sex may be a sentinel event crucial to understanding sexual health trajectories of young Black same-sex attracted men (YBSSAM). We sought to understand whether satisfaction, condomless anal sex, and contextual factors during first sex are associated with sexual risk and recent condom use in YBSSAM. 201 YBSSAM aged 15–24 completed an Internet survey exploring first sex, current condom use, and sexual risk. High risk was defined as ≥3 of the following: new/concurrent sex partners, STI history, and no/inconsistent condom use. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association between predictor (satisfaction and first condomless anal sex) and outcome (sexual risk and condomless sex in the past 3 months) variables. Mean age at first sex was 15.2 (SD=2.9) years, and emotional satisfaction (51.7%), physical satisfaction (63.7%), and condomless first anal sex (55.2%) were common. YBSSAM describing high levels of satisfaction were no more likely to be at high risk or engage in recent condomless sex. Condomless first sex (AOR=4.57, P=0.001), younger age (AOR=3.43, p=0.02), and having a partner >5years older (AOR=2.78, p=0.03) at first sex were significantly associated with increased risk. Only condomless first sex (AOR=4.28, p<0.001) was associated with condomless recent sex. Satisfaction at first sex may not influence later sexual risk in YBSSAM. However, context of first sex, including condom use at first sex, may play an important role in subsequent risk. Prevention strategies on condom negotiation prior to first sex may help to mitigate HIV burden in YBSSAM. PMID:27649695

  16. Enhaced D2-type receptor activity facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Rosas-Aguilar, Viridiana; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Perez, Cesar A; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-08-01

    Animal models have shown that the neural bases of social attachment, sexual preference and pair bonds, depend on dopamine D2-type receptor and oxytocin activity. In addition, studies have demonstrated that cohabitation can shape partner preference via conditioning. Herein, we used rats to explore the development of learned same-sex partner preferences in adulthood as a result of cohabitation during enhanced D2 activity. Experimental Wistar males (N=20), received saline or the D2 agonist (quinpirole) and were allowed to cohabitate during 24 h, with a stimulus male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. Four days later they were drug-free tested for partner preference between the scented male partner and a sexually receptive female. Sexual partner preference was analyzed by measuring frequency and latency for appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors, as well as non-contact erections. Social preference was also analyzed by measuring the frequency and latency of visits, body contacts and time spent together. Results indicated that only quinpirole-treated males displayed sexual and social preference for the scented male over the sexually receptive female. They spent more time together, displayed more body contacts, more female-like proceptive behaviors, and more non-contact erections. Accordingly, conditioned males appeared to be more sexually aroused and motivated by the known male than by a receptive female. We discuss the implications of this animal model on the formation of learned homosexual partner preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Satisfaction and Condomless Anal Sex at Sexual Debut and Sexual Risk Among Young Black Same-Sex Attracted Men.

    PubMed

    Oidtman, Jessica; Sherman, Susan G; Morgan, Anthony; German, Danielle; Arrington-Sanders, Renata

    2017-05-01

    First sex may be a sentinel event crucial to understanding sexual health trajectories of young Black same-sex attracted men (YBSSAM). We sought to understand whether satisfaction, condomless anal sex, and contextual factors during first sex were associated with sexual risk and recent condom use in YBSSAM. A total of 201 YBSSAM aged 15-24 years completed an Internet survey exploring first sex, current condom use, and sexual risk. High risk was defined as ≥3 of the following: new/concurrent sex partners, STI history, and no/inconsistent condom use. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association between predictor (satisfaction and first condomless anal sex) and outcome (sexual risk and condomless sex in the past 3 months) variables. Mean age at first sex was 15.2 (SD = 2.9) years, and emotional satisfaction (51.7 %), physical satisfaction (63.7 %), and condomless first anal sex (55.2 %) were common. YBSSAM describing high levels of satisfaction were no more likely to be at high risk or engage in recent condomless sex. Condomless first sex (AOR = 4.57, p = .001), younger age (AOR = 3.43, p = .02), and having a partner >5 years older (AOR = 2.78, p = .03) at first sex were significantly associated with increased risk. Only condomless first sex (AOR = 4.28, p < .001) was associated with condomless recent sex. Satisfaction at first sex may not influence later sexual risk in YBSSAM. However, context of first sex, including condom use at first sex, may play an important role in subsequent risk. Prevention strategies on condom negotiation prior to first sex may help to mitigate HIV burden in YBSSAM.

  18. Federal Employees Health Benefits and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Programs' Coverage Exception for Children of Same-Sex Domestic Partners. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-12-02

    This action amends the rule to create a regulatory exception that allows children of same-sex domestic partners living overseas to maintain their Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Program (FEDVIP) coverage until September 30, 2018. Due to a recent Supreme Court decision, as of January 1, 2016, coverage of children of same-sex domestic partners under the FEHB Program and FEDVIP will generally only be allowed if the couple is married, as discussed in Benefits Administration Letter (BAL) 15-207 dated October 5, 2015. OPM recognizes there are additional requirements placed on overseas federal employees that may not apply to other civilian employees with duty stations in the United States making it difficult to travel to the United States to marry same-sex partners.

  19. Marriage education for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Wetzler, Scott; Frame, Laura; Litzinger, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The field of marriage education has come to be dominated by nonprofessionals with no clinical training because clinicians interested in relationships typically provide marital therapy to couples in distress rather than marriage education to healthy couples. In this paper, we encourage clinicians to participate in the development of marriage education programs, such as that described by our Supporting Healthy Marriage program, which serves a large number of low-income couples, and propose a psychological conceptual framework for delivering marriage education services. It makes sense for clinicians to consider using this novel approach given the opportunity to impact such a large segment of society that might not receive psychological services.

  20. Impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Simon Robert; McNair, Ruth; Waters, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Children with same-sex attracted parents develop well in terms of their health and wellbeing. There are many recognised factors that have an impact on child health, in general, including individual, family and wider social mediators. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in Australian same-sex parent families. A cross-sectional survey of self-identified same-sex attracted parents from across Australia was used to collect information on child health and wellbeing between May and December 2012. Mixed-effects multiple linear regression models were used to identify associations between family structure/socio-demographic characteristics and child wellbeing. Child health outcomes were measured using the Child Health Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In same-sex parent families, biological relationships, parental gender and parental education were not significantly associated with health and wellbeing. Parental income, rurality and stable parental relationships were associated with health and wellbeing, and living in a single-parent household was associated with poorer wellbeing. Stable dual parent families offer good outcomes for children with same-sex attracted parents. Family processes are most important. This study does not support the assertion that children require both male and female parents, nor that biological relationships are essential to health and wellbeing. This study provides scientific data from a cross-sectional Australian-based study to describe and understand health determinants for children in family contexts that comprise same-sex parent and all family contexts. It recommends equitable, stigma-free family support. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. 77 FR 65477 - Repeal of Regulations on Marriages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... outdated and duplicative of other authorities that detail procedures for authentications and documentation... authentication of marriage documents. This section is unnecessary because the laws and regulations that apply to authentications in general also apply to marriage documents, and these functions are already covered in 22 CFR 92...

  2. Cross-cousin marriage among the Yanomamö shows evidence of parent-offspring conflict and mate competition between brothers.

    PubMed

    Chagnon, Napoleon A; Lynch, Robert F; Shenk, Mary K; Hames, Raymond; Flinn, Mark V

    2017-03-28

    Marriage in many traditional societies often concerns the institutionalized exchange of reproductive partners among groups of kin. Such exchanges most often involve cross-cousins-marriage with the child of a parent's opposite-sex sibling-but it is unclear who benefits from these exchanges. Here we analyze the fitness consequences of marrying relatives among the Yanomamö from the Amazon. When individuals marry close kin, we find that ( i ) both husbands and wives have slightly lower fertility; ( ii ) offspring suffer from inbreeding depression; ( iii ) parents have more grandchildren; and ( iv ) siblings, especially brothers, benefit when their opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but not when their same-sex siblings do. Therefore, individuals seem to benefit when their children or opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but suffer costs when they, their parents, or same-sex siblings do. These asymmetric fitness outcomes suggest conflicts between parents and offspring and among siblings over optimal mating strategies. Parental control of marriages is reinforced by cultural norms prescribing cross-cousin marriage. We posit that local mate competition combined with parental control over marriages may escalate conflict between same-sex siblings who compete over mates, while simultaneously forging alliances between opposite-sex siblings. If these relationships are carried forward to subsequent generations, they may drive bilateral cross-cousin marriage rules. This study provides insights into the evolutionary importance of how kinship and reciprocity underlie conflicts over who controls mate choice and the origins of cross-cousin marriage prescriptions.

  3. Assessing the Impact of Community Marriage Policies on County Divorce Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Paul James; Weed, Stan E.; Olsen, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Community marriage initiatives (CMIs) are designed to strengthen marriage and increase marital stability by addressing relevant laws, policies, and cultural factors. We examined a specific CMI designed to lower divorce rates by establishing a shared public commitment among clergy to strengthen marriage. A mixed-effects general linear model was…

  4. On marriage and migration.

    PubMed

    Stark, O

    1988-09-01

    Marriage, migration, and related phenomena such as marital stability, fertility, and investment in human capital may be better explained by studying marriage and migration jointly. This paper examines the role of migration in obtaining joint labor market and marriage market equilibrium. When broadly interpreted, marriage and migration share a number of common features. Both involve search and its resolution (pairing of mates in the former and matching of labor and firms in the latter). In both cases, success in finding a partner is sensitive to the availability of partners and to the distribution of their endowments and traits. Almost always, and along with separation and divorce, marriage mandates spatial relocation which may translate into migration. Both involve a movement that is associated with adjustment costs from 1 state into another. The decisions to enter marriage and undertake employment or the decisions to divorce and quit a job depend on exogenous parameters, some of which are determined by the marriage market and the labor market. Since both marriage and divorce take place in the context of broadly defined markets, they may and often are analyzed applying market concepts, theorems, and solutions. Yet the authors could not pinpoint 1 single, systematic attempt that checks through the interactions between marriage and migration, so this paper attempts to rectify this state of research. Essentially, this paper 1) discusses individual decision making pending possible migration prior to or following marriage, 2) examines whether it is easier for a married couple or a single person to migrate, and 3) considers whether marriage dissolution could cause migration when marriage is the only reason that has kept a spouse from moving. This integrated research agenda for both marriage and migration can delineate interesting new implications to examine.

  5. Factorial Invariance of the Scale Beliefs about Children's Adjustment in Same-Sex Families in Spanish, Chilean, and Hispanic University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascual-Soler, Marcos; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Berrios-Riquelme, José

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the factorial invariance of the Scale on Beliefs About Children's Adjustment in Same-Sex Families (SBCASSF) across countries in three samples: Chilean, Spanish, and Hispanic university students. The scale analyzes attitudes toward the consequences of the rearing and education of children by parents with a homosexual sexual…

  6. The Effect of Requiring Private Employers to Extend Health Benefit Eligibility to Same-Sex Partners of Employees: Evidence from California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmueller, Thomas C.; Carpenter, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Health disparities related to sexual orientation are well documented and may be due to unequal access to a partner's employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). We provide the literature's first evaluation of legislation enacted by California in 2005 that required private employers within the state to treat employees in committed same-sex relationships in…

  7. Mothers in Same-Sex Relationships Describe the Process of Forming a Family as a Stressful Journey in a Heteronormative World: A Swedish Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Appelgren Engström, Heléne; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Borneskog, Catrin; Almqvist, Anna-Lena

    2018-05-08

    Objectives The aim of this study was to gain insight into how women in same-sex relationships experience the process of forming a family through the use of assisted reproduction technique (ART), from planning the pregnancy to parenthood, and their experience of parental support from healthcare professionals. Methods The participants were 20 women in a same-sex relationship who had conceived through ART at a Swedish clinic. Semi-structured interviews including open questions about pregnancy, parenthood and support from healthcare professionals were conducted. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed according to grounded theory. Results The core category, A stressful journey through a heteronormative world, emerged from the analysis, as did three subcategories: A journey fraught with difficulties and decisions; The nuclear family as the norm; and A need for psychological support. Same-sex parents expressed a need for more information about how to access ART in Sweden. Both the healthcare organization and treatment were perceived as heteronormative. In particular, these women lacked psychological support during the demanding process of utilizing a sperm donor to conceive. Conclusions for Practice Professionals in antenatal care should undergo mandatory cultural competency training to ensure cultural sensitivity and the provision of updated information, tailored brochures and early parental support for families with same-sex parents. All parents need guidance and support from competent, caring personnel throughout the entire process of forming a family.

  8. Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among Children of Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V. Paul; Noret, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    To further develop an understanding of psychological and social functioning of children raised by lesbian couples, the authors compared 18 students ages 12-16 raised in families led by female same-sex couples, who were identified from a large school-based survey, with 18 matched students raised by opposite-sex couples and the general student…

  9. "It Was as Useful as a Chocolate Kettle": Sex Education in the Lives of Same-Sex-Attracted Young People in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Lynne; Mitchell, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Sex education is a contested site in the school curriculum as communities grapple with who should teach young people about sex and how it should be taught. In this paper we ask whether same-sex-attracted young people are being exposed to appropriate and relevant sex education at school, and if they are not whether it is necessary that sex…

  10. Popularity among Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Peers: A Process-Oriented Examination of Links to Aggressive Behaviors and Depressive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children's development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third- and 4th-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at 3 time points over…

  11. Conceptions of Privacy and the Non-disclosure of Same-Sex Behaviour Among Behaviourally-Bisexual Men in Heterosexual Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Downing, Martin J.; Cohn, Daniel J.; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to why some behaviourally-bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with both men and women) choose not to disclose their same-sex behaviour. Using Communication Privacy Management theory (Petronio 2002), we report on the ways these men conceptualise their same-sex behaviour as private and thus feel justified in not disclosing it to family, friends, and female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 non-disclosing behaviourally-bisexual men in New York City. The men offered a number of privacy rules to justify their non-disclosure, including: 1) their same-sex behaviours were their own business and nobody else’s; 2) others had no reason to know; 3) the topic of sexual behaviour was too personal; 4) they were private people in general; and 5) it was inappropriate to discuss same-sex behaviour in many contexts. Some privacy rules were used more often to justify non-disclosure to friends and family than to female partners. These findings provide insights into the reasons for non-disclosure among behaviourally-bisexual men, offer support for and extend CPM theory for the management of sexual information, and offer insights into the importance of privacy for the design and delivery of health promotion services for this population. PMID:24597480

  12. Exploring the “Bisexual Bridge”: A Qualitative Study of Risk Behavior and Disclosure of Same-Sex Behavior Among Black Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Jenkins, Tyrrell R.; Dauria, Emily; Patel, Shilpa N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We explored factors influencing sexual behavior, disclosure of same-sex behavior, and condom-use practices among Black bisexual men. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 Black men in Atlanta, Georgia, who reported having had oral, vaginal, or anal sex with both men and women in the prior 6 months. Results. Participants described approaches to disclosure of same-sex behavior as part of a complex decisional balance influenced by both situational and individual factors and ranging from full disclosure to total secrecy. Influences on sexual behavior and condom-use practices included: (1) type of relationship, (2) gender-specific considerations, (3) perceptions of comfort or trust, and (4) fear of disease or pregnancy. Conclusions. Disclosure of same-sex behavior was not a major influence on the sexual behavior and condom-use practices of the Black bisexual men in our study, who demonstrated heterogeneity in approaches to sexual behavior, disclosure of same-sex behavior, and condom-use practices. Additional research is needed to assess the social determinants of sexual risk for this population. Future HIV-prevention efforts should include initiatives to encourage accuracy in risk assessment and in taking sexual histories in clinical settings. PMID:19910348

  13. Identity Implications of Influence Goals: A Revised Analysis of Face-Threatening Acts and Application to Seeking Compliance with Same-Sex Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Steven R.; Aleman, Carlos G.; Leatham, Geoff B.

    1998-01-01

    Challenges and revises politeness theory by analyzing potential implications for both parties' face when the logical preconditions for seeking compliance are framed by specific influence goals. Tests undergraduate students' imagining asking favors, giving advice, and enforcing obligations with same-sex friends. Finds perceived face threats varied…

  14. Conceptions of privacy and the non-disclosure of same-sex behaviour by behaviourally-bisexual men in heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Schrimshaw, Eric W; Downing, Martin J; Cohn, Daniel J; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to why some behaviourally-bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with both men and women) choose not to disclose their same-sex behaviour. Using Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory, we report on the ways these men conceptualise their same-sex behaviour as private, and thus feel justified in not disclosing it to family, friends and female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 non-disclosing behaviourally-bisexual men in New York City. The men offered a number of privacy rules to justify their non-disclosure, including: (1) their same-sex behaviours were their own business and nobody else's, (2) others had no reason to know, (3) the topic of sexual behaviour was too personal, (4) they were private people in general and (5) it was inappropriate to discuss same-sex behaviour in many contexts. Some privacy rules were used more often to justify non-disclosure to friends and family than to female partners. These findings provide insights into the reasons for non-disclosure among behaviourally-bisexual men, offer support for and extend CPM theory for the management of sexual information and offer insights into the importance of privacy for the design and delivery of health-promotion services for this population.

  15. Gender Differences in College Students' Perceptions of Same-Sex Sexual Harassment: The Influence of Physical Attractiveness and Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…

  16. Stability and change in same-sex attraction, experience, and identity by sex and age in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Nigel; van Roode, Thea; Cameron, Claire; Paul, Charlotte

    2013-07-01

    Gaps remain in knowledge of changes in sexual orientation past adolescence and early adulthood. A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort was used to examine differences by age and sex in change in sexual attraction between 21 (1993/1994) and 38 years (2010/2011), sexual experiences between 26 and 38 years, and sexual identity between 32 and 38 years. Any same-sex attraction was significantly more common among women than men at all ages. Among women, any same-sex attraction increased up to age 26 (from 8.8 to 16.6 %), then decreased slightly by age 38 (12.0 %); among men, prevalence was significantly higher at age 38 (6.5 %) than 21 (4.2 %), but not in the intermediate assessments. It is likely that the social environment becoming more tolerant was responsible for some of the changes. Same-sex attraction was much more common than same-sex experiences or a same-sex identity, especially among women, with no major sex differences in these latter dimensions. Women exhibited much greater change in sexual attraction between assessments than men; for change in experiences and identity, sex differences were less marked and not statistically confirmed. Changes in the respective dimensions appeared more likely among those initially with mixed attraction and experiences, and among those initially identifying as bisexual, but this did not account for the sex difference in likelihood of change. These results provide contemporary information about the extent and variation of reported sexual attraction, experiences, and identity that we show continues across early and mid-adulthood.

  17. Peer relationships and adolescents' academic and non-academic outcomes: same-sex and opposite-sex peer effects and the mediating role of school engagement.

    PubMed

    Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions of their relationships with same-sex and opposite-sex peers in predicting their academic performance and general self-esteem and the potentially mediating role of school engagement in linking these perceived peer relationships with academic and non-academic outcomes. The sample comprised 1,436 high-school students (670 boys, 756 girls; 711 early adolescents, 723 later adolescents). Self-report measures and objective achievement tests were used. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothesized model and its invariance across gender and age groups. Perceived same-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with academic performance and general self-esteem. Perceived opposite-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with general self-esteem and an indirect positive link with academic performance, but mediation via school engagement was not as strong as that of perceived same-sex peer relationships. These findings generalized across gender and age groups. Adolescents' same-sex and opposite-sex peer relationships seem to positively impact their academic performance and general self-esteem in distinct ways. It appears that school engagement plays an important role in mediating these peer relationship effects, particularly those of same-sex peer relationships, on academic and non-academic functioning. Implications for psycho-educational theory, measurement, and practice are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Forgotten marriages? Measuring the reliability of marriage histories

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Marriage histories are a valuable data source for investigating nuptiality. While researchers typically acknowledge the problems associated with their use, it is unknown to what extent these problems occur and how marriage analyses are affected. OBJECTIVE This paper seeks to investigate the quality of marriage histories by measuring levels of misreporting, examining the characteristics associated with misreporting, and assessing whether misreporting biases marriage indicators. METHODS Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH), I compare marriage histories reported by the same respondents at two different points in time. I investigate whether respondents consistently report their spouses (by name), status of marriage, and dates of marriage. I use multivariate regression models to investigate the characteristics associated with misreporting. Finally, I examine whether misreporting marriages and marriage dates affects marriage indicators. RESULTS Results indicate that 28.3% of men and 17.9% of women omitted at least one marriage in one of the survey waves. Multivariate regression models show that misreporting is not random: marriage, individual, interviewer, and survey characteristics are associated with marriage omission and marriage date inconsistencies. Misreporting also affects marriage indicators. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study of its kind to examine the reliability of marriage histories collected in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Although marriage histories are frequently used to study marriage dynamics, until now no knowledge has existed on the degree of misreporting. Misreporting in marriage histories is shown to be non-negligent and could potentially affect analyses. PMID:27152090

  19. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and... between a man or woman recognized by the law of the Hopi Tribe or the Navajo Tribe. ...

  20. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and... between a man or woman recognized by the law of the Hopi Tribe or the Navajo Tribe. ...

  1. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and... between a man or woman recognized by the law of the Hopi Tribe or the Navajo Tribe. ...

  2. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and... between a man or woman recognized by the law of the Hopi Tribe or the Navajo Tribe. ...

  3. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and... between a man or woman recognized by the law of the Hopi Tribe or the Navajo Tribe. ...

  4. Physical Illness in Gay, Lesbian, and Heterosexual Marriages: Gendered Dyadic Experiences.

    PubMed

    Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Donnelly, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    The inclusion of same-sex married couples can illuminate and challenge assumptions about gender that are routinely taken for granted in studies of physical illness. We analyze gender dynamics in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual marriages with in-depth interview data from 90 spouses (45 couples) to consider how spouses co-construct illness experiences in ways that shape relationship dynamics. Overall, findings indicate that men tend to downplay illness and thus provide minimal care work, whereas women tend to construct illness as immersive and involving intensive care work-in both same-sex and different-sex marriages. Yet same-sex spouses describe similar constructions of illness much more so than different-sex couples, and as such, same-sex spouses describe less illness-related disagreement and stress. These findings help inform policies to support the health of gay and lesbian, as well as heterosexual, patients and their spouses, an important goal given health disparities of gay and lesbian populations. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  5. 'Appeals to nature' in marriage equality debates: A content analysis of newspaper and social media discourse.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Cliodhna

    2017-09-01

    In May 2015, Ireland held a referendum to legalize same-sex marriage, which passed with 62% of the vote. This study explores the role played by 'appeals to nature' in the referendum debate. Little research has investigated how biological attributions are spontaneously generated in real-world discourse regarding sexual rights. Through content analysis of newspaper and Twitter discussion of the referendum, this study aims to (1) establish the frequency of appeals to nature and their distribution across the various 'sides' of the debate and (2) analyse the forms these natural claims took and the rhetorical functions they fulfilled. Appeals to nature occurred in a minority of media discussion of the referendum (13.6% of newspaper articles and .3% of tweets). They were more prominent in material produced by anti-marriage equality commentators. Biological attributions predominantly occurred in relation to parenthood, traditional marriage, gender, and homosexuality. The article analyses the rhetorical dynamics of these natural claims and considers the implications for marriage equality research and activism. The analysis suggests appeals to nature allow anti-marriage equality discourse adapt to a cultural context that proscribes outright disapproval of same-sex relationships. However, it also queries whether previous research has overemphasized the significance of biological attributions in discourse about groups' rights. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Sex, Courtship, and Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiferth, Berniece

    The author presents an historical perspective on abortion, contraception and marriage as a prelude to an examination of changing attitudes toward sex. The article deals with the negative effects attributed to the increased incidence of early dating and early marriage of teenagers in the United States. The author also assumes positions on such…

  7. Professional Women and Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Suzanne M.; Kalish, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Explored the phenomenon of late marriage in 41 highly educated professional women. Compared with normative marriers, the late-marrying women had higher career goals, a more egalitarian role structure in marriage, and were more accepting of premarital sex and cohabitation. Factors associated with family backgrounds were identified. (JAC)

  8. Men's and Women's Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speismen, Joseph C.; And Others

    While there is reasonable agreement about some of the broad parameters of men's and women's marriages, less has been written about their perspectives on marriage, or about the individual characteristics associated with marital satisfaction. Data on marital adjustment, demographics, sex role identity, and sexuality were taken from 50 participants…

  9. Strong Navajo Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenbrand, Reva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages strong because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had strong marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths:…

  10. North American Marriage: 1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Leo

    1971-01-01

    Two decades from mow, marriage will be very different from what it is today, a sociologist believes. Romantic love will have largely disappeared; there will be several kinds of marriage to choose from, and prospective parents will have to obtain licenses and undergo intensive training. (Author)

  11. Adult romantic relationships as contexts of human development: a multimethod comparison of same-sex couples with opposite-sex dating, engaged, and married dyads.

    PubMed

    Roisman, Glenn I; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships was examined at multiple levels of analysis via self-reports and partner reports, laboratory observations, and measures of physiological reactivity during dyadic interactions. Additionally, individuals in same-sex, engaged, and marital relationships were compared with one another on adult attachment security as assessed through the coherence of participants' narratives about their childhood experiences. Results indicated that individuals in committed same-sex relationships were generally not distinguishable from their committed heterosexual counterparts, with one exception--lesbians were especially effective at working together harmoniously in laboratory observations. Copyright (c) 2008 APA.

  12. Good versus poor therapeutic alliances with non-accepting parents of same-sex oriented adolescents and young adults: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Shpigel, Maya S; Diamond, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic themes and processes associated with five good versus five poor parent-therapist alliances among a sample of non-accepting parents of sexual minority youth/young adults participating in family therapy were examined. The Consensual Qualitative Research approach was used to analyse of therapy notes and follow-up interviewsfrom good and poor alliances. In good alliances, parents adopted relationship building as a goal, considered essentialist causal attributions of same-sex orientation, acknowledged positive aspects of their child, and perceived the therapist as empathic and accepting. Parents with poor alliances rejected relationship building as a goal, rebuffed essentialist causal attributions, dismissed the possibility of their own coming out, nullified positive aspects of their child, sought to change their child's sexual orientation, blamed therapists for validating their child's same-sex orientation, and pressured therapists for information about their child. Clinical implications are discussed.

  13. When Perspective Taking Creates a Motivational Threat: The Case of Conservatism, Same-Sex Sexual Behavior, and Anti-Gay Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Mooijman, Marlon; Stern, Chadly

    2016-06-01

    Taking another person's perspective has generally been found to foster positive attitudes. We propose that perspective taking can lead to more negative attitudes when people imagine an experience that threatens their current motivations and goals. We test this idea by examining how taking the perspective of a male same-sex couple influences political conservatives' attitudes. Across four studies, we demonstrate that (a) the extent to which conservatives (but not liberals) imagine same-sex sexual behavior predicts more anti-gay attitudes, (b) this effect is in part attributable to conservatives experiencing greater disgust, and (c) having conservatives reappraise disgust as not necessarily signaling the threat of disease eliminates this effect. These findings indicate that perspective taking can foster negative attitudes when the content of perspective taking threatens current motivations. The proposed ideas provide unique insights toward developing a more comprehensive framework of how perspective taking shapes attitudes. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Male rats with same-sex preference show higher immobility in the forced swim test, but similar effects of fluoxetine and desipramine than males that prefer females.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alejandra; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2018-05-25

    Sex preference in male rats is partly determined by the organizational action of estradiol. Thus, several paradigms have used aromatase inhibitors to manipulate sex preference. We recently showed that a subpopulation of male rats prenatally treated with letrozole (0.56 μg/kg, G10-G22), a non-steroidal third generation aromatase inhibitor, had same sex preference, female sexual behavior (including lordosis and proceptivity) and penile erections when exposed to other males. These males, in addition, displayed high levels of experimental anxiety in the plus maze test and were insensitive to the anxiogenic-like acute effect of FLX (10 mg/kg). The two main purposes of the present work were: a) to study the behavioral profile of males displaying same sex preference in the forced swim test (FST), and b) to analyze if the antidepressant-like effect of the subchronic treatment with FLX (10 mg/kg, 3 times) or desipramine (DMI, 10 mg/kg, 3 times) vary according to sex preference. Males treated prenatally with letrozole with same-sex preference showed more immobility and less active behaviors (swimming and climbing) in the FST than males with female preference. Subchronic treatment with FLX and DMI reduced immobility when compared to saline controls, while FLX increased swimming and DMI increased climbing behavior. Treatments were equally effective in males with preference for other males and those that preferred females. These results indicate that an association exists between prenatal letrozole treatment, same sex preference and immobility in the FST. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats is facilitated by oxytocin and dopamine: effect on sexually dimorphic brain nuclei.

    PubMed

    Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvarán, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Pfaus, James G; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2015-04-15

    Conditioned same-sex partner preference can develop in male rats that undergo cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Herein, we assessed the development of conditioned same-sex social/sexual preference in males that received either nothing, saline, QNP, oxytocin (OT), or QNP+OT during cohabitation with another male (+) or single-caged (-). This resulted in the following groups: (1) Intact-, (2) Saline+, (3) QNP-, (4) OT-, (5) QNP+, (6) OT+ and (7) QNP/OT+. Cohabitation occurred during 24h in a clean cage with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days for a total of three trials. Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that males from groups Intact-, Saline+, QNP- and OT- displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex), whereas groups QNP+, OT+ and QNP/OT+ displayed socio/sexual preference for the male partner (same-sex). In Experiment 2, the brains were processed for Nissl dye and the area size of two sexually dimorphic nuclei (SDN-POA and SON) was compared between groups. Males from groups OT-, OT+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a smaller SDN-POA and groups QNP+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a larger SON. Accordingly, conditioned same-sex social/sexual partner preference can develop during cohabitation under enhanced D2 or OT activity but such preference does not depend on the area size of those sexually dimorphic nuclei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond Same-Sex Attraction: Gender-Variant-Based Victimization Is Associated with Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use for Other-Sex Attracted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peter Y.; Cigularov, Konstantin P.; Tomazic, Rocco G.

    2015-01-01

    Gender-variant-based victimization is victimization based on the way others perceive an individual to convey masculine, feminine, and androgynous characteristics through their appearance, mannerisms, and behaviors. Previous work identifies gender-variant-based victimization as a risk factor for health-risking outcomes among same-sex attracted youths. The current study seeks to examine this relationship among other-sex attracted youths and same-sex attracted youth, and determine if gender-variant-based victimization is similarly or differentially associated with poor outcomes between these two groups. Anonymous data from a school-based survey of 2,438 racially diverse middle and high school students in the Eastern U.S. was examined. For other-sex attracted adolescents, gender-variant-based victimization was associated with a higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, regular use of cigarettes, and drug use. When compared to same-sex attracted adolescents, the harmful relationship between gender-variant-based victimization and each of these outcomes was similar in nature. These findings suggest that gender-variant-based victimization has potentially serious implications for the psychological wellbeing and substance use of other-sex attracted adolescents, not just same-sex attracted adolescents, supporting the need to address gender expression as a basis for victimization separate from sexuality- or gender-minority status. The impact that gender-variant-based victimization has on all adolescents should not be overlooked in research and interventions aimed at addressing sexual orientation-based and gender-variant-based victimization, substance use, and suicide prevention. PMID:26068796

  17. Reactions to First Postpubertal Female Same-Sex Sexual Experience in the Kinsey Sample: A Comparison of Minors with Peers, Minors with Adults, and Adults with Adults.

    PubMed

    Rind, Bruce

    2017-07-01

    This study examined reactions to first postpubertal same-sex sexual experience in the Kinsey female same-sex sample (consisting of females with extensive postpubertal same-sex experience) as a function of participant and partner ages. As such, it complemented the Rind and Welter (2016) study, which examined the same in the Kinsey male same-sex sample. Data were collected by Kinsey interviewers between 1939 and 1961 (M year = 1947). Girls under 18 (M age = 14.9), whose sexual experience was with a woman (M age = 26.3), reacted positively just as often as girls under 18 (M age = 14.1) with peers (M age = 15.0) and women (M age = 22.7) with women (M age = 26.3). The positive-reaction rates were, respectively, 85, 82, and 79 %. In a finer-graded analysis, younger adolescent girls (≤14) (M age = 12.8) with women (M age = 27.4) had a high positive-reaction rate (91 %), a rate reached by no other group. For women (M age = 22.2) with same-aged peers (M age = 22.3), this rate was 86 %. Girls with peers or women had no emotionally negative reactions (e.g., fear, disgust, shame, regret); women with women rarely did. Results contradicted prevailing clinical, legal, and lay beliefs that minor-adult sex is inherently traumatic and would be distinguished as such compared to age-concordant sex. The findings are discussed in terms of the time period in which the sexual experiences occurred.

  18. Toward Inclusive Understandings of Marriage in an Early Childhood Classroom: Negotiating (Un)readiness, Community, and Vulnerability through a Critical Reading of "King and King"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Dana Frantz; Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative classroom research study examines the ways in which preschoolers made sense of same-sex marriage through a critical reading of the book "King and King" by De Haan and Nijland. Acknowledging the importance of community in doing critical and political work, this article details the ways in which a preschool teacher and a…

  19. Popularity among same-sex and cross-sex peers: a process-oriented examination of links to aggressive behaviors and depressive affect.

    PubMed

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D

    2014-06-01

    Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children's development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third- and 4th-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at 3 time points over 2 school years. Data included peer-reported popularity, social exclusion, friendships, peer victimization, and aggression and self-reported social self-esteem and depressive affect. Same-sex and cross-sex popularity independently contributed to the prediction of aggression and depressive affect. Popularity was associated with heightened aggression through reduced social exclusion and was indirectly related to lower levels of depressive affect through increased friendships. For boys only, same-sex popularity was further associated with dampened depressive affect through reduced social exclusion and peer victimization and increased social self-esteem. Findings are discussed in light of the potential tradeoffs associated with popularity in preadolescence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Popularity among same-sex and cross-sex peers: A process-oriented examination of links to aggressive behaviors and depressive affect

    PubMed Central

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children’s development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third-and fourth-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at three time points over two school years. Data included peer-reported popularity, social exclusion, friendships, peer victimization, and aggression, and self-reported social self-esteem and depressive affect. Same-sex and cross-sex popularity independently contributed to the prediction of aggression and depressive affect. Popularity was associated with heightened aggression through reduced social exclusion and was indirectly related to lower levels of depressive affect through increased friendships. For boys only, same-sex popularity was further associated with dampened depressive affect through reduced social exclusion and peer victimization and increased social self-esteem. Findings are discussed in light of the potential tradeoffs associated with popularity in preadolescence. PMID:24684714

  1. In Every Marriage There Are Two Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a continuing study of the differences between couples seeking marital therapy and those seeking sexual dysfunction therapy, this report examines these two clinical populations on the dimension of discrepant views of the marriage. Results suggest overall discrepancy scores may be an important indicator of stress between partners. (Author)

  2. Marriage: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Weisfeld, Glenn E; Weisfeld, Carol C

    2002-12-01

    Marriage is universal, and pair bonding is found in other species too with highly dependent young. So marriage functions as a reproductive social arrangement that traditionally involved the extended family. The sexes are not identical in their biological contributions to children's survival, so they seek somewhat different attributes in a mate. Men seek a young, attractive, sexually faithful bride. Women seek a man who is older, taller, and (as in many other species) socially dominant. Both sexes prefer a kind, healthy, attractive, similar mate who is emotionally attached to them. A spouse who fails to maintain sufficiently high mate value is vulnerable to divorce. Infertility and sexual dissatisfaction predict divorce, as does death of a child, but the more children, the stabler the marriage. Cross-cultural data suggest that cruel or subdominant men (e.g., poor providers) and unfaithful women are prone to divorce. Marriages in which the wife dominates the husband in economic contributions, nonverbal behavior, and decision making tend to be less satisfying. In societies in which wives are economically independent of husbands, divorce rates are high. As women's economic power has risen with industrialization, divorce rates have climbed. Economic and fitness considerations also help explain cultural differences in polygyny, age at marriage, arranged marriage, concern with the bride's sexual chastity, and marriage ceremonies. Other factors also affect marital dynamics, such as state subsidies to families, the sex ratio, and influence of the couple's parents.

  3. Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Nobles, Jenna

    2009-11-01

    What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question for Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence-as embodied in local ethnicity-based laws and customs known as 'adat'-relate to actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviour, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that traditional marriage norms can persist even when a society is in the process of rapid socio-economic development.

  4. Ethnic-Based Nuptial Regimes and Marriage Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, Alison M.; Nobles, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socioeconomic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question in the context of Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence—as articulated by local ethnic-based laws and customs known as ‘adat’—influence actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviours, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that ethnic-based nuptial regimes can be critical and persistent determinants of marriage behaviours even as societies rapidly develop. PMID:19851937

  5. Consanguineous marriages in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Saify, Khyber; Saadat, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Afghanistan populations. Data on types of marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in the study was 7140 from the following provinces: Badakhshan, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Kabul, Kunduz, Samangan and Takhar. Consanguineous marriages were classified by the degree of relationship between couples: double first cousins, first cousins, first cousins once removed, second cousins and beyond second cousins. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) was calculated for each couple and the mean coefficient of inbreeding (α) estimated for each population. The proportion of consanguineous marriages in the country was 46.2%, ranging from 38.2% in Kabul province to 51.2% in Bamyan province. The equivalent mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was 0.0277, and ranged from 0.0221 to 0.0293 in these two regions. There were significant differences between provinces for frequencies of different types of marriages (p<0.001). First cousin marriages (27.8%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by double first cousin (6.9%), second cousin (5.8%), beyond second cousin (3.9%) and first cousin once removed (1.8%). There were significant differences between ethnic groups for the types of marriages (χ2=177.6, df=25, p<0.001). Tajiks (Soni) and Turkmens (also Pashtuns) showed the lowest (α=0.0250) and highest (α=0.0297) mean inbreeding coefficients, respectively, among the ethnic groups in Afghanistan. The study shows that Afghanistan's populations, like other Islamic populations, have a high level of consanguinity.

  6. Reactions to First Postpubertal Male Same-Sex Sexual Experience in the Kinsey Sample: A Comparison of Minors With Peers, Minors With Adults, and Adults With Adults.

    PubMed

    Rind, Bruce; Welter, Max

    2016-10-01

    Rind and Welter (2014) examined first postpubertal coitus using the Kinsey sample, finding that reactions were just as positive, and no more negative, among minors with adults compared to minors with peers and adults with adults. In the present study, we examined first postpubertal male same-sex sexual experiences in the Kinsey same-sex sample (i.e., participants mostly with extensive postpubertal same-sex behavior), comparing reactions across the same age categories. These data were collected between 1938 and 1961 (M year: 1946). Minors under age 18 years with adults (M ages: 14.0 and 30.5, respectively) reacted positively (i.e., enjoyed the experience "much") often (70 %) and emotionally negatively (e.g., fear, disgust, shame, regret) infrequently (16 %). These rates were the same as adults with adults (M ages: 21.2 and 25.9, respectively): 68 and 16 %, respectively. Minors with peers (M ages: 13.3 and 13.8, respectively) reacted positively significantly more often (82 %) and negatively nominally less often (9 %). Minors with adults reacted positively to intercourse (oral, anal) just as often (69 %) as to outercourse (body contact, masturbation, femoral) (72 %) and reacted emotionally negatively significantly less often (9 vs. 25 %, respectively). For younger minors (≤14) with adults aged 5-19 years older, reactions were just as positive (83 %) as for minors with peers within 1 year of age (84 %) and no more emotionally negative (11 vs. 7 %, respectively). Results are discussed in relation to findings regarding first coitus in the Kinsey sample and to the cultural context particular to Kinsey's time.

  7. Anorexia and bulimia nervosa in same-sex and opposite-sex twins: lack of association with twin type in a nationwide study of Finnish twins.

    PubMed

    Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hoek, Hans W; Sihvola, Elina; Rissanen, Aila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2008-12-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that either prenatal feminization or masculinization hormone influences in utero or later socialization affects the risk for anorexia and bulimia nervosa and disordered eating in members of opposite-sex twin pairs. Finnish twins (N=2,426 women, N=1,962 men with known zygosity) from birth cohorts born 1974-1979 were assessed at age 22 to 28 years with a questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms. Based on the questionnaire screen, women (N=292), men (N=53), and their cotwins were interviewed to assess diagnoses of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (per DSM-IV and broad criteria). In women from opposite-sex twin pairs, the prevalence of DSM-IV or broad anorexia nervosa was not significantly different than that of women from monozygotic pairs or same-sex dizygotic pairs. Of the five male anorexia nervosa probands, only one was from an opposite-sex twin pair. Bulimia nervosa in men was too rare to be assessed by zygosity; the prevalence of DSM-IV or broad bulimia nervosa did not differ in women from opposite- versus same-sex twin pairs. In both sexes, the overall profile of indicators on eating disorders was rather similar between individuals from opposite- and same-sex pairs. The authors found little evidence that the risk for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or disordered eating was associated with zygosity or sex composition of twin pairs, thus making it unlikely that in utero femininization or masculinization or socialization effects of growing up with an opposite-sex twin have a major influence on the later development of eating disorders.

  8. Supporting same-sex mothers in the Nordic child health field: a systematic literature review and meta-synthesis of the most gender equal countries.

    PubMed

    Wells, Michael B; Lang, Sarah N

    2016-12-01

    To explore the needs of and support given to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents within the Nordic child health field. The number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents is growing around the world. However, they face fear, discrimination and heteronormativity within the child health field. The Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland) rank as the most gender equal countries in the world; therefore, they may support lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents to a greater extent. Systematic literature review and meta-synthesis. A systematic search was conducted for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents' experiences in the child health field, which consists of prenatal, labour and birth, postnatal and child health clinics, using PubMed, PsychInfo, Sociological Abstracts and CINAHL, as well as searching the grey literature, from 2000-2015. Ten articles were included. A quality assessment and a meta-synthesis of the articles were performed. Nearly all studies were qualitative, and most articles had at least one area of insufficient reporting. Only two countries, Sweden and Norway, had lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents reporting on the child health field. However, gay, bisexual, transgender and inter-sex parents' perspectives were nonexistent in the literature; therefore, the results all relate to same-sex mothers. Five themes were found: Acceptance of Same-sex Mothers, Disclosing Sexual Orientation, Heteronormative Obstacles, Co-mothers are Not Fathers, and Being the Other Parent. Same-sex mothers are generally accepted within the Nordic child health field, but they still face overt and covert heteronormative obstacles, resulting in forms of discrimination and fear. Co-mothers feel invisible and secondary if they are not treated like an equal parent, but feel noticed and important when they are given equal support. Changes at the

  9. Customary law row looming.

    PubMed

    Khumalo, B

    1993-11-01

    Married women under customary law in South Africa are perpetual minors; customary law marriages are not of equal status to civil law marriages; women are denied inheritance access to land and property and excluded from decision making in their homes and communities; and Muslim women do not have equal rights under Muslim personal law. As political and civil reforms loom on the horizon in South Africa, however, calls are being made for customary law to be included under the scrutiny of the Bill of Rights. Women under customary law would therefore be protected under an uniform Bill of Rights. Members of the Congress of Traditional Leaders are staunchly opposed to such a move. They argue instead that women under customary law should not be protected in the Bill of Rights. Customary law will therefore be insulated from legislative reform. This paper briefly presents segments of the ongoing debate between law academics, women's pressure groups, and religious and cultural bodies on the issue.

  10. Moderators of the relationship between masculinity and sexual prejudice in men: friendship, gender self-esteem, same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism.

    PubMed

    Mellinger, Christopher; Levant, Ronald F

    2014-04-01

    Masculinity has been found to predict the sexual prejudice of heterosexual men against gay men. The present study investigated the role of four variables as moderators of the relationships between two masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and gender role conflict) and sexual prejudice in men. The hypothesized moderators were: direct and indirect friendships with gay men, gender self-esteem, acknowledged same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism. A total of 383 men completed 8 scales plus a demographic questionnaire. Direct friendship strengthened the positive relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice, contrary to hypothesis. This finding could mean that high masculinity ideology scores reduced the likelihood that a man with many gay friends would let go of his prejudice. Direct friendship did not moderate the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice nor did indirect friendship moderate either relationship; however, both forms of friendship predicted prejudice, as hypothesized. Gender self-esteem strengthened the positive relationships between both masculinity variables and sexual prejudice as hypothesized. Same-sex attraction weakened the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice as hypothesized, but contrary to hypothesis did not moderate the relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice. Religious fundamentalism predicted prejudice, but showed no significant moderation. The results were discussed in terms of limitations and suggestions for future research and application. In conclusion, this line of investigation appears promising and should be continued and the present findings can be utilized in anti-prejudice social marketing campaigns and in counseling.

  11. “Struggling to be the alpha”: Sources of tension and intimate partner violence in same-sex relationships between men

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Finneran, Catherine; Hadley, Craig

    2016-01-01

    In countries such as the USA, gay and bisexual men experience high rates of intimate partner violence. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to this form of violence. In this study, we examine gay and bisexual men’s perceptions of sources of tension in same-sex male relationships and how these may contribute to intimate partner violence. We conducted seven focus group discussions with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA. Focus groups examined men’s reactions to the short-form revised Conflicts Tactics Scale to determine if each item was considered to be intimate partner violence if it were to occur among gay and bisexual men. Analysts completed a thematic analysis, using elements of grounded theory. The sources of tension that men identified included: gender role conflict, dyadic inequalities (e.g. differences in income, age, education), differences in ‘outness’ about sexual identity, substance use, jealousy, and external homophobic violence. Results suggest that intimate partner violence interventions for gay and bisexual men should address behavioural factors, while also focusing on structural interventions. Interventions that aim to reduce homophobic stigma and redefine male gender roles may help to address some of the tension that contributes to intimate partner violence in same-sex male relationships. PMID:26966994

  12. Determinants of marriage dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.

  13. Is Teen Marriage a Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Naomi

    Many policy proposals related to welfare will have the effect, intended or unintended, of encouraging teens to marry. This paper discusses the implications of teen marriage. Marriage is one route to reducing out-of-wedlock births to teens who become pregnant, but there is reason to believe such marriages are often unstable. A review of the…

  14. [Effects of the disclosure of homosexuality on heterosexual undergraduates' behaviors with a same-sex close friend and their attitudes toward homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Wada, Minoru

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated heterosexual undergraduates' behavior with a same-sex close friend and their attitudes toward homosexuality after this friend disclosed his/her sexual orientation. The study also examined whether the heterosexual friend was regarded as a romantic love object or not. Participants were 77 male and 139 female undergraduates. Males decreased their behaviors with their close friend and adopted more positive attitudes toward gay men after they knew their friend's sexual orientation. Females decreased their behavior with their close friend more after learning that they were a romantic love object of their friend, compared to when tehy were not. Also females adopted more positive attitudes toward lesbians only after knowing they were not a romantic love object. These gender differences are discussed.

  15. Integrating HIV Prevention and Relationship Education for Young Same-Sex Male Couples: A Pilot Trial of the 2GETHER Intervention.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Michael E; Macapagal, Kathryn R; Feinstein, Brian A; Bettin, Emily; Swann, Gregory; Whitton, Sarah W

    2017-08-01

    Young men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV, and most new HIV infections occur in serious relationships. This pilot study assessed the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the 2GETHER couples-based HIV prevention and relationship education intervention for young same-sex male couples. We enrolled 57 young male couples (N = 114) into a four-session hybrid group and individual intervention. We assessed acceptability via post-session surveys and exit interviews, and we examined preliminary efficacy at a two week posttest. The vast majority of participants (93%) reported exclusively positive impressions of 2GETHER, and all components received high mean ratings. We observed decreases in HIV risk behavior, increases in information, motivation and behavioral skills related to HIV prevention, and improvement in relationship investment between pretest and posttest. Integrating relationship education and sexual health programming may be an effective way to reduce HIV transmissions in young male couples.

  16. Same-sex attraction disclosure to health care providers among New York City men who have sex with men: implications for HIV testing approaches.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Kyle T; Liu, Kai-Lih; Begier, Elizabeth M; Koblin, Beryl; Karpati, Adam; Murrill, Christopher

    2008-07-14

    While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends at least annual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM), a large number of HIV infections among this population go unrecognized. We examined the association between disclosing to their medical providers (eg, physicians, nurses, physician assistants) same-sex attraction and self-reported HIV testing among MSM in New York City, New York. All men recruited from the New York City National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) project who reported at least 1 male sex partner in the past year and self-reported as HIV seronegative were included in the analysis. The primary outcome of interest was a participant having told his health care provider that he is attracted to or has sex with other men. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors were examined in relation to disclosure of same-sex attraction. Among the 452 MSM respondents, 175 (39%) did not disclose to their health care providers. Black and Hispanic MSM (adjusted odds ratios, 0.28 [95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.53] and 0.46 [95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.85], respectively) were less likely than white MSM to have disclosed to their health care providers. No MSM who identified themselves as bisexual had disclosed to their health care providers. Those who had ever been tested for HIV were more likely to have disclosed to their health care providers (adjusted odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.38). These data suggest that risk-based HIV testing, which is contingent on health care providers being aware of their patients' risks, could miss these high-risk persons.

  17. Time Since First Acting on Same-Sex Attraction and Recreational Drug Use among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): Is There an Effect of "Gay Age"?

    PubMed

    Rice, Cara E; Vasilenko, Sara A; Lanza, Stephanie T; Davis, John A; Fields, Karen S; Ervin, Melissa; Norris Turner, Abigail

    2018-04-16

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher rates of substance use compared to men who have sex with women. Among MSM, drug use is linked to higher-risk sexual behavior and acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. We hypothesize that time since first acting on one's same sex attraction, or one's "gay age", could be predictive of drug using behavior. We examined this question among 176 MSM, aged 18-35, presenting at a public sexual health clinic. Behavioral data were captured using interviewer- and self-administered surveys and clinical data were extracted from medical records. We used modified Poisson regression to examine associations between gay age and recent recreational drug use, and separately, between gay age and recent marijuana use. In total, 43% of participants reported recent marijuana use and 26% of participants reported recent use of other drugs. The associations between gay age and marijuana use and other drug use varied by HIV status. After adjustment for biological age, race, and education, a one-year increase in gay age was associated with significantly increased drug use among HIV-negative men (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.14), but we observed no association between gay age and drug use among HIV-positive men (aPR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.86-1.07). Gay age was not associated with marijuana use in HIV-negative (aPR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.95-1.04) or HIV-positive (aPR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.98-1.14) men. In summary, HIV-negative MSM who had experienced more time since first same-sex experience had significantly increased prevalence of recent drug use.

  18. Health, trust, or "just understood": explicit and implicit condom decision-making processes among black, white, and interracial same-sex male couples.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Chadwick K; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A; Grisham, Kirk K; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen

    2014-05-01

    Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male (SSM) couples' decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 SSM couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as "just understood." White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner's suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple-level, HIV prevention interventions.

  19. When "In Your Face" Is Not Out of Place: The Effect of Timing of Disclosure of a Same-Sex Dating Partner under Conditions of Contact

    PubMed Central

    Dane, Sharon K.; Masser, Barbara M.; MacDonald, Geoff; Duck, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    In a series of experiments we examined heterosexuals’ reactions to the timing of disclosure of a gender-matched confederate’s same-sex dating partner. Disclosure occurred in a naturalistic context–that is, it occurred when meeting, or expecting to soon meet, a same-sex attracted individual, who voluntarily shared this information with the participant as a natural part of a broader topic of discussion. The confederate, when disclosing early rather than later, was approached more closely (Prestudy) and liked more (Studies 1–2). Those experiencing early disclosure, compared with later, were less drawn to topics of lower intimacy (Study 1), were happier and more excited about meeting the confederate, and more likely to choose to be alone with the confederate for a one-on-one discussion (Study 2). Further, women experiencing early disclosure were more willing to introduce the same-gender confederate to their friends (Study 2). The benefits of knowing sooner, rather than later, continued to apply even when participants were given further time to process the disclosure. To explore the underlying reasons for the more favorable experiences of upfront disclosure, we examined participants’ memory of the information shared by the confederate (Study 3). Results revealed that those who experienced delayed disclosure were more likely to incorrectly recall and negatively embellish information related to the confederate’s sexual orientation, suggesting that early disclosure resulted in a reduced tendency to focus on the confederate’s sexuality as a defining feature. These positive findings for early timing are discussed in light of previous studies that have found benefits for delayed disclosure and those that have failed to investigate the effects of timing of ‘coming out’ under conditions of contact. PMID:26308076

  20. Cross-cousin marriage among the Yanomamö shows evidence of parent–offspring conflict and mate competition between brothers

    PubMed Central

    Chagnon, Napoleon A.; Lynch, Robert F.; Shenk, Mary K.; Hames, Raymond; Flinn, Mark V.

    2017-01-01

    Marriage in many traditional societies often concerns the institutionalized exchange of reproductive partners among groups of kin. Such exchanges most often involve cross-cousins—marriage with the child of a parent’s opposite-sex sibling—but it is unclear who benefits from these exchanges. Here we analyze the fitness consequences of marrying relatives among the Yanomamö from the Amazon. When individuals marry close kin, we find that (i) both husbands and wives have slightly lower fertility; (ii) offspring suffer from inbreeding depression; (iii) parents have more grandchildren; and (iv) siblings, especially brothers, benefit when their opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but not when their same-sex siblings do. Therefore, individuals seem to benefit when their children or opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but suffer costs when they, their parents, or same-sex siblings do. These asymmetric fitness outcomes suggest conflicts between parents and offspring and among siblings over optimal mating strategies. Parental control of marriages is reinforced by cultural norms prescribing cross-cousin marriage. We posit that local mate competition combined with parental control over marriages may escalate conflict between same-sex siblings who compete over mates, while simultaneously forging alliances between opposite-sex siblings. If these relationships are carried forward to subsequent generations, they may drive bilateral cross-cousin marriage rules. This study provides insights into the evolutionary importance of how kinship and reciprocity underlie conflicts over who controls mate choice and the origins of cross-cousin marriage prescriptions. PMID:28289230

  1. Statistics of stable marriages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzawa, Michael; Oméro, Marie-José

    2000-11-01

    In the stable marriage problem N men and N women have to be matched by pairs under the constraint that the resulting matching is stable. We study the statistical properties of stable matchings in the large N limit using both numerical and analytical methods. Generalizations of the model including singles and unequal numbers of men and women are also investigated.

  2. The Forced Marriage of Minors: A Neglected Form of Child Abuse.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Loretta M

    2016-03-01

    The forced marriage of minors is child abuse, consequently duties exist to stop them. Yet over 14 million forced marriages of minors occur annually in developing countries. The American Bar Association (ABA) concludes that the problem in the US is significant, widespread but largely ignored, and that few US laws protect minors from forced marriages. Although their best chance of rescue often involves visits to health care providers, US providers show little awareness of this growing problem. Strategies discussed to stop forced marriages include recommendations from the UN, the ABA, and the UK. The author anticipates and responds to criticisms that first, no duty to intervene exists without better laws and practice guidelines; and second, that such marriages are not child abuse in traditions where parental rights or familism allegedly justify them. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  3. 78 FR 57783 - Implementation of United States v. Windsor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... ``spouse'' referred only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. The U.S. Supreme Court.... The FRTIB anticipates conflicting state laws. For example, a same- sex couple might get married in a state that permits same-sex marriage and then move to a state that does not recognize same-sex marriages...

  4. Using Mock Trials to Teach Students Forensic Core Competencies in Marriage and Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John K.; Linville, Deanna; Todahl, Jeff; Metcalfe, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a description of a university-based project that used mock trials to train both practicum-level marriage and family therapy and law students in forensic work, and a qualitative investigation of student experiences with the training. The content of the training focused on American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy…

  5. Mental health help seeking patterns and associations among Australian same sex attracted women, trans and gender diverse people: a survey-based study.

    PubMed

    McNair, Ruth P; Bush, Rachel

    2016-07-04

    Same sex attracted women (SSAW) are disproportionately affected by depression and anxiety, due to experiences of sexuality and gender based discrimination. They access mental health services at higher rates than heterosexual women, however with lower levels of satisfaction. This study examined the range of professional and social help seeking by same-sex attracted women, and patterns according to sexual orientation and gender identity subgroup. Eight key stakeholders were interviewed, and a convenience sample of 1628 Australian SSAW completed an online survey in 2015. This included several scales to measure mental health, community connectedness and resilience; and measured past 12 month help seeking behaviour, enablers, barriers and preferences for mental health care. Chi-square analyses and binary logistic regression analyses examined demographic associations with mental health. Correlations between help seeking, mental and physical health, and connectedness were run. A high proportion (80 %) of the total sample had perceived mental health problems over the past 12 months. Over half had depression, and over 96 % had anxiety. Trans and gender diverse participants were twice as likely as female participants to have mental health problems, and lesbians were least likely. High levels of past 12 month help seeking included 74.4 % seeing a GP, 44.3 % seeing a psychologist/counsellor, 74.7 % seeking family/friends support and 55.2 % using internet based support. Professional help was prioritised by those with higher mental health need. Trans participants were most likely to have sought professional help and participated in support groups, but least likely to have sought help from friends or family. The most common barriers to help seeking were discrimination and lack of LGBTI sensitivity of services, particularly for gender diverse, queer and pansexual participants. Enablers included mainstream community connectedness, having a trustworthy GP, and

  6. Instrumental- and Emotion-Focused Care Work During Physical Health Events: Comparing Gay, Lesbian, and Heterosexual Marriages.

    PubMed

    Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Kroeger, Rhiannon A; Reczek, Corinne; Donnelly, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    We consider emotion- and instrumental-focused care work and marital stress during significant physical health events in midlife gay, lesbian, and heterosexual marriages. We employ the factorial method, an extension of the actor-partner interdependence model, to analyze survey data from 808 midlife gay, lesbian, and heterosexual spouses in 404 unions. The amount of emotion- and instrumental-focused care work provided during physical health events, and the associations between care work and marital stress, depends on the gender of the respondent, gender of the spouse, and whether spouses are in a same-sex or different-sex union. For example, in both same- and different-sex marriages, women report providing more emotion-focused care work during their own health event than do men, and respondents report more health-related marital stress when the patient is a woman. Investigating how midlife same-sex and different-sex spouses care for each other during a spouse's health event expands understandings of gendered aging experiences within marriage. Findings can elucidate health policies and clinical strategies that best support the health of men and women in same- and different-sex marriages. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Early-life mortality risks in opposite-sex and same-sex twins: a Danish cohort study of the twin testosterone transfer hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Skytthe, Axel; Hjelmborg, Jacob v.B.; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the twin testosterone transfer (TTT) hypothesis by comparing early-life mortality risks of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins during the first 15 years of life. Methods We performed a population-based cohort study to compare mortality in OS and SS twins. We included 68,629 live-born Danish twins from 1973 to 2009 identified through the Danish Twin Registry and performed piecewise stratified Cox regression and log-binomial regression. Results Among 1933 deaths, we found significantly higher mortality for twin boys than for twin girls. For both sexes, OS twins had lower mortality than SS twins; the difference persisted for the first year of life for boys and for the first week of life for girls. Conclusions Although the mortality risk for OS boys was in the expected direction according to the TTT hypothesis, the results for OS girls pointed in the opposite direction, providing no clear evidence for the TTT hypothesis. PMID:28024904

  8. Relationship Power Among Same-Sex Male Couples in New York and San Francisco: Laying the Groundwork for Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions Focused on Interpersonal Power.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Campbell, Chadwick; Wilson, Patrick; Grisham, Kirk; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Neilands, Torsten B; Hoff, Colleen

    2017-09-01

    Research is clear that power differentials between women and men shape women's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risks; however, little research has attempted to examine power differentials within same-sex male (SSM) couples and whether these influence sexual risk outcomes. To produce the first quantitative scale that measures power in SSM relationships, the current work was a Phase 1 qualitative study that sought to understand domains of relationship power and how power operated in the relationship among 48 Black, White, and interracial (Black-White) SSM couples recruited from San Francisco and New York. Interview domains were focused on definitions of power and perceptions of how power operated in the relationship. Findings revealed that couples described power in three key ways: as power exerted over a partner through decision-making dominance and relationship control; as power to accomplish goals through personal agency; and as couple-level power. In addition, men described ways that decision-making dominance and relationship control could be enacted in the relationship-through structural resources, emotional and sexual influence, and gender norm expectations. We discuss the implications of these findings for sexual risks and HIV care and treatment with SSM couples that are focused on closing gaps in power.

  9. The Moderating Role of Parental Warmth on the Relation Between Verbal Punishment and Child Problem Behaviors for Same-sex and Cross-sex Parent-Child Groups

    PubMed Central

    Anonas, Maria Roberta L.; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between parental verbal punishment and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in Filipino children, and the moderating role of parental warmth in this relation, for same-sex (mothers-girls; fathers-boys) and cross-sex parent-child groups (mothers-boys; fathers-girls). Measures used were the Rohner Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control Scale (PARQ/Control), the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), and a discipline measure (DI) constructed for the study. Participants were 117 mothers and 98 fathers of 61 boys and 59 girls who responded to a discipline interview, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control scale (PARQ/Control) and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist via oral interviews. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses (with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels) revealed that maternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to internalizing and externalizing outcomes in boys and girls whereas paternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to girls’ externalizing behavior. Significant interactions between verbal punishment and maternal warmth in mother-girl groups were also found for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. While higher maternal warmth ameliorated the impact of low verbal punishment on girls’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors, it exacerbated the effect of high verbal punishment on negative outcomes. PMID:26752797

  10. Mortality risks among persons reporting same-sex sexual partners: evidence from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Susan D; Mays, Vickie M

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the possibility that men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) may be at higher risk for early mortality associated with suicide and other sexual orientation-associated health risks. We used data from the 1988-2002 General Social Surveys, with respondents followed up for mortality status as of December 31, 2008. The surveys included 17 886 persons aged 18 years or older, who reported at least 1 lifetime sexual partner. Of these, 853 reported any same-sex partners; 17 033 reported only different-sex partners. Using gender-stratified analyses, we compared these 2 groups for all-cause mortality and HIV-, suicide-, and breast cancer-related mortality. The WSW evidenced greater risk for suicide mortality than presumptively heterosexual women, but there was no evidence of similar sexual orientation-associated risk among men. All-cause mortality did not appear to differ by sexual orientation among either women or men. HIV-related deaths were not elevated among MSM or breast cancer deaths among WSW. The elevated suicide mortality risk observed among WSW partially confirms public health concerns that sexual minorities experience greater burden from suicide-related mortality.

  11. Early-life mortality risks in opposite-sex and same-sex twins: a Danish cohort study of the twin testosterone transfer hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Skytthe, Axel; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the twin testosterone transfer (TTT) hypothesis by comparing early-life mortality risks of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins during the first 15 years of life. We performed a population-based cohort study to compare mortality in OS and SS twins. We included 68,629 live-born Danish twins from 1973 to 2009 identified through the Danish Twin Registry and performed piecewise stratified Cox regression and log-binomial regression. Among 1933 deaths, we found significantly higher mortality for twin boys than for twin girls. For both sexes, OS twins had lower mortality than SS twins; the difference persisted for the first year of life for boys and for the first week of life for girls. Although the mortality risk for OS boys was in the expected direction according to the TTT hypothesis, the results for OS girls pointed in the opposite direction, providing no clear evidence for the TTT hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Moderating Role of Parental Warmth on the Relation Between Verbal Punishment and Child Problem Behaviors for Same-sex and Cross-sex Parent-Child Groups.

    PubMed

    Anonas, Maria Roberta L; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the relation between parental verbal punishment and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in Filipino children, and the moderating role of parental warmth in this relation, for same-sex (mothers-girls; fathers-boys) and cross-sex parent-child groups (mothers-boys; fathers-girls). Measures used were the Rohner Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control Scale (PARQ/Control), the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), and a discipline measure (DI) constructed for the study. Participants were 117 mothers and 98 fathers of 61 boys and 59 girls who responded to a discipline interview, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control scale (PARQ/Control) and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist via oral interviews. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses (with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels) revealed that maternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to internalizing and externalizing outcomes in boys and girls whereas paternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to girls' externalizing behavior. Significant interactions between verbal punishment and maternal warmth in mother-girl groups were also found for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. While higher maternal warmth ameliorated the impact of low verbal punishment on girls' internalizing and externalizing behaviors, it exacerbated the effect of high verbal punishment on negative outcomes.

  13. Child marriage prevention in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: association of communication exposure and social influence with parents/guardians' knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing international attention to child marriage and its negative health and social consequences, little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of individuals who are in control of negotiating children's marriages and of the social context in which these individuals function. Using data from a 2007 cross-sectional household survey and multilevel logistic regression models, this paper examined the associations of communication exposure and measures of social influence with knowledge of marriage legislation, perceptions that marriage before age 18 was "too early", and beliefs in daughters' rights to individual marriage choice among parents/guardians in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study found that mass media and interpersonal communication exposure were positively associated with all outcomes. The influence of communication exposure on knowledge of the legal minimum age at marriage and the perception that marriage before 18 was "too early" varied significantly across communities. Community pressure to stop child marriages and awareness of marriage law enforcement were positively associated with endorsing daughters' rights to choose their marriage age and partner. Perceived social norms regarding early marriage, normative beliefs and perceived benefits of delayed marriage were at least as important as communication exposure for endorsing daughters' rights to marriage choice. Gender and education differences were detected. The findings imply that child marriage-prevention programs should diversify information channels, reinforce perceived advantages of delayed marriage, and adopt a social influence perspective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between adolescent marriage and intimate partner violence: a study of young adult women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mosfequr; Hoque, Md Aminul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Makinoda, Satoru

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the association between adolescent marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adult women using 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data. The analyses are restricted to young women 20 to 24 years old. Logistic regression analyses are constructed to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between adolescent marriage and IPV in the past year. show that there is a strong significant relationship between adolescent marriage and experience of physical IPV in the past year among this population. Association between sexual IPV and adolescent marriage is insignificant. Adolescent marriage puts women at increased risk of physical IPV into their young adult period. Government agencies need to enforce existing law on the minimum age at marriage to reduce IPV among adolescent and young adult girls.

  15. Early Teen Marriage and Future Poverty

    PubMed Central

    DAHL, GORDON B.

    2010-01-01

    Both early teen marriage and dropping out of high school have historically been associated with a variety of negative outcomes, including higher poverty rates throughout life. Are these negative outcomes due to preexisting differences, or do they represent the causal effect of marriage and schooling choices? To better understand the true personal and societal consequences, in this article, I use an instrumental variables (IV) approach that takes advantage of variation in state laws regulating the age at which individuals are allowed to marry, drop out of school, and begin work. The baseline IV estimate indicates that a woman who marries young is 31 percentage points more likely to live in poverty when she is older. Similarly, a woman who drops out of school is 11 percentage points more likely to be poor. The results are robust to a variety of alternative specifications and estimation methods, including limited information maximum likelihood (LIML) estimation and a control function approach. While grouped ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates for the early teen marriage variable are also large, OLS estimates based on individual-level data are small, consistent with a large amount of measurement error. PMID:20879684

  16. Early teen marriage and future poverty.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gordon B

    2010-08-01

    Both early teen marriage and dropping out of high school have historically been associated with a variety of negative outcomes, including higher poverty rates throughout life. Are these negative outcomes due to preexisting differences, or do they represent the causal effect of marriage and schooling choices? To better understand the true personal and societal consequences, in this article, I use an instrumental variables (IV) approach that takes advantage of variation in state laws regulating the age at which individuals are allowed to marry, drop out of school, and begin work. The baseline IV estimate indicates that a woman who marries young is 31 percentage points more likely to live in poverty when she is older. Similarly, a woman who drops out of school is 11 percentage points more likely to be poor. The results are robust to a variety of alternative specifications and estimation methods, including limited information maximum likelihood (LIML) estimation and a control function approach. While grouped ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates for the early teen marriage variable are also large, OLS estimates based on individual-level data are small, consistent with a large amount of measurement error

  17. National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vital Statistics Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Provisional number of marriages and marriage rate: United States, 2000-2014 Year ...

  18. Evaluating the Relationship Between Birth Weight for Gestational Age and Adult Blood Pressure Using Participants From a Cohort of Same-Sex Siblings, Discordant on Birth Weight Percentile.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Linda G; Buka, Stephen L; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gillman, Matthew W; Susser, Ezra; Lumey, L H

    2017-09-01

    Many studies have described an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure (BP). Debate continues, however, over the magnitude and validity of the association. This analysis draws on the Early Determinants of Adult Health study (2005-2008), a cohort of 393 US adults (mean age 43 years; 47% male), including 114 same-sex sibling pairs deliberately sampled to be discordant on sex-specific birth weight for gestational age (BW/GA) in order to minimize confounding in studies of fetal growth and midlife health outcomes. Every quintile increment in BW/GA percentile was associated with a 1.04-mm Hg decrement in adult systolic BP (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.14, 0.06) and a 0.63-mm Hg decrement in diastolic BP (95% CI: -1.35, 0.09), controlling for sex, age, site, smoking, and race/ethnicity. The relationship was strongest among those in the lowest decile of BW/GA. Adding adult body mass index to the models attenuated the estimates (e.g., to -0.90 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.94, 0.14) for systolic BP). In the sibling-pair subgroup, associations were slightly stronger but with wider confidence intervals (e.g., -1.22 mm Hg (95% CI: -5.20, 2.75) for systolic BP). In conclusion, we found a small inverse relationship between BW/GA and BP in cohort and sibling-pair analyses, but the clinical or public health significance is likely limited. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. In Peru, reporting male sex partners imparts significant risk of incident HIV/sexually transmitted infection: all men Engaging in same-sex behavior need prevention services.

    PubMed

    Konda, Kelika A; Lescano, Andres G; Celentano, David D; Hall, Eric; Montano, Silvia M; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Coates, Thomas J; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2013-07-01

    Detailed information on the sexual behavior of bisexual, non-gay-identified men and the relationship between same-sex behavior and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence is limited. This study provides information on the sexual behavior with male partners of non-gay-identified men in urban, coastal Peru and the relationship of this behavior with HIV/STI incidence. We analyzed data from 2146 non-gay-identified men with a baseline and then 2 years of annual follow-up, including detailed information on sexual behavior with up to 5 sex partners, to determine the characteristics associated with bisexual behavior. Discrete time proportional hazards models were used to determine the effect of self-reported sex with men on subsequent HIV/STI incidence. Over the 3 study visits, sex with a man was reported by 18.9% of men, 90% of whom also reported sex with a female partner. At baseline, reported bisexual behavior was associated with other sexual risk behaviors such as exchanging sex for money and increased risk of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, and gonorrhea. The number of study visits in which recent sex with men was reported was positively correlated with risk of other sexual risk behaviors and incident HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, and gonorrhea. Recent sex with a man was associated with increased HIV/STI incidence (hazard ratio, 1.79; confidence interval, 1.19-2.70), after adjusting for sociodemographics and other sexual risk behaviors. Given the prevalence of recent sex with men and the relationship of this behavior with HIV/STI incidence, interventions with non-gay-identified men who have sex with men and their partners are warranted.

  20. Measuring the Influence of Legally Recognized Partnerships on the Health and Well-Being of Same-Sex Couples: Utility of the California Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Sun, Qiankun; Breen, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: This study explored the utility of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) to compare health-related outcomes among gay men, lesbians, and heterosexuals who reported being in a legally recognized partnership. Methods: We regressed sexual identity and marriage/legally recognized partnership status on seven different outcomes related to health insurance coverage, medical services access and use, and general health and well-being using CHIS data collected between 2009 and 2013. Results: There were 1432 respondents who identified as gay, lesbian, or homosexual, and 67,746 who identified as heterosexual. The percentage of participants who reported being married/legally partnered was 54.06% for heterosexual women, 52.93% for heterosexual men, 38.83% for lesbians, and 23.56% for gay men. Legally partnered/married gay and lesbian respondents were more likely to have health insurance and use healthcare than their counterparts not in such partnerships; few trends were statistically significant. Gay men in legally recognized partnerships were more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to report continuous health insurance coverage, a usual medical care source, and at least one provider visit within the past 12 months. We found statistically significant poorer health status outcomes among lesbians in legally recognized partnerships compared to married heterosexual women. Conclusions: Lesbians in legally recognized partnerships did not fare as well as married heterosexual women. Gay men in legally recognized partnerships fared better than married heterosexual men on some measures. CHIS questionnaire structures limited our sample and analyses. We recommend that CHIS and other researchers ask partnered status-, marriage-, and sexual identity-related questions en bloc to ensure more robust representation, analyses, recommendations, and policy resolutions. PMID:28207297

  1. Measuring the Influence of Legally Recognized Partnerships on the Health and Well-Being of Same-Sex Couples: Utility of the California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Elwood, William N; Irvin, Veronica L; Sun, Qiankun; Breen, Nancy

    2017-04-01

    This study explored the utility of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) to compare health-related outcomes among gay men, lesbians, and heterosexuals who reported being in a legally recognized partnership. We regressed sexual identity and marriage/legally recognized partnership status on seven different outcomes related to health insurance coverage, medical services access and use, and general health and well-being using CHIS data collected between 2009 and 2013. There were 1432 respondents who identified as gay, lesbian, or homosexual, and 67,746 who identified as heterosexual. The percentage of participants who reported being married/legally partnered was 54.06% for heterosexual women, 52.93% for heterosexual men, 38.83% for lesbians, and 23.56% for gay men. Legally partnered/married gay and lesbian respondents were more likely to have health insurance and use healthcare than their counterparts not in such partnerships; few trends were statistically significant. Gay men in legally recognized partnerships were more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to report continuous health insurance coverage, a usual medical care source, and at least one provider visit within the past 12 months. We found statistically significant poorer health status outcomes among lesbians in legally recognized partnerships compared to married heterosexual women. Lesbians in legally recognized partnerships did not fare as well as married heterosexual women. Gay men in legally recognized partnerships fared better than married heterosexual men on some measures. CHIS questionnaire structures limited our sample and analyses. We recommend that CHIS and other researchers ask partnered status-, marriage-, and sexual identity-related questions en bloc to ensure more robust representation, analyses, recommendations, and policy resolutions.

  2. Teenage Marriage and Marital Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Stephen J.; Galligan, Richard J.

    1984-01-01

    Hypothetically, earlier marriages are more likely to dissolve, but reasons for this are as yet unclear. A longitudinal analysis of a cohort of 259 couples revealed that those who married later, had more education, and did not experience unemployment, were more likely to remain in a stable marriage. (KH)

  3. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    PubMed

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  4. Distressed Couples and Marriage Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaria, Rita M.

    2005-01-01

    Professionals generally believe that couples who choose to attend marriage education programs are not as distressed as are clinical couples and that distressed couples are not good candidates for marriage education. We examined these assumptions in 129 married couples who enrolled in a PAIRS, Practical Application of Intimate Relationship Skills…

  5. [Dual-doctor marriages].

    PubMed

    Gjerberg, Elisabeth

    2003-08-28

    Dual-doctor marriages are increasingly frequent. The question raised here is whether being married to a fellow physician has a different impact on a doctor's career and family life than having a spouse in a different profession. In 1996 a questionnaire was mailed to physicians who received their authorisation to practise medicine in Norway in the years 1980 through 1983 period; 1142 responded (67 %). They supplied data on their current employment status and data on employment history and marital background. Multivariate analysis was used in order to explore how the educational background of spouses affects a medical career. Female physicians who marry a physician marry and have families at a younger age than other female physicians. Moreover, they more often enter specialties; in some specialities they also qualify earlier than those who marry non-physicians. The same did not hold for male physicians. However, male physicians in dual-doctor marriages more frequently worked part time and they far less frequently had spouses working part time than other male doctors. The results suggest that dual-doctor couples to a higher extent share in giving care to their families, have more interests in common and are more supportive of each other's needs. Female physicians seem to benefit particularly.

  6. Czech lesbian activism: gay and lesbian parental rights as a challenge to patriarchal marriage.

    PubMed

    Fojtová, Simona

    2011-01-01

    In their advocacy for the legal recognition of same-sex relationships during the 1990s, prominent Czech gay rights activists focused only on issues of sexuality and did not question the essentialist understanding of gender, especially in parenting. Consequently, even though the Czech Republic legalized registered partnerships for gays and lesbians in 2006, legal barriers now exist regarding parental rights for same-sex couples, who are prohibited from adopting children and accessing reproductive technology once they register with the state. This article examines a rising, new wave of Czech lesbian activism that has focused on gaining legal parental rights for registered same-sex couples. While lesbian activists were disempowered in terms of their public visibility as well as political involvement during the 1990s, the recent growing prominence of lesbian groups has been enabled by their stronger political focus and organizational coherence. Analyzing the lesbian activists' strategies, I show not only how lesbian activism can advance the public debate about traditional gender roles, but also how lesbian activism can strengthen the critique of the ideology of marriage.

  7. Circular on early marriage, March 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Circular calls on government at all levels in Hunan, China, to summon the departments concerned thoroughly to investigate the problem of early child-bearing so that they can do a good job in managing the problems of unregistered cohabiting and of unmarried mothers. The Circular recommends that: "It is necessary to criticize and educate, and even punish by discipline, those parents who connive with their sons and daughters in practicing unregistered cohabiting." It also states the following: "It is necessary to keep a strict check on registry personnel who do not carry out their duties properly. Those who violate laws and discipline, engage in malpractices for selfish ends, and practice bribery and corruption, resulting in early marriage and child-bearing, must be dealt with strictly. Legal sanctions must be enforced against those who break the law." full text

  8. Does cancer affect marriage rates?

    PubMed

    Syse, Astri

    2008-09-01

    Finding a life partner is of great importance for persons' life satisfaction, but cancer's potential impact on family life is not well described. Cancer's impact on marriage formation rates was therefore explored. Data on the entire unmarried Norwegian population aged 17-44 in 1974-2001 (N = 2.2 million) come from the Cancer Registry and the Central Population Register. Marriage rates for 12,100 persons diagnosed with cancer were compared to marriage rates for otherwise similar persons using discrete-time hazard regression models. Men with cancer had a marriage probability that was five percent higher (OR 1.05, CI 1.01-1.11) than cancer-free men. No cancer forms reduced men's marriage rates, and significantly elevated rates were seen after skin and testicular cancer (OR 1.16 and 1.11). Cancer did not impact significantly on women's overall marriage rate (OR 0.95, CI 0.90-1.00), but pronounced deficiencies were seen after brain and breast cancer (OR 0.62 and 0.74). Skin cancer elevated women's marriage rate (OR 1.27). Male cancer survivors with children were more likely to marry than their female counterparts. Significant increases in cancer survivors' marriage rates were observed over time. Marrying after cancer is more common today than previously, and only slight overall differences were observed in cancer survivors' marriage rates relative to those of the cancer-free population. However, while brain and breast cancer in women is associated with reduced marriage rates, testicular cancer is associated with increased rates. The differences observed between common cancer forms in young adults deserve further exploration. In general, marriage rates in survivors of most types of cancer are very similar to those in the population as a whole. Women with brain and breast cancer have lower marriage rates than their cancer-free counterparts. While it is necessary to identify exactly why this was observed, the information can alert those with these cancers to the potential

  9. Forced Marriage and Birth Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Becker, Charles M; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan

    2017-08-01

    We study the impact of marriages resulting from bride kidnapping on infant birth weight. Bride kidnapping-a form of forced marriage-implies that women are abducted by men and have little choice other than to marry their kidnappers. Given this lack of choice over the spouse, we expect adverse consequences for women in such marriages. Remarkable survey data from the Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan enable exploration of differential birth outcomes for women in kidnap-based and other types of marriage using both OLS and IV estimation. We find that children born to mothers in kidnap-based marriages have lower birth weight compared with children born to other mothers. The largest difference is between kidnap-based and arranged marriages: the magnitude of the birth weight loss is in the range of 2 % to 6 % of average birth weight. Our finding is one of the first statistically sound estimates of the impact of forced marriage and implies not only adverse consequences for the women involved but potentially also for their children.

  10. Can pro-marriage policies work? An analysis of marginal marriages.

    PubMed

    Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Policies to promote marriage are controversial, and it is unclear whether they are successful. To analyze such policies, one must distinguish between a marriage that is created by a marriage-promoting policy (marginal marriage) and a marriage that would have been formed even in the absence of a state intervention (average marriage). We exploit the suspension of a cash-on-hand marriage subsidy in Austria to examine the differential behavior of marginal and average marriages. The announcement of an impending suspension of this subsidy led to an enormous marriage boom among eligible couples that allows us to locate marginal marriages. Applying a difference-in-differences approach, we show that marginal marriages are surprisingly as stable as average marriages but produce fewer children, children later in marriage, and children who are less healthy at birth.

  11. "They Didn't Have 'Out There' Gay Parents--They Just Looked Like "Normal" Regular Parents": Investigating Teachers' Approaches to Addressing Same-Sex Parenting and Non-Normative Sexuality in the Elementary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Cumming-Potvin, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    In this article we draw on queer theoretical and critical literacy perspectives to investigate elementary school teachers' pedagogical approaches to addressing same-sex parenting and non-normative sexuality in the elementary classroom. Through undertaking case study research, we examine two Australian elementary school teachers' reflections on…

  12. 25 CFR 11.601 - Marriage licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage licenses. 11.601 Section 11.601 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.601 Marriage licenses. A marriage license shall be issued by the clerk of the court in the absence of any showing that the proposed marriage would be invalid under any...

  13. 38 CFR 3.205 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage. 3.205 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.205 Marriage. (a) Proof of marriage. Marriage is established by one of the following types of evidence: (1) Copy or abstract of the...

  14. Keeping Marriages Strong in Challenging Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ober, Marci Wolff

    2009-01-01

    What makes a strong marriage anyway...? There are definite qualities that exist in healthy marriages, that is, a marriage that is defined by both partners to be "mostly" or "usually" very satisfying. This article explores these qualities and looks at what really works to make and keep marriages strong, healthy, and satisfying…

  15. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

    2010-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

  16. Who Says I Do: The Changing Context of Marriage and Health and Quality of Life for LGBT Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldsen, Jayn; Bryan, Amanda E. B.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Jen, Sarah; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Until recently, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults were excluded from full participation in civil marriage. The purpose of this study is to examine how legal marriage and relationship status are associated with health-promoting and at-risk factors, health, and quality of life of LGBT adults aged 50 and older. Design and Methods: We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS) participants who resided in states with legalized same-sex marriage in 2014 (N = 1,821). Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to examine differences by relationship status (legally married, unmarried partnered, single) in economic and social resources; LGBT contextual and identity factors; health; and quality of life. Results: We found 24% were legally married, and 26% unmarried partnered; one-half were single. Those legally married reported better quality of life and more economic and social resources than unmarried partnered; physical health indicators were similar between legally married and unmarried partnered. Those single reported poorer health and fewer resources than legally married and unmarried partnered. Among women, being legally married was associated with more LGBT microaggressions. Implications: LGBT older adults, and practitioners serving them, should become educated about how legal same-sex marriage interfaces with the context of LGBT older adults’ lives, and policies and protections related to age and sexual and gender identity. Longitudinal research is needed to understand factors contributing to decisions to marry, including short- and long-term economic, social, and health outcomes associated with legal marriage among LGBT older adults. PMID:28087795

  17. Who Says I Do: The Changing Context of Marriage and Health and Quality of Life for LGBT Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Goldsen, Jayn; Bryan, Amanda E B; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Jen, Sarah; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-02-01

    Until recently, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults were excluded from full participation in civil marriage. The purpose of this study is to examine how legal marriage and relationship status are associated with health-promoting and at-risk factors, health, and quality of life of LGBT adults aged 50 and older. We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS) participants who resided in states with legalized same-sex marriage in 2014 (N = 1,821). Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to examine differences by relationship status (legally married, unmarried partnered, single) in economic and social resources; LGBT contextual and identity factors; health; and quality of life. We found 24% were legally married, and 26% unmarried partnered; one-half were single. Those legally married reported better quality of life and more economic and social resources than unmarried partnered; physical health indicators were similar between legally married and unmarried partnered. Those single reported poorer health and fewer resources than legally married and unmarried partnered. Among women, being legally married was associated with more LGBT microaggressions. LGBT older adults, and practitioners serving them, should become educated about how legal same-sex marriage interfaces with the context of LGBT older adults' lives, and policies and protections related to age and sexual and gender identity. Longitudinal research is needed to understand factors contributing to decisions to marry, including short- and long-term economic, social, and health outcomes associated with legal marriage among LGBT older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Decree on the Procedures for Marriage Between Vietnamese Citizens and Foreign Nationals Conducted by Competent Organs of the SRV, 1 February 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Viet Nam's decree on the procedures for marriage between Vietnamese citizens and foreign nationals conducted by competent organs of the SRV, Council of Ministers, February 1989, contains definitions of foreign nationals and provisions allowing a marriage registration under Vietnam's Law on Marriage and Family when the foreign national meets all conditions for marriage in accordance with the law of the country of which he or she is a citizen or a permanent resident. Marriages for Vietnamese citizens staying abroad will not have to comply with stipulations of Vietnam's law. The application shall be approved by the SRV organ of representation in the country of his or her residence if requested by the subjects concerned and it this is not at variance with the law of the country of residence or with the consular agreements between the SRV and the country of residence. In cases of a Vietnamese citizen now serving in the Armed Forces or in areas having something to do with state secrets, the applicant must also produce a certificate issued by the ministry or the sector that he or she is working for, certifying that there will be no problem with their marriage to a foreigner. At the time of an application for a marriage registration, a foreigner must certify that he or she meets all conditions for marriage, that there is no problem with a marriage to a Vietnamese citizen, that the marriage is legal and conforms to all the procedures of his or her country. Within a period of not more than 3 months from the date of receipt of the application for marriage registration and other legal papers, the authoritative state organ concerned shall go through the entire files and, if it is found that the applicant meets all the conditions for marriage, shall register the marriage on a date set by both the authoritative organ and the subjects concerned. The decision not to allow a marriage may be appealed to the SRV Ministry of Justice.

  19. Health Care Use, Health Behaviors, and Medical Conditions Among Individuals in Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partnerships: A Cross-Sectional Observational Analysis of the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS), 2003-2011.

    PubMed

    Blosnich, John R; Hanmer, Janel; Yu, Lan; Matthews, Derrick D; Kavalieratos, Dio

    2016-06-01

    Prior research documents disparities between sexual minority and nonsexual minority individuals regarding health behaviors and health services utilization. However, little is known regarding differences in the prevalence of medical conditions. To examine associations between sexual minority status and medical conditions. We conducted multiple logistic regression analyses of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2003-2011). We identified individuals who reported being partnered with an individual of the same sex, and constructed a matched cohort of individuals in opposite-sex partnerships. A total of 494 individuals in same-sex partnerships and 494 individuals in opposite-sex partnerships. Measures of health risk (eg, smoking status), health services utilization (eg, physician office visits), and presence of 15 medical conditions (eg, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, HIV, alcohol disorders). Same-sex partnered men had nearly 4 times the odds of reporting a mood disorder than did opposite-sex partnered men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.85-8.48]. Compared with opposite-sex partnered women, same-sex partnered women had greater odds of heart disease (aOR=2.59; 95% CI, 1.19-5.62), diabetes (aOR=2.75; 95% CI, 1.10-6.90), obesity (aOR=1.92; 95% CI, 1.26-2.94), high cholesterol (aOR=1.89; 95% CI, 1.03-3.50), and asthma (aOR=1.90; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19). Even after adjusting for sociodemographics, health risk behaviors, and health conditions, individuals in same-sex partnerships had 67% increased odds of past-year emergency department utilization and 51% greater odds of ≥3 physician visits in the last year compared with opposite-sex partnered individuals. A combination of individual-level, provider-level, and system-level approaches are needed to reduce disparities in medical conditions and health care utilization among sexual minority individuals.

  20. Acceptance of sexual minorities, discrimination, social capital and health and well-being: a cross-European study among members of same-sex and opposite-sex couples.

    PubMed

    van der Star, Arjan; Bränström, Richard

    2015-08-21

    Awareness of health disparities based on sexual orientation has increased in the past decades, and many official public health agencies throughout Europe call for programs addressing the specific needs of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals. However, the acceptance of LGB individuals varies significantly in different countries, which potentially influences health and well-being in this population. We explored differences in self-rated health and subjective well-being between individuals living in same-sex and opposite-sex couples. We also examined the effects of discrimination and country-level variations in LGB acceptance on health and well-being and the potential mediating role of social capital in these associations. Using the 2010 European Social Survey (n = 50,781), 315 individuals living with a same-sex partner were matched and compared with an equal number of individuals living in opposite-sex couples. We performed structural equation modeling analyses to estimate path coefficients, mediations and interactions. LGB acceptance was significantly related to better self-rated health and subjective well-being among all individuals, and these associations were partially mediated by individual social capital. No differences in these associations were found between individuals living in same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Sexuality-based discrimination had an additional significantly negative effect on self-related health and subjective well-being. The findings of this study suggest a negative association between exposure to discrimination based on sexual orientation and both health and well-being of individuals living in same-sex couples. Members of same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples alike may benefit from living in societies with a high level of LGB acceptance to promote better health and well-being.