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Sample records for samos island greece

  1. Geochemistry and diagenesis of Miocene lacustrine siliceous sedimentary and pyroclastic rocks, Mytilinii basin, Samos Island, Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hein, J.R.; Magganas, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    A Late Miocene non-marine stratigraphic sequence composed of limestone, opal-CT-bearing limestone, porcelanite, marlstone, diatomaceous marlstone, dolomite, and tuffite crops out on eastern Samos Island. This lacustrine sequence is subdivided into the Hora Beds and the underlying Pythagorion Formation. The Hora Beds is overlain by the clastic Mytilinii series which contains Turolian (Late Miocene) mammalian fossils. The lacustrine sequence contains volcanic glass and the silica polymorphs opal-A, opal-CT, and quartz. Volcanic glass predominantly occurs in tuffaceous rocks from the lower and upper parts of the lacustrine sequence. Opal-A (diatom frustules) is confined to layers in the upper part of the Hora Beds. Beds rich in opal-CT underlie those containing opal-A. The occurrence of opal-CT is extensive, encompassing the lower Hora Beds and the sedimentary rocks and tuffs of the Pythagorion Formation. A transition zone between the opal-A and opal-CT zones is identified by X-ray diffraction patterns that are intermediate between those of opal-CT and opal-A, perhaps due to a mixture of the two polymorphs. Diagenesis was not advanced enough for opal-CT to transform to quartz or for volcanic glass to transform to opal-C. Based on geochemical and mineralogical data, we suggest that the rate of diagenetic transformation of opal-A to opal-CT was mainly controlled by the chemistry of pore fluids. Pore fluids were characterized by high salinity, moderately high alkalinity, and high magnesium ion activity. These pore fluid characteristics are indicated by the presence of evaporitic salts (halite, sylvite, niter), high boron content in biogenic silica, and by dolomite in both the opal-A and opal-CT-bearing beds. The absence of authigenic K-feldspar, borosilicates, and zeolites also support these pore fluid characteristics. Additional factors that influenced the rate of silica diagenesis were host rock lithology and the relatively high heat flow in the Aegean region from

  2. The Tunnels of Samos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This 'Project Mathematics' series video from CalTech presents the tunnel of Samos, a famous underground aquaduct tunnel located near the capital of Pithagorion (named after the famed Greek mathematician, Pythagoras, who lived there), on one of the Greek islands. This tunnel was constructed around 600 BC by King Samos and was built under a nearby mountain. Through film footage and computer animation, the mathematical principles and concepts of why and how this aquaduct tunnel was built are explained.

  3. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  4. Phase relations in the greenschist-blueschist-amphibolite-eclogite facies in the system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), with application to metamorphic rocks from Samos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Thomas; Okrusch, Martin; Schmädicke, Esther; Chen, Guoli

    Calculated phase equilibria among the minerals sodic amphibole, calcic amphibole, garnet, chloritoid, talc, chlorite, paragonite, margarite, omphacite, plagioclase, carpholite, zoisite/clinozoisite, lawsonite, pyrophyllite, kyanite, sillimanite, quartz and H2O are presented for the model system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), which is relevant for many greenschist, blueschist, amphibolite and eclogite facies rocks. Using the activity-composition relationships for multicomponent amphiboles constrained by Will and Powell (1992), equilibria containing coexisting calcic and sodic amphiboles could be determined. The blueschist-greenschist transition reaction in the NCFMASH system, for example, is defined by the univariant reaction sodic amphibole + zoisite=calcic amphibole + chlorite + paragonite + plagioclase (+ quartz + H2O) occurring between approximately 420 and 450°C at 9.5 to 10kbar. The calculated petrogenetic grid is a valuable tool for reconstructing the PT-evolution of metabasic rocks. This is shown for rocks from the island of Samos, Greece. On the basis of mineral and whole rock analyses, PT-pseudosections were calculated and, together with the observed mineral assemblages and reaction textures, are used to reconstruct PT-paths. For rocks from northern Samos, pseudomorphs after lawsonite preserved in garnet, the assemblage sodic amphibole-garnet-paragonite-chlorite-zoisite-quartz and the retrograde appearance of albitic plagioclase and the formation of calcic amphibole around sodic amphibole constrain a clockwise PT-path that reaches its thermal maximum at some 520°C and 19kbar. The derived PT-trajectory indicates cooling during exhumation of the rocks and is similar to paths for rocks from the western part of the Attic-Cycladic crystalline complex. Rocks from eastern Samos indicate lower pressures and are probably related to high-pressure rocks from the Menderes Massif in western Turkey.

  5. Anciet marble quarries in Lesvos island Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataragkas, M.; Mataragkas, D.

    2009-04-01

    ANCIENT MARBLE QUARRIES IN LESBOS ISLAND, GREECE Varti- Matarangas M.1 & Matarangas D. 1 Institute of Geological and Mining Exploration (IGME), Olympic Village, Entrance C, ACHARNAE 13677, GREECE myrsini@igme.gr , myrsini@otenet.g r A B S T R A C T Ten ancient marble quarries of Lesbos Island, most of them previously unknown, have been studied, in the frame of the research study on the ancient marble quarries in the Aegean Sea. In the present paper the geological, petrological and morphological features of the aforementioned quarries are examined. Concerning the six ancient quarries located in the areas of Tarti, Agia Paraskevi (Tsaf), Mageiras, Loutra, Latomi (Plomari) and Thermi, the authochthonous neopaleozoic unit constitutes their geological formation, while their hosting lithological formations are the included crystalline limestone lens like beds. In two ancient quarries in the areas Moria and Alyfanta, the geological formation is the authochthonous upper Triassic series and the hosting lithological formation the upper Triassic carbonate sequence, while in the areas of Akrasi-Abeliko and Karyni, the geological formation is the thrust Triassic unit and the lithological hosting formations are the included strongly deformed or not crystalline limestone lenticular beds. Furthermore, the petrographic features were also determined permitting the identification of the building stones that have been used.

  6. SAMOS Surface Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Shawn; Bourassa, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The development of a new surface flux dataset based on underway meteorological observations from research vessels will be presented. The research vessel data center at the Florida State University routinely acquires, quality controls, and distributes underway surface meteorological and oceanographic observations from over 30 oceanographic vessels. These activities are coordinated by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative in partnership with the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project. Recently, the SAMOS data center has used these underway observations to produce bulk flux estimates for each vessel along individual cruise tracks. A description of this new flux product, along with the underlying data quality control procedures applied to SAMOS observations, will be provided. Research vessels provide underway observations at high-temporal frequency (1 min. sampling interval) that include navigational (position, course, heading, and speed), meteorological (air temperature, humidity, wind, surface pressure, radiation, rainfall), and oceanographic (surface sea temperature and salinity) samples. Vessels recruited to the SAMOS initiative collect a high concentration of data within the U.S. continental shelf and also frequently operate well outside routine shipping lanes, capturing observations in extreme ocean environments (Southern, Arctic, South Atlantic, and South Pacific oceans). These observations are atypical for their spatial and temporal sampling, making them very useful for many applications including validation of numerical models and satellite retrievals, as well as local assessments of natural variability. Individual SAMOS observations undergo routine automated quality control and select vessels receive detailed visual data quality inspection. The result is a quality-flagged data set that is ideal for calculating turbulent flux estimates. We will describe the bulk flux algorithms that have been applied to the

  7. Greece.

    PubMed

    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  8. Variscan tectonics in Dodecanese, Kalymnos island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziioannou, Eleftheria; Grasemann, Bernhard; Schneider, David; Hubmann, Bernhard; Soukis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Kalymnos island is located in the Dodecanese, southeastern Aegean Sea, and geologically appears to be part of the external Hellenides. Pre-Alpidic basement rocks on the Dodecanese islands have been suggested to record compelling similarities with the basement rocks in Eastern Crete with respect to their lithologies and pre-Alpidic metamorphic evolution. The lithotectonic units experienced greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions during the Variscan orogeny. Whereas the rocks in Eastern Crete reveal Alpine high-pressure overprint, the Variscan basement units in the Dodecanese record no or low-grade Alpine metamorphism. A field study of basement rocks below Mesozoic limestones and dolomites in the NW part of Kalymnos near Emporios uncovered a complex history of metamorphism, folding and faulting. Three different tectonic units can be discriminated from top to bottom: a) a quartz-mica schist, b) a white-grey, fossiliferous coarse grained marble and c) a fine-grained fossiliferous blue-grey marble. In the marbles macrofossils such as brachiopods, ammonoid cephalopods (Goniatids?) and crinoids suggest a Middle-Upper Devonian deposition age (Givetian- Frasnian). Structural mapping the area resolved a dominant W-E shortening event, resulting in an overall inverted metamorphic gradient. The lowermost blue-grey marble unit is folded into large-scale upright folds, which are truncated by top-to-east overthrusting of the white-grey marble unit. Whereas deformation mechanisms in the blue-grey marble unit are dominated by dissolution-precipitation creep, the white-grey marble suffered intense crystal plastic deformation with localized high-strain mylonitic shear zones. The uppermost quartz-mica schist unit is separated from the lower units by a cataclastic phyllonitic shear zone. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating on white micas from the quartz-mica schists yielded cooling ages between 240 and 334 Ma indicative of Variscan cooling. Our data suggest that this part of the

  9. Groundwater quality assessment of the Limnos Island Volcanic Aquifers, Greece.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, George; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Giannoulopoulos, Panagiotis

    2013-05-01

    Limnos Island in Greece, which has been the subject of extensive hydrogeological research, contains confined volcanic aquifers that overlie impermeable flysch. Groundwater salinization is usually the effect of seawater intrusion, and results from a combination of factors such as low annual areal precipitation and exploitation of aquifers for civil, commercial, and agricultural purposes. Areas with intense agricultural activities have also increasingly observed these effects. A geochemical evaluation on the basis of multiple ion (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), NO3-) concentrations and physicochemical parameters distribution revealed that ion exchange is the dominant hydrogeochemical process. However, the enrichment of groundwater in potassium and magnesium results from rock and mineral weathering and dissolution.

  10. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades Islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2013-11-01

    The region of the Sporades Islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, due to the marine volcano "Psathoura", and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defence plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect from each of the separate stakeholders so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked about their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  11. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  12. Rainwater harvesting, quality assessment and utilization in Kefalonia Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Sazakli, E; Alexopoulos, A; Leotsinidis, M

    2007-05-01

    The quality of harvested rainwater which is used for domestic and drinking purposes in the northern area of Kefalonia Island in SW Greece and the factors affecting it were assessed through 3-year surveillance. In 12 seasonal samplings, 156 rainwater and 144 ground- or mixed water samples were collected from ferroconcrete storage tanks (300-1000 m3 capacity), which are adjacent to cement-paved catchment areas (600-3000 m2). Common anions and major cations as well as the metals Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were tested. The presence of three major groups of organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochloride pesticides (OCPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), was screened by common analytical techniques. All of the rainwater samples were within the guidelines for chemical parameters established by the 98/93/EU directive. As far as microbiological quality is concerned, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci were detected in 80.3%, 40.9% and 28.8% of the rainwater samples, respectively, although they were found in low concentrations. Chemical and microbiological parameters showed seasonal fluctuations. Principal component analysis revealed that microbiological parameters were affected mainly by the cleanness level of catchment areas, while chemical parameters were influenced by the sea proximity and human activities. Disinfection should be applied into the tanker trucks which distribute the water to the consumers and not into the big storage tanks in order to avoid by-products formation. Due to the lack of fluoride in rainwater samples, the consumers must become aware of the fact that the supplementation of this element is needed.

  13. Biogenicity of an Early Quaternary iron formation, Milos Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Chi Fru, E; Ivarsson, M; Kilias, S P; Frings, P J; Hemmingsson, C; Broman, C; Bengtson, S; Chatzitheodoridis, E

    2015-05-01

    A ~2.0-million-year-old shallow-submarine sedimentary deposit on Milos Island, Greece, harbours an unmetamorphosed fossiliferous iron formation (IF) comparable to Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs). This Milos IF holds the potential to provide clues to the origin of Precambrian BIFs, relative to biotic and abiotic processes. Here, we combine field stratigraphic observations, stable isotopes of C, S and Si, rock petrography and microfossil evidence from a ~5-m-thick outcrop to track potential biogeochemical processes that may have contributed to the formation of the BIF-type rocks and the abrupt transition to an overlying conglomerate-hosted IF (CIF). Bulk δ(13) C isotopic compositions lower than -25‰ provide evidence for biological contribution by the Calvin and reductive acetyl-CoA carbon fixation cycles to the origin of both the BIF-type and CIF strata. Low S levels of ~0.04 wt.% combined with δ(34) S estimates of up to ~18‰ point to a non-sulphidic depository. Positive δ(30) Si records of up to +0.53‰ in the finely laminated BIF-type rocks indicate chemical deposition on the seafloor during weak periods of arc magmatism. Negative δ(30) Si data are consistent with geological observations suggesting a sudden change to intense arc volcanism potentially terminated the deposition of the BIF-type layer. The typical Precambrian rhythmic rocks of alternating Fe- and Si-rich bands are associated with abundant and spatially distinct microbial fossil assemblages. Together with previously proposed anoxygenic photoferrotrophic iron cycling and low sedimentary N and C potentially connected to diagenetic denitrification, the Milos IF is a biogenic submarine volcano-sedimentary IF showing depositional conditions analogous to Archaean Algoma-type BIFs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Varacalli, S; Gino, S; Chatzikyriakidou, A; Kouvatsi, A; Triantaphyllidis, C; Di Gaetano, C; Crobu, F; Matullo, G; Piazza, A; Torre, C

    2004-10-04

    Eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs)--DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, and DYS385--were typed in a population sample (n = 113) of unrelated males from seven different regions of Greece (Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Central Greece, Peloponnese, Crete Island, and Chios Island).

  15. Tsunami Questionnaire Survey in Heraklion Test Site, Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, Antonia; Tsimi, Christina; Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Sachpazi, Maria; Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    The Heraklion city (Crete Island, Greece) has been chosen as one of the test-sites for the EU-FP7ASTARTE tsunami project. Heraklion is the biggest city in Crete Isl. and the fourth biggest in Greece with a population of about 120,000 which, however, during the summer vacation period nearly doubles. In the past, Heraklion was hit by strong, destructive tsunamis such as the ones of AD 8 August 1303, 10 October 1650 and 9 July 1956. The first and the third were caused by large tectonic earthquakes associated with the eastern segment of the Hellenic Arc the first and with the back-arc extensional regime the third. The one of 1650 was associated with the eruption of the Columbo submarine volcano in the Santorini volcanic complex. One of the activities scheduled for WP9 of ASTARTE project, which aims at building tsunami resilient societies in Europe, is dedicated to organize questionnaire surveys among the populations of the several ASTARTE test-sites. Although the questionnaire is comprised by more than 50 questions, the central concept is to better understand what people know about tsunamis and if they are ready to cope with risks associated with future tsunami occurrences. In Heraklion the survey was conducted during tourism peak season of July 2014, thus questionnaires were collected by both local people and tourists, thus representing a variety of countries. We attempted to keep balance between males and females, while the age ranged from 15 to 65. Totally, 113 persons were interviewed of which 62 were females and 51 males. From the point of view of origin, 58 out of 113 were local people and residents, 22 were Greek tourists and 29 foreign tourists. Generally, the questionnaire consists of four parts. In the first, people were asked about their relation with the area of Heraklion. In the second part, the questions considered the knowledge that people have on tsunamis as a natural, hazardous phenomenon. More precisely, people were asked questions such as what a

  16. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... panels covering a region to the west of the top panels. Data from each of the four dates have been processed identically, and relative ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ... Maria Kanakidou and Nikos Mihalopoulos, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece. Other formats ...

  17. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, ... as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the ...

  18. Nestedness in centipede (Chilopoda) assemblages on continental islands (Aegean, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail; Martínez-Morales, Miguel Angel

    2010-05-01

    In natural ecosystems, species assemblages among isolated ecological communities such as continental islands often show a nested pattern in which biotas of sites with low species richness are non-random subsets of biotas of richer sites. The distribution of centipede (Chilopoda) species in the central and south Aegean archipelago was tested for nestedness. To achieve this aim we used distribution data for 53 species collected on 24 continental Aegean islands (Kyklades and Dodekanisa). Based on the first-order jackknife estimator, most of islands were comprehensively surveyed. In order to quantify nestedness, we used the nestedness temperature calculator (NTC) as well as the nestedness metric based on overlap and decreasing Fill (NODF). NTC indicated that data exhibited a high degree of nestedness in the central and south Aegean island complexes. As far as the Kyklades and Dodekanisa are concerned, NTC showed less nested centipede structures than the 24 islands. Likewise, NODF revealed a significant degree of nestedness in central and south Aegean islands. It also showed that biotas matrices without singletons were more nested than the complete ones (Aegean, Kyklades and Dodekanisa). The two commonest centipede taxa (lithobiomorphs and geophilomorphs) contributed differently to centipede assemblages. In the Kyklades and Dodekanisa, geophilomorphs did not show a reliable nested arrangement unlike lithobiomorphs. In relation to the entire data set, nestedness was positively associated with the degree of isolation. In the Kyklades altitudinal range best explained nestedness patterns, while in Dodekanisa habitat heterogeneity proved to be more important for the centipede communities. Island area does not seem to be a significant explanatory variable. Some of our results from the Kyklades were critically compared with those for terrestrial isopod and land snail nested assemblages from the same geographical area. The complex geological and palaeogeographical history of

  19. Assessment of bioclimatic conditions in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, A.; Nastos, P. T.; Matzarakis, A.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the human bioclimatic conditions of Crete Island, using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), which is one of the most popular human thermal indices derived from the human energy balance. Bioclimatic studies provide a framework linking biophysical climate sensitivity to social/economic factors that mitigate or amplify the consequences of environmental changes. PET is defined as the physiological equivalent temperature at any given place (outdoors or indoors). It is equivalent to the air temperature at which, in a typical indoor setting, the heat balance of the human body (work metabolism 80 W of light activity, added to basic metabolism; heat resistance of clothing 0.9 clo) is maintained with core and skin temperatures equal to those of the under assessment conditions. It has been realized that, to estimate the thermal effect of the environment to the human body, the total of effects of all of the thermal components, not only as individual parameters, should be taken into account. The climatic data (air temperature, relative humidity, cloudiness, wind speed) for Crete Island, were obtained by archives of fifteen meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). These data of period 1955-2010 were used for the calculation of PET in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. Crete Island, as it is located in the Southeastern Mediterranean basin, is of great touristic interest due to its splendid landscapes, archaeological sites and coastal areas combined with its excellent climatic conditions. However, Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks which are associated with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). The exploitation of the results of this analysis, such as bioclimatic diagrams, temporal and spatial distributions of PET as well as trends and

  20. Tsunami hazard assessment for the island of Rhodes, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The island of Rhodes is part of the Dodecanese archipelago, and is one of the many islands that are found in the Aegean Sea. The tectonics of the Rhodes area is rather complex, involving both strike-slip and dip-slip (mainly thrust) processes. Tsunami catalogues (e.g. Papadopulos et al, 2007) show the relative high frequency of occurrence of tsunamis in this area, some also destructive, in particular between the coasts of Rhodes and Turkey. In this part of the island is located the town of Rhodes, the capital and also the largest and most populated city. Rhodes is historically famous for the Colossus of Rhodes, collapsed following an earthquake, and nowadays is a popular tourist destination. This work is focused on the hazard assessment evaluation with research performed in the frame of the European project NearToWarn. The hazard is assessed by using the worst-credible case scenario, a method introduced and used to study local tsunami hazard in coastal towns like Catania, Italy, and Alexandria, Egypt (Tinti et al., 2012). The tsunami sources chosen for building scenarios are three: two located in the sea area in front of the Turkish coasts where the events are more frequent represent local sources and were selected in the frame of the European project NearToWarn, while one provides the case of a distant source. The first source is taken from the paper Ebeling et al. (2012) and modified by UNIBO and models the earthquake and small tsunami occurred on 25th April 1957.The second source is a landslide and is derived from the TRANSFER Project "Database of Tsunamigenic Non-Seismic Sources" and coincides with the so-called "Northern Rhodes Slide", possibly responsible for the 24th March 2002 tsunami. The last source is the fault that is located close to the island of Crete believed to be responsible for the tsunami event of 1303 that was reported to have caused damage in the city of Rhodes. The simulations are carried out using the finite difference code UBO-TSUFD that

  1. Tamarix minoa (Tamaricaceae), a new species from the island of Crete (Greece) based on morphological and plastid molecular sequence data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tamarix minoa is described from material collected on the S Aegean island of Crete (Kriti), Greece. A morphological comparison with the species considered to be closest, T. africana and T. hampeana, is provided. An original illustration showing the main morphological characters of the new species is...

  2. SAMOS - A Decade of High-Quality, Underway Meteorological and Oceanographic Data from Research Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. R.; Rolph, J.; Briggs, K.; Elya, J. L.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    The authors will describe the successes and lessons learned from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative. Over the past decade, SAMOS has acquired, quality controlled, and distributed underway surface meteorological and oceanographic observations from nearly 40 oceanographic research vessels. Research vessels provide underway observations at high-temporal frequency (1-minute sampling interval) that include navigational (position, course, heading, and speed), meteorological (air temperature, humidity, wind, surface pressure, radiation, rainfall), and oceanographic (surface sea temperature and salinity) samples. Vessels recruited to the SAMOS initiative collect a high concentration of data within the U.S. continental shelf, around Hawaii and the islands of the tropical Pacific, and frequently operate well outside routine shipping lanes, capturing observations in extreme ocean environments (Southern, Arctic, South Atlantic, and South Pacific oceans) desired by the air-sea exchange, modeling, and satellite remote sensing communities. The presentation will highlight the data stewardship practices of the SAMOS initiative. Activities include routine automated and visual data quality evaluation, feedback to vessel technicians and operators regarding instrumentation errors, best practices for instrument siting and exposure on research vessels, and professional development activities for research vessel technicians. Best practices for data, metadata, and quality evaluation will be presented. We will discuss ongoing efforts to expand data services to enhance interoperability between marine data centers. Data access and archival protocols will also be presented, including how these data may be referenced and accessed via NCEI.

  3. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-07-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results from Alikes lagoon in Zakynthos island, an area that is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental changes, we based on data derived from a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis was carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the studied sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP while 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times is on the order of 1.03 mm/yr. These sedimentation rates results are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  4. PROFILE: Tourism Contribution to Agro-Ecosystems Conservation: The Case of Lesbos Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Loumou; Giourga; Dimitrakopoulos; Koukoulas

    2000-10-01

    / The modernization of agriculture and the development of other economic sectors have prompted the abandonment of cultivated areas, which are marginally productive. Specifically, olive groves in Greece are transformed into pastures due to their location in inaccessible mountainous regions where breeding and raising of sheep and goats are the main economic activities. Overgrazing degrades the environment, exhausts natural resources, and prevents natural regeneration. The Greek islands have limited possibilities of development, except for their coastal areas where the growth of tourism is possible.The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of tourism activities on olive tree cultivation and the human population of the island of Lesbos. The presence or absence of tourism is related with the maintenance or abandonment of olive tree cultivation and population changes for each community. A spatial segregation of the island is evident, related to tourist development, olive tree cultivation, and population change. The results of the study demonstrate that in communities where tourism plays an important role olive tree cultivation is preserved and the population is stable. The preservation of the agro-ecosystem is assured while the olive groves remain productive. Simultaneously, the landscape, which provides specific attractions for tourism, is not altered.

  5. Two new infraspecific taxa of Verbascum delphicum (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) from mainland Greece and the island of Evvia

    PubMed Central

    Zografidis, Aris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Verbascum delphicum Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. cervi Zografidis (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) is described as a subspecies new to science and illustrated. It is narrowly distributed in the Greek National Park of Mt Parnitha (Attica, Greece) with a very small population size. The new subspecies is a seldom-collected taxon, previously overlooked and misidentified as consubspecific with the autonymous subspecies, an endemic of the island of Evvia (Greece). Also described in this study is a new variety of subsp. delphicum from Mt Ochi of southern Evvia. PMID:28127239

  6. Radon variations during treatment in thermal spas of Lesvos Island (Greece).

    PubMed

    Vogiannis, Efstratios; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Louizi, Anna; Halvadakis, C P

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the variations of radon and daughter nuclei during treatment in the thermal spas of Lesvos Island (Greece). For this purpose, in the thermal spas of Lesvos we have measured the radon concentrations of thermal waters, as well as indoor radon, daughter and coarse particle (>500 nm) concentration. Various instruments and procedures were employed for measurements. Radon concentrations of thermal waters were found to lie in the range 10 and 304 Bq l(-1). Concentration peaks both for radon, radon daughter and coarse particle, were found to appear during filling of baths in the treatment process. The doses delivered to the bathers during treatment were in the range of 0.00670 mSv per year to 0.1279 mSv per year, while the doses delivered to personnel were below 20 mSv per year.

  7. Resource Evaluation and Development Plans for a 120 MW Geothermal Power Plant on Milos Island, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Economides, M.J.; Ehlig-Economides, C.A.; Speliotis, G.; Vrouzi, F.

    1983-12-15

    Five deep wells have been drilled on the Island of Milos, Greece, identifying a high-temperature, high-enthalpy geothermal reservoir. The thermodynamic properties of the fluid, and the estimated porosity and presumed thickness of the formation suggest a fluid and heat storage capacity that could support a 60 MWe power plant for 85 years or a 120 MWe for half that time. The existing five wells can deliver 180 t/h of steam at 10 bar abs pressure, capable of generating a maximum electric power output of slightly less than 20 MWe. This paper describes the geology, the drilling and the well testing results pertaining to the five wells, and discusses the reservoir potential for a 60 MWe geothermal power plant.

  8. Analysis of volcanic threat from Nisyros Island, Greece, with implications for aviation and population exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinvig, H. S.; Winson, A.; Gottsmann, J.

    2010-06-01

    Nisyros island in the South Aegean volcanic arc, Greece, is a Quaternary composite volcano with a 3.8 km wide caldera that in 1996 entered a volcano-seismic crisis, which heralded the islands' return to a state of unrest. The caldera has been the locus of at least thirteen phreatic eruptions in historical times, the most recent in 1888, and the system is still presently affected by considerable hydrothermal activity. Although the recent unrest waned off without eruption, there are still open questions relating to the current threat of volcanic activity from the island. Here, we perform a detailed and systematic assessment of the volcanic threat of Nisyros using a threat analysis protocol established as part of the USGS National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS). The evaluation involves a methodical assessment of fifteen hazard and exposure factors, and is based on a score system, whereby the higher the score, the higher the threat is. Uncertainty in assessment criteria are expressed by allowing for a conservative and an extreme score for each factor. We draw our analysis from published data as well as from results of our research on Nisyros over the past years. Our analysis yields a conservative threat score of 163 and an extreme score of 262. The most adverse exposure factors include significant scores relating to aviation and population exposure to volcanic hazards from Nisyros. When looked at in comparison to US volcanoes both scores place Nisyros in the "Very High Threat (VHT)" category, grouping it with volcanoes such as Redoubt, Mount Ranier and Crater Lake. We identify a short-fall in recommended surveillance efforts for VHT volcanoes given existing monitoring capabilities on the island. We discuss potential pitfalls of applying the NVEWS scheme to Nisyros and suggest potential adaptation of analysis scheme to match industrial and societal conditions in Europe. At the same time, our findings indicate that that volcanic threat posed by Nisyros volcano may

  9. Seismic hazard assessment in central Ionian Islands area (Greece) based on stress release models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votsi, Irene; Tsaklidis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria

    2011-08-01

    The long-term probabilistic seismic hazard of central Ionian Islands (Greece) is studied through the application of stress release models. In order to identify statistically distinct regions, the study area is divided into two subareas, namely Kefalonia and Lefkada, on the basis of seismotectonic properties. Previous results evidenced the existence of stress transfer and interaction between the Kefalonia and Lefkada fault segments. For the consideration of stress transfer and interaction, the linked stress release model is applied. A new model is proposed, where the hazard rate function in terms of X(t) has the form of the Weibull distribution. The fitted models are evaluated through residual analysis and the best of them is selected through the Akaike information criterion. Based on AIC, the results demonstrate that the simple stress release model fits the Ionian data better than the non-homogeneous Poisson and the Weibull models. Finally, the thinning simulation method is applied in order to produce simulated data and proceed to forecasting.

  10. Bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant properties of wild edible mushrooms from the island of Lesvos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Yanni, Amalia E; Koutrotsios, Georgios; Aloupi, Maria

    2013-05-01

    Crude composition, fatty acids, sterols, total phenolic content (TPC), individual polyphenols and terpenic acids were determined in five wild edible mushrooms species (Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius sanguifluus, Lactarius semisanguifluus, Russula delica, Suillus bellinii) from Lesvos Island, Greece. In addition, the DPPH scavenging capacity, the ferric ion reducing power (FRAP) and the ferrous ion chelating activity of mushroom methanolic extracts were assessed. Among sterols, ergosterol predominated at concentrations 9.2-18.0mg/100g fw. Total phenolic content of mushroom extracts ranged from 6.0 to 20.8mg GAE/100g fw. Up to 19 simple polyphenols were determined in mushrooms extracts, the more abundant being p-OH-benzoic acid, p-OH-phenylacetic acid, o-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chrysin. In addition, the triterpenic acids oleanolic and ursolic were detected for the first time in mushrooms. All species exerted antioxidant activity and ferrous ion chelating capacity. Principal component analysis revealed good correlations between TPC, DPPH and FRAP but not with metal chelating activity. It seems that mushrooms polyphenols exert antiradical and reducing activities, but they are not strong metal chelators, the observed chelating ability being probably due to other classes of compounds. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant activity of wild Greek edible mushrooms.

  11. Chronostratigraphy of uplifted Quaternary hemipelagic deposits from the Dodecanese island of Rhodes (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillévéré, Frédéric; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Moissette, Pierre; López-Otálvaro, Gatsby Emperatriz; van Baak, Christiaan; Münch, Philippe; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela Carmen; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-07-01

    An integrated magneto-biostratigraphic study, based on calcareous nannofossils and foraminifers, together with the radiometric dating of a volcaniclastic layer found in several outcrops, was carried out on the hemipelagic deposits of the Lindos Bay Formation (LBF) at six localities on the island of Rhodes (Greece). Our highly refined chronostratigraphic framework indicates that the lower and upper lithostratigraphic boundaries of the LBF are diachronous. Associated with the 40Ar/39Ar age determination of 1.85 ± 0.08 Ma for the volcaniclastic layer, our data show that among the investigated outcrops, the Lindos Bay type locality section provides the longest record (1.1 Ma) of the LBF. Hemipelagic deposition occurred continuously from the late Gelasian (∼1.9 Ma) to the late Calabrian (∼0.8 Ma), i.e., from Chrons C2n (Olduvai) to C1r.1r (Matuyama) and from nannofossil Zones CNPL7 to CNPL10. This long record, together with the hemipelagic nature of the deposits, make the Lindos Bay type locality section a unique element in the eastern Mediterranean region, allowing future comparisons with other early Quaternary deep-sea sections available in the central and western Mediterranean regions.

  12. Application of a linked stress release model in Corinth Gulf and Central Ionian Islands (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangira, Ourania; Vasiliadis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria

    2017-06-01

    Spatio-temporal stress changes and interactions between adjacent fault segments consist of the most important component in seismic hazard assessment, as they can alter the occurrence probability of strong earthquake onto these segments. The investigation of the interactions between adjacent areas by means of the linked stress release model is attempted for moderate earthquakes ( M ≥ 5.2) in the Corinth Gulf and the Central Ionian Islands (Greece). The study areas were divided in two subareas, based on seismotectonic criteria. The seismicity of each subarea is investigated by means of a stochastic point process and its behavior is determined by the conditional intensity function, which usually gets an exponential form. A conditional intensity function of Weibull form is used for identifying the most appropriate among the models (simple, independent and linked stress release model) for the interpretation of the earthquake generation process. The appropriateness of the models was decided after evaluation via the Akaike information criterion. Despite the fact that the curves of the conditional intensity functions exhibit similar behavior, the use of the exponential-type conditional intensity function seems to fit better the data.

  13. Maximum sedimentation ages and provenance of metasedimentary rocks from Tinos Island, Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsken, Tim; Bröcker, Michael; Berndt, Jasper; Gärtner, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of five metasedimentary rocks from the Lower Unit on Tinos Island (Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece) document supply of detritus from various Proterozoic, Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks as well as post-depositional metamorphic zircon formation. Essential features of the studied zircon populations are Late Cretaceous (70-80 Ma) maximum sedimentation ages for the lithostratigraphic succession above the lowermost dolomite marble, significant contributions from Triassic to Neoproterozoic source rocks, minor influx of detritus recording Paleoproterozoic and older provenance (1.9-2.1, 2.4-2.5 and 2.7-2.8 Ga) and a lack or paucity of zircons with Mesoproterozoic ages (1.1-1.8 Ga). In combination with biostratigraphic evidence, the new dataset indicates that Late Cretaceous or younger rocks occur on top of or very close to the basal Triassic metacarbonates, suggesting a gap in the stratigraphic record near the base of the metamorphic succession. The time frame for sediment deposition is bracketed by the youngest detrital zircon ages (70-80 Ma) and metamorphic overgrowths that are related to high-pressure/low-temperature overprinting in the Eocene. This time interval possibly indicates a significant difference to the sedimentation history of the southern Cyclades, where Late Cretaceous detrital zircons have not yet been detected.

  14. The use of Sentinel-2 imagery for seagrass mapping: Kalloni Gulf (Lesvos Island, Greece) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topouzelis, Konstantinos; Charalampis Spondylidis, Spyridon; Papakonstantinou, Apostolos; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2016-08-01

    Seagrass meadows play a significant role in ecosystems by stabilizing sediment and improving water clarity, which enhances seagrass growing conditions. It is high on the priority of EU legislation to map and protect them. The traditional use of medium spatial resolution satellite imagery e.g. Landsat-8 (30m) is very useful for mapping seagrass meadows on a regional scale. However, the availability of Sentinel-2 data, the recent ESA's satellite with its payload Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) is expected to improve the mapping accuracy. MSI designed to improve coastline studies due to its enhanced spatial and spectral capabilities e.g. optical bands with 10m spatial resolution. The present work examines the quality of Sentinel-2 images for seagrass mapping, the ability of each band in detection and discrimination of different habitats and estimates the accuracy of seagrass mapping. After pre-processing steps, e.g. radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction, image classified into four classes. Classification classes included sub-bottom composition e.g. seagrass, soft bottom, and hard bottom. Concrete vectors describing the areas covered by seagrass extracted from the high-resolution satellite image and used as in situ measurements. The developed methodology applied in the Gulf of Kalloni, (Lesvos Island - Greece). Results showed that Sentinel-2 images can be robustly used for seagrass mapping due to their spatial resolution, band availability and radiometric accuracy.

  15. Paleoenvironmental and sclerochronological reconstruction of Crassostrea gryphoides Miocene biostromes from Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskeridou, E.; Agiadi, K.

    2012-04-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) is a keystone species mainly along the African Atlantic coasts. It forms biostromes on muddy coasts and typically associated with river mouths in the intertidal zone in depths of 0.60 up to 1 m1. Similarly, many biostrome structures of the fossilized Crassostrea gryphoides are found within Cenozoic deposits of Greece2. Since Crassostrea gasar is the phyllogenetically corresponding species of Crassostrea gryphoides, it is investigated whether the fossil biostromes formed under environmental conditions similar to those favored by modern Crassostrea gasar and if growth rate and longevity are comparable. A biostrome from the Tortonian of Heraklion district, Crete island (southern Greece) was studied to investigate the paleoenvironmental conditions and the life history of these oysters. The shells are big, ranging up to 40 cm in length, thick and positioned mainly horizontally. The biostrome is approximately 2 m in thickness and a few meters in length. Individual oysters, associated fauna and lithologic samples were collected. Paleoenvironmental interpretation was based on the analysis of the oyster taphonomy, the associated fauna and the sclerochronology/stable isotopic geochemistry of the oyster shells. The biostrome is observed in sandy marl which laterally contains Veneridae, Melongena, Terebralia bidentata and oligospecific microfossils, mainly Ammonia beccarii and Miliolids. Borings by many ichnotaxa occur on the external and internal surface of the oyster shells during the pre and /or post-mortem. Using a micromill, successive samples were taken along the hinge/ligament region of an oyster for isotopic analyses. The δ18O values ranged from -2.9 to 0.1. The wide range of values supports the interpretation of changing environmental conditions. The δ13C values ranged from -2.6 to -0.1. A correlation between δ18O and δ13C was observed. The profiles exhibit cyclicity with respect to isotopic and Sr/Ca ratios

  16. Gas geochemistry and preliminary CO2 output estimation from the island of Kos (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Longo, Manfredi; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Gagliano, Antonina Lisa

    2017-04-01

    Several gas samples have been collected from natural gas manifestations at the island of Kos. Most of them are found underwater along the southern coast of the island. On land two anomalous degassing areas have been recognized. These are characterised by lack of vegetation and after long dry periods by the presence of sulfate salts efflorescences. Almost all the gases are CO2-dominated (CO2 ranging from 88 to 99%) with minor amounts of N2 (up to 7%) and CH4 (up to 2.6%). Only the on-land manifestations have also significant contents of H2 (up to 0.2%) and H2S (up to 0.3%). Only one underwater manifestation is N2-dominated (61-99%) with CH4 (0.6-11%) and low CO2 (0.1-26%). The isotopic composition of He shows values ranging from 0.84 to 6.72 R/RA indicating a sometimes strong mantle contribution with the highest values measured in two of the most strongly degassing areas (Paradise Beach and Volcania). C-isotopic composition of CO2 is in the range from -3.6 to 0.6 ‰ vs V-PDB with most of the values around -1‰ indicating a mixed mantle - limestones origin. Isotopic composition of CH4, ranging from -21.5 to 2.8‰ for C and from -143 to 36‰ for H, points to a geothermal origin with sometimes evident secondary oxidation processes. CO2-flux measurements showed values up to about 10,000 g/m2/day in the areas of Volcania and Kokkino Nero and up to about 50,000 g/m2/day at Paradise beach. Preliminary CO2 output estimations gave values of 8.8 and 4 tons/day for the first two areas respectively and of 2.7 tons/day for the latter. The total output of the island (15.5 tons/day) should be considered a minimum estimation because of the incomplete coverage of the area and is comparable to the other active volcanic/geothermal systems of Greece (Nisyros, Nea Kameni and Methana).

  17. Present and future responses of growing degree days for Crete Island in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Climate affects practically all the physiological processes that determine plant life (IPCC, 2014). A major challenge and objective of the agricultural science is to predict the occurrences of specific physical or biological events. For this reason, flower phenology has been widely used to study the flowering in plant species of economic interest, and in this concept, temperature and heat units have been widely accepted as the most important factors affecting processes leading to flowering. The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). Determination of GDD is useful for achieving a better understanding of the flowering season development in several plant species, and for forecasting when flowering will occur (Paparrizos and Matzarakis, 2017). Temperature and GDD represent two important spatially-dynamic climatic variables, as they both play vital roles in influencing forest development by directly affecting plant functions such as evapotranspiration, photosynthesis and plant transpiration. Understanding the spatial distribution of GDD is crucial to the practice of sustainable agricultural and forest management, as GDD relates to the integration of growth and provides precise point estimates (Hasan et al., 2007; Matzarakis et al., 2007). The aim of the current study was to estimate and map through downscaling spatial interpolation and multi-linear regression techniques, the future variation of GDD for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, under the A1B and B1 IPCC emission scenarios in relation with the reference periods for Crete Island in Greece. Future temperature data were obtained, validated and analysed from the ENSEMBLES European project. A combination of dynamical and statistical approach was conducted in order to downscale and perform the spatial interpolation of GDD through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that in the future, GDD will be increased and the existing

  18. Present and Future Human Thermal Bioclimatic Conditions and Impacts on Respiratory Admissions in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and quantify the association between present and future human thermal bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of respiratory problems in Heraklion city, Crete Island, Greece. The bioclimatic conditions were analyzed in terms of the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), which are two of the most popular human thermal indices based on the human energy balance. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the application of the bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Future changes in meteorological parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness (used as input variables in the estimation of PET and UTCI) were derived by the simulations of the regional atmospheric climate model KNMI under SRES A1B, for the near (2021-2050) and far (2071-2100) future with respect to the reference period 1961-1990. Generalized linear models (GLM) with Poisson distribution were applied to the time series of daily numbers of outpatients (total, males and females) with respiratory problems against present and future bioclimatic changes, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased respiratory admissions. For the near future, the projected increase of 1.6oC in PET may result in reducing the incidence of respiratory problemsby almost 3% against 7.5% in the far future, when PET is projected to increase by 4oC.

  19. CO2 fertilization and enhanced drought resistance in Greek firs from Cephalonia Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Koutavas, Athanasios

    2013-02-01

    Growth-climate relationships were investigated in Greek firs from Ainos Mountain on the island of Cephalonia in western Greece, using dendrochronology. The goal was to test whether tree growth is sensitive to moisture stress, whether such sensitivity has been stable through time, and whether changes in growth-moisture relationships support an influence of atmospheric CO2 on growth. Regressions of tree-ring indices (ad 1820-2007) with instrumental temperature, precipitation, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) indicate that growth is fundamentally limited by growing-season moisture in late spring/early summer, most critically during June. However, this simple picture obscures a pattern of sharply evolving growth-climate relationships during the 20th century. Correlations between growth and June temperature, precipitation, and PDSI were significantly greater in the early 20th century but later degraded and disappeared. By the late 20th-early 21st century, there remains no statistically significant relationship between moisture and growth implying markedly enhanced resistance to drought. Moreover, growth experienced a net increase over the last half-century culminating with a sharp spike in ad 1988-1990. This recent growth acceleration is evident in the raw ring-width data prior to standardization, ruling out artifacts from statistical detrending. The vanishing relationship with moisture and parallel enhancement of growth are all the more notable because they occurred against a climatic backdrop of increasing aridity. The results are most consistent with a significant CO2 fertilization effect operating through restricted stomatal conductance and improved water-use efficiency. If this interpretation is correct, atmospheric CO2 is now overcompensating for growth declines anticipated from drier climate, suggesting its effect is unusually strong and likely to be detectable in other up-to-date tree-ring chronologies from the Mediterranean. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing

  20. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n. from the island of Rhodes (Greece), revealed by morphological and phylogenetic analysis (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae)

    PubMed Central

    Davolos, Domenico; Matthaeis, Elvira De; Latella, Leonardo; Vonk, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new Cryptorchestia species, Cryptorchestia ruffoi Latella & Vonk, sp. n. from the island of Rhodes in south-eastern Greece, can be distinguished on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic data. Morphological analysis and DNA sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear protein-coding genes indicated that this species is related to Cryptorchestia cavimana (Cyprus) and Cryptorchestia garbinii (Mediterranean regions, with a recent northward expansion). Results supported a genetic separation between the Cryptorchestia species of the east Mediterranean regions and those of the northeast Atlantic volcanic islands examined in this study (Cryptorchestia canariensis, Cryptorchestia gomeri, Cryptorchestia guancha, and Cryptorchestia stocki from the Canary islands, Cryptorchestia monticola from Madeira, and Cryptorchestia chevreuxi from the Azores). The Mediterranean and Atlantic Cryptorchestia species appear to be also morphologically distinct. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n., Cryptorchestia cavimana, Cryptorchestia garbinii, and Cryptorchestia kosswigi (Turkish coast) clearly have a small lobe on the male gnathopod 1 merus. This character was the main diagnostic difference between Cryptorchestia (sensu Lowry, 2013) and Orchestia. However, among the six northeast Atlantic island Cryptorchestia species only Cryptorchestia stocki has a small lobe on the merus of gnathopod 1. Reduction or loss of the lobe in the Atlantic Island species cannot be ruled out; however, molecular phylogenetic analysis leads us to presume that this lobe independently evolved between the east Mediterranean Cryptorchestia species and Cryptorchestia stocki from Gran Canaria. PMID:28331390

  1. Macrobenthic molluscs from a marine - lagoonal environmental transition in Lesvos Island (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoubas, Drosos; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Katsiaras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper describes an occurence dataset, also including numerical abundance and biomass data, pertaining to the macrobenthic molluscan assemblages from a marine - lagoonal environmental transition. The study system was the soft-substrate benthoscape of the area of the Kalloni solar saltworks (Lesvos Island, Greece). Specifically, the study area extended from the infralittoral zone of the inner Kalloni Gulf (marine habitat) to the bottoms of the first two evaporation ponds of the Kalloni solar saltworks (lagoonal habitat). Bottom sediment samples (3 replicates) were collected with a Van Veen grab sampler (0.1 m2) at four sampling sites, along a 1.5 km long line transect that spanned the marine - lagoonal environmental transition. A total of four surveys were carried out seasonally in 2004.  A total of 39,345 molluscan individuals were sorted out of the sediment samples and were identified to 71 species, belonging to the Gastropoda (36), Bivalvia (34) and Scaphopoda (1) classes. Numerical abundance and wet biomass (with shells) data are included in the dataset. New information The dataset described in the present paper partially fills a significant gap in the scientific literature: Because ecological research of coastal lagoons has seldom explicitly considered the marine - lagoonal habitats interface, there are no openly accessible datasets pertaining to the particular structural component of the transitional waters benthoscapes of the Mediterranean Sea. Such datasets could prove valuable in the research of the structure and functioning of transitional waters benthoscapes. The present dataset is available as a supplementary file (Suppl. material 1) and can also be accessed at http://ipt.medobis.eu/resource?r=kalloni_saltworks_phd. PMID:27932914

  2. Energy flux parametrization as an opportunity to get Urban Heat Island insights: The case of Athens, Greece (Thermopolis 2009 Campaign).

    PubMed

    Loupa, G; Rapsomanikis, S; Trepekli, A; Kourtidis, K

    2016-01-15

    Energy flux parameterization was effected for the city of Athens, Greece, by utilizing two approaches, the Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) and the Bulk Approach (BA). In situ acquired data are used to validate the algorithms of these schemes and derive coefficients applicable to the study area. Model results from these corrected algorithms are compared with literature results for coefficients applicable to other cities and their varying construction materials. Asphalt and concrete surfaces, canyons and anthropogenic heat releases were found to be the key characteristics of the city center that sustain the elevated surface and air temperatures, under hot, sunny and dry weather, during the Mediterranean summer. A relationship between storage heat flux plus anthropogenic energy flux and temperatures (surface and lower atmosphere) is presented, that results in understanding of the interplay between temperatures, anthropogenic energy releases and the city characteristics under the Urban Heat Island conditions.

  3. Mold allergy in the Mediterranean Island of Crete, Greece: a 10-year volumetric, aerobiological study with dermal sensitization correlations.

    PubMed

    Gonianakis, Michael I; Neonakis, Ioannis K; Gonianakis, Ioannis M; Baritaki, Maria A; Bouros, Demosthenis; Potamias, George; Kontou-Fili, Kalliopi S

    2006-01-01

    Mold spores are universal outdoor and indoor components and generally are recognized as possible sources of respiratory allergies. A 10-year aerobiological study (1994-2003) was conducted in the city of Heraklion located at the center of the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece. Eighteen mold species exhibiting a normal annual seasonal pattern have been identified and recorded. The most abundant mold species include (a) Cladosporium, (b) Alternaria, (c) miscellaneous ascosporas (d) Leptosphaeria, and (e) basidiomycete Coprinus. In parallel, 571 atopic individuals were tested by skin-prick tests (SPTs). Among these 571 patients 42.5% showed dermal positivity to mold allergens. Most positive SPTs were those of (a) Alternaria, (b) Cladosporium, (c) Fusarium, (d) Aspergillus, and (e) Mucor. No linear relationship was noted between SPT frequencies and percentages of mold species. All of these aerobiological and sensitization data constitute a firm basis for further medical and biological research and application.

  4. Comparison of SAMO and ab initio model calculations for pyrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, B. J.; Collins, M. P. S.

    1981-04-01

    The simulated ab initio molecular orbital (SAMO) technique and the ab initio model calculation of Butkus and Fink are compared for the pyrazine molecule. Both methods construct the wave function of pyrazine from wave functions of smaller pattern molecules. The methods are complimentary in that the strengths of one are often the weakness of the other. The SAMO method gives good orbital energies which are not given by the ab initio model method, while the latter is more readily extended to the ionic protonated molecules.

  5. Pythagoras of Samos (c. 580-c. 500 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematician, born in Samos, Ionia, taught by Thales and Anaximander on Miletus, founded a philosophical and religious school in Croton (in southern Italy) whose members, as well as having various beliefs that we would recognize as religious, believed that at its deepest level, reality is mathematical in nature. Pythagoras observed that vibrating strings produce harmonious tones when the ratios ...

  6. Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), we at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) will present the development process for the exposure of quality-controlled data and core vocabularies managed by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative using Semantic Web technologies. Participants in the SAMOS initiative collect continuous navigational (position, course, heading, speed), meteorological (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity) parameters while at sea. One-minute interval observations are packaged and transmitted back to COAPS via daily emails, where they undergo standardized formatting and quality control. The authors will present methods used to expose these daily datasets. The Semantic Web, a vision of the World Wide Web Consortium, focuses on extending the principles of the web from connecting documents to connecting data. The creation of a web of Linked Data that can be used across different applications in a machine-readable way is the ultimate goal. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard language and format used in the Semantic Web. RDF pages may be queried using the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). The authors will showcase the development of RDF resources that map SAMOS vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies such as those found in the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server. Each individual SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described in an RDF resource page. These RDF resources will define each SAMOS vocabulary term and provide a link to the mapped vocabulary term (or multiple terms) served externally. Along with enhanced retrieval by parameter, time, and location, we will be able to add additional parameters with the confidence that they follow an international standard. The production of RDF

  7. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results of Zakynthos Alikes lagoon, which is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeonvironmental changes, we based on the data of a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics, were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis were carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the study sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP and 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times 1.03 mm/yr. The rate of sedimentation was higher until mid-Holocene while decrease after to 1.03 mm/yr, results which are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  8. Quantitative Flow Morphology, Recent Volcanic Evolution and Future Activity of the Kameni Islands, Santorini, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. R.; Pyle, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    The fundamental importance of careful field investigation, and the long term value of detailed published volcanic eruption reports, means that much can be learned about eruption processes even many decades after an eruption has ceased. We illustrate this with reference to the young dacite lava flows of the Kameni islands, Santorini. We have created a new, high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) for the intra-caldera Kameni islands, Santorini, based on new data from a recent airborne laser-ranging (LiDAR) and aerial photography mission. This DEM reveals a wealth of surface morphological information on the dacite lava flows that comprise the Kameni islands. When combined with a re-analysis of contemporary eruption accounts, these data yield important insights into the physical properties and flow behaviour of dacite magma during slow effusive eruptions. Kameni island lava flows exhibit the classic surface morphologies associated with viscous aa: levees, and compression folds. Levee heights and flow widths are consistent with a Bingham rheology, and lava yield strengths of (3 to 7)× 104 Pa. Analysis of the shapes of flow edges confirms that the blocky aa dacite lava flows show a scale-invariant morphology with a typical fractal dimension that is indistinguishable from Hawaiian aa. Dome-growth rates during eruptions of the Kameni islands in 1866 and 1939 are consistent with a model of slow inflation of a dome with a strong crust. Lava domes on the Kameni islands have a crustal yield strength (4×107 Pa) that is lower by a factor of 2 to 4 than the domes at Pinatubo and Mount St Helens. The dome height model, combined with the apparent time-predictable nature of volcanic eruptions of the Kameni islands, allows us to predict that the next eruption of the Kameni islands will last for > 2.6 years (in 2005) and will involve formation of a dome ca. 115 to 123 m high.

  9. An Alternative Georoute: Approaching the Geological Heritage of the SE Part of Milos Island, Greece, via Hiking, Kayaking and Snorkeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrogonatos, Constantinos; Galanopoulos, Evangelos; Anastasatou, Marianthi; Chadjimpaloglou, Petros; Xydous, Stamatios

    2015-04-01

    Milos Island is located at the southwest edge of the Cyclades island complex, in the central part of the Aegean archipelago. It is part of the modern South Aegean Volcanic Arc (SAVA), which belongs to the Hellenic subduction zone. This on-going process has resulted in the coexistence of complex geological formations and geodynamic phenomena with sceneries of incomparable natural beauty, in many areas along the arc. Among them, Milos Island is widely known to be a place of astonishing geological and natural wealth, combined with a cultural heritage that dates back to the 8th millennium BC. As geotourism has been rapidly evolving worldwide over the last years, Milos Island was among the first places in Greece that developed a network of geotrails and featured many sites of special interest in terms of geology, volcanology and geoarchaeology. This study proposes an original georoute through land and sea, which aims t? emerge both overland and underwater areas of special interest. It is a novel way to approach the geological and cultural wealth of Milos and focuses on the Aghia Kiriaki area, at the South part of the island. This alternative georoute includes hiking, kayaking and snorkeling, and anyone who follows it, can be guided to a significant number of important geological, volcanic, morphological and geoarcheological sites, in a relatively narrow area, combining athletic activities as well. The proposed georoute has a total length of 3,2 km and an estimated time of completion of about 4 hours. It starts from Aghia Kiriaki area, where visitors can see remnants of one of the island's collapsed calderic domes in a panoramic view towards the East. In the same site, volcanic emanations create impressive scenery, which introduces the participants to aspects of the island's geologic and volcanic history. After about 800 meters of hiking, throughout an area that is dominated by products of phreatic eruptions, Aghia Kiriaki beach is the next stop. Impressive findings of

  10. Socioeconomic dimensions of changes in the agricultural landscape of the Mediterranean basin: a case study of the abandonment of cultivation terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kizos, Thanasis; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes illustrate the impact of human actions on physical settings, and differential human pressures cause these landscapes to change with time. Our study explored changes in the terraced landscapes of Nisyros Island, Greece, focusing on the socioeconomic aspects during two time periods using field data, cadastral research, local documents, and published literature, as well as surveys of the islanders. Population increases during the late 19th to early 20th centuries marked a significant escalation of terrace and dry stone wall construction, which facilitated cultivation on 58.4% of the island. By the mid-20th century, the economic collapse of agricultural activities and consequent emigration caused the abandonment of cultivated land and traditional management practices, dramatically reducing farm and field numbers. Terrace abandonment continued in recent decades, with increased livestock grazing becoming the main land management tool; as a result, both farm and pasture sizes increased. Neglect and changing land use has led to deterioration and destruction of many terraces on the island. We discuss the socioeconomic and political backgrounds responsible for the land-use change before World War II (annexation of Nisyros Island by the Ottoman Empire, Italy, and Greece; overseas migration opportunities; and world transportation changes) and after the war (social changes in peasant societies; worldwide changes in agricultural production practices). The adverse landscape changes documented for Nisyros Island appear to be inevitable for modern Mediterranean rural societies, including those on other islands in this region. The island's unique terraced landscapes may qualify Nisyros to become an archive or repository of old agricultural management techniques to be used by future generations and a living resource for sustainable management.

  11. Synergies between Urban Heat Island and Heat Waves in Athens (Greece), during an extremely hot summer (2012).

    PubMed

    Founda, Dimitra; Santamouris, Mattheos

    2017-09-08

    Heat waves (HWs) are recognized as a serious threat for human health worldwide, with urban areas being more vulnerable due to the urban heat island (UHI) effect and population density. Yet, in the climate change context, HWs are becoming more frequent, stronger and longer, which, coupled with intensifying urbanization exacerbates thermal risk for urban residents. Despite the profound impact of this global phenomenon there is no clear consensus so far on possible synergies between UHIs and HWs. The study sheds light on the complex synergies between UHIs and HWs focusing on coastal sites. A quite challenging period comprising five HW episodes during summer 2012 in Athens (Greece) was selected for analysis. A positive feedback between UHIs and HWs was found, with intensification of the average UHI magnitude by up to 3.5 °C during HWs, compared to summer background conditions. Our results contribute significantly to understanding synergies between UHIs and HWs that may strongly increase thermal risk in cities and vulnerability of urban population.

  12. Evolution of a calcite marble shear zone complex on Thassos Island, Greece: microstructural and textural fabrics and their kinematic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestmann, Michel; Kunze, Karsten; Matthews, Alan

    2000-11-01

    The deformation history of a monophase calcite marble shear zone complex on Thassos Island, Northern Greece, is reconstructed by detailed geometric studies of the textural and microstructural patterns relative to a fixed reference system (shear zone boundary, SZB). Strain localization within the massive marble complex is linked to decreasing P- T conditions during the exhumation process of the metamorphic core complex. Solvus thermometry indicates that temperatures of 300-350°C prevailed during part of the shear zone deformation history. The coarse-grained marble protolith outside the shear zone is characterized by symmetrically oriented twin sets due to early coaxial deformation. A component of heterogeneous non-coaxial deformation is first recorded within the adjacent protomylonite. Enhanced strain weakening by dynamic recrystallization promoted strong localization of plastic deformation in the ultramylonite of the calcite shear zone, where high strain was accommodated by non-coaxial flow. This study demonstrates that both a pure shear and a simple shear strain path can result in similar crystallographic preferred orientations (single c-axis maximum perpendicular to the SZB) by different dominant deformation mechanisms. Separated a-axis pole figures (+ a- and - a-axis) show different density distributions with orthorhombic texture symmetry in the protolith marble and monoclinic symmetry in the ultramylonite marble consistently with the observed grain fabric symmetry.

  13. Anatomy of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Sifnos Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Vincent; Laurent, Valentin; Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Jolivet, Laurent; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Since 35 Ma, the kinematics of the Aegean domain has been mainly controlled by the southward retreat of the African slab, inducing back-arc extension. The main structures and associated kinematics are well constrained, but the kinematics of deformation before 35 Ma, coeval with the exhumation of blueschists and eclogites of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, is still poorly understood. The earlier Eocene syn-orogenic evolution is strongly debated and very different geometrical interpretations and kinematic histories have been proposed in the literature. This study focuses on the high-pressure and low-temperature (HP-LT) parageneses spectacularly exposed and well preserved on Sifnos Island. The new field work provides new structural constraints on the tectonic history of HP-LT units generated in the subduction zone during the Eocene. It further shows how lithological heterogeneities localize strain within an accretionary wedge and how the localisation of strain evolves through time during exhumation. We show, through new geological and metamorphic maps, cross-sections and analyses of kinematic indicators, that Sifnos is characterized by shallow-dipping shear zones reactivating weak zones due to competence contrasts or earlier tectonic contacts. Structures and kinematics associated with these shear zones, show a top-to-the-N to -NE ductile deformation. The lower part of the tectonic pile shows a downward gradient of shearing deformation and is actually a thick top-to-the-NE shear zone, which we name the Apollonia Shear Zone. Through time shearing deformation tends to localize downward, leaving the upper part of the subduction complex preserved from late deformation. The present-day shape and topography of the island is largely controlled by late brittle faults reworking the earlier ductile shear zones. Comparing with the nearby island of Syros, we propose a new tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, which partly explains the different degrees of

  14. Socioeconomic Dimensions of Changes in the Agricultural Landscape of the Mediterranean Basin: A Case Study of the Abandonment of Cultivation Terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kizos, Thanasis; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes illustrate the impact of human actions on physical settings, and differential human pressures cause these landscapes to change with time. Our study explored changes in the terraced landscapes of Nisyros Island, Greece, focusing on the socioeconomic aspects during two time periods using field data, cadastral research, local documents, and published literature, as well as surveys of the islanders. Population increases during the late 19th to early 20th centuries marked a significant escalation of terrace and dry stone wall construction, which facilitated cultivation on 58.4% of the island. By the mid-20th century, the economic collapse of agricultural activities and consequent emigration caused the abandonment of cultivated land and traditional management practices, dramatically reducing farm and field numbers. Terrace abandonment continued in recent decades, with increased livestock grazing becoming the main land management tool; as a result, both farm and pasture sizes increased. Neglect and changing land use has led to deterioration and destruction of many terraces on the island. We discuss the socioeconomic and political backgrounds responsible for the land-use change before World War II (annexation of Nisyros Island by the Ottoman Empire, Italy, and Greece; overseas migration opportunities; and world transportation changes) and after the war (social changes in peasant societies; worldwide changes in agricultural production practices). The adverse landscape changes documented for Nisyros Island appear to be inevitable for modern Mediterranean rural societies, including those on other islands in this region. The island’s unique terraced landscapes may qualify Nisyros to become an archive or repository of old agricultural management techniques to be used by future generations and a living resource for sustainable management.

  15. The Stypsi-Megala Therma porphyry-epithermal mineralization, Lesvos Island, Greece: new mineralogical and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periferakis, Argyrios; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Melfos, Vasilios; Mavrogonatos, Constantinos; Alfieris, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    anomalies to those previously reported by [1] but also provide additional information in a series of elements: Cu (up to 843 ppm), Mo (up to 76 ppm), Au (up to 120 ppb), Pb (up to 339ppm), Zn (up to 815ppm), Se (up to 10ppm), Te (up to 4 ppm), Bi (up to 4 ppm) and Sn (up to 23 ppm). The Lesvos Island may be interpreted as the westward extension of the Eocene-Miocene Biga peninsula Cu-Au porphyry belt, with potential for future discoveries of Cu-Mo±Au deposits in the Aegean area. [1] Voudouris P, Alfieris D (2005) New porphyry-Cu±Mo occurrences in northeastern Aegean/Greece: Ore mineralogy and transition to epithermal environment. In: Mao J, Bierlein FP (eds) Mineral deposit research: Meeting the global challenge. Springer Verlag, 473-476; [2] Kontis E, Kelepertsis AE, Skounakis S (1994) Geochemistry and alteration facies associated with epithermal precious metal mineralization in an active geothermal system, northern Lesvos, Greece. Min Deposita, 29:430-433; [3] Muntean JL, Einaudi MT (2000) Porphyry Gold Deposits of the Refugio District, Maricunga Belt, Northern Chile. Econ. Geology, 95, 1445-1472.

  16. Human thermal bioclimatic conditions associated with acute cardiovascular syndromes in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the association between bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of admissions for non-fatal acute cardiovascular (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, decompensation of heart failure) syndromes (ACS) registered by the two main hospitals in Heraklion, Crete Island, during a five-year period 2008-2012. The bioclimatic conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Mean daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness, were acquired from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service). These parameters were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the use of the radiation and bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Generalized linear models (GLM) were applied to time series of daily numbers of outpatients with ACS against bioclimatic variations, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased coronary heart disease incidence, especially in the elderly and males. Additionally, heat stress plays an important role in the configuration of daily ACS outpatients, even in temperate climate, as that in Crete Island. In this point it is worth mentioning that Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks, which are associated in many cases with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). Taking into consideration the projected increased ambient temperature in the future, ACS

  17. REWSET: A prototype seismic and tsunami early warning system in Rhodes island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerasimos; Argyris, Ilias; Aggelou, Savvas; Karastathis, Vasilis

    2014-05-01

    Tsunami warning in near-field conditions is a critical issue in the Mediterranean Sea since the most important tsunami sources are situated within tsunami wave travel times starting from about five minutes. The project NEARTOWARN (2012-2013) supported by the EU-DG ECHO contributed substantially to the development of new tools for the near-field tsunami early warning in the Mediterranean. One of the main achievements is the development of a local warning system in the test-site of Rhodes island (Rhodes Early Warning System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis - REWSET). The system is composed by three main subsystems: (1) a network of eight seismic early warning devices installed in four different localities of the island, one in the civil protection, another in the Fire Brigade and another two in municipality buildings; (2) two radar-type (ultrasonic) tide-gauges installed in the eastern coastal zine of the island which was selected since research on the historical earthquake and tsunami activity has indicated that the most important, near-field tsunami sources are situated offshore to the east of Rhodes; (3) a crisis Geographic Management System (GMS), which is a web-based and GIS-based application incorporating a variety of thematic maps and other information types. The seismic early warning devices activate by strong (magnitude around 6 or more) earthquakes occurring at distances up to about 100 km from Rhodes, thus providing immediate mobilization of the civil protection. The tide-gauges transmit sea level data, while during the crisis the GMS supports decisions to be made by civil protection. In the near future it is planned the REWSET system to be integrated with national and international systems. REWSET is a prototype which certainly could be developed in other coastal areas of the Mediterranean and beyond.

  18. The Messinian/Early Pliocene transition in Eastern Mediterranean: New palaeoenvironmental data from the Kalamaki section (Zakynthos Island, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Tzortzaki, Evi; Filippidi, Amalia; Nikolaou, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the Miocene-Pliocene microfaunal development, and to discuss its palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical significance. The studied section (Kalamaki section) is located in the eastern part of Zakynthos Island (western Greece). Details on lithology and stratigraphy of the section are given in Dermitzakis (1978) and Nikolaou (1986). Planktonic species indicate that sediments span the interval which corresponds to MPL1 Zone (Zanclean, early Pliocene) which is in accordance with the biostratigraphic configuration of Rouchy et al. (1992) and Pierre et al. (2006). The studied interval is characterized by the Sphaeroidinellopsis Acme Zone and the presence of Globorotalia margaritae. The recognized succession of microfossil assemblages serves to interpret the evolution of some palaeoenvironmental factors (waterdepth, salinity and oxygen content), whereas the planktonic foraminiferal zonation allows an age assignment to the events. During the Late Messinian brackish conditions became dominant. The early Pliocene is characterized by a sudden return to well oxygenated, open marine, outer shelf conditions. At the basal part of the record, the high abundance of the 'shallow water component' of the benthic foraminiferal fauna indicates a well-vegetated environment with either normal marine salinity or a tendency to hyposalinity (e.g. Murray, 2006). Open marine conditions are indicated by the diversity of benthic and planktonic foraminifera. The abundance of Lenticulina spp., Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Planulina ariminensis, Pullenia, Gyroidina, and the virtual absence of Cibicidoides dutemplei and other typical shelf-taxa, suggest an upper bathyal waterdepth of 300-400 m (cf. Pujos, 1976; Jorissen, 1988). Partly, the abundance of Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Bulimina costata and Uvigerina peregrina reflect fluctuations in oxygen content of the bottom waters. However, extreme conditions were never reached during deposition. The

  19. The search for arsenotrophs in the arsenic-rich marine shallow-water hydrothermal system off Milos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. E.; LaRowe, D. E.; Planer-Friedrich, B.; Gilhooly, W. P.; Fike, D. A.; Druschel, G.; Amend, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    The highest arsenic concentrations discovered to date for any submarine hydrothermal vent system were recently measured in fluids discharging in the shallow waters (<20 m) off the southeast coast of Milos Island, Greece [1]. Hydrothermal fluids are highly sulfidic (> 3mM), hot (50-115C), and acidic (pH 5). However, as a result of subsurface phase separation, both high Cl (47% more than in seawater) and low Cl fluid (depleted by up to 66%), have been observed. Arsenic concentrations were enriched in both types of fluids, and reached as high as 79 μM, far exceeding the concentrations typically found in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) and back-arc basin (BAB) fluids (typically <10 μM). Arsenic speciation analysis of the hydrothermal fluids revealed abundant arsenite, arsenate, as well as mono-, di-, and trithioarsenates, suggesting several possibilities for arsenic metabolism in this unique environment. Preliminary thermodynamic calculations inidicate that several arsenic-based metabolisms are possible in this shallow hydrothermal system. Arsenite oxidation, in particular, is among the most exergonic reactions. For instance, As(III) coupled to oxygen is the most favorable, with approximate energy yields of -67 kJ per mole of electron transferred, followed by arsenite coupled with nitrate (-61 kJ (mol e-)-1. Arsenate is also a plausible, though less exergonic, metabolite, when coupled to H2, CH4, H2S, and NH4+ (-37, -50, -22, and -27 kJ (mole e-)-1, respectively). Thioarsenic reactions, at least at 25C, can also be sources of energy, though sparingly at the concentrations at which they have been measured. Geochemical data and thermodynamic calculations guided the design of growth media focusing on arsenic metabolism, and inoculations were performed using hydrothermal fluids and sediment slurries. Thus far, enrichments in autotrophic As(V) reduction with H2S as the electron donor were successful, and efforts to enrich other arsenotrophs from this environment continue. DNA was

  20. Transitional directions from Early Miocene Lavas at Samothraki Island, N. Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondopoulou, Despina; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Zananiri, Irene; Voidomatis, Philippos

    2014-05-01

    The North Hellenic orogen was formed at the expenses of the Variscan and Jurassic oceanic crust, preserved in scattered ophiolitic massifs. Strong post-orogenic extension with coeval emplacement of granodioritic plutons, deposition of clastic sediments and calc-alkaline volcanism appeared from the Middle-Late Eocene to the Middle Miocene. These widespread Tertiary volcanic products, outcropping also in north and central Aegean, have been extensively studied as far as their emplacement conditions are concerned. In parallel, they have been the object of several palaeomagnetic studies, all consistently indicating a general pattern of clockwise rotations. The island of Samothraki belongs to the Circum-Rhodope Zone, a series of Triassic-Jurassic continental margin sedimentary and volcanic rocks that surround the crystalline Serbo-Macedonian and Rhodope Massifs. The geochronological data, along with the morphology and the eruption mode of the Samothraki Tertiary volcanic rocks, allow a division into three groups, namely the "old", the "intermediate" and the "young" ones. Several radiometric ages have been assigned to the three groups, spanning from 25 to 19 Ma. Isotope and trace-element modeling do not favor a continuous evolution of these magmas. The major granitic and volcanic formations of the island have been subjected to paleomagnetic studies. The results revealed a complex pattern with coexisting straightforward directions and puzzling ones, only within the younger lavas, mostly domes. These samples are characterized by a medium temperature component with an eastward declination and a positive inclination and a high temperature one with a negative inclination. Experiments of absolute paleointensity have been conducted on twenty-eight samples from 3 separate domes with ages between 22-19 Ma using a modified Thellier technique with very narrow 4°C to 10°C temperature steps between 500°C and 595°C. The results indicate significantly low field values at two sites

  1. Spatial Heterogeneity of Bacterial Populations along an Environmental Gradient at a Shallow Submarine Hydrothermal Vent near Milos Island (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Stefan M.; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Muyzer, Gerard; Ziebis, Wiebke; Kuever, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of bacterial populations at a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Aegean Sea close to the island of Milos (Greece) was examined at two different times by using acridine orange staining for total cell counts, cultivation-based techniques, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. Concurrent with measurements of geochemical parameters, samples were taken along a transect from the center of the vent to the surrounding area. Most-probable-number (MPN) counts of metabolically defined subpopulations generally constituted a minor fraction of the total cell counts; both counting procedures revealed the highest cell numbers in a transition zone from the strongly hydrothermally influenced sediments to normal sedimentary conditions. Total cell counts ranged from 3.2 × 105 cells ml−1 in the water overlying the sediments to 6.4 × 108 cells g (wet weight) of sediment−1. MPN counts of chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria varied between undetectable and 1.4 × 106 cells g−1. MPN counts for sulfate-reducing bacteria and dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria ranged from 8 to 1.4 × 105 cells g−1 and from undetectable to 1.4 × 106 cells g−1, respectively. DGGE revealed a trend from a diverse range of bacterial populations which were present in approximately equal abundance in the transition zone to a community dominated by few populations close to the center of the vent. Temperature was found to be an important parameter in determining this trend. However, at one sampling time this trend was not discernible, possibly due to storm-induced disturbance of the upper sediment layers. PMID:10473383

  2. Modelling of radon concentration peaks in thermal spas: application to Polichnitos and Eftalou spas (Lesvos Island--Greece).

    PubMed

    Vogiannis, Efstratios; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios

    2008-11-01

    A mathematical model was developed for the description of radon concentration peaks observed in thermal spas. Modelling was based on a pragmatic mix of estimation and measurement of involved physical parameters. The model utilised non-linear first order derivative mass balance differential equations. The equations were described and solved numerically by the use of specially developed computer codes. To apply and check the model, measurements were performed in two thermal spas in Greece (Polichnitos and Eftalou-Lesvos Island). Forty different measurement sets were collected to estimate the concentration variations of indoor-outdoor radon, radon in the entering thermal water, the ventilation rate, the bathtub surface and the bath volume. Turbulence and diffusive phenomena involved in radon concentration variations were attributed to a time varying contact interfacial area (equivalent area). This area was approximated with the use of a mathematical function. Other model parameters were estimated from the literature. Through numerical solving and use of non-linear statistics, the time variations of the equivalent area were estimated for every measurement set. Computationally applied non-linear uncertainty analysis showed less sensitive variations of the coefficients of the equivalent area compared to parameters of the model. Modelled and measured radon concentration peaks were compared by the use of three statistical criteria for the goodness-of-fit. All the investigated peaks exhibited low error probability (***p<0.001) for all criteria. It was concluded that the present modelling achieved to predict the measured radon concentration peaks. Through adequate selection of model parameters the model may be applied to other thermal spas.

  3. Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated major and trace elements in the Rhodes Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulos, Georgios; Manoli, Evangelia; Kouras, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini

    2012-08-15

    Ambient concentrations of PM(10) and associated major and trace elements were measured over the cold and the warm season of 2007 at two sites located in the Rhodes Island (Greece), in Eastern Mediterranean, aimed at source apportionment by Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor modeling. Source chemical profiles, necessary in CMB modeling, were obtained for a variety of emission sources that could possibly affect the study area, including sea spray, geological material, soot emissions from the nearby oil-fuelled thermal power plant, and other anthropogenic activities, such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, wood burning, and uncontrolled open-air burning of agricultural biomass and municipal waste. Source apportionment of PM(10) and elemental components was carried out by employing an advanced CMB version, the Robotic Chemical Mass Balance model (RCMB). Vehicular emissions were found to be major PM(10) contributor accounting, on average, for 36.8% and 31.7% during the cold period, and for 40.9% and 39.2% in the warm period at the two sites, respectively. The second largest source of ambient PM(10), with minor seasonal variation, was secondary sulfates (mainly ammonium and calcium sulfates), with total average contribution around 16.5% and 18% at the two sites. Soil dust was also a remarkable source contributing around 22% in the warm period, whereas only around 10% in the cold season. Soot emitted from the thermal power plant was found to be negligible contributor to ambient PM(10) (<1%), however it appeared to appreciably contribute to the ambient V and Ni (11.3% and 5.1%, respectively) at one of the sites during the warm period, when electricity production is intensified. Trajectory analysis did not indicate any transport of Sahara dust; on the contrary, long range transport of soil dust from arid continental regions of Minor Asia and of biomass burning aerosol from the countries surrounding the Black Sea was considered possible.

  4. Diversity and phylogenetic analyses of bacteria from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in Milos island (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Giovannelli, Donato; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Manini, Elena; Yakimov, Michail; Vetriani, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Studies of shallow-water hydrothermal vents have been lagging behind their deep-sea counterparts. Hence, the importance of these systems and their contribution to the local and regional diversity and biogeochemistry is unclear. This study analyzes the bacterial community along a transect at the shallow-water hydrothermal vent system of Milos island, Greece. The abundance and biomass of the prokaryotic community is comparable to areas not affected by hydrothermal activity and was, on average, 1.34 × 108 cells g−1. The abundance, biomass and diversity of the prokaryotic community increased with the distance from the center of the vent and appeared to be controlled by the temperature gradient rather than the trophic conditions. The retrieved 16S rRNA gene fragments matched sequences from a variety of geothermal environments, although the average similarity was low (94%), revealing previously undiscovered taxa. Epsilonproteobacteria constituted the majority of the population along the transect, with an average contribution to the total diversity of 60%. The larger cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences was related to chemolithoautotrophic Sulfurovum spp., an Epsilonproteobacterium so far detected only at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The presence of previously unknown lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria could be related to the abundance of organic matter in these systems, which may support alternative metabolic strategies to chemolithoautotrophy. The relative contribution of Gammaproteobacteria to the Milos microbial community increased along the transect as the distance from the center of the vent increased. Further attempts to isolate key species from these ecosystems will be critical to shed light on their evolution and ecology. PMID:23847607

  5. Diversity and phylogenetic analyses of bacteria from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in Milos island (Greece).

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Donato; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Manini, Elena; Yakimov, Michail; Vetriani, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Studies of shallow-water hydrothermal vents have been lagging behind their deep-sea counterparts. Hence, the importance of these systems and their contribution to the local and regional diversity and biogeochemistry is unclear. This study analyzes the bacterial community along a transect at the shallow-water hydrothermal vent system of Milos island, Greece. The abundance and biomass of the prokaryotic community is comparable to areas not affected by hydrothermal activity and was, on average, 1.34 × 10(8) cells g(-1). The abundance, biomass and diversity of the prokaryotic community increased with the distance from the center of the vent and appeared to be controlled by the temperature gradient rather than the trophic conditions. The retrieved 16S rRNA gene fragments matched sequences from a variety of geothermal environments, although the average similarity was low (94%), revealing previously undiscovered taxa. Epsilonproteobacteria constituted the majority of the population along the transect, with an average contribution to the total diversity of 60%. The larger cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences was related to chemolithoautotrophic Sulfurovum spp., an Epsilonproteobacterium so far detected only at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The presence of previously unknown lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria could be related to the abundance of organic matter in these systems, which may support alternative metabolic strategies to chemolithoautotrophy. The relative contribution of Gammaproteobacteria to the Milos microbial community increased along the transect as the distance from the center of the vent increased. Further attempts to isolate key species from these ecosystems will be critical to shed light on their evolution and ecology.

  6. Petrogenetic implications from Pleistocene volcanic rocks of Psathoura Island, Greece: Mineral chemistry and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Vougioukalakis, Georgios; Economou, Georgios; Xirokostas, Nikolaos; Tarenidis, Dimitrios; Ioakim, Chrysanthi; Karageorgis, Aristomenis

    2015-04-01

    Psathoura Island in the North Aegean area (39.498/24.181) is the only subaerial Quaternary (0.7 Ma) volcanic center along the extension of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the Aegean area. Outcrops consist of a small number of overlapping subaerial basaltic lava flows. These lavas are enriched in LREE [(La/Yb)CN=12.2-18.1], with no Eu anomaly. The Psathoura volcanics are porphyritic with a fine grained holocrystalline trachytic groundmass. Olivine phenocryst cores (Fo=75.4-85.6), differ from phenocryst rims and groundmass olivines, which have lower Fo compositions. Few anhedral olivine xenocrysts are more Fo rich (Fo=86.2-88.5, CaO

  7. Heavy metal contamination of soils at old mining sites on Thasos Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kelepertsis, A E; Bibou, A

    1991-03-01

    Thasos Island has a long history of metalliferous mining, the first mining activities having been initiated by the Phoenicians during the seventh century. The mineralogy of the mineralisation includes primary minerals (galena, sphalerite) and secondary oxidised minerals (smithsonite, cerussite). In the soils studied only secondary minerals were found. Clay minerals (kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, mixed layer clays), plagioclase, calcite and dolomite are also present in the soils. Contamination derived from the old mining sites results in extremely high levels of Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe, As, Sb, Ag, Cd in soils in the vicinity of the old workings. Since many of the Thasos mining sites are in, or adjacent to, areas of agricultural land, plants growing on the polluted sous have increased concentrations of heavy metals. This may well have a possible effect on livestock.

  8. Optimization of water resources management using SWOT analysis: the case of Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantopoulou, P.; Voudouris, K.

    2008-03-01

    Zakynthos, an island of 408 km2 in the Ionian Sea, is completely dependent on its groundwater resources for fulfilling the demands of the water supplies. The use of groundwater resources has become particularly intensive during the last decades because of the intense urbanization, the tourist development and the irrigated land expansion that took place. The main aquifers are developed in limestones (karstic), sandstones of neogene deposits (confined) and alluvial deposits (phreatic). This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydrogeological characteristics and the groundwater quality. For this investigation, groundwater level measurements, drilling data, pumping tests and chemical analyses of groundwater samples were used. The average annual consumption that is abstracted from the aquifer systems, is 4.9 × 106 m3 year-1. The exploitable groundwater reserves were estimated to be 3.3 × 106 m3 year-1. In the last decades, the total abstractions exceed the natural recharge, due to the tourist development; therefore the aquifer systems are not used safely. The results of chemical analyses showed a deterioration of the groundwater quality. According to the analyses the shallow alluvial aquifer and the confined aquifer are polluted by nitrates at concentrations in excess of 25 mg L-1. High sulphate concentrations might be related to the dissolution of gypsum. Seawater intrusion phenomena are recorded in coastal parts of aquifer systems. The increased Cl- concentrations in karstic aquifer indicate signs of overexploitation. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was applied in order to evaluate the SWOT of the groundwater resources. Moreover, some recommendations are made to assist the rational management that aim at improving the sustainability of the groundwater resources of Zakynthos Island.

  9. Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha) fauna of Greek holiday islands (Rhodes, Crete and Corfu) with first records of three species from Europe and Greece.

    PubMed

    Csabai, Zoltán; Soós, Nándor; Berchi, Gavril Marius; Cianferoni, Fabio; Boda, Pál; Móra, Arnold

    2017-02-09

    A comprehensive survey on aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha) of three Greek holiday islands, Rhodes, Crete and Corfu, was conducted from 2007 to 2010 at 237 localities. In this paper, hundreds of detailed records for 30 taxa in nine families are given. The occurrences of Rhagovelia infernalis africana Lundblad, 1936 and Velia mariae Tamanini, 1971 are confirmed and recorded for the first time from Europe sensu stricto. Additionally, some notes on morphology, taxonomy and distribution of the European species of Rhagovelia and Velia are also given, Velia mariae is recorded for the first time not only from several Greek islands, but from continental Greece and Bulgaria as well. Gerris asper (Fieber, 1860), a common European species, was also found for the first time in Greece. Furthermore, new occurrence data are given for endemic taxa; Sigara nigrolineata mendax Heiss & Jansson, 1986 and Velia rhadamantha rhadamantha Hoberlandt, 1941 (whose distribution is restricted to Crete and small adjacent islands) are very common throughout Crete, whereas Ilyocoris cimicoides jonicus (Lindberg, 1922) apparently is rare in Corfu.

  10. Trace metal-rich Quaternary hydrothermal manganese oxide and barite deposit, Milos Island, Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Stamatakis, G.; Dowling, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Cape Vani Mn oxide and barite deposit on Milos Island offers an excellent opportunity to study the three-dimensional characteristics of a shallow-water hydrothermal system. Milos Island is part of the active Aegean volcanic arc. A 1 km long basin located between two dacitic domes in northwest Milos is filled with a 35-50 m thick section of Quaternary volcaniclastic and pyroclastic rocks capped by reef limestone that were hydrothermally mineralized by Mn oxides and barite. Manganese occurs as thin layers, as cement of sandstone and as metasomatic replacement of the limestone, including abundant fossil shells. Manganese minerals include chiefly δ-MnO2, pyrolusite and ramsdellite. The MnO contents for single beds range up to 60%. The Mn oxide deposits are rich in Pb (to 3.4%), BaO (to 3.1%), Zn (to 0.8%), As (to 0.3%), Sb (to 0.2%) and Ag (to 10 ppm). Strontium isotopic compositions of the Mn oxide deposits and sulphur isotopic compositions of the associated barite show that the mineralizing fluids were predominantly sea water. The Mn oxide deposit formed in close geographical proximity to sulphide-sulphate-Au-Ag deposits and the two deposit types probably formed from the same hydrothermal system. Precipitation of Mn oxide took place at shallow burial depths and was promoted by the mixing of modified sea water (hydrothermal fluid) from which the sulphides precipitated at depth and sea water that penetrated along faults and fractures in the Cape Vani volcaniclastic and tuff deposits. The hydrothermal fluid was formed from predominantly sea water that was enriched in metals leached from the basement and overlying volcanogenic rocks. The hydrothermal fluids were driven by convection sustained by heat from cooling magma chambers. Barite was deposited throughout the time of Mn oxide mineralization, which occurred in at least two episodes. Manganese mineralization occurred by both focused and diffuse flow, the fluids mineralizing the beds of greatest porosity and

  11. Isograde mapping and mineral identification on the island of Naxos, Greece, using DAIS 7915 hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtler, Helmut; Segl, Karl; Dickerhof, Corinna; Chabrillat, Sabine; Kaufmann, Hermann J.

    2003-03-01

    The ESF-LSF 1997 flight campaign conducted by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) recorded several transects across the island of Naxos using the airborne hyperspectral scanner DAIS. The geological targets cover all major litho-tectonic units of a metamorphic dome with the transition of metamorphic zonations from the outer meta-sedimentary greenschist envelope to the gneissic amphibolite facies and migmatitic core. Mineral identification of alternating marble-dolomite sequences and interlayered schists bearing muscovite and biotite has been accomplished using the airborne hyperspectral DAIS 7915 sensor. Data have been noise filtered based on maximum noise fraction (MNF) and fast Fourier transform (FFT) and converted from radiance to reflectance. For mineral identification, constrained linear spectral unmixing and spectral angle mapper (SAM) algorithms were tested. Due to their unsatisfying results a new approach was developed which consists of a linear mixture modeling and spectral feature fitting. This approach provides more detailed and accurate information. Results are discussed in comparison with detailed geological mapping and additional information. Calcites are clearly separated from dolomites as well as the mica-schist sequences by a good resolution of the mineral muscovite. Thereon an outstanding result represents the very good resolution of the chlorite/mica (muscovite, biotite)-transition defining a metamorphic isograde.

  12. The Topology of Cyclones Related with Rain Events in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanidou, Vasiliki; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    The topology of cyclones triggering rain events for the case study of Crete island is examined, for different parameters of analysis. The varying parameters concern different rain scenarios, seasonality, historical and projection data as well as different realizations of the EC-EARTH model. The data of 70 gauging stations all over Crete are evaluated, along with the cyclones from ERA-Interim reanalysis data and different realizations of EC-EARTH model data for the historical period 1979-2010. Cyclones and cyclone tracks identification is established with the use of Melbourne algorithm on Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) field. Gridded probability maps of the cyclones in the European region are estimated according to the selected scenario. The various probability maps are compared to identify differences in the climatology of cyclones triggering rain in different cases. The study of the topological differences in cyclones gives insight to the way the organization of cyclones changes due to seasonality or different rain scenarios. Also, an evaluation of the EC-EARTH model is possible in order to examine the cyclones behavior in future projections.

  13. Strain and flow in the metamorphic core complex of Ios Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizera, Marcel; Behrmann, Jan H.

    2016-10-01

    We have analysed strain and flow kinematics in the footwall of the South Cyclades Shear Zone (SCSZ), an important tectonic boundary within the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline Complex exposed on Ios Island, Cyclades, Aegean Sea. Coarse-grained augen gneisses in the basement unit flooring the SCSZ and forming a metamorphic core complex are excellently suited to measure finite strain using the Fry method and estimate the vorticity number ( W k) of flow with the "blocked-object" method. The results show that Oligo-Miocene exhumation of the basement unit during extension brought approximately 70 % N-S crustal stretching and up to 40 % subvertical shortening in a plane strain environment ( k = 0.99). Linear down-section strain decrease constrains a zone of contact deformation of the SCSZ of about 1.5 km thick. Kinematic vorticity number estimates suggest little deviation from pure shear ( W k = 0.26). Finite strain and W k are not correlated, indicating that the Ios basement and the overlying cover units were stretched compatibly. While the SCSZ is a localized zone of high strain, net displacement, however, may be restricted to about ten kilometres. This has important repercussions on large-scale tectonic models for extension in the Aegean.

  14. The Mt. Ochi melange (South Evvia Island, Greece): a case study for HP metamorphism and syn-convergent exhumation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustaka, Eleni; Soukis, Konstantinos; Huet, Benjamin; Lozios, Stylianos; Magganas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The Attic-Cycladic complex (central Aegean Sea, Greece) experienced profound extension since at least the Oligo-Miocene boundary during which the previously thickened crust was reworked by a series of detachments forming the NE directed North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the SSW directed West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). South Evvia Island is located at the northwestern part of the Attic Cycladic complex linking the highly thinned and polymetamorphosed central part of the complex with mainland Greece. Furthermore, greenschists-facies retrograde metamorphism has only partially overprinted the HP mineral assemblages. Consequently, it is an ideal area to study tectonic processes associated with subduction, HP metamorphism and subsequent exhumation from eclogitic depths to the surface. Geological mapping in 1:2:000 scale revealed that the tectonostratigraphy of Mt. Ochi includes three distinct units all metamorphosed in HP conditions followed by greenschist facies overprint. These units are from top to bottom a) the Ochi Unit, a thick metavolcanosedimentary sequence with some intensely folded cipoline marble intercalations and isolated occurrences of metabasic rocks b) the ophiolitic mélange (metagabbros, metawherlites, peridotites, metabasites within a metasedimentary+serpentinite matrix) and c) the lowermost Styra Unit, a cipoline marble-dominated unit with thin mica schists and rare quartzitic layers often boudinaged. The thrust fault that was responsible for the juxtaposition of these three units acted in an early stage during HP metamorphism and it was isoclinally folded and sheared by the following syn-metamorphic deformation events. Detailed structural study in meso- and microscopic scale combined with petrological and geochemical analyses of the Mt Ochi rocks led to the distinction of at least three syn-metamorphic and two post-metamorphic deformation episodes that affected all units. The oldest structure identified is a relic foliation formed

  15. Sulfur isotope systematics of microbial mats in shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, Milos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhooly, W. P.; Fike, D. A.; Amend, J. P.; Price, R. E.; Druschel, G.

    2011-12-01

    Milos is an island arc volcano venting submarine magmatic fluids directly into overlying seawater. Our study sites are located in an extensive shallow-water hydrothermal vent field less than 200 m offshore of Paleochori Bay in 5 m water depth. The vent fluids are highly sulfidic (> 3mM), at high-temperature (50-115C), and acidic (pH 5). The seafloor vent features include large patches (> 1 m2) of white microbial mats, patches of yellow elemental sulfur, and sediments stained orange by arsenic sulfides. The microbial communities that populate the shallow-sea hydrothermal vents stand in stark contrast to other nearshore environments typically found at wave base and within the photic zone. We explore sulfur isotope patterns along sharp environmental gradients established between ambient seawater and the efflux of vent fluids in the effort to better understand resource exploitation by microbial mat communities living in extreme conditions. Pore water samples, push-cores, biofilms, and water column samples were collected by SCUBA along sampling transects radiating out from the center of white mats into background sediments. We analyzed these samples for δ34S of dissolved sulfate, sulfide, elemental sulfur, and mineral sulfides (iron monosulfides and pyrite). Free gas sulfides collected directly from vents had δ34S values ranging +2.1 to +2.8%. Pore water sulfide, collected from below white mats with δ34S values ranging +1.9 to +2.9%, was isotopically similar to free gas samples. High pore water sulfate concentrations (8-25 mM) coupled with 34S-enriched pore water sulfides are not geochemical signatures indicative of dissimilatory sulfate reduction (where δ34Ssulfide <<0%). The δ34S of pore water sulfates collected across one dive site show a mixing trend, ranging from +18% in the center, +20% mid-transect, and +21% in sediments outside of the mat. This trend may be caused by oxidation of vent sulfides by entrained seawater (δ34S = +21.2%). We continue to target

  16. Non extensive statistical physics properties of the 2003 (Mw6.2), Lefkada, Ionian island Greece, aftershock sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, F.; Karakostas, V.; Papadimitriou, E.

    2012-04-01

    On 14 August 2003, Lefkada Island (Central Ionian) was affected by an Mw=6.2 earthquake. Due to a dense temporary seismic network that operating immediately after the main shock occurrence, hundreds of aftershocks were recorded and located with high precision whereas relocation of the main shock and early strong aftershocks became also feasible. Thus, the spatio-temporal distribution of aftershocks onto the main and the neighboring fault segments was investigated in detail enabling the recognition of four distinctive seismicity clusters separated by less active patches. The aftershock spatiotemporal properties studied here using the concept of Non-Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP). The cumulative distribution functions of the inter-event times and the inter-event distances are estimated for the data set in each seismicity cluster and the analysis results to a value of the statistical thermodynamic qT and qD parameters for each cluster, where qT varies from 1.15 to 1.47 and qD from 0.5 to 0.77 for the interevent times and distances distributions respectively. These values confirm the complexity and non-additivity of the spatiotemporal evolution of seismicity and the usefulness of NESP in investigating such phenomena. The temporal structure is also discussed using the complementary to NESP approach of superstatistics, which is based on a superposition of ordinary local equilibrium statistical mechanics. The result indicates that the temporal evolution of the Lefkada aftershock sequence in clusters A, B and C governed by very low number of degrees of freedom while D is less organized seismicity structure with a much higher number of degrees of freedom. Acknowledgments. This work was supported in part by the THALES Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled "Integrated understanding of Seismicity, using innovative Methodologies of Fracture mechanics along with Earthquake and non extensive

  17. Interactions between extensional shear zones and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions: the example of Ikaria Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Valentin; Beaudoin, Alexandre; Jolivet, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Rabillard, Aurelien

    2014-05-01

    The Aegean domain is an ideal place to investigate the development of Metamorphic Core Complex (MCC) and to study the role of syn-tectonic granites on their development. MCCs of the Aegean domain are dynamically associated with a few major detachments, especially the North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS), which have accommodated a large part of the crustal thinning during the Oligocene and Miocene. The NCDS extends toward the East within the Simav Detachment that has exhumed the northern high-temperature part of the Menderes massif. The transition between the NCDS and the Simav Detachments is located above a major tear in the Aegean slab whose effects on lithospheric deformation are far from understood. The Aegean granitoids were emplaced during the Middle Miocene within a zone of high-temperature during the episode of slab tearing and recorded increments of extensional tectonics within this complex zone. Ikaria Island (Cyclades, Greece) is a metamorphic dome intruded by three Miocene granitoid plutons (one I-type intrusion, two S-type ones) including the largest pluton of the Aegean domain. However, geometry, structures and kinematics are still debated with several recent yet conflicting studies. We have reconsidered the geology of Ikaria to settle the geological and structural context of these plutons. The intrusion depth of the Raches granite has been estimated at 10-15 km by the Al-in-hornblende barometer. Our field study has led to the identification of two major structures: the Gialiskari and Kalamos detachments, which we interpret as belonging to the NCDS. A study of deformation in the granites has highlighted a continuum during cooling that can be described in three stages: i) magmatic deformation, ii) high-temperature ductile deformation from late magmatic stage until complete crystallization of the granite, iii) low-temperature brittle deformation. Throughout this evolution, the same top-to-the-NE shearing

  18. Rheological Heterogeneity Along the Deep Subduction Interface: Insights from Exhumed HP Metamorphic Rocks Exposed on Syros Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowski, A. J.; Behr, W. M.; Stockli, D. F.; Ashley, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    Rheological properties of subduction interface shear zones control several aspects of subduction zone dynamics, including shear tractions along the plate interface, rates and amounts of exhumation, and depths and styles of seismicity. We document the rheological properties of a deep subduction interface using exhumed eclogite and blueschist-facies rocks from Syros Island, Greece. These rocks were subducted to ~60 km depth during the Eocene, were exhumed part way along the top of the subducting slab, and were then exhumed to upper-crustal levels beneath Miocene detachment faults. Localization of strain during exhumation allowed prograde fabrics to be preserved. The PT conditions (400-550°C, 12-16kb) of these fabrics are comparable to conditions of episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) observed in some modern subduction zones, including Cascadia. Two types of prograde fabrics were distinguished after analyzing macro-scale distributions of strain and microphysical mechanisms of creep in metamafic rocks. Type 1 fabrics contain eclogite pods boudinaged within a blueschist matrix. The eclogites show brittle deformation with cross-cutting veins containing high-pressure minerals. Deformation in matrix blueschists is accommodated by rigid rotation of amphibole and diffusion creep in plagioclase. Type 2 fabrics contain blueschists and eclogites that are isoclinally folded at similar wavelengths, thus are approximately isoviscous. Deformation is again accommodated by diffusion creep in blueschists, but by dislocation creep of omphacite in eclogites. These deformation types characterizing boudin-matrix and isoviscous rheologies of blueschist-eclogite assemblages appear to reflect varying amounts of finite strain, but work is in progress to determine whether they also record different PT conditions. The transition from Type 1 to 2 fabrics represents a significant change in bulk viscosity and seismic anisotropy, and may correspond to a transition from ETS-type behavior

  19. Syntectonic fluids redistribution and circulation coupled to quartz recrystallization in the ductile crust (Naxos Island, Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebenaller, Luc; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Jessell, Mark; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Hibsch, Christian

    2016-11-01

    The presence of external fluids in metamorphic rocks has been shown to have a profound impact on rock rheology as high fluid pressure processes promote embrittlement and favor ductile deformation by recrystallization. Moreover, it has been proposed that brittle deformation guides fluid circulation and that intracrystalline deformation is responsible for fluid redistribution at the grain scale. Nevertheless, the amount of fluid present in the metamorphic ductile crust is debated and the nature of the interaction between fluids and recrystallization processes are not clearly identified. The aim of this study is to document the spatial distribution of fluid inclusions relative to microstructures in quartz grains and aggregates from veins sampled in amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks, exposed in the island of Naxos in the center of the Attic-Cycladic Metamorphic Complex in Greece. The veins, ranging from discordant structures with sharp contacts to totally transposed structures into the metamorphic foliation, display a large variety of microstructures and fluid evidences interpreted as recording exhumation processes through the ductile/brittle transition: (i) remnants of primary quartz grains contain abundant CO2-H2O fluid inclusions, decrepitated for the most part, distributed in clusters and in fluid inclusion trails, (ii) fluid inclusions with a similar composition are less abundant in recrystallized zones and in subgrains but are concentrated along grain boundaries indicating that grain boundary migration is responsible for redistribution of CO2-H2O fluids, (iii) subgrains of the last generation are almost devoid of fluid inclusions and are characterized by thick grain boundaries with abundant metamorphic fluids locally forming a continuous film. CO2-H2O fluid inclusions aligned in parallel, regularly spaced intragranular trails, locally rooted into grain boundaries, are interpreted as reflecting the spatial redistribution of these fluids in quartz slip planes

  20. Brittle-ductile deformation and kinematics during exhumation of metamorphic complexes below detachments: examples from Sifnos and Syros Islands (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Roche, Vincent; Laurent, Valentin; Jolivet, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Exhumation of metamorphic core complexes is accompanied by progressive strain localization within large-scale shear zones, which may evolve into long-lived bounding detachments affected by ductile to brittle deformation. Despite the well-studied P-T-t patterns of individual nappes, their relative timing, mode and kinematics of exhumation are debated. In this study, in the frame of the Mediterranean syn- and post-orogenic deformation, examples of shear zone hierarchization and strain localization from Sifnos and Syros islands (Cyclades, Greece) are documented in detail in order to explain 3D-geometries and regional kinematics and are here tentatively related to the Ar/Ar ages available in literature. During the Eocene syn-orogenic uplift, the degree of strain localization increases progressively from blue- to green-schists deformation. Some of these shear zones where then reworked during the Oligo-Miocene post-orogenic deformation in different, usually warmer P-T conditions and a new episode of strain localisation, and an evolution toward brittle faulting, either along the main detachments or along newly created faults (as in Sifnos). Such shear zones demonstrate long-lived efficiency, especially where fluid circulation enhance retrograde metamorphic reactions. During Neogene, the final shape and exhumation of domes is the result of crustal thinning and brittle-ductile deformation in the whole Cycladic region. Although stretching directions along individual kilometric scale shear zones may be complex in the details, a simple general picture is shown for the Oligo-Miocene episode, less so for the Eocene one. Most Cycladic islands show a top-to-the-North sense of ductile shear from the syn-orogenic to the post-orogenic stage, this is the case of Sifnos for instance. The syn-orogenic stretching is however often more E-W trending, as exemplified by Syros and Tinos. The top-North or Top-East sense of shear is attributed to the NCDS for the post-orogenic stage and to a

  1. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb detrital zircon study and structural observations of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Heraklia Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskari, Sofia; Soukis, Konstantinos; Lozios, Stylianos; Stockli, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    At the central and southern part of the Attic-Cycladic complex (Aegean Sea, Greece) significant exposures of the Cycladic Basement Unit orthogneisses and meta-sediments are observed. These are mainly cropping out in Paros, Naxos and Ios islands and to a much lesser extend in Sikinos Island and they comprise Variscan (granitic) orthogneisses and late Paleozoic metasediments. In this paper we present evidence of a hitherto not identified possible outcrop of the Cycladic Basement in Heraklia Island (central Cyclades). The small Heraklia Island, situated at the center of the Attic-Cycladic core complex in the Aegean, between the islands of Naxos and Ios, consists of rocks that are attributed to the Cycladic Blueschist Unit. The tectonostratigraphy of Heraklia Island includes: a) a lowermost schist sequence with interbedded lenses of felsic orthogneisses whose primary relationship is obliterated by later subduction and exhumation related shearing b) A 200m thick variegated marble sequence with sparse calk-schist intercalations, which is isoclinally folded together with 100m thick overlying quartz-mica and calc-schists schists. All rocks comprise a penetrative foliation formed by greenschist facies mineral assemblages but in the uppermost schists relics of the Eocene HP event are found in the form of glaucophane inclusions within albite porphyroblasts. A mylonitic planar fabric with a cataclastic overprint is observed at the base of the marble sequence and the roof of the underlying schists and orthogneisses. It is accompanied by a N-S stretching lineation, subparallel to isoclinal folding in all scales. Numerous kinematic indicators reveal a top-to-N sense of shear thus linking the Heraklia rocks kinematically with the crustal extensional detachment systems of both Naxos and Ios islands. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb detrital zircon study of schists and gneisses is used in order to identify provenance and to elucidate the tectonostratigrachic relationship between the lower and upper

  2. The Effect of Harvesting on the Composition of Essential Oils from Five Varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Cultivated in the Island of Kefalonia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsasi, Gerasimia; Mailis, Theofilos; Daskalaki, Artemis; Sakadani, Eleni; Razis, Panagis; Samaras, Yiannis; Skaltsa, Helen

    2017-09-18

    Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period. Each basil variety showed a unique chemical profile, but also the essential oil composition within each variety seems to be differentiated, affected by the harvests and the cultivation site.

  3. The Effect of Harvesting on the Composition of Essential Oils from Five Varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Cultivated in the Island of Kefalonia, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Tsasi, Gerasimia; Mailis, Theofilos; Daskalaki, Artemis; Sakadani, Eleni; Razis, Panagis; Samaras, Yiannis; Skaltsa, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period. Each basil variety showed a unique chemical profile, but also the essential oil composition within each variety seems to be differentiated, affected by the harvests and the cultivation site. PMID:28927018

  4. Establishing physiographic provinces for an integrative approach of the coastal zone management - The case of Rhodes Island, Aegean Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Vasileios; Angelos Hatiris, Georgios; Sioulas, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic natural system affected by terrestrial and marine processes as well as human intervention. The sediments derived by the land and supplied by the adjacent catchment are reworked and distributed according to the prevailing hydrodynamic regime. Based on inland and coastal physiography of Rhodes Island, six (6) main Physiographic Provinces were identified, which incorporate 56 main drainage basins and 168 interfluves. Moreover, the variety of coastal types was mapped and the total length of the island's coastline ( 285 km) was measured by using geospatial tools (ArcGIS and Google Earth). The coastline is comprised of depositional sandy beaches (44.5%), rocky coasts (47%) and coasts altered from anthropogenic constructions (8.5%). The Physiographic Provinces were defined in order to facilitate an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) scheme for Rhodes Island and also adaptation measures. Overexploitation of the island's natural coastal environment by the tourism industry, mainly in the northern and northeastern parts of the island, left a series of adverse effects on the coastal area, such as erosion of beaches, water and energy overconsumption and land degradation.

  5. [X-ray dosimetry using SAMOS type read-only memory].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, A

    1988-06-01

    An X-ray dosimeter has been investigated with the use of a PROM of a SAMOS (stacked gate avalanche injection type MOS) structure. The SAMOS is employed as a memory IC. The SAMOS is different from a FAMOS (floating gate avalanche injection type MOS) in the presence of a control gate, with the use of this electrode, the analog amount of electrical charge accumulated in the floating gate can be measured. The X-ray dose can be determined by decreasing the amount of electron injected into floating gate by avalanche effect through X-ray irradiation. This dosimeter shows good linearity and flat energy response. The dosimeter has no effect on fading.

  6. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  7. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  8. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  9. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  11. On the influence of the urban heat island on the cooling load of a school building in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagiorgas, H. S.; Mihalakakou, G.

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, measured in the Greater Athens Area (GAA), on the energy consumption of a typical modern school building. The energy performance of the selected building has been calculated using an accurate, extensively validated, transient simulation model for 17 different sites of the GAA, for the summer period. Calculations showed that the urban heat island phenomenon affects remarkably the thermal behavior of the school building, as suburban areas presented much lower cooling loads. The cooling load values fluctuated between 3304.3 kWh for the rural stations and 14,585.1 kWh for the central stations (for the year 2011) or between 3206.5 kWh and 14,208.3 kWh (for the year 2012), respectively. Moreover, the mean monthly cooling load values varied between 0.4-2 kWh/m2 for the rural stations and 4-6.9 kWh/m2 for the central stations, for the selected time period. Furthermore, a neural network model was designed and developed in order to quantify the contribution of various meteorological parameters (such as the mean daily air temperature values, the mean daily solar radiation values, the average wind speed and the urban heat island intensity) to the energy consumption of the building and it was found that the urban heat island intensity is the predominant parameter, influencing remarkably the energy consumption of the typical school building.

  12. A 10-year aerobiological study (1994-2003) in the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece: trees, aerobiologic data, and botanical and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Gonianakis, Michael I; Baritaki, Maria A; Neonakis, Ioannis K; Gonianakis, Ioannis M; Kypriotakis, Zacharias; Darivianaki, Eleftheria; Bouros, Dimosthenis; Kontou-Filli, Kalliopi

    2006-01-01

    Pollen grains from the plant cover of a given area participate largely in the composition of aeroflora (pollen and molds) of this area. Association of allergic respiratory disorders with concentration of allergenic particles in the atmosphere is well documented, and aerobiologic studies are of great relevance. A 10-year volumetric aerobiologic study was conducted in the city of Heraklion, located in the center of the north-shore of the island of Crete, Greece. Main allergenic families and genera encountered were, in descending order of frequency Oleaceae, Quercus, Platanaceae, Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Populus, Moraceae, and Corylaceae. Concentrations noted for most of these aeroallergens were much lower than those reported from other European regions. In parallel, an atopic population of 576 individuals, exhibiting allergic symptoms mainly of the respiratory tract were subjected to a battery of skin-prick tests. A fair degree of agreement between total pollen counts and positive skin-prick test frequencies for the families of Oleaceae, Platanaceae, and Cupressaceae was noted. On the contrary a poor degree of concordance was noted for the rest of the families and genera.

  13. European radar altimeter calibration and sea-level monitoring site for Jason-1 and Envisat at the island of Gavdos, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertikas, Stelios P.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Drakopoulos, Panos; Palamartchouk, Kirill

    2003-02-01

    An absolute sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration permanent facility is being established on the isle of Gavdos, south of the island of Crete, Greece. This calibration facility has been chosen because Gavdos is under a crossing point of the ground-tracks of TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1, and adjacent to an ENVISAT pass. Satellite altimeter missions will be evaluated at that site using external measurements from tide gauges, GPS, a DORIS beacon, meteorological sensors, wave height sensors, airborne campaigns for gravity and sea surface topography, water vapor radiometry, solar atmospheric spectrometry, GPS buoys, altimeter transponder, Satellite Laser Ranging, etc. The mean sea level and the earth's tectonic deformation field in the region will be also determined accurately. The GAVDOS project has started in December 2001 and has been in the context of an international calibration/validation effort of the Jason-1 Science Working Team. This paper describes the objectives, current status and future plans for the establishment of the GAVDOS calibration facility for satellite altimeter missions.

  14. Interplay between active and past tectonics in the Hellenic Arc (Greece): Geological and geomorphic evidences from Kythira Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; de Gelder, Gino; Delorme, Arthur; Lacassin, Robin; Armijo, Rolando

    2016-04-01

    The Hellenic Arc undergoes the largest convergence velocity and highest seismic activity among Mediterranean subduction systems. The outer-arc high islands of the Hellenic Arc are thus key to understand the mode of deformation of the crust during subduction and the mechanisms behind vertical motions at the front of overriding plates, here and elsewhere. Kythira Island, located between SW Peloponnese and NE Crete, provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the interaction between past and active tectonics in the Hellenic Arc. The recent uplift of the Kythira Island is marked in its landscape as paleosurfaces, marine terraces, abandon valleys and gorges. Together with the sedimentary record of the island and its geologic structures, we attempt to reconstruct its tectonic evolution since the latest Miocene. Here, we present exceptionally detailed geological and geomorphological maps of the Kythira Island based on fieldwork, Pleiades satellite imagery and 2-m resolution DEM, as well as the analyses of marine terraces and river network morphometrics. Pliocene or younger infill sequences rest atop of Palaeocene or older rocks in several marine basins in the island. In the largest marine basin, we found a stratigraphic sequence with a (tilted) continental conglomerate at the base, passing upwards to a disconformal subhorizontal conglomerate, calcarenites and fine sands, and terminating with a marine conglomerate. This marine conglomerate acts as a "cap rock" that marks the topography and shapes the highermost, and most extensive, low-relief surface. Overall, the infill sequence onlaps basement with the exception of the western margin where normal faults partly controlled the deposition of its lower sector. These faults reactivated older Hellenic fold-and-thrust structures, parallel to the subduction trench, and were not active during the maximum marine transgression that led to the deposition of the subhorizontal part of the infill sequence, including the topmost

  15. The Data Management System for the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. R.; Arko, R. A.; Bourassa, M. A.; Hu, J.; McDonald, M.; Rettig, J.; Rolph, J.

    2009-12-01

    The data assembly center (DAC) for the SAMOS initiative has developed and implemented an automated data management system that collects, formats, quality controls, distributes, and archives near real-time surface marine data from research vessels. A SAMOS is a computerized data logging system that continuously records navigational (ship’s position, course, speed, and heading), meteorological (winds, air temperature, pressure, moisture, rainfall, and radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity, conductivity, florescence) parameters while the vessel is at sea. The SAMOS initiative relies on the high-quality instrumentation purchased and deployed by the research vessel operators and does not provide instrumentation to the vessels. Currently, the SAMOS initiative receives measurements recorded at 1-min intervals and derived from higher frequency samples (on the order of 1 Hz). As of 2009, 21 research vessels provide routine SAMOS observations to the DAC. The data management system automatically tracks progress of the daily data acquisition and quality processing, stores metadata on instrumentation and ships, and provides data monitoring capability via a user-friendly web interface. An SQL database stores essential parameters to support tracking, data quality control, and version control for each file throughout the process. Presently, SAMOS data are acquired directly from research vessels at sea via a daily email transfer protocol. The steps of this NOAA funded protocol will be described along with lessons learned through the development process. A new DAC initiative, funded by NSF, to develop a 2nd SAMOS data acquisition protocol, via collaboration with the Rolling deck to Repository (R2R) project, will be outlined. The new protocol is envisioned to include transmission of the higher frequency meteorological and surface oceanic samples from participating vessels to real-time servers at R2R. The SAMOS DAC will access these samples for data

  16. Accretionary prism-forearc interactions as reflected in the sedimentary fill of southern Thrace Basin (Lemnos Island, NE Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelis, A. G.; Pantopoulos, G.; Tserolas, P.; Zelilidis, A.

    2015-06-01

    Architecture of the well-exposed ancient forearc basin successions of northeast Aegean Sea, Greece, provides useful insights into the interplay between arc magmatism, accretionary prism exhumation, and sedimentary deposition in forearc basins. The upper Eocene-lower Oligocene basin fill of the southern Thrace forearc basin reflects the active influence of the uplifted accretionary prism. Deep-marine sediments predominate the basin fill that eventually shoals upwards into shallow-marine sediments. This trend is related to tectonically driven uplift and compression. Field, stratigraphic, sedimentological, petrographic, geochemical, and provenance data on the lower Oligocene shallow-marine deposits revealed the accretionary prism (i.e. Pindic Cordillera or Biga Peninsula) as the major contributor of sediments into the forearc region. Field investigations in these shallow-marine deposits revealed the occurrence of conglomerates with: (1) mafic and ultramafic igneous rock clasts, (2) low-grade metamorphic rock fragments, and (3) sedimentary rocks. The absence of felsic volcanic fragments rules out influence of a felsic source rock. Geochemical analysis indicates that the studied rocks were accumulated in an active tectonic setting with a sediment source of mainly mafic composition, and palaeodispersal analysis revealed a NE-NNE palaeocurrent trend, towards the Rhodopian magmatic arc. Thus, these combined provenance results make the accretionary prism the most suitable candidate for the detritus forming these shallow-marine deposits.

  17. Fault plane modelling of the 2003 August 14 Lefkada Island (Greece) earthquake based on the analysis of ENVISAT SAR interferograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, M.; Briole, P.; Ganas, A.; Dimitrov, D.; Elias, P.; Mouratidis, A.; Charara, R.

    2016-12-01

    On 2003 August 14, a Mw = 6.2 earthquake occurred offshore the Lefkada Island in the eastern Ionian Sea, one of the most seismically active areas in Europe. The earthquake caused extended damages in the island, and a number of ground failures, especially along the north-western coast. Seven ascending ENVISAT/ASAR images are used to process six co-seismic interferograms. The ROI-PAC package is used for interferogram generation with the SRTM DEM applied in a two-pass method. The formation of the co-seismic pairs is limited due to the existence of one pre-seismic image only. Dense vegetation is covering the island, which is an obstacle in getting good coherence, since C-band images are used. Nevertheless, ground deformation, of > 56 mm (two fringes) in the line of sight of the satellite, is detected in all six co-seismic interferograms. By inversion of the data from the observed fringes, a best fitting model of the activated fault is calculated assuming a dislocation in an elastic half space. The inferred fault is a pure dextral strike-slip fault, dipping 59 ± 5° eastward, 16 ± 2 km long and 10 ± 2 km wide. It is located north of the fault of the Mw = 6.5 2015 November 17 earthquake, and a 10-15 km gap remains between the two faults. The 2003 fault does not reach the surface and its upper edge is at a depth of 3.5 ± 1 km. No evidence is found of slip south of the Lefkada Island as suggested by some seismological studies.

  18. Coseismic deformation, field observations and seismic fault of the 17 November 2015 M = 6.5, Lefkada Island, Greece earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, Athanassios; Elias, Panagiotis; Bozionelos, George; Papathanassiou, George; Avallone, Antonio; Papastergios, Asterios; Valkaniotis, Sotirios; Parcharidis, Issaak; Briole, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    On November 17, 2015 07:10:07 UTC a strong, shallow Mw6.5 earthquake, occurred on the island of Lefkada along a strike-slip fault with right-lateral sense of slip. The event triggered widespread environmental effects at the south and western part of the island while, the intensity and severity of these earthquake-induced deformations is substantially decreased towards the eastern part of the island. Relocation of seismicity and inversion of geophysical (GPS, InSAR) data indicate that the seismic fault runs parallel to the west coast of Lefkada, along the Aegean - Apulia plate boundary. The fault plane strikes N20 ± 5°E and dips to east with an angle of about 70 ± 5°. Coseismic deformation was measured in the order of tens of centimeters of horizontal motion by continuous GPS stations of NOANET (the NOA GPS network) and by InSAR (Sentinel 1 A image pairs). A coseismic uniform-slip model was produced from inversion of InSAR data and permanent GPS stations. The earthquake measured Mw = 6.5 using both the geodetic moment produced by the slip model, as well as the PGD relation of Melgar et al. (2015, GRL). In the field we observed no significant vertical motion of the shoreline or surface expression of faulting, this is consistent with the predictions of the model. The interferograms show a large decorrelation area that extends almost along all the western coast of Lefkada. This area correlates well with the mapped landslides. The 2003-2015 pattern of seismicity in the Ionian Sea region indicates the existence of a 15-km seismic gap offshore NW Cephalonia.

  19. Drag and Stability Data for Several SAMOS Configurations Obtained from Free-Flight Model Firings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Firings of several SAMOS configurations were conducted. The configurations differed in nose corner radius only. It was observed that with a decrease...coefficient increased. From these experimental data, it was concluded that a decrease in the nose corner radius resulted in a rearward movement of the center of pressure.

  20. Respiratory Disease Related Mortality and Morbidity on an Island of Greece Exposed to Perlite and Bentonite Mining Dust

    PubMed Central

    Sampatakakis, Stefanos; Linos, Athena; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Petralias, Athanasios; Dalma, Archontoula; Papasaranti, Eirini Saranti; Christoforidou, Eleni; Stoltidis, Melina

    2013-01-01

    A morbidity and mortality study took place, focused on Milos Island, where perlite and bentonite mining sites are located. Official data concerning number and cause of deaths, regarding specific respiratory diseases and the total of respiratory diseases, for both Milos Island and the Cyclades Prefecture were used. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed, adjusted specifically for age, gender and calendar year. Tests of linear trend were performed. By means of a predefined questionnaire, the morbidity rates of specific respiratory diseases in Milos, were compared to those of the municipality of Oinofita, an industrial region. Chi-square analysis was used and the confounding factors of age, gender and smoking were taken into account, by estimating binary logistic regression models. The SMRs for Pneumonia and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were found elevated for both genders, although they did not reach statistical significance. For the total of respiratory diseases, a statistically significant SMR was identified regarding the decade 1989–1998. The morbidity study revealed elevated and statistically significant Odds Ratios (ORs), associated with allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, COPD and bronchiectasis. An elevated OR was also identified for asthma. After controlling for age, gender and smoking, the ORs were statistically significant and towards the same direction. PMID:24129114

  1. Coseismic deformation and slip model of the 17 November 2015 M=6.5 earthquake, Lefkada Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, Athanassios; Melgar, Diego; Briole, Pierre; Geng, Jianghui; Papathanassiou, George; Bozionelos, George; Avallone, Antonio; Valkaniotis, Sotirios; Mendonidis, Evangelos; Argyrakis, Panagiotis; Moshou, Alexandra; Elias, Panagiotis

    2016-04-01

    On November 17, 2015 a strong, shallow earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred on the island of Lefkada along a strike-slip fault with right-lateral sense of slip. The event triggered widespread environmental effects that were mainly reported at the south and western part of the island while moving towards the eastern part, the intensity and severity of these earthquake-induced deformations were decreased. Coseismic deformation was measured in the order of tens of centimeters of horizontal motion by continuous GPS stations of NOANET (the NOA GPS network) and by InSAR (Sentinel 1A image pairs). Released interferograms from various groups show a large decorrelation area that extends almost along all the western coast of Lefkada, observation which provides strong support of landsliding. We also found extensive landslides during field work and no surface ruptures. A coseismic slip model was produced from the ascending InSAR, which it's cleaner than the GPS only and both data sets have ~90% variance reduction. The fault dips to the east-southeast at an angle of 65-70 degrees.

  2. Mapping the optimal forest road network based on the multicriteria evaluation technique: the case study of Mediterranean Island of Thassos in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tampekis, Stergios; Sakellariou, Stavros; Samara, Fani; Sfougaris, Athanassios; Jaeger, Dirk; Christopoulou, Olga

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network designed with the optimal spatial planning and the minimum environmental impacts. This paper describes the spatial layout mapping for the optimal forest road network and the environmental impacts evaluation that are caused to the natural environment based on the multicriteria evaluation (MCE) technique at the Mediterranean island of Thassos in Greece. Data analysis and its presentation are achieved through a spatial decision support system using the MCE method with the contribution of geographic information systems (GIS). With the use of the MCE technique, we evaluated the human impact intensity to the forest ecosystem as well as the ecosystem's absorption from the impacts that are caused from the forest roads' construction. For the human impact intensity evaluation, the criteria that were used are as follows: the forest's protection percentage, the forest road density, the applied skidding means (with either the use of tractors or the cable logging systems in timber skidding), the timber skidding direction, the visitors' number and truck load, the distance between forest roads and streams, the distance between forest roads and the forest boundaries, and the probability that the forest roads are located on sights with unstable soils. In addition, for the ecosystem's absorption evaluation, we used forestry, topographical, and social criteria. The recommended MCE technique which is described in this study provides a powerful, useful, and easy-to-use implement in order to combine the sustainable utilization of natural resources and the environmental protection in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  3. A new metamorphic map of Syros Island (Aegean Sea, Greece): implications for strain localization from prograde to retrograde path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Valentin; Jolivet, Laurent; Roche, Vincent; Augier, Romain; Scaillet, Stéphane; Cardello, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean domain is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean and has undergone a complex Alpine history that can be summarized in two successive episodes: (1) The formation of the Hellenides-Taurides belt due to the convergence between Eurasia and Africa; during this episode, a series of oceanic and continental nappes entered the subduction zone and were thrust on top of each other in a HP-LT metamorphic context. (2) From 35-30 Ma, an acceleration of slab retreat led to the collapse of the belt and the formation of large detachments. The island of Syros (Cycladic Blueschists belt) is worldwide known for the excellent preservation of HP-LT tectonic and metamorphic features associated with these processes, possibly providing one of the best places to study the deformation and metamorphic evolution of the subduction interface. Syros has recorded a complex deformation history during both the prograde and retrograde phase that resulted in the juxtaposition of two main units: (1) the Cycladic Blueschists Unit (CBU), and (2) the Vari unit cropping out in the SE of the island. Conflicting tectonic interpretations have been proposed to explain the evolution of the island, in part reflecting the lack of consensus about the detailed tectonic structure of the CBU. A new geological and metamorphic map of Syros is proposed to better characterize the different structures related to prograde and/or retrograde deformation stages. High-resolution field-mapping, combined with detailed structural-petrological observations, allows us to subdivide the CBU into three sub-units separated by major ductile shear zones. From top to bottom, these are: 1) the Kampos, 2) the Chroussa, and 3) the Posidonia units. Each of these units experienced similar peak eclogite-facies conditions (ca. 20 kbar - 550 °C), variably overprinted under blueschist- and greenschist-facies conditions across the nappe pile. New ductile structures have been discovered. Among those, a new large-scale top

  4. Spatial and temporal diversity of microbial mats in the shallow-water hydrothermal system of Milos Island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannelli, D.; Foustoukos, D.; Le Bris, N.; Sievert, S. M.; Yucel, M.; Vetriani, C.

    2014-12-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal vents are ubiquitous but poorly studied geothermal environments. The shallow-water hydrothermal system of Milos Island is a unique study site with vents exhibiting steep geothermal gradients in the presence of light that allows the co-occurrence of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis. The active hydrothermal emissions of the Milos hydrothermal system support complex microbial mats, which are fundamental in engineering the environmental niche in which extremophiles thrive. Because of the shallow depth, the mat community is wiped out during every major storm, when swell and wave action increase, and then it reconstitutes itself over a brief period of time (days). While most studies are focused on the diversity of the community residing in the underlying sediments, little information is available on the diversity and functioning of the mat community, and how it responds to abrupt geodynamic events. Here we report the results of a joint geochemical and microbiological survey of the microbial mats of Milos island, and analyze the spatial and temporal evolution of the mat community following a major storm. Our results show that the community is dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria, although significant variability is present within the systemm. The observed variability correlates with spatial profiles and in situ measurement of temperature and sulfide carried out over a 6 days periods, showing that tides, winds, and abrupt geodynamic events generate intermittent mixing conditions lasting for several hours to days. Diversity and metagenomic analyses of the mature mat provide further information on the metabolic potential of the community and on the influence of environmental factors on ecosystem functioning. Our work lays the basis for studies aimed at resolving the spatial and temporal dynamics of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in shallow-water hydrothermal systems.

  5. Cinnabar, arsenian pyrite and thallium-enrichment in active shallow submarine hydrothermal vents at Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kati, Marianna; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Magganas, Andreas; Baltatzis, Emmanouil; Kanellopoulos, Christos; Mavrogonatos, Constantinos

    2015-04-01

    We herein report the discovery of active cinnabar-depositing hydrothermal vents in a submarine setting at Paleochori Bay, within the offshore southeastern extension of the Milos Island Geothermal Field, South Aegean Active Volcanic Arc. Active, low temperature (up to 115 °C) hydrothermal venting through volcaniclastic material has led to a varied assemblage of sulfide and alteration mineral phases in an area of approximately 1 km2. Our samples recovered from Paleochori Bay are hydrothermal edifices composed of volcaniclastic detrital material cemented by pyrite, or pure sulfide (mainly massive pyrite) mounts. Besides pyrite and minor marcasite, the hydrothermal minerals include cinnabar, amorphous silica, hydrous ferric oxides, carbonates (aragonite and calcite), alunite-jarosite solid solution and Sr-rich barite. Among others, growth textures, sieve-textured pyrite associated with barite, alunite-jarosite solid solution and hydrous ferric oxides rims colloform-banded pyrite layers. Overgrowths of arsenian pyrite layers (up to 3.2 wt. % As and/or up to 1.1 wt. % Mn) onto As-free pyrite indicate fluctuation in As content of the hydrothermal fluid. Mercury, in the form of cinnabar, occurs in up to 5 μm grains within arsenian pyrite layers, usually forming distinct cinnabar-enriched micro-layers. Hydrothermal Sr-rich barite (barite-celestine solid solution), pseudocubic alunite-jarosite solid solution and Mn- and Sr-enriched carbonates occur in various amounts and closely associated with pyrite and/or hydrous ferric oxides. Thallium-bearing sulfides and/or sulfosalts were not detected during our study; however, hydrous ferric oxides show thallium content of up to 0.5 wt. % Tl. The following scenarios may have played a role in pyrite precipitation at Paleochori: (a) H2S originally dissolved in the deep fluid but separated upon boiling could have reacted with oxygenated seawater under production of sulphuric acid, thus causing leaching and dissolution of primary iron

  6. Preliminary results of trace elements mobility in soils and plants from the active hydrothermal area of Nisyros island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Milazzo, Silvia; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Tassi, Franco; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements, i.e. chemical constituents of rocks with concentration <1000 ppm, play a structural role in the organisms and use proteins as a carrier to their target site. Their toxicity depends on their concentration, speciation and reactions with other elements. In volcanic environments, significant amounts of trace elements discharged from gas emissions, contribute to produce air particulate. Nisyros Island is a stratovolcano located at the South Aegean active Volcanic Arc. Intense hydrothermal activity characterise the Lakki caldera. In particular, the fumaroles located in the craters of Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos Dome and the area comprising Phlegeton, Polyvotes Micros and Polyvotes Megalos discharge hydrothermal fluids rich in H2O (91- 99%), SO2 and H2S. Their temperatures are almost 100o C and H2S is highly abundant accounting for 8-26 % of the released dry gas phase. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field trip on Nisyros island, 39 samples of top soils and 31 of endemic plants (Cistus Creticus and Salvifolius and Erica Arborea and Manipuliflora) were collected in the caldera area, with the aim to investigate the distribution of concentrations of trace elements related to the contribution of deep originated fluids. Moreover, one sample of plant and soil was collected outside the caldera as local background, for comparison. All the soil samples were powdered avoiding metal contamination and they were extracted twice, using HNO3 + HCl for one extraction (closed microwave digestion) and ultrapure de- ionized water for the other one (leaching extraction). The leaves of plants were gently isolated, dried and powdered for acid microwave extraction (HNO3 + H2O2). All the solutions were analysed for major and trace elements contents by using ionic chromatography (IC) and inductively plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The preliminary results showed high enrichment of many trace elements both in plant and soils respect to the local background, in

  7. Trace metal contents in wild edible mushrooms growing on serpentine and volcanic soils on the island of Lesvos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Aloupi, M; Koutrotsios, G; Koulousaris, M; Kalogeropoulos, N

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this survey were (1) to assess for the first time the Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contents in wild edible mushrooms (Russula delica, Lactarius sanguifluus, Lactarius semisanguifluus, Lactarius deliciosus, Suillus bellinii) from the island of Lesvos, (2) to investigate the metals' variability among the species, as well as in relation to the chemical composition of the underlying soil, comparing mushrooms collected from volcanic and serpentine substrates and (3) to estimate metal intake by the consumption of the mushrooms under consideration. The trace metals in 139 samples were determined by flame or flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. The median metal concentrations were as follows: Cd: 0.14; Cr: 0.10; Cu: 8.51; Fe: 30.3; Mn: 5.26; Ni: 0.34; Pb: 0.093 and Zn: 64.50, all in mgkg(-1) dry weight. The observed concentrations are among the lowest reported for mushrooms from Europe or Turkey, while Pb and Cd values did not exceed the limits set by the European Union. Significant species- and substrate-related differences in the metal contents were found, but the variability did not follow a uniform pattern for all the metals in all mushroom species. As a general trend, the mushrooms growing in serpentine sites contained higher Cd, Cr and Ni than those from volcanic sites. The calculated bioconcentration factors (BCFs) showed that none of the mushrooms can be regarded as a metal bioaccumulator, although BCF values slightly above unity were found for Zn in the three Lactarius species, and for Cu in R. delica. The studied mushrooms could supply considerable amounts of essential metals such as Zn and Cr. On the other hand, the consumption of R. delica collected from volcanic soils could provide 12% of the Cd daily tolerable intake and as high as 53% when collected from serpentine soils. Nonetheless, our results indicate that the regular consumption of wild edible mushrooms from Lesvos is quite safe for human health.

  8. Nondestructive imaging of small size voids at Akrotiri archaeological site, Thera Island, Greece, by seismic inversion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Filippos I.; Clark, Roger A.; Louis, Ioannis F.; Makropoulos, Costas C.

    2005-07-01

    High-resolution travel time tomography was used to explore the volcanic basement rock at the Akrotiri archaeological site, Thera (Santorini) Island. The survey was carried out in the context of a large scale project, in which the protective roof cover of old monuments is being replaced by a new environmentally friendly structure, which will be supported by 95 pillars drilled into the volcanic basement rock. Man-made or natural cavities (empty or half-filled with stones), ceramics, and other materials of archaeological interest were unveiled during the excavation of foundation shafts. The objective of this geophysical investigation was the detection of such voids in the vicinity of the excavated shafts, so that the overhead structure can be better supported and protected in the case of an earthquake event. The cross-hole seismic tomography technique was adopted for this purpose. A number of synthetic examples and a calibration experiment at a shaft with a known natural cavity clearly indicated that the tomographic inversion is capable of providing high-resolution 2-D velocity models. High S/N ratios ensured field seismic records of high quality. A set of stability tests was run to check the consistency of the method. Travel time residuals verified the validity of the final velocity depth sections, while model complexity trends showed a consistency between models after a certain number of iterations. The reconstructed velocity fields were quite consistent with the expected velocity structures based on the geologic descriptions of formations encountered during the drilling of the shafts. Impressive low-velocity structures attributed to natural or man-made cavities were reported to the constructing group of engineers, and a remedial action plan was being undertaken to support and improve the ground behavior.

  9. Miocene south directed low-angle normal fault evolution on Kea Island (West Cycladic Detachment System, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglseder, Christoph; Grasemann, Bernhard; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Petrakakis, Konstantin; Schneider, David A.

    2011-08-01

    New structural, petrologic, and thermochronologic data from Kea, West Cyclades, define a crustal-scale ductile shear zone and ductile/brittle low-angle normal fault (LANF) system. Both the greenschist-facies shear zone forming the footwall and the overlying LANF zone formed during constrictional strains, with a consistent top-to-SW-S shear sense, with increasing finite strains toward higher structural levels but decreasing temperatures from footwall to hanging wall. The tectonostratigraphy comprises a ˜450 m thick footwall of shallowly dipping schists and calcite marbles representing the Intermediate Unit of the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline (ACC). Above the footwall is a ˜60 m thick highly strained LANF zone, consisting of phyllonites, cataclastic schists, ultramylonitic calcite marbles, (proto) mylonitic calcite marbles, and cohesive cataclasites that arch over the whole island. These fault rocks exhibit multistage LANFs, evolving from ductile to brittle conditions. An up to ˜50 m thick brecciated limestone and dolostone sequence forms the unmetamorphosed hanging wall which is most probably part of the Upper Unit of the ACC. Multiequilibrium P-T estimates on chlorite-white mica pairs in the footwall yield 7-5.5 kbar/360°C-450°C for inclusions in albite and epidote, 5.5-3 kbar/400°C-350°C for the main foliation, and 3-2 kbar/350°C-280°C in localized shear bands (C and C' foliations). The 40Ar/39Ar white mica footwall cooling ages demonstrate that greenschist-facies retrogression occurred between ˜21 and 17 Ma. Localized, late decimeter thick shear zones were active and dynamically recrystallized before ˜15 to 13 Ma. The LANF on Kea, together with similar structures in South Attica and the West Cyclades define the West Cycladic Detachment System, characterized by ductile to brittle top-SW-S shear sense.

  10. Quality Aspects of a Marine Aggregate Deposit off the SE Euboea Island, Greece, for its Exploitation - Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasatou, Marianthi; Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Stamatakis, Michael; Tsoutsia, Antonia; Poulos, Serafeim; Rousakis, Grigoris; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Petrakis, Stelios; Aspiotis, Konstantinos; Papavlasopoulou, Nafsika; Stamatakis, Giorgos

    2015-04-01

    Aggregates are inert materials, such as terrestrial or marine sand and gravel, composed mainly of limestone, igneous rocks and sandstone. There is an international trend of increasing demand for aggregates during the last 30 years. Thus, marine aggregate (MA) demand has been displayed a remarkably increased due to limited terrestrial deposits and strict environmental issues related to their exploitation, induced by mining legislation. Regarding offshore MA extraction, important physical and biological seabed impacts that may persist long after the completion of the MA dredging, should be addressed, according to European directives, that deal with aspects such as restoration of the influenced subaqueous mining area. The present contribution focuses on the qualitative determination of the marine sediments on inner continental shelf of SE Euboea (central Aegean Sea), concerning primarily its silica content and secondarily the various environmental issues, in order to evaluate whether or not this subaqueous deposit fulfils the requirements for its exploitation. This MA deposit was found during the implementation of the research project THALES-MARE (MIS 375655) and after taking into consideration the presence of highly siliceous coastal lithology of the South Euboea Island. The area belongs to the Attico-Cycladic geotectonic zone, and especially in the Blueschist Unit, Styra and Ochi nappes. It consists mainly of metamorphosed clastic siliceous sedimentary and calcareous, mafic and felsic volcanic rocks and serpentinites. Sixteen representative samples were analysed out of 48 were collected in June 2014, during the scientific cruise of the M/V Aegaio (Hellenic Centre for Marine Research). The grain size analysis shows that seabed sediments are granulometrically classified mostly as sand, with contaminants of finer fractions and with the sand content often to be >90%. X-Ray Diffraction analysis revealed that the predominant crystalline phase is quartz (often >70

  11. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2016-01-01

    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  12. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2017-05-01

    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  13. Natural and human causes of a flash flood in a small catchment (Rhodes Island, Greece) based on atmospheric forcing and runoff modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karalis, Sotirios; Katsafados, Petros; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Tsanakas, Konstantinos; Valkanou, Kanella

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the natural (hydro-meteorological and geomorphological) and human induced factors responsible for a flash flood event that occurred on November 22nd, 2013 in a small ungauged catchment (covering an area of about 24km2) of Rhodes Island, Greece. The flash flooding killed four people and caused over â¬10 million worth of damages located mainly around the Kremasti village. In this study the reconstruction of this extreme hydro-meteorological event is attempted by using detailed spatiotemporal rainfall information, a physically based hydrological model (LISEM) and the 1D hydraulic model HEC-RAS. Furthermore, the human impacts, which are responsible for extreme flood discharge within the drainage basin, are recorded and mapped. The major meteorological feature of this event is associated with the passage of a cold front over SE Aegean Sea. The destructive flash flood was triggered by the extreme precipitation (almost 100 mm in 4 hours was recorded at the meteorological stations closest to the flooded area). An advanced nowcasting method is applied in order to provide high spatiotemporal distribution of the precipitation over the catchment area. OpenLisem (Limbourg Soil Erosion Model) is used as a runoff model for exploring the response of the catchment. It is a freeware raster model (based on PCRaster) that simulates the surface water and sediment balance for every gridcell. It is event based and has fine spatial and temporal resolution. The model is designed to simulate the effects of detailed land use changes or conservation measures on runoff, flooding and erosion during heavy rainstorms. Since OpenLISEM provides a detailed simulation of runoff processes, it is very demanding on input data (it requires a minimum of 24 maps depending on the input options). The PCRaster GIS functionality was used to derive the necessary data from the basic maps (DEM, land unit map and map of impermeable areas). The sources for the basic maps include geological

  14. The pre-Kos Plateau Tuff Volcanic Rocks on Kefalos Peninsula (Kos Island, Dodecanese, Greece): Crescendo to the Largest Eruption of the Modern Aegean Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, O.; Schnyder, C.

    2006-12-01

    Young volcanic rocks (K-Ar ages of 3 to 0.5 Ma) from the Kefalos Peninsula (Kos Island, Dodecanese, Greece) erupted prior to the voluminous (>60 km\\ 3) Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT; Ar-Ar age of 0.16 Ma) were studied in order to better define the conditions that led to the paroxysmal eruption of the modern Aegean Arc. Two different whole-rock compositions were sampled on Kefalos peninsula; dacites (63-65 wt% SiO2) and rhyolites (75-77 wt% SiO2). Kefalos dacites are crystal-rich (>40% crystals), show high Sr-Ba contents compared to other continental arcs, and have "adakitic" Sr/Y ratios (>40). Kefalos rhyolites are typical high- SiO2 arc magmas, similar in composition and mineralogy to the KPT, but displaying lower crystallinities (<5 vol% instead of >30% in most of the KPT). The high Sr/Y ratios of the dacites is surprising in an area where the subducting slab is not particularly hot and the continental crust relatively thin (~30 km). If the low Y and high Sr-Ba contents result from the fact that magma formed deep enough to supress plagioclase and have garnet present, dacite magma generation must have occurred in the mantle. There is geochemical and mineralogical evidence for the Kefalos and KPT rhyolites being generated by fractional crystallization from magmas similar to the Kefalos dacites. However, the few distinctions between KPT and Kefalos rhyolites (KPT is more voluminous, contains more crystals, has lower whole-rock U and Th contents, and lower MgO-SiO2, but higher Al2O3-FeOtot in biotite) suggest slightly different conditions in the magma chambers. These observations, together with increasing explosivity of the volcanic products from ~3 Ma to 0.16 Ma, may indicate that the build-up to the large KPT eruption could be the result of an increase in magmatic water input in the system through time.

  15. Metamorphic heterogeneity and transient rheology of the deep subduction interface: Insights from meta-mafic blueschists and eclogites exposed on Syros Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowski, A. J.; Behr, W. M.; Ashley, K.; Stockli, D. F.

    2016-12-01

    The rheological properties of rocks that occupy the plate interface in subduction zones control many aspects of subduction dynamics, including the magnitude and depth of coupling between the slab and overriding lithosphere, the rates and amounts of exhumation of subducted material, and the depths and styles of seismicity. We investigate the rheological properties of the deep subduction interface using exhumed blueschists and eclogites exposed on Syros Island, Greece. Syros rocks were subducted to 60 km in the Eocene, were exhumed part way along the top of the subducting slab, and were ultimately exhumed beneath Miocene detachment faults. The PT conditions (450-550°C, 12-16 kbar) of these fabrics are comparable to conditions of episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) observed in several modern subduction zones. We combine structural and petrologic evidence that rocks from Kini Beach, Syros, preserve fabrics representative of prograde subduction. Garnet-epidote blueschists are isoclinally folded parallel to the dominant foliation and are locally crenulated. Quartz inclusion barometry, Si-in-phengite barometry, and mineral zonations suggest blueschists formed during prograde subduction and preserve peak P 16 kbar. Eclogites (cm- to m-scale) are present in the blueschist matrix as massive pods with abundant brittle veining, foliated pods rotated with respect to the blueschist matrix, and attenuated and/or folded foliation-parallel lenses. Apatite and quartz inclusion barometry, mineral zonations, and Grt-Cpx thermometry indicate eclogites are also prograde and preserve PT conditions 11-13 kbar, 500°C. Blueschists and foliated eclogites appear to deform by dynamic recrystallization accommodated by dislocation creep, whereas veined, massive eclogite pods do not show evidence of viscous deformation. Together, eclogites and blueschists produce a rheologically heterogeneous shear zone along the deep subduction interface. Brittle shear in eclogites transitioning to ductile

  16. Transition from SAMO to Rydberg State Ionization in C60 in Femtosecond Laser Fields

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The transition between two distinct ionization mechanisms in femtosecond laser fields at 785 nm is observed for C60 molecules. The transition occurs in the investigated intensity range from 3 to 20 TW/cm2 and is visualized in electron kinetic energy spectra below the one-photon energy (1.5 eV) obtained via velocity map imaging. Assignment of several observed broad spectral peaks to ionization from superatom molecular orbitals (SAMOs) and Rydberg states is based on time-dependent density functional theory simulations. We find that ionization from SAMOs dominates the spectra for intensities below 5 TW/cm2. As the intensity increases, Rydberg state ionization exceeds the prominence of SAMOs. Using short laser pulses (20 fs) allowed uncovering of distinct six-lobe photoelectron angular distributions with kinetic energies just above the threshold (below 0.2 eV), which we interpret as over-the-barrier ionization of shallow f-Rydberg states in C60. PMID:27934203

  17. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis V.

    Tornadoes and waterspouts occur in various parts of Greece and may often reach the media as remarkable events, depending of their intensity and the level of damage. This paper is based on a research started from the beginning of 2000 for identifying and recording tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece and evaluating their intensity and other fundamental characteristics. Search of historical events for obtaining more comprehensive tornado climatology is in progress. In an almost 3-year period, January 2000-September 2002, tornadoes and waterspouts have been reported from various parts of Greece, including western Greece, the Ionian islands and western Peloponnese mainly during autumn and winter. Northern Greece is affected by tornadic activity mostly during summer and early autumn. The geographical distribution showed a preference for tornado occurrence mainly in coastal areas. Based on this almost 3-year data sample, a mean number of six tornadoes per year has resulted, corresponding to a density of 0.45 10 -4 km -2 year -1. Maximum intensity of tornadoes recorded was rated as T6 of the Tornado and Storm Research Organization (TORRO) scale (F3 of the Fujita scale). A basic synoptic typing scheme is presented, including four synoptic circulation patterns associated to tornado occurrence.

  18. Mineralogical, stable isotope, and fluid inclusion studies of spatially related porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te mineralization, Fakos Peninsula, Limnos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornadel, Andrew P.; Voudouris, Panagiotis Ch.; Spry, Paul G.; Melfos, Vasilios

    2012-05-01

    The Fakos porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te deposit, Limnos Island, Greece, is hosted in a ~20 Ma quartz monzonite and shoshonitic subvolcanic rocks that intruded middle Eocene to lower Miocene sedimentary basement rocks. Metallic mineralization formed in three stages in quartz and quartz-calcite veins. Early porphyry-style (Stage 1) metallic minerals consist of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, bornite, sphalerite, molybdenite, and iron oxides, which are surrounded by halos of potassic and propylitic alteration. Stage 2 mineralization is composed mostly of quartz-tourmaline veins associated with sericitic alteration and disseminated pyrite and molybdenite, whereas Stage 3, epithermal-style mineralization is characterized by polymetallic veins containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, bournonite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, hessite, petzite, altaite, an unknown cervelleite-like Ag-telluride, native Au, and Au-Ag alloy. Stage 3 veins are spatially associated with sericitic and argillic alteration. Fluid inclusions in quartz from Stage 1 (porphyry-style) mineralization contain five types of inclusions. Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions, which homogenize at temperatures ranging from 189.5°C to 403.3°C have salinities of 14.8 to 19.9 wt. % NaCl equiv. Type II, liquid-vapor-NaCl, Type III liquid-vapor-NaCl-XCl2 (where XCl is an unknown chloride phase, likely CaCl2), and Type IV, liquid-vapor-hematite ± NaCl homogenize to the liquid phase by liquid-vapor homogenization or by daughter crystal dissolution at temperatures of 209.3 to 740.5 °C, 267.6 to 780.8 °C, and 357.9 to 684.2 °C, respectively, and, Type V, vapor-rich inclusions. Stage 2 veins are devoid of interpretable fluid inclusions. Quartz from Stage 3 (epithermal-style) veins contains two types of fluid inclusions, Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase (191.6 to 310.0 °C) with salinities of 1.40 to 9.73 wt. % NaCl equiv., and Type II, vapor-rich inclusions. Mixing

  19. The Mw6.5 earthquake of 17 November 2015 in Lefkada Island and the seismotectonics in the Cephalonia Transform Fault (Ionian Sea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Agalos, Apostolos; Bocchini, Gian Maria; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Vassilis; Triantafyllou, Ioanna; Kontoes, Charis; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Svigkas, Nikos; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Zygouri, Vasiliki; Tselentis, Akis

    2016-04-01

    On 17 November 2015 a Mw6.5 earthquake ruptured offshore Lefkada Isl. in Ionian Sea, Greece, causing two victims, damage and ground failures particularly in the SW part of the island, which is consistent with the ground deformation pattern shown by InSAR analysis. Fault plane solutions released by CMT, NOA and other institutes are consistent indicating strike-slip right-lateral faulting, which is typical for the area, e.g. 2003 earthquake in the same fault zone. The analysis of 30-s daily observations of the permanent GPS stations operated by NOA showed displacement vectors with a motion pattern which is in agreement with the right-lateral kinematics of the rupture. The seismic plane was striking/dipping about N24E/W75.The seismic sequence for the period from 17 Nov. to 8 Dec. 2015 was relocated, with and without the use of time residuals, applying the NNLoc algorithm on a slightly modified 9-layer seismic velocity model (Haslinger et al., 1999) and by using only phases at stations closer than 120 km from the mainshock in order to avoid the use of Pn phases. The relocation procedure obtained without the use of residuals was repeated with the HypoDD algorithm. All relocations showed that the aftershock cloud follows the fault plane strike and consists of one north and one south clusters distributed in the seismogenic layer of 4-12 km. The south cluster started to develop a few hours after the mainshock, while it presents different statistical properties as compared to the north one. These results indicate that the south cluster was likely the result of triggering effect. Digital broadband P-wave teleseismic records, selected from GDSN stations to achieve the best possible azimuthal coverage, were used to invert for the mainshock rupture history. The teleseismic waveforms were corrected for instrument response, integrated to displacement, band-pass filtered from 0.01 to 1 Hz using a Butterworth filter and finally re-sampled to 0.2 samples/s. The finite fault

  20. Elevated concentrations of arsenic, predominance of thioarsenates, and orpiment precipitation on the seafloor at the marine shallow-water hydrothermal system off Milos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. E.; Planer-Friedrich, B.; Savov, I. P.; Pichler, T.

    2009-12-01

    Marine shallow-water hydrothermal vents off Milos Island, Greece, are discharging a low pH, high temperature, highly sulfidic brine into the coastal ocean. We present here the discovery that hydrothermal fluids are extremely elevated in arsenic (maximum ~78 μM (5.9 mg/L)), or almost 3000 times sea water concentration). This is the highest concentration of arsenic reported for marine hydrothermal vents to date. Ion microprobe analysis confirmed that red hydrothermal precipitates on the seafloor are orpiment (As2S3). Two sites were investigated; Palaeochori Bay, where abundant gas discharge is surrounded by large white and red patches of hydrothermal precipitates in 3-5 meters water depth, and Spathi Bay, a deeper site (~18 meters) where large patches of white hydrothermal precipitates occur. Total arsenic was measured on the hydrothermal fluids, as well as on fluids from brown areas surrounding the white and red patches. These 4 areas contained total arsenic concentrations of 20 (brown), 640 (white), 2700 (red), and 5900 μg/L (Spathi). Arsenic speciation analysis of the hydrothermal fluids revealed arsenite, arsenate, and mono-, di-, and trithioarsenate as the major species present in hydrothermal fluids. Fluids from the red area at Palaeochori Bay contained predominantly arsenite (77 %) followed by arsenate (14 %), then monothioarsenate (7 %) and dithioarsenate (1%). The hydrothermal fluids from the Palaeochori Bay white area were dominantly arsenite (49 %) and dithioarsenate (29 %), followed by arsenate, monothioarsenate, and trithioarsenate (9, 9, and 2 %, respectively). The brown area in Palaeochori Bay contained a similar distribution of arsenic species compared to the white area, only at much lower concentrations. Finally, the Spathi Bay site, which contained overall higher H2S and lower pH, was dominated by trithioarsenate (50%), followed by arsenite (24%), dithioarsenate (22%), and low abundances of monothioarsenate (3%) and arsenate (1%). Each of the

  1. Enhancing SAMOS Data Access in DOMS via a Neo4j Property Graph Database.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallard, A. P.; Smith, S. R.; Elya, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative provides routine access to high-quality marine meteorological and near-surface oceanographic observations from research vessels. The Distributed Oceanographic Match-Up Service (DOMS) under development is a centralized service that allows researchers to easily match in situ and satellite oceanographic data from distributed sources to facilitate satellite calibration, validation, and retrieval algorithm development. The service currently uses Apache Solr as a backend search engine on each node in the distributed network. While Solr is a high-performance solution that facilitates creation and maintenance of indexed data, it is limited in the sense that its schema is fixed. The property graph model escapes this limitation by creating relationships between data objects. The authors will present the development of the SAMOS Neo4j property graph database including new search possibilities that take advantage of the property graph model, performance comparisons with Apache Solr, and a vision for graph databases as a storage tool for oceanographic data. The integration of the SAMOS Neo4j graph into DOMS will also be described. Currently, Neo4j contains spatial and temporal records from SAMOS which are modeled into a time tree and r-tree using Graph Aware and Spatial plugin tools for Neo4j. These extensions provide callable Java procedures within CYPHER (Neo4j's query language) that generate in-graph structures. Once generated, these structures can be queried using procedures from these libraries, or directly via CYPHER statements. Neo4j excels at performing relationship and path-based queries, which challenge relational-SQL databases because they require memory intensive joins due to the limitation of their design. Consider a user who wants to find records over several years, but only for specific months. If a traditional database only stores timestamps, this type of query would be complex

  2. Santorini, Greece

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-21

    This ASTER image of Santorini was acquired on November 21, 2000 and covers an area of 18 by 18 km. The eruption of Santorini in 1650 B.C. was one of the largest in the last 10,000 years. About 30 cubic kilometers of magma was erupted, forming a plinian column 36 km high. The removal of such a large volume of magma caused the volcano to collapse, producing a caldera. Ash fell over a large area of the eastern Mediterranean. The eruption probably caused the end of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. The largest island is Thera, and the smaller is Therasia. The Kameni Islands (dark in the image center) formed after the caldera., with the most recent eruptions occurring in 1950. The image is centered at 36.4 degrees north latitude, 25.4 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02673

  3. Relative Photoionization Cross Sections of Super-Atom Molecular Orbitals (SAMOs) in C60.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Elvira; Sokół, Katarzyna P; Mignolet, Benoit; Thompson, James O F; Johansson, J Olof; Remacle, Francoise; Campbell, Eleanor E B

    2015-11-25

    The electronic structure and photoinduced dynamics of fullerenes, especially C60, is of great interest because these molecules are model systems for more complex molecules and nanomaterials. In this work we have used Rydberg Fingerprint Spectroscopy to determine the relative ionization intensities from excited SAMO (Rydberg-like) states in C60 as a function of laser wavelength. The relative ionization intensities are then compared to the ratio of the photoionization widths of the Rydberg-like states, computed in time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The agreement is remarkably good when the same photon order is required to energetically access the excited states. This illustrates the predictive potential of quantum chemistry for studying photoionization of large, complex molecules as well as confirming the assumption that is often made concerning the multiphoton excitation and rapid energy redistribution in the fullerenes.

  4. Santorini, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image of Santorini was acquired on November 21, 2000 and covers an area of 18 by 18 km. The eruption of Santorini in 1650 B.C. was one of the largest in the last 10,000 years. About 30 cubic kilometers of magma was erupted, forming a plinian column 36 km high. The removal of such a large volume of magma caused the volcano to collapse, producing a caldera. Ash fell over a large area of the eastern Mediterranean. The eruption probably caused the end of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. The largest island is Thera, and the smaller is Therasia. The Kameni Islands (dark in the image center) formed after the caldera., with the most recent eruptions occurring in 1950.

    The image is centered at 36.4 degrees north latitude, 25.4 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes

  5. Fault zones ruptured during the early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0) based on the associated co-seismic surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, Efthymios L.; Mavroulis, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    The early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquake sequence comprised two main shocks with almost the same magnitude (moment magnitude (Mw) 6.0) occurring successively within a short time (January 26 and February 3) and space (Paliki peninsula in Western Cephalonia) interval. Εach earthquake was induced by the rupture of a different pre-existing onshore active fault zone and produced different co-seismic surface rupture zones. Co-seismic surface rupture structures were predominantly strike-slip-related structures including V-shaped conjugate surface ruptures, dextral and sinistral strike-slip surface ruptures, restraining and releasing bends, Riedel structures ( R, R', P, T), small-scale bookshelf faulting, and flower structures. An extensional component was present across surface rupture zones resulting in ground openings (sinkholes), small-scale grabens, and co-seismic dip-slip (normal) displacements. A compressional component was also present across surface rupture zones resulting in co-seismic dip-slip (reverse) displacements. From the comparison of our field geological observations with already published surface deformation measurements by DInSAR Interferometry, it is concluded that there is a strong correlation among the surface rupture zones, the ruptured active fault zones, and the detected displacement discontinuities in Paliki peninsula.

  6. Exploring the association of sense of coherence, and spiritual and religious beliefs in a rural population group on the island of Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Stefanaki, Ioanna N; Shea, Sue; Linardakis, Manolis; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Wynyard, Robin; Lionis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of an observation study, aimed at exploring an association between spirituality, religiousness, and sense of coherence in a population group residing in a rural area of Crete, Greece. The study was conducted during the period 2007-2009. Subjects aged 65 years and older (n = 118) living in two remote and rural villages in the Heraklion county (Crete) were eligible. Eighty-nine people (51 women and 38 men) participated. Demographic data were obtained, and all participants were asked to complete the Greek version of the self-reported Royal Free Interview for Spiritual and Religious Beliefs, and the Sense of Coherence Scale. Most participants reported strong religious beliefs and this was found to be related with increased age. Widowed participants expressed greater religiousness and spirituality (p = 0.029). The total score for Sense of Coherence was negatively correlated with gender (women have lower scores, p < 0.05), marital status (widows presented lower scores, p < 0.001), and increased age. A strong positive correlation of the Sense of Coherence score with the Spiritual Scale as measured by three questions of the Royal Free Interview was also identified (p = 0.039). The impact of gender and marital status seem to be emerging determinants in defining sense of coherence among inhabitants of rural Crete. The positive association between religious/spiritual beliefs and sense of coherence deserves further attention to promote a multidimensional approach in its study.

  7. Groundwater footprint methodology as policy tool for balancing water needs (agriculture & tourism) in water scarce islands - The case of Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Dokou, Zoi; Kokorogiannis, Andreas

    2017-10-04

    In many Mediterranean islands with limited surface water resources, the growth of agricultural and touristic sectors, which are the main water consumers, highly depends on the sustainable water resources management. This work highlights the crucial role of groundwater footprint (GF) as a tool for the sustainable management of water resources, especially in water scarce islands. The groundwater footprint represents the water budget between inflows and outflows in an aquifer system and is used as an index of the effect of groundwater use in natural resources and environmental flows. The case study presented in this paper is the island of Crete, which consists of 11 main aquifer systems. The data used for estimating the groundwater footprint in each system were groundwater recharges, abstractions through 412 wells, environmental flows (discharges) from 76 springs and 19 streams present in the area of study. The proposed methodology takes into consideration not only the water quantity but also the water quality of the aquifer systems and can be used as an integrated decision making tool for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. This methodology can be applied in any groundwater system. The results serve as a tool for assessing the potential of sustainable use and the optimal distribution of water needs under the current and future climatic conditions, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors. Adaptation measures and water policies that will effectively promote sustainable development are also proposed for the management of the aquifer systems that exhibit a large groundwater footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  9. Ground deformation effects from the M6 earthquakes (2014-2015) on Cephalonia-Ithaca Islands (Western Greece) deduced by GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwed, Małgorzata; Pińskwar, Iwona; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Graczyk, Dariusz; Mezghani, Abdelkader

    2017-03-01

    The implications of the earthquakes that took place in the central Ionian Islands in 2014 (Cephalonia, M w6.1, M w5.9) and 2015 (Lefkas, M w6.4) are described based on repeat measurements of the local GPS networks in Cephalonia and Ithaca, and the available continuous GPS stations in the broader area. The Lefkas earthquake occurred on a branch of the Cephalonia Transform Fault, affecting Cephalonia with SE displacements gradually decreasing from north ( 100 mm) to south ( 10 mm). This earthquake revealed a near N-S dislocation boundary separating Paliki Peninsula in western Cephalonia from the rest of the island, as well as another NW-SE trending fault that separates kinematically the northern and southern parts of Paliki. Strain field calculations during the interseismic period (2014-2015) indicate compression between Ithaca and Cephalonia, while extension appears during the following co-seismic period (2015-2016) including the 2015 Lefkas earthquake. Additional tectonically active zones with differential kinematic characteristics were also identified locally.

  10. The anatomy of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Sifnos Island (Cyclades, Greece): implications for exhumation model of high-pressure rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Vincent; Laurent, Valentin; Jolivet, Laurent; Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    Key words.- Aegean sea, Cyclades, Sifnos, high pressure and low temperature metamorphism, syn-orogenic exhumation, post-orogenic extension, strain localization. Since 35 Ma, the kinematics of the Aegean domain has been mainly controlled by the southward retreat of the African slab, inducing backarc extension. The main structures and associated kinematic are well constrained, but the kinematics of deformation before 35 Ma, coeval with the exhumation of blueschists and eclogites of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, has been so far poorly studied. Hence, syn-orogenic deformation and exhumation mechanisms of the Cycladic Blueschists Unit remain disputed in part because the structure and kinematic history of High Pressure and Low Temperature (HP-LT) rocks are interpreted differently in the literature. In order to understand and constrain the exhumation history of HP-LT rocks, Sifnos Island is particularly relevant because HP-LT parageneses are exceptionally well preserved and different degree of retrogression are observed in two main units. The aims of this work attempts at firstly solving uncertainties on the position and geometry of major contacts between units and, secondly, to provide new structural constraints on the tectonic history of HP-LT units generated in the subduction zone during the Eocene. We show, through new geological and metamorphic maps, cross-sections and analyses of kinematic indicators and their relation to metamorphism, that Sifnos is characterized by shallow-dipping shear zones reactivating weak zones due to competence contrasts or earlier tectonic contacts (i.e., syn-orogenic). Structures and kinematics, associated with these shear zones, show a top-to-the-N to -NE ductile shearing deformation. A continuum of deformation can be observed from the Eocene syn-orogenic blueschist-facies to the Oligocene-Miocene post-orogenic greenschist-facies with the same top-to-the-NE sense of shear showing that the same shear zones, formed during syn

  11. Soil gas composition from the 2001-2002 fissure in the Lakki Plain (Nisyros Island, Greece): evidences for shallow hydrothermal fluid circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Stefania; Tassi, Franco; Kanellopoulos, Christos; Vaselli, Orlando; Caponi, Chiara; Ricci, Andrea; Raspanti, Alessio; Gallorini, Andrea; Cabassi, Jacopo; Vougioukalakis, Georges

    2016-04-01

    Nisyros volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece) is currently classified in the "Very High Threat" category (Kinvig et al., 2010). Although the last volcanic activity, consisting of phreatic eruptions, occurred in the 19th century, Nisyros experienced an intense seismic activity during 1996-1998 accompanied by ground deformation and changes in the chemistry of fumarolic gases (Chiodini et al., 2002), pointing to a renewed unrest. Between November 2001 and December 2002, a NNE-oriented 600 m long fissure opened in the vegetated central part of the Lakki Plain. The fissure, 1-5 m wide and up to 15-20 m deep, showed neither vertical displacements nor gas release. No changes in the seismic and volcanic activity were observed during or after this event, which was interpreted as related to collapse of the upper caldera floor fine sediment cover (<50 m thick) induced by hydrothermal fluid circulation (Vougioukalakis and Fytikas, 2005). In June 2015, diffuse CO2 flux measurements, in combination with sampling and chemical analysis of the interstitial soil gases, were performed in (i) the fissure bottom, (ii) the adjacent vegetated areas in the Lakki Plain, (iii) the near hydrothermal craters (Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos domes), and (iv) sites located outside the caldera (blank values). The fissure showed neither temperature (<30 °C) nor CO2 fluxes (<10 gm-2d-1) anomalies with respect to the blank sites and the Lakki Plain, with values strikingly lower than those measured in the hydrothermal craters (up to 98 °C and 208 gm-2d-1, respectively). Contrarily, the CO2 concentrations in the interstitial soil gases from the fissure (up to 513 mmol/mol) were markedly higher than the background values and comparable with those measured in the craters (up to 841 mmol/mol). Relatively high H2S, H2 and CH4 contents in soil gases from the fissure confirm the hydrothermal origin of these soil gases. However, their CH4/CO2 ratio were lower than those measured in the soil gases from the craters

  12. Interplay of thrust, back-thrust, strike-slip and salt tectonics in a fold and thrust belt system: an example from Zakynthos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelilidis, A.; Papatheodorou, G.; Maravelis, A. G.; Christodoulou, D.; Tserolas, P.; Fakiris, E.; Dimas, X.; Georgiou, N.; Ferentinos, G.

    2016-10-01

    The southwestern flank of the Hellenic fold and thrust belt, situated along the southern edge of the Dinarides-Albanides-Hellenides continental convergent zone, was examined for reconstructing the tectonic deformation. This investigation presents an integrated study of onshore sedimentological and structural analyses, as well as offshore seismic lines, across the Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentary succession in Zakynthos Island. Back-thrust faults, using the Triassic evaporites as decollement surface, during the Pliocene, and coeval diapiric intrusions formed three sub-basins on the hangingwall of the Kalamaki back-thrust fault. This interaction is responsible for the growth of the Skopos Mountain and the soft sediment deformation that formed synclines and slumps, respectively. Back-thrust and strike-slip faults were active during the early Pleistocene, and diapiric intrusions modified the bathymetry on the sea floor, giving rise to slumps and recumbent folds. At least five events of synsedimentary diapiric intrusions have been recognized and are marked by five slump horizons. During the Holocene, the diapiric intrusions between the Kalamaki back-thrust and the Vrachionas anticline could be either related to normal faults or gravitationally driven.

  13. Synkinematic skarns and fluid drainage along detachments: The West Cycladic Detachment System on Serifos Island (Cyclades, Greece) and its related mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducoux, M.; Branquet, Y.; Jolivet, L.; Arbaret, L.; Grasemann, B.; Rabillard, A.; Gumiaux, C.; Drufin, S.

    2017-01-01

    Back-arc extension in the Aegean Sea has been accommodated by several large-scale detachments such as the West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS) in the Oligocene and Miocene. The WCDS especially crops out on Serifos Island (Cyclades) with a synkinematic granodioritic intrusion. As skarns represent metasomatic reactions near the contact between intrusions and the host rocks, they sign the position of the main drains used by fluids. While the mineralogy of the Serifos skarns is well known, geometrical and kinematic relations between the detachments and ore bodies remains poorly studied. This study allows us to distinguish different types of skarn. High Temperature skarns correspond to (1) massive garnet endoskarns, (2) ribbon and ;bubble; garnet-pyroxene endoskarns, (3) garnet-pyroxene cracks exoskarns, whereas medium-temperature pyroxene ± ilvaite bearing skarn breccias within the Meghàlo Livadhi and Kàvos Kiklopas detachments belonging to the WCDS. Our observations show that skarn formation is associated with the activity of detachments and the syntectonic pluton emplacement. Endo and exoskarn deposits formed coeval with the ductile and brittle structures resulting from the activity of the WCDS, such as echelon veins, veins with antithetic shear and boudinaged veins wrapped within sheath folds, with a top-to-the SSW or SW shear senses compatible with the regional kinematics. Some skarn breccias formed within detachment planes far from the contact of the main granodioritic body, attesting for the intense flow of magmatic fluids along these discontinuities. These over-pressurized fluids play a major role in the mechanical behaviour of the detachments and strain localization. The two detachments acting as preferential crustal-scale drains, the pattern of magmatic fluid flows is not centred on the intrusion. In this context, iron-rich skarns and associated primary magnetite deposits have been remobilized during late brittle increments of motion along the detachments

  14. Corinth Canal, Greece

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-15

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country north Attica and south Peloponnese. This image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  15. GREECE Mission Launching Into Aurora

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va. The Poker Flat Research Range is operated by the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. “The conditions were optimal,” said Marilia Samara, principal investigator for the mission at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. “We can’t wait to dig into the data.” For more information on the GREECE mission visit: www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasa-funded-sounding-rocket- .NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. New boron isotopic evidence for sedimentary and magmatic fluid influence in the shallow hydrothermal vent system of Milos Island (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shein-Fu; You, Chen-Feng; Lin, Yen-Po; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Baltatzis, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Magmatic sources may contribute a significant amount of volatiles in geothermal springs; however, their role is poorly understood in submarine hydrothermal systems worldwide. In this study, new results of B and δ11B in 41 hydrothermal vent waters collected from the shallow hydrothermal system of Milos island in the Aegean Sea were combined with previously published data from other tectonic settings and laboratory experiments to quantify the effects of phase separation, fluid/sediment interaction and magmatic contribution. Two Cl-extreme solutions were identified, high-Cl waters (Cl as high as 2000 mM) and low-Cl waters (Cl < 80 mM). Both sets of waters were characterized by high B/Cl (~ 1.2-5.3 × 10- 3 mol/mol) and extremely low δ11B (1.4-6.3‰), except for the waters with Mg content of near the seawater value and δ11B = 10.3-17.4‰. These high-Cl waters with high B/Cl and low δ11B plot close to the vent waters in sediment-hosted hydrothermal system (i.e., Okinawa Trough) or fumarole condensates from on-land volcanoes, implying B addition from sediment or magmatic fluids plays an important role. This is in agreement with fluid/sediment interactions resulting in the observed B and δ11B, as well as previously reported Br/I/Cl ratios, supporting a scenario of slab-derived fluid addition with elevated B, 11B-rich, and low Br/Cl and I/Cl, which is derived from the dehydration of subducted-sediments. The slab fluid becomes subsequently mixed with the parent magma of Milos. The deep brine reservoir is partially affected by injections of magmatic fluid/gases during degassing. The results presented here are crucial for deciphering the evolution of the brine reservoirs involved in phase separation, fluid/sediment interaction and magmatic contribution in the deep reaction zone of the Milos hydrothermal system; they also have implications in the understanding of the formation of metallic vein mineralization.

  17. The importance of geological data and derived information in seismic response assessment for urban sites. An example from the Island of Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonios; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude, frequency content and duration of an earthquake ground motion depends mainly on the surrounding geological, tectonic and geomorphological conditions. Numerous reports have been contacted illustrating the necessity of providing accurate geological information in order to estimate the level of seismic hazard. In this context, geological information is the outcome of processing primary, raw field data and geotechnical investigation data that are non - organized and associated with the geological model of the study area. In most cases, the geological information is provided as an advance element, a key component of the "function" that solves any geo-environmental problem and is primarily reflected on analogue or digital maps. The main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance of accurate geological information in the thirteen (13) selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island, in order to estimate the seismic action according to Eurocode (EC8). As an example the detailed geological-geotechnical map of the area around HAN site in Rethymno city, Crete is presented. The research area covers a 250m radius surrounding the RTHE HAN-station at a scale of 1: 2000 with detail description of the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the formations as well as the tectonic features (cracks, upthrust, thrust, etc) of the rock mass. The field survey showed that the RTHE station is founded over limestones and dolomites formations. The formations exhibit very good geomechanical behaviour; however they present extensive fragmentation and karstification. At this particular site the identification of a fault nearby the station proved to be significant information for the geophysical research as the location and orientation of the tectonic setting provided new perspective on the models of seismic wave prorogation. So, the geological data and the induced information along with the tectonic structure of

  18. The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mélange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mélange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt≡12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand

  19. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  20. Pathology in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  1. Greece Plus 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, James E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    For the past 10 years all students have been enrolled in the industrial arts program for 13 weeks each year in the Greece Central School District, New York. The orientation phase in grades 7-8 concentrates on the construction, graphic communication, transportation, and manufacturing clusters. Grades 9 through 12 continue three levels of career and…

  2. Alternative Use in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Situating the University of Thessaly in Volos and Larissa, Greece, represents the idea that the university has a role to play in the community, and, therefore, its facilities are integrated within the city. Describes an old factory warehouse converted to create "a building within a building," while preserving style of the former factory…

  3. Counseling in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikiosi-Loizos, Maria; Ivey, Allen E.

    2012-01-01

    There is rapid growth in Greece's professional and research activity in counseling, despite the lack of a clear professional identity for the field. It is hoped this will be overcome through the newly started graduate programs. Opportunities, objectives, and strategies for counseling's advancement should be directed toward close and essential…

  4. Greece. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    There is no immigration problems in Greece today. On the contrary, the country's economic development makes it necessary for Greek workers who have emigrated temporarily to return and be integrated into the production system. The educational policy for emigrant workers' children involves: (1) ensuring that children who have settled abroad know…

  5. [Midwifes in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Arata, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the evidence about obstetrics and in particular midwifes in ancient Greece. The substantives which mean "obstetrician" in Greek are quite numerous, but the most attested and common is [see text]. This work examines all the tasks which were connected with this profession (e.g. in the legal field).

  6. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  7. Seismic hazard in Greece. I. Magnitude recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makropoulos, Kostas C.; Burton, Paul W.

    1985-08-01

    become small because the expected magnitudes approach the regional upper bound. A feature common to all these maps is the existence of three well defined aseismic blocks: (a) the Attikocycladic block (b) the Ptolemais basin and (c) the block formed by the northeastern part of Greece. Well defined areas of high seismic hazard which correlate with the most tectonically active areas are: (a) along the Hellenic arc: the Greek-Albania border, Leukas-Cephalonia Islands and the southeastern end of the arc (b) the western end of the North Anatolian fault and (c) the Chalkidiki peninsula and the northern Sporadhes Islands.

  8. Magnus Hirschfeld in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vyras, P

    1997-01-01

    In 1932 Magnus Hirschfeld, the eminent German sexologist, visited Greece. It was after a long journey that took him round the world, lecturing about the new science he had created. In the Greek capital his unconventional theories concerning an intermediate "third sex" and his ideas about sexual reform became the object of an attack in the local press. Close examination of the debate which followed reveals some interesting points regarding Hirschfeld's approach to publicity and his attempts to foster an emancipation movement for homosexual issues.

  9. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Geochemical correlation of surface and subsurface oils, western Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Monopolis, D.; Nicolaou, C.A.; Anders, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Biodegraded seep oils, devoid of n-alkanes and most isoprenoid hydrocarbons, were successfully correlated with subsurface crude oils in western Greece primarily using carbon isotopes and the more microbially resistant tricyclic terpane and aromatic steroid hydrocarbon distributions. All the studied oils seem to fit into three major genetic groups which are consistent with the geologic, tectonic, and geographic settings and are presumably related to different source-rock facies. Group I oils are typical of the abundant oil shows in the Epirus province, northwest Greece. Minor but consistent biomarker differences necessitated subgrouping of the Epirus oils, implying derivation from slightly different sources. Group II oils are located in the Katakolon area, northwestern Peloponnese. Group III oils, which are clearly distinct from the other groups, are centered in Zakynthos Island. An oil seep at Trifos, west central Greece, and a subsurface oil from Paxi Island, because of uncertain correlations, are classed intermediate between Group I and II oils. An aromatic steroid hydrocarbon measurement, modified after Mackenzie et al. (1981), appears useful in determining the relative maturity of biodegraded and conventional oils and carbonate rock extracts. ?? 1986.

  11. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  12. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  13. Spatial and temporal variability of the Aridity Index in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Politi, Nadia; Kapsomenakis, John

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the spatial and temporal variability of the Aridity Index (AI) in Greece, per decade, during the 50-year period (1951-2000). Besides, the projected changes in ensemble mean AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations were presented, based on the simulation results, derived from a number of Regional Climatic Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. The projection of the future climate was done under SRES A1B. The climatic data used, concern monthly precipitation totals and air temperature from 28 meteorological stations (22 stations from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and 6 stations from neighboring countries, taken from the Monthly Climatic Data for the World). The estimation of the AI was carried out based on the potential evapotranspiration (PET) defined by Thornthwaite (1948). The data processing was done by the application of the statistical package R-project and the Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The results of the analysis showed that, within the examined period (1951-2000), a progressive shift from the "humid" class, which characterized the wider area of Greece, towards the "sub-humid" and "semi-arid" classes appeared in the eastern Crete Island, the Cyclades complex, the Evia and Attica, that is mainly the eastern Greece. The most significant change appears during the period 1991-2000. The future projections at the end of twentieth century, using ensemble mean simulations from 8 RCMs, show that drier conditions are expected to establish in regions of Greece (Attica, eastern continental Greece, Cyclades, Dodecanese, eastern Crete Island and northern Aegean). The inter-model standard deviation over these regions ranges from 0.02 to 0.05 against high values (0.09-0.15) illustrated in western mountainous continental Greece, during 2021-2050. Higher values of inter

  14. NATO, Greece and the 2004 Summer Olympics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    42 Tayfur, 55. 43 Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today...Athens News Agency, 14 September 2004 and “Greek, Albanian Foreign Ministers Said to ‘Continue’ Political Rapprochement,” Athens Elevtheros Tipos ...FBIS, 05 August 2004. Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today and Tomorrow, Essays on Issues and Problems

  15. Latrodectus Envenomation in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Garyfallia Nikolaos; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Kalkouni, Rania; Iliopoulou, Sofia; Rigakos, Giorgos; Baka, Agoritsa

    2014-01-01

    During the summer period 2011–2012, seven widow spider bites in Greece were reported to the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Widow spiders (in the genus Latrodectus) are found all over the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the US. Alpha-latrotoxin (main mammalian toxin) causes the toxic effects observed in humans. Victims should receive timely medical care to avoid suffering. Latrodectus bites are very rarely fatal. All the patients reported having an insect bite 30 minutes to 2 hours before they arrived at the Emergency Department of the local hospital. Severe muscle cramps, weakness, tremor, abdominal pain, and increased levels of creatinine phosphokinase were present in all patients. The Emergency Operation Center of the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention was informed immediately in all cases. Antivenin was administered to four patients upon the request of their physicians. All patients recovered fully. It is essential that health care workers recognize early the symptoms and signs of Latrodectus bites to provide the necessary care. The management of mild to moderate Latrodectus envenomations is primarily supportive. Hospitalization and possibly antivenin should be reserved for patients exhibiting serious systemic symptoms or inadequate pain control. The most important thing for all of these patients is early pain relief. PMID:25662533

  16. Nowcasting extreme weather events over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsafados, Petros; Nomikou, Vera; Mavromatidis, Elias; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Lagouvardos, Konstantinos; Kotroni, Vassiliki

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and consistent very short-term prediction (nowcasting) of high-impact weather events can lead to significant improvement in warnings and advisories providing a direct impact on the risk management. To this end, an advanced mesoscale meteorological data assimilation tool, the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS), has been implemented in order to serve as an early warning system. LAPS incorporates surface and upper air observations (METAR, SYNOP, satellite, soundings, radar, aircraft etc) into large-scale gridded data (as background fields) and produces high spatial and temporal resolution analysis fields and early forecasts. This study presents the performance of the LAPS system in describing two unusual events of hazardous weather conditions over Greece. The first case study is characterized by the passage of a cyclonic system accompanied with cold fronts over Southern Greece. Heavy downpour, lightning and flooding were the main characteristics of the storm that affected Athens metropolitan area on February 22nd 2013. In the second case study the passage of a cold front over SE Aegean Sea led in a destructive and deadly flash flooding that affected the Northern areas of Rhodes Island on November 22nd 2013. This second flash flood event was triggered by the extreme precipitation (almost 100 mm in 4 hours) and killed 4 people making it the deadliest ever for the area. For both case studies, the conventional numerical weather prediction models operating at various research institutes and universities provided a rather insufficient spatiotemporal estimation of the extreme precipitation. For these cases, the LAPS-based nowcasting procedure has been applied with and without the ingestion of high resolution remote sensed precipitation estimates. The LAPS outputs have been evaluated against independent observations obtained from a dense network of surface meteorological stations. Results indicate that LAPS outputs were better than those obtained from the

  17. Application of data mining techniques and data analysis methods to measure cancer morbidity and mortality data in a regional cancer registry: The case of the island of Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Varlamis, Iraklis; Apostolakis, Ioannis; Sifaki-Pistolla, Dimitra; Dey, Nilanjan; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Lionis, Christos

    2017-07-01

    Micro or macro-level mapping of cancer statistics is a challenging task that requires long-term planning, prospective studies and continuous monitoring of all cancer cases. The objective of the current study is to present how cancer registry data could be processed using data mining techniques in order to improve the statistical analysis outcomes. Data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Crete in Greece (counties of Rethymno and Lasithi) for the period 1998-2004. Data collection was performed on paper forms and manually transcribed to a single data file, thus introducing errors and noise (e.g. missing and erroneous values, duplicate entries etc.). Data were pre-processed and prepared for analysis using data mining tools and algorithms. Feature selection was applied to evaluate the contribution of each collected feature in predicting patients' survival. Several classifiers were trained and evaluated for their ability to predict survival of patients. Finally, statistical analysis of cancer morbidity and mortality rates in the two regions was performed in order to validate the initial findings. Several critical points in the process of data collection, preprocessing and analysis of cancer data were derived from the results, while a road-map for future population data studies was developed. In addition, increased morbidity rates were observed in the counties of Crete (Age Standardized Morbidity/Incidence Rates ASIR= 396.45 ± 2.89 and 274.77 ±2.48 for men and women, respectively) compared to European and world averages (ASIR= 281.6 and 207.3 for men and women in Europe and 203.8 and 165.1 in world level). Significant variation in cancer types between sexes and age groups (the ratio between deaths and reported cases for young patients, less than 34 years old, is at 0.055 when the respective ratio for patients over 75 years old is 0.366) was also observed. This study introduced a methodology for preprocessing and analyzing cancer data, using a

  18. School Building Organisation in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the past and current organizational structure of Greece's School Building Organisation, a body established to work with government agencies in the design and construction of new buildings and the provisioning of educational equipment. Future planning to incorporate culture and creativity, sports, and laboratory learning in modern school…

  19. Education and Modernization in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazamias, Andreas M.

    This history of Greek education traces the path of modernization from the emergence of Greece as an independent state in the early 1800's up to the present date. Educational philosophy and content are seen as pawns in the social and political struggles of those years. Detailed coverage of the historical events describes the structure of education…

  20. The Educational System of Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massialas, Byron G.

    Education in Greece is examined in this document. The first section describes the basic system. Reform legislation of 1976 and 1977 modernized Greek education. The new laws required that school instruction at all levels be given in demotic or spoken Greek rather than formal or purist Greek; that compulsory school attendance be extended from six to…

  1. [Toxoplasmosis in dogs in Greece].

    PubMed

    Chambouris, R; Stünzner, D; Sebek, Z; Sixl, W; Köck, M

    1989-01-01

    In Greece, not only raw meat feeding but also the possible faecal transmission of disease from the vast amount of strayed domestic cats play an important role in the incidence of toxoplasmosis among dogs. This must be concluded from the high contamination rate of 21.2% to 30.8% in all four presented investigations.

  2. Corinth Canal, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude

  3. Islands in the Midst of the World

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-09-18

    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from NASA Terra satellite was acquired on Se

  4. Evaluating Renewable Groundwater Stress with GRACE data in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, V.; Gemitzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance as a fundamental resource is even greater in times of drought where groundwater stress conditions are greatest for areas like Mediterranean and adverse climate change effects are expected. The present study evaluates Renewable Groundwater Stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in GRACE-derived subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge. Estimates for mean annual recharge were used from groundwater studies conducted for the various regions in Greece, mainly in the form of numerical models. Our results highlighted two RGS regimes in Greece out of the four characteristic stress regimes, i.e. Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human-Dominated Stress and Unstressed, defined as a function of the sign of use and the sign of groundwater availability (positive or negative). Variable Stress areas are found in central Greece (Thessaly region), where intense agricultural activities take place, with negative ΔGWtrend values combined with positive mean annual recharge rates. RGS values range from -0.05 - 0, indicating however a low impact area. Within this region, adverse effects of groundwater overexploitation are already evident, based on the negative GRACE anomalies, recharge however still remains positive, amending the adverse over pumping impacts. The rest of Greek aquifers fall within the unstressed category, with RGS values from 0.02 - 0.05, indicating that the rate of use is less than the natural recharge rate. The highest Unstressed RGS values are observed in Crete Island and in Northeastern Greece. However, the case of Crete is highly uncertain, as precipitation and recharge in this area demonstrate exceptionally high variability and the coarse resolution of GRACE results does not allow for reliable estimates.

  5. Check list and zoogeographic analysis of the scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) of Greece.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Chadzidimitriou, Evangelia; Milonas, Panagiotis; Stathas, George J; Kozár, Ferenc

    2015-09-02

    This paper presents an updated checklist of the Greek scale insect fauna and the results of the first zoogeographic analysis of the Greek scale insect fauna. According to the latest data, the scale insect fauna of the whole Greek territory includes 207 species; of which 187 species are recorded from mainland Greece and the minor islands, whereas only 87 species are known from Crete. The most rich families are the Diaspididae (with 86 species), followed by Coccidae (with 35 species) and Pseudococcidae (with 34 species). In this study the results of a zoogeographic analysis of scale insect fauna from mainland Greece and Crete are also presented. Five species, four from mainland Greece and one from Crete are considered to be endemic. Comparison with the scale insect fauna of other countries is provided.

  6. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  7. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Pallantzas, A.; Kourakos, P.; Stampolidis, N.; Papagianni, E.; Balagoura, A.; Stathopoulos, A.; Polizoi, A.; Emvalomata, A.; Evaggelopoulou, M.; Castana, O.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a “rocket war”. The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department’s experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities. PMID:23766749

  8. History of leucotomies in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ploumpidis, D; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2015-03-01

    In order to present the social, scientific and institutional context which permitted the use of leucotomies in Greece, we have reviewed the Archives of the Medical Associations, the medical literature of the years 1946-56, a reader's dissertation and the memoirs of two psychiatrists. More than 250 leucotomies were done in the two public psychiatric hospitals in Athens from 1947 to 1954, as well as 40 leucotomies in the public psychiatric hospital in Thessaloniki. Although aware of the side effects, psychiatrists justified the use of the procedure. The performance of leucotomies in Greece declined because of reports of the dangers of the operation and its unpredictable outcome for the patients, but mainly because of the encouraging results with psychotropic drugs in the early 1950s. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (5th, Chania, Greece, June 19-21, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Educational Data Mining Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2012) is held in picturesque Chania on the beautiful Crete island in Greece, under the auspices of the International Educational Data Mining Society (IEDMS). The EDM 2012 conference is a leading international forum for high quality research that mines large data sets of educational…

  10. The History of Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…

  11. Education Policy in Greece: A Preliminary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to raise employment and social outcomes. The challenges are significant, as public education expenditure in Greece has declined in recent years and learning outcomes are weak. To help the Greek government address these challenges, this report proposes a set of…

  12. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  13. [Suicide rates and mental health services in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Tsouvelas, G; Kontaxakis, V

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have shown that access to mental health services can have an impact on mental health outcomes, including the suicide rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between regional and prefecture suicide rates (suicides per 100.000 residents) and both the number of primary and mental health-care service providers and the number of mental health infrastructures in Greece. Data were taken mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.) and the Ministry of Health for the period 2002-2009. Spearman correlations were used to examine the relationship between primary health-care, mental health providers and suicide rates per 100,000 residents at the prefecture, administrative region and geographical region levels. Men showed significantly higher suicide rates than women (U=-7.20, p<0.001). For the period 2002-2009, the highest suicide rate at the prefecture level were in Rethymno (6.99), Rodopi (5.62) and Zakynthos (5.28). For the same period, the highest suicide rates at the geographical level were in Peloponnisos (4.01), Ionian Islands (4.03) and Grete (3.65). Increase in suicide rates (2009 vs 2002-2009) was observed in the following geographical regions of Greece: Crete (4.76 vs 3.65), Thrace (4.45 vs 2.02) Central Greece (3.61 vs 1.39) Aegean Islands (3.03 vs 1.28). The highest correlations between suiciderutes and health services at the geographic regional level were found to be during the period 2007-2009, where suicide rates showed a significant negative correlation with privately practicing psychiatrists (rho=-0.71, p<0.05), privately practicing psychologists (rho=-0.56, p<0.05), pathologists (rho=-0.73, p<0.01), and the number of the official mental health services (psychiatric clinics, day centers, mobile mental health units etc.) (rho=-0.73, p<0.01). In conclusion it was found that at all regional levels, suicide rates were reversely related to the number of primary health-care and mental health service providers, as

  14. Isabela Island, Galapagos Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-732-072 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- Three of the nineteen Galapagos Islands are visible in this image, photographed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The Galapagos Islands are located 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) to the west of Ecuador. The largest of the islands, Isabela, is at center (north is toward the upper right corner). The numerous circular features on the island, highlighted by clouds, are volcanoes. The Galapagos Islands owe their existence to a hot spot, or persistent heat source in the mantle, which also is located over a rift, or place where plates are separating and new crust is being created. The rift is located between the Cocos and Nazca Plates. The dark linear features on the islands are lava flows from past eruptions. The island to the left of Isabela is Fernandina, while the island to the right is San Salvador. The Galapagos Islands were visited by the English naturalist Charles Darwin in 1835.

  15. Metallic mineral resources of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirambides, Ananias; Filippidis, Anestis

    2012-12-01

    Today Greece produces and exports raw bauxite and alumina, concentrates of galena and sphalerite and ferronickel. The indicated reserves of bauxite, located in the Mt Helikon-Mt Parnassus-Mt Giona-Mt Iti zone, are estimated at approximately 100 mt and those of aluminum 2.5 mt. The probable and indicated reserves of lead and zinc from Chalkidiki are approximately 3.125 mt. The total production of concentrates of galena and sphalerite is approximately 220,000 tpa. The proven reserves of nickel are approximately 1.392 mt and the production of ferronickel is approximately 18,500 tpa. Production of copper, silver and gold is pending in 2015. The probable and indicated reserves of copper from Skouries Chalkidiki are approximately 1.943 mt. In the Prefecture Units of Chalkidiki and Evros the probable and indicated reserves of gold are approximately 19.37 million ounces and those of silver 131.6 million ounces. Chromium, manganese and molybdenum present good prospects of exploitation. Calculated at current prices, the total gross value of the probable and indicated reserves of the metallic minerals of Greece is €79.4 billion.

  16. Health technology assessment in Greece.

    PubMed

    Liaropoulos, L; Kaitelidou, D

    2000-01-01

    In 1983 a health reform aimed to assure universal coverage and equity in the distribution of services in Greece. The reform implied state responsibility for the financing and delivery of services and a reduction of the private sector. The model was a Bismarckian scheme for social insurance. However, healthcare delivery remains fragmented and uncoordinated and the private sector is getting stronger. The dominant payment system is fee-for-service for the private sector and administered prices and salaries for public hospitals and social insurance funds. The many insurers have their own eligibility requirements, validation procedures, etc. Coverage of services by social security funds, probably among the most comprehensive in Europe, is determined more on historical and political grounds than on efficiency or cost-effectiveness. The system is plagued by problems, including geographical inequalities, overcentralization, bureaucratic management, poor incentives in the public sector, open-ended financing, inefficient use of hospital beds, and lack of cost-effectiveness. There are no specific legal provisions for the control of health technology. Technologies are introduced without standards or formal consideration of needs. There are no current efforts to control health technology in Greece. However, health technology assessment (HTA) has gained increasing visibility. In 1997 a law provided for a new government agency responsible for quality control, economic evaluation of health services, and HTA. The hope is that the new law may introduce evaluation and assessment elements into health policy formulation and assure that cost effectiveness, quality, and appropriate use of health technology will receive more attention.

  17. A 7-year survey of dermatophytoses in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Nioti, Eleni; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tselentis, Yannis

    2007-11-01

    Dermatophytoses are of worldwide distribution. Epidemiological studies concerning dermatophyte infections have been performed in many countries and differences in the incidence and the aetiological agents have been reported in different geographical locations. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevailing species of dermatophytes in the island of Crete, Greece, and their pattern of infection during a 7-year period (1997-2003). A total of 5544 samples obtained from 3751 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses were examined mycologically in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology at the University Hospital of Crete, Greece. Skin, hair and nail specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophytes were isolated from 520 patients (13.9%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte accounting for 48% of the infections, followed by Microsporum canis (17.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.2%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%). Tinea unguium, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris, tinea manuum and tinea facei were the clinical types of dermatophytoses in decreasing order of frequency. Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant dermatophyte in our area. As the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is changing over time it is important to review periodically the incidence of dermatophytes and their distribution.

  18. Cassini Scientist for a Day: an international contest in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, A.; Moussas, X.; Coustenis, A.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Bampasidis, G.; Kyriakopoulos, K.; Kouloumvakos, A.; Xystouris, G.; Sigala, E.; Patsou, I.

    2012-04-01

    The international contest 'Cassini Scientist for a Day', organized by the Cassini Outreach team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, provides school students all around the world with the opportunity to get involved in astronomy and astrophysics and planetary sciences in particular. It gives excellent opportunity for outreach and publicity for the Cassini mission and ESA and NASA activities in Greece. For the years 2010 and 2011, the Space Physics Group of the Astronomy, Astrophysics and Mechanics section of the University of Athens in association with external colleagues has been selected as the co-ordinator of NASA for the competition in Greece. This kind of school competition in Greece is particularly important since Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Sciences, although very popular, are not included in the school curricula and thus students rarely have the opportunity to experience and participate actively in these subjects. Under the guidance of Cassini Outreach team, the members of the Space Physics Group have informed, explained and spread the rules of the competition at primary, secondary and high schools all over Greece. Our members kept open communication with students, teachers and parents throughout the holding of the competition for questions and guidance. In general, the students have the option to choose Cassini monitoring between three targets of the Saturnian system, which will bring the best scientific result. Their arguments should be summarized in an essay of 500 words more or less. They also have the option to do team work through groups of maximum three students. The participation in the contest for 2010 was unexpectedly high and thoroughly satisfied. The winners awarded through a ceremony which was held in the largest amphitheater at the central building of the University of Athens, that was fully packed. A large number of the participants of the 2010 contest are either participating in the new contest of 2011-2012 or -since some of them

  19. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  20. Deinstitutionalization in Greece: Ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Ploumpidis, D; Garanis-Papadatos, T; Economou, M

    2008-10-01

    The following paper is based on a Concerted Action which focused on the "Ethical aspects of deistinstutionalisation in mental health care" in 2001. It investigates the development and the ethical dilemmas posed by deinstitutionalization in Greece. This movement has recently undergone a very active phase but the transition from the traditional model of psychiatric care to the community based system unavoidably creates many ethical problems related to the professionals' attitude towards individual liberties, dignity and other fundamental rights of mentally ill persons. These problems exist not only in the level of the therapist-patient relationship but in the level of policy making as well as its implementation. Moreover, the paper deals with specific ethical problems such as stigmatisation and isolation in the community context, as well as the role of the family.

  1. Description of female nymphal instars and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) based on specimens from Crete and mainland Greece, with a discussion on geographical variation.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Francesco; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2014-10-22

    The first-instar nymph, second- and third-instar female nymphs and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated; micrographs of morphological details are also provided. The species was collected on the island of Crete (Greece) and on mainland Greece, new localities for this species, and are compared with Israeli specimens from where it was originally described.

  2. Using Educational Webcasts in Small Multigrade Schools of Isolated Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakos, Michail N.; Vlamos, Panayiotis

    2012-01-01

    In this study primary schools' educational system in small and isolated islands of Greece is presented. These areas are characterized by inaccessibility and isolation as it happens in most multigrade schools. For facing the difficulties of multigrade schooling, curriculums should be engaged with different learning strategies. In this case study…

  3. Kerguelen Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Kerguelen Islands also known as the Desolation Islands, which are part of the French Southern and Antarctic lands. The islands are among the most isolated places on Earth.

  4. Anisotropy Studies in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviris, G.; Papadimitriou, P.; Makropoulos, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Gulf of Corinth, located in Central Greece, is a tectonic graben characterized by high seismicity level. GPS measurements indicate extension of the Gulf in an approximately N-S direction, with a rate of 10 to 15 mm/year. The southern part of the Gulf is dominated by the presence of large active normal faults in an almost E-W direction, dipping north, resulting to the subsidence of the central part of the graben. Analysis of data recorded by the Cornet network, which is the permanent network of the University of Athens, revealed the existence of an anisotropic upper crust at the eastern part of the Gulf of Corinth. Anisotropy was also observed at the western part of Corinth Gulf, using data recorded by a temporary seismological network installed in the area. Furthermore, shear wave splitting analysis was performed in the region of Attica (to the NE of the Gulf) that hosts Athens, the capital of Greece, using aftershocks of the 1999 Athens earthquake (Mw=6.0) that caused 143 fatalities. The methods used for the determination of the splitting parameters are the polarization vector as a function of time (polarigram) and the hodogram. For each selected event the direction of polarization of the fast shear wave, the delay between the two split shear waves and the polarization of the source were measured. Concerning both parts of the Gulf of Corinth, the obtained mean values of anisotropy vary between N90° and N142°. In the region of Attica the mean values of the anisotropy direction of all stations vary between N95° and N100°, almost parallel to the azimuth of the Parnitha fault. The time delay between the split shear waves vary between 0.020s and 0.130s. The obtained anisotropy measurements are in agreement with the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model, since the direction of anisotropy is independent from the event-station azimuth and perpendicular to the direction of extension. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The present study was co-funded by the European Social Fund

  5. Comparison of continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB/SA) and continuous femoral nerve block with mini-dose spinal morphine (CFNB/SAMO) for postoperative analgesia after total knee arthroplasty (TKA): a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sundarathiti, Petchara; Thammasakulsiri, Jadesadha; Supboon, Supawadee; Sakdanuwatwong, Supalak; Piangjai, Molruedee

    2016-07-16

    Unsatisfactory analgesia for major knee surgery with femoral nerve block (FNB) alone was reported and the additional benefit of sciatic block to continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) was not conclusive. The aim of the present study was to find the benefit of the additional mini-dose spinal morphine (0.035 mg) to CFNB for postoperative pain control and to compare their associated side effects after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). After written informed consent and with Institutional Ethics Committee approval, 68 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status I-III patients scheduled for elective unilateral TKA under spinal anesthesia (SA) were included in the present prospective, randomized controlled study. The patients were allocated into two groups. CFNB was placed in all patients by the inguinal paravascular approach with 20 ml of 0.25 % levobupivacaine. Group I (named CFNB/SA group), SA was administered with 2.8 ml levobupivacaine and Group II (named CFNB/SAMO group), SA with 2.8 ml levobupivacaine plus morphine 0.035 mg. At Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU), pain and other adverse effects were recorded. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) 0-10. Tramadol 50 mg intravenous (IV) was given if the VAS > 4. In the ward, all patients were maintained by continuous femoral infusion of 0.125 % levobupivacaine rate 7 ml/hr and then reduced to 5 ml/hr if VAS ≤3. Patient's demographics data in each group were not different. At post-operative (PO) 12-24 h, the VAS scores were significantly lesser in the CFNB/SAMO group. Cumulative tramadol IV requirement for PO48h were also significantly lesser in the CFNB/SAMO group. Nausea, vomiting and numbness were significantly greater in the CFNB/SAMO group during early postoperative period (PO1-6 h). Though in some patients CFNB was inadequate, a mini-dose of intrathecal morphine (0.035 mg) in addition to CFNB was found to be effective with minimal side effects. Thai Clinical Trial Registry

  6. Keys for the identification of the mosquitoes of Greece.

    PubMed

    Darsie, R F; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A

    1997-09-01

    Keys to the adult females and 4th instar larvae of the mosquitoes of Greece are presented. In all, 53 species in 7 genera are included. Also, Aedes albopictus is added because of the potential for its introduction into Greece.

  7. New country records for mosquito species in Greece.

    PubMed

    Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A; Darsie, R F

    1993-12-01

    A study of the literature and mosquito collections in Greece has yielded 3 species that have not been recorded from Greece. They are Aedes annulipes, Aedes berlandi, and Culex pusillus. Notes on their recognition and geographic distribution are also given.

  8. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bazas, T.; Oakes, D.; Gilson, J.C.; Bazas, B.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified.

  9. GREECE Sounding Rocket Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.; Hampton, D. L.; Jahn, J. M.; Donovan, E.; Gustavsson, B.; Lanchester, B. S.; McHarg, M. G.; Spanswick, E.; Trondsen, T. S.; Valek, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    On 03 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT the Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska . It reached an apogee of approximately 335 km over the native village of Venetie during a dynamic post-midnight auroral event. A wide range of precipitating electrons were measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) and Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), cumulatively covering 300 ev to 200 keV in varying time resolutions. DC to low frequency electric and magnetic fields were measured at the same time and a langmuir probe was also employed. In addition to the on board instrumentation a suite of ground based imagers was deployed under apogee. We used several electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) with different filters and field of views imaging along magnetic zenith. This yielded multi-emission line information about the auroral brightness at the magnetic footprint of the rocket critical for our main goal of exploring the correlation of the sheer flows often observed in high resolution imagery during aurora and the in situ signatures of precipitating particles and waves. The instruments used will be discussed in further detail along with preliminary results of an event rich in particle and wave signatures.

  10. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. New information The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece. PMID:27932903

  11. Cystic echinococcosis in Greece. Past and present.

    PubMed

    Sotiraki, S; Chaligiannis, I

    2010-09-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease with a wide geographical distribution, Greece included, and is considered to be a serious problem for the public health and the livestock economy. Although the disease was widespread in Greece since ancient times, cystic echinococcosis was identified as a serious problem around 1970, and since then national surveillance programmes are running, based on meat inspection and stray dogs management. Ever since, there are official records of the parasite's prevalence in humans and livestock which show a continuous decline. More precisely, human hydatidosis, according to the official records, declines from an annual incidence of 14.8 per 100,000 inhabitants during 1967-1971 to 0.3 in 2008. Late surveys reveal that in Greece the prevalence of echinococcosis was 23-39.2% for sheep, 7.6-14.7% for goats, 0% in cattle and 0.6% in pigs, while further molecular analyses in Southern Greece showed the existence of the genotypes G1 and G3 in sheep and G7 in goats in that area. All data presented demonstrate that the parasite is still present in Greece. Surveillance is nowadays being performed under EU regulations but it is highly important to improve and adopt corrective and preventive measures to avoid animal and human infection.

  12. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  13. Marine Bryozoa of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Until today, a complete checklist of Bryozoa of the Greek seas had never been published and species records were scattered in several taxonomic and ecological studies. The aim of this paper is to produce a first checklist of marine bryozoan species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature and following the recent trends in the taxonomy of this group.  New information The marine bryozoan fauna of Greece comprises 237 species, classified in 127 genera, 66 families, 3 orders, and 2 classes. The vast majority belongs to the class Gymnolaemata (177 Cheilostomatida and 21 Ctenostomatida), while the remaining 39 species are Stenolaemata (all Cyclostomatida). Among these species, 12 are considered endemic to the eastern Mediterranean, while another 12 species are non-indigenous. PMID:27956854

  14. Marine Bryozoa of Greece: an annotated checklist.

    PubMed

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Rosso, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Until today, a complete checklist of Bryozoa of the Greek seas had never been published and species records were scattered in several taxonomic and ecological studies. The aim of this paper is to produce a first checklist of marine bryozoan species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature and following the recent trends in the taxonomy of this group. . The marine bryozoan fauna of Greece comprises 237 species, classified in 127 genera, 66 families, 3 orders, and 2 classes. The vast majority belongs to the class Gymnolaemata (177 Cheilostomatida and 21 Ctenostomatida), while the remaining 39 species are Stenolaemata (all Cyclostomatida). Among these species, 12 are considered endemic to the eastern Mediterranean, while another 12 species are non-indigenous.

  15. Brachiopoda of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Until today, only scattered species records of Brachiopoda from Greece have been included in publications on the Mediterranean brachiopod fauna. These records were mostly based on material collected during marine expeditions in the eastern Mediterranean decades ago, while few recent additional records appear in ecological studies. The aim of this paper was to give the first checklist of brachiopod species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature. New information Twelve brachiopod species have been found in Greek waters so far. The nomenclature, distribution, fossil records, ecology, and literature sources are discussed for each species. PMID:27932904

  16. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  17. Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement reforms in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yfantopoulos, John

    2008-02-01

    Pharmaceutical price regulation in Greece is centralized. The National Drug Organization (EOF) is the main regulatory authority functioning under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. In 2004, total pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece reached the level of 2.9 billion euro, of which 77.9% were public expenditure and the remaining 22.1% private. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data the total per-capita expenditure on pharmaceutical care in Greece is among the lowest in Europe, representing 58% of the EU-12 average. In 1998, Greece introduced a reimbursement list, and the lowest reference pricing system among the 15 European Union member states with the purpose of controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditure. The measures proved to be ineffective since pharmaceutical expenditure, after a short-term reduction, continued to increase at similar rates to those before the introduction of price control mechanisms. The average annual increase of pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece over the period 1998-2003 was 7.9%, which is among the highest in the OECD countries (average 6.1%). New pharmaceutical legislation, no. 3457, was enacted on May 8th 2006, aiming at greater access to medicines, improvements to citizens' quality of life, effective and efficient utilization of health resources, transparency in public management, protecting public health, and maintaining long-term financial viability of the insurance system. The innovative aspect of the new legislation is the abolition of the positive list and the establishment of a rebate system granting the National Insurance Funds a rebate rate paid by the pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First to assess the effectiveness of the positive list introduced in 1988 in Greece, using simple econometric models. Second to present the recent pharmaceutical reforms aimed at the introduction of a rebate system and establishing

  18. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure and distribution of natural radioactivity in beach sands associated with plutonic rocks of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Koroneos, Antonios; Christofides, Georgios; Stoulos, Stylianos

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Th and 40K along beaches of Greece associated with plutonic rocks. They range from 6-940, 1-2292, 5-10143, 5-9953 and 27-1319 Bq/kg respectively, with some of them representing the highest values of natural radioactivity measured in sediments in Greece. The investigated beaches include Sithonia peninsula (Chalkidiki, N. Greece), some islands of the Aegean Sea (Mykonos, Paros, Naxos, Serifos, Ikaria), the area of Kavala (N. Greece), Samothraki island, NE Chalkidiki and Maronia (NE Greece). Several of these places are associated with high touristic activity such as Mykonos, Naxos, Paros, Serifos, Ikaria, Sithonia and Kavala. The (% wt.) heavy magnetic fraction (HM) (allanite, amphibole, mica, clinopyroxene, magnetite and hematite), the heavy non-magnetic fraction (HNM) (monazite, zircon, titanite and apatite) and the total heavy fraction (TH), were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main 238U and 232Th mineral carrier. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. The highest values of the equivalent dose have been reported in Mykonos, Naxos, Kavala and Sithonia. The annual equivalent dose which should be limited to at least 1 mSv y-1, varies between 0.003 and 0.759 mSv y-1 for tourists and from 0.012 to 3.164 mSv y-1 for local people working on the beach.

  19. Acerentulus tortii sp. nov. from Greece (Protura: Acerentomidae).

    PubMed

    Galli, Loris; Capurro, Matteo; Lionetti, Giuseppe; Zinni, Matteo

    2017-02-16

    A new species of Protura, Acerentulus tortii sp. nov., from the island of Euboea, central Greece, is described and illustrated. The new species belongs to the A. cunhai species group, based on a short foretarsal sensillum a not reaching seta γ3, and sensilla b and c subequal in length. The most similar species are A. christensoni (Ewing, 1940) and A. rafalskii Szeptycki, 1979), from which A. tortii sp. nov. differs by the porotaxy of sternite III and the lengths of various foretarsal sensilla.

  20. New archaeointensity results from archaeological sites and variation of the geomagnetic field intensity for the last 7 millennia in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Kondopoulou, D.

    In this study six new intensity determinations are presented, obtained from five well dated archaeological sites, located in northern Greece and in Paros, Cyclades Islands. The fired structures consisted of ceramic and pottery kilns belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Between 8 and 21 samples of highly fired baked clays, tiles and bricks were taken, homogeneously distributed over the structures. The samples were analysed using the classical Thellier method, providing the past intensities and directions of the geomagnetic field recorded at each site. The intensity values have been corrected for anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetisation and cooling rate effects. Differences in the mean archaeointensities per site ranging from 1% to 11%, before and after TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, were obtained. The new results indicate a decrease of 20% of the geomagnetic field strength in Greece, during the last four centuries BC. In order to compare our results with previously published data, a catalogue of archaeo- and palaeointensity results for the Aegean area has been established, covering the last 7 millennia. It consists of 336 data from Greece, western Turkey and Former Yugoslavia, collected from various authors. Weighting factors have been applied to these data, that then have been treated with a hierarchical Bayesian modelling, and a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for Greece was constructed. A good agreement is observed when comparing the curve for Greece with the Bulgarian secular variation curve (SVC) for intensity. Satisfactory coincidence is also found with the archaeointensity data from Mesopotamia. Despite the presence of some time gaps, a more precise secular variation intensity curve has been constructed for Greece which, combined with a forthcoming directional SVC, will help for dating purposes.

  1. Spreading of Thelazia callipaeda in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, E; Komnenou, A; Thomas, A; Ioannidou, E; Colella, V; Otranto, D

    2017-02-26

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), the so-called oriental eyeworm, has been increasingly reported as an agent of infection in animals and humans from many European countries. Clinical signs range from subclinical to moderate or severe ocular disorders (e.g., epiphora, photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, ulcers). The disease has been also diagnosed in animals from countries of the Balkan area (e.g., Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia), but only a single case of canine thelaziosis, presumably autochthonous, was reported in Northern Greece. In this study, we provide robust information of the occurrence of thelaziosis in Greece by reporting autochthonous cases of thelaziosis in dogs (n = 46), cats (n = 3) and in one rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) living in Northern and Central regions of Greece. The occurrence of a single haplotype of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene confirms that the same zoonotic haplotype of the parasite circulating in Europe is also spreading in Greece. The increased awareness of this parasitosis is crucial to limit the risk of further infections in both humans and animals in European countries.

  2. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  3. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Sidira, Persefoni; Larichev, Victor; Gavrilova, Ludmila; Kuzmina, Ksenia; Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Mirazimi, Ali; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is high in some regions of Greece, but only 1 case of disease has been reported. We used 4 methods to test 118 serum samples that were positive for CCHFV IgG by commercial ELISA and confirmed the positive results. A nonpathogenic or low-pathogenicity strain may be circulating.

  4. Reviews of National Policies for Education - Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume contains the Educational Policy Review of Greece undertaken in 1995-96 at the request of the Greek authorities. The book contains two parts with 13 chapters. Part 1 provides the full text of the Background Report, prepared by the Greek authorities for the purpose of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)…

  5. Cyanobacteria of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Ourailidis, Iordanis; Panou, Manthos; Pappas, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species reported from Greece. This list was created from exhaustive search of the scientific literature of the last 60 years. All records of taxa known to occur in Greece were taxonomically updated. New information The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria comprises 543 species, classified in 130 genera, 41 families, and 8 orders. The orders Synechococcales and Oscillatoriales have the highest number of species (158 and 153 species, respectively), whereas these two orders along with Nostocales and Chroococcales cover 93% of the known Greek cyanobacteria species. It is worth mentioning that 18 species have been initially described from Greek habitats. The marine epilithic Ammatoidea aegea described from Saronikos Gulf is considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic review shows that Greece hosts a high diversity of cyanobacteria, suggesting that the Mediterranean area is also a hot spot for microbes. PMID:27956851

  6. Prostate cancer screening in Greece: current facts.

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Lardas, Michael; Kostakos, Evagelos; Koutsonasios, Vasilios; Lepidas, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to summarize the existing literature focusing on the current status of prostate cancer screening behavior in Greece. We identified studies published from 2000 onwards by searching the MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine. Initial search terms were prostate-specific antigen screening, prostate cancer screening, and Greece. Bibliographic information of the selected publications was checked for relevant publications not included in the MEDLINE search. Currently in Greece, there is no official recommendation for prostate cancer screening, and thus, its practice depends on the social and educational status of the patient and where the patient lives in Greece. We conclude that patients should be thoroughly informed of the limitations of prostate cancer screening by prostate-specific antigen test, and in consultation with urological specialists, make their personal decision of whether to receive it. Therefore, a project to support shared decision-making and informed choice for men considering testing for prostate cancer should be undertaken.

  7. The Preparation of School Psychologists in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of school psychologists in Greece. It discusses the social and cultural contexts that have influenced the evolution of the discipline of psychology, the beginning of training programs in school psychology, and the current status of school psychological services. The structure of the Graduate Program of School…

  8. Women of Ancient Greece: Participating in Sport?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.

    Based on evidence obtained from Greek literature and artifacts, this paper examines the extent to which women in ancient Greece participated in physical activity, sports, and games. Homer's "Odyssey" describes women playing ball and driving chariots; vases dating back to 700-675 B.C. portray women driving light chariots in a procession;…

  9. The Demand for Higher Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna; Prokopiadou, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reasons for enrolment demand in higher education in Greece through data collected from 400 students enrolled in the final year of post-secondary education in the Athens area. Results showed that Greek students choose to follow higher studies for a number of reasons but mainly because higher education offers high-level…

  10. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Sidira, Persefoni; Larichev, Victor; Gavrilova, Ludmila; Kuzmina, Ksenia; Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Mirazimi, Ali; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is high in some regions of Greece, but only 1 case of disease has been reported. We used 4 methods to test 118 serum samples that were positive for CCHFV IgG by commercial ELISA and confirmed the positive results. A nonpathogenic or low-pathogenicity strain may be circulating. PMID:24447877

  11. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Greece.

    PubMed

    Triantos, Christos; Konstantakis, Christos; Tselekouni, Paraskeui; Kalafateli, Maria; Aggeletopoulou, Ioanna; Manolakopoulos, Spilios

    2016-09-28

    Hepatitis C is a global health issue and constitutes a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In this article, a comprehensive literature search was conducted for the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Greece, since data on the HCV prevalence, viremia and genotypes are important for developing strategies to manage or eliminate HCV infection. In addition, the pattern of HCV infection was analyzed according to the geographic region and the risk factors. These differences reflect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among populations, but also differences on the strategy of data acquisition and quantification. Although there are not enough data, the estimation of the current prevalence of Hepatitis C in Greece ranges from 0.5% to 2%. The most important risk factors for HCV infection include blood product transfusion, intravenous drug use, chronic hemodialysis, organ transplantation, occupational exposure, sexual transmission, and vertical transmission. Because of lack of vaccine or effective post-exposure prophylaxis for HCV, the main focus of prevention is to recognize and control these risk factors. HCV infection in Greece is closely associated with the development of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. As far as the genotype distribution is concerned genotype 1 estimated to be 45%-47% and it constitutes the prevalent genotype in Greece, followed by genotype 3.

  12. Classical Greece, Black Historians, and Martin Bernal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squeri, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Explores the work of Martin Bernal in tracing the roots of Greek civilization to Africa. Discusses the Ancient, Aryan, and Revised Ancient models for explaining Greek origins. Observes that Bernal's thesis comes at a time of increased interest in non-Western history. Suggests that views of ancient Greece will never be the same. (SG)

  13. Migration and HIV epidemic in Greece.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Arvanitis, Michail; Masgala, Aikaterini; Paraskeva, Dimitra

    2005-06-01

    Over the last decade, Greece has experienced a massive influx of migrants from countries in South Eastern/Central Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. This study aimed to estimate the percentage and the specific characteristics of HIV-positive migrants reported in Greece, and to describe the secular trend of migrants' proportion among HIV-infected individuals. Secondary analysis of data reported to the Hellenic Centre for Infectious Diseases Control (HCIDC) during the years 1989-2003. From 1989 to 2003, 6292 HIV-positive cases were reported to HCIDC. Data show that 749 people (439 males, 303 females) originated from countries other than Greece. Most HIV-positive migrants come from Sub-Saharan Africa (32.44%) and nearly 20% from Central and Eastern Europe. In the Greek population, men who have sex with men (MSM) constitute 50.47% of cases, while 16.15% are heterosexuals. The epidemic profile follows a different pattern among migrants (P<0.05). Heterosexual transmission accounts for 41.52% of HIV-positive reported migrants, while 19.09% are MSM. An 11% increase for each subsequent year in the rate of HIV-positive migrants reported in Greece has been estimated using a Poisson regression model fitted to the data (IR 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.13). The results suggest an increasing trend of HIV-seropositive migrants in Greece during recent years. Group-based interventions, better access to health care and a comprehensive public approach should be applied to migrants.

  14. Development of a Coastal Inventory in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Ghionis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Andreadis, Olympos; Monioudi, Isavella

    2015-04-01

    Greek coastline that accounts more than 16.000 km hosts hundreds of beaches, which constitute a great touristic destination. However, no gathered information exists relative to its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (e.g. physicogeographical characteristics, artificial structures, nearby land use). Therefore, the development of a coastal database that would successfully concentrate all relative data, in the form of a National Inventory, could be a valuable tool for the management and the sustainable use and exploitation of beaches and the coastal zone. This work presents an example of the development of a beach inventory in the case of the beach zones of Heraklion and Lassithi counties in the Island of Crete, which is one of the most touristic areas in Greece. Data were initially abstracted from satellite images and combined with in situ observations carried out along 98 beaches with shoreline length >100 m. The collected data included geomorphological, topographic and bathymetric mapping, sediment sampling from the subaerial and underwater part and recording of artificial structures. The initial mapping showed that beaches represent only the 18%, with 74% of the total coastline to be rocky while 8% of the coastline host some kind of artificial intervention. The combination of satellite and in situ mapping led to the development of a coastal geomorphological map. Beach widths were found to be limited with the majority of beaches (59%) to have maximum widths less than 25 m, 35% to range between 25 and 50m and about 6% with maximum widths >50m. Concerning beach length, the threshold of 1000 m is overcome only by the 46% of the beaches. Beaches with very smooth slopes (<2.5) are infrequent (~6%), whilst beaches with low slopes (2.5-5%) are the majority (42%) along with beaches with moderate slopes (5-7.5%) that account approximately the 32%. Beaches with high slopes (7.5-10%) are about 11%, whereas very high slopes and extremely high slopes are much less

  15. From subduction to back arc extension in Syros (Cyclades; Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippon, Melody; Brun, Jean Pierre; Gueydan, Frederic

    2010-05-01

    Subduction zones allow important vertical movement across the lithosphere and the upper mantle. High-Pressure/Low-Temperature (HP/LT) metamorphic rocks represent part of the material first buried and then exhumed during subduction. In the Cyclades (Greece), HP units have surprisingly conserved (1) their initial geometry and even their stratigraphy and (2) evidence of prograde HP/LT metamorphism -e.g. Lawsonite and Aragonite pseudomorphs- in spite of superposed deformations during subduction and exhumation. We aim here at describing the specific deformation mechanisms that lead to the structural patterns observable in the field. Syros Island presents the best-preserved HP parageneses of the Cycladic Blueschists Unit (CBU). Detailed mapping shows that deformation is localised along two main lithological and tectonic interfaces: (1) thrusting shear above and below oceanic crust units emplaced on top of the sedimentary sequence during subduction in early Eocene times and (2) a flat-ramp-type extensional system that accommodated the exhumation of the whole pile of oceanic and sedimentary material, likely in late-Eocene to Oligocene times. Shear criteria associated to these two main deformation events are rather scattered. The first "prograde" event displays a top to SW sense of shear, only observed in association with lawsonite pseudomorphs that crystallized during burial. The second "retrograde" event displays a top to NE sense of shear that can be observed in most of Syros rocks. Stretching lineations related to the second event display at island scale an arcuate pattern that was previously interpreted as ductile wrenching that occurred at a deep crustal level. Our structural mapping shows that late brittle deformation and associated block rotation are responsible for the reorientation of lineations, likely during late-Miocene-Pliocene times. The evidence summarized above lead to three main conclusions. (1) Subduction induced deformation is conserved in the Cycladic

  16. Aleutian Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Remote, rugged and extraordinarily beautiful, Alaska’s Aleutian Islands are best known for wildlife reserves, military bases, fishing, furs and fog. The sprawling volcanic archipelago was brought into the spotlight by the Russian-supported expedition of Alexey Chirikov and Vitus Bering in 1741, and soon became controlled by the Russian-American Fur Company. In 1867 the United States purchased Alaska, including the Aleutian Islands, from Russia. By 1900 the port in Unalaska was well established as a shipping port for Alaska gold. The archipelago sweeps about 1,200 miles (1,800 km) from the tip of the Alaskan Peninsula to Attu, the most westward island. Four major island groups hold 14 large islands, about 55 smaller islands, and a large number of islets, adding up to roughly 150 islands/islets in total. This chain separates the Bering Sea (north) from the Pacific Ocean (south) and the islands are connected by the Marine Highway Ferry – at least as far as Unalaska. For the most remote islands, such as birding paradise of Attu, the western-most Aleutian Island, travel becomes trickier and relies primarily on custom charter. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flew over the region and captured this spectacular true-color image of the eastern Aleutian Islands on May 15, 2014. In this image, the Alaskan Peninsula protrudes from the mainland and sweeps to the southwest. The first set of islands are called the Fox Island group. Unalaska Island is part of this group and can be identified, with some imagination, as an island formed in the shape of a flying cherub, with two arms (peninsulas) outstretched towards the northeast, seemingly reaching for the round “balls” of Akutan and Akun Islands. The smallest islands in the west of the image belong to the group known as the Islands of Four Mountains. The Aleutians continue far to the west of this image. Fog surrounds the Aleutians, stretching from just off the southwestern Alaska mainland to the

  17. Coastal erosion and accretion rates in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Papadopoulos, Costas; Koutsogiannaki, Irini; Synolakis, Costas

    2010-05-01

    Erosion threatens many coastal regions of Greece. Anthropogenic changes of landforms such as coastal roads built on even narrow beaches, sand mining for construction, poor design of coastal structures that interfere with sediment, and dams without sediment bypasses have significantly reduced beach widths. We present erosion rates for different beaches, some of which are in sensitive ecosystems, otherwise "protected" by local and EU ordinances. By comparing inferences of beach widths in varying intervals from 1933 to 2006, we infer that the construction of dams in Acheloos river in western Greece, built in a faraonic attempt to partially divert its flows to eastern Greece, this is responsible for up to 20m/year erosion rates observed in certain locales in the Acheloos delta. More characteristic erosion rates in the region are ~ 2m/year. By contrast, there appears rapid accretion of up to 4m/year in the beaches around the Nestos delta in northern Greece (Papadopoulos, 2009). In beaches that are not near large river deltas, erosion rates range from 0.5m/year to 1m/year. While we have not done comprehensive comparisons among coastlines with different levels of coastal development, it does appear that rapid coastal development correlates well with erosion rates. The underlying problem is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management in Greece and substandard design of coastal structures, which are often sited without any measurements of waves and currents offshore (Synolakis et al, 2008). Beach maintenance remains an exotic concept for most local authorities, who invariably prefer to build hard coastal structures to "protect" versus nourish, siting lack of experience with nourishment and "environmental" concerns. In certain cases, choices are dictated by costs, the larger the cost the easier the project gets approved by regulatory authorities, hence the preference for concrete or rubble structures. We conclude that, unless urgent salvage measures are

  18. Essential-oil diversity of Salvia tomentosa Mill. in Greece.

    PubMed

    Hanlidou, Effie; Karousou, Regina; Lazari, Diamanto

    2014-08-01

    Salvia tomentosa essential oils from Greece were studied for the first time here. The oils from five populations growing in Mediterranean pine forests on the island of Thassos (northern Aegean Sea) and from 14 populations situated in deciduous forests in Thrace (northeastern Greek mainland) were investigated. Their essential-oil contents ranged from 1.1 to 3.3% (v/w, based on the dry weight of the plant material). The populations from Thassos had high contents of α-pinene (18.0 ± 2.9%), 1,8-cineole (14.7 ± 3.0%), cis-thujone (14.0 ± 6.9%), and borneol (12.8 ± 2.2%) and smaller amounts of camphene, camphor, and β-pinene, whereas the populations from Thrace showed high α-pinene (16.7 ± 4.0%), β-pinene (22.8 ± 4.5%), camphor (18.3 ± 4.3%), and camphene (10.3 ± 2.4%) contents, much lower 1,8-cineole and borneol amounts, while cis-thujone was completely lacking. The comparison of the present results with published data showed that oils having cis-thujone as one of the main compounds were reported for the first time here. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the observed essential-oil variation was related to geographical and environmental factors.

  19. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Education For Sustainability - Experiences From Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronos, Athena

    2016-11-01

    One of the main issues involved is changing people's attitudes, values, behavior and consumption patterns. University education in Greece aims to educate engineers so that besides acquiring theoretical knowledge, they also learn to show competences and are motivated to act accordingly. Educating for sustainable development also entails the development of critical capacities and the necessary skills to be able to identify and formulate problems. This paper outlines the way in which an approach to teaching sustainability has been embodied in the Industrial Design, West Macedonia Greece. More specifically, it describes a course to develop comprehensive case studies and support material in order to aid, Industrial Design students in understanding the sustainability concepts and how solutions can be developed

  2. Albanian and Polish undocumented workers in Greece: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G; Romaniszyn, K

    1998-01-01

    "This article deals with the migration of undocumented workers from Albania and Poland to Greece. Its underlying assumption is that migration from the former post-communist countries to Greece is not a homogeneous phenomenon, thus allowing for a distinction and comparison between the migration waves from Poland and Albania to Greece. The article shows that economic migration from Albania and Poland to Greece is primarily an economically triggered phenomenon which results from both individual rational choices and social, structural settings, and which verifies a general tendency of mass flows, characteristic of the era of disorganized capitalism." (EXCERPT)

  3. First description of a fossil chamaeleonid from Greece and its relevance for the European biogeographic history of the group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgalis, Georgios L.; Villa, Andrea; Delfino, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    The fossil record of Chamaeleonidae is very scarce and any new specimen is therefore considered important for our understanding of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. New specimens from the early Miocene of Aliveri (Evia Island), Greece constitute the only fossils of these lizards from southeastern Europe. Skull roofing material is tentatively attributed to the Czech species Chamaeleo cf. andrusovi, revealing a range extension for this taxon, whereas tooth-bearing elements are described as indeterminate chamaeleonids. The Aliveri fossils rank well among the oldest known reptiles from Greece, provide evidence for the dispersal routes of chameleons out of Africa towards the European continent and, additionally, imply strong affinities with coeval chamaeleonids from Central Europe.

  4. First description of a fossil chamaeleonid from Greece and its relevance for the European biogeographic history of the group.

    PubMed

    Georgalis, Georgios L; Villa, Andrea; Delfino, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    The fossil record of Chamaeleonidae is very scarce and any new specimen is therefore considered important for our understanding of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. New specimens from the early Miocene of Aliveri (Evia Island), Greece constitute the only fossils of these lizards from southeastern Europe. Skull roofing material is tentatively attributed to the Czech species Chamaeleo cf. andrusovi, revealing a range extension for this taxon, whereas tooth-bearing elements are described as indeterminate chamaeleonids. The Aliveri fossils rank well among the oldest known reptiles from Greece, provide evidence for the dispersal routes of chameleons out of Africa towards the European continent and, additionally, imply strong affinities with coeval chamaeleonids from Central Europe.

  5. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910

  6. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece.

    PubMed

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2015-08-13

    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  7. Novel phleboviruses detected in ticks, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, when severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus have been identified and associated with disease in humans, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses is increasing rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in Greece and compare them with respective ones detected worldwide. Ticks collected from goats and sheep in 60 sites of 13 regional units of Greece were grouped in pools (1-3 ticks per pool) and tested for the presence of phleboviral RNA. Six of 210 pools were positive; they consisted of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from sheep in 3 regional units of Greece: Pella (2/30, 6.7%), Imathia (2/21, 9.5%), and Ioannina (2/28, 7.1%). The overall tick minimum infection rate was 2.1%. The sequences of the Greek phlebovirus (provisionally named Antigone virus) form a distinct clade in the tick-borne phleboviruses, differing by >40% from the currently known phleboviruses. Any probable implication of these viruses to public health remains to be elucidated.

  8. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  9. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  10. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  11. Belcher Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Belcher Islands - September 21st, 2001 Description: Like sweeping brushstrokes of pink and green, the Belcher Islands meander across the deep blue of Canada's Hudson Bay. The islands' only inhabitants live in the small town of Sanikiluaq, near the upper end of the middle island. Despite the green hues in this image, these rocky islands are too cold to sustain more than a smattering of low-growing vegetation. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  12. Lifelong Education in Greece: Recent Developments and Current Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karalis, Thanassis; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This article concerns recent developments and current trends in lifelong education in Greece, specifically those related with funding from European Social Fund (ESF). The analysis undertaken focuses mainly on (a) the expansion of continuing training activities in Greece during the past ten years and the development of new training organizations as…

  13. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Adolescents: The Case of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bablekou, Zoe; Kazi, Smaragda

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and adolescents in Greece, as well as procedures, current practices, and future directions. Although the history of special education is long in Greece, there has been very sporadic and incoherent legislation and decision making on the subject. Currently, intelligence tests are…

  14. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  15. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Adolescents: The Case of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bablekou, Zoe; Kazi, Smaragda

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and adolescents in Greece, as well as procedures, current practices, and future directions. Although the history of special education is long in Greece, there has been very sporadic and incoherent legislation and decision making on the subject. Currently, intelligence tests are…

  16. Educational Reform in Greece: Central Concepts and a Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounari, Panayota; Grollios, George

    2012-01-01

    The case of Greece as the most recent neoliberal experiment can provide valuable insights not only about a generalized attack on the welfare state and the public good, but also about the radical changes in public education that are altering its public mission, vision, and goals. In this paper first we trace the educational landscape in Greece as…

  17. Educational Reform in Greece: Central Concepts and a Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounari, Panayota; Grollios, George

    2012-01-01

    The case of Greece as the most recent neoliberal experiment can provide valuable insights not only about a generalized attack on the welfare state and the public good, but also about the radical changes in public education that are altering its public mission, vision, and goals. In this paper first we trace the educational landscape in Greece as…

  18. Academic Libraries in Greece: The Present Situation and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Dean H., Ed.

    The purpose of this collection of essays is to examine academic libraries in Greece at a time when the potential for changes and advance in librarianship is great. The 15 papers are as follows: "International Interlibrary Cooperation: Exchanging Goals, Values and Culture" (Don L. Tolliver); "Academic Libraries in Greece" (James…

  19. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  20. Characteristics of farm injuries in Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexe, D M; Petridou, E; Dessypris, N; Skenderis, N; Trichopoulos, D

    2003-08-01

    To assess the characteristics of occupational and leisure farm injuries in Greece. During a five-year period (1996-2000), 4,326 unintentional farm injuries have been recorded by the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System in Greece. Data concerning demographic variables, accident conditions, and injury characteristics were collected by in person interviews. The data were analyzed by simple cross-tabulation and hierarchical cluster analysis. Injuries from falls on the same level are mainly lower-limb fractures and occur during the winter among older women. Falls from higher level concern migrant workers, who also tend to suffer severe multiple injuries, including concussions, particularly during autumn. Injuries resulting from cutting and piercing instruments, as well as from machinery, are generally open wounds in the upper-limbs, suffered by young migrant workers. Head injuries resulting from striking against an object are more generally spread across socio-demographic variables. Overexertion is the dominant mechanism for dislocations and sprains in the lower limbs. Snake and insect bites are common among younger migrant workers during summer, and they affect the upper limbs during manual work close to the ground. Non-traffic injuries from vehicles are frequently severe, involving head concussion of generally young individuals. In Greece, farm injuries are frequently serious and require hospitalization. These injuries show distinct patterns among older women (lower-limb fractures), young individuals (non-traffic vehicle-related injuries) and migrant workers (injuries from cutting and piercing instruments, falls from high level, and bites). Prevention strategies should give priority to these population groups. These prevention strategies should include guidance for poorly educated workers, including migrants, enforcement of safety regulations concerning farming machinery, and discouragement of risky farming activities among elderly individuals, particularly

  1. A Comprehensive Mathematical Model for the Correlation of Earthquake Magnitude with Geochemical Measurements. A Case Study: the Nisyros Volcano in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Verros, G. D.; Latsos, T.; Liolios, C.; Anagnostou, K. E.

    2009-08-13

    A comprehensive mathematical model for the correlation of geological phenomena such as earthquake magnitude with geochemical measurements is presented in this work. This model is validated against measurements, well established in the literature, of {sup 220}Rn/{sup 222}Rn in the fumarolic gases of the Nisyros Island, Aegean Sea, Greece. It is believed that this model may be further used to develop a generalized methodology for the prediction of geological phenomena such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in the vicinity of the Nisyros Island.

  2. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity?

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-09-01

    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece.

  3. Archaeomagnetism in Macedonia, Greece: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. E.; Kontopoulou, D.

    A project has been initiated to gather archaeomagnetic data from the rich archaeological heritage of Macedonia. We report here results from the first five kilns studied, which range in age from Hellenistic to Byzantine (broadly speaking, from 500BC to 1500AD). With so few data, and such a long time interval, we are obviously far from defining the geomagnetic secular variation in northern Greece. Nevertheless, a useful first step has been taken, and the results obtained so far compare favourably with the much larger data set from nearby Bulgaria.

  4. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  5. Streamlined Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-15

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a streamlined island in a broad channel in Chryse Planitia. The channel is part of the outflow region of Lobo Vallis, a northern branch of Kasei Valles.

  6. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  7. Life cycle analysis of pistachio production in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bartzas, Georgios; Komnitsas, Kostas

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study regarding pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivation in Aegina island, Greece, was performed to evaluate the energy use footprint and the associated environmental impacts. In this context, a detailed life cycle inventory was created based on site-survey data and used for a holistic cradle-to-farm gate LCA analysis using the GaBi 6.5 software. The main impact categories assessed were acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) and cumulative energy demand (CED). In order to reveal the main environmental concerns pertinent to pistachio production and in turn propose measures for the reduction of environmental and energetic impacts, three scenarios were compared, namely the Baseline scenario (BS) that involves current cultivation practices, the Green Energy (GE) scenario that involves the use of biological fertilizers i.e. compost, and the Waste Utilization (WU) scenario that involves the production of biochar from pistachio and other agricultural wastes and its subsequent soil application to promote carbon sequestration and improve soil quality. Based on the results of this study, the use of compost for fertilization (GE scenario), which results in approximately 9% savings in terms of energy consumption and the five environmental impact categories studied compared to BS scenario, is considered a promising alternative cultivation strategy. Slightly higher savings (10% on average) in terms of the five calculated environmental impact categories, compared to the BS scenario, were indicated when the WU scenario was considered. Regarding energy consumption, the WU scenario results in minor increase, 3%, compared to the BS scenario. Results of uncertainty analysis performed using the Monte Carlo technique and contribution analysis showed that GE and WU scenarios offer reliable and significant

  8. Patients' perceptions of generic drugs in Greece.

    PubMed

    Skaltsas, Leonora N; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z

    2015-11-01

    The use of generic drugs is growing increasingly around the world and in Greece, in particular, in order to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. However, patients' perceptions and attitudes about generics have only partially been studied so far in Greece. This study aimed to examine the factors that influence the attitude of patients and consumers regarding generic drugs. A questionnaire survey of 364 patients visiting a pharmacy was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 29 questions, including questions regarding their knowledge about generics, the reasons for using them, their previous experience, their willingness for generic substitution, and the factors behind these choices. Nearly half of the participants in the survey know the term 'generic' and that it has a lower price compared to the brand name drug. Their views on safety and efficacy vary significantly and the main source of information on generics is the media and the internet. The lack of knowledge is the main barrier for attitudes of doctors. Health professionals play the most influential role for the substitution of a branded drug by a generic, followed by the cost of the generic. Almost half of the patients know about generic drugs, with their lower price being the most popular feature which most patients are familiar with. It seems that primarily the doctor and, subsequently the pharmacist play the most important role in a patient's decision to replace his/her medicine with a generic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiology of aids defining conditions in Greece.

    PubMed

    Masgala, A; Nikolopoulos, G; Tsantes, A; Paraskeva, D

    2004-12-01

    To examine the secular trends of all AIDS opportunistic infections to occur first (OIs) in Greece, by year, by gender and by mode of transmission. The study included all AIDS defining conditions reported among Greek residents diagnosed with AIDS from 1981 to June 2003 and notified to the Hellenic Centre of Infectious Diseases Control. The analysis of trends in AIDS defining conditions in Greece has been performed only for the period 1993--2003. From 1981 to the first six months of 2003, 2,394 AIDS cases, 2,361 adults and 33 children, have been reported. HIV wasting syndrome was the most frequent OI to occur first followed by PCP pneumonia and Kaposi sarcoma. The frequency at which OIs occurred first varied by sex. Kaposi sarcoma was more frequent in males while tuberculosis and oesophageal candidiasis were more frequent in females. The frequency at which OIs occurred first varied also by exposure mode. Kaposi sarcoma was more frequent among men who have sex with men but that was not the case for the remaining transmission categories. From 1993 to the first six months of 2003 a downward trend was noticed only for chronic simplex disease. Since the introduction of HAART, an increasing trend was noticed for CMV disease, recurrent pneumonia, oesophageal candidiasis, Burkitt and immunoblastic lymphoma. Further epidemiological studies are needed to assess the OIs trends in coming years in order to plan prevention strategies and future medical care needs.

  10. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition and its consequences on coastal environment in northwestern Greece (Epirus) : geoarchaeological and palaeogeographical prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrol, A.; Fouache, E.; Le Coeur, C.; Ghilardi, M.

    2009-04-01

    At the scale of the Mediterranean Basin, the Glacial/Interglacial transition (15 000 - 6 000 BP) corresponds successively to the hunthers-gatherers from the Late Upper Paleolithic societies, to the Mesolithic and then to the farming societies from the Neolithic. The area of research (Epirus and particularly the Ionian coast) reveals original archaeological data: in this area, archaeologists didn't find much prehistoric settlements comparing to other places in Greece. Furthermore, the neolithisation became later than in Thessaly or in Boeotia. Geomorphologic researches and regional palaeogeographical reconstructions should help us to explain the prehistoric human dynamics and the adaptation of these societies to a rapid changing area due in particular to the post glacial sea level rise. The research focuses on Northwestern Epirus: the island of Corfu and the delta of the Kalamas river correspond to a promising area of research. Indeed, this area revealed us different interesting and complementary sedimentary archives for our study: the probable palaeo-lake between Corfu and the continental Greece and the delta of the Kalamas river. The poster for the scientific congress will explain the originality of the area of research and the originality of the geoarchaeological prospects in northwestern Greece. Particularly, the methodology will be explained: archaeological and geomorphologic cartography, geophysical prospection in the delta (electric vertical profiles, seismic profiles) and core sampling activities. Palaeogeographical and geoarchaeological prospects and the first results will be discussed.

  11. Data Analysis of cGPS stations in central Greece: station velocities and 1-D strain estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, Athanassios; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Gianniou, Michalis

    2013-04-01

    We processed 30-s GPS data from permanent GNSS stations in central Greece, available at NOA since 2006. We obtained position time series along with horizontal and vertical velocities using the Kalman filtering approach and accounting for time-correlated noise content. The station distribution allowed us to draw velocity profiles and to calculate rates of baseline length change (1-D strain). In central Greece, the coherent picture of the velocity pattern for Attica and north-eastern Peloponnese (Corinth) stations (effectively a velocity "plateau" at 30 mm/yr) indicates that these areas belong to the same crustal block, although some internal strain is present within Attica's crust as well as across the Saronic Gulf. Our 1-D strain estimates are in general agreement with geological data (fault slip rates) in central Greece, implying accommodation of this crustal extension along E-W striking active normal faults. Some NE-SW directed shortening is mapped in the wider area to the west of the termination of the North Anatolian Fault (Sporades islands).

  12. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  13. 14C dating of the Early to Late Bronze Age stratigraphic sequence of Aegina Kolonna, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, E. M.; Gauß, W.; Forstenpointner, G.; Lindblom, M.; Smetana, R.; Steier, P.; Thanheiser, U.; Weninger, F.

    2010-04-01

    Aegina Kolonna, located in the center of the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Mediterranean (Greece), is one of the major archaeological sites of the Aegean Bronze Age with a continuous stratigraphic settlement sequence from the Late Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. Due to its position next to the maritime cross roads between central mainland Greece, the northeast Peloponnese, the Cyclades and Crete, the island played an important role in the trade between these regions. In the course of new excavations, which focused on the exploration of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age at Kolonna, several short lived samples from different settlement phases have been 14C-dated with the AMS method at the VERA laboratory. Bayesian sequencing of the 14C data according to the stratigraphic position of the samples in the profile was performed to enable estimates of the transition time between the cultural phases. The Aegina Kolonna 14C sequence is one of the longest existing so far for the Aegean Bronze Age, and therefore of major importance for the absolute Bronze Age chronology in this region. Preliminary results indicate that the Middle Helladic period seems to have started earlier and lasted longer than traditionally assumed. Further, at the present stage of our investigation we can give also a very tentative time frame for the Santorini volcanic eruption which seems to be in agreement with the science derived VDL date.

  14. Variation of the Earth tide-seismicity compliance parameter during the recent seismic activity of Fthiotida, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael; Aarabelos, Dimitrios; Vergos, Georgios; Spatalas, Spyridon

    2014-05-01

    Applying the Hi(stogram)Cum(ulation) method, which was introduced recently by Cadicheanu, van Ruymbecke and Zhu (2007), we analyze the series of the earthquakes occurred in the last 50 years in seismic active areas of Greece, i.e. the areas (a) of the Mygdonian Basin(Contadakis et al. 2007), (b) of the Ionian Islands (Contadakis et al. 2012 ) and (c) of the Hellenic Arc (Vergos et al. 2012 ) . The result of the analysis for all the areas indicate that the monthly variation of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence is in accordance with the period of the tidal lunar monthly and semi-monthly (Mm and Mf) variations and the same happens with the corresponding daily variations of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence with the diurnal luni-solar (K1) and semidiurnal lunar (M2) tidal variations. In addition the confidence level for the identifiation of such period accordance between earthquakes occurrence frequency and tidal periods varies with seismic activity, i.e. the higher confidence level corresponds to periods with stronger seismic activity. These results are in favor of a tidal triggering process on earthquakes when the stress in the focal area is near the critical level. Based on these results, we consider the confidence level of earthquake occurrence - tidal period accordance, p, as an index of tectonic stress criticality for earthquake occurrence and we check on posterior if the variation of the confidence level index, p, indicate the fault matureness in the case of the recent seismic activity at Fthiotida, Greece. In this paper we present the results of this test. References Cadicheanu, N., van Ruymbeke, M andZhu P.,2007:Tidal triggering evidence of intermediate depth earthquakes in Vrancea zone(Romania), NHESS 7,733-740. Contadakis, M. E., Arabelos, D. N., Spatalas, S., 2009, Evidence for tidal triggering on the shallow earthquakes of the seismic area of Mygdonia basin, North Greece, in Terrestrial and Stellar Environment, eds.D. Arabelos, M

  15. Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece: a preliminary checklist

    PubMed Central

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece was created within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), which is one of the applications of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) resuming efforts to develop a complete checklist of species recorded and reported from Greek waters. The objectives of the present study were to update and cross-check taxonomically all records of Mysida and Lophogastrida species known to occur in Greek waters in order to search for inaccuracies and omissions. New information The up-to-date checklist of Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece comprises 49 species, classified to 25 genera. PMID:27932912

  16. Terrestrial vegetation monitoring protocol for the Mediterranean Coast Network—Cabrillo National Monument, Channel Islands National Park, and Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area: Standard Operating Procedures, Version 1.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiszler, John; Rodriguez, Dirk; Lombardo, Keith; Sagar, Tarja; Aguilar, Luis; Lee, Lena; Handley, Timothy; McEachern, Kathryn; Harrod Starcevich, Leigh Ann; Witter, Marti; Philippi, Tom; Ostermann-Kelm, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    These Standard Operating Procedures are one part of a two-part protocol for monitoring terrestrial vegetation in the Mediterranean Coast Network. The second part of the protocol is the narrative:Tiszler, J., D. Rodriguez, K. Lombardo, T. Sagar, L. Aguilar, L. Lee, T. Handley, K. McEachern, L. Starcevich, M. Witter, T. Philippi, and S. Ostermann-Kelm. 2016. Terrestrial vegetation monitoring protocol for the Mediterranean Coast Network—Cabrillo National Monument, Channel Islands National Park, and Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area: Narrative, version 1.0. Natural Resource Report NPS/MEDN/NRR—2016/1296. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.National parks in the Mediterranean Inventory and Monitoring Network:Cabrillo National Monument (CABR)Channel Islands National Park (CHIS)Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area (SAMO)

  17. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece).

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Gabriella; Panayiotou, Eleni; Mylonas, Moisis; Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail

    2015-01-01

    Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas) were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity.

  18. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Papastefanou, Gabriella; Panayiotou, Eleni; Mylonas, Moisis; Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas) were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity. PMID:26257541

  19. Olive Tree-Ring Problematic Dating: A Comparative Analysis on Santorini (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Cherubini, Paolo; Humbel, Turi; Beeckman, Hans; Gärtner, Holger; Mannes, David; Pearson, Charlotte; Schoch, Werner; Tognetti, Roberto; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    Olive trees are a classic component of Mediterranean environments and some of them are known historically to be very old. In order to evaluate the possibility to use olive tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece) show that the determination of the number of tree-rings is impossible because of intra-annual wood density fluctuations, variability in tree-ring boundary structure, and restriction of its cambial activity to shifting sectors of the circumference, causing the tree-ring sequences along radii of the same cross section to differ. PMID:23382949

  20. Olive tree-ring problematic dating: a comparative analysis on Santorini (Greece).

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Paolo; Humbel, Turi; Beeckman, Hans; Gärtner, Holger; Mannes, David; Pearson, Charlotte; Schoch, Werner; Tognetti, Roberto; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    Olive trees are a classic component of Mediterranean environments and some of them are known historically to be very old. In order to evaluate the possibility to use olive tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece) show that the determination of the number of tree-rings is impossible because of intra-annual wood density fluctuations, variability in tree-ring boundary structure, and restriction of its cambial activity to shifting sectors of the circumference, causing the tree-ring sequences along radii of the same cross section to differ.

  1. Vocational Education and Training in Greece: The European Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleocrassas, Stamatis

    1992-01-01

    Gives a brief review of Greece's current vocational education/training system, compares it to European models, describes the European Community process of harmonization of vocational qualifications, and discusses new legislation establishing a national vocational education/training system. (SK)

  2. Suicide in Greece: 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Kontaxakis, V; Papaslanis, Th; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Tsouvelas, G; Giotakos, O; Papadimitriou, G Ν

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 several European countries have fallen into a financial crisis. This crisis has mainly affected the Greek population. The lower of income and the increase of unemployment as consequences of crisis lead to negative effects on people's mental health. Usually, in periods of economic crisis there is an increase of suicidality of population. The aim of this study is to examine the changes of suicide rates in Greece during the last decade (2001-2011) with particular consideration in the recent period of economic crisis (2008-2011). Data regarding the greek general population and the crude data on suicides were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT). We assessed the specific suicide rate, i.e. the number of suicide cases per 100.000 inhabitants (SSR) using population data on the 2001 and 2011 census. Yearly and mean total, age and sex-SSR were calculated in five years age groups. There were no suicide cases among children under the age of fifteen. We compared total and male, female SSR during the period before the crisis (2001-2007) and during the crisis (2008-2011). During the decade 2001-2011 a total number of 4133 suicide cases were recorded. There were 3423 (82.8%) male suicides and 710 (17.2%) female suicides. During the decade 2001-2011 total SSR increased by 38.4%. In males increased by 33.1% and in females by 69.6%. In the period before the crisis (2001-2007) total SSR decreased by 3.9%. In males decreased by 8.4% but in females increased by 22.3%. During the period of crisis (2008-2011) total SSR increased by 27.2%. In males increased by 26.9% and in females by 28.5%. There was a statistically significant increase in total SSR during the crisis regarding subjects 50-54 years old (t=3.43, p=0.007) and in total SSR of males (t=2.31, p=0.047) as well as of the males age groups 50-54 (t=3.56, p=0.006), 45-49 (t=2.87, p=0.02), 30-34 (t=2.96, p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences both in total SSR and in SSR of all

  3. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    PubMed

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  5. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too.

  6. Preterm birth in ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2017-01-01

    This report refers to preterm birth in Ancient Greece based on mythological, historical and archeological data. The two antique goddesses, patronesses of labor and birth, Artemis and Eileithyia, cared for full-term, as well as preterm infants, among them for the mythological preterms Dionysos and Eurystheus. The former was rapidly transported by Hermes and received special care by the nymphs Hyades in a mountain cave with "incubator" properties. Historical data are related to the nine months duration of a normal pregnancy, to the definition of "Elitomina" (preterms), the lower limit of viability, the causes for preterm birth, the existence of small for gestational age infants and relevant causes, the physical examination of neonates and postpartum care. Lastly, excavations in Athens and Astypalaia discovered burials - in wells or pots - of preterm infants with gestational age 24-37 weeks.

  7. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-30

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede, and the eastern island Little Diomede are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite.

  8. The practice of electroconvulsive therapy in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Styliani C; Braga, Raphael J; Petrides, Georgios; Chatzimanolis, John; Papadimitriou, George N; Zervas, Iannis M

    2013-09-01

    To describe the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Greece. A survey was conducted during the academic year 2008-2009. Electroconvulsive therapy use was investigated for 2007. All civilian institutions providing inpatient care were included. Centers that provided ECT completed a 57-item questionnaire. Centers that did not offer ECT completed a 13-item questionnaire. Fifty-five (82.1%) of 67 institutions responded. Electroconvulsive therapy was offered in 18 hospitals. Only 2 of 10 university hospitals offered ECT. Overall, 137 patients were treated with 1271 sessions in 2007. Only 1.47% discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. There were no deaths. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (41.3%) among those receiving ECT, followed by major depression (28.9%), bipolar depression (9.1%), catatonia (4.1%), suicidal ideation (3.3%), and schizoaffective disorder (2.5%). Physicians considered major depression (93.8%), catatonia (86.5%), schizophrenia (56.3%), and mania (50%) the most appropriate indications. Written informed consent was required in 77.8% of the institutions, whereas the rest required verbal consent. Bilateral ECT was the preferred electrode placement (88.9%). Modified ECT was used exclusively. Propofol was the preferred anesthetic (44.4%), followed by thiopental (38.9%). Seven (38.9%) of 18 hospitals used a fixed stimulus dose at first treatment. Five (27.8%) of 18 hospitals used the half-age method. Continuation/maintenance ECT was used in 33.3% of the hospitals. Outpatient ECT was seldom used. Lack of training, difficult access to anesthesiology, billing issues, and stigma were cited as the main impediments to the practice of ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy is practiced in moderate numbers in Greece and almost exclusively on an inpatient basis. Lack of training and lack of availability of anesthesiologists were cited as the most common obstacles to providing ECT.

  9. Bahama Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-04-09

    STS006-45-097 (4-9 April 1983) --- This photograph was taken with a handheld 70mm camera aimed through the “ceiling” windows of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Challenger during its five-day STS-6 mission. A beautiful photo shows the contrast between the islands, clouds, shallow water and deep water. Islands of the Bahamas seen are New Providence (upper left) and Eleuthera (right). Northeast Providence Channel is at the upper edge and Exuma Sound is at the lower left with the open Atlantic along the right edge. The wind, from the south, causes a long cloud to develop downwind from Eleuthera Point. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Greece’s Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-07

    economic downturn (which requires expansionary fiscal policies ) – are at odds with each other. Some question, then, how long the government will be able to...countries, like Greece, have had higher levels of wage growth and more expansionary fiscal policies , leading to less competitive exports and lower...unified monetary policy and diverse fiscal policies . It has also come to light that complex financial instruments may have played a role in helping Greece

  11. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hotels of Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, S D; Antoniadis, A; Papapaganagiotou, J; Stefanou, T

    1989-03-01

    Twenty water samples collected from 6 hotels situated in various areas of Greece were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-like organisms. Five of the six hotels included in this investigation were associated with cases of legionellosis. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 8 were isolated from four of six hotels, mainly from the hot water supply system. This is the first isolation and identification of L. pneumophila in Greece.

  12. Ascidiacea (Chordata: Tunicata) of Greece: an updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The checklist of the ascidian fauna (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) of Greece was compiled within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an application of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) aiming to produce a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. This checklist was constructed by updating an existing one with the inclusion of recently published records. All the reported species from Greek waters were taxonomically revised and cross-checked with the Ascidiacea World Database. The updated checklist of the class Ascidiacea of Greece comprises 75 species, classified in 33 genera, 12 families, and 3 orders. In total, 8 species have been added to the previous species list (4 Aplousobranchia, 2 Phlebobranchia, and 2 Stolidobranchia). Aplousobranchia was the most speciose order, followed by Stolidobranchia. Most species belonged to the families Didemnidae, Polyclinidae, Pyuridae, Ascidiidae, and Styelidae; these 4 families comprise 76% of the Greek ascidian species richness. The present effort revealed the limited taxonomic research effort devoted to the ascidian fauna of Greece, which is attributed to the lack of experts and low sampling effort. Therefore, major knowledge gaps on the ascidian diversity of Greece occur and further research in this field is needed.

  13. Ascidiacea (Chordata: Tunicata) of Greece: an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of the ascidian fauna (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) of Greece was compiled within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an application of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) aiming to produce a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. This checklist was constructed by updating an existing one with the inclusion of recently published records. All the reported species from Greek waters were taxonomically revised and cross-checked with the Ascidiacea World Database. New information The updated checklist of the class Ascidiacea of Greece comprises 75 species, classified in 33 genera, 12 families, and 3 orders. In total, 8 species have been added to the previous species list (4 Aplousobranchia, 2 Phlebobranchia, and 2 Stolidobranchia). Aplousobranchia was the most speciose order, followed by Stolidobranchia. Most species belonged to the families Didemnidae, Polyclinidae, Pyuridae, Ascidiidae, and Styelidae; these 4 families comprise 76% of the Greek ascidian species richness. The present effort revealed the limited taxonomic research effort devoted to the ascidian fauna of Greece, which is attributed to the lack of experts and low sampling effort. Therefore, major knowledge gaps on the ascidian diversity of Greece occur and further research in this field is needed. PMID:27932910

  14. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Sea plate creates a series of island arc volcanoes and the Earth's deepest ocean trench. Anatahan had no known historical eruptions ... bomber, lies on the north side edge of the craters flat lands. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion ...

  15. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  16. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  17. Coastal Transport Integrated System in the Aegean Sea Islands: Framework, Methodology, Data Issues and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Stratakis, P.; Karathanasis, C.; Gkadolou, E.; Pagounis, V.; Chronis, K.; Gatsiou, M.; Moumouri-Frag, F.; Tsekos, P.

    2013-05-01

    Greece has more than one hundred inhabited islands, the majority of them are geographically scattered in small distances in the Aegean Sea. The Aegean Sea suffers systematically from two major issues. First, many islands are not served quite frequently with the continent or other islands' major ports. It is a situation rather problematic for the habitants of the islands who wish to travel, for the patients in need to be transferred to metropolitan hospitals, for the goods transport from and to islands. Second, there is a crucial issue in the Aegean Sea regarding the so-called "thin lines". Governments spend every year tens of million euros in subsidies in order to sustain the thin lines. Our aim is the development of an integrated and holistic spatial information system to effectively design coastal transportation lines to combat the above mentioned problems. This paper will present the project framework, the methodology followed, data issues and preliminary results.

  18. Magnetotellurics and Transient Electromagnetics to Investigate the Geoelectric Structure of Southern Aegean, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, J. P.; Kalisperi, D.; Smirnov, M.; Rigakis, H.; Romano, G.; Kokologiannakis, A.; Pentes, G.; Pentaris, F.; Skoulakis, A.; Perrone, A.; Kouli, M.; Vallianatos, F.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2012 a great number of onshore magnetotelluric (MT) and Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) measurements have been conducted in Southern Aegean, Greece. The survey included Crete, almost all the islands of Dodecanese and Southern Cyclades, Southern Peloponnese, and the islands Kithira, Antikithira and Gavdos. Southern Aegean Sea, featuring the Southern Hellenic Arc (HA) of the Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ) and the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA), depicts complex geotectonics and the most intense seismicity and geodynamics of Western Eurasia. In this work we summarize the most important results of the MT and TEM combined analysis and modelling. Furthermore, two permanent telemetric MT stations were installed and operated in Western Crete and Rhodes, respectively, to be used as remote reference and to investigate possible transient seismoelectromagnetic signals. The case of the October 12, 2013 strong earthquake (Mb6.4) is discussed. The research was conducted in the framework of the project entitled "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic Arc (MT-GEAR)", co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and National Resources within the context of the Action "Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers" of the Operational Programme 'Education and Lifelong Learning'.

  19. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  20. Laron syndrome. First report from Greece.

    PubMed

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Nousia-Arvanitakis, Sanda; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis; Bechlivanides, Christos; Shevah, Orit; Laron, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Laron-type dwarfism is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deletions or mutations of the growth hormone receptor gene. It is characterized by high circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Patients are refractory to both endogenous and exogenous GH, and present severe growth retardation and obesity. Therapy with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) accelerates linear growth. We describe a 2-year old girl with Laron syndrome, who presented with postnatal growth failure and hypoglycaemic seizures. Her evaluation disclosed high GH values during a glucagon test (peak GH value 170 ng/ml) and very low IGF I value (0.1 ng/ml) with no rise following GH administration. The growth velocity improved considerably with the administration of IGF I. Molecular analysis showed a heterozygous mutation on exon 4 of the GH receptor gene, inherited from the mother, a rather puzzling finding considering the clinical findings in mother and infant. This case constitutes the first report of Laron syndrome from Greece.

  1. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  2. Monitoring Santorini volcano (Greece) breathing from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foumelis, Michael; Trasatti, Elisa; Papageorgiou, Elena; Stramondo, Salvatore; Parcharidis, Issaak

    2013-04-01

    Since its last eruption in 1950, Santorini volcano (Greece) remained in a dormant state. This is also evidenced for the period 1992-2010 by the gradual deflation signal over Nea Kameni as measured by satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) with low rates of about 5-6 mm yr-1 as well as by the absence of seismic activity within the caldera. However, at the beginning of 2011 the volcano showed signs of unrest with increased microseismic activity and significant ground uplift, reaching 14 cm within a year (2011 March-2012 March), according to InSAR time-series. ALOS PALSAR data indicate the onset of the phenomenon in early 2010 where an aseismic pre-unrest phase of increased subsidence (1-3 cm) preceded the uplift. Joint inversions of SAR and GPS velocities using spherical and spheroidal magmatic source types indicate their location offshore at about 1 km north of Nea Kameni and between 3.5 and 3.8 km depth. The estimated volume variation rate is 6 × 106 m3 yr-1 to 9 × 106 m3 yr-1. A gradual slowing in the rate of inflation within the first quarter of 2012 is apparent by ENVISAT data, while subsequent observations from RADARSAT-2 confirm the observed trend.

  3. Euthanasia in Greece: moral and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Vidalis, A; Dardavessis, T; Kaprinis, G

    1998-04-01

    Euthanasia as a concept and a practice has led to enormous debate in Greece, as well as in other countries. In this study, we examined the views of the public and of professionals on the issue of euthanasia. A self-administered questionnaire of 28 items was completed by 417 subjects, and provided information about attitudes towards the moral and ethical problems of euthanasia. Psychiatric speculations which arose during the approach of this issue were seen in the majority of the responses (88.3%). Psychodynamic unconscious processes reinforced and violated mechanisms and motives in favour of, or against euthanasia. Of the respondents, 44.3% were against life extension with mechanical devices. Putative main risk factors for suicidal ideation and the desire for death were: pain 66.2%, despair 60.2%, depression 59.7%, and psychopathology 38.6%. This study thus revealed that apart from pain, psychosocial factors play a key role in leading people to ask for euthanasia. On the other hand, the knowledge of the public and professionals regarding this issue is not sufficient, and thus discussion of euthanasia by Medical Societies is needed and necessary.

  4. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  5. Attenuation of coda waves in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzidimitriou, P. M.

    1993-03-01

    The single scattering model has been applied for the estimation of coda Q values for local earthquakes that occurred in northern Greece during the period 1983 1989 and recorded by the telemetered network of the Geophysical Laboratory of the University of Thessaloniki. Coda Q estimations were made for four frequency bands centered at 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz and 12.0 Hz and for the lapse time windows 10 20 sec, 15 30 sec, 20 45 sec, 30 60 sec and 50 100 sec. The coda Q values obtained show a clear frequency dependence of the form Q c =Q 0 f n , while Q 0 and n depend on the lapse time window. Q 0 was found equal to 33 and n equal to 1.01 for the time window of 10 to 20 sec, while for the other windows Q 0 increased from 60 to 129, with n being stable, close to 0.75. This lapse time dependence is interpreted as due to a depth dependent attenuation. The high attenuation and the strong frequency dependence found are characteristic of an area with high seismicity, in agreement with studies in other seismic regions.

  6. Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment In Greece Using Gis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma, M.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Zong, Y.; Smith, D.

    A new methodology is described that uses GIS (Geographical Information System)to determine tsunami vulnerability at different spatial and temporal scales. The method- ology is based on the construction of a GIS database, which may be used by different end-users and under varying hazard scenarios. Primary data are collected for a range of parameters that relate to the natural environment, land use, the built environment, the local economy and services, as well as socio-economic parameters. The methodol- ogy permits interrogation of the primary datasets by several different end-user groups. For example, the GIS may be used: (1) by the emergency services in order to locate large numbers of casualties, to organise the immediate post-tsunami disaster response and to design evacuation routes; (2) by insurance companies in order to set the premi- ums of individual buildings and businesses and (3) by the municipal authorities as a tool for local planning (planning regulations, relocation of buildings). The results of two applications of the methodology in Greece are presented. The first application in Herakleio (Crete) relates to the impact that the 1650AD tsunami would have in the area under the current circumstances. The worse case scenario for the second application is based on the 1963 tsunami, which affected the coastal segment west of Aeghio in Peloponnese. The two case studies provide valuable information for civil protection, disaster management and planning.

  7. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Education Policy Advice for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to boost productivity and improve social outcomes. In the current economic context, with the need to get best value for spending, Greece must and can address inefficiencies in its education system. The challenges are significant. For example, Greece lags behind many…

  8. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Education Policy Advice for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to boost productivity and improve social outcomes. In the current economic context, with the need to get best value for spending, Greece must and can address inefficiencies in its education system. The challenges are significant. For example, Greece lags behind many…

  9. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season.

  10. An annotated checklist of earthworms of Greece (Clitellata: Megadrili).

    PubMed

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Chalkia, Christina; Dányi, László; Csuzdi, Csaba

    2017-05-26

    The earthworm fauna of Greece is reviewed. According to the up-to-date checklist, the earthworm fauna of Greece consists of 67 species and subspecies, of which 59 taxa belong to the family Lumbricidae, three to Megascolecidae, two to Acanthodrilidae and to Ocnerodrilidae and one taxon to the family Criodrilidae. Three species are recorded for the first time from the country: Allolobophora kosowensis kosowensis Karaman, 1968, Amynthas gracilis (Kinberg, 1867) and Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1895). Eisenia spelaea var. athenica Černosvitov, 1938 is proposed to be a synonym of Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826). The earthworm fauna of Greece is characterized by a large number of strict endemic species belonging to the family Lumbricidae (9 taxa), together with the occurrence of another 10 Balkanic endemic species.

  11. Growth, distribution and rank stability of urban settlements in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petsimeris, P

    1986-01-01

    "This paper aims at analyzing the structure of the system in Greece of urban settlements, from 1870 to 1981. It is based on a study by the author concerning the process of urbanization and the problems of the 'residential subsystem' in countries of intermediate development with special reference to Greece. The analysis takes as sole indicator of the evolution of the urban centers network, the long term variation of population of urban settlements in Greece and as tools of analysis, the Rank-Size Rule (RSR) and Hoover's Index." Distinctions are drawn between the urban settlement patterns in the pre-capitalist and capitalist periods, the latter being marked by an unbalanced hierarchy dominated by Athens and without medium-sized cities, other than Thessaloniki. excerpt

  12. Immigration to Greece: a critical evaluation of Greek policy.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G

    1996-04-01

    "In the light of the EU's interest in the movement of labour within the Union, the first part of this article looks at the character of Greek migrant labour with the aim of providing an overview of changes in the flow of migrant labour into Greece and of the policies adopted in relation to immigrant labour. It discusses the failure of the Greek government to formulate strategic measures to combat illegal immigration...and the limited (if any) efforts being made to aid the integration of Albanians. The second part of the article concentrates on [the experiences of] Albanian migrant labourers in Greece....[It] also assesses the similarities and differences in the employment positions of Albanian men and women in Greece and the way in which mechanisms of marginalisation differently affect these two categories."

  13. A Trephined Late Bronze Age Skull From Peloponnesus, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountrakis, C.; Georgaki, S.; Manolis, S. K.

    Cranial trepanation is one of the most ancient surgical operations. This kind of "operation" has been reported in prehistoric Greece with several specific case studies. In this paper, a significant case of trepanation, on a male skull, dated to the Late Bronze Age, is presented. Our interest was pointed firstly to the verification of the technique, secondly the description of the trepanation's shape and finally to the surgical procedure. A series of imaging techniques were implemented including X-ray diffraction and CT scan imaging. The observations of the skull support our statement as to the nature of the trepanation. This specimen represents one of the earlier confirmed cases of trepanation in Greece. We also discuss when and how this technique came to Greece.

  14. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between islands Mykonos, Kalymnos and Syros and for the town Tripoli in the Peloponnese. In the Dutch situation, total PFASs concentrations above the LOQ were detected in 48.6% of the samples, varying from 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ.

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p < 0.001). ETS levels in Greek designated non-smoking areas are similar to those found in the smoking sections of UK hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p < 0.001). ETS levels in Greek designated non-smoking areas are similar to those found in the smoking sections of UK hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 – 96% lower than levels in Greece. Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted. PMID:17956612

  17. Ogasawara Islands, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-12

    This image, acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, is of the volcanic Ogasawara Islands. The islands were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, in recognition of an outstanding example of ongoing evolutionary processes in oceanic island ecosystems.

  18. Aquatic animal resources in Prehistoric Aegean, Greece.

    PubMed

    Mylona, Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the early stages in the history of fishing in the Aegean Sea in Greece, and highlights its formative phases and its specific characteristics in different points in time. This is testified by various physical remains, such as fish bones, fishing tools, and representations in art, which are gathered in the course of archaeological research. The aquatic resources in the Aegean Sea have been exploited and managed for millennia by communities that lived near the water and often made a living from it. The earliest evidence for a systematic, intensive exploitation of marine resources in the Aegean Sea dates to the Mesolithic, eleven millennia ago. In the Neolithic period, the adoption of a sedentary, agro-pastoral way of life led to a reduction in the intensity of fishing and shellfish gathering. Its importance as an economic resource remained high only in certain regions of rich, eutrophic waters. In the Bronze Age, an era of social complexity and centralized economy, the exploitation of aquatic, mostly marine, resources became a complex, multi-faceted activity which involved subsistence, industry and ideology. The range of preferred fish and invertebrate species, the fishing technology, and the processing of fish and shellfish in order to produce elaborate foods or prestige items are all traceable aspects of the complex relationship between humans and the aquatic resources throughout the prehistory of fishing and shellfish gathering in the Aegean area. The broadening of collaboration between archaeology and physical sciences offers new means to explore these issues in a more thorough and nuanced manner.

  19. Informal payments in public hospitals in Greece.

    PubMed

    Liaropoulos, Lycourgos; Siskou, Olga; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Theodorou, Mamas; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2008-07-01

    Informal payments are an ingrained social institution in Greece. In some cases, they are also part of corruption in the health area, which includes a variety of other forms. The objective of this paper is to measure and analyze the size and nature of informal payments in the Greek public hospitals, concentrating on payments made to health personnel to facilitate access to services and preferred providers. We used a randomized countrywide sample of 1616 households, amounting to 4738 individuals. The survey methodology was telephone interviews with a questionnaire supported by the software of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Out of the total number of those reporting treatment in public hospitals (N=336), 36% reported at least one informal payment to a doctor. Of these, 42% reported it was given because of the fear of receiving sub-standard care (if they did not pay) and another 20% claimed that the doctor demanded such a payment. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the family were related to the size of extra (informal) payments. The probability of extra payments is 72% higher for patients aiming to "jump the queue", compared to those admitted through normal procedures. Also, surgical cases had a 137% higher probability for extra payments compared to non-surgical patients. A very high percentage of informal payments are made in order to gain access to public hospitals and to receive a higher quality of services. Despite near universal coverage of the population by public health insurance, informal payments are widespread and a major source of inequity and inefficiency in the Greek health care system.

  20. Dermatophytosis in northern Greece during the decade 1981-1990.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Badillet, G

    1995-01-01

    Dermatophytic infections are very common in Greece. In the Mycological Laboratory of the Venereal and Skin Diseases Hospital in Thessaloniki, 6572 isolates of different dermatophytes were obtained from 17,120 patients examined. It is suggested that 5% of the people who present with skin problems in Greece suffer from dermatophyte infections. They are frequent causative agents of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, tinea capitis and tinea unguium. In this paper, the species, the number and the prevalence of the dermatophytes were studied according to location and sex of the patients. The contribution of dermatophyte infections to the overall incidence of superficial fungal infection over 10 years was also studied.

  1. PROFILE: Integrated Management to Create New Breeding Habitat for Dalmatian Pelicans (Pelecanus crispus) in Greece

    PubMed

    Pyrovetsi

    1997-09-01

    / An integrated management plan to create favorable nesting habitat for the world-endangered Dalmatian pelicans, was tested at Kerkini irrigation reservoir, a Ramsar wetland. The lake is the major wintering site of Dalmatian pelicans in Europe, where the species lives year-round without breeding. The rise of water level at the reservoir during spring (exceeding 5 m) has an impact on the whole system, including several birds, which lose their nesting habitat. Although the integrity of the wetland demands ecological restoration with changes in its hydrologic regime, local socioeconomic conditions allow only habitat level interventions. During the planning phase of the management plan, both the ecological and social context of the interventions were considered. Monitoring of all pelican habitats and populations provided the scientific basis, while a socioecological survey on knowledge/attitudes of local fishermen toward wetland identified conflicts with specific resources and planned management. To gain public support, a broad information/education program was implemented. The education program for fishermen was based on the findings of the socioecological survey. The in situ management involved experimental construction of floating rafts, platforms over water, dredged-spoil islands, and platforms at various sites of the wetland. Monitoring of the managed habitats showed that most waterbirds used them for resting and roosting. Common terns nested on the rafts, cormorants on the platforms, and Dalmatian pelicans on the man-made island. Under the prevailing hydrologic and weather conditions, islands seem to be the most suitable habitat for pelican nesting. It is concluded that wildlife habitat management should integrate the ecological component, related to the needs of the species and ecosystem, with the social one, expressed by cooperation and involvement of the local community.KEY WORDS: Integrated management; Pelican; Nesting habitat; Habitat management; Reservoir

  2. GPS-derived estimates of crustal deformation in the central and north Ionian Sea, Greece: 3-yr results from NOANET continuous network data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, A.; Marinou, A.; Anastasiou, D.; Paradissis, D.; Papazissi, K.; Tzavaras, P.; Drakatos, G.

    2013-07-01

    Ionian Sea (western Greece) is a plate-boundary region of high seismicity and complex tectonics, dominated by frequent earthquake activity along the right-lateral Cephalonia transform fault. We present an analysis of 30-s GPS data from five (5) continuous stations of NOANET (NOA permanent GPS network) spanning the period 2007-2010. Our results show N-S crustal shortening onshore Lefkada island of the order of 2-3 mm/yr which is probably related to increased locking on the offshore Lefkada fault. We also calculated a large difference (1:3) in the principal strain rate amplitude between extension and shortening for the central Ionian Sea.

  3. Islands in the Midst of the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.

    The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a

  4. Islands in the Midst of the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.

    The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a

  5. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  6. The pyramids of Greece: Ancient meridian observatories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Katsiotis, Marco

    Pyramids, "Dragon Houses" ("Drakospita") and megalithic structures in general create always a special interest. We postulate that, as happens with the Drakospita of Euboea, the pyramid-like structures of Argolis (Eastern Peloponnese) were constructed by the Dryops. It is known that, in addition to Euboea and some Cyclades islands, this prehellenic people had also settled in Argolis, where they founded the city of Asine. We also propose that the pyramids of Argolis and in particular the pyramid of Hellinikon village were very likely, besides being a burial monument or guard house, might be served also for astronomical observations.

  7. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  8. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  9. Regional seismic hazard for Revithoussa, Greece: an earthquake early warning Shield and selection of alert signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Burton, P. W.; Tselentis, G.-A.

    The feasibility of an earthquake early warning Shield in Greece is being explored as a European demonstration project. This will be the first early warning system in Europe. The island of Revithoussa is a liquid natural gas storage facility near Athens from which a pipeline runs to a gas distribution centre in Athens. The Shield is being centred on these facilities. The purpose here is to analyze seismicity and seismic hazard in relation to the Shield centre and the remote sensor sites in the Shield network, eventually to help characterize the hazard levels, seismic signals and ground vibration levels that might be observed or create an alert situation at a station. Thus this paper mainly gives estimation of local seismic hazard in the regional working area of Revithoussa by studying extreme peak ground acceleration (PGA) and magnitudes. Within the Shield region, the most important zone to be detected is WNW from the Shield centre and is at a relatively short distance (50 km or less), the Gulf of Corinth (active normal faults) region. This is the critical zone for early warning of strong ground shaking. A second key region of seismicity is at an intermediate distance (100 km or more) from the centre, the Hellenic seismic zone south or southeast from Peloponnisos. A third region to be detected would be the northeastern region from the centre and is at a relatively long distance (about 150 km), Lemnos Island and neighboring region. Several parameters are estimated to characterize the seismicity and hazard. These include: the 50-year PGA with 90% probability of not being exceeded (pnbe) using Theodulidis & Papazachos strong motion attenuation for Greece, PGANTP; the 50-year magnitude and also at the 90% pnbe, M50 and MP50, respectively. There are also estimates of the earthquake that is most likely to be felt at a damaging intensity level, these are the most perceptible earthquakes at intensities VI, VII and VIII with magnitudes MVI, MVII and MVIII. Example

  10. Regional Seismic Hazard For Revithoussa, Greece: The Centre For An Earthquake Early-Warning Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Burton, P. W.; Tselentis, G. A.

    2003-04-01

    The feasibility of an earthquake early-warning Shield in Greece is being explored as a CEC demonstration project. This will be the first early-warning system in Europe. The island of Revithoussa is a liquid natural gas storage facility near Athens from which a pipeline runs to a gas distribution centre in Athens. The Shield is being centered on these facilities. The purpose here is to analyze seismicity and seismic hazard in relation to the Shield centre and the remote sensor sites in the Shield network, eventually to help characterize the hazard levels, seismic signals and ground vibration levels that might be observed or create an alert situation at a station. Thus this paper mainly gives estimation of local seismic hazard in the regional working area of Revithoussa by studying extreme PGA and magnitudes. Within the Shield region, the most important zone to be detected is NWW-W from the Shield centre and is at a short distance (50 km or less), the Gulf of Corinth (active normal faults) region. This is the critical zone for early-warning. A second key region of seismicity is at a middle distance (100 km or more) from the centre, the Hellenic seismic zone south or south-east from Peloponnesus. A third region to be detected would be the north-eastern region from the centre and is at a long distance (about 150 km), Lemnos island and neighboring region. Several parameters are estimated to characterize the seismicity and hazard. These include: the 50-year PGA with 90% probability of not being exceeded (pnbe) using Theodulidis & Papazachos strong motion attenuation for Greece, PGANTP; the 50-year magnitude and at the 90% pnbe, M50 and MP50. There are also estimates of the earthquake that is most likely to be felt at a damaging intensity level, these are the most perceptible earthquakes at intensities VI, VII and VIII with magnitudes MVI, MVII and MVIII. Example results (from many) include the corresponding parameters describing the hazard for Revithoussa as follows

  11. A Comparative Evaluation of Geography Schoolbooks of Greece and Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Fivos

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on geographical education in Greece and Cyprus (Southern Cyprus). The two countries have different sets of books for their educational systems, approved by the relevant Ministries of Education. Since the teaching of these officially approved sets of books is compulsory, the context of geographical education in these countries…

  12. Antibiotic resistance and irrational prescribing in paediatric clinics in Greece.

    PubMed

    Toska, Aikaterini; Geitona, Mary

    Greece is among the countries with the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and simultaneous antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions and knowledge of AMR and irrational antibiotic prescribing of nurses working in paediatric hospitals in Greece. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to nurses in paediatric hospitals and paediatric clinics in Greece. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Levels of significance were two-tailed and statistical significance was p=0.05. A total of 87% of participants reported irrational prescribing to be an important cause of AMR. Diagnostic uncertainty was stated by 55.5% as the main cause of irrational antibiotic prescribing and 94% suggested the use of protocols and guidelines as the main measure to control overprescribing. Parental demand for antibiotics in hospitals has increased according to 51.8% of respondents. Strong correlation was observed between social-demographic characteristics and antibiotic resistance, as well as irrational prescribing. Assessing nurses' knowledge and perceptions of antimicrobial resistance and irrational prescribing is vital as nurses actively participate in the antibiotics administration process and antimicrobial management in Greece. Their involvement could contribute to educate patients and parents on the public-health implications of overprescribing and antimicrobial resistance.

  13. Mutual relationship between mathematics and astronomy in the ancient Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obradovic, S.

    2006-05-01

    In the paper we consider the foundations of mathematics in the ancient Greece as a deductive system, especially the Euclidean geometry. We investigate the concepts of continuum and discreteness in mathematics and nature. A special attention is given to the mathematics applied to the foundation of the Pythagorean concept of the universe and adoption of Aristotle's and Ptolemy's worldviews.

  14. Pedagogical Beliefs and Attitudes of Computer Science Teachers in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, Georgios; Karakiza, Tsampika

    2011-01-01

    Pedagogical beliefs and attitudes significantly determine the professional skills and practice of teachers. Many professional development programs for teachers aim to the elaboration of the pedagogical knowledge in order to improve teaching quality. This paper presents the study of pedagogical beliefs of computer science teachers in Greece. The…

  15. Huntington's disease in Greece: the experience of 14 years.

    PubMed

    Panas, M; Karadima, G; Vassos, E; Kalfakis, N; Kladi, A; Christodoulou, K; Vassilopoulos, D

    2011-12-01

    A large scale genetic and epidemiological study of Huntington's disease (HD) was carried out in Greece from January 1995 to December 2008. Diagnostic testing was carried out in 461 symptomatic individuals, while 256 were tested for presymptomatic purposes. The diagnosis of HD with a CAG expansion ≥ 36 was confirmed in 278 symptomatic individuals. The prevalence of HD in Greece was estimated at approximately 2.5 to 5.4:100,000, while the mean minimum incidence was estimated at 2.2 to 4.4 per million per year. The molecular diagnosis of HD was confirmed in the majority of patients (84.4%) sent for confirmation. The false-positive cases 15.6% were characterized by the absence of a family history of HD and the presence of an atypical clinical picture. The uptake of predictive testing for HD was 8.6%. A prenatal test was requested in six pregnancies. The findings of our study do not differ significantly from those of similar studies from other European countries despite the relative genetic isolation of Greece. Of interest is the identification of clusters of HD in Greece. The presence or absence of a family history of HD should be interpreted cautiously, during the diagnostic process.

  16. Vocational Training in the Textiles and Clothing Industries in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drimousis, I.; Zisimopoulos, A.

    This document examines the circumstances under which vocational training in Greece is provided for jobs in the textile and clothing industries. Its objective is to identify guidelines for vocational training for a skilled work force at regional and national levels and to contribute to job mobility between industries. Statistical data,…

  17. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  18. "Running the Gauntlet": The Bologna Process in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheou, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Greece has not been among the signatory countries that rushed enthusiastically into the implementation of the Bologna process; it has only gradually and grudgingly managed to adopt some of its provisions over the past decade. This paper sheds light on the forces and factors that have put obstacles in its way, including: (1) the epistemological…

  19. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Anna; Theocharopoulos, George; Dougas, Georgios; Athanasiou, Maria; Detsis, Marios; Baka, Agoritsa; Lytras, Theodoros; Mellou, Kassiani; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2011-01-01

    During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors. PMID:22000357

  20. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  1. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  2. An Enlightened Use of Educational Monitoring for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korilaki, Panayota

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the issues surrounding educational monitoring systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a general review of the situation in Greece. Findings: This paper suggests that a superior educational monitoring system aiming to alleviate educational and social inequalities as well as discrepancies between…

  3. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  4. Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Greece and Turkey: Contrast within Coherence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    may have been motivated on the Greek side by wariness of the apparent courtship of the Soviet Union being undertaken by Greece’s traditional rival...Ulam, Adam B., The Rivals, Penguin Books, 1971. 11. Couloumbis, T.A., Petropulos, J.A. Psomiades, H.J., Foreign Interference in Greek Politics, Pella

  5. Language Shift in Second Generation Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogonas, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin.…

  6. Language Shift in Second Generation Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogonas, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin.…

  7. Family Language Policies among Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzidaki, Aspassia; Maligkoudi, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of family language policies among 37 Albanian immigrant families in Northern Greece within the framework of Spolsky's language policy model. Data collection was based on semi-directed interviews with parents which were analysed using both content and discourse analysis. According to our findings, three…

  8. An Enlightened Use of Educational Monitoring for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korilaki, Panayota

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the issues surrounding educational monitoring systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a general review of the situation in Greece. Findings: This paper suggests that a superior educational monitoring system aiming to alleviate educational and social inequalities as well as discrepancies between…

  9. Psychometric Validation of the Youth Social Capital Scale in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutra, Kleio; Orfanos, Philippos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kritsotakis, George; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the psychometric validation of the Youth Social Capital scale (YSCS) in 16- to 17-year-old students living in rural and urban areas in Crete, Greece. Methods: Sampling was performed among 27 secondary education units of Heraklion Prefecture. The self-reported questionnaire was answered by 692 participants…

  10. Lessons from Greece: A Body, Mind, Spirit Odyssey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2006-01-01

    In Spring Semester 2005, the author was a visiting Fulbright professor at Aristotle University in Greece. The purpose of the Fulbright Program is to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of the 150 or so countries that currently participate in the Fulbright Program. In this article, the author looks…

  11. Family Language Policies among Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzidaki, Aspassia; Maligkoudi, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of family language policies among 37 Albanian immigrant families in Northern Greece within the framework of Spolsky's language policy model. Data collection was based on semi-directed interviews with parents which were analysed using both content and discourse analysis. According to our findings, three…

  12. Let's Play Doctor: Medical Rounds in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockler, Donald

    1998-01-01

    Biology students are exposed to historical theories of medicine by contrasting modern medicine and germ theory with the humoral theory of medicine in ancient Greece. After spending one day describing basic theories in humoral medicine, the teacher role-plays a Hippocratic physician treating ailing Greek patients in a Hippocratic medical workshop.…

  13. Health Needs: Policy Plan and School Practice in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soultatou, Pelagia; Duncan, Peter; Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of health-related needs on a policy design and curriculum enactment basis in terms of the national school health education curriculum in Greek secondary education. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study, using an ethnographic approach, was conducted in Greece, seeking to…

  14. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Vavelidis, M; Andreou, S

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium B.C: . Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  15. A Report on Educational Developments in 1975-1976. Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of National Education and Religion, Athens (Greece).

    Examining the educational system of Greece, this publication discusses the reorientation of policy, organization, and curriculum after overthrow of the military regime in July 1974. In accordance with the broader democratic principles set forth in the Greek Constitution of 1975, education is now compulsory for six years, free to everyone on all…

  16. Religious Education in Greece: A New Curriculum, an Old Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukounaras Liagkis, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Religious Education (RE) in Greece is a compulsory school subject according the 2011 new framework for compulsory education, entitled "New School". This article focuses on two statutory documents for RE, "The Curriculum for RE" and the "The Teacher's Guide for RE", and the pilot scheme of the new curriculum running in…

  17. Literacy in Ancient Greece: The Evidence from History and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Karyn

    In examining the nature of literacy in ancient Athens, this paper reviews the work of key modern scholars and their positions in the debates concerning the development of literacy in Greece, the oral culture preceeding this, and the technology that enabled it to occur. Following an introduction surveying the viewpoints of Rhys Carpenter, L. H.…

  18. Implementing Innovation in Primary EFL: A Case Study in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karavas, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight and discuss the strategies used to diffuse and manage a primary ELT innovation in Greece, strategies that proved essential for developing stakeholders' acceptance and ownership of the innovation, thereby facilitating its further development and sustainability. The PEAP Programme, launched in 2010,…

  19. Literacy in Ancient Greece: The Evidence from History and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Karyn

    In examining the nature of literacy in ancient Athens, this paper reviews the work of key modern scholars and their positions in the debates concerning the development of literacy in Greece, the oral culture preceeding this, and the technology that enabled it to occur. Following an introduction surveying the viewpoints of Rhys Carpenter, L. H.…

  20. Lessons from Greece: A Body, Mind, Spirit Odyssey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2006-01-01

    In Spring Semester 2005, the author was a visiting Fulbright professor at Aristotle University in Greece. The purpose of the Fulbright Program is to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of the 150 or so countries that currently participate in the Fulbright Program. In this article, the author looks…

  1. School Adjustment Difficulties of Immigrant Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologou, Nektaria

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and main results of a longitudinal study in Greece that explored the learning and psychosocial difficulties of immigrant pupils, as compared with those of their Greek classmates. The "Teacher-Child Rating Scale" (T-CRS) and "Child Rating Scale" (CRS) were used as instruments to measure the…

  2. Inclusive Discourse in Greece: Strong Voices, Weak Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoniou-Sideri, Athina; Deropoulou-Derou, Eudoxia; Karagianni, Panagiota; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the inclusive discourse in Greece at a period characterized by change in policy and practice. The aim is to discuss critically the distance between the strong voices and weak practices that characterizes the Greek inclusive discourse. The first part focuses on disability and presents the ways that a "common sense"…

  3. Health Needs: Policy Plan and School Practice in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soultatou, Pelagia; Duncan, Peter; Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of health-related needs on a policy design and curriculum enactment basis in terms of the national school health education curriculum in Greek secondary education. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study, using an ethnographic approach, was conducted in Greece, seeking to…

  4. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  5. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  6. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  7. The Kosovo Conflict: Emerging Relationships and Implications for Greece

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Monitor and Minority Group. Greece. Available on line, http://www.duth.gr/ maillist -archives/thrace/tl54/msg00025.html. 155 Philhellenic Perspective...and Minority Group [http://www.duth.gr/ maillist - archives/thrace/tl54/msg00025.html] Greek Ministry of Defence, Hellenic Peace Support Missions

  8. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavelidis, M.; Andreou, S.

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium b.c. Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  9. On an American Campus in Greece, a Chorus of Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebel, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Mike Frank G. Epitropoulos moved to Greece in the summer of 2005 to become chairman of the business and applied-sociology departments on a small branch campus of the University of Indianapolis, in the shadow of the Acropolis. A former sociology professor at the University of Pittsburgh, he had long wanted to live with his wife and two sons in the…

  10. Religious Education in Greece: A New Curriculum, an Old Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukounaras Liagkis, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Religious Education (RE) in Greece is a compulsory school subject according the 2011 new framework for compulsory education, entitled "New School". This article focuses on two statutory documents for RE, "The Curriculum for RE" and the "The Teacher's Guide for RE", and the pilot scheme of the new curriculum running in…

  11. Teaching about Ancient Greece: A Model Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouris, George

    1988-01-01

    Offers an instructional unit about city-states in Ancient Greece and provides an instructional design model that may be used in similar efforts. Appropriate for grades 6-12, this unit acquaints students with Greek city-states, their locations, main characteristics, social and political structures, origins, and evolution. (GEA)

  12. Let's Play Doctor: Medical Rounds in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockler, Donald

    1998-01-01

    Biology students are exposed to historical theories of medicine by contrasting modern medicine and germ theory with the humoral theory of medicine in ancient Greece. After spending one day describing basic theories in humoral medicine, the teacher role-plays a Hippocratic physician treating ailing Greek patients in a Hippocratic medical workshop.…

  13. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0,37, p = 0.004) of Eginition Hospital. However, the data from the 4 hospitals of the study revealed a negative correlation between average income and visits to outpatients' departments (R2 = 0.70, p = 0.02) and emergency units (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the average income and suicide rates (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.007), as well as a positive correlation between the average income and divorce rates (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001) were found. The findings show several similarities with previous surveys in

  14. Information about Macedonian medicine in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Syrmos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Greek Macedonians were highly interested in the improvement of their physical and psychological health. At first, they worshiped the mythical god Asclepius and his daughter Hygieia. In at least 24 places in northern Greece, in Halkidiki, Thessaloniki, Kozani, Kavala, Thassos, Serres and other places, archaelogical findings were related to Asclepius. Macedonian kings were also interested in the development of medicine, for the sake of their fellow citizens and their soldiers. Characteristic examples are the close relations of Hippocrates with king Perdikas (5(th) century B.C.) and of Nicomachus (Aristotle's father being a physician) with king Amintas. Alexander the Great had as his personal physician, the famous physician Philippos of Acarnania. An incident between Alexander and Philippos of Acarnania shows the respect of Macedonian kings to their doctors: Alexander became ill after a bath in the frozen river Cydnus (near ancient Tarsus). At this time he received a letter from his general Parmenion for not to trust his physician. Alexander gave this letter to Philippos to read it and while Philippos was reading it and was rather frightened, he saw Alexander drinking the medicine he had given him. We may note that Alexander the Great as a student of Aristotle had a general education about medicine. Archaeological findings revealed two funerary monuments of physicians: a doctor from Thasos, who practiced in Pella as a public physician during the 3rd quarter of the 4(th) century B.C. and a physician named Alexander, who lived in the 1rst half of the 5(th) century A.D. The tomb of a third physician, probably a surgeon, excavated in Pydna, near mount Olympus (3(rd) century BC)also indicates the importance of physicians in Macedonia. Archaeological findings, like surgical knives, from the Hellinistic and Roman periods, found in the city of Veria, also showed the respect of Ancient Greeks to medicine and to their physicians. An example is the skeleton of a young

  15. Diffuse pollution by persistent organic pollutants as measured in plastic pellets sampled from various beaches in Greece.

    PubMed

    Karapanagioti, H K; Endo, S; Ogata, Y; Takada, H

    2011-02-01

    Plastic pellets found stranded on beaches are hydrophobic organic materials and thus, they are a favourable medium for persistent organic pollutants to absorb to. In the present study, plastic pellets are used to determine the diffuse pollution of selected Greek beaches. Samples of pellets were taken from these beaches and were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and PAHs. The observed differences among pellets from various sampling sites are related to the pollution occurring at each site. Plastic pellets collected in Saronikos Gulf beaches demonstrate much higher pollutant loading than the ones collected in a remote island or close to an agricultural area. Based on data collected in this study and the International Pellet Watch program, pollution in Saronikos Gulf, Greece, is comparable to other heavily industrialized places of the world. The present study demonstrates the potential of pellet watch to be utilized as a detailed-scale monitoring tool within a single country. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Normalization to lithium for the assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediment cores from the Aegean Sea, Greece.

    PubMed

    Aloupi, M; Angelidis, M O

    2001-07-01

    Sediment cores from the harbour and the coastal zone of Mytilene, island of Lesvos, Greece, were used to study the metal contamination caused by the discharge of untreated urban effluents into the sea. In the harbour. the upper layers were highly enriched in Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, while no metal enrichment was recorded in the cores from the wider coastal zone. The metal data were normalized to Li (conservative element) to compensate for the natural textural and mineralogical variability. It was found that only the upper 18 cm of the core collected from the harbour of Mytilene could be reported as metal contaminated. Also, through the normalization procedure, it was found that the surface layers of coastal sediments assumed 'clean' were enriched in Pb, probably as a result of atmospheric transportation of the metal from the nearby town.

  17. Variation of the chemical profile and antioxidant behavior of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia fruticosa Miller grown in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Vassiliki; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Papaioannou, Marina; Komaitis, Michael

    2008-08-27

    In this study, the essential oil and the phenolic composition along with the antioxidant activity of R. officinalis L. and S. fruticosa Miller, collected in Zakynthos island (Ionian Sea, Greece), were investigated. The essential oil composition of the plants was characterized by the presence of 1,8-cineole. Mean values of the antioxidant activities of rosemary and sage essential oils indicated slight differences. The antioxidant activity of sage oil was correlated with the oxygenated sesquiterpenes and diterpenes concentrations. Concerning the methanolic extracts, a close relationship between the phenolic content and the development stage during vegetative cycle of these plants was observed. The identified flavonoids, except rutin, seemed to increase with the advancement of developmental stages, while phenolic acids followed an opposite pattern. The antioxidant activity was correlated with the amount of total phenolic content.

  18. Analysis of synoptic conditions for tornadic days over western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2014-09-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece during the last few decades and recent studies have given evidence that western Greece is an area vulnerable to tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds In this study, the composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for tornadic events (tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds) over western Greece are analyzed and discussed. The daily composite means of synoptic conditions were based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data sets, for the period 12 August 1953 to 31 December 2012. The daily composite anomalies were calculated with respect to 30 years of climatological study (1981-2010) of the synoptic conditions. The analysis was carried out in terms of seasonal and monthly variability of composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for specific isobaric levels of 500, 700, 850, 925 hPa and the sea level pressure (SLP). In addition, an analysis and discussion about the dynamic lifted index from NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data sets is presented. The daily composite mean analysis of 500 hPa revealed a trough line across the northern Adriatic Sea and central Italy, associated with a SW upper-air stream over western Greece. The maximum composite anomalies were depicted at the isobaric level of 500 hPa during autumn, spring and summer, against winter when the anomaly appeared at 925 hPa isobaric level. In addition, 48% of tornado events during the autumn season occurred in pre-frontal weather conditions (cold fronts) and 27% developed after the passage of the cold front. Furthermore, the main difference in synoptic patterns between tornado and waterspout days along western Greece during the autumn season is the maximum daily composite anomaly over the Gulf of Taranto.

  19. Use of Wild Bird Surveillance, Human Case Data and GIS Spatial Analysis for Predicting Spatial Distributions of West Nile Virus in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R.; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723–1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841–6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence. PMID:24806216

  20. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    PubMed

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  1. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-06-24

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  2. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  3. The Marble Types of Thassos Island through the Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskaridis, Kostas; Patronis, Michael; Papatrechas, Christos; Schouenborg, Björn

    2013-04-01

    The first references to the "white whole-grain" marble of Thassos Island, Greece, date back to the 6th century BC when stones were quarried at Alyki peninsula and at Fanari and Vathy capes. Since that time, Thassos marble was exported to Samothraki and other neighbouring islands, Asia Minor coastal cities, Southern Greece and Rome. In ancient times, there were two principal types of marble quarries in Thassos: (a) those producing material for the construction of temples and for the creation of various art pieces, i.e. ornamental stones, and (b) those for extraction of rough blocks for export. This paper aims at describing the Thassos marble, the geological setting in brief, its historic use and future supply possibilities and other reasons why it is a time-enduring ornamental stone. The aesthetical characteristics and the physical mechanical properties of its two main types (i.e. calcitic and dolomitic) are described and evaluated. The relevant results justify the wide application range and the continuous use of Thassos marble from ancient to present times and confirm the ability of this stone to survive over time. Keywords: Thassos, Marble, Ornamental Stones, Physical Mechanical Properties, Historic use

  4. First report of Neotrombicula autumnalis infestation in a cat and a dog from Corfu (Greece) and in a cat from Limassol (Cyprus).

    PubMed

    Giannoulopoulos, Giorgos D; Desilla, Lora J S; Desilla, Eleni S; Papadopoulos, Ilias; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2012-12-01

    Neotrombicula autumnalis is the most common species of the family Trombiculidae that parasitizes dogs, cats, and humans in Europe. Besides the skin lesions it may cause, this mite is a possible vector of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Two cases of N. autumnalis infestation in a cat and a dog in the island of Corfu, Greece, and 1 case of infestation in a cat living in Limassol, Cyprus, are presented. To the best or our knowledge, these are the first cases of feline and canine trombiculosis reported in both countries, and their appearance in islands points out to the possibility of introduction through importation of infested dogs and cats. For this reason, parasiticides that are effective for both the treatment and prevention of trombiculosis should be recommended for all dogs and cats that live in areas where the parasite is present as well as for all traveling pets.

  5. [Medical myths and notions in Ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Boulogne, J

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the views on health and disease prevalent in Ancient Greece, the cradle of modern European medicine, focusing on the ever-present myths functioning in that realm despite attempts to rationally explain medical phenomena. On the basis of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, the author has distinguished five different epistemological attitudes towards those phenomena: the holistic, macrocosmological, monistic, anti-hypothetical and eclectic. The first was based on the idea of mechanical and logical causes. In medicine it is marked by determinism connected with climatic conditions. Hippocrates believed that health depended on the weather, in particular on the effects of winds, types of water and properties of soil. Myth emerged in this conception in the way matter - earth, water, air and fire - was conceived, particular in the properties ascribed to them: cold, humidity, aridity and warmth. The author charges that this conception was permeated with ethnocentrism and cites examples invoked by Hippocrates on the basis of his observations on the Scythians. The macrocosmological attitude involves subordinating medicine to cosmology. Man's body is a microcosm. The author cites the treatise 'On Diets', in which the greatest importance both in the universe and in processes taking place in the human body as ascribed to two factors - fire and water. Their combination was said to have played a crucial role in the typology of corporal and mental constitutions. Those features, together with the seasons of the year, mode of behaviour and food, constitute the four forces guiding vital processes. The author then presents the embryogenic conception contained in the cosmological treatise. It was based on such things as numerological speculations, hence - despite its rationalistic assumptions, consigns it to the mythic. The third attitude, the monistic approach, presents a treatise ascribed to Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease' and dealing with epilepsy. The

  6. Epicurus of Samos (341-270 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek philosopher, founded Epicurean philosophy in Athens, which divided the universe into `atoms' and the `void.' Epicureans regarded happiness as the chief human good, attainable through freedom from anxiety and fear, and their materialism was despised in subsequent years as anti-Christian....

  7. Variation of the Earth tide-seismicity compliance parameter the last 50 years for the seismic area of Evoikos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael E.; Arabelos, Demetrious N.; Vergos, George; Spatalas, Spyrous

    2015-04-01

    The results of the analysis of the last 50 years earthquakes series in seismic active areas of Greece, i.e. the areas (a) of the Mygdonian Basin(Contadakis et al. 2007), (b) of the Ionian Islands (Contadakis et al. 2012 ) and (c) of the Hellenic Arc (Vergos et al. 2012 ), indicate that the monthly variation of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence is in accordance with the period of the tidal lunar monthly and semi-monthly (Mm and Mf) variations. The same happens with the corresponding daily variations of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence with the diurnal luni-solar (K1, O1) and semidiurnal lunar (M2) and solar (S2) tidal variations. In addition the confidence level for the identification of such period accordance between earthquakes occurrence frequency and tidal periods varies with seismic activity, i.e. the higher confidence level corresponds to periods with stronger seismic activity. These results are in favor of a tidal triggering process on earthquakes when the stress in the focal area is near the critical level. Based on these results, we consider the confidence level of earthquake frequency of occurrence - tidal period accordance, p, as an index of tectonic stress criticality for earthquake occurrence. A test on posterior of this idea, (i.e. the value of the confidence level index, p, indicate the fault matureness) in the case of the recent seismic activity at Fthiotida, was positive (Contadakis et al 2014). In this paper we present the results of a second test by the occasion of the recent seismic activity of Central Evoikos. The results also are positive. We suggest that this compliance parameter may be used as an additional element for the seismic risk assessment. References Cadicheanu, N., van Ruymbeke, M and Zhu P.,2007:Tidal triggering evidence of intermediate depth earthquakes in Vrancea zone(Romania), NHESS 7,733-740. Contadakis, M. E., Arabelos, D. N., Spatalas, S., 2009, Evidence for tidal triggering on the shallow earthquakes of the

  8. Variation of some Planetary seismic hazard indices on the occasion of Lefkada, Greece, earthquake of 17 November, 2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael E.; Arabelos, Demetrios N.; Vergos, George; Spatala, Spyrous; Skeberis, Christos; Xenos, Tomas D.

    2017-04-01

    By the term "Planetary seismic hazard indices" we mean parameters or observables which indicate the degree of the mutual interactions of tectonic active areas on the earth surface with some parts or phenomena of the Geosphere and the near Earth space. In this paper we investigate the variation of the tidal triggering effect efficiency, by means of the tidal seismicity compliance parameter p, (Arabelos et al. 2016, Contadakis et al. 2009, Contadakis et al. 2012, Vergos et al. 2015), as well as the lower Ionosphere variations, by means of the variation of the High-Frequency limit, fo, of the ionospheric turbulence content (Contadakis et al. 2009, Contadakis et al. 2012, Contadakis et al. 2015) with the time and space proximity to the site of the earthquake occurrence. The results of our investigation are: (1) The mapping of the tidal seismicity compliance parameter p, over the Greece indicate an increasing tectonic stress criticality for the year 2015 of the area of Ionian islands in relation to other areas in Greece, pointing to the area of a possible strong earthquake. (2) The High- Frequency limit fo, of the ionospheric turbulence content, measured analyzing TEC variations, increases as the site and the moment of the earthquake occurrence is approaching, pointing to the earthquake locus. (3) Finally, The analyzed data from the receiver of INFREP network in Thessaloniki (Skeberis et al. 2015), Greece (40.59N, 22,78E), which monitor VLF transmitters based in Tavolara , Niscemi, Italy, Keflavik, Iceland, and Anthorn, UKthe show that the signals from the two VLF European transmitters, transmitted over Lefkada, indicate enhanced high frequency variations, in accordance to the result of the TEC analysis, the last ten days before the moment of the earthquake occurrence. References Arabelos, D.N., Contadakis, E.M.,Vergos, G.,Spatalas, S.D., 2016, Variation of the Earth tide-seismicity compliance parameter during the recent seismic activity in Fthiotida, central Greece

  9. Submarine evidence of a debris avalanche deposit on the eastern slope of Santorini volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Katherine Lynn Croff; Carey, Steven N.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2013-06-01

    Hummocky seafloor features were discovered on the eastern flank of Santorini volcano, Greece. Multibeam bathymetric mapping, airgun seismic profiling, side scan sonar survey, and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives have been carried out to characterize the nature of the hummocks. These hummocks appear to be composed of several tens of blocks that are up to several hundred meters in diameter, and are the surface expression of a much larger deposit than is observed in the bathymetry. The sidescan and airgun data show that the deposit covers an area of approximately 6 km wide by 20 km long, and is up to 75 m thick. We estimate the total volume of the deposit to be approximately 4.4 × 109 m3. Sampling of these blocks show they are composed of pyroclastic flow deposits produced during the Minoan eruption of Santorini (ca. 3600 BP). We propose that the deposit is the result of a multi-stage landslide event that was caused by one of the several large earthquakes or volcanic eruptions that have occurred in the vicinity of Santorini since the Minoan eruption. One or more of these events likely triggered the destabilization of a part of the eastern flank of Santorini, which led to a debris avalanche, depositing blocks and forming a hummocky terrain at the base of the island's slope. The mass movement later evolved into a turbulent suspension flow that traveled 20 km or more from the presumed initial failure. Given the size of the landslide deposit, it might have a tsunami potentially affecting the islands across the southern Aegean Sea. The understanding of earthquake-landslide dynamics has important implications for hazard assessment in this seismically active, historical, and highly populated region of the world.

  10. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai

    2016-01-01

    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report 3He/4He measurements in CO2–dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a 3He/4He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the 3He/4He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10−6), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like 3He/4He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano. PMID:27311383

  11. Magnetostratigraphy of a Lower-Middle Triassic boundary section from Chios (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttoni, G.; Kent, D. V.; Gaetani, M.

    1995-12-01

    The Marmarotrapeza Formation at Chios Island (northern Aegean Sea, Greece) is renowned for its Lower-Middle Triassic boundary sections in a marine Tethyan setting. Two sections have been sampled bed by bed to develop a magnetostratigraphic framework for the ammonoid and conodont biostratigraphy. The boundary sections occur within a lower normal (A +)-reverse (B -)-upper normal (C +) polarity sequence. The Lower-Middle Triassic boundary, placed at the first occurrence of the ammonoid genera Aegeiceras ugra Diener, Paracrochordiceras spp., Paradanubites depressus Fantini Sestini and Japonites sp., and close to the first appearance of the conodont species Gondolella timorensis Nogami, occurs in normal polarity zone Chios C +. The overall mean direction of the reversal-bearing characteristic component, whose early acquisition is suggested by a tilt test, is D = 271.2°, I = 33.2° ( α95 = 11.7°, k = 112.5, N = 3). The inferred paleolatitude of the sampling sites is about 18°N, consistent with either an African or stable European affinity, although the declinations suggest large-scale counter-clockwise rotations with respect to Africa or stable Europe since the Early-Middle Triassic.

  12. Flux measurements in the surface Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Aegean Sea, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, V E; Helmis, C G

    2014-10-01

    Micro-meteorological measurements within the surface Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer took place at the shoreline of two islands at northern and south-eastern Aegean Sea of Greece. The primary goal of these experimental campaigns was to study the momentum, heat and humidity fluxes over this part of the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea, characterized by limited spatial and temporal scales which could affect these exchanges at the air-sea interface. The great majority of the obtained records from both sites gave higher values up to factor of two, compared with the estimations from the most widely used parametric formulas that came mostly from measurements over open seas and oceans. Friction velocity values from both campaigns varied within the same range and presented strong correlation with the wind speed at 10 m height while the calculated drag coefficient values at the same height for both sites were found to be constant in relation with the wind speed. Using eddy correlation analysis, the heat flux values were calculated (virtual heat fluxes varied from -60 to 40 W/m(2)) and it was found that they are affected by the limited spatial and temporal scales of the responding air-sea interaction mechanism. Similarly, the humidity fluxes appeared to be strongly influenced by the observed intense spatial heterogeneity of the sea surface temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai

    2016-06-01

    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report 3He/4He measurements in CO2–dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a 3He/4He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the 3He/4He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10‑6), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like 3He/4He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  14. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai

    2016-06-17

    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report (3)He/(4)He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a (3)He/(4)He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the (3)He/(4)He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10(-6)), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  15. Mineralogical investigation of soils formed in calcareous gravelly alluvium, eastern Crete, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Timpson, M.E.; Lee, S.Y.; Ammons, J.T.; Foss, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The mineralogical composition of soils along a toposequence formed on Quaternary-aged alluvium from the northeastern portion of the island of Crete, Greece, and the examination of their mineral weathering characteristics should help provide an insight into the stage of weathering and relative age of the soils. Four soils were described and sampled from three landscape positions along the toposequence and the clay and silt fractions from all horizons of each soil were examined using a combination of x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. Coarse and fine silt fractions from each soil contained dolomite, calcite, quartz, feldspars, mica, and chlorite. Feldspar content generally decreased with depth, whereas calcite increased with depth. Minerals identified in the silt fractions resulted from a combination of physical and chemical weathering and possible eolian additions. Clay fractions were dominated by trioctahedral ferrous chlorite and dioctahedral mica (muscovite), with minor amounts of kaolinite, quartz, dolomite, and calcite. Goethite was also identified in the clay fraction of some soil horizons. The source of the phyllosilicates was inheritance from phyllite gravels in the alluvium and chemical dissolution of the dolostone releasing entrained clay minerals. Some portion of the kaolinite in surface horizons was probably the result of eolian additions. All evidence suggests that these soils are still in the initial stages of weathering. 40 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Porosity and distribution of water in perlite from the island of Milos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kaufhold, Stephan; Reese, Anke; Schwiebacher, Werner; Dohrmann, Reiner; Grathoff, Georg H; Warr, Laurence N; Halisch, Matthias; Müller, Cornelia; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Ufer, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A perlite sample representative of an operating mine in Milos was investigated with respect to the type and spatial distribution of water. A set of different methods was used which finally provided a consistent view on the water at least in this perlite. Infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of different water species (molecular water and hydroxyl groups / strongly bound water). The presence of more than 0.5 mass% smectite, however, could be excluded considering the cation exchange capacity results. The dehydration measured by thermal analysis occurred over a wide range of temperatures hence confirming the infrared spectroscopical results. Both methods point to the existence of a continuous spectrum of water binding energies. The spatial distribution of water and/or pores was investigated using different methods (CT: computer tomography, FIB: scanning electron microscopy including focused ion beam technology, IRM: infrared microscopy). Computer tomography (CT) showed large macropores (20 - 100 μm) and additionally revealed a mottled microstructure of the silicate matrix with low density areas up to a few μm in diameter. Scanning electron microscopy (FIB) confirmed the presence of μm sized pores and IRM showed the filling of these pores with water. In summary, two types of pores were found. Airfilled 20 - 100 μm pores and μm-sized pores disseminated in the glass matrix containing at least some water. Porosity measurements indicate a total porosity of 26 Vol%, 11 Vol% corresponding to the μm-sized pores. It remains unsolved wether the water in the μm-sized pores entered after or throughout perlite formation. However, the pores are sealed and no indications of cracks were found which indicated a primary source of the water, i.e. water was probably entrapped by quenching of the lava. The water in these pores may be the main reason for the thermal expandability which results in the extraordinarily porous expanded perlite building materials.

  17. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years. PMID:19243609

  18. Factors determining migrant remittances: the case of Greece.

    PubMed

    Lianos, T P

    1997-01-01

    "In this study we review the literature regarding the theory and the empirical evidence regarding migrants' remittance behavior, and we examine the flow and determinants of remittances from Greek migrants for the period 1961 to 1991. The main body of data is for remittances to Greece from Germany, but for some years data are available for remittances from Belgium and Sweden as well. The objective of this study is to test the significance of certain factors in terms of their effects on remittances to Greece. These factors are the migrant's income, the migrant's family income, the rate of unemployment, the rate of interest, the exchange rate, and the rate of inflation. The study attempts to see if these factors have had any effect on the volume of remittances. It also attempts to see if there are any structural changes during this period that affect migrants' propensity to remit."

  19. Effective ultraviolet irradiance measurements from artificial tanning devices in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petri, Aspasia; Karabetsos, Efthymios

    2015-12-01

    Artificial tanning remains very popular worldwide, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunbeds as 'carcinogenic to humans'. Greek Atomic Energy Commission has initiated a surveillance action of the artificial tanning devices in Greece in order to record the effective irradiance levels from the sunbeds and to inform and synchronise the domestic artificial tanning business sector with the requirements of the European Standard EN 60335-2-27:2010. In this direction, in situ measurements of UV emissions from sunbeds in solaria businesses all over Greece were performed from October 2013 until July 2014, with a radiometer and a portable single-monochromator spectrophotometer. Analysis of the measurements' results revealed that effective irradiance in ∼60 % of the measured sunbeds exceeded the 0.3 W m(-2) limit value set by EN 60335-2-27:2010 and only 20 % of the devices could be categorised as UV type 3.

  20. A clinical and educational telemedicine link between Bulgaria and Greece.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, George; Ilonidis, George; Anogeianaki, Antonia; Milliaras, Spyros; Klisarova, Anelia; Temelkov, Temel; Vlachakis-Milliaras, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    During its transition to a market economy, Bulgaria benefited from foreign aid provided by Greece. One of the projects was the clinical and educational telemedicine link between the Medical University of Varna in Bulgaria and the Faculty of Medicine of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece. This began in 1997. In terms of the educational activities, the Bulgarian side of the network supports: an electronic classroom equipped with personal workstations, multimedia projectors and videoconference facilities; electronic design and publishing activities; Web hosting and mail server activities; and satellite communications. Communications are via ISDN. The main clinical experience has been remote consultations in immunology. This experience (admittedly limited) demonstrates that telemedicine can be used to provide assistance to remote colleagues. In addition, the use of telemedicine can greatly improve the quality of care available to travellers and migrant workers in cases where the patient cannot communicate with the attending physician because of a language barrier.

  1. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Marinagi, C. E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Trivellas, P. E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Reklitis, Panagiotis E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com; Skourlas, C.

    2015-02-09

    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support.

  2. West Nile virus infections in Greece: an update.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 2 years have passed since the detection of the first human case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Greece, which was the starting signal of a large outbreak in 2010, followed by a second one in 2011. More than 250 neuroinvasive disease cases with 15% fatality were observed during the two WNV seasons. WNV lineage 2 sequences were obtained from blood donors, Culex mosquitoes, wild birds and sentinel chickens. The Greek WNV strain shows high genetic relatedness to the goshawk-Hungary/04 WNV strain; an amino acid substitution in nonstructural protein 3 (H249P) is observed, which has been previously associated with increased virus transmission. This article provides an overview of the WNV outbreaks in Greece and discusses the knowledge gained from these events.

  3. Diurnal variation of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balafoutis, Ch. J.

    1989-12-01

    The diurnal variations of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece, are considered using hourly data from January 1960 to December 1977. This is the first attempt in Greece to describe bioclimatic conditions using wind-chill data. The hourly values of wind-chill were calculated by Siple-Passel's formula which still appears to be most widely used. The values of wind-chill are discussed in terms of Terjung's scale. Thessaloniki does not experience “frost-bite” conditions during the coldest months but does experience “warm” conditions during the summer period. A comparison of hourly and daily mean values show that the means do not indicate the real range of wind-chill during the day.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece.

    PubMed

    Karampatakis, Theodoros; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Iosifidis, Elias; Tsakris, Athanassios; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Hospital infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) constitute a worldwide problem associated with high rates of treatment failure and mortality. In Greece, CRKP have emerged in 2002 due to VIM carbapenemase production and later due to KPC, NDM and OXA-48-like carbapenemases that have become endemic. The molecular epidemiology of CRKP strains is dynamic, as antibiotic consumption and worldwide traveling are strongly associated with global spread of CRKP isolates. Lately, porin defects, such as disruption of OmpK35 and production of OmpK36 variant, have also contributed to carbapenem resistance. In the coming years, the high prevalence of CRKP will require intense infection control measures, while novel molecular patterns may appear. To our knowledge, this is the first review analyzing the molecular epidemiology of CRKP strains in Greece.

  5. Careers education and guidance in Greece a critical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmidou-Hardy, Chrysoula

    1990-09-01

    The paper begins with a clarification of the terms `effective' versus `successful' teacher and their implications. There follows a summary of the results of a study addressing the issues: a) which Careers Education and Guidance (CEG) aims in Greece are considered most important, and b) what constitutes a successful careers teacher. The study is based on the responses of careers coordinators in Greece and consultants at the Greek Pedagogical Institute. Issues concerning Information and Self-Awareness as Careers Education and Guidance aims are discussed, and an alternative approach to Information is suggested. The main emphasis is placed on the importance of the teacher as an indispensable factor for the implementation of CEG aims in particular, and educational aims in general.

  6. Online Communities: The Case of Immigrants in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos

    Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.

  7. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-02-25

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years.

  8. Urban wastewater and stormwater technologies in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, A N; Koutsoyiannis, D; Tchobanoglous, G

    2005-01-01

    The status of urban sewerage and stormwater drainage systems in ancient Greece is reviewed, based on the results of archaeological studies of the 20th century. Emphasis is given to the construction, operation, and management of sewerage and stormwater drainage systems during the Minoan period (2nd millennium B.C.). The achievements of this period in dealing with the hygienic and the functional requirements of palaces and cities, were so advanced that they can only be compared to modern urban water systems, developed in Europe and North America in the second half of the 19th century A.D. The advanced Minoan technologies were exported to all parts of Greece in later periods of the Greek civilization, i.e. in Mycenaean, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods.

  9. National Intelligence Survey. Greece. Section 23, Weather and Climate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-01-01

    hurricanes and tornadoes is virtually unknown. However, a variety of spe- cial winds is noted. The most common special wind over Greece is called...observations are taken at 7 sta- tions, and 54 stations are agricultural and clima - tological stations. The University of Athens has 3 primarily... clima - tological stations under the supervision of Profes- sor E. G. Mariolopoulos. The University of Thes- saloniki Department of Meteorology has 6

  10. Natural radioactivity content of granite tiles used in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaefthymiou, H

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in commercial granite tiles imported in Greece were performed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 1 to 434, 2 to 239 and 71 to 1576 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all granite samples examined were found to be within the EC limit values for superficial and other materials with restricted use.

  11. West Nile virus infections in humans--focus on Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2013-10-01

    West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus causing to humans a variety of symptoms, from asymptomatic or mild infection, to severe, and often fatal, infection of the central nervous system. The present review aims to describe the main clinical characteristics of the disease, to provide the recent epidemiological data, including those from the recent outbreaks in Greece, and to discuss the environmental factors which might play a role in the virus emergence and its wider dispersal.

  12. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Analysis of synoptic conditions for tornadic days over Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2014-03-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece during the last decades and recent studies have given evidence that west Greece is a vulnerable area for tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds to occur. In this study, the composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for tornadic events (tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds) over west Greece are analyzed and discussed. The daily composite means of synoptic conditions were based on National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets, for the period 12 August 1953 to 31 December 2012. The daily composite anomalies were calculated with respect to 30 years climatology (1981-2010) of the synoptic conditions. The analysis was carried out in terms of seasonal and monthly variability of composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for specific isobaric levels of 500, 700, 850, 925 hPa and the sea level pressure (SLP). In addition, an analysis and discussion about the dynamic Lifted Index from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets is presented.

  14. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece.

  15. A ten year Moment Tensor database for Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetsidaki, Anna; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis

    2016-10-01

    Moment Tensors (MTs) provide important information for seismotectonic, stress distribution and source studies. It is also important as a real time or near real time information in shakemaps, tsunami warning, and stress transfer. Therefore a reliable and rapid MT computation is a routine task for modern seismic networks with broadband sensors and real-time digital telemetry. In this paper we present the database of Moment Tensor solutions computed during the last ten years in Western Greece by the University of Patras, Seismological Laboratory (UPSL). The data from UPSL broad band network were used together with the ISOLA Moment Tensor inversion package for routine MT calculation. The procedures followed and the comparison of UPSL derived solutions with the ones provided by other agencies for Western Greece region are presented as well. The Moment Tensor database includes solutions for events in the magnitude range 2.8-6.8 and provides a unique insight into the faulting characteristics of Western Greece. Moreover it paves the way for detailed studies of stress tensor and stress transfer. The weak events' Moment Tensor included in UPSL's database are important for the comprehension of local seismotectonics and reveal the role of minor faults, which may be critical in seismic hazard estimation.

  16. Spatial Inequality in the Accessibility to Hospitals in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogirou, S.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure the spatial accessibility to public health care facilities in Greece. We look at population groups disaggregated by age and socioeconomic characteristics. The purpose of the analysis is to identify potential spatial inequalities in the accessibility to public hospitals among population groups or service areas. The data refer to the accessibility of all residents to public hospitals in Greece. The spatial datasets include the location of settlements (communities), the administrative boundaries of municipalities and the location of public hospitals. The methodology stems from spatial analysis theory (gravity models), economics theory (inequalities) and geocomputation practice (GIS and programming). Several accessibility measures have been calculated using the newly developed R package SpatialAcc, which is available in CRAN. The results are interesting and tend to show an urban-rural and social class divide: younger, working age population as well as people with the highest educational attainment have better accessibility to public hospitals compared to older or low educated residents. This finding has serious policy making implications and should be taken into account in the future spatial (re)organisation of hospitals in Greece.

  17. Rural primary care in Greece: working under limited resources.

    PubMed

    Oikonomidou, Eirini; Anastasiou, Foteini; Dervas, Dimitris; Patri, Fani; Karaklidis, Dionisis; Moustakas, Panagiotis; Andreadou, Niki; Mantzanas, Enagellos; Merkouris, Bodossakis

    2010-08-01

    Establishing sufficient primary health-care services in rural areas is of high interest in developing health systems. The objective of the present study was to describe the state of rural health services, in terms of personnel and equipment, in rural primary care settings in Greece. A questionnaire was sent to all Greek rural settings (RS) (practices) twice during 2007. The questionnaire included questions about the number of doctors in the practice, their specialty, presence of a nurse, population served and average distance from the regional Health Center and hospital. It also included questions about the average number of consultations per day, home visits, maintenance of medical records and medical equipment. Rural primary care settings in Greece. Doctors serving primary care needs during the second half of 2007. s) None. s) Data concerning staffing, function and available equipment of the RS have been collected. Five hundred eighty-two (40.9%) of the rural practitioners replied. Twenty-nine percent of the participants were general practitioners (GPs). Doctors reported average population of responsibility of 2263 citizens and a regular average of 26 consultations per day. A nurse was present in 174 RS (29.5%). Medical records of any form were kept in only 36% of the RS. GPs were more prone to maintain patients files compared with non-specialized doctors. Essential equipment proved to be limited in the majority of the RS. Rural practices in Greece report shortages of medical staff (GPs), nursing staff and equipment.

  18. Factors that motivate and hinder blood donation in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Marantidou, O; Loukopoulou, L; Zervou, E; Martinis, G; Egglezou, A; Fountouli, P; Dimoxenous, P; Parara, M; Gavalaki, M; Maniatis, A

    2007-01-01

    Donations in Greece are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia patients and the implementation of new surgical techniques. Efforts to achieve self-sufficiency, and to render blood supplies safer and manageable must focus on recruiting and retaining more volunteer donors and on converting the large pool of replacement donors. The aim of the study was to gain insight into public perception regarding the risks of donation and transfusion and to identify the factors that would motivate more people in Greece to regularly donate blood. Questionnaires were distributed to 1600 donors at the blood bank and visitors to hospitals at 11 locations across the country. Data on demographics, donation behaviour, incentives, risk perception and attitudes towards donation and transfusion were analysed separately for volunteer and replacement donors and non-donors. The results showed that women and young people donate the least in Greece. Also, many donors do not donate because they are not reminded to. A small percentage of donors confessed to having concealed part of the truth to background questions. Overall, incentives to donate were considered important and included future availability of blood for self or family, paid leave from work and free blood tests. Recruitment and retention efforts should include better communication with current donors, and raising awareness among eligible donors. Staff should be educated in soliciting information from potential donors, and incentives should be better aligned to avoid conflict with ethical values and ensure honesty in the prescreening process. PMID:18067648

  19. Adolescence and abortion in Greece: women's profile and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Mavroforou, Anna; Koumantakis, Evgenios; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the individual and social profile of the adolescents seeking abortion in Greece. Questionnaires were distributed from the obstetricians practicing in the capital and two major cities in Greece to adolescent pregnant women who were seeking for abortion and collected anonymously. From 150 consecutive pregnant adolescents, 38 refused to participate and from 112 who accepted to participate only 74 (66%) replied. Most of the respondents lived in a city (65%), were unmarried (73%), 62% had sex first time after the age of 15, and the educational status of their parents was rarely at higher degree (father: 20%, mother: 16%). Among them, 74% declared that they had received information on contraception (64% from friends, 47% from doctors, 36% from the media). Overall, withdrawal (49%) and male condom (28.5%) were the popular contraceptive precautions. Abortion was adolescents' decision in 65%, while the partner's influence in the case of a shared decision was as high as 73%. Most adolescents (91%) knew about the potential risks of abortion mainly by their doctor (87%) and socio-economical reasons (89%) were mostly claimed. Their parents were rarely aware about their pregnancy (28%) and decision for abortion (28%). In most cases it was the first abortion (78%) and adolescents declared that were aware about the Greek Church's opposition (89%) and the existence of an abortion law (86%). In Greece, the poor education on the issue of contraception still remains a major problem among teenagers contributing to the increased prevalence of undesired pregnancies and abortions.

  20. Generics market in Greece: the pharmaceutical industry's beliefs.

    PubMed

    Geitona, Mary; Zavras, Dimitrios; Hatzikou, Magda; Kyriopoulos, John

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs and perspectives of the pharmaceutical industry on generic medication in Greece. Questionnaires were mailed to all 58 members of the Hellenic Association of Pharmaceutical Companies from November 2002 to February 2003. The response rate was 52%, namely 30 questionnaires were completed and returned. The questionnaire requested information on companies' involvement in generics, their opinion on generics' characteristics and on public policies affecting the demand and supply of generic medication. A descriptive analysis of the outcomes, that is percentage comparison through binomial tests and Fisher tests, was performed. According to our findings, 43% of the respondents were involved in the production and distribution of generics and the mean period of their involvement was 12 years. The majority of the respondents were in favor of their companies' involvement in generics, despite the relatively small market share of generics in Greece; 9.7% of total pharmaceutical market in 2003. Bearing in mind that in Greece the promotion of generics is not encouraged, pharmaceutical companies believe that the mandatory introduction of bioequivalence studies is an indirect promotional strategy towards generics. Additionally, the majority declared that their main competitive advantages are their safety, efficacy and effectiveness as well as their economic benefit to the society. Finally, the respondents expressed their preference for the introduction of pharmacoeconomic submissions for drugs' reimbursement by social insurance funds.

  1. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  2. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     ... View an animated gif (371 kb) A large tabular iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West ...

  3. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  4. Sakhalin Island, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-04

    This image from NASA EarthKAM is of Sakhalin Island, located just north of Japan and east of the Khabarovski and Primorski Krai of the Russian Far East. With the Kuril Islands, it forms Sakhalin Province.

  5. Palm Islands, Dubai, UAE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-02

    The Palm Islands are artificial islands in Dubai, United Arab emirates on which major commercial and residential structures are being built. NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image on November 17 and December 10, 2008.

  6. Preliminary background indoor EMF measurements in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kottou, Sofia; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Yannakopoulos, Panayiotis H; Vogiannis, Efstratios; Petraki, Ermioni; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Koulougliotis, Dionysios

    2015-11-01

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate the fluctuation of Greek indoor electromagnetic field (EMF) intensity values and identify peaks that might occur. The scientific interest is mainly focused on the bands of extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields and radiofrequency (RF) electric fields which have been suggested to be possibly carcinogenic to humans by the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements were performed in a variety of indoor dwellings, in Attica and in the islands of Zakynthos and Lesvos. A total number of 4540 measurements were taken in a wide frequency range (50 Hz-2100 MHz) of which 3301 in Attica, 963 in Lesvos and 276 in Zakynthos. Statistical analysis of the data revealed specific statistically significant differences between the mean values of the electric (ELF and RF) but not the magnetic (ELF) field strengths measured at different distances from the EMF source, as well as between some of the mean values of the RF electric field at different bands. Some statistically significant differences between mean electric field values at different geographic locations were also identified. As far as the RF electric field is concerned, the maximum values, in most cases, were below 0.5 V/m, however increased values above 1 V/m and up to 5.6 V/m were occasionally observed. The ELF magnetic field values were lower than 1 μT. It may be concluded that overall, the observed indoor EMF intensity values remained well below domestic and European established limits.

  7. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  9. Island of Timor, Indonesia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-11-27

    This almost totally cloud free, photo of the island of Timor, Indonesia (9.0S, 125.0E) illustrates the volcanic origin of the over 1500 islands of Indonesia. Close examination of the photo reveals several eroded volcanoes on the Island of Timor and several of the adjacent islands. The linear alignment of the volcanoes, as seen from space, indicates the edges of the tectonic plates of the Earth's crust where volcanic activity is most common.

  10. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  11. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  12. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the island is visible within a relatively clear area of open ocean. In the lower right image, the island is partially obscured by ... Steep cliffs surrounding most sides of the island also made access difficult, and after various attempts, a landing was made in 1822 by an ...

  14. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    PubMed

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  15. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. A heuristic expert system for forest fire guidance in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, Lazaros S; Papastavrou, Anastasios K; Lefakis, Panagiotis D

    2002-07-01

    Forests and forestlands are common inheritance for all Greeks and a piece of the national wealth that must be handed over to the next generations in the best possible condition. After 1974, Greece faces a severe forest fire problem and forest fire forecasting is the process that will enable the Greek ministry of Agriculture to reduce the destruction. This paper describes the basic design principles of an Expert System that performs forest fire forecasting (for the following fire season) and classification of the prefectures of Greece into forest fire risk zones. The Expert system handles uncertainty and uses heuristics in order to produce scenarios based on the presence or absence of various qualitative factors. The initial research focused on the construction of a mathematical model which attempted to describe the annual number of forest fires and burnt area in Greece based on historical data. However this has proven to be impossible using regression analysis and time series. A closer analysis of the fire data revealed that two qualitative factors dramatically affect the number of forest fires and the hectares of burnt areas annually. The first is political stability and national elections and the other is drought cycles. Heuristics were constructed that use political stability and drought cycles, to provide forest fire guidance. Fuzzy logic was applied to produce a fuzzy expected interval for each prefecture of Greece. A fuzzy expected interval is a narrow interval of values that best describes the situation in the country or a part of the country for a certain time period. A successful classification of the prefectures of Greece in forest fire risk zones was done by the system, by comparing the fuzzy expected intervals to each other. The system was tested for the years 1994 and 1995. The testing has clearly shown that the system can predict accurately, the number of forest fires for each prefecture for the following year. The average accuracy was as high as 85

  17. Attitudes to kidney donation among primary care patients in rural Crete, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Komninos, Ioannis D; Antonakis, Nikos; Morgan, Myfanwy; Alegakis, Athanasios; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Chatziarsenis, Marios; Philalithis, Anastas; Jones, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Background In Greece, there is limited research on issues related to organ donation, and the low rate of registration as donors requires explanation. This study reports the findings of a survey of knowledge and attitudes to kidney donation among primary care patients in rural Crete, Greece. Methods Two rural primary care settings in the island of Crete, Anogia Health Centre and Vrachasi Practice, were involved in a questionnaire survey. This was conducted among primary care patients (aged 18 years and over) with routine appointments, to assess their knowledge and attitudes to kidney donation. General practitioners (GPs) recruited patients and questionnaires were completed following the patients' medical consultation. Pearson's chi square tests were used and crude odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated in order to investigate into the possible associations between the respondents' knowledge, attitudes and specific concerns in relation to their socio-demographic features. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences by geographical location. Results The 224 (92.5%) of the 242 primary care attenders who were approached agreed to participate. Only 2.2% (5/224) of the respondents carried a donor card. Most participants (84.4%, 189/224) did not feel well informed about registering as a kidney donor. More than half of the respondents (54.3%, 121/223) were unwilling to register as a kidney donor and donate kidneys for transplant after death. Over a third of respondents (35.4%, 79/223) were not confident that medical teams would try as hard as possible to save the life of a person who has agreed to donate organs. People with a higher level of education were more likely to be willing to register as kidney donors [(OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.8–6.0), p < 0.001)] and to be less worried about their kidneys being removed after death [(OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.5), p < 0.001)] than those having a lower level of education. Conclusion Lack

  18. Effects of fragmentation on genetic diversity in island populations of the Aegean wall lizard Podarcis erhardii (Lacertidae, Reptilia).

    PubMed

    Hurston, H; Voith, L; Bonanno, J; Foufopoulos, J; Pafilis, P; Valakos, E; Anthony, N

    2009-08-01

    Landbridge islands offer unique opportunities for understanding the effects of fragmentation history on genetic variation in island taxa. The formation of islands by rising sea levels can be likened to a population bottleneck whose magnitude and duration is determined by island area and time since isolation, respectively. The Holocene landbridge islands of the Aegean Sea (Greece) were formed since the last glacial maximum and constitute an ideal system for disentangling the effects of island area, age and geographic isolation on genetic variability. Of the many reptile species inhabiting this island system, the Aegean wall lizard Podarcis erhardii is an excellent indicator of fragmentation history due to its widespread distribution and poor over-water dispersal abilities. In this study, we utilize a detailed record of Holocene fragmentation to investigate the effects of island history on wall lizard mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite diversity. Findings show that the spatial distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes reflects historical patterns of fragmentation rather than geographic proximity per se. In keeping with neutral bottleneck theory, larger and younger islands retain more nuclear genetic variation than smaller, older islands. Conversely, there is no evidence of an effect of isolation by distance or effect of distance to the nearest larger landmass on genetic variability, indicating little gene flow between islands. Lastly, population-specific measures of genetic differentiation are inversely correlated with island area, suggesting that smaller islands exhibit greater divergence due to their greater susceptibility to drift. Taken together, these results suggest that both island area and time since isolation are important predictors of genetic variation and that these patterns likely arose through the progressive fragmentation of ancestral diversity and the ensuing cumulative effects of drift.

  19. High Resolution Magnetotelluric Imaging of the Nisyros Caldera and Geothermal Resource (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanis, Andreas; Sakkas, Vassilis; Lagios, Evangelos

    2017-04-01

    This work reports the qualitative and quantitative re-examination of legacy magnetotelluric soundings data obtained in the caldera of Nisyros, a small island volcano at the eastern end of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA), Greece, in an attempt to explore the high temperature geothermal resource of the area. The data set comprises 39 single-site soundings and is re-examined with improved data processing methods, new hypothetical event analysis techniques to study the spatial configuration of the telluric field and two-dimensional inversion tools. Iteratively reweighted least squares have been implemented to compute stable and smooth Earth response functions, which were found to exhibit 2-D to weakly 3-D attributes as a result of induction in low-contrast local geoelectric inhomogeneities, superimposed on a dominantly 2-D background structure. The transfer functions appear to be free of coastal and island induction effects due to the low offshore/onshore resistivity contrast at, and below sea level. The spatial properties of the telluric field are studied with hypothetical event analysis based on 3-D decompositions of the impedance tensor [1]. The results indicate that convection and hydrothermal circulation is controlled by a system of antithetic NE-SW oriented active normal faults which form a graben-like structure and define the 2-D background, as well as a conjugate system of NNW-SSE normal faults which is particularly active at the SW quadrant of the island and define the main convection path. It was determined that under these conditions the data can be interpreted with 2-D inversion, which was carried out with [2]. The inversion has successfully reconstructed detailed images of the structural and functional elements of the hydrothermal system. The structural elements include a number of shallow hot water reservoirs in the argillic and phyllic alteration zones and a laterally extended deep (approx. 1km) circulation zone, all embedded in a low-resistivity matrix

  20. Soil erosion prediction using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in a GIS framework, Chania, Northwestern Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouli, Maria; Soupios, Pantelis; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2009-04-01

    Soil erosion is a growing problem in southern Greece and particularly in the island of Crete, the biggest Greek island with great agricultural activity. Soil erosion not only decreases agricultural productivity, but also reduces the water availability. In the current study, an effort to predict potential annual soil loss has been conducted. For the prediction, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) has been adopted in a Geographical Information System framework. The RUSLE factors were calculated (in the form of raster layers) for the nine major watersheds which cover the northern part of the Chania Prefecture. The R-factor was calculated from monthly and annual precipitation data. The K-factor was estimated using soil maps available from the Soil Geographical Data Base of Europe at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The LS-factor was calculated from a 30-m digital elevation model. The C-factor was calculated using Remote Sensing techniques. The P-factor in absence of data was set to 1. The results show that an extended part of the area is undergoing severe erosion. The mean annual soil loss is predicted up to ˜200 (t/ha year-1) for some watersheds showing extended erosion and demanding the attention of local administrators.

  1. Field observations of geological effects triggered by the January-February 2014 Cephalonia (Ionian Sea, Greece) earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkaniotis, Sotirios; Ganas, Athanassios; Papathanassiou, George; Papanikolaou, Marios

    2014-09-01

    On Jan. 26 and Feb 3, 2014 Cephalonia Island, Ionian Sea, Greece, was struck by two strong, shallow earthquakes (NOA local magnitudes ML5.8 and ML5.7, respectively). The earthquakes ruptured two sub-parallel, strike-slip faults, with right-lateral kinematics. During both earthquakes, ground-shaking phenomena such as liquefaction, road failures, rock falls, small/medium size landslides and stonewall failures were widespread all over the western part of the island. No primary fault surface ruptures were observed, however one patch of the rupture of the second event may have nearly reached the surface, because of the abundance of surface cracks with cm-size offsets mapped in the field in north Paliki Peninsula. Liquefaction phenomena were mainly triggered in reclaimed lands in the waterfront areas of Argostoli and Lixouri inducing structural damages to quays, sidewalks and piers. We also present evidence for liquefaction-induced ground disruption in the recently constructed marina of Argostoli, which is situated at the opposite (eastern) shore to the town.

  2. New constraints on the rapid crustal motion of the Aegean region: recent results inferred from GPS measurements (1993-1998) across the West Hellenic Arc, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocard, M.; Kahle, H.-G.; Peter, Y.; Geiger, A.; Veis, G.; Felekis, S.; Paradissis, D.; Billiris, H.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper we present the most recent observations of crustal motion across the entire West Hellenic Arc (WHA). These are based on repeated GPS measurements carried out in the period from 1993 to 1998. The results are presented in terms of trajectories and rates, relative to Eurasia. Within these five years southwestern Greece has moved to the southwest by an average rate of 30 mm/a, increasing from 10 mm/a at the island of Lefkada, in the center of the Ionian islands, to nearly 40 mm/a along the southwest part of the Peloponnesus and to 35 mm/a on the islands of Crete and Gavdhos. The data provide strong evidence that distributed shear strain starts at the Kephalonia Fault Zone (KFZ), were an anomalously high earthquake activity is also observed. A striking interruption of the motion is seen at the island of Strofades, at the southwest leading edge of the WHA, where a south-oriented displacement of 12 cm was detected, coincident with the M = 6.4 Strofades earthquake of Nov. 18, 1997.

  3. Norfolk Island, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-13

    Situated 1670 km northeast of Sydney, Norfolk Island is an Australian Territory. It was permanently settled in 1856 by Pitcairn Islanders who were descendants of Tahitians and HMS Bounty mutineers. In 1979 Norfolk was granted limited self-government: the island elects a government that runs most of the island's affairs. In March, a local council replaced the local government, and the island was given closer financial ties to Australia. The image was acquired November 12, 2009, covers an area of 9 x 11 km, and is located at 29 degrees south, 168 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19463

  4. Christmas Island, Line Island Group, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Christmas Island (2.0N,158.0W), mid central Pacific Ocean, is considered to be the largest atoll in the world, about 25 km in diameter, and is part of the Line Island Group, a northwest-southeast trending chain of volcanic islands on some of the oldest ocean crust in the Pacific. The lagoon is nearly filled with reef growth leaving only a narrow entrance from the sea and large cocoanut groves are found along the fringes of the lagoon.

  5. Submarine Volcanic Morphology of Santorini Caldera, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomikou, P.; Croff Bell, K.; Carey, S.; Bejelou, K.; Parks, M.; Antoniou, V.

    2012-04-01

    the area that lies between the town of Fira on the main island of Santorini and Nea Kammeni has been revealed. The lower slopes were covered with landslide debris which consisted of lava blocks mostly mantled with soft sediment. At the upper slopes an abrupt cliff face was exposed that was highly indurated by biologic material. At the top of a volcanic dome, a crater with its deepest part at 43m, its rim at about 34m with an approximately 8m diameter was also found. Shimmery water with temperatures as much as 25°C above ambient was observed there but the source of venting has not yet been found. The combination of ROV video footage and multibeam data provide new information about the main morphological characteristics of Santorini Caldera which demonstrates the intense geodynamic processes occurring at the central part of the active Hellenic volcanic arc. These results will be useful for the interpretation of understanding the offshore volcanic area and its linkage with the onshore structures.

  6. A Review of the Library and Information Services In Greece: Current Developments that Shape LIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garoufallou, Emmanouel; Siatri, Rania; Hartley, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper sets the context for this special issue on LIS education in Greece by explaining the Greek higher education system both in organisational terms and in the approaches to teaching and learning. In addition it briefly outlines the current state of development in libraries in Greece. Taken together they provide the background to the…

  7. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  8. Historical and Contemporary Aspects of the Relationship between the State and Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    An outgrowth of earlier research on historical and contemporary adult education in Greece, this paper provides highlights of the relationship between the state and adult education in that country. The highlights are organized by the following historical periods: prehistory (c. 3000-1100 B.C.); early and archaic Greece (c. 1100-700 B.C.);…

  9. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  10. Working with Students with Special Educational Needs in Greece: Teachers' Stressors and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniou, Alexander-Stamatios; Polychroni, Fotini; Kotroni, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Few studies explore the specific sources of stress, and the coping strategies applied by teachers of children with special educational needs, particularly in small countries such as Greece. The present study investigated the specific work-related stressors affecting special educational needs teachers in Greece and the coping strategies applied by…

  11. Illegal immigration and local labour markets: the case of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Lianos, T P; Sarris, A H; Katseli, L T

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of the present study is to enhance knowledge on the impact of illegal immigrants in Greece from both Eastern European and other developing countries. Our analysis is based on direct survey information from the four regions in Greece which employ considerable numbers of illegal aliens." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  12. Tracking the vector of Onchocerca lupi in a rural area of Greece.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Papadopoulos, Elias; Petrić, Dušan; Ćupina, Aleksandra Ignjatović; Bain, Odile

    2012-07-01

    During a hot Mediterranean summer, an expedition brought parasitologists from Brazil, France, Greece, Italy, and Serbia to a wooded area near Xanthi, Thrace, northeastern Greece, near the Turkish border, on the track of the vector of the little-known nematode Onchocerca lupi. The scientific purposes of the expedition blended then with stories of humans, animals, and parasites in this rural area.

  13. A Marvelous Journey: Calling from Greece to a U.S. Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lana; Sucich, John

    2007-01-01

    A unit of study on Ancient Greece is a part of the fourth grade social studies curriculum at Belmont Day School. The students spend 10 weeks exploring Greek history and mythology. This article discusses a new project that the authors conducted, wherein one of them was going to Greece on a study tour, while the other one stays in Belmont Day…

  14. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece

    PubMed Central

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people. PMID:28141857

  15. Transition from collision to subduction in Western Greece: the Katouna-Stamna active fault system and regional kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérouse, E.; Sébrier, M.; Braucher, R.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Bourlès, D.; Briole, P.; Sorel, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Arsenikos, S.

    2017-04-01

    Transition from subduction to collision occurs in Western Greece and is accommodated along the downgoing plate by the Kefalonia right-lateral fault that transfers the Hellenic subduction front to the Apulian collision front. Here we present an active tectonic study of Aitolo-Akarnania (Western Greece) that highlights how such a transition is accommodated in the overriding plate. Based on new multi-scale geomorphic and tectonic observations, we performed an accurate active fault trace mapping in the region, and provide evidence for active normal and left-lateral faulting along the Katouna-Stamna Fault (KSF), a 65-km-long NNW-striking fault system connecting the Amvrakikos Gulf to the Patras Gulf. We further show that the Cenozoic Hellenide thrusts located west of the KSF are no longer active, either in field observation or in GPS data, leading us to propose that the KSF forms the northeastern boundary of a rigid Ionian Islands-Akarnania Block (IAB). Cosmic ray exposure measurements of 10Be and 36Cl were performed on a Quaternary alluvial fan offset along the KSF ( 50 m left-lateral offset). A maximum abandonment age of 12-14 ka for the alluvial fan surface can be determined, giving an estimated KSF minimum geological left-lateral slip rate of 4 mm year-1, in agreement with high GPS slip rates ( 10 mm year-1). Despite this high slip rate, the KSF is characterized by subdued morphological evidence of tectonic activity, a gypsum-breccia bedrock and a low level of seismicity, suggesting a dominantly creeping behavior for this fault. Finally, we discuss how the IAB appears to have been progressively individualized during the Pleistocene (younger than 1.5 Ma).

  16. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  17. Transition from collision to subduction in Western Greece: the Katouna-Stamna active fault system and regional kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérouse, E.; Sébrier, M.; Braucher, R.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Bourlès, D.; Briole, P.; Sorel, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Arsenikos, S.

    2016-06-01

    Transition from subduction to collision occurs in Western Greece and is accommodated along the downgoing plate by the Kefalonia right-lateral fault that transfers the Hellenic subduction front to the Apulian collision front. Here we present an active tectonic study of Aitolo-Akarnania (Western Greece) that highlights how such a transition is accommodated in the overriding plate. Based on new multi-scale geomorphic and tectonic observations, we performed an accurate active fault trace mapping in the region, and provide evidence for active normal and left-lateral faulting along the Katouna-Stamna Fault (KSF), a 65-km-long NNW-striking fault system connecting the Amvrakikos Gulf to the Patras Gulf. We further show that the Cenozoic Hellenide thrusts located west of the KSF are no longer active, either in field observation or in GPS data, leading us to propose that the KSF forms the northeastern boundary of a rigid Ionian Islands-Akarnania Block (IAB). Cosmic ray exposure measurements of 10Be and 36Cl were performed on a Quaternary alluvial fan offset along the KSF (~50 m left-lateral offset). A maximum abandonment age of ~12-14 ka for the alluvial fan surface can be determined, giving an estimated KSF minimum geological left-lateral slip rate of ~4 mm year-1, in agreement with high GPS slip rates (~10 mm year-1). Despite this high slip rate, the KSF is characterized by subdued morphological evidence of tectonic activity, a gypsum-breccia bedrock and a low level of seismicity, suggesting a dominantly creeping behavior for this fault. Finally, we discuss how the IAB appears to have been progressively individualized during the Pleistocene (younger than ~1.5 Ma).

  18. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of paliperidone palmitate for treating schizophrenia in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients having chronic schizophrenia with frequent relapses and hospitalizations represent a great challenge, both clinically and financially. Risperidone long-acting injection (RIS-LAI) has been the main LAI atypical antipsychotic treatment in Greece. Paliperidone palmitate (PP-LAI) has recently been approved. It is dosed monthly, as opposed to biweekly for RIS-LAI, but such advantages have not yet been analysed in terms of economic evaluation. Purpose To compare costs and outcomes of PP-LAI versus RIS-LAI in Greece. Methods A cost-utility analysis was performed using a previously validated decision tree to model clinical pathways and costs over 1 year for stable patients started on either medication. Rates were taken from the literature. A local expert panel provided feedback on treatment patterns. All direct costs incurred by the national healthcare system were obtained from the literature and standard price lists; all were inflated to 2011 costs. Patient outcomes analyzed included average days with stable disease, numbers of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results The total annual healthcare cost with PP-LAI was €3529; patients experienced 325 days in remission and 0.840 QALY; 28% were hospitalized and 15% received emergency room treatment. With RIS-LAI, the cost was €3695, patients experienced 318.6 days in remission and 0.815 QALY; 33% were hospitalized and 17% received emergency room treatment. Thus, PP-LAI dominated RIS-LAI. Results were generally robust in sensitivity analyses with PP-LAI dominating in 74.6% of simulations. Results were sensitive to the price of PP-LAI. Conclusions PP-LAI appears to be a cost-effective option for treating chronic schizophrenia in Greece compared with RIS-LAI since it results in savings to the health care system along with better patient outcomes. PMID:22747533

  19. Expanded newborn screening in Greece: 30 months of experience.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Yannis L; Soumelas, Georgios-Stefanos; Dotsikas, Yannis; Georgiou, Vassiliki; Molou, Elina; Thodi, Georgia; Boutsini, Maria; Biti, Sofia; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2010-12-01

    In Greece, the National Newborn Screening Program was initiated in 1974 and is performed by the Institute of Child Health (ICH). However, there is a complete absence of conditions that have high rates of mortality and a relatively high prevalence listed in the Catalogue of Disorders screened by the ICH. Our laboratory has expanded the existing NBS program to include newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism, screening for cystic fibrosis (the most common congenital disorder in the Greek population), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and for biotinidase deficiency. From July 2007 to December 2009, 45,000 dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from infants born in Athens, Greece, and were analyzed. We present a report of our 30-month experience in the newborn screening area. The samples were tested for amino acidopathies, fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD), and organic acid metabolic disorders by applying flow injection analysis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-MS/MS); for cystic fibrosis by immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) measurement (time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay); for congenital adrenal hyperplasia by fluoroimmunoassay to measure the 17 hydroxy-progesterone level; and for biotinidase deficiency using a colorimetric method and a semiquantitative fluoroimmunoassay to determine biotinidase activity. Sample analysis resulted in establishing cutoff values for the respective disease markers for the first time in the Greek population. Four infants were identified with cystic fibrosis, two with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, two with phenylketonuria (PKU), one with medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD), and one with biotinidase deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first article reporting the status of expanded newborn screening in Greece.

  20. Evaluating Renewable Groundwater Stress with GRACE Data in Greece.

    PubMed

    Gemitzi, Alexandra; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2017-09-22

    Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance is even greater in periods of drought. Areas such as the Mediterranean where adverse climate change effects are expected are bell-weather locations for groundwater depletion and are of considerable interest. The present study evaluates renewable groundwater stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in gravity recovery and climate experiment-derived (GRACE) subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend ) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge. Estimates for mean annual recharge for the various regions in Greece have been derived using numerical models. Our results highlight two RGS regimes in Greece (variable stress and unstressed) of the four characteristic stress regimes, that is, overstressed, variable stress, human-dominated stress, and unstressed, defined as a function of the sign of use and the sign of groundwater availability (positive or negative). Variable stress areas are found in Central Greece (Thessaly region), where intensive agriculture results in negative ΔGWtrend values combined with positive mean annual recharge rates. RGS values range from -0.05 to 0, indicating a low impact area. Within this region, adverse effects of groundwater overexploitation are already evident based on the negative GRACE anomalies; however, recharge is still positive, mitigating the effects of over-pumping. The rest of Greek aquifers fall within the unstressed category, with RGS values from 0.02 to 0.05, indicating that the rate of use is less than the natural recharge rate. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  1. Emerging Trichinella britovi infections in free ranging pigs of Greece.

    PubMed

    Boutsini, S; Papatsiros, V G; Stougiou, D; Marucci, G; Liandris, E; Athanasiou, L V; Papadoudis, A; Karagiozopoulos, E; Bisias, A; Pozio, E

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.

  2. Biochemical genetic variability in brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Greece.

    PubMed

    Suchentrunk, Franz; Mamuris, Zissis; Sfougaris, Athanassios I; Stamatis, Costas

    2003-06-01

    Allozyme variability of 91 brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from seven regions in Greece was compared to existing data of Bulgarian populations to test the hypothesis of the occurrence ofspecific alleles in Greece, likely stemming from an isolated Late Pleistocene refugial population in the southern Balkans. This hypothesis is particularly suggested by some subfossil Late Pleistocene hare remains in Greece and the reported high mtDNA diversity in Greek hares. Allozymic diversity could be higher in Greek hares than in hares from neighboring regions as a result of the accumulation of variants in a long-lasting Pleistocene refugium. Conversely, Greek hares could exhibit reduced genetic diversity because of long-lasting low effective population sizes during the Late Glacial Maximum and a lower chance of postglacial gene flow from other populations into this rather marginal part in the southern Balkans. Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis of proteins from 35 loci revealed three alleles (Es-1(-162), Pep-2(114), Mpi(88)) at low frequencies, which were not found in Bulgarian or any other brown hare population. In contrast, some alleles from the populations from Bulgaria and other regions of Europe were absent in the Greek samples. Population genetic statistics indicated only a slight tendency of increased gene pool diversity in Greek hares, little substructuring in Greek and Bulgarian populations, respectively, as well as an only slightly lower level of gene flow between the two neighboring regions, as compared to the gene flow within each region. The results conform to the hypothesis of a Late Pleistocene refugial population in the southern Balkans, with some few specific nuclear gene pool characteristics, but little effect on the overall genetic differentiation between Greek and Bulgarian hares.

  3. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  4. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  5. Nutrient dynamics in shallow lakes of Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Petaloti, Christina; Voutsa, Dimitra; Samara, Constantini; Sofoniou, Mihalis; Stratis, Ioannis; Kouimtzis, Themistocles

    2004-01-01

    GOAL, SCOPE, BACKGROUND: Shallow lakes display a number of features that set them apart from the more frequently studied deeper systems. The majority of lakes in Northern Greece are small to moderate in size with a relatively low depth and are considered as sites of high value of the wetland habitat. However, the water quality of these lakes has only been evaluated segmentally and occasionally. The objectives of this study were to thoroughly investigate nitrogen and phosphorus speciation in lakes of a high ecological significance located in N. Greece, in order to evaluate their eutrophication status and possible nutrient limitation factors, and to investigate the main factors/sources that affect the water quality of these systems. An extensive survey was carried out during the period from 1998-1999. Water samples were collected on a monthly basis from lakes Koronia, Volvi, Doirani, Mikri Prespa and Megali Prespa located in N. Greece. Water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity), organic indices (COD, BOD5), and N- and P-species (NO3(-), NO2(-), NH4(+), and PO4(3-), Kieldahl nitrogen and acid-hydrolysable phosphorus) were determined according to standard methods for surface water. Statistical treatment of the data was employed. The physicochemical parameters determined in the lakes studied revealed a high temporal variation. The trophic state of the lakes ranged from meso- to hypertrophic. The nutrient limiting factor varied among lakes suggesting either P-limitation conditions or mixed conditions changing from P- to N-limitation throughout the year. Urban/industrial activities and agricultural runoff are the major factors affecting all lakes, although with a varying contribution. This lake-specific research offers valuable information about water quality and nutrient dynamics in lakes of significant ecological value located in N. Greece that can be useful for an effective pollution control/management of these systems. Due to the

  6. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kremastinou, Jenny; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Levidiotou, Stamatina; Markou, Fani; Themeli, Eleftheria; Voyiatzi, Aliki; Psoma, Eleni; Theodoridou, Maria; Blackwell, C Caroline

    2003-10-24

    In response to an increase in the number of cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in northern regions of Greece, a survey was carried out to determine if there was an increase in carriage of Neisseria meningitidis, particularly in areas where there have been increases in immigrant populations from neighbouring countries. The second objective was to determine if there was an increase in the serogroup C:2a:P1.5,2 a phenotype associated with recent outbreaks or changes in antibiotic sensitivities. As carriage of Neisseria lactamica is associated with development of natural immunity to IMD, the third objective was to determine the carriage rate of N. lactamica in this population. Among 3167 individuals tested, meningococci were isolated from 334 (10.5%). Compared with our previous studies, the proportion of meningococcal carriers was significantly increased among children in secondary education (11.3%) (chi2=9.67, P<0.005) and military recruits (37.4%) (chi2=21.11, P<0.000). Only 5/334 (1.5%) isolates expressed the phenotype associated with the increase in IMD in Greece. N. lactamica was isolated from 146/3167 (4.6%) participants. It was isolated from 71/987 (7.2%) children attending primary or nursery schools; however, the highest proportion of carriers (11.3%) was found in the boarding school for young Albanian men. In the 21-59-year age range, the majority of N. lactamica isolates (22/25, 88%) were from women, probably due to closer or more prolonged contact with children in the primary school age range. Smoking was significantly associated with isolation of meningococci from men but not from women. Penicillin-insensitive strains (25/334, 7.5%) were identified in all four regions examined; the majority (14/25, 56%) were obtained from military personnel. We conclude that there was a higher proportion of carriers in the population of northern Greece; however, the increase in carriage rate was not associated with the influx of immigrants from neighbouring

  7. Total Ozone Dynamics over Athens, Greece and Beijing China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanis, C. G.; Christodoulakis, J.; Varotsos, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    We present the analysis of total ozone daily values, over Athens, Greece, and Beijing, China, for the period 2002-2012. The data for the analysis were derived from SCIAMACHY (ENVISAT) observations. The aim of the analysis is the identification of time scaling in the total ozone time series, by using a data analysis technique that would not be affected by the non-stationarity of the data. The appropriate technique satisfying this criterion is the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), which stems from random walk theory and permits the detection of intrinsic self-similarity in non-stationary time series.

  8. Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri sp. n. (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae) from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Král, David; Hillert, Oliver; Drožová, Dana; Šípek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. from Thrace, Greece, is described. The new species is morphologically most similar and probably closely related to Lethrus (Lethrus) apterus (Laxmann, 1770) and Lethrus (Lethrus) ares Král, Rejsek & Schneider, 2001. Diagnostic characters (shape of mandibles, ventral mandible processes, pronotum and parameres) are illustrated. Character matrix for separation of males of the Lethrus species closely related to Lethrus schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. and geographic ranges for all species studied are mapped. PMID:24146588

  9. Tot Graeci Tot Sententiae: Astronomical Perspective Multiplicity in Ancient Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, O.

    2011-06-01

    Ancient Greece was made of a multiplicity of thinking heads, in an atmosphere of (relative) freedom of opinions, in every field of knowledge. then we should not wonder if many astronomical and cosmological theories, survived until our 17th century, had already been formulated by different philosophers and in different regions, cities and periods of Greek history. Geocentric and heliocentric theories, as well as an atomistic theory of an infinite universe (with infinite worlds), could survive without crashing with one another. In the same time, religious opinions regarding the planets and Sun as a series of gods were present, however not on a scientific ground.

  10. Magnetic Prospecting On Ancient Towns In Turkey and Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekalova, T.; Smekalov, S.

    Magnetic prospecting on ancient towns in Turkey and Greece. Tatyana Smekalova, Sergey Smekalov. Saint-Petersburg In 2001 archaeophysical group of Saint-Petersburg State University participated in archaeological investigation of ancient town Pisidian Antioch in Turkey (near mod- ern town Yalvach) and ancient town Kalydon in Greece (not far from modern town Mesolongy). Both sites have a big size (more than kilometer in perimeter) and com- plicated hilly relief (especially Kalydon). The mine idea of the magnetic survey on the sites was to try the method of magnetic prospecting in conditions of the sites, to estimate the possibilities and limitations of the method and to reveal ancient structures on several different parts of the site. Magnetic survey on the Pisidian Antioch carried out in four areas of the site showed that much could be recovered by this non-invasive technique. Most significantly, sur- vey of the area previously thought to contain a palestra shows instead the plan of a Christian basilica. Other areas included houses, streets, important elements in the water system and industrial establishments. The work was supported by Columbia University, USA On the Ancient Kalydon, the whole area of the site was investigated by method of Sfree searchT that is walking with magnetometers and measuring without a grid. Five ´ different areas have been chosen for detail investigation with regular grid. The most interesting result is in one of the the areas, where it seems to be an SindustrialT quar- & cedil;ter of the site. There are several workshops, revealed on this place. The work was supported by Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Denmark. During the work on both sites we used GPS equipment to put the survey areas on the maps. Simultaneously with magnetic survey archaeological teams made a usual topographical survey of the sites (team of Calgary University in Turkey, Canada and team of Greece topographers, working together with Danish archaeologist in Greece). Thanks to that

  11. Novel phlebovirus detected in Haemaphysalis parva ticks in a Greek island.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Saratsis, Anastasios; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade the number of novel tick-borne phleboviruses has increased rapidly, especially after the identification of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Heartland viruses which can cause severe disease in humans. A novel virus, Antigone virus was recently detected in ticks collected from the mainland of Greece. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in an island in Greece. During November 2015, 31 ticks were collected from sheep in Lesvos island. Phleboviral RNA was detected in 12/22 adult Haemaphysalis parva ticks. The virus was provisionally named Lesvos virus after the name of the island. Phylogenetic analysis of a 1108-bp L RNA fragment revealed that the Lesvos virus sequences cluster together with Dabieshan and Yongjia tick viruses detected in China in H. longicornis and H. hystricis ticks, respectively. Further studies are needed to investigate its exact distribution, epidemiology and virulence. It is expected that the research studies on tick biology and pathogen-tick-host interactions will allow a better understanding of the virus life cycle and the elucidation of the possible role of the novel tick-borne phleboviruses in public health.

  12. Marquesas Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    As with most small island groups around the world, the Marquesas Island group 9.0S, 140.0W) is usually concealed by heavy cloud cover throughout the day making them very difficult to photograph in their entirety. Located in the south central Pacific Ocean, just north of the Tuamotu Archipelago, the islands partially seen in this view are: Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka and Ua Pu.

  13. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska #1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-11-04

    This image is a perspective view acquired by NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar AIRSAR in 2001, is of Umnak Island, one of Alaska Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

  14. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska #2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-11-04

    This image is a perspective view acquired by NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar AIRSAR in 2001, is of Umnak Island, one of Alaska Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

  15. Signature of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide from space: A case study for Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, C.; Christodoulakis, J.; Tzanis, C.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the variability of the tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns over mainland Greece, by using observations carried out by satellite-borne instrumentation and Multi Sensor Reanalysis. The results obtained show that the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) dispersed farther away than the tropospheric NO2 column (TNO), due to the longer TOR's lifetime in respect to that of TNO. This results in the influence of the air quality of the nearby southern islands from the air pollution of the greater Athens basin. Furthermore, the TOR and TNO columns over Athens, for the period October 2004 to December 2011 were found to be negatively correlated with a correlation coefficient -0.85, in contrast to recent findings which suggested strong positive correlation. Interestingly, this strong negative correlation into a slight positive correlation when the TNO concentration becomes higher than around 4 × 1015 molec cm-2, thus being best fitted by a quadratic relationship. In addition, the temporal evolution of TOR during 1979-1993 showed a decline of 0.2% per decade and just after 1993 it seems to obey a positive trend of 0.1% per decade, thus recovering during the period 1993-2011 almost 63% of the lost TOR amounts through the years 1979-1993. Finally, the association between TOR, the total ozone column (TOZ), the tropopause height and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is presented by analysing observations during 1979-2011. An unexpected positive correlation between OLR and TOR was found, which may probably be attributed to the fact that enhanced abundance in tropospheric water vapor reduces the summertime TOR maximum by destructing ozone in the lower and middle troposphere through uptake mechanisms, thus emitting higher amounts of longwave radiation upwards.

  16. Crustal stress, seismicity, acoustic emission (AE), and tectonics: the Kefallinì;a (Greece) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G. P.; Poscolieri, M.; Paparo, G.; Ventrice, G.; de Simone, S.; Rafanelli, C.

    2009-04-01

    New inferences - confirming previous results (see references)- are presented dealing with a few years Acoustic Emission (AE) records collected at Kefallinìa (Ionian Islands, Greece). A physical distinction between HF (high frequency) vs. LF (low frequency) AE is required. Step-wise changes of the AE underground conductivity are evidenced, and can be suitably handled. "Smooth" results concern (i) the annual variation, (ii) some long-lasting stress "solitons" crossing through the area, and (iii) tidal effects. In particular, every AE station can be operated like a monitoring station both for Earth's tides and for the free oscillations of the Earth. In addition, Kefallinìa exhibits a much peculiar groundwater circulation, in which conduit flow is dominant, that originates a specific (and unique) AE effect. By means of AE time-series analysis, "extreme" or "catastrophic" events can be also monitored and possibly related to relevant tectonic occurrences (either earthquakes, or maybe other occasional phenomena). They can be investigated, and have a regional - rather than local - character. Therefore, every interpretation based on a single station record - being biased by some arbitrariness - can only result indicative. A standardized procedure and software is proposed for routine AE data handling and analysis. References.: Lagios et al., 2004. In Proc. SCI 2004 (The 8th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatic), Orlando, Florida, July 1004, 6 pp. Poscolieri et al., 2006. In. G. Cello and B. D. Malamud, (eds), 2006. Geol. Soc. London, Special Publ., 261, 63-78. Poscolieri et al., 2006a. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 6, 961-971.

  17. Influence of geology on arsenic concentrations in ground and surface water in central Lesvos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Aloupi, Maria; Angelidis, Michael O; Gavriil, Apostolos M; Koulousaris, Michael; Varnavas, Soterios P

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of As was studied in groundwater used for human consumption and irrigation, in stream water and sediments and in water from thermal springs in the drainage basin of Kalloni Gulf, island of Lesvos, Greece, in order to investigate the potential influence of the geothermal field of Polichnitos-Lisvori on the ground and surface water systems of the area. Total dissolved As varied in the range <0.7-88.3 microg L(-1) in groundwater, 41.1-90.7 microg L(-1) in thermal spring water and 0.4-13.2 microg L(-1) in stream water, whereas As concentrations in stream sediments varied between 2.0-21.9 mg kg(-1). Four out of 31 groundwater samples exceeded the EC standard of 10 microg L(-1). The survey revealed an enrichment in both surface and groundwater hydrological systems in the northern part of the area (average concentrations of As in groundwater, stream water and stream sediment: 8.0 microg L(-1), 8.8 microg L(-1) and 15.0 mg kg(-1) respectively), in association with the volcanic bedrocks, while lower As concentrations were found in the eastern part (average concentrations in groundwater, stream water and stream sediment: 2.9 microg L(-1), 1.7 microg L(-1) and 5.9 mg kg(-1) respectively), which is dominated by ophiolitic ultramafic formations. The variation of As levels between the different parts of the study area suggests that local geology exerts a determinant influence on As geochemical behaviour. On the other hand, the geothermal activity manifested in the area of Polichnitos-Lisvori does not affect the presence of As in groundwater and streams.

  18. Heulandite and mordenite-rich tuffs from Greece: a potential source for pozzolanic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsopoulos, K. P.; Dunham, A. C.

    1996-09-01

    The microcystalline mass of the Pliocene tuffs of Santorini and Polyegos islands, in the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece, is very rich in zeolite minerals, more specifically heulandite type 3, i.e. clinoptilolite, and mordenite. In Santorini, clinoptilolite is the dominant authigenic phase and it was formed in a semi-closed system, by the activity of interstitial water within the volcaniclastic sequence. In Polyegos, mordenite dominates and it was formed by hydrothermal alteration of pyroclastics. Experiments described in this work show that the presence of the zeolite minerals has created materials with excellent pozzolanic properties. Tuffs from the two areas were calcined at 760 °C and for 12 h and then mixed with lime in a constant ratio of 1 part lime to 3 parts calcined tuff. As a result, the free lime content of the lime-calcined tuff mixtures was reduced from 25% to 2.05% (Santorini) and 1.31% (Polyegos). Compressive strength tests were carried out on concrete cubes made with 100% Portland cement as the cementitious agent, to be used as reference cubes, and concrete cubes in which the Portland cement has been replaced in 4% and 7% proportions by the calcined tuff as pozzolans. The free lime estimation and the compressive strength tests were all carried out in accordance with the British Standards Institution (BS 4550 and BS 1881) guidelines. Early stage measurements of the compressive strength showed that pozzolan-bearing concrete cubes reached values as high as 140% of the reference cubes. The pozzolan-bearing concrete cubes maintained this superior strength throughout the entire one year period of the experiments. After 360 days, they finally maintained 107% of the compressive strength of the reference cubes.

  19. Historical bathymetric charts and the evolution of Santorini submarine volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. B.; Nomikou, P.; Moore, J. D. P.; Parks, M. M.; Alexandri, M.

    2015-03-01

    Historical bathymetric charts are a potential resource for better understanding the dynamics of the seafloor and the role of active processes, such as submarine volcanism. The British Admiralty, for example, have been involved in lead line measurements of seafloor depth since the early 1790s. Here, we report on an analysis of historical charts in the region of Santorini volcano, Greece. Repeat lead line surveys in 1848, late 1866, and 1925-1928 as well as multibeam swath bathymetry surveys in 2001 and 2006 have been used to document changes in seafloor depth. These data reveal that the flanks of the Kameni Islands, a dacitic dome complex in the caldera center, have shallowed by up to ˜175 m and deepened by up to ˜80 m since 1848. The largest shallowing occurred between the late 1866 and 1925-1928 surveys and the largest deepening occurred during the 1925-1928 and 2001 and 2006 surveys. The shallowing is attributed to the emplacement of lavas during effusive eruptions in both 1866-1870 and 1925-1928 at rates of up to 0.18 and 0.05 km3 a-1, respectively. The deepening is attributed to a load-induced viscoelastic stress relaxation following the 1866-1870 and 1925-1928 lava eruptions. The elastic thickness and viscosity that best fits the observed deepening are 1.0 km and ˜1016 Pa s, respectively. This parameter pair, which is consistent with the predictions of a shallow magma chamber thermal model, explains both the amplitude and wavelength of the historical bathymetric data and the present day rate of subsidence inferred from InSAR analysis.

  20. Marine research in Greece and the additional Greek marine research centres: Progress and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonidis, S.

    1995-03-01

    Greece, as is known, has a coastline of 17 000 km, and over 2000 small and large islands. As expected, the quest of humankind for new sources of matter and energy has been focussed on the sea, with fishery being its primary interest. A number of philosophers and scientists have been involved in the study of this vast ecosystem since ancient times (Aristotle). The political, social and geographical upheavals witnessed in the Greek area, have, however resulted in bringing all these activities to a halt. The first contemporary research work commenced at the end of the 18th century/beginning of the 19th — with marine flora and fauna as its starting point. The first investigations had, of course, been limited to random collections of marine material done in the frame of international exploratory expeditions. Studies became more systematic by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with priority being given to the animal kingdom (fish, molluscs, etc.). Investigation of the marine phytobenthos (macrophyceae, phytoplankton) was to follow. The past 40 years research has been more extensive, not limited only to biogeographical evaluations, but also having expanded to physiological and ecological levels. The relevant institutes of Greek universities have all the while watched and contributed to this effort. Today, this kind of research is being supported by the N.M.R.C., the Center of Marine Research, University of Crete, and two research boats which sail the Greek seas. In the ever-changing world, the study of marine flora and fauna has certainly made great progress; however, there are still two big problems to be faced. The first deals with increasing pollution of the seas, the second, with the difficulties in finding and affording adequate financial resources that would enable a more detailed and complete execution of this research work.

  1. Disturbed island ecology.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, R J

    1995-10-01

    The natural occurrence of significant disturbances to the operation of insular ecosystems has tended to be downplayed in the development of island ecological theory. Despite the importance of events such as Hurricane Hugo, which in 1989 affected islands in the Caribbean, islands that are disturbed tend to be viewed as deviants from the `true path' described by equilibrium models. However, particularly with organisms of long generation times, it is questionable whether such models are applicable. This may be as important for wildlife managers to take account of as for theorists. Disturbance regime should be incorporated into island ecological models alongside other ecological factors structuring colonization patterns and turnover.

  2. Bardsey Island, Wales

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-01

    Lying 3 km off the Llyn peninsula of Wales, the Bardsey Island is known as the Island of 20,000 saints. While today's permanent population numbers only four, the island was once an important religious site, with a 6th century monastery. It is the legendary burial site of King Arthur. Another legend holds that anyone who died on the island would not go to hell. The image was acquired April 4, 2006, covers an area of 6 by 10 km, and is located at 52.7 degrees north, 4.8 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21182

  3. Constructing the health care system in Greece: responsibility and powerlessness.

    PubMed

    Lentza, Vassiliki; Montgomery, Anthony J; Georganta, Katerina; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2014-02-01

    Based on health care professionals' (HPs) and patients' interviews about work demands and quality of care in hospitals, the study explores the way that patients and HPs constructed their identities to describe and construct the health care system in Greece. This is a qualitative study using a focus group (FG) design. Seven FGs discussions were conducted: three FGs discussions were conducted for the assessment of job stressors (1 for doctors, 1 for nurses and 1 for residents) and four FGs discussions for the assessment of quality of care (1 for doctors, 1 for nurses, 1 for residents and 1 for patients). The sample consisted of health care professionals working in a teaching hospital in the region of Thessaloniki, Greece, and patients who had at least one experience of any kind in the same hospital. Transcripts of the FGs discussions underwent discourse analysis. The results showed that both HPs and patients construct the health care system based on bipolar constructions of responsibility and powerlessness. In particular, participants use these constructions to allocate the responsibility to different levels of the health care system hierarchy or to the system per se constructing, at the same time, themselves as the 'viewers' of this system. The study allowed a deeper understanding of issues related to quality of care in hospitals providing context-specific information. Identity in health care organizations was inextricably linked to power and responsibility. The need to deconstruct this responsibility/powerlessness ideology is discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context  The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient‐centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. Objective  To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. Strategy  SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. Results  The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients’ perceptions rather than expectations. Discussion and conclusions  This paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations–perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. PMID:22296402

  5. Guidelines for the recognition of cemetery remains in Greece.

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, Constantine; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Reyes, Federico; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Manolis, Sotiris

    2011-06-01

    Forensic pathologists frequently consult anthropologists for the identification of skeletonized human remains. These remains may be the result of criminal activity or remains that were unearthed because of erosion, or during construction projects. In some cases, human remains that had been previously buried in a cemetery may be the subject of a forensic investigation. Early recognition of cemetery remains prevents unnecessary efforts and conserves precious resources. One of the key characteristics of cemetery remains is the presence of embalmed tissue. However, there are countries where embalming is not a common practice, and other clues must be sought for identifying previously buried remains. Current funerary customs in Greece and, in particular, the tradition of exhumations result in a large number of misplaced human remains. The present study presents examples of cemetery remains from Greece and offers guidelines for recognizing changes on skeletal remains that may be indicative of a cemetery origin. Location of discovery, condition of the remains, and the types of associated artifacts are all factors that aid forensic anthropologists in identifying cemetery remains.

  6. Stakeholder appraisal of policy options for tackling obesity in Greece.

    PubMed

    Codrington, C; Sarri, K; Kafatos, A

    2007-05-01

    The study aimed to map stakeholders' evaluations of policy options to counter the rising prevalence of obesity in Greece, where the case for action on obesity is only now being made. The multi-criteria mapping method was used to capture and compare stakeholders' appraisals and to provide a policy analysis. Efficacy and practical feasibility were the issues most frequently used by stakeholders to evaluate options and were weighted more highly than cost criteria, which were often defined in terms of governmental costs. There was a broad favourable appraisal for downstream measures offering individuals the skills, information and opportunities to make healthier choices, rather than options to modify the obesogenic environment. Consistently, high rankings were given to educational options, for improving communal facilities and for some information-related options (food labelling, advertising), with particular support for policies targeting the young. There was also significant advocacy by a few for the creation of a new government body charged with intersectoral policy co-ordination. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project analyses thus point to support for a portfolio of measures to combat the problem of obesity in Greece as well as an appreciation that political will is an essential prerequisite.

  7. Organ transplantation in Greece: the need for mediation.

    PubMed

    Zanni, A

    2014-11-01

    Organ transplants are not regarded as an exclusively medical process, because they involve financial, religious, philosophic, and bioethical parameters. It becomes clear that if they are to achieve their purpose, which we believe extends well beyond the medical dimension, the creation of a comprehensive framework of communication between the involved parties is of paramount importance. The aim of this paper is to present an outline and a number of considerations regarding the communicational, bioethical, and legal issues that arise from a rather dramatic state of affairs in Greece today: In 2012 the rate of organ transplants stood at only 7 per 1 million of the population. The outdated legal framework and the lack of trust on the part of patients and the public have led to a highly inefficient system that is lagging behind in many respects. The proposition made in this paper is that there is a need for a new system of communication between doctors, patients, relatives of patients, and hospitals: bioethical mediation. This is a system that has played a vital role and has produced astounding results in other countries. There is also every indication that the introduction of such a system is crucial for Greece, especially as the symptoms of the acute financial crisis are become fully visible and tangible. Mediation aims to identify solutions that are oriented toward the interests and wishes of patients, are acknowledged and accepted by all parties involved, and are in tune with the values and the principles of medical practice.

  8. Shame and Anxiety Feelings of a Roma Population in Greece.

    PubMed

    Gouva, M; Mentis, M; Kotrotsiou, S; Paralikas, Th; Kotrotsiou, E

    2015-12-01

    Shame is a crucial issue for Roma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of shame and anxiety feelings in a Roma population living in Greece and assess the differentiation of these feelings between Roma men and women. A quota sample of 194 Roma adult men and women living in Southern Greece was retrieved. The Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS) and the Spielberg's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. Women scored statistically significantly higher than men on ESS, whereas men scored higher on OAS scale (52.27 ± 16.91 vs 45.42 ± 9.98 and 35.93 ± 16.94 vs 30.87 ± 13.72 respectively). Women scored higher than men in both STAI subscales, however significant differences were observed only in State Anxiety scale (48.83 ± 9.26 vs 43.20 ± 9.81). OAS total score was inversely related to state anxiety, whereas ESS total score was positive related to trait anxiety, all correlations being significant at p < 0.05 level. Roma men and women exhibit high levels of shame and anxiety. Cultural, social and minority issues contribute to feelings of inferiority and anxiety experience.

  9. Energy Payback Time of a Rooftop Photovoltaic System in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachoutis, E.; Koubogiannis, D.

    2016-11-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is an important tool to quantitatively assess energy consumption and environmental impact of any product. Current research related to energy consumption in buildings moves towards Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB). In such a building, an important issue concerns the energy production by renewable sources, including on-site production. The most feasible way to achieve renewable energy utilization in a building level in Greece is by using rooftop Photovoltaic (PV) systems, also promoted in the last decade by the national legislation concerning energy conservation measures. Apart from cost-related issues and payback times, Embodied Energy (EE) and Embodied CO2 (ECO2) emissions have also to be considered against the anticipated corresponding savings. Using a particular PV system as a case study, its basic constitutive materials are determined and their masses are calculated. Embodied energy values are estimated by using embodied energy coefficients available in the international literature. Considering a specific geographic location in Greece for the building on which the PV is installed, the annual energy generated by the system is estimated based on its performance data and curves. The Energy and CO2 Payback Times (EPBT and CO2PBT) are estimated and assessed, as well as future work is suggested.

  10. A clinical and educational telemedicine link between Bulgaria and Greece.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, George; Ilonidis, George; Anogeianaki, Antonia; Milliaras, Spyros; Klisarova, Anelia; Temelkov, Temel; Vlachakis-Milliaras, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    During its transition to a free economy, Bulgaria benefited from foreign aid provided by Greece. One of the projects was the clinical and educational telemedicine link between the Medical University of Varna in Bulgaria and the Faculty of Medicine of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece. This began in 1997. In terms of the educational activities, the Bulgarian side of the network supports (a) electronic design and publishing activities, (b) web hosting and mail server activities and (c) satellite communications. In addition it supports an electronic classroom equipped with personal workstations, multimedia projectors and videoconference facilities. Communications are via the ISDN network. In terms of its telemedicine activities, the network provides remote medical assistance to "language handicapped" travellers and to migrant workers in both countries. The main clinical experience is remote consultations in immunology. This admittedly limited experience demonstrates that telemedicine can be used to provide assistance to remote colleagues. In cases where the patient cannot communicate with the attending physician, the use of telemedicine can greatly improve the quality of care available to travellers and migrant workers.

  11. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2014-04-01

    The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient-centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients' perceptions rather than expectations. THIS paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations-perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Groundwater quality of porous aquifers in Greece: a synoptic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalaki, P.; Voudouris, K.

    2008-04-01

    Greece is dependent on groundwater resources for its water supply. The main aquifers are within carbonate rocks (karstic aquifers) and coarse grained Neogene and Quaternary deposits (porous aquifers). The use of groundwater resources has become particularly intensive in coastal areas during the last decades with the intense urbanization, tourist development and irrigated land expansion. Sources of groundwater pollution are the seawater intrusion due to over-exploitation of coastal aquifers, the fertilizers from agricultural activities and the disposal of untreated wastewater in torrents or in old pumping wells. In the last decades the total abstractions from coastal aquifers exceed the natural recharge; so the aquifer systems are not used safely. Over-exploitation causes a negative water balance, triggering seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion phenomena are recorded in coastal aquifer systems. Nitrate pollution is the second major source of groundwater degradation in many areas in Greece. The high levels of nitrate are probably the result of over-fertilization and the lack of sewage systems in some urban areas.

  13. Medical training in Greece: A crisis in progress.

    PubMed

    Makris, Gregory C; Trigkidis, Kyriakos K; Apiranthiti, Katerina; Malietzis, George; Alexiou, Vangelis G; Falagas, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the opinions of medical students and graduates regarding the quality of medical education in Greece. Two online questionnaires concerning the undergraduate medical education and specialty training respectively were distributed. Regarding the quality of undergraduate medical education, 52.1% of participants replied favorably while clinical training was found satisfactory by 45.1. Dissatisfaction rates with research opportunities and support from tutors reached 88.4 and 83.3%, respectively. The majority (75.3%) supported the introduction of examinations for commencing specialty training. 52.3% of physicians were satisfied with the quality of specialty training. The most common complaint was the absence of a formal educational program. 67.2% of participants were dissatisfied with working conditions during their specialty training, with 70.1% working >60 h per week. Physicians practicing medical specialties were more satisfied with the quality of specialty training than those practicing surgical specialties (odds ratio: 1.43; 95% confidence limits: 1.09-1.87) and were less likely to work for >60 h per week (odds ratio: 0.66; 95% confidence limits: 0.48-0.9). Opinions expressed in this survey highlight the need for reforming medical education in Greece.

  14. Are operative delivery procedures in Greece socially conditioned?

    PubMed

    Skalkidis, Y; Petridou, E; Papathoma, E; Revinthi, K; Tong, D; Trichopoulos, D

    1996-04-01

    Caesarean section rates have increased in Greece by almost 50% during the last 13 years. We conducted a study in Athens, Greece, to assess the importance of a series of medical and socioeconomic factors in the use of Caesarean section or operative vaginal procedures, rather than a non-operative process, for the delivery of singleton, liveborn babies of primiparous mothers. We used a case control approach to compare 444 babies delivered through a Caesarean section and 130 delivered through operative vaginal delivery with 1235 normally delivered babies in a public and a private hospital. Data were analysed through multiple logistic regression. Caesarean section was more commonly performed in older, shorter or overweight mothers and for high and low birth-weight babies, as well as in response to several obstetric complications and following in-vitro fertilization. A similar pattern was noted with respect to operative vaginal delivery, except that this procedure was not unusually frequent among overweight women and was not encountered in this study among children born after in-vitro fertilization. Caesarean section was performed twice as often in the public teaching hospital as in a private maternity hospital, and operative vaginal delivery was several times more common in the former than in the latter, after controlling for biomedical risk factors. The unequal distribution of operative delivery procedures between the public and the private hospital raises questions about the justification of their performance in a substantial fraction of deliveries, and indicates that social factors condition their use.

  15. Tectonic field and deformation in Chalkidiki area, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatza, Stavroula-Drosoula; Marinou, Aggeliki; Anastasiou, Demitris; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Paradissis, Demitris

    2015-04-01

    Greece is situated on the convergence limits, between the Eurasian and the African lithospheric plate, and as a consequence, is considered as one of the most seismogenic areas on the world. Chalkidiki is part of the region of Central Macedonia in Northen Greece. The region of Chalkidiki is traversed by three faults and it is an area of great tectonic interest. On a daily basis, earthquakes occur in the seabed between the three peninsulas of Chalkidiki. Concerning the geomorphology of the area, it is covered by three types of rocks, the Serbomacedonian mass, the Perirodopiki zone and Peonia sub zone. The contact with the Serbomacedonian mass has a direct effect on tectonics of the region, since the area has a continuous tectonic activity. The neotectonic activity is characterized by normal faults, as well as horns and tectonic trenches. Velocity field and strain parameters for a deformation model are evaluated using GPS data from a geodetic network of thirty one points established in the broader area of Chalkidiki. Apart from these points, all the available observations of permanent stations in the area, were used to determine the final tectonic velocity field. All data were processed using Bernese GNSS Software v.5. The implementation of the reference system ITRF2005, was performed, using nine IGS stations, for the local network. Time series analysis for each point was used, in order to calculate the displacements and tectonic velocities. Finally, in order to investigate the strain patterns of the area, strain tensors were computed and discussed.

  16. Airborne laser altimetry in the Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocard, M.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.; Veis, G.

    2002-09-01

    Airborne laser techniques have evolved during the last years and have been tested in several pilot projects which cover a wide range of geodetic applications. In this project, airborne laser altimetry was used to determine the sea level in coastal areas of Greece, and to connect satellite radar altimetry results over the deep sea with tide gauge stations at the coast. Because airborne laser altimetry is capable to provide sea surface heights at the decimeter to centimeter level, it allows for an independent validation of spaceborne radar altimetry results. Airborne laser data acquired along densely spaced tracks of a total of 30-h flight time were used to determine instantaneous sea surface heights of the Ionian Sea, Greece. Differential GPS and inertial platform data were utilized as ancillary information for the purpose of ensuring a precise trajectography of the aircraft. Emphasis was put on the assessment of errors and the reduction of the raw data to mean sea level by crossover analysis and the incorporation of tidal predictions. The airborne laser data yield a high-resolution sea surface over the coastal areas of the Ionian Sea. The most prominent feature is a steep gradient of the sea surface amounting to 15 m over a distance of 150 km. This slope can be followed all along the bathymetric relief between the Hellenic Arc and Hellenic Trench.

  17. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  18. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... plan (WSP), and environmental assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National...

  19. Cassini Scientist for a Day: an international contest in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Moussas, Xenophon; Xystouris, Georgios; Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Katsavrias, Christos; Bampasidis, Georgios; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Patsou, Ioanna

    2013-04-01

    The Cassini Outreach Team of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is being organizing a brilliant school contest in Astronomy focusing in the Saturnian system. This essay contest provides school students all around the worlds with the opportunity to get involved in astronomy and astrophysics and planetary sciences in particular. From 2010 the 'Cassini Scientist for a Day' contest has being one of the most successful as well as important outreach activities of ESA and NASA in Greece with hundreds of participants all over Greece. The number of participants is growing rapidly every year. This type of school competition in Greece is particularly important since Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Sciences, although very popular, are not included in the school curricula and thus students rarely have the opportunity to experience and participate actively in these subjects. For the years 2010 and 2011, the Space Physics Group of the Astronomy, Astrophysics and Mechanics section of the University of Athens in association with external colleagues has been selected as the co-ordinator of NASA for the competition in Greece. Under the guidance of Cassini Outreach team, the members of the Space Physics Group have informed, explained and spread the rules of the competition at primary, secondary and high schools all over Greece. In general, the students have the option to choose Cassini monitoring between three targets of the Saturnian system, which the participants show that will bring the best scientific result. Their arguments should be summarized in an essay of 500 words more or less. They also have the option to do team work through groups of maximum three students. The participation in the contest for 2010 was unexpectedly high and thoroughly satisfied. The winners awarded through a ceremony which was held in the largest amphitheater at the central building of the University of Athens, that was fully packed. The following year 2011 the participation increased up to 300% while

  20. Evidence of non-extensivity and complexity in the seismicity observed during 2011-2012 at the Santorini volcanic complex, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, F.; Tzanis, A.; Michas, G.; Papadakis, G.

    2012-04-01

    Since the middle of summer 2011, an increase in the seismicity rates of the volcanic complex system of Santorini Island, Greece, was observed. In the present work, the temporal distribution of seismicity, as well as the magnitude distribution of earthquakes, have been studied using the concept of Non-Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP; Tsallis, 2009) along with the evolution of Shanon entropy H (also called information entropy). The analysis is based on the earthquake catalogue of the Geodynamic Institute of the National Observatory of Athens for the period July 2011-January 2012 (http://www.gein.noa.gr/). Non-Extensive Statistical Physics, which is a generalization of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical physics, seems a suitable framework for studying complex systems. The observed distributions of seismicity rates at Santorini can be described (fitted) with NESP models to exceptionally well. This implies the inherent complexity of the Santorini volcanic seismicity, the applicability of NESP concepts to volcanic earthquake activity and the usefulness of NESP in investigating phenomena exhibiting multifractality and long-range coupling effects. Acknowledgments. This work was supported in part by the THALES Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled "Integrated understanding of Seismicity, using innovative Methodologies of Fracture mechanics along with Earthquake and non extensive statistical physics - Application to the geodynamic system of the Hellenic Arc. SEISMO FEAR HELLARC". GM and GP wish to acknowledge the partial support of the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (ΙΚΥ).

  1. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  2. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-30

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on 18 September 2006.

  3. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  4. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  5. Entire Island of Crete

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-364 (22 June 1973) --- Lying in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the entire Island of Crete (35.0N, 25.0E) can be seen in great detail in this cloud free view. The volcanic origins of this island can also be observed in the many sharp and angular ridgelines and rugged coastal features. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  7. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  8. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  9. Islands in a Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay is actually a group of three islands: Ewell, Rhodes Point, and Tylerton. Dwindling enrollment jeopardizes the community's two schools that contain grades one through seven. The school board believes they can give the sixth and seventh graders at Ewell and Tylerton a better education on the mainland. (MLF)

  10. Peri-equatorial paleolatitudes for Jurassic radiolarian cherts of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Radiolarian-rich sediments dominated pelagic deposition over large portions of the Tethys Ocean during middle to late Jurassic time as shown by extensive bedded chert sequences found in both continental margin and ophiolite units of the Mediterranean region. Which paleoceanographic mechanisms and paleotectonic setting favored radiolarian deposition during the Jurassic, and the nature of a Tethys-wide change from biosiliceous to biocalcareous (mainly nannofossil) deposition at the beginning of Cretaceous time, have remained open questions. Previous paleomagnetic analyses of Jurassic red radiolarian cherts in the Italian Apennines indicate that radiolarian deposition occurred at low peri-equatorial latitudes, similar to modern day deposition of radiolarian-rich sediments within equatorial zones of high biologic productivity. To test this result for other sectors of the Mediterranean region, we undertook paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic (mostly middle to upper Jurassic) red radiolarian cherts within the Aegean region on the Peloponnesus and in continental Greece. Sampled units are from the Sub-Pelagonian Zone on the Argolis Peninsula, the Pindos-Olonos Zone on the Koroni Peninsula, near Karpenissi in central Greece, and the Ionian Zone in the Varathi area of northwestern Greece. Thermal demagnetization of samples from all sections removed low-temperature viscous and moderate-temperature overprint magnetizations that fail the available fold tests. At Argolis and Koroni, however, the cherts carry a third high-temperature magnetization that generally exhibits a polarity stratigraphy and passes the available fold tests. We interpret the high-temperature component to be the primary magnetization acquired during chert deposition and early diagenesis. At Kandhia and Koliaky (Argolis), the primary declinations and previous results indicate clockwise vertical-axis rotations of ??? 40?? relative to "stable" Europe. Due to ambiguities in hemispheric origin (N or S) and thus

  11. Prevalence of mental disorders in a Greek island.

    PubMed

    Stylianidis, S; Pantelidou, S; Chondros, P; Roelandt, J L; Barbato, A

    2014-01-01

    In Greece, the need for epidemiological data became evident at the beginning of the mental health reform during 1983 with the emergence of the necessity to develop community-based mental health services. This survey was conducted in 2005 by the Association for Regional Development and Mental Health (EPAPSY), supported by the local authorities. It followed the methodology of the survey "Mental Health in the General Population: Images and Realities" (MHGP), a large scale multisite epidemiological research conducted by the World Health Organization Collaborative Centre of Lille in France and other countries. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, sociodemographic and comorbidity patterns of mental disorders in the general adult population of Evia Island, Greece. This was a cross-sectional survey investigating point, period and lifetime prevalence of mental disorders. The target population was the non-institutionalized adult population of island of Evia (population 230,000 people). The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a sociodemographic data questionnaire were administered by trained interviewers to 900 residents of Evia. The quota sampling method was used to obtain a sample representative of the target population. Lifetime prevalence of any disorder, as identified by the MINI, was 29%. The prevalence of depression was high, with 17.5% of women and 14.6% of men currently meeting the criteria for diagnosis. Affective and anxiety disorders were found to be more frequent in women than men, except for dysthymia, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder which were slightly more frequent in men. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Evia was much higher than the prevalence found by other epidemiological studies in Greece and among the highest in Southern Europe. The high prevalence of mental disorders found in Evia means that almost one third of the population will suffer from a clinically significant disorder in their lifetime

  12. Management Staffing and Training Development Policies in Selected Multinational Enterprises: The Case of Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xirotiri-Kufidu, Stella

    1993-01-01

    Evidence from foreign-owned companies in Greece suggests that cultural patterns and environmental influences cannot be ignored. However, such companies could influence human resource development in a developing country by following their home policies in training and staffing. (SK)

  13. Archaeological evidence for a destructive earthquake in Patras, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiros, S. C.; Pytharouli, S. I.

    2014-07-01

    Oriented collapse of columns, large-scale destruction debris and temporary abandonment of the area deduced from an archaeological excavation provide evidence for a major (intensity IX) earthquake in Patras, Greece. This, and possibly a cluster of other earthquakes, can be derived from archaeological data. These earthquakes are not included in the historical seismicity catalogues, but can be used to put constraints to the seismic risk of this city. Patras was affected by a cluster of poorly documented earthquakes between 1714 and 1806. The city seems to be exposed to risks of progressive reactivation of a major strike-slip fault. A magnitude 6.4 earthquake in 2008 has been related to it. This fault has also been associated with a total of four events in the last 20 years, a situation reminiscent of the seismic hazard at the western edge of the North Anatolian Fault.

  14. First results on video meteors from Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, G.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the first systematic video meteor observations from a, forthcoming permanent, station in Crete, Greece, operating as the first official node within the International Meteor Organization's Video Network. It consists of a Watec 902 H2 Ultimate camera equipped with a Panasonic WV-LA1208 (focal length 12mm, f/0.8) lens running MetRec. The system operated for 42 nights during 2011 (August 19-December 30, 2011) recording 1905 meteors. It is significantly more performant than a previous system used by the author during the Perseids 2010 (DMK camera 21AF04.AS by The Imaging Source, CCTV lens of focal length 2.8 mm, UFO Capture v2.22), which operated for 17 nights (August 4-22, 2010) recording 32 meteors. Differences - according to the author's experience - between the two softwares (MetRec, UFO Capture) are discussed along with a small guide to video meteor hardware.

  15. First report of Troglostrongylus brevior in a kitten in Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Aeriniotaki, Tania; Traversa, Donato

    2014-10-01

    The first case of a natural infestation with Troglostrongylus brevior in a kitten in Greece is described here. A ∼40-day-old stray cat was referred to a private veterinary clinic with signs of respiratory distress. First stage larvae of a metastrongyloid nematode were observed in the wet mount faecal preparation. Despite an anthelmintic treatment, the respiratory signs worsened and the kitten died 2 days later. The larvae in the faeces were identified morphologically and genetically as T. brevior. The present evidence suggests a vertical or direct infestation of the kitten and a severe pathogenic role of T. brevior in young cats. This report expands the recent published cases of troglostrongylosis in domestic cats to a wider geographical distribution and opens new questions on the apparent spreading of T. brevior from wild to domestic hosts.

  16. Karyomorphometric analysis of Fritillaria montana group in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Samaropoulou, Sofia; Bareka, Pepy; Kamari, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae) is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes Fritillaria epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and Fritillaria montana are statistically evaluated for the first time. Further indices about interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetry are given. A new population of Fritillaria epirotica is also investigated, while for Fritillaria montana, a diploid individual was found in a known as triploid population. Paired t-tests and PCoA analysis have been applied to compare the two species. PMID:28123688

  17. A Fiducial Reference Stie for Satellite Altimetry in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Bojkov, Bojan; Femenias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso; Picot, Nicolas; Desjonqueres, Jean-Damien; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system.This work sets the ground for the establishment of a Fiducial Reference Site for ESA satellite altimetry in Gavdos and West Crete, Greece. It will consistently and reliably determine (a) absolute altimeter biases and their drifts; (b) relative bias among diverse missions; but also (c) continuously and independently connect different missions, on a common and reliable reference and also to SI-traceable measurements. Results from this fiducial reference site will be based on historic Cal/Val site measurement records, and will be the yardstick for building up capacity for monitoring climate change. This will be achieved by defining and assessing any satellite altimeter measurements to known, controlled and absolute reference signals with different techniques, processes and instrumentation.

  18. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Psychiatric Nurses in Greece.

    PubMed

    Mangoulia, Polyxeni; Koukia, Evmorfia; Alevizopoulos, George; Fildissis, George; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress/compassion fatigue (STS/CF), burnout (BO) and compassion satisfaction (CS) in psychiatric nurses, and their risk factors. The Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL R-IV) and a demographic and work related characteristics questionnaire were distributed to 174 psychiatric nurses in 12 public hospitals in Greece. The majority of participants were at the high risk category for STS/CF (44.8%) and BO (49.4%), while only 8.1% of nurses expressed high potential for CS. Awareness of the factors associated with STS may help nurses to prevent or offset the development of this condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reengineering NHS Hospitals in Greece: Redistribution Leads to Rational Mergers

    PubMed Central

    Nikolentzos, Athanasios; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Polyzos, Nikolaos; Thireos, Eleftherios; Tountas, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate existing public hospital infrastructure of the National Health System (NHS), in terms of clinics and laboratories, as well as the healthcare workforce in each of these units and in every health region in Greece, in an attempt to optimize the allocation of these resources. An extensive analysis of raw data according to supply and performance indicators was performed to serve as a solid and objective scientific baseline for the proposed reengineering of the Greek public hospitals. Suggestions for “reshuffling” clinics and diagnostic laboratories, and their personnel, were made by using a best versus worst outcome indicator approach at a regional and national level. This study is expected to contribute to the academic debate about the gap between theory and evidence based decision-making in health policy. PMID:26156925

  20. Investigating the orientation of eleven mosques in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazis, George; Lambrou, Evangelia

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates the orientation of eleven mosques situated in several regions of Greece. The aim of this work is to verify whether and how accurately the monuments have been constructed according to the Muslim tradition. As geodetic and astrogeodetic methods are used, the geometric documentation of each monument is carried out and its astronomical orientation is determined. The qibla for each monument is calculated by using geodetic equations. The mosques' main axis azimuths are determined by a precision of some arc minutes. Also, their orientation, relative to the Canopus star (Alpha Carinae) - which the tradition has closely related to Kaabah in Mecca - is examined. All the mosques seem to follow the religious rule.