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Sample records for samos island greece

  1. The geochemistry of Boron-rich groundwater of the Karlovassi Basin, Samos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatakis, Michael; Tziritis, Evangelos; Evelpidou, Niki

    2009-06-01

    The upper Miocene of Karlovassi Basin, Samos Island, Greece, contain continental evaporites such as colemanite, ulexite, celestite, gypsum and thenardite. These evaporites are related with volcanic tuffs, diagenetically altered in a saline-alkaline lake environment. The aim of the present paper is to: a) define the impact of the already known and possible buried borates and other evaporites to the geochemistry of the hydrogeological system of Karlovassi Basin, and; b) to assess the correlation between surface and underground evaporite deposits considering the spatial changes in the concentrations of the examined physicochemical parameters. Fieldwork, laboratory measurements and literature data revealed elevated boron values (2136-33012 ⧎/L) in the central part of Karlovassi Basin. In the same area, high amounts of strontium, sodium, lithium and sulfates also occur. It is proposed that these ions originate from the leaching of evaporites and authigenic minerals such as the Sr-rich clinoptilolite and the boron-bearing potassium feldspar. Boron values are abnormally high for freshwater aquifers, and are indicative of the presence of buried evaporites in the basin with unknown significance.

  2. Geochemistry and diagenesis of Miocene lacustrine siliceous sedimentary and pyroclastic rocks, Mytilinii basin, Samos Island, Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hein, J.R.; Magganas, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    A Late Miocene non-marine stratigraphic sequence composed of limestone, opal-CT-bearing limestone, porcelanite, marlstone, diatomaceous marlstone, dolomite, and tuffite crops out on eastern Samos Island. This lacustrine sequence is subdivided into the Hora Beds and the underlying Pythagorion Formation. The Hora Beds is overlain by the clastic Mytilinii series which contains Turolian (Late Miocene) mammalian fossils. The lacustrine sequence contains volcanic glass and the silica polymorphs opal-A, opal-CT, and quartz. Volcanic glass predominantly occurs in tuffaceous rocks from the lower and upper parts of the lacustrine sequence. Opal-A (diatom frustules) is confined to layers in the upper part of the Hora Beds. Beds rich in opal-CT underlie those containing opal-A. The occurrence of opal-CT is extensive, encompassing the lower Hora Beds and the sedimentary rocks and tuffs of the Pythagorion Formation. A transition zone between the opal-A and opal-CT zones is identified by X-ray diffraction patterns that are intermediate between those of opal-CT and opal-A, perhaps due to a mixture of the two polymorphs. Diagenesis was not advanced enough for opal-CT to transform to quartz or for volcanic glass to transform to opal-C. Based on geochemical and mineralogical data, we suggest that the rate of diagenetic transformation of opal-A to opal-CT was mainly controlled by the chemistry of pore fluids. Pore fluids were characterized by high salinity, moderately high alkalinity, and high magnesium ion activity. These pore fluid characteristics are indicated by the presence of evaporitic salts (halite, sylvite, niter), high boron content in biogenic silica, and by dolomite in both the opal-A and opal-CT-bearing beds. The absence of authigenic K-feldspar, borosilicates, and zeolites also support these pore fluid characteristics. Additional factors that influenced the rate of silica diagenesis were host rock lithology and the relatively high heat flow in the Aegean region from

  3. Depositional ages of clastic metasediments from Samos and Syros, Greece: results of a detrital zircon study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, Kersten; Bröcker, Michael; Berndt, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Siliciclastic metasediments from the islands of Samos and Syros, Cycladic blueschist unit, Greece, were studied to determine maximum sedimentation ages. Four samples from the Ampelos unit on Samos yielded age distribution spectra that range from ~320 Ma to ~3.2 Ga with a dominance of Cambrian-Neoproterozoic zircons (500-1,100 Ma). The youngest well-constrained age groups cluster at 500-550 Ma. Our results allow to link the Samos metasediments with occurrences showing similar age distribution patterns elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean region (Greece, Turkey, Libya, Israel and Jordan) that record the influx of `Pan-African' detritus. The lack of post-500-Ma zircons in the Samos samples is in marked contrast to the data from Syros that indicates Triassic to Cretaceous depositional ages. The samples from Syros were collected from the matrix of a meta-ophiolitic mélange that is exposed near the top of the metamorphic succession as well as from outcrops representing the basal part of the underlying marble-schist sequence. The zircon populations from Syros were mainly supplied by Mesozoic sources dominated by Triassic protolith ages. Subordinate is the importance of pre-Triassic zircons, but this may reflect bias induced by the research strategy. Sediment accumulation continued until Late Cretaceous time, but the overall contribution of Jurassic to Cretaceous detritus is more limited. Zircon populations are dominated by grains with small degree of rounding suggesting relatively short sediment transportation. Available observations are in accordance with a model suggesting deposition close to the magmatic source rocks.

  4. Unraveling protolith ages of meta-gabbros from Samos and the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline Belt, Greece: Results of a U-Pb zircon and Sr-Nd whole rock study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bröcker, Michael; Löwen, Kersten; Rodionov, Nikolay

    2014-06-01

    The focus of this study is on meta-ophiolitic rocks from Samos and the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline Belt, Greece. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology, Sr-Nd isotope and bulk-rock geochemistry have been applied to meta-gabbros that occur as blocks and lenses in blueschist-facies mélanges on Samos and Evia, and in the greenschist-facies Upper Unit on Tinos. The geodynamic significance of these meta-ophiolite fragments within the overall pattern of the Eastern Mediterranean region is unclear. Regional correlations within the Cyclades archipelago and with the Jurassic meta-ophiolites of the Balkan region or the Cretaceous occurrences in Turkey are uncertain. Although field, petrological and geochemical similarities among some mélange occurrences suggest a common genetic relationship, such interpretations remain speculative if not supported by robust geochronological data. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of three meta-gabbro blocks from Samos yielded Cretaceous ages with weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 78.3 ± 1.3 Ma, 76.8 ± 1.4 Ma and 77.8 ± 1.4 Ma and almost identical intercept ages, interpreted to indicate the time of magmatic crystallization. These results further substantiate models suggesting a correlative relationship with mélanges on the islands of Syros and Tinos, central Aegean Sea, where similar rocks yielded almost identical U-Pb zircon ages. Published and new Sr-Nd isotope data of meta-gabbros from Andros, Samos, Tinos (Lower Unit) and from mainland Greece (Pindos, Othris) reveal distinctive differences among ion probe-dated samples with Jurassic and Cretaceous protolith ages. Three groups can clearly be distinguished in a 87Sr/86Sr vs. 143Nd/144Nd diagram. However, these geochemical parameters do not allow assigning tentative age estimates for yet undated meta-gabbros from southern Evia and the Upper Unit of Tinos. The situation is further complicated by the observation that the Jurassic and Cretaceous meta-gabbros do not show other discriminating geochemical

  5. The Tunnels of Samos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This 'Project Mathematics' series video from CalTech presents the tunnel of Samos, a famous underground aquaduct tunnel located near the capital of Pithagorion (named after the famed Greek mathematician, Pythagoras, who lived there), on one of the Greek islands. This tunnel was constructed around 600 BC by King Samos and was built under a nearby mountain. Through film footage and computer animation, the mathematical principles and concepts of why and how this aquaduct tunnel was built are explained.

  6. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  7. Phase relations in the greenschist-blueschist-amphibolite-eclogite facies in the system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), with application to metamorphic rocks from Samos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Thomas; Okrusch, Martin; Schmädicke, Esther; Chen, Guoli

    Calculated phase equilibria among the minerals sodic amphibole, calcic amphibole, garnet, chloritoid, talc, chlorite, paragonite, margarite, omphacite, plagioclase, carpholite, zoisite/clinozoisite, lawsonite, pyrophyllite, kyanite, sillimanite, quartz and H2O are presented for the model system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), which is relevant for many greenschist, blueschist, amphibolite and eclogite facies rocks. Using the activity-composition relationships for multicomponent amphiboles constrained by Will and Powell (1992), equilibria containing coexisting calcic and sodic amphiboles could be determined. The blueschist-greenschist transition reaction in the NCFMASH system, for example, is defined by the univariant reaction sodic amphibole + zoisite=calcic amphibole + chlorite + paragonite + plagioclase (+ quartz + H2O) occurring between approximately 420 and 450°C at 9.5 to 10kbar. The calculated petrogenetic grid is a valuable tool for reconstructing the PT-evolution of metabasic rocks. This is shown for rocks from the island of Samos, Greece. On the basis of mineral and whole rock analyses, PT-pseudosections were calculated and, together with the observed mineral assemblages and reaction textures, are used to reconstruct PT-paths. For rocks from northern Samos, pseudomorphs after lawsonite preserved in garnet, the assemblage sodic amphibole-garnet-paragonite-chlorite-zoisite-quartz and the retrograde appearance of albitic plagioclase and the formation of calcic amphibole around sodic amphibole constrain a clockwise PT-path that reaches its thermal maximum at some 520°C and 19kbar. The derived PT-trajectory indicates cooling during exhumation of the rocks and is similar to paths for rocks from the western part of the Attic-Cycladic crystalline complex. Rocks from eastern Samos indicate lower pressures and are probably related to high-pressure rocks from the Menderes Massif in western Turkey.

  8. Greece.

    PubMed

    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  9. Greece.

    PubMed

    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  10. Variscan tectonics in Dodecanese, Kalymnos island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziioannou, Eleftheria; Grasemann, Bernhard; Schneider, David; Hubmann, Bernhard; Soukis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Kalymnos island is located in the Dodecanese, southeastern Aegean Sea, and geologically appears to be part of the external Hellenides. Pre-Alpidic basement rocks on the Dodecanese islands have been suggested to record compelling similarities with the basement rocks in Eastern Crete with respect to their lithologies and pre-Alpidic metamorphic evolution. The lithotectonic units experienced greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions during the Variscan orogeny. Whereas the rocks in Eastern Crete reveal Alpine high-pressure overprint, the Variscan basement units in the Dodecanese record no or low-grade Alpine metamorphism. A field study of basement rocks below Mesozoic limestones and dolomites in the NW part of Kalymnos near Emporios uncovered a complex history of metamorphism, folding and faulting. Three different tectonic units can be discriminated from top to bottom: a) a quartz-mica schist, b) a white-grey, fossiliferous coarse grained marble and c) a fine-grained fossiliferous blue-grey marble. In the marbles macrofossils such as brachiopods, ammonoid cephalopods (Goniatids?) and crinoids suggest a Middle-Upper Devonian deposition age (Givetian- Frasnian). Structural mapping the area resolved a dominant W-E shortening event, resulting in an overall inverted metamorphic gradient. The lowermost blue-grey marble unit is folded into large-scale upright folds, which are truncated by top-to-east overthrusting of the white-grey marble unit. Whereas deformation mechanisms in the blue-grey marble unit are dominated by dissolution-precipitation creep, the white-grey marble suffered intense crystal plastic deformation with localized high-strain mylonitic shear zones. The uppermost quartz-mica schist unit is separated from the lower units by a cataclastic phyllonitic shear zone. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating on white micas from the quartz-mica schists yielded cooling ages between 240 and 334 Ma indicative of Variscan cooling. Our data suggest that this part of the

  11. Groundwater quality assessment of the Limnos Island Volcanic Aquifers, Greece.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, George; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Giannoulopoulos, Panagiotis

    2013-05-01

    Limnos Island in Greece, which has been the subject of extensive hydrogeological research, contains confined volcanic aquifers that overlie impermeable flysch. Groundwater salinization is usually the effect of seawater intrusion, and results from a combination of factors such as low annual areal precipitation and exploitation of aquifers for civil, commercial, and agricultural purposes. Areas with intense agricultural activities have also increasingly observed these effects. A geochemical evaluation on the basis of multiple ion (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), NO3-) concentrations and physicochemical parameters distribution revealed that ion exchange is the dominant hydrogeochemical process. However, the enrichment of groundwater in potassium and magnesium results from rock and mineral weathering and dissolution.

  12. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Summer Aerosols over Greece     View Larger Image ... winds usually help to disperse pollutants over the skies of Greece and the Aegean Sea during winter months, and in late summer relatively ...

  13. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, ... date:  Sep 30, 3001 Images:  Greece location:  Europe thumbnail:  ...

  14. Fluid geochemistry of the Chios geothermal area, Chios Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotsika, E.; Leontiadis, I.; Poutoukis, D.; Cioni, R.; Raco, B.

    2006-06-01

    Two separate aquifers have been identified in Chios Island. The first one, Nenita, is found in the southern part of the island and the other one, Aghiasmata and Aghia Markela, in the northern part, which is characterized by high salinity waters. Chemical and isotopic contents were used for the investigation of the origin and evolution of thermal water in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, for the estimation of the mixing process between meteoric and seawater involved in the deep geothermal systems and for the evaluation of the deep aquifer temperature. The hot borehole and spring waters discharging in Chios Island, Greece, change in composition from earth-alkaline-bicarbonate-type to alkaline-type chloride. The chemical and physical characteristics of bicarbonate well waters show interaction between meteoric waters and Neocene rocks. In general, for these waters as their mineralization increases the Mg 2+ contents increase. The deuterium and oxygen contents of these water samples indicate a meteoric origin. The Na + and Cl - ions dominate the chemistry of the thermal waters of Aghia Eleni spring. This thermal water appears to be a mixture of seawater and ground water. The marine contribution for this sample is 80-89%. The chemical and isotopic data of the thermal Cl-rich water springs of the northern part of the island, Aghiasmata and Aghia Markela, suggest that they are fed by thermal water mixed with local groundwater and seawater respectively. The parent geothermal liquid is either a mixture mad up of local groundwater (˜40%) and arc-type magmatic water (˜60%), that did not exchange oxygen isotopes, or a mixture constituted by local groundwater (˜70%) and seawater (˜30%), which experienced a significant oxygen isotope exchange. Assessments from chemical and isotopic geothermometer applied on the thermal waters springs suggest the probable existence of a deep geothermal reservoir of middle-high enthalpy (220 °C) in the northern (Aghiasmata and Aghia Markela

  15. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades Islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2013-11-01

    The region of the Sporades Islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, due to the marine volcano "Psathoura", and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defence plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect from each of the separate stakeholders so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked about their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  16. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  17. Biogenicity of an Early Quaternary iron formation, Milos Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Chi Fru, E; Ivarsson, M; Kilias, S P; Frings, P J; Hemmingsson, C; Broman, C; Bengtson, S; Chatzitheodoridis, E

    2015-05-01

    A ~2.0-million-year-old shallow-submarine sedimentary deposit on Milos Island, Greece, harbours an unmetamorphosed fossiliferous iron formation (IF) comparable to Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs). This Milos IF holds the potential to provide clues to the origin of Precambrian BIFs, relative to biotic and abiotic processes. Here, we combine field stratigraphic observations, stable isotopes of C, S and Si, rock petrography and microfossil evidence from a ~5-m-thick outcrop to track potential biogeochemical processes that may have contributed to the formation of the BIF-type rocks and the abrupt transition to an overlying conglomerate-hosted IF (CIF). Bulk δ(13) C isotopic compositions lower than -25‰ provide evidence for biological contribution by the Calvin and reductive acetyl-CoA carbon fixation cycles to the origin of both the BIF-type and CIF strata. Low S levels of ~0.04 wt.% combined with δ(34) S estimates of up to ~18‰ point to a non-sulphidic depository. Positive δ(30) Si records of up to +0.53‰ in the finely laminated BIF-type rocks indicate chemical deposition on the seafloor during weak periods of arc magmatism. Negative δ(30) Si data are consistent with geological observations suggesting a sudden change to intense arc volcanism potentially terminated the deposition of the BIF-type layer. The typical Precambrian rhythmic rocks of alternating Fe- and Si-rich bands are associated with abundant and spatially distinct microbial fossil assemblages. Together with previously proposed anoxygenic photoferrotrophic iron cycling and low sedimentary N and C potentially connected to diagenetic denitrification, the Milos IF is a biogenic submarine volcano-sedimentary IF showing depositional conditions analogous to Archaean Algoma-type BIFs.

  18. Biogenicity of an Early Quaternary iron formation, Milos Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Chi Fru, E; Ivarsson, M; Kilias, S P; Frings, P J; Hemmingsson, C; Broman, C; Bengtson, S; Chatzitheodoridis, E

    2015-05-01

    A ~2.0-million-year-old shallow-submarine sedimentary deposit on Milos Island, Greece, harbours an unmetamorphosed fossiliferous iron formation (IF) comparable to Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs). This Milos IF holds the potential to provide clues to the origin of Precambrian BIFs, relative to biotic and abiotic processes. Here, we combine field stratigraphic observations, stable isotopes of C, S and Si, rock petrography and microfossil evidence from a ~5-m-thick outcrop to track potential biogeochemical processes that may have contributed to the formation of the BIF-type rocks and the abrupt transition to an overlying conglomerate-hosted IF (CIF). Bulk δ(13) C isotopic compositions lower than -25‰ provide evidence for biological contribution by the Calvin and reductive acetyl-CoA carbon fixation cycles to the origin of both the BIF-type and CIF strata. Low S levels of ~0.04 wt.% combined with δ(34) S estimates of up to ~18‰ point to a non-sulphidic depository. Positive δ(30) Si records of up to +0.53‰ in the finely laminated BIF-type rocks indicate chemical deposition on the seafloor during weak periods of arc magmatism. Negative δ(30) Si data are consistent with geological observations suggesting a sudden change to intense arc volcanism potentially terminated the deposition of the BIF-type layer. The typical Precambrian rhythmic rocks of alternating Fe- and Si-rich bands are associated with abundant and spatially distinct microbial fossil assemblages. Together with previously proposed anoxygenic photoferrotrophic iron cycling and low sedimentary N and C potentially connected to diagenetic denitrification, the Milos IF is a biogenic submarine volcano-sedimentary IF showing depositional conditions analogous to Archaean Algoma-type BIFs. PMID:25645266

  19. Tsunami Questionnaire Survey in Heraklion Test Site, Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, Antonia; Tsimi, Christina; Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Sachpazi, Maria; Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    The Heraklion city (Crete Island, Greece) has been chosen as one of the test-sites for the EU-FP7ASTARTE tsunami project. Heraklion is the biggest city in Crete Isl. and the fourth biggest in Greece with a population of about 120,000 which, however, during the summer vacation period nearly doubles. In the past, Heraklion was hit by strong, destructive tsunamis such as the ones of AD 8 August 1303, 10 October 1650 and 9 July 1956. The first and the third were caused by large tectonic earthquakes associated with the eastern segment of the Hellenic Arc the first and with the back-arc extensional regime the third. The one of 1650 was associated with the eruption of the Columbo submarine volcano in the Santorini volcanic complex. One of the activities scheduled for WP9 of ASTARTE project, which aims at building tsunami resilient societies in Europe, is dedicated to organize questionnaire surveys among the populations of the several ASTARTE test-sites. Although the questionnaire is comprised by more than 50 questions, the central concept is to better understand what people know about tsunamis and if they are ready to cope with risks associated with future tsunami occurrences. In Heraklion the survey was conducted during tourism peak season of July 2014, thus questionnaires were collected by both local people and tourists, thus representing a variety of countries. We attempted to keep balance between males and females, while the age ranged from 15 to 65. Totally, 113 persons were interviewed of which 62 were females and 51 males. From the point of view of origin, 58 out of 113 were local people and residents, 22 were Greek tourists and 29 foreign tourists. Generally, the questionnaire consists of four parts. In the first, people were asked about their relation with the area of Heraklion. In the second part, the questions considered the knowledge that people have on tsunamis as a natural, hazardous phenomenon. More precisely, people were asked questions such as what a

  20. Nestedness in centipede (Chilopoda) assemblages on continental islands (Aegean, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail; Martínez-Morales, Miguel Angel

    2010-05-01

    In natural ecosystems, species assemblages among isolated ecological communities such as continental islands often show a nested pattern in which biotas of sites with low species richness are non-random subsets of biotas of richer sites. The distribution of centipede (Chilopoda) species in the central and south Aegean archipelago was tested for nestedness. To achieve this aim we used distribution data for 53 species collected on 24 continental Aegean islands (Kyklades and Dodekanisa). Based on the first-order jackknife estimator, most of islands were comprehensively surveyed. In order to quantify nestedness, we used the nestedness temperature calculator (NTC) as well as the nestedness metric based on overlap and decreasing Fill (NODF). NTC indicated that data exhibited a high degree of nestedness in the central and south Aegean island complexes. As far as the Kyklades and Dodekanisa are concerned, NTC showed less nested centipede structures than the 24 islands. Likewise, NODF revealed a significant degree of nestedness in central and south Aegean islands. It also showed that biotas matrices without singletons were more nested than the complete ones (Aegean, Kyklades and Dodekanisa). The two commonest centipede taxa (lithobiomorphs and geophilomorphs) contributed differently to centipede assemblages. In the Kyklades and Dodekanisa, geophilomorphs did not show a reliable nested arrangement unlike lithobiomorphs. In relation to the entire data set, nestedness was positively associated with the degree of isolation. In the Kyklades altitudinal range best explained nestedness patterns, while in Dodekanisa habitat heterogeneity proved to be more important for the centipede communities. Island area does not seem to be a significant explanatory variable. Some of our results from the Kyklades were critically compared with those for terrestrial isopod and land snail nested assemblages from the same geographical area. The complex geological and palaeogeographical history of

  1. Assessment of bioclimatic conditions in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, A.; Nastos, P. T.; Matzarakis, A.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the human bioclimatic conditions of Crete Island, using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), which is one of the most popular human thermal indices derived from the human energy balance. Bioclimatic studies provide a framework linking biophysical climate sensitivity to social/economic factors that mitigate or amplify the consequences of environmental changes. PET is defined as the physiological equivalent temperature at any given place (outdoors or indoors). It is equivalent to the air temperature at which, in a typical indoor setting, the heat balance of the human body (work metabolism 80 W of light activity, added to basic metabolism; heat resistance of clothing 0.9 clo) is maintained with core and skin temperatures equal to those of the under assessment conditions. It has been realized that, to estimate the thermal effect of the environment to the human body, the total of effects of all of the thermal components, not only as individual parameters, should be taken into account. The climatic data (air temperature, relative humidity, cloudiness, wind speed) for Crete Island, were obtained by archives of fifteen meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). These data of period 1955-2010 were used for the calculation of PET in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. Crete Island, as it is located in the Southeastern Mediterranean basin, is of great touristic interest due to its splendid landscapes, archaeological sites and coastal areas combined with its excellent climatic conditions. However, Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks which are associated with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). The exploitation of the results of this analysis, such as bioclimatic diagrams, temporal and spatial distributions of PET as well as trends and

  2. Tsunami hazard assessment for the island of Rhodes, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The island of Rhodes is part of the Dodecanese archipelago, and is one of the many islands that are found in the Aegean Sea. The tectonics of the Rhodes area is rather complex, involving both strike-slip and dip-slip (mainly thrust) processes. Tsunami catalogues (e.g. Papadopulos et al, 2007) show the relative high frequency of occurrence of tsunamis in this area, some also destructive, in particular between the coasts of Rhodes and Turkey. In this part of the island is located the town of Rhodes, the capital and also the largest and most populated city. Rhodes is historically famous for the Colossus of Rhodes, collapsed following an earthquake, and nowadays is a popular tourist destination. This work is focused on the hazard assessment evaluation with research performed in the frame of the European project NearToWarn. The hazard is assessed by using the worst-credible case scenario, a method introduced and used to study local tsunami hazard in coastal towns like Catania, Italy, and Alexandria, Egypt (Tinti et al., 2012). The tsunami sources chosen for building scenarios are three: two located in the sea area in front of the Turkish coasts where the events are more frequent represent local sources and were selected in the frame of the European project NearToWarn, while one provides the case of a distant source. The first source is taken from the paper Ebeling et al. (2012) and modified by UNIBO and models the earthquake and small tsunami occurred on 25th April 1957.The second source is a landslide and is derived from the TRANSFER Project "Database of Tsunamigenic Non-Seismic Sources" and coincides with the so-called "Northern Rhodes Slide", possibly responsible for the 24th March 2002 tsunami. The last source is the fault that is located close to the island of Crete believed to be responsible for the tsunami event of 1303 that was reported to have caused damage in the city of Rhodes. The simulations are carried out using the finite difference code UBO-TSUFD that

  3. Rotation history of Chios Island, Greece since the Middle Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondopoulou, D.; Sen, S.; Aidona, E.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Koufos, G.

    2011-05-01

    Superimposed on a regional pattern of oroclinal bending in the Aegean and west Anatolian regions, the coastal region of western Anatolia, shows a complex and chaotic pattern of coexisting clockwise and counterclockwise rotations. Here, we report new palaeomagnetic data from the eastern Aegean island of Chios, to test whether this fits the regional palaeomagnetic pattern associated with the Aegean orocline, or should be included in the narrow zone of chaotic palaeomagnetic directions. Therefore, a combined palaeomagnetic study of Miocene sediments and volcanic rocks has been carried out. Thermal and AF demagnetization of a 130-m thick Middle Miocene succession from the Michalos claypit allowed a stable component of both polarities to be isolated while rock magnetic experiments showed that the main magnetic carrier is magnetite. When compared with the Eurasian reference, the mean declination of 348 ± 5.1° implies 15° of counterclockwise rotation since Middle Miocene times. The obtained shallow inclination of 38 ± 6.7° was corrected to 61.8 ± 3.9°, by applying the elongation/inclination correction method for inclination shallowing. This result is similar to the expected inclination of 58° for the latitude of Chios. The palaeomagnetic analysis (demagnetization treatment and corresponding rock magnetic measurements) of the volcanic rocks identify a stable, predominantly normal, ChRM with poorly constrained mean declination of about 290 ± 19.8° based on five successfully resolved components. The significantly different palaeomagnetic results obtained from an island as small as Chios (and a very short distance), and the relatively large rotation amounts do not fit the regional palaeomagnetic direction of Lesbos and basins in northwestern Turkey which show little or no significant rotation. We thus prefer to include Chios in the coastal zone of chaotic rotations, which may represent a previously inferred tectonic transfer zone that accommodates lateral

  4. Tamarix minoa (Tamaricaceae), a new species from the island of Crete (Greece) based on morphological and plastid molecular sequence data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarix minoa is described from material collected on the S Aegean island of Crete (Kriti), Greece. A morphological comparison with the species considered to be closest, T. africana and T. hampeana, is provided. An original illustration showing the main morphological characters of the new species is...

  5. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-07-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results from Alikes lagoon in Zakynthos island, an area that is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental changes, we based on data derived from a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis was carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the studied sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP while 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times is on the order of 1.03 mm/yr. These sedimentation rates results are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  6. PROFILE: Tourism Contribution to Agro-Ecosystems Conservation: The Case of Lesbos Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Loumou; Giourga; Dimitrakopoulos; Koukoulas

    2000-10-01

    / The modernization of agriculture and the development of other economic sectors have prompted the abandonment of cultivated areas, which are marginally productive. Specifically, olive groves in Greece are transformed into pastures due to their location in inaccessible mountainous regions where breeding and raising of sheep and goats are the main economic activities. Overgrazing degrades the environment, exhausts natural resources, and prevents natural regeneration. The Greek islands have limited possibilities of development, except for their coastal areas where the growth of tourism is possible.The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of tourism activities on olive tree cultivation and the human population of the island of Lesbos. The presence or absence of tourism is related with the maintenance or abandonment of olive tree cultivation and population changes for each community. A spatial segregation of the island is evident, related to tourist development, olive tree cultivation, and population change. The results of the study demonstrate that in communities where tourism plays an important role olive tree cultivation is preserved and the population is stable. The preservation of the agro-ecosystem is assured while the olive groves remain productive. Simultaneously, the landscape, which provides specific attractions for tourism, is not altered.

  7. Radon variations during treatment in thermal spas of Lesvos Island (Greece).

    PubMed

    Vogiannis, Efstratios; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Louizi, Anna; Halvadakis, C P

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the variations of radon and daughter nuclei during treatment in the thermal spas of Lesvos Island (Greece). For this purpose, in the thermal spas of Lesvos we have measured the radon concentrations of thermal waters, as well as indoor radon, daughter and coarse particle (>500 nm) concentration. Various instruments and procedures were employed for measurements. Radon concentrations of thermal waters were found to lie in the range 10 and 304 Bq l(-1). Concentration peaks both for radon, radon daughter and coarse particle, were found to appear during filling of baths in the treatment process. The doses delivered to the bathers during treatment were in the range of 0.00670 mSv per year to 0.1279 mSv per year, while the doses delivered to personnel were below 20 mSv per year.

  8. Analysis of volcanic threat from Nisyros Island, Greece, with implications for aviation and population exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinvig, H. S.; Winson, A.; Gottsmann, J.

    2010-06-01

    Nisyros island in the South Aegean volcanic arc, Greece, is a Quaternary composite volcano with a 3.8 km wide caldera that in 1996 entered a volcano-seismic crisis, which heralded the islands' return to a state of unrest. The caldera has been the locus of at least thirteen phreatic eruptions in historical times, the most recent in 1888, and the system is still presently affected by considerable hydrothermal activity. Although the recent unrest waned off without eruption, there are still open questions relating to the current threat of volcanic activity from the island. Here, we perform a detailed and systematic assessment of the volcanic threat of Nisyros using a threat analysis protocol established as part of the USGS National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS). The evaluation involves a methodical assessment of fifteen hazard and exposure factors, and is based on a score system, whereby the higher the score, the higher the threat is. Uncertainty in assessment criteria are expressed by allowing for a conservative and an extreme score for each factor. We draw our analysis from published data as well as from results of our research on Nisyros over the past years. Our analysis yields a conservative threat score of 163 and an extreme score of 262. The most adverse exposure factors include significant scores relating to aviation and population exposure to volcanic hazards from Nisyros. When looked at in comparison to US volcanoes both scores place Nisyros in the "Very High Threat (VHT)" category, grouping it with volcanoes such as Redoubt, Mount Ranier and Crater Lake. We identify a short-fall in recommended surveillance efforts for VHT volcanoes given existing monitoring capabilities on the island. We discuss potential pitfalls of applying the NVEWS scheme to Nisyros and suggest potential adaptation of analysis scheme to match industrial and societal conditions in Europe. At the same time, our findings indicate that that volcanic threat posed by Nisyros volcano may

  9. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources.

    PubMed

    Tassi, F; Capecchiacci, F; Giannini, L; Vougioukalakis, G E; Vaselli, O

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C6H6/Σ(methylated aromatics) and Σ(linear)/Σ(branched) alkanes ratios <1 allow to distinguish an anthropogenic source related to emissions from outlet pipes of touristic and private boats and buses. PMID:23747819

  10. Preliminary survey of outdoor gamma dose rates in Lesvos Island (Greece).

    PubMed

    Petalas, Anastasios B; Vogiannis, Efstratios; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Halvadakis, Constantinos P

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the first attempt to record the radioactive background due to gamma radiation in Lesvos Island (Greece). The study reports the results from 335 outdoor total gamma effective dose rate measurements conducted using GPS navigation and a Geiger-Muller detector (Bicron, Micro Sievert) on the whole surface of the island together with a digital map produced by appropriate mapping GIS programme. The study also reports the measurements of outdoor gamma dose rates due to the 238U, 232Th and 40K radionuclides as estimated via in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements performed at 26 sites using a 3 x 3 inch NaI (thallium activated) portable detector. The results from the outdoor total gamma effective dose rates range between 0.0023 and 0.28 microSv h(-1). The highest outdoor total gamma effective dose rates (0.013-0.28 microSv h(-1)) were detected in the northeastern part of the island and the intermediate rates (0.066-0.13 microSv h(-1)) in the central region. The outdoor gamma dose rates due to 238U, 232Th and 40K radionuclides range between 1.7 +/- 0.8 and 154 +/- 7 nGy h(-1) with an average of 86 +/- 6 nGy h(-1). The average contribution of each of the examined radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K) to the total gamma dose rate was found to be equal to 12 +/- 4% for 238U, 58 +/- 6% for 232Th and 29 +/- 7% for 40K, respectively. PMID:15728423

  11. Maximum sedimentation ages and provenance of metasedimentary rocks from Tinos Island, Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsken, Tim; Bröcker, Michael; Berndt, Jasper; Gärtner, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of five metasedimentary rocks from the Lower Unit on Tinos Island (Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece) document supply of detritus from various Proterozoic, Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks as well as post-depositional metamorphic zircon formation. Essential features of the studied zircon populations are Late Cretaceous (70-80 Ma) maximum sedimentation ages for the lithostratigraphic succession above the lowermost dolomite marble, significant contributions from Triassic to Neoproterozoic source rocks, minor influx of detritus recording Paleoproterozoic and older provenance (1.9-2.1, 2.4-2.5 and 2.7-2.8 Ga) and a lack or paucity of zircons with Mesoproterozoic ages (1.1-1.8 Ga). In combination with biostratigraphic evidence, the new dataset indicates that Late Cretaceous or younger rocks occur on top of or very close to the basal Triassic metacarbonates, suggesting a gap in the stratigraphic record near the base of the metamorphic succession. The time frame for sediment deposition is bracketed by the youngest detrital zircon ages (70-80 Ma) and metamorphic overgrowths that are related to high-pressure/low-temperature overprinting in the Eocene. This time interval possibly indicates a significant difference to the sedimentation history of the southern Cyclades, where Late Cretaceous detrital zircons have not yet been detected.

  12. Chronostratigraphy of uplifted Quaternary hemipelagic deposits from the Dodecanese island of Rhodes (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillévéré, Frédéric; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Moissette, Pierre; López-Otálvaro, Gatsby Emperatriz; van Baak, Christiaan; Münch, Philippe; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela Carmen; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-07-01

    An integrated magneto-biostratigraphic study, based on calcareous nannofossils and foraminifers, together with the radiometric dating of a volcaniclastic layer found in several outcrops, was carried out on the hemipelagic deposits of the Lindos Bay Formation (LBF) at six localities on the island of Rhodes (Greece). Our highly refined chronostratigraphic framework indicates that the lower and upper lithostratigraphic boundaries of the LBF are diachronous. Associated with the 40Ar/39Ar age determination of 1.85 ± 0.08 Ma for the volcaniclastic layer, our data show that among the investigated outcrops, the Lindos Bay type locality section provides the longest record (1.1 Ma) of the LBF. Hemipelagic deposition occurred continuously from the late Gelasian (∼1.9 Ma) to the late Calabrian (∼0.8 Ma), i.e., from Chrons C2n (Olduvai) to C1r.1r (Matuyama) and from nannofossil Zones CNPL7 to CNPL10. This long record, together with the hemipelagic nature of the deposits, make the Lindos Bay type locality section a unique element in the eastern Mediterranean region, allowing future comparisons with other early Quaternary deep-sea sections available in the central and western Mediterranean regions.

  13. The use of Sentinel-2 imagery for seagrass mapping: Kalloni Gulf (Lesvos Island, Greece) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topouzelis, Konstantinos; Charalampis Spondylidis, Spyridon; Papakonstantinou, Apostolos; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2016-08-01

    Seagrass meadows play a significant role in ecosystems by stabilizing sediment and improving water clarity, which enhances seagrass growing conditions. It is high on the priority of EU legislation to map and protect them. The traditional use of medium spatial resolution satellite imagery e.g. Landsat-8 (30m) is very useful for mapping seagrass meadows on a regional scale. However, the availability of Sentinel-2 data, the recent ESA's satellite with its payload Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) is expected to improve the mapping accuracy. MSI designed to improve coastline studies due to its enhanced spatial and spectral capabilities e.g. optical bands with 10m spatial resolution. The present work examines the quality of Sentinel-2 images for seagrass mapping, the ability of each band in detection and discrimination of different habitats and estimates the accuracy of seagrass mapping. After pre-processing steps, e.g. radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction, image classified into four classes. Classification classes included sub-bottom composition e.g. seagrass, soft bottom, and hard bottom. Concrete vectors describing the areas covered by seagrass extracted from the high-resolution satellite image and used as in situ measurements. The developed methodology applied in the Gulf of Kalloni, (Lesvos Island - Greece). Results showed that Sentinel-2 images can be robustly used for seagrass mapping due to their spatial resolution, band availability and radiometric accuracy.

  14. Maximum sedimentation ages and provenance of metasedimentary rocks from Tinos Island, Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsken, Tim; Bröcker, Michael; Berndt, Jasper; Gärtner, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of five metasedimentary rocks from the Lower Unit on Tinos Island (Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece) document supply of detritus from various Proterozoic, Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks as well as post-depositional metamorphic zircon formation. Essential features of the studied zircon populations are Late Cretaceous (70-80 Ma) maximum sedimentation ages for the lithostratigraphic succession above the lowermost dolomite marble, significant contributions from Triassic to Neoproterozoic source rocks, minor influx of detritus recording Paleoproterozoic and older provenance (1.9-2.1, 2.4-2.5 and 2.7-2.8 Ga) and a lack or paucity of zircons with Mesoproterozoic ages (1.1-1.8 Ga). In combination with biostratigraphic evidence, the new dataset indicates that Late Cretaceous or younger rocks occur on top of or very close to the basal Triassic metacarbonates, suggesting a gap in the stratigraphic record near the base of the metamorphic succession. The time frame for sediment deposition is bracketed by the youngest detrital zircon ages (70-80 Ma) and metamorphic overgrowths that are related to high-pressure/low-temperature overprinting in the Eocene. This time interval possibly indicates a significant difference to the sedimentation history of the southern Cyclades, where Late Cretaceous detrital zircons have not yet been detected.

  15. Paleoenvironmental and sclerochronological reconstruction of Crassostrea gryphoides Miocene biostromes from Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskeridou, E.; Agiadi, K.

    2012-04-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) is a keystone species mainly along the African Atlantic coasts. It forms biostromes on muddy coasts and typically associated with river mouths in the intertidal zone in depths of 0.60 up to 1 m1. Similarly, many biostrome structures of the fossilized Crassostrea gryphoides are found within Cenozoic deposits of Greece2. Since Crassostrea gasar is the phyllogenetically corresponding species of Crassostrea gryphoides, it is investigated whether the fossil biostromes formed under environmental conditions similar to those favored by modern Crassostrea gasar and if growth rate and longevity are comparable. A biostrome from the Tortonian of Heraklion district, Crete island (southern Greece) was studied to investigate the paleoenvironmental conditions and the life history of these oysters. The shells are big, ranging up to 40 cm in length, thick and positioned mainly horizontally. The biostrome is approximately 2 m in thickness and a few meters in length. Individual oysters, associated fauna and lithologic samples were collected. Paleoenvironmental interpretation was based on the analysis of the oyster taphonomy, the associated fauna and the sclerochronology/stable isotopic geochemistry of the oyster shells. The biostrome is observed in sandy marl which laterally contains Veneridae, Melongena, Terebralia bidentata and oligospecific microfossils, mainly Ammonia beccarii and Miliolids. Borings by many ichnotaxa occur on the external and internal surface of the oyster shells during the pre and /or post-mortem. Using a micromill, successive samples were taken along the hinge/ligament region of an oyster for isotopic analyses. The δ18O values ranged from -2.9 to 0.1. The wide range of values supports the interpretation of changing environmental conditions. The δ13C values ranged from -2.6 to -0.1. A correlation between δ18O and δ13C was observed. The profiles exhibit cyclicity with respect to isotopic and Sr/Ca ratios

  16. Present and Future Human Thermal Bioclimatic Conditions and Impacts on Respiratory Admissions in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and quantify the association between present and future human thermal bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of respiratory problems in Heraklion city, Crete Island, Greece. The bioclimatic conditions were analyzed in terms of the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), which are two of the most popular human thermal indices based on the human energy balance. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the application of the bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Future changes in meteorological parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness (used as input variables in the estimation of PET and UTCI) were derived by the simulations of the regional atmospheric climate model KNMI under SRES A1B, for the near (2021-2050) and far (2071-2100) future with respect to the reference period 1961-1990. Generalized linear models (GLM) with Poisson distribution were applied to the time series of daily numbers of outpatients (total, males and females) with respiratory problems against present and future bioclimatic changes, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased respiratory admissions. For the near future, the projected increase of 1.6oC in PET may result in reducing the incidence of respiratory problemsby almost 3% against 7.5% in the far future, when PET is projected to increase by 4oC.

  17. CO2 fertilization and enhanced drought resistance in Greek firs from Cephalonia Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Koutavas, Athanasios

    2013-02-01

    Growth-climate relationships were investigated in Greek firs from Ainos Mountain on the island of Cephalonia in western Greece, using dendrochronology. The goal was to test whether tree growth is sensitive to moisture stress, whether such sensitivity has been stable through time, and whether changes in growth-moisture relationships support an influence of atmospheric CO2 on growth. Regressions of tree-ring indices (ad 1820-2007) with instrumental temperature, precipitation, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) indicate that growth is fundamentally limited by growing-season moisture in late spring/early summer, most critically during June. However, this simple picture obscures a pattern of sharply evolving growth-climate relationships during the 20th century. Correlations between growth and June temperature, precipitation, and PDSI were significantly greater in the early 20th century but later degraded and disappeared. By the late 20th-early 21st century, there remains no statistically significant relationship between moisture and growth implying markedly enhanced resistance to drought. Moreover, growth experienced a net increase over the last half-century culminating with a sharp spike in ad 1988-1990. This recent growth acceleration is evident in the raw ring-width data prior to standardization, ruling out artifacts from statistical detrending. The vanishing relationship with moisture and parallel enhancement of growth are all the more notable because they occurred against a climatic backdrop of increasing aridity. The results are most consistent with a significant CO2 fertilization effect operating through restricted stomatal conductance and improved water-use efficiency. If this interpretation is correct, atmospheric CO2 is now overcompensating for growth declines anticipated from drier climate, suggesting its effect is unusually strong and likely to be detectable in other up-to-date tree-ring chronologies from the Mediterranean.

  18. CO2 fertilization and enhanced drought resistance in Greek firs from Cephalonia Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Koutavas, Athanasios

    2013-02-01

    Growth-climate relationships were investigated in Greek firs from Ainos Mountain on the island of Cephalonia in western Greece, using dendrochronology. The goal was to test whether tree growth is sensitive to moisture stress, whether such sensitivity has been stable through time, and whether changes in growth-moisture relationships support an influence of atmospheric CO2 on growth. Regressions of tree-ring indices (ad 1820-2007) with instrumental temperature, precipitation, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) indicate that growth is fundamentally limited by growing-season moisture in late spring/early summer, most critically during June. However, this simple picture obscures a pattern of sharply evolving growth-climate relationships during the 20th century. Correlations between growth and June temperature, precipitation, and PDSI were significantly greater in the early 20th century but later degraded and disappeared. By the late 20th-early 21st century, there remains no statistically significant relationship between moisture and growth implying markedly enhanced resistance to drought. Moreover, growth experienced a net increase over the last half-century culminating with a sharp spike in ad 1988-1990. This recent growth acceleration is evident in the raw ring-width data prior to standardization, ruling out artifacts from statistical detrending. The vanishing relationship with moisture and parallel enhancement of growth are all the more notable because they occurred against a climatic backdrop of increasing aridity. The results are most consistent with a significant CO2 fertilization effect operating through restricted stomatal conductance and improved water-use efficiency. If this interpretation is correct, atmospheric CO2 is now overcompensating for growth declines anticipated from drier climate, suggesting its effect is unusually strong and likely to be detectable in other up-to-date tree-ring chronologies from the Mediterranean. PMID:23504790

  19. Study of the urban heat island in a coastal Mediterranean City: The case study of Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaros, Theodore M.; Melas, Dimitrios

    2012-11-01

    The urban heat island in the coastal city of Thessaloniki, Greece, is investigated using near-surface temperature data measured at 7 sites in the greater Thessaloniki area for the 1-year period from March 2008 to February 2009. The urban heat island in Thessaloniki is stronger in the nighttime than in the daytime and decreases with increasing wind speed, while there are indications that it is more pronounced during the warm half of the year. Observations of the maximum urban heat island intensity range from 2 °C to 4 °C and from 1 °C to 3 °C during the warm and the cold part of the year, respectively, showing a smaller variability during the summer moths than in the winter. Greatest values are more usually observed following sunset, whereas minimum values are detected during solar peak hours. A regression analysis is carried out to investigate the impact of moisture availability and wind speed on the development of the urban heat island in Thessaloniki. It is found that the nocturnal heat island results to increased nighttime water vapor pressure in the urban areas, whereas during the day the heat island intensity and urban/semi-rural water vapor pressure differences are found to be anti-correlated. Furthermore, the intensity of Thessaloniki's heat island appears to decrease significantly when wind speed exceeds 4 m/s. The impact of the urban heat island on human thermal comfort in Thessaloniki is also investigated, computing hourly values of the discomfort index and the approximated wet bulb globe temperature. The center of the city is found to exhibit the highest discomfort index and approximated wet bulb globe temperature values. In addition, the urban heat island is found to have a negative impact on thermal comfort on most of the observed occasions. In particular, a 1.5 °C increase in the urban heat island intensity appears to result to an average 1 °C increase in discomfort index and 1.4 °C increase in approximated wet bulb globe temperature of the

  20. Energy flux parametrization as an opportunity to get Urban Heat Island insights: The case of Athens, Greece (Thermopolis 2009 Campaign).

    PubMed

    Loupa, G; Rapsomanikis, S; Trepekli, A; Kourtidis, K

    2016-01-15

    Energy flux parameterization was effected for the city of Athens, Greece, by utilizing two approaches, the Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) and the Bulk Approach (BA). In situ acquired data are used to validate the algorithms of these schemes and derive coefficients applicable to the study area. Model results from these corrected algorithms are compared with literature results for coefficients applicable to other cities and their varying construction materials. Asphalt and concrete surfaces, canyons and anthropogenic heat releases were found to be the key characteristics of the city center that sustain the elevated surface and air temperatures, under hot, sunny and dry weather, during the Mediterranean summer. A relationship between storage heat flux plus anthropogenic energy flux and temperatures (surface and lower atmosphere) is presented, that results in understanding of the interplay between temperatures, anthropogenic energy releases and the city characteristics under the Urban Heat Island conditions. PMID:26520258

  1. Energy flux parametrization as an opportunity to get Urban Heat Island insights: The case of Athens, Greece (Thermopolis 2009 Campaign).

    PubMed

    Loupa, G; Rapsomanikis, S; Trepekli, A; Kourtidis, K

    2016-01-15

    Energy flux parameterization was effected for the city of Athens, Greece, by utilizing two approaches, the Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) and the Bulk Approach (BA). In situ acquired data are used to validate the algorithms of these schemes and derive coefficients applicable to the study area. Model results from these corrected algorithms are compared with literature results for coefficients applicable to other cities and their varying construction materials. Asphalt and concrete surfaces, canyons and anthropogenic heat releases were found to be the key characteristics of the city center that sustain the elevated surface and air temperatures, under hot, sunny and dry weather, during the Mediterranean summer. A relationship between storage heat flux plus anthropogenic energy flux and temperatures (surface and lower atmosphere) is presented, that results in understanding of the interplay between temperatures, anthropogenic energy releases and the city characteristics under the Urban Heat Island conditions.

  2. Mold allergy in the Mediterranean Island of Crete, Greece: a 10-year volumetric, aerobiological study with dermal sensitization correlations.

    PubMed

    Gonianakis, Michael I; Neonakis, Ioannis K; Gonianakis, Ioannis M; Baritaki, Maria A; Bouros, Demosthenis; Potamias, George; Kontou-Fili, Kalliopi S

    2006-01-01

    Mold spores are universal outdoor and indoor components and generally are recognized as possible sources of respiratory allergies. A 10-year aerobiological study (1994-2003) was conducted in the city of Heraklion located at the center of the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece. Eighteen mold species exhibiting a normal annual seasonal pattern have been identified and recorded. The most abundant mold species include (a) Cladosporium, (b) Alternaria, (c) miscellaneous ascosporas (d) Leptosphaeria, and (e) basidiomycete Coprinus. In parallel, 571 atopic individuals were tested by skin-prick tests (SPTs). Among these 571 patients 42.5% showed dermal positivity to mold allergens. Most positive SPTs were those of (a) Alternaria, (b) Cladosporium, (c) Fusarium, (d) Aspergillus, and (e) Mucor. No linear relationship was noted between SPT frequencies and percentages of mold species. All of these aerobiological and sensitization data constitute a firm basis for further medical and biological research and application.

  3. Local tsunami early warning: the case of Rhodes island, Greece, and the NEARTOWARN (EU-DG ECHO) prevention project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Argyris, Ilias; Fokaefs, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Local, that is near-field, tsunamis occur in the global ocean including the Mediterranean Sea and its connected seas. For such tsunamis the first wave has very short travel time of arrival (less than 30 min.) to the closest coastal zone thus making the early warning a very difficult task. An efficient, end-to-end early tsunami warning system in local conditions should fulfill the condition that the time needed for the earthquake detection, plus the time needed for the warning message transmission to the authorities and afterwards to the general public and/or other task groups, plus the time needed for response and real evacuation is less than the travel time of the first wave. In the physiographic conditions of the Mediterranean Sea it is extremely hard to satisfy such a condition unless the total time needed to response in early warning is drastically minimized. The project Near-Field Tsunami Warning and Emergency Planning (NEARTOWARN, which is supported by the EU DG-ECHO prevention programme, aims, among others, to establish a system in Rhodes island, Greece, with the purpose to meet needs for local early tsunami warning. To minimize the time for emergency in less than 30 sec, seismic alert devices (SED's) make the core component of the system. SED's are activated and send alerting signals as soon as a P-phase of seismic wave is detected in the near-field but for a predetermined threshold of ground motion. Then, emergency starts while SED's activate remotely other devices, such as computers with data bases of pre-calculated tsunami simulations, surveillance cameras etc. The system is completed with tide-gauges, simulated tsunami scenarios and emergency planning supported by a Geographical Management System. Rhodes island in Dodecanese, South Aegean Sea, Greece, has been selected as a test-area for the development of the prototype system given that it was hit by large tsunamigenic earthquakes several times in the past.

  4. The Messinian/Early Pliocene transition in Eastern Mediterranean: New palaeoenvironmental data from the Kalamaki section (Zakynthos Island, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Tzortzaki, Evi; Filippidi, Amalia; Nikolaou, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the Miocene-Pliocene microfaunal development, and to discuss its palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical significance. The studied section (Kalamaki section) is located in the eastern part of Zakynthos Island (western Greece). Details on lithology and stratigraphy of the section are given in Dermitzakis (1978) and Nikolaou (1986). Planktonic species indicate that sediments span the interval which corresponds to MPL1 Zone (Zanclean, early Pliocene) which is in accordance with the biostratigraphic configuration of Rouchy et al. (1992) and Pierre et al. (2006). The studied interval is characterized by the Sphaeroidinellopsis Acme Zone and the presence of Globorotalia margaritae. The recognized succession of microfossil assemblages serves to interpret the evolution of some palaeoenvironmental factors (waterdepth, salinity and oxygen content), whereas the planktonic foraminiferal zonation allows an age assignment to the events. During the Late Messinian brackish conditions became dominant. The early Pliocene is characterized by a sudden return to well oxygenated, open marine, outer shelf conditions. At the basal part of the record, the high abundance of the 'shallow water component' of the benthic foraminiferal fauna indicates a well-vegetated environment with either normal marine salinity or a tendency to hyposalinity (e.g. Murray, 2006). Open marine conditions are indicated by the diversity of benthic and planktonic foraminifera. The abundance of Lenticulina spp., Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Planulina ariminensis, Pullenia, Gyroidina, and the virtual absence of Cibicidoides dutemplei and other typical shelf-taxa, suggest an upper bathyal waterdepth of 300-400 m (cf. Pujos, 1976; Jorissen, 1988). Partly, the abundance of Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Bulimina costata and Uvigerina peregrina reflect fluctuations in oxygen content of the bottom waters. However, extreme conditions were never reached during deposition. The

  5. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results of Zakynthos Alikes lagoon, which is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeonvironmental changes, we based on the data of a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics, were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis were carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the study sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP and 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times 1.03 mm/yr. The rate of sedimentation was higher until mid-Holocene while decrease after to 1.03 mm/yr, results which are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  6. An Alternative Georoute: Approaching the Geological Heritage of the SE Part of Milos Island, Greece, via Hiking, Kayaking and Snorkeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrogonatos, Constantinos; Galanopoulos, Evangelos; Anastasatou, Marianthi; Chadjimpaloglou, Petros; Xydous, Stamatios

    2015-04-01

    Milos Island is located at the southwest edge of the Cyclades island complex, in the central part of the Aegean archipelago. It is part of the modern South Aegean Volcanic Arc (SAVA), which belongs to the Hellenic subduction zone. This on-going process has resulted in the coexistence of complex geological formations and geodynamic phenomena with sceneries of incomparable natural beauty, in many areas along the arc. Among them, Milos Island is widely known to be a place of astonishing geological and natural wealth, combined with a cultural heritage that dates back to the 8th millennium BC. As geotourism has been rapidly evolving worldwide over the last years, Milos Island was among the first places in Greece that developed a network of geotrails and featured many sites of special interest in terms of geology, volcanology and geoarchaeology. This study proposes an original georoute through land and sea, which aims t? emerge both overland and underwater areas of special interest. It is a novel way to approach the geological and cultural wealth of Milos and focuses on the Aghia Kiriaki area, at the South part of the island. This alternative georoute includes hiking, kayaking and snorkeling, and anyone who follows it, can be guided to a significant number of important geological, volcanic, morphological and geoarcheological sites, in a relatively narrow area, combining athletic activities as well. The proposed georoute has a total length of 3,2 km and an estimated time of completion of about 4 hours. It starts from Aghia Kiriaki area, where visitors can see remnants of one of the island's collapsed calderic domes in a panoramic view towards the East. In the same site, volcanic emanations create impressive scenery, which introduces the participants to aspects of the island's geologic and volcanic history. After about 800 meters of hiking, throughout an area that is dominated by products of phreatic eruptions, Aghia Kiriaki beach is the next stop. Impressive findings of

  7. Socioeconomic dimensions of changes in the agricultural landscape of the Mediterranean basin: a case study of the abandonment of cultivation terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kizos, Thanasis; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes illustrate the impact of human actions on physical settings, and differential human pressures cause these landscapes to change with time. Our study explored changes in the terraced landscapes of Nisyros Island, Greece, focusing on the socioeconomic aspects during two time periods using field data, cadastral research, local documents, and published literature, as well as surveys of the islanders. Population increases during the late 19th to early 20th centuries marked a significant escalation of terrace and dry stone wall construction, which facilitated cultivation on 58.4% of the island. By the mid-20th century, the economic collapse of agricultural activities and consequent emigration caused the abandonment of cultivated land and traditional management practices, dramatically reducing farm and field numbers. Terrace abandonment continued in recent decades, with increased livestock grazing becoming the main land management tool; as a result, both farm and pasture sizes increased. Neglect and changing land use has led to deterioration and destruction of many terraces on the island. We discuss the socioeconomic and political backgrounds responsible for the land-use change before World War II (annexation of Nisyros Island by the Ottoman Empire, Italy, and Greece; overseas migration opportunities; and world transportation changes) and after the war (social changes in peasant societies; worldwide changes in agricultural production practices). The adverse landscape changes documented for Nisyros Island appear to be inevitable for modern Mediterranean rural societies, including those on other islands in this region. The island's unique terraced landscapes may qualify Nisyros to become an archive or repository of old agricultural management techniques to be used by future generations and a living resource for sustainable management.

  8. Interactions between plutonism and detachments during metamorphic core complex formation, Serifos Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabillard, Aurélien; Arbaret, Laurent; Jolivet, Laurent; Le Breton, Nicole; Gumiaux, Charles; Augier, Romain; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    In order to better understand the interactions between plutonic activity and strain localization during metamorphic core complex formation, the Miocene granodioritic pluton of Serifos (Cyclades, Greece) is studied. This pluton (11.6-9.5 Ma) intruded the Cycladic Blueschists during thinning of the Aegean domain along a system of low-angle normal faults belonging to the south dipping West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). Based on structural fieldwork, together with microstructural observations and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, we recognize a continuum of deformation from magmatic to brittle conditions within the magmatic body. This succession of deformation events is kinematically compatible with the development of the WCDS. The architecture of the pluton shows a marked asymmetry resulting from its interaction with the detachments. We propose a tectonic scenario for the emplacement of Serifos pluton and its subsequent cooling during the Aegean extension: (1) A first stage corresponds to the metamorphic core complex initiation and associated southwestward shearing along the Meghàlo Livadhi detachment. (2) In the second stage, the Serifos pluton has intruded the dome at shallow crustal level, piercing through the ductile/brittle Meghàlo Livadhi detachment. Southwest directed extensional deformation was contemporaneously transferred upward in the crust along the more localized Kàvos Kiklopas detachment. (3) The third stage was marked by synmagmatic extensional deformation and strain localization at the contact between the pluton and the host rocks resulting in nucleation of narrow shear zones, which (4) continued to develop after the pluton solidification.

  9. Anatomy of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Sifnos Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Vincent; Laurent, Valentin; Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Jolivet, Laurent; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Since 35 Ma, the kinematics of the Aegean domain has been mainly controlled by the southward retreat of the African slab, inducing back-arc extension. The main structures and associated kinematics are well constrained, but the kinematics of deformation before 35 Ma, coeval with the exhumation of blueschists and eclogites of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, is still poorly understood. The earlier Eocene syn-orogenic evolution is strongly debated and very different geometrical interpretations and kinematic histories have been proposed in the literature. This study focuses on the high-pressure and low-temperature (HP-LT) parageneses spectacularly exposed and well preserved on Sifnos Island. The new field work provides new structural constraints on the tectonic history of HP-LT units generated in the subduction zone during the Eocene. It further shows how lithological heterogeneities localize strain within an accretionary wedge and how the localisation of strain evolves through time during exhumation. We show, through new geological and metamorphic maps, cross-sections and analyses of kinematic indicators, that Sifnos is characterized by shallow-dipping shear zones reactivating weak zones due to competence contrasts or earlier tectonic contacts. Structures and kinematics associated with these shear zones, show a top-to-the-N to -NE ductile deformation. The lower part of the tectonic pile shows a downward gradient of shearing deformation and is actually a thick top-to-the-NE shear zone, which we name the Apollonia Shear Zone. Through time shearing deformation tends to localize downward, leaving the upper part of the subduction complex preserved from late deformation. The present-day shape and topography of the island is largely controlled by late brittle faults reworking the earlier ductile shear zones. Comparing with the nearby island of Syros, we propose a new tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, which partly explains the different degrees of

  10. Socioeconomic Dimensions of Changes in the Agricultural Landscape of the Mediterranean Basin: A Case Study of the Abandonment of Cultivation Terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kizos, Thanasis; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes illustrate the impact of human actions on physical settings, and differential human pressures cause these landscapes to change with time. Our study explored changes in the terraced landscapes of Nisyros Island, Greece, focusing on the socioeconomic aspects during two time periods using field data, cadastral research, local documents, and published literature, as well as surveys of the islanders. Population increases during the late 19th to early 20th centuries marked a significant escalation of terrace and dry stone wall construction, which facilitated cultivation on 58.4% of the island. By the mid-20th century, the economic collapse of agricultural activities and consequent emigration caused the abandonment of cultivated land and traditional management practices, dramatically reducing farm and field numbers. Terrace abandonment continued in recent decades, with increased livestock grazing becoming the main land management tool; as a result, both farm and pasture sizes increased. Neglect and changing land use has led to deterioration and destruction of many terraces on the island. We discuss the socioeconomic and political backgrounds responsible for the land-use change before World War II (annexation of Nisyros Island by the Ottoman Empire, Italy, and Greece; overseas migration opportunities; and world transportation changes) and after the war (social changes in peasant societies; worldwide changes in agricultural production practices). The adverse landscape changes documented for Nisyros Island appear to be inevitable for modern Mediterranean rural societies, including those on other islands in this region. The island’s unique terraced landscapes may qualify Nisyros to become an archive or repository of old agricultural management techniques to be used by future generations and a living resource for sustainable management.

  11. Pythagoras of Samos (c. 580-c. 500 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematician, born in Samos, Ionia, taught by Thales and Anaximander on Miletus, founded a philosophical and religious school in Croton (in southern Italy) whose members, as well as having various beliefs that we would recognize as religious, believed that at its deepest level, reality is mathematical in nature. Pythagoras observed that vibrating strings produce harmonious tones when the ratios ...

  12. Human thermal bioclimatic conditions associated with acute cardiovascular syndromes in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the association between bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of admissions for non-fatal acute cardiovascular (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, decompensation of heart failure) syndromes (ACS) registered by the two main hospitals in Heraklion, Crete Island, during a five-year period 2008-2012. The bioclimatic conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Mean daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness, were acquired from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service). These parameters were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the use of the radiation and bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Generalized linear models (GLM) were applied to time series of daily numbers of outpatients with ACS against bioclimatic variations, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased coronary heart disease incidence, especially in the elderly and males. Additionally, heat stress plays an important role in the configuration of daily ACS outpatients, even in temperate climate, as that in Crete Island. In this point it is worth mentioning that Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks, which are associated in many cases with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). Taking into consideration the projected increased ambient temperature in the future, ACS

  13. REWSET: A prototype seismic and tsunami early warning system in Rhodes island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerasimos; Argyris, Ilias; Aggelou, Savvas; Karastathis, Vasilis

    2014-05-01

    Tsunami warning in near-field conditions is a critical issue in the Mediterranean Sea since the most important tsunami sources are situated within tsunami wave travel times starting from about five minutes. The project NEARTOWARN (2012-2013) supported by the EU-DG ECHO contributed substantially to the development of new tools for the near-field tsunami early warning in the Mediterranean. One of the main achievements is the development of a local warning system in the test-site of Rhodes island (Rhodes Early Warning System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis - REWSET). The system is composed by three main subsystems: (1) a network of eight seismic early warning devices installed in four different localities of the island, one in the civil protection, another in the Fire Brigade and another two in municipality buildings; (2) two radar-type (ultrasonic) tide-gauges installed in the eastern coastal zine of the island which was selected since research on the historical earthquake and tsunami activity has indicated that the most important, near-field tsunami sources are situated offshore to the east of Rhodes; (3) a crisis Geographic Management System (GMS), which is a web-based and GIS-based application incorporating a variety of thematic maps and other information types. The seismic early warning devices activate by strong (magnitude around 6 or more) earthquakes occurring at distances up to about 100 km from Rhodes, thus providing immediate mobilization of the civil protection. The tide-gauges transmit sea level data, while during the crisis the GMS supports decisions to be made by civil protection. In the near future it is planned the REWSET system to be integrated with national and international systems. REWSET is a prototype which certainly could be developed in other coastal areas of the Mediterranean and beyond.

  14. The Messinian/Early Pliocene transition in Eastern Mediterranean: New palaeoenvironmental data from the Kalamaki section (Zakynthos Island, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Tzortzaki, Evi; Filippidi, Amalia; Nikolaou, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the Miocene-Pliocene microfaunal development, and to discuss its palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical significance. The studied section (Kalamaki section) is located in the eastern part of Zakynthos Island (western Greece). Details on lithology and stratigraphy of the section are given in Dermitzakis (1978) and Nikolaou (1986). Planktonic species indicate that sediments span the interval which corresponds to MPL1 Zone (Zanclean, early Pliocene) which is in accordance with the biostratigraphic configuration of Rouchy et al. (1992) and Pierre et al. (2006). The studied interval is characterized by the Sphaeroidinellopsis Acme Zone and the presence of Globorotalia margaritae. The recognized succession of microfossil assemblages serves to interpret the evolution of some palaeoenvironmental factors (waterdepth, salinity and oxygen content), whereas the planktonic foraminiferal zonation allows an age assignment to the events. During the Late Messinian brackish conditions became dominant. The early Pliocene is characterized by a sudden return to well oxygenated, open marine, outer shelf conditions. At the basal part of the record, the high abundance of the 'shallow water component' of the benthic foraminiferal fauna indicates a well-vegetated environment with either normal marine salinity or a tendency to hyposalinity (e.g. Murray, 2006). Open marine conditions are indicated by the diversity of benthic and planktonic foraminifera. The abundance of Lenticulina spp., Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Planulina ariminensis, Pullenia, Gyroidina, and the virtual absence of Cibicidoides dutemplei and other typical shelf-taxa, suggest an upper bathyal waterdepth of 300-400 m (cf. Pujos, 1976; Jorissen, 1988). Partly, the abundance of Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Bulimina costata and Uvigerina peregrina reflect fluctuations in oxygen content of the bottom waters. However, extreme conditions were never reached during deposition. The

  15. Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), we at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) will present the development process for the exposure of quality-controlled data and core vocabularies managed by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative using Semantic Web technologies. Participants in the SAMOS initiative collect continuous navigational (position, course, heading, speed), meteorological (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity) parameters while at sea. One-minute interval observations are packaged and transmitted back to COAPS via daily emails, where they undergo standardized formatting and quality control. The authors will present methods used to expose these daily datasets. The Semantic Web, a vision of the World Wide Web Consortium, focuses on extending the principles of the web from connecting documents to connecting data. The creation of a web of Linked Data that can be used across different applications in a machine-readable way is the ultimate goal. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard language and format used in the Semantic Web. RDF pages may be queried using the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). The authors will showcase the development of RDF resources that map SAMOS vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies such as those found in the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server. Each individual SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described in an RDF resource page. These RDF resources will define each SAMOS vocabulary term and provide a link to the mapped vocabulary term (or multiple terms) served externally. Along with enhanced retrieval by parameter, time, and location, we will be able to add additional parameters with the confidence that they follow an international standard. The production of RDF

  16. Transitional directions from Early Miocene Lavas at Samothraki Island, N. Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondopoulou, Despina; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Zananiri, Irene; Voidomatis, Philippos

    2014-05-01

    The North Hellenic orogen was formed at the expenses of the Variscan and Jurassic oceanic crust, preserved in scattered ophiolitic massifs. Strong post-orogenic extension with coeval emplacement of granodioritic plutons, deposition of clastic sediments and calc-alkaline volcanism appeared from the Middle-Late Eocene to the Middle Miocene. These widespread Tertiary volcanic products, outcropping also in north and central Aegean, have been extensively studied as far as their emplacement conditions are concerned. In parallel, they have been the object of several palaeomagnetic studies, all consistently indicating a general pattern of clockwise rotations. The island of Samothraki belongs to the Circum-Rhodope Zone, a series of Triassic-Jurassic continental margin sedimentary and volcanic rocks that surround the crystalline Serbo-Macedonian and Rhodope Massifs. The geochronological data, along with the morphology and the eruption mode of the Samothraki Tertiary volcanic rocks, allow a division into three groups, namely the "old", the "intermediate" and the "young" ones. Several radiometric ages have been assigned to the three groups, spanning from 25 to 19 Ma. Isotope and trace-element modeling do not favor a continuous evolution of these magmas. The major granitic and volcanic formations of the island have been subjected to paleomagnetic studies. The results revealed a complex pattern with coexisting straightforward directions and puzzling ones, only within the younger lavas, mostly domes. These samples are characterized by a medium temperature component with an eastward declination and a positive inclination and a high temperature one with a negative inclination. Experiments of absolute paleointensity have been conducted on twenty-eight samples from 3 separate domes with ages between 22-19 Ma using a modified Thellier technique with very narrow 4°C to 10°C temperature steps between 500°C and 595°C. The results indicate significantly low field values at two sites

  17. Heavy metal contamination of soils at old mining sites on Thasos Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kelepertsis, A E; Bibou, A

    1991-03-01

    Thasos Island has a long history of metalliferous mining, the first mining activities having been initiated by the Phoenicians during the seventh century. The mineralogy of the mineralisation includes primary minerals (galena, sphalerite) and secondary oxidised minerals (smithsonite, cerussite). In the soils studied only secondary minerals were found. Clay minerals (kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, mixed layer clays), plagioclase, calcite and dolomite are also present in the soils. Contamination derived from the old mining sites results in extremely high levels of Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe, As, Sb, Ag, Cd in soils in the vicinity of the old workings. Since many of the Thasos mining sites are in, or adjacent to, areas of agricultural land, plants growing on the polluted sous have increased concentrations of heavy metals. This may well have a possible effect on livestock.

  18. Petrogenetic implications from Pleistocene volcanic rocks of Psathoura Island, Greece: Mineral chemistry and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Vougioukalakis, Georgios; Economou, Georgios; Xirokostas, Nikolaos; Tarenidis, Dimitrios; Ioakim, Chrysanthi; Karageorgis, Aristomenis

    2015-04-01

    Psathoura Island in the North Aegean area (39.498/24.181) is the only subaerial Quaternary (0.7 Ma) volcanic center along the extension of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the Aegean area. Outcrops consist of a small number of overlapping subaerial basaltic lava flows. These lavas are enriched in LREE [(La/Yb)CN=12.2-18.1], with no Eu anomaly. The Psathoura volcanics are porphyritic with a fine grained holocrystalline trachytic groundmass. Olivine phenocryst cores (Fo=75.4-85.6), differ from phenocryst rims and groundmass olivines, which have lower Fo compositions. Few anhedral olivine xenocrysts are more Fo rich (Fo=86.2-88.5, CaO

  19. Radon exposure in the thermal spas of Lesvos Island--Greece.

    PubMed

    Vogiannis, E; Nikolopoulos, D; Louizi, A; Halvadakis, C P

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the exposure due to radon to bathers and personnel in the spas of Lesvos Island under a specific use pattern. 222Rn concentrations in the supplying water were measured during a long time period. Variations in indoor 222Rn, attached and unattached progenies, and influence of the ambient atmosphere were thoroughly analysed during bath treatment for the purpose of investigating a consequent probable short-term health impact. Concentration peaks both for 222Rn and PAEC were found to appear during bathtubs filling. These peaks considered imposing an additional short-term radiation burden for spa users. The additional doses delivered to bathers during bath treatment were found to be very low and for personnel did not exceed the value of 5 mSv per year.

  20. Diversity and phylogenetic analyses of bacteria from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in Milos island (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Giovannelli, Donato; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Manini, Elena; Yakimov, Michail; Vetriani, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Studies of shallow-water hydrothermal vents have been lagging behind their deep-sea counterparts. Hence, the importance of these systems and their contribution to the local and regional diversity and biogeochemistry is unclear. This study analyzes the bacterial community along a transect at the shallow-water hydrothermal vent system of Milos island, Greece. The abundance and biomass of the prokaryotic community is comparable to areas not affected by hydrothermal activity and was, on average, 1.34 × 108 cells g−1. The abundance, biomass and diversity of the prokaryotic community increased with the distance from the center of the vent and appeared to be controlled by the temperature gradient rather than the trophic conditions. The retrieved 16S rRNA gene fragments matched sequences from a variety of geothermal environments, although the average similarity was low (94%), revealing previously undiscovered taxa. Epsilonproteobacteria constituted the majority of the population along the transect, with an average contribution to the total diversity of 60%. The larger cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences was related to chemolithoautotrophic Sulfurovum spp., an Epsilonproteobacterium so far detected only at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The presence of previously unknown lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria could be related to the abundance of organic matter in these systems, which may support alternative metabolic strategies to chemolithoautotrophy. The relative contribution of Gammaproteobacteria to the Milos microbial community increased along the transect as the distance from the center of the vent increased. Further attempts to isolate key species from these ecosystems will be critical to shed light on their evolution and ecology. PMID:23847607

  1. Diversity and phylogenetic analyses of bacteria from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in Milos island (Greece).

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Donato; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Manini, Elena; Yakimov, Michail; Vetriani, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Studies of shallow-water hydrothermal vents have been lagging behind their deep-sea counterparts. Hence, the importance of these systems and their contribution to the local and regional diversity and biogeochemistry is unclear. This study analyzes the bacterial community along a transect at the shallow-water hydrothermal vent system of Milos island, Greece. The abundance and biomass of the prokaryotic community is comparable to areas not affected by hydrothermal activity and was, on average, 1.34 × 10(8) cells g(-1). The abundance, biomass and diversity of the prokaryotic community increased with the distance from the center of the vent and appeared to be controlled by the temperature gradient rather than the trophic conditions. The retrieved 16S rRNA gene fragments matched sequences from a variety of geothermal environments, although the average similarity was low (94%), revealing previously undiscovered taxa. Epsilonproteobacteria constituted the majority of the population along the transect, with an average contribution to the total diversity of 60%. The larger cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences was related to chemolithoautotrophic Sulfurovum spp., an Epsilonproteobacterium so far detected only at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The presence of previously unknown lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria could be related to the abundance of organic matter in these systems, which may support alternative metabolic strategies to chemolithoautotrophy. The relative contribution of Gammaproteobacteria to the Milos microbial community increased along the transect as the distance from the center of the vent increased. Further attempts to isolate key species from these ecosystems will be critical to shed light on their evolution and ecology.

  2. Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated major and trace elements in the Rhodes Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulos, Georgios; Manoli, Evangelia; Kouras, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini

    2012-08-15

    Ambient concentrations of PM(10) and associated major and trace elements were measured over the cold and the warm season of 2007 at two sites located in the Rhodes Island (Greece), in Eastern Mediterranean, aimed at source apportionment by Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor modeling. Source chemical profiles, necessary in CMB modeling, were obtained for a variety of emission sources that could possibly affect the study area, including sea spray, geological material, soot emissions from the nearby oil-fuelled thermal power plant, and other anthropogenic activities, such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, wood burning, and uncontrolled open-air burning of agricultural biomass and municipal waste. Source apportionment of PM(10) and elemental components was carried out by employing an advanced CMB version, the Robotic Chemical Mass Balance model (RCMB). Vehicular emissions were found to be major PM(10) contributor accounting, on average, for 36.8% and 31.7% during the cold period, and for 40.9% and 39.2% in the warm period at the two sites, respectively. The second largest source of ambient PM(10), with minor seasonal variation, was secondary sulfates (mainly ammonium and calcium sulfates), with total average contribution around 16.5% and 18% at the two sites. Soil dust was also a remarkable source contributing around 22% in the warm period, whereas only around 10% in the cold season. Soot emitted from the thermal power plant was found to be negligible contributor to ambient PM(10) (<1%), however it appeared to appreciably contribute to the ambient V and Ni (11.3% and 5.1%, respectively) at one of the sites during the warm period, when electricity production is intensified. Trajectory analysis did not indicate any transport of Sahara dust; on the contrary, long range transport of soil dust from arid continental regions of Minor Asia and of biomass burning aerosol from the countries surrounding the Black Sea was considered possible.

  3. Optimization of water resources management using SWOT analysis: the case of Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantopoulou, P.; Voudouris, K.

    2008-03-01

    Zakynthos, an island of 408 km2 in the Ionian Sea, is completely dependent on its groundwater resources for fulfilling the demands of the water supplies. The use of groundwater resources has become particularly intensive during the last decades because of the intense urbanization, the tourist development and the irrigated land expansion that took place. The main aquifers are developed in limestones (karstic), sandstones of neogene deposits (confined) and alluvial deposits (phreatic). This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydrogeological characteristics and the groundwater quality. For this investigation, groundwater level measurements, drilling data, pumping tests and chemical analyses of groundwater samples were used. The average annual consumption that is abstracted from the aquifer systems, is 4.9 × 106 m3 year-1. The exploitable groundwater reserves were estimated to be 3.3 × 106 m3 year-1. In the last decades, the total abstractions exceed the natural recharge, due to the tourist development; therefore the aquifer systems are not used safely. The results of chemical analyses showed a deterioration of the groundwater quality. According to the analyses the shallow alluvial aquifer and the confined aquifer are polluted by nitrates at concentrations in excess of 25 mg L-1. High sulphate concentrations might be related to the dissolution of gypsum. Seawater intrusion phenomena are recorded in coastal parts of aquifer systems. The increased Cl- concentrations in karstic aquifer indicate signs of overexploitation. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was applied in order to evaluate the SWOT of the groundwater resources. Moreover, some recommendations are made to assist the rational management that aim at improving the sustainability of the groundwater resources of Zakynthos Island.

  4. Trace metal-rich Quaternary hydrothermal manganese oxide and barite deposit, Milos Island, Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Stamatakis, G.; Dowling, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Cape Vani Mn oxide and barite deposit on Milos Island offers an excellent opportunity to study the three-dimensional characteristics of a shallow-water hydrothermal system. Milos Island is part of the active Aegean volcanic arc. A 1 km long basin located between two dacitic domes in northwest Milos is filled with a 35-50 m thick section of Quaternary volcaniclastic and pyroclastic rocks capped by reef limestone that were hydrothermally mineralized by Mn oxides and barite. Manganese occurs as thin layers, as cement of sandstone and as metasomatic replacement of the limestone, including abundant fossil shells. Manganese minerals include chiefly δ-MnO2, pyrolusite and ramsdellite. The MnO contents for single beds range up to 60%. The Mn oxide deposits are rich in Pb (to 3.4%), BaO (to 3.1%), Zn (to 0.8%), As (to 0.3%), Sb (to 0.2%) and Ag (to 10 ppm). Strontium isotopic compositions of the Mn oxide deposits and sulphur isotopic compositions of the associated barite show that the mineralizing fluids were predominantly sea water. The Mn oxide deposit formed in close geographical proximity to sulphide-sulphate-Au-Ag deposits and the two deposit types probably formed from the same hydrothermal system. Precipitation of Mn oxide took place at shallow burial depths and was promoted by the mixing of modified sea water (hydrothermal fluid) from which the sulphides precipitated at depth and sea water that penetrated along faults and fractures in the Cape Vani volcaniclastic and tuff deposits. The hydrothermal fluid was formed from predominantly sea water that was enriched in metals leached from the basement and overlying volcanogenic rocks. The hydrothermal fluids were driven by convection sustained by heat from cooling magma chambers. Barite was deposited throughout the time of Mn oxide mineralization, which occurred in at least two episodes. Manganese mineralization occurred by both focused and diffuse flow, the fluids mineralizing the beds of greatest porosity and

  5. Strain and flow in the metamorphic core complex of Ios Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizera, Marcel; Behrmann, Jan H.

    2015-10-01

    We have analysed strain and flow kinematics in the footwall of the South Cyclades Shear Zone (SCSZ), an important tectonic boundary within the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline Complex exposed on Ios Island, Cyclades, Aegean Sea. Coarse-grained augen gneisses in the basement unit flooring the SCSZ and forming a metamorphic core complex are excellently suited to measure finite strain using the Fry method and estimate the vorticity number (W k) of flow with the "blocked-object" method. The results show that Oligo-Miocene exhumation of the basement unit during extension brought approximately 70 % N-S crustal stretching and up to 40 % subvertical shortening in a plane strain environment (k = 0.99). Linear down-section strain decrease constrains a zone of contact deformation of the SCSZ of about 1.5 km thick. Kinematic vorticity number estimates suggest little deviation from pure shear (W k = 0.26). Finite strain and W k are not correlated, indicating that the Ios basement and the overlying cover units were stretched compatibly. While the SCSZ is a localized zone of high strain, net displacement, however, may be restricted to about ten kilometres. This has important repercussions on large-scale tectonic models for extension in the Aegean.

  6. Strain and flow in the metamorphic core complex of Ios Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizera, Marcel; Behrmann, Jan H.

    2016-10-01

    We have analysed strain and flow kinematics in the footwall of the South Cyclades Shear Zone (SCSZ), an important tectonic boundary within the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline Complex exposed on Ios Island, Cyclades, Aegean Sea. Coarse-grained augen gneisses in the basement unit flooring the SCSZ and forming a metamorphic core complex are excellently suited to measure finite strain using the Fry method and estimate the vorticity number ( W k) of flow with the "blocked-object" method. The results show that Oligo-Miocene exhumation of the basement unit during extension brought approximately 70 % N-S crustal stretching and up to 40 % subvertical shortening in a plane strain environment ( k = 0.99). Linear down-section strain decrease constrains a zone of contact deformation of the SCSZ of about 1.5 km thick. Kinematic vorticity number estimates suggest little deviation from pure shear ( W k = 0.26). Finite strain and W k are not correlated, indicating that the Ios basement and the overlying cover units were stretched compatibly. While the SCSZ is a localized zone of high strain, net displacement, however, may be restricted to about ten kilometres. This has important repercussions on large-scale tectonic models for extension in the Aegean.

  7. The Mt. Ochi melange (South Evvia Island, Greece): a case study for HP metamorphism and syn-convergent exhumation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustaka, Eleni; Soukis, Konstantinos; Huet, Benjamin; Lozios, Stylianos; Magganas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The Attic-Cycladic complex (central Aegean Sea, Greece) experienced profound extension since at least the Oligo-Miocene boundary during which the previously thickened crust was reworked by a series of detachments forming the NE directed North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the SSW directed West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). South Evvia Island is located at the northwestern part of the Attic Cycladic complex linking the highly thinned and polymetamorphosed central part of the complex with mainland Greece. Furthermore, greenschists-facies retrograde metamorphism has only partially overprinted the HP mineral assemblages. Consequently, it is an ideal area to study tectonic processes associated with subduction, HP metamorphism and subsequent exhumation from eclogitic depths to the surface. Geological mapping in 1:2:000 scale revealed that the tectonostratigraphy of Mt. Ochi includes three distinct units all metamorphosed in HP conditions followed by greenschist facies overprint. These units are from top to bottom a) the Ochi Unit, a thick metavolcanosedimentary sequence with some intensely folded cipoline marble intercalations and isolated occurrences of metabasic rocks b) the ophiolitic mélange (metagabbros, metawherlites, peridotites, metabasites within a metasedimentary+serpentinite matrix) and c) the lowermost Styra Unit, a cipoline marble-dominated unit with thin mica schists and rare quartzitic layers often boudinaged. The thrust fault that was responsible for the juxtaposition of these three units acted in an early stage during HP metamorphism and it was isoclinally folded and sheared by the following syn-metamorphic deformation events. Detailed structural study in meso- and microscopic scale combined with petrological and geochemical analyses of the Mt Ochi rocks led to the distinction of at least three syn-metamorphic and two post-metamorphic deformation episodes that affected all units. The oldest structure identified is a relic foliation formed

  8. Structural and thermochronometric evidence for multi-stage exhumation of southern Syros, Cycladic islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukis, Konstantinos; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2013-06-01

    The Attic-Cycladic metamorphic-core complex province was formed during Miocene to recent regional back-arc extension in response to slab-rollback and gravitational collapse. The development of several metamorphic-core complexes along extensional low-angle detachment faults resulted in the exhumation of lower-plate rocks and the tectonic denudation of the upper plate that is only sparsely exposed throughout the Aegean Sea. One of these areas is in southern Syros where the tectonic configuration includes three tectonometamorphic units separated by two detachment faults. The lower-plate Cycladic Blueschist Unit underwent late Cretaceous-Eocene HP/LT metamorphism and subsequent greenschist-facies overprint during Oligo-Miocene times. The tectonically overlying greenschist-facies Upper Unit is a tectonic sliver between the Cycladic Blueschist Unit and the structurally highest unit, the Vari Unit, which is dominated by quartzofeldspathic gneisses that are affected by four distinct deformation events (D1-D4). The late Cretaceous upper greenschist-facies D1 episode is related to late Cretaceous-Eocene subduction while D2-D4 fabrics were formed in response to late Cenozoic extension and exhumation. Field relations and structural data suggest that the late Miocene brittle Vari Detachment juxtaposes both Vari Unit and Upper Unit against the Cycladic Blueschist Unit. Mylonitic rocks observed at the base of Vari Unit along the contact with Upper Unit and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry corroborate this scenario with lower-plate Cycladic Blueschist Unit rocks recording rapid cooling at ~ 8-10 Ma. In contrast, cooling ages from the Vari Unit cluster at ~ 13-15 Ma, indicating rapid exhumation coeval with activity along the Livadi Detachment on the neighboring island of Tinos. These data document new evidence that Vari Unit was affected by a major middle Miocene phase of exhumation and an older semi-brittle episode, both unrelated to late Miocene detachment faulting

  9. Non extensive statistical physics properties of the 2003 (Mw6.2), Lefkada, Ionian island Greece, aftershock sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, F.; Karakostas, V.; Papadimitriou, E.

    2012-04-01

    On 14 August 2003, Lefkada Island (Central Ionian) was affected by an Mw=6.2 earthquake. Due to a dense temporary seismic network that operating immediately after the main shock occurrence, hundreds of aftershocks were recorded and located with high precision whereas relocation of the main shock and early strong aftershocks became also feasible. Thus, the spatio-temporal distribution of aftershocks onto the main and the neighboring fault segments was investigated in detail enabling the recognition of four distinctive seismicity clusters separated by less active patches. The aftershock spatiotemporal properties studied here using the concept of Non-Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP). The cumulative distribution functions of the inter-event times and the inter-event distances are estimated for the data set in each seismicity cluster and the analysis results to a value of the statistical thermodynamic qT and qD parameters for each cluster, where qT varies from 1.15 to 1.47 and qD from 0.5 to 0.77 for the interevent times and distances distributions respectively. These values confirm the complexity and non-additivity of the spatiotemporal evolution of seismicity and the usefulness of NESP in investigating such phenomena. The temporal structure is also discussed using the complementary to NESP approach of superstatistics, which is based on a superposition of ordinary local equilibrium statistical mechanics. The result indicates that the temporal evolution of the Lefkada aftershock sequence in clusters A, B and C governed by very low number of degrees of freedom while D is less organized seismicity structure with a much higher number of degrees of freedom. Acknowledgments. This work was supported in part by the THALES Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled "Integrated understanding of Seismicity, using innovative Methodologies of Fracture mechanics along with Earthquake and non extensive

  10. Rheological Heterogeneity Along the Deep Subduction Interface: Insights from Exhumed HP Metamorphic Rocks Exposed on Syros Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowski, A. J.; Behr, W. M.; Stockli, D. F.; Ashley, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    Rheological properties of subduction interface shear zones control several aspects of subduction zone dynamics, including shear tractions along the plate interface, rates and amounts of exhumation, and depths and styles of seismicity. We document the rheological properties of a deep subduction interface using exhumed eclogite and blueschist-facies rocks from Syros Island, Greece. These rocks were subducted to ~60 km depth during the Eocene, were exhumed part way along the top of the subducting slab, and were then exhumed to upper-crustal levels beneath Miocene detachment faults. Localization of strain during exhumation allowed prograde fabrics to be preserved. The PT conditions (400-550°C, 12-16kb) of these fabrics are comparable to conditions of episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) observed in some modern subduction zones, including Cascadia. Two types of prograde fabrics were distinguished after analyzing macro-scale distributions of strain and microphysical mechanisms of creep in metamafic rocks. Type 1 fabrics contain eclogite pods boudinaged within a blueschist matrix. The eclogites show brittle deformation with cross-cutting veins containing high-pressure minerals. Deformation in matrix blueschists is accommodated by rigid rotation of amphibole and diffusion creep in plagioclase. Type 2 fabrics contain blueschists and eclogites that are isoclinally folded at similar wavelengths, thus are approximately isoviscous. Deformation is again accommodated by diffusion creep in blueschists, but by dislocation creep of omphacite in eclogites. These deformation types characterizing boudin-matrix and isoviscous rheologies of blueschist-eclogite assemblages appear to reflect varying amounts of finite strain, but work is in progress to determine whether they also record different PT conditions. The transition from Type 1 to 2 fabrics represents a significant change in bulk viscosity and seismic anisotropy, and may correspond to a transition from ETS-type behavior

  11. Brittle-ductile deformation and kinematics during exhumation of metamorphic complexes below detachments: examples from Sifnos and Syros Islands (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Roche, Vincent; Laurent, Valentin; Jolivet, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Exhumation of metamorphic core complexes is accompanied by progressive strain localization within large-scale shear zones, which may evolve into long-lived bounding detachments affected by ductile to brittle deformation. Despite the well-studied P-T-t patterns of individual nappes, their relative timing, mode and kinematics of exhumation are debated. In this study, in the frame of the Mediterranean syn- and post-orogenic deformation, examples of shear zone hierarchization and strain localization from Sifnos and Syros islands (Cyclades, Greece) are documented in detail in order to explain 3D-geometries and regional kinematics and are here tentatively related to the Ar/Ar ages available in literature. During the Eocene syn-orogenic uplift, the degree of strain localization increases progressively from blue- to green-schists deformation. Some of these shear zones where then reworked during the Oligo-Miocene post-orogenic deformation in different, usually warmer P-T conditions and a new episode of strain localisation, and an evolution toward brittle faulting, either along the main detachments or along newly created faults (as in Sifnos). Such shear zones demonstrate long-lived efficiency, especially where fluid circulation enhance retrograde metamorphic reactions. During Neogene, the final shape and exhumation of domes is the result of crustal thinning and brittle-ductile deformation in the whole Cycladic region. Although stretching directions along individual kilometric scale shear zones may be complex in the details, a simple general picture is shown for the Oligo-Miocene episode, less so for the Eocene one. Most Cycladic islands show a top-to-the-North sense of ductile shear from the syn-orogenic to the post-orogenic stage, this is the case of Sifnos for instance. The syn-orogenic stretching is however often more E-W trending, as exemplified by Syros and Tinos. The top-North or Top-East sense of shear is attributed to the NCDS for the post-orogenic stage and to a

  12. Brachyopa minima (Diptera: Syrphidae), a new species from Greece with notes on the biodiversity and conservation of the genus Brachyopa Meigen in the Northern Aegean Islands.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Radenković, Snezana; Vujić, Ante; Petanidou, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    An on-going study of the hoverfly fauna of the Northern Aegean Islands (Greece) has revealed the presence of four species of the genus Brachyopa Meigen. During the survey the following species were found: B. bicolor (Fallén), B. quadrimaculosa Thompson in Kaplan & Thompson, B. minima Vujić & Pérez-Bañón sp. nov. and an unidentified species very close to B. pilosa (Collin). Morphological characters and mitochondrial COI barcodes were used to link different life stages of B. minima, and to identify a larval specimen of B. bicolor. In this study adult and larval morphology and habitat preferences for B. minima are described. The description of larval morphology of B. bicolor and Brachyopa sp. aff. pilosa is amended too. An identification key to the adults of the B. quadrimaculosa group sensu Kassebeer (2002) in the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Israel and Turkey) is provided. The importance of specific microhabitats for the continued existence of these taxa is discussed. PMID:27395920

  13. Reconstruction of Holocene coastal depositional environments based on sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, Zakynthos Island, Western Greece Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, Pavlos; Iliopoulos, George; Papadopoulou, Penelope; Nikolaou, Konstantinos; Kontopoulos, Nikolaos; Wijngaarden, Gert

    2014-05-01

    Zakynthos Island is one of the most seismically active regions in Europe and the Holocene coastal depositional environments were influenced both by tectonic activity and sea level rise. In the present study detailed sedimentological, palaeontological and 14C dating analyses were used in order to reconstruct the Holocene coastal depositional environments as well as the different rates of sedimentation, based on data from three cores up to 30 m deep. The results of the analyses indicate changes in depositional environments from marine to brackish lagoonal and lagoon / barrier systems with temporary intrusions of marine water via storms or tsunamigenic events. High sedimentation rates in coastal areas of Zakynthos Island correspond well to the most widespread Holocene warm and humid phases. The interpretation of the sedimentological environments reveals that Zakynthos Island before 8300 BP was constituted by two islands, where the present southern part of the island was separated from the northern one by a shallow and narrow sea channel.

  14. Identification of 16S Ribosomal DNA-Defined Bacterial Populations at a Shallow Submarine Hydrothermal Vent near Milos Island (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Stefan M.; Kuever, Jan; Muyzer, Gerard

    2000-01-01

    In a recent publication (S. M. Sievert, T. Brinkhoff, G. Muyzer, W. Ziebis, and J. Kuever, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:3834–3842, 1999) we described spatiotemporal changes in the bacterial community structure at a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Aegean Sea near the isle of Milos (Greece). Here we describe identification and phylogenetic analysis of the predominant bacterial populations at the vent site and their distribution at the vent site as determined by sequencing of DNA molecules (bands) excised from denaturing gradient gels. A total of 36 bands could be sequenced, and there were representatives of eight major lineages of the domain Bacteria. Cytophaga-Flavobacterium and Acidobacterium were the most frequently retrieved bacterial groups. Less than 33% of the sequences exhibited 90% or more identity with cultivated organisms. The predominance of putative heterotrophic populations in the sequences retrieved is explained by the input of allochthonous organic matter at the vent site. PMID:10877814

  15. On the influence of the urban heat island on the cooling load of a school building in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagiorgas, H. S.; Mihalakakou, G.

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, measured in the Greater Athens Area (GAA), on the energy consumption of a typical modern school building. The energy performance of the selected building has been calculated using an accurate, extensively validated, transient simulation model for 17 different sites of the GAA, for the summer period. Calculations showed that the urban heat island phenomenon affects remarkably the thermal behavior of the school building, as suburban areas presented much lower cooling loads. The cooling load values fluctuated between 3304.3 kWh for the rural stations and 14,585.1 kWh for the central stations (for the year 2011) or between 3206.5 kWh and 14,208.3 kWh (for the year 2012), respectively. Moreover, the mean monthly cooling load values varied between 0.4-2 kWh/m2 for the rural stations and 4-6.9 kWh/m2 for the central stations, for the selected time period. Furthermore, a neural network model was designed and developed in order to quantify the contribution of various meteorological parameters (such as the mean daily air temperature values, the mean daily solar radiation values, the average wind speed and the urban heat island intensity) to the energy consumption of the building and it was found that the urban heat island intensity is the predominant parameter, influencing remarkably the energy consumption of the typical school building.

  16. Interplay between active and past tectonics in the Hellenic Arc (Greece): Geological and geomorphic evidences from Kythira Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; de Gelder, Gino; Delorme, Arthur; Lacassin, Robin; Armijo, Rolando

    2016-04-01

    The Hellenic Arc undergoes the largest convergence velocity and highest seismic activity among Mediterranean subduction systems. The outer-arc high islands of the Hellenic Arc are thus key to understand the mode of deformation of the crust during subduction and the mechanisms behind vertical motions at the front of overriding plates, here and elsewhere. Kythira Island, located between SW Peloponnese and NE Crete, provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the interaction between past and active tectonics in the Hellenic Arc. The recent uplift of the Kythira Island is marked in its landscape as paleosurfaces, marine terraces, abandon valleys and gorges. Together with the sedimentary record of the island and its geologic structures, we attempt to reconstruct its tectonic evolution since the latest Miocene. Here, we present exceptionally detailed geological and geomorphological maps of the Kythira Island based on fieldwork, Pleiades satellite imagery and 2-m resolution DEM, as well as the analyses of marine terraces and river network morphometrics. Pliocene or younger infill sequences rest atop of Palaeocene or older rocks in several marine basins in the island. In the largest marine basin, we found a stratigraphic sequence with a (tilted) continental conglomerate at the base, passing upwards to a disconformal subhorizontal conglomerate, calcarenites and fine sands, and terminating with a marine conglomerate. This marine conglomerate acts as a "cap rock" that marks the topography and shapes the highermost, and most extensive, low-relief surface. Overall, the infill sequence onlaps basement with the exception of the western margin where normal faults partly controlled the deposition of its lower sector. These faults reactivated older Hellenic fold-and-thrust structures, parallel to the subduction trench, and were not active during the maximum marine transgression that led to the deposition of the subhorizontal part of the infill sequence, including the topmost

  17. Fluid-rock interaction and thermal evolution during thrusting of an Alpine metamorphic complex (Tinos island, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, A.; Lieberman, J.; Avigad, D.; Garfunkel, Z.

    This study examines the fluid-rock interaction and thermal evolution along a thrust that juxtaposes calcite-rich marbles of high P-T metamorphic unit of the Attic-Cycladic Massif (Greece) on top of a lower-grade dolomite marble unit. The Tertiary thrust represents a major phase of tectonic movement related to the decompression of the Alpine orogen in the Hellenides. The stable isotope signatures of the thrust plane and adjacent sections of the footwall and hanging wall rocks are characterized by significant carbon and oxygen isotope depletions. The depletion is most pronounced in calcite, but is almost entirely missing in coexisting dolomite. The isotopic patterns in the thrust zone can be explained by the infiltration of an externally derived water-rich H2O-CO2-CH4 fluid [XC (=XCO2+XCH4)<0.05] at water-rock ratios on the order of 0.1 to 0.5 by weight. The fluid-induced calcite recrystallization is viewed as an important rheological control during thrusting. The temperature evolution of the footwall, hanging wall and mylonitic tectonic contact was determined by calcite-dolomite solvus thermometry. Histograms of calcite-dolomite temperatures are interpreted as indicating a heating of the footwall dolomite marble during the thrusting of the hotter upper plate. Conversely, the hanging wall marble unit was cooled during the thrusting. The calcite-dolomite thermometry of the thrust plane gives temperatures intermediate between the initial temperatures of the lower and upper marble units, and this leads to the conclusion that conductive heat transfer rather than fluid infiltration controlled the thermal evolution during thrusting.

  18. Two-cells phase separation in shallow submarine hydrothermal system at Milos Island, Greece: Boron isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shein-Fu; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Bo-Shian; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Baltatzis, Emmanuel

    2011-04-01

    Three types of hydrothermal vent fluids, herein referred to as cave, submarine-brine and seawater-like, were recovered from a shallow submerged system at Milos in the Aegean Sea, Greece, for detailed chemical and isotopic analyses. The cave fluids discharge through rock fissures near sea-level and have low pH, chlorinity, and B concentrations relative to seawater. The submarine-brine fluids are characterized by high Cl and contain >10 times seawater B concentrations. A scenario involving a two-cells circulation is proposed; one occurs at 1-2 km and another at shallower depth. The deeper saline reservoir has experienced subcritical phase separation, partitioning 0.42 mM B in vapor and 6.8 mM in brine with no detectable isotopic fractionation. The reaction temperature in the saline reservoir is 313°C calculated from the Na-K-Ca geothermometry. The vapors rise directly to form the cave vents, whereas the saline fluids transport in different pathways and are influenced by seawater mixing to form the variable submarine-brine fluids. The seawater-like fluids circulate at shallower depths, where calculated temperature is 248°C and show slightly diluted B (0.36-0.41 mM) and seawater δ11B. These fluids probably resulted from heating of down-flow seawater and may have experienced groundwater discharge and partial Mg removal. This study represents the first two-cells circulation occurring at Milos and emphasizes the important role of phase separation in shallow submarine hydrothermal system.

  19. Coseismic deformation and slip model of the 17 November 2015 M=6.5 earthquake, Lefkada Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, Athanassios; Melgar, Diego; Briole, Pierre; Geng, Jianghui; Papathanassiou, George; Bozionelos, George; Avallone, Antonio; Valkaniotis, Sotirios; Mendonidis, Evangelos; Argyrakis, Panagiotis; Moshou, Alexandra; Elias, Panagiotis

    2016-04-01

    On November 17, 2015 a strong, shallow earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred on the island of Lefkada along a strike-slip fault with right-lateral sense of slip. The event triggered widespread environmental effects that were mainly reported at the south and western part of the island while moving towards the eastern part, the intensity and severity of these earthquake-induced deformations were decreased. Coseismic deformation was measured in the order of tens of centimeters of horizontal motion by continuous GPS stations of NOANET (the NOA GPS network) and by InSAR (Sentinel 1A image pairs). Released interferograms from various groups show a large decorrelation area that extends almost along all the western coast of Lefkada, observation which provides strong support of landsliding. We also found extensive landslides during field work and no surface ruptures. A coseismic slip model was produced from the ascending InSAR, which it's cleaner than the GPS only and both data sets have ~90% variance reduction. The fault dips to the east-southeast at an angle of 65-70 degrees.

  20. Respiratory Disease Related Mortality and Morbidity on an Island of Greece Exposed to Perlite and Bentonite Mining Dust

    PubMed Central

    Sampatakakis, Stefanos; Linos, Athena; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Petralias, Athanasios; Dalma, Archontoula; Papasaranti, Eirini Saranti; Christoforidou, Eleni; Stoltidis, Melina

    2013-01-01

    A morbidity and mortality study took place, focused on Milos Island, where perlite and bentonite mining sites are located. Official data concerning number and cause of deaths, regarding specific respiratory diseases and the total of respiratory diseases, for both Milos Island and the Cyclades Prefecture were used. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed, adjusted specifically for age, gender and calendar year. Tests of linear trend were performed. By means of a predefined questionnaire, the morbidity rates of specific respiratory diseases in Milos, were compared to those of the municipality of Oinofita, an industrial region. Chi-square analysis was used and the confounding factors of age, gender and smoking were taken into account, by estimating binary logistic regression models. The SMRs for Pneumonia and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were found elevated for both genders, although they did not reach statistical significance. For the total of respiratory diseases, a statistically significant SMR was identified regarding the decade 1989–1998. The morbidity study revealed elevated and statistically significant Odds Ratios (ORs), associated with allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, COPD and bronchiectasis. An elevated OR was also identified for asthma. After controlling for age, gender and smoking, the ORs were statistically significant and towards the same direction. PMID:24129114

  1. Respiratory disease related mortality and morbidity on an island of Greece exposed to perlite and bentonite mining dust.

    PubMed

    Sampatakakis, Stefanos; Linos, Athena; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Petralias, Athanasios; Dalma, Archontoula; Papasaranti, Eirini Saranti; Christoforidou, Eleni; Stoltidis, Melina

    2013-10-14

    A morbidity and mortality study took place, focused on Milos Island, where perlite and bentonite mining sites are located. Official data concerning number and cause of deaths, regarding specific respiratory diseases and the total of respiratory diseases, for both Milos Island and the Cyclades Prefecture were used. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed, adjusted specifically for age, gender and calendar year. Tests of linear trend were performed. By means of a predefined questionnaire, the morbidity rates of specific respiratory diseases in Milos, were compared to those of the municipality of Oinofita, an industrial region. Chi-square analysis was used and the confounding factors of age, gender and smoking were taken into account, by estimating binary logistic regression models. The SMRs for Pneumonia and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were found elevated for both genders, although they did not reach statistical significance. For the total of respiratory diseases, a statistically significant SMR was identified regarding the decade 1989-1998. The morbidity study revealed elevated and statistically significant Odds Ratios (ORs), associated with allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, COPD and bronchiectasis. An elevated OR was also identified for asthma. After controlling for age, gender and smoking, the ORs were statistically significant and towards the same direction.

  2. Mapping the optimal forest road network based on the multicriteria evaluation technique: the case study of Mediterranean Island of Thassos in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tampekis, Stergios; Sakellariou, Stavros; Samara, Fani; Sfougaris, Athanassios; Jaeger, Dirk; Christopoulou, Olga

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network designed with the optimal spatial planning and the minimum environmental impacts. This paper describes the spatial layout mapping for the optimal forest road network and the environmental impacts evaluation that are caused to the natural environment based on the multicriteria evaluation (MCE) technique at the Mediterranean island of Thassos in Greece. Data analysis and its presentation are achieved through a spatial decision support system using the MCE method with the contribution of geographic information systems (GIS). With the use of the MCE technique, we evaluated the human impact intensity to the forest ecosystem as well as the ecosystem's absorption from the impacts that are caused from the forest roads' construction. For the human impact intensity evaluation, the criteria that were used are as follows: the forest's protection percentage, the forest road density, the applied skidding means (with either the use of tractors or the cable logging systems in timber skidding), the timber skidding direction, the visitors' number and truck load, the distance between forest roads and streams, the distance between forest roads and the forest boundaries, and the probability that the forest roads are located on sights with unstable soils. In addition, for the ecosystem's absorption evaluation, we used forestry, topographical, and social criteria. The recommended MCE technique which is described in this study provides a powerful, useful, and easy-to-use implement in order to combine the sustainable utilization of natural resources and the environmental protection in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  3. Mapping the optimal forest road network based on the multicriteria evaluation technique: the case study of Mediterranean Island of Thassos in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tampekis, Stergios; Sakellariou, Stavros; Samara, Fani; Sfougaris, Athanassios; Jaeger, Dirk; Christopoulou, Olga

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network designed with the optimal spatial planning and the minimum environmental impacts. This paper describes the spatial layout mapping for the optimal forest road network and the environmental impacts evaluation that are caused to the natural environment based on the multicriteria evaluation (MCE) technique at the Mediterranean island of Thassos in Greece. Data analysis and its presentation are achieved through a spatial decision support system using the MCE method with the contribution of geographic information systems (GIS). With the use of the MCE technique, we evaluated the human impact intensity to the forest ecosystem as well as the ecosystem's absorption from the impacts that are caused from the forest roads' construction. For the human impact intensity evaluation, the criteria that were used are as follows: the forest's protection percentage, the forest road density, the applied skidding means (with either the use of tractors or the cable logging systems in timber skidding), the timber skidding direction, the visitors' number and truck load, the distance between forest roads and streams, the distance between forest roads and the forest boundaries, and the probability that the forest roads are located on sights with unstable soils. In addition, for the ecosystem's absorption evaluation, we used forestry, topographical, and social criteria. The recommended MCE technique which is described in this study provides a powerful, useful, and easy-to-use implement in order to combine the sustainable utilization of natural resources and the environmental protection in Mediterranean ecosystems. PMID:26463090

  4. Spatial and temporal diversity of microbial mats in the shallow-water hydrothermal system of Milos Island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannelli, D.; Foustoukos, D.; Le Bris, N.; Sievert, S. M.; Yucel, M.; Vetriani, C.

    2014-12-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal vents are ubiquitous but poorly studied geothermal environments. The shallow-water hydrothermal system of Milos Island is a unique study site with vents exhibiting steep geothermal gradients in the presence of light that allows the co-occurrence of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis. The active hydrothermal emissions of the Milos hydrothermal system support complex microbial mats, which are fundamental in engineering the environmental niche in which extremophiles thrive. Because of the shallow depth, the mat community is wiped out during every major storm, when swell and wave action increase, and then it reconstitutes itself over a brief period of time (days). While most studies are focused on the diversity of the community residing in the underlying sediments, little information is available on the diversity and functioning of the mat community, and how it responds to abrupt geodynamic events. Here we report the results of a joint geochemical and microbiological survey of the microbial mats of Milos island, and analyze the spatial and temporal evolution of the mat community following a major storm. Our results show that the community is dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria, although significant variability is present within the systemm. The observed variability correlates with spatial profiles and in situ measurement of temperature and sulfide carried out over a 6 days periods, showing that tides, winds, and abrupt geodynamic events generate intermittent mixing conditions lasting for several hours to days. Diversity and metagenomic analyses of the mature mat provide further information on the metabolic potential of the community and on the influence of environmental factors on ecosystem functioning. Our work lays the basis for studies aimed at resolving the spatial and temporal dynamics of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in shallow-water hydrothermal systems.

  5. SAMO (Sistema de Apoyo Mechanizado a la Operacion): An operational aids computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Stormer, T.D.; Laflor, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    SAMO (Sistema de Apoyo Mechanizado a la Operacion) is a sensor-driven, computer-based, graphic display system designed by Westinghouse to aid the A. N. Asco operations staff during all modes of plant operations, including emergencies. The SAMO system is being implemented in the A. N. Asco plant in two phases that coincide with consecutive refueling outages for each of two nuclear units at the Asco site. Phase 1 of the SAMO system implements the following functions: (1) emergency operational aids, (2) postaccident monitoring, (3) plant graphics display, (4) high-speed transient analysis recording, (5) historical data collection, storage, and retrieval, (6) sequence of events, and (7) posttrip review. During phase 2 of the SAMO project, the current plant computer will be removed and the functions now performed by the plant computer will be performed by the SAMO system. In addition, the following functions will be implemented: (1) normal and simple transients operational aid, (2) plant information graphics; and (3) real-time radiological off-site dose calculation.

  6. Cinnabar, arsenian pyrite and thallium-enrichment in active shallow submarine hydrothermal vents at Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kati, Marianna; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Magganas, Andreas; Baltatzis, Emmanouil; Kanellopoulos, Christos; Mavrogonatos, Constantinos

    2015-04-01

    We herein report the discovery of active cinnabar-depositing hydrothermal vents in a submarine setting at Paleochori Bay, within the offshore southeastern extension of the Milos Island Geothermal Field, South Aegean Active Volcanic Arc. Active, low temperature (up to 115 °C) hydrothermal venting through volcaniclastic material has led to a varied assemblage of sulfide and alteration mineral phases in an area of approximately 1 km2. Our samples recovered from Paleochori Bay are hydrothermal edifices composed of volcaniclastic detrital material cemented by pyrite, or pure sulfide (mainly massive pyrite) mounts. Besides pyrite and minor marcasite, the hydrothermal minerals include cinnabar, amorphous silica, hydrous ferric oxides, carbonates (aragonite and calcite), alunite-jarosite solid solution and Sr-rich barite. Among others, growth textures, sieve-textured pyrite associated with barite, alunite-jarosite solid solution and hydrous ferric oxides rims colloform-banded pyrite layers. Overgrowths of arsenian pyrite layers (up to 3.2 wt. % As and/or up to 1.1 wt. % Mn) onto As-free pyrite indicate fluctuation in As content of the hydrothermal fluid. Mercury, in the form of cinnabar, occurs in up to 5 μm grains within arsenian pyrite layers, usually forming distinct cinnabar-enriched micro-layers. Hydrothermal Sr-rich barite (barite-celestine solid solution), pseudocubic alunite-jarosite solid solution and Mn- and Sr-enriched carbonates occur in various amounts and closely associated with pyrite and/or hydrous ferric oxides. Thallium-bearing sulfides and/or sulfosalts were not detected during our study; however, hydrous ferric oxides show thallium content of up to 0.5 wt. % Tl. The following scenarios may have played a role in pyrite precipitation at Paleochori: (a) H2S originally dissolved in the deep fluid but separated upon boiling could have reacted with oxygenated seawater under production of sulphuric acid, thus causing leaching and dissolution of primary iron

  7. Preliminary results of trace elements mobility in soils and plants from the active hydrothermal area of Nisyros island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Milazzo, Silvia; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Tassi, Franco; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements, i.e. chemical constituents of rocks with concentration <1000 ppm, play a structural role in the organisms and use proteins as a carrier to their target site. Their toxicity depends on their concentration, speciation and reactions with other elements. In volcanic environments, significant amounts of trace elements discharged from gas emissions, contribute to produce air particulate. Nisyros Island is a stratovolcano located at the South Aegean active Volcanic Arc. Intense hydrothermal activity characterise the Lakki caldera. In particular, the fumaroles located in the craters of Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos Dome and the area comprising Phlegeton, Polyvotes Micros and Polyvotes Megalos discharge hydrothermal fluids rich in H2O (91- 99%), SO2 and H2S. Their temperatures are almost 100o C and H2S is highly abundant accounting for 8-26 % of the released dry gas phase. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field trip on Nisyros island, 39 samples of top soils and 31 of endemic plants (Cistus Creticus and Salvifolius and Erica Arborea and Manipuliflora) were collected in the caldera area, with the aim to investigate the distribution of concentrations of trace elements related to the contribution of deep originated fluids. Moreover, one sample of plant and soil was collected outside the caldera as local background, for comparison. All the soil samples were powdered avoiding metal contamination and they were extracted twice, using HNO3 + HCl for one extraction (closed microwave digestion) and ultrapure de- ionized water for the other one (leaching extraction). The leaves of plants were gently isolated, dried and powdered for acid microwave extraction (HNO3 + H2O2). All the solutions were analysed for major and trace elements contents by using ionic chromatography (IC) and inductively plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The preliminary results showed high enrichment of many trace elements both in plant and soils respect to the local background, in

  8. Submarine canyon, slope, and shelf sedimentation in an upper Eocene-Oligocene progradational system (Limnos Island, north Aegean Sea, Greece)

    SciTech Connect

    Roussos, N.

    1988-08-01

    The only well-exposed outcrops of a post-Alpine late Eocene-Oligocene basin in the north Aegean Sea are at Limnos Island. These mostly consist of typical slope deposits overlain by remnants of shallow marine shelf and continental (braided-river) deposits. Three main slope lithofacies are distinguished. Canyon deposits consist of thick-bedded, massive, and pebbly sandstones (facies B), conglomerates (facies A), pebbly mudstone where the matrix shows flow (facies F), rock falls (nummulitic limestones), and zones of slump folds in sandstones (facies F). Channelized facies of massive sandstones, classical turbidites, and thin interbeds of sandstone and mudstone (facies E - probably overbank or levee deposits) are associated with canyon deposits. Pelagic and hemipelagic slope deposits consist of mudstone (facies G) and thin-bedded sandstone (facies D) with occasional small to medium-scale slump folds. These mud-rich slope deposits are incised by several channels filled with conglomerates, thick massive sandstones with well-developed dish structures, and turbidites interbedded with thin layers of mudstone (facies C). This unit composes a typical thinning and fining-upward sequence.

  9. The lower Miocene ignimbrite of Lesbos Island (Greece): an example for extreme K-rich acidic volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbling, A.; Altherr, R.

    2003-04-01

    On Lesbos Island, Miocene volcanics overlie a metamorphic basement of late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic age (e.g. [1]). The 17.0 ±0.5 Ma old [2] ignimbritic unit of Lesbos is over 100 m thick and covers approximately 190 km^2. Two vertical profiles through the ignimbrite were mapped and sampled. The deposit is extremely welded and dense. Relative amounts and character of pumice, fiamme, lithics, and crystals vary vertically and laterally. From bottom to top there is a continuous transition from a light grey, pumice-rich ash and lapilli deposit with approximately 5 vol.% lithics into an extremely dense, welded fiamme-rich ignimbrite. While the amout of lithics drecreases at first upwards, there is a notable lithic component of up to 20 vol.% at the top of the profiles. The matrix changes from a light grey ash at the bottom to an ever denser matrix of welded ash altering in colour from dark grey into pink, red and finally black. Crystals of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, biotite, and minor amounts of Fe-Ti-oxides, clinopyroxene, Ca-amphibole, apatite and zirkon are present. Electron microprobe and secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) analysis have been carried out on polished thin sections. The glass components are acidic (SiO_2 approx. 69 wt %) and extremely rich in K_2O (6.6 to 7.9 wt %). The glass contains 3.6 wt % H_2O (determined by SIMS) consistent with analyses totals of approximately 95.5 wt %. Further investigations will focus on the question whether the observed transition in the profiles is due to a change in chemical composition and related magma chamber aspects (e.g. zonation) or differences in temperature and mechanisms of deposition. [1] Pe-Piper, G. (1980) Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 131: 889-901 [2] Borsi, S. et al. (1973) Bulletin of Volcanology 36: 473-496

  10. Fluids drainage along detachments: the West Cycladic Detachment System and synkinematic skarns on Serifos Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducoux, Maxime; Jolivet, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Branquet, Yannick; Rabillard, Aurélien

    2014-05-01

    Back-arc extension in the Aegean Sea has been accommodated by several large-scale detachments such as the West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS) in the Oligocene and Miocene. The WCDS is associated on Serifos island (Cyclades) with a synkinematic granodioritic intrusion. Serifos is also well known for its skarn deposit and a rich mineralogy as well as colder Fe-Ba ore deposits that were exploited until 1963. The geometrical and kinematic relations between the detachments and ore bodies have so far been little studied. Different types of skarn can be observed (1) massive garnet endoskarns, (2) garnet-pyroxene endoskarns in the granodiorite, (3) garnet-pyroxene cracks exoskarns, (4) brecciated pyroxene +/- ilvaite skarn within the Meghàlo Livadhi and Kavos Kiklopas detachments. Fields observations show that the formation of the skarn is intimately associated with the detachments and the deformation of the intrusion in the footwall. Endo and exo-skarn deposits formed before, during and after the ductile and brittle structures resulting from the activity of the WCDS. They are represented by echelon veins, veins with antithetic shear and boudinaged veins wrapped within sheath folds, with a shearing movement top SSW or SW compatible with the regional tectonics, deformation in host-rock and the emplacement of the syn-tectonic granodioritic intrusion. Skarnified breccias formed within the two main detachments attesting for the intense circulation of fluids at a certain distance from the main intrusion. These skarn parageneses were deposited by hydrothermal fluids associated with the intrusion, mixed with meteoric or oceanic fluids forming at the regional level of pyroxene. The two detachments acted as preferential crustal-scale drains during footwall exhumation. This example illustrates the potential of detachments to channelize large amount of fluids in the crust during extension.

  11. Miocene south directed low-angle normal fault evolution on Kea Island (West Cycladic Detachment System, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglseder, Christoph; Grasemann, Bernhard; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Petrakakis, Konstantin; Schneider, David A.

    2011-08-01

    New structural, petrologic, and thermochronologic data from Kea, West Cyclades, define a crustal-scale ductile shear zone and ductile/brittle low-angle normal fault (LANF) system. Both the greenschist-facies shear zone forming the footwall and the overlying LANF zone formed during constrictional strains, with a consistent top-to-SW-S shear sense, with increasing finite strains toward higher structural levels but decreasing temperatures from footwall to hanging wall. The tectonostratigraphy comprises a ˜450 m thick footwall of shallowly dipping schists and calcite marbles representing the Intermediate Unit of the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline (ACC). Above the footwall is a ˜60 m thick highly strained LANF zone, consisting of phyllonites, cataclastic schists, ultramylonitic calcite marbles, (proto) mylonitic calcite marbles, and cohesive cataclasites that arch over the whole island. These fault rocks exhibit multistage LANFs, evolving from ductile to brittle conditions. An up to ˜50 m thick brecciated limestone and dolostone sequence forms the unmetamorphosed hanging wall which is most probably part of the Upper Unit of the ACC. Multiequilibrium P-T estimates on chlorite-white mica pairs in the footwall yield 7-5.5 kbar/360°C-450°C for inclusions in albite and epidote, 5.5-3 kbar/400°C-350°C for the main foliation, and 3-2 kbar/350°C-280°C in localized shear bands (C and C' foliations). The 40Ar/39Ar white mica footwall cooling ages demonstrate that greenschist-facies retrogression occurred between ˜21 and 17 Ma. Localized, late decimeter thick shear zones were active and dynamically recrystallized before ˜15 to 13 Ma. The LANF on Kea, together with similar structures in South Attica and the West Cyclades define the West Cycladic Detachment System, characterized by ductile to brittle top-SW-S shear sense.

  12. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  13. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  14. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  15. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  16. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  17. The Data Management System for the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. R.; Arko, R. A.; Bourassa, M. A.; Hu, J.; McDonald, M.; Rettig, J.; Rolph, J.

    2009-12-01

    The data assembly center (DAC) for the SAMOS initiative has developed and implemented an automated data management system that collects, formats, quality controls, distributes, and archives near real-time surface marine data from research vessels. A SAMOS is a computerized data logging system that continuously records navigational (ship’s position, course, speed, and heading), meteorological (winds, air temperature, pressure, moisture, rainfall, and radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity, conductivity, florescence) parameters while the vessel is at sea. The SAMOS initiative relies on the high-quality instrumentation purchased and deployed by the research vessel operators and does not provide instrumentation to the vessels. Currently, the SAMOS initiative receives measurements recorded at 1-min intervals and derived from higher frequency samples (on the order of 1 Hz). As of 2009, 21 research vessels provide routine SAMOS observations to the DAC. The data management system automatically tracks progress of the daily data acquisition and quality processing, stores metadata on instrumentation and ships, and provides data monitoring capability via a user-friendly web interface. An SQL database stores essential parameters to support tracking, data quality control, and version control for each file throughout the process. Presently, SAMOS data are acquired directly from research vessels at sea via a daily email transfer protocol. The steps of this NOAA funded protocol will be described along with lessons learned through the development process. A new DAC initiative, funded by NSF, to develop a 2nd SAMOS data acquisition protocol, via collaboration with the Rolling deck to Repository (R2R) project, will be outlined. The new protocol is envisioned to include transmission of the higher frequency meteorological and surface oceanic samples from participating vessels to real-time servers at R2R. The SAMOS DAC will access these samples for data

  18. Quality Aspects of a Marine Aggregate Deposit off the SE Euboea Island, Greece, for its Exploitation - Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasatou, Marianthi; Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Stamatakis, Michael; Tsoutsia, Antonia; Poulos, Serafeim; Rousakis, Grigoris; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Petrakis, Stelios; Aspiotis, Konstantinos; Papavlasopoulou, Nafsika; Stamatakis, Giorgos

    2015-04-01

    Aggregates are inert materials, such as terrestrial or marine sand and gravel, composed mainly of limestone, igneous rocks and sandstone. There is an international trend of increasing demand for aggregates during the last 30 years. Thus, marine aggregate (MA) demand has been displayed a remarkably increased due to limited terrestrial deposits and strict environmental issues related to their exploitation, induced by mining legislation. Regarding offshore MA extraction, important physical and biological seabed impacts that may persist long after the completion of the MA dredging, should be addressed, according to European directives, that deal with aspects such as restoration of the influenced subaqueous mining area. The present contribution focuses on the qualitative determination of the marine sediments on inner continental shelf of SE Euboea (central Aegean Sea), concerning primarily its silica content and secondarily the various environmental issues, in order to evaluate whether or not this subaqueous deposit fulfils the requirements for its exploitation. This MA deposit was found during the implementation of the research project THALES-MARE (MIS 375655) and after taking into consideration the presence of highly siliceous coastal lithology of the South Euboea Island. The area belongs to the Attico-Cycladic geotectonic zone, and especially in the Blueschist Unit, Styra and Ochi nappes. It consists mainly of metamorphosed clastic siliceous sedimentary and calcareous, mafic and felsic volcanic rocks and serpentinites. Sixteen representative samples were analysed out of 48 were collected in June 2014, during the scientific cruise of the M/V Aegaio (Hellenic Centre for Marine Research). The grain size analysis shows that seabed sediments are granulometrically classified mostly as sand, with contaminants of finer fractions and with the sand content often to be >90%. X-Ray Diffraction analysis revealed that the predominant crystalline phase is quartz (often >70

  19. Magmatic geochemistry and relict textures in blueschist-eclogite facies rocks on the island of Syros, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, J. C.; Brady, J. B.; Prinkey, D. R.; Walton, A. J.; Able, L. M.; Sinitsin, A. G.; Cheney, J. T.

    2004-05-01

    The island of Syros is part of the Attic-Cycladic blueschist belt and high-P mineral assemblages indicating peak metamorphic conditions of at least 15-16 kbar and 500 C are common. Two main marble units, which locally contain Mississippian fossils, are partly dolomitic, contain abundant calcite pseudomorphs after aragonite (Dixon, 1969), and are intercalated with the glaucophane (Glau)-schists, retrograde greenschists, and minor quartzites and Mn-cherts. Discrete, fault-bounded packages of blueschist/eclogite-facies mafic rocks with minor serpentinite are also present. The mineral compositions and assemblages in marbles and associated rocks tightly constrain the metamorphic P, T and the fluid compositions and suggest X(H2O) in the range 0.97-0.99. In general, the mafic rocks have a variety of textures and modes, but most are either fine-grained, blueschists with a well-developed fabric (S approx.=L) or coarse-grained (>1 cm), massive omphacite- or Glau-rich rocks. Based on textures, mineralogy and field relations, previous workers (Dixon and Ridley, 1987) have interpreted the mafic rocks as meta-basalt and metagabbros. Evidence of pillow structures, as well as metamorphosed alteration zones which are interpreted as evidence of ocean-floor metamorphism (?) have survived locally. We obtained whole-rock XRF and INAA analyses for fine- and coarse-grained mafic and felsic rocks and some mica-rich samples. Low chemical index of alteration (CIA) for most samples suggest very minor weathering. On a TAS diagram, mafic rocks span the basalt - basaltic andesite - trachy-basalt - basaltic trachy-andesite fields. REE patterns generally fall between 10-100 times chondrite and show flat to moderately LREE-enriched patterns. Coarse-grained rocks have positive Eu anomalies, consistent with their interpretation by other investigators as fractionally crystallized gabbros. Felsic rocks (now epidote-mica-schists) that are associated with the metamorphosed gabbros have negative Eu

  20. Trace metal contents in wild edible mushrooms growing on serpentine and volcanic soils on the island of Lesvos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Aloupi, M; Koutrotsios, G; Koulousaris, M; Kalogeropoulos, N

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this survey were (1) to assess for the first time the Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contents in wild edible mushrooms (Russula delica, Lactarius sanguifluus, Lactarius semisanguifluus, Lactarius deliciosus, Suillus bellinii) from the island of Lesvos, (2) to investigate the metals' variability among the species, as well as in relation to the chemical composition of the underlying soil, comparing mushrooms collected from volcanic and serpentine substrates and (3) to estimate metal intake by the consumption of the mushrooms under consideration. The trace metals in 139 samples were determined by flame or flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. The median metal concentrations were as follows: Cd: 0.14; Cr: 0.10; Cu: 8.51; Fe: 30.3; Mn: 5.26; Ni: 0.34; Pb: 0.093 and Zn: 64.50, all in mgkg(-1) dry weight. The observed concentrations are among the lowest reported for mushrooms from Europe or Turkey, while Pb and Cd values did not exceed the limits set by the European Union. Significant species- and substrate-related differences in the metal contents were found, but the variability did not follow a uniform pattern for all the metals in all mushroom species. As a general trend, the mushrooms growing in serpentine sites contained higher Cd, Cr and Ni than those from volcanic sites. The calculated bioconcentration factors (BCFs) showed that none of the mushrooms can be regarded as a metal bioaccumulator, although BCF values slightly above unity were found for Zn in the three Lactarius species, and for Cu in R. delica. The studied mushrooms could supply considerable amounts of essential metals such as Zn and Cr. On the other hand, the consumption of R. delica collected from volcanic soils could provide 12% of the Cd daily tolerable intake and as high as 53% when collected from serpentine soils. Nonetheless, our results indicate that the regular consumption of wild edible mushrooms from Lesvos is quite safe for human health. PMID:22172519

  1. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2016-01-01

    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  2. The pre-Kos Plateau Tuff Volcanic Rocks on Kefalos Peninsula (Kos Island, Dodecanese, Greece): Crescendo to the Largest Eruption of the Modern Aegean Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, O.; Schnyder, C.

    2006-12-01

    Young volcanic rocks (K-Ar ages of 3 to 0.5 Ma) from the Kefalos Peninsula (Kos Island, Dodecanese, Greece) erupted prior to the voluminous (>60 km\\ 3) Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT; Ar-Ar age of 0.16 Ma) were studied in order to better define the conditions that led to the paroxysmal eruption of the modern Aegean Arc. Two different whole-rock compositions were sampled on Kefalos peninsula; dacites (63-65 wt% SiO2) and rhyolites (75-77 wt% SiO2). Kefalos dacites are crystal-rich (>40% crystals), show high Sr-Ba contents compared to other continental arcs, and have "adakitic" Sr/Y ratios (>40). Kefalos rhyolites are typical high- SiO2 arc magmas, similar in composition and mineralogy to the KPT, but displaying lower crystallinities (<5 vol% instead of >30% in most of the KPT). The high Sr/Y ratios of the dacites is surprising in an area where the subducting slab is not particularly hot and the continental crust relatively thin (~30 km). If the low Y and high Sr-Ba contents result from the fact that magma formed deep enough to supress plagioclase and have garnet present, dacite magma generation must have occurred in the mantle. There is geochemical and mineralogical evidence for the Kefalos and KPT rhyolites being generated by fractional crystallization from magmas similar to the Kefalos dacites. However, the few distinctions between KPT and Kefalos rhyolites (KPT is more voluminous, contains more crystals, has lower whole-rock U and Th contents, and lower MgO-SiO2, but higher Al2O3-FeOtot in biotite) suggest slightly different conditions in the magma chambers. These observations, together with increasing explosivity of the volcanic products from ~3 Ma to 0.16 Ma, may indicate that the build-up to the large KPT eruption could be the result of an increase in magmatic water input in the system through time.

  3. Natural and human causes of a flash flood in a small catchment (Rhodes Island, Greece) based on atmospheric forcing and runoff modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karalis, Sotirios; Katsafados, Petros; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Tsanakas, Konstantinos; Valkanou, Kanella

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the natural (hydro-meteorological and geomorphological) and human induced factors responsible for a flash flood event that occurred on November 22nd, 2013 in a small ungauged catchment (covering an area of about 24km2) of Rhodes Island, Greece. The flash flooding killed four people and caused over â¬10 million worth of damages located mainly around the Kremasti village. In this study the reconstruction of this extreme hydro-meteorological event is attempted by using detailed spatiotemporal rainfall information, a physically based hydrological model (LISEM) and the 1D hydraulic model HEC-RAS. Furthermore, the human impacts, which are responsible for extreme flood discharge within the drainage basin, are recorded and mapped. The major meteorological feature of this event is associated with the passage of a cold front over SE Aegean Sea. The destructive flash flood was triggered by the extreme precipitation (almost 100 mm in 4 hours was recorded at the meteorological stations closest to the flooded area). An advanced nowcasting method is applied in order to provide high spatiotemporal distribution of the precipitation over the catchment area. OpenLisem (Limbourg Soil Erosion Model) is used as a runoff model for exploring the response of the catchment. It is a freeware raster model (based on PCRaster) that simulates the surface water and sediment balance for every gridcell. It is event based and has fine spatial and temporal resolution. The model is designed to simulate the effects of detailed land use changes or conservation measures on runoff, flooding and erosion during heavy rainstorms. Since OpenLISEM provides a detailed simulation of runoff processes, it is very demanding on input data (it requires a minimum of 24 maps depending on the input options). The PCRaster GIS functionality was used to derive the necessary data from the basic maps (DEM, land unit map and map of impermeable areas). The sources for the basic maps include geological

  4. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis V.

    Tornadoes and waterspouts occur in various parts of Greece and may often reach the media as remarkable events, depending of their intensity and the level of damage. This paper is based on a research started from the beginning of 2000 for identifying and recording tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece and evaluating their intensity and other fundamental characteristics. Search of historical events for obtaining more comprehensive tornado climatology is in progress. In an almost 3-year period, January 2000-September 2002, tornadoes and waterspouts have been reported from various parts of Greece, including western Greece, the Ionian islands and western Peloponnese mainly during autumn and winter. Northern Greece is affected by tornadic activity mostly during summer and early autumn. The geographical distribution showed a preference for tornado occurrence mainly in coastal areas. Based on this almost 3-year data sample, a mean number of six tornadoes per year has resulted, corresponding to a density of 0.45 10 -4 km -2 year -1. Maximum intensity of tornadoes recorded was rated as T6 of the Tornado and Storm Research Organization (TORRO) scale (F3 of the Fujita scale). A basic synoptic typing scheme is presented, including four synoptic circulation patterns associated to tornado occurrence.

  5. Mineralogical, stable isotope, and fluid inclusion studies of spatially related porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te mineralization, Fakos Peninsula, Limnos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornadel, Andrew P.; Voudouris, Panagiotis Ch.; Spry, Paul G.; Melfos, Vasilios

    2012-05-01

    The Fakos porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te deposit, Limnos Island, Greece, is hosted in a ~20 Ma quartz monzonite and shoshonitic subvolcanic rocks that intruded middle Eocene to lower Miocene sedimentary basement rocks. Metallic mineralization formed in three stages in quartz and quartz-calcite veins. Early porphyry-style (Stage 1) metallic minerals consist of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, bornite, sphalerite, molybdenite, and iron oxides, which are surrounded by halos of potassic and propylitic alteration. Stage 2 mineralization is composed mostly of quartz-tourmaline veins associated with sericitic alteration and disseminated pyrite and molybdenite, whereas Stage 3, epithermal-style mineralization is characterized by polymetallic veins containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, bournonite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, hessite, petzite, altaite, an unknown cervelleite-like Ag-telluride, native Au, and Au-Ag alloy. Stage 3 veins are spatially associated with sericitic and argillic alteration. Fluid inclusions in quartz from Stage 1 (porphyry-style) mineralization contain five types of inclusions. Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions, which homogenize at temperatures ranging from 189.5°C to 403.3°C have salinities of 14.8 to 19.9 wt. % NaCl equiv. Type II, liquid-vapor-NaCl, Type III liquid-vapor-NaCl-XCl2 (where XCl is an unknown chloride phase, likely CaCl2), and Type IV, liquid-vapor-hematite ± NaCl homogenize to the liquid phase by liquid-vapor homogenization or by daughter crystal dissolution at temperatures of 209.3 to 740.5 °C, 267.6 to 780.8 °C, and 357.9 to 684.2 °C, respectively, and, Type V, vapor-rich inclusions. Stage 2 veins are devoid of interpretable fluid inclusions. Quartz from Stage 3 (epithermal-style) veins contains two types of fluid inclusions, Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase (191.6 to 310.0 °C) with salinities of 1.40 to 9.73 wt. % NaCl equiv., and Type II, vapor-rich inclusions. Mixing

  6. The Mw6.5 earthquake of 17 November 2015 in Lefkada Island and the seismotectonics in the Cephalonia Transform Fault (Ionian Sea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Agalos, Apostolos; Bocchini, Gian Maria; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Vassilis; Triantafyllou, Ioanna; Kontoes, Charis; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Svigkas, Nikos; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Zygouri, Vasiliki; Tselentis, Akis

    2016-04-01

    On 17 November 2015 a Mw6.5 earthquake ruptured offshore Lefkada Isl. in Ionian Sea, Greece, causing two victims, damage and ground failures particularly in the SW part of the island, which is consistent with the ground deformation pattern shown by InSAR analysis. Fault plane solutions released by CMT, NOA and other institutes are consistent indicating strike-slip right-lateral faulting, which is typical for the area, e.g. 2003 earthquake in the same fault zone. The analysis of 30-s daily observations of the permanent GPS stations operated by NOA showed displacement vectors with a motion pattern which is in agreement with the right-lateral kinematics of the rupture. The seismic plane was striking/dipping about N24E/W75.The seismic sequence for the period from 17 Nov. to 8 Dec. 2015 was relocated, with and without the use of time residuals, applying the NNLoc algorithm on a slightly modified 9-layer seismic velocity model (Haslinger et al., 1999) and by using only phases at stations closer than 120 km from the mainshock in order to avoid the use of Pn phases. The relocation procedure obtained without the use of residuals was repeated with the HypoDD algorithm. All relocations showed that the aftershock cloud follows the fault plane strike and consists of one north and one south clusters distributed in the seismogenic layer of 4-12 km. The south cluster started to develop a few hours after the mainshock, while it presents different statistical properties as compared to the north one. These results indicate that the south cluster was likely the result of triggering effect. Digital broadband P-wave teleseismic records, selected from GDSN stations to achieve the best possible azimuthal coverage, were used to invert for the mainshock rupture history. The teleseismic waveforms were corrected for instrument response, integrated to displacement, band-pass filtered from 0.01 to 1 Hz using a Butterworth filter and finally re-sampled to 0.2 samples/s. The finite fault

  7. A Thermionic Electron Emission Model for Charge Retention in SAMOS Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Susumu

    1982-02-01

    Charge retention in SAMOS structures at elevated temperatures is effectively described by a thermionic electron emission model from a floating polysilicon gate into the surrounding oxide. Experimental results showed sufficiently good agreement with the theoretical model. The barrier height and collision frequency derived from the experiments are reasonable (1.24 eV and 2.5× 104/sec, respectively). Long term data retention in floating gate EPROM’s can also be predicted by this model.

  8. Crystal chemistry and reaction relations of piemontites and thulites from highly oxidized low grade metamorphic rocks at Vitali, Andros Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinecke, Thomas

    1986-03-01

    Piemontite- and thulite-bearing assemblages from highly oxidized metapelitic and metacalcareous schists associated with braunite quartzites at Vitali, Andros island, Greece, were chemically investigated. The Mn-rich metasediments are intercalated in a series of metapelitic quartzose schists, marbles, and basic metavolcanites which were affected by a regional metamorphism of the high P/T type ( T=400 500° C, P>9 kb) and a later Barrovian-type greenschist metamorphism ( T=400 500° C, P˜-5 6 kb). Texturally and chemically two generations of piemontite (I and II) can be distinguished which may show complex compositional zoning. Piemontite I coexisted at high P/T conditions with braunite, manganian phengite (alurgite), Mn3+-Mn2+-bearing Na-pyroxene (violan), carbonate, quartz, hollandite, and hematite. Zoned grains generally exhibit a decreasing Mn3+ and an increasing Fe3+ and Al content towards the rim. Chemical compositions of piemontite I range from 2.0 to 32.1 mole % Mn3+, 0 to 25.6 mole % Fe3+, and 60.2 to 81.2 mole % Al. Up to 12.5 mole % Ca on the A(2) site can be substituted by Sr. Piemontites formed in contact or close to braunite (±hematite) attained maximum (Mn3++Fe3+)Al-1 substitution corrresponding to about 33 mole % Mn3++Fe3+ in lowiron compositions and up to about 39 mole % Mn3++ Fe3+ at intermediate Fe3+/(Fe3++Mn3+) ratios. Piemontite II which discontinuously overgrows piemontite I or occurs as separate grains may have been formed by greenschist facies decomposition of manganian Na-pyroxenes according to the reaction: (1) 410_2004_Article_BF00963585_TeX2GIFE1.gif begin{gathered} {text{Mn}}^{{text{3 + }}} - Mn^{2 + } - bearing omphacite/chloromelanite \\ + CO_2 + H_2 O + HCl ± hermatite \\ = piemontite + tremolite + albite + chlorite \\ + calcite + quartz + NaCl ± O_2 . \\ Thulites crystallized in coexistence with Al-rich piemontite II. All thulites analysed are low-Fe3+ manganian orthozoisites with Mntot˜-Mn3+ substituting for Al on the M(3) site

  9. A tornado and waterspout climatology for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis V.

    2011-06-01

    The results of a systematic investigation and recording of tornado and waterspout occurrence in Greece for the 10-year period 2000-2009 are presented. This is the first database developed in Greece in an attempt to collect and record comprehensive information about tornadoes, waterspouts, funnel clouds, dust devils and other whirlwind phenomena. The primary research purpose of this database is to search, diagnose and record tornado and waterspout occurrences and identify their morphological and climatological features. Based on the 10-year data, a mean annual number of 1.1 tornadoes per unit area of 10 4 km 2, is depicted for Greece. The seasonality appears differently for various parts, with winter most active tornado season for western Greece and summer for northern Greece. Spatial distribution showed that tornadoes are more frequent over western Greece and the Ionian coasts with a local maximum over northwest Peloponnese. Waterspouts occur in both the Aegean and the Ionian Sea mostly in summer and autumn, with a peak in September, while a considerable geographical maximum is located over north off the shore of Iraklion, Crete Island. A preliminary estimate of probability of tornado occurrence for each of the 51 Greek prefectures plus the Mount Athos area, showed highest values for Kerkyra Island and Elias prefectures, western Greece. Analysis based on intensities as assessed by damage data, indicated that the majority of tornadoes reached T4 of the T-scale or F2 of the F-scale. Short wave trough is found as the most relevant synoptic circulation pattern to tornadic activity. Thermodynamic and wind parameters showed a wide range of values, suggesting that threat levels should be adjusted for various areas since tornadoes and waterspouts can occur in different environments.

  10. Santorini, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image of Santorini was acquired on November 21, 2000 and covers an area of 18 by 18 km. The eruption of Santorini in 1650 B.C. was one of the largest in the last 10,000 years. About 30 cubic kilometers of magma was erupted, forming a plinian column 36 km high. The removal of such a large volume of magma caused the volcano to collapse, producing a caldera. Ash fell over a large area of the eastern Mediterranean. The eruption probably caused the end of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. The largest island is Thera, and the smaller is Therasia. The Kameni Islands (dark in the image center) formed after the caldera., with the most recent eruptions occurring in 1950.

    The image is centered at 36.4 degrees north latitude, 25.4 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes

  11. Reconstruction of the paleo-coastline of Santorini island (Greece), after the 1613 BC volcanic eruption: A GIS-based quantitative methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomidis, Dimitrios; Albanakis, Konstantinos; Pavlides, Spyridon; Fytikas, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A catastrophic volcanic explosion took place in Thera/Santorini island around 1613 BC, known as the `Minoan' eruption. Many papers have dealt with the shape of the shoreline of the island before the eruption, but none with the shape of the shoreline exactly after it, assuming that it would be the same with the contemporary one. However, this is not correct due to the wave erosion. In this paper, a new DEM was constructed, covering both land and submarine morphology, then topographic sections were drawn around the island. Using these sections, the `missing parts' (sea-wave erosion) were calculated, the shoreline was reconstructed as it was one day after the eruption and finally the erosion rate was calculated.

  12. Fault zones ruptured during the early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0) based on the associated co-seismic surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, Efthymios L.; Mavroulis, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    The early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquake sequence comprised two main shocks with almost the same magnitude (moment magnitude (Mw) 6.0) occurring successively within a short time (January 26 and February 3) and space (Paliki peninsula in Western Cephalonia) interval. Εach earthquake was induced by the rupture of a different pre-existing onshore active fault zone and produced different co-seismic surface rupture zones. Co-seismic surface rupture structures were predominantly strike-slip-related structures including V-shaped conjugate surface ruptures, dextral and sinistral strike-slip surface ruptures, restraining and releasing bends, Riedel structures ( R, R', P, T), small-scale bookshelf faulting, and flower structures. An extensional component was present across surface rupture zones resulting in ground openings (sinkholes), small-scale grabens, and co-seismic dip-slip (normal) displacements. A compressional component was also present across surface rupture zones resulting in co-seismic dip-slip (reverse) displacements. From the comparison of our field geological observations with already published surface deformation measurements by DInSAR Interferometry, it is concluded that there is a strong correlation among the surface rupture zones, the ruptured active fault zones, and the detected displacement discontinuities in Paliki peninsula.

  13. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  14. U-Pb single zircon ages and geochemistry of metagranitoid rocks in the Cycladic Blueschists (Evia Island): Implications for the Triassic tectonic setting of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzaras, V.; Dörr, W.; Finger, F.; Xypolias, P.; Zulauf, G.

    2013-06-01

    U-Pb zircon geochronology, geochemical and microstructural analyses were carried out to a metagranitoid suite exposed in the Blueschist unit of the Attic-Cycladic zone on Evia Island. Concordant zircons from three metagranitoid samples yielded ID-TIMS U-Pb single grain ages of 234 ± 1.2 Ma, 232 ± 1 Ma and 214 ± 0.7 Ma, which are interpreted to constrain the intrusion of the igneous protolith in Late Triassic times. These age data in combination with previously published Early-Middle Triassic protolith ages of (meta-)igneous rocks from other Greek islands support magmatic activity in the Cycladic area throughout the Triassic. Major and trace element whole rock analyses reveal that the granitic protolith of the Evia metagranitoid suite is of A-type affinity implying Triassic magmatism in an extensional setting along the northern Gondwanan margin rather than back-arc extension above a subduction zone. Subsequent Alpine subduction and related high-pressure metamorphism led to pervasive non-coaxial fabrics of the Evia metagranitoid, which indicate top-to-the-E(SE) shearing. This Alpine deformation took place under ductile (viscous) conditions at temperatures close to 450-500 °C and differential stresses of 65 + 15/- 10 MPa.

  15. Pumice deposits of the Santorini Lower Pumice 2 eruption on Anafi island, Greece: Indications for a Plinian event of exceptional magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jörg; Gertisser, Ralf; Reusser, Eric; Dietrich, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Isolated patches of Santorini pumice deposits are analysed from the non-volcanic island of Anafi at a distance of 31-38 km east from the centre of the Santorini caldera. The deposits are Plinian fall profiles with a primary thickness at this distance of 1.2-1.5 m and MP (maximum pumice) and ML (maximum lithic) diameters of 5 and 4 cm, respectively. The characteristic profile sequence of the analysed Anafi deposits corresponds perfectly with the Plinian sequence of the Lower Pumice 2 (LP2) profiles on Thera, the main island of the Santorini group, with the sub-divisions into LP2-A2-1, LP2-A2-2 and LP2-A3. Pumice glass chemistry, phenocryst assemblage and the significant content of grey cauliform scoriae make the compositional correlation with the Plinian LP2 eruption of Santorini unambiguous. With the new identification of LP2 deposits on Anafi, together with an ~ 4-5 times greater thickness in the main axis of dispersal of the proximal Plinian LP2 deposits compared to the Minoan fallout on Thera, the Plinian opening phase of the 172 ka LP2 eruption (LP2-A) is regarded by far as the most voluminous of all Plinian eruptive phases on Santorini.

  16. Implications for the Upper Cycladic Unit: petrological, mineralogical and structural study of intrusive rocks from the Late-Cretaceous volcanic-arc in Anafi Island, Cyclades, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsovitis, P.; Soukis, K.; Lozios, S.

    2012-04-01

    Anafi Island is located at the southeastern edge of the Attic-Cycladic complex and is one of the few Cycladic islands composed solely by upper plate units, which are now found in the form of scattered relics in the central Aegean. The structure of the island consists of a series of thrust sheets which include from bottom to top: a non-metamorphosed flysch of partly Eocene age; greenschist facies metabasites; massive to plate amphibolites; a sequence of upper amphibolite facies meta-sediments and ophiolitic rocks, intruded by intermediate magmatic rocks; marbles and large bodies of felsic intrusive magmatic rocks. The age of the intrusive rocks within the two uppermost thrust sheets is late Cretaceous, (~85 Ma[1]). Mineral chemistry analyses of the intermediate and felsic rocks show that they include quartz, plagioclases (andesines, oligoclases and rarely labradorites), K-feldspars, amphiboles (magnesiohornblendes rarely tremolite), and biotite. The presence of quartz and biotite increases in the most felsic rocks while hornblendes less often appear. These rocks present subophitic textural features, between amphiboles and plagioclases, but also granitic textures in rocks where quartz is in a relatively high modal percentage. Structural observations reveal minor or no ductile deformation (rare undulose extinction in quartz). Based on CIPW and whole-rock chemistry results intrusive rocks are classified as quartz monzodiorites and granodiorites of calc-alkaline affinity[2]. They present subparallel REE patterns, enriched in LREE [(La/Yb)CN=6.1-20.3], with slight to moderate negative Eu anomalies (EuCN/Eu*=0.75-0.97). Their primitive mantle normalized patterns are also subparallel, enriched in LILE elements, such as Cs, Rb, Ba and K. Their Nb and Ta normalized values are lower than the normalized Th, U, K and La. Positive anomalies are noticed for Pb, negative for Ti and slightly negative to none for Zr. These features, along with their high Th/Yb ratios relative to Nb

  17. The anatomy of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Sifnos Island (Cyclades, Greece): implications for exhumation model of high-pressure rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Vincent; Laurent, Valentin; Jolivet, Laurent; Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    Key words.- Aegean sea, Cyclades, Sifnos, high pressure and low temperature metamorphism, syn-orogenic exhumation, post-orogenic extension, strain localization. Since 35 Ma, the kinematics of the Aegean domain has been mainly controlled by the southward retreat of the African slab, inducing backarc extension. The main structures and associated kinematic are well constrained, but the kinematics of deformation before 35 Ma, coeval with the exhumation of blueschists and eclogites of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, has been so far poorly studied. Hence, syn-orogenic deformation and exhumation mechanisms of the Cycladic Blueschists Unit remain disputed in part because the structure and kinematic history of High Pressure and Low Temperature (HP-LT) rocks are interpreted differently in the literature. In order to understand and constrain the exhumation history of HP-LT rocks, Sifnos Island is particularly relevant because HP-LT parageneses are exceptionally well preserved and different degree of retrogression are observed in two main units. The aims of this work attempts at firstly solving uncertainties on the position and geometry of major contacts between units and, secondly, to provide new structural constraints on the tectonic history of HP-LT units generated in the subduction zone during the Eocene. We show, through new geological and metamorphic maps, cross-sections and analyses of kinematic indicators and their relation to metamorphism, that Sifnos is characterized by shallow-dipping shear zones reactivating weak zones due to competence contrasts or earlier tectonic contacts (i.e., syn-orogenic). Structures and kinematics, associated with these shear zones, show a top-to-the-N to -NE ductile shearing deformation. A continuum of deformation can be observed from the Eocene syn-orogenic blueschist-facies to the Oligocene-Miocene post-orogenic greenschist-facies with the same top-to-the-NE sense of shear showing that the same shear zones, formed during syn

  18. Soil gas composition from the 2001-2002 fissure in the Lakki Plain (Nisyros Island, Greece): evidences for shallow hydrothermal fluid circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Stefania; Tassi, Franco; Kanellopoulos, Christos; Vaselli, Orlando; Caponi, Chiara; Ricci, Andrea; Raspanti, Alessio; Gallorini, Andrea; Cabassi, Jacopo; Vougioukalakis, Georges

    2016-04-01

    Nisyros volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece) is currently classified in the "Very High Threat" category (Kinvig et al., 2010). Although the last volcanic activity, consisting of phreatic eruptions, occurred in the 19th century, Nisyros experienced an intense seismic activity during 1996-1998 accompanied by ground deformation and changes in the chemistry of fumarolic gases (Chiodini et al., 2002), pointing to a renewed unrest. Between November 2001 and December 2002, a NNE-oriented 600 m long fissure opened in the vegetated central part of the Lakki Plain. The fissure, 1-5 m wide and up to 15-20 m deep, showed neither vertical displacements nor gas release. No changes in the seismic and volcanic activity were observed during or after this event, which was interpreted as related to collapse of the upper caldera floor fine sediment cover (<50 m thick) induced by hydrothermal fluid circulation (Vougioukalakis and Fytikas, 2005). In June 2015, diffuse CO2 flux measurements, in combination with sampling and chemical analysis of the interstitial soil gases, were performed in (i) the fissure bottom, (ii) the adjacent vegetated areas in the Lakki Plain, (iii) the near hydrothermal craters (Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos domes), and (iv) sites located outside the caldera (blank values). The fissure showed neither temperature (<30 °C) nor CO2 fluxes (<10 gm-2d-1) anomalies with respect to the blank sites and the Lakki Plain, with values strikingly lower than those measured in the hydrothermal craters (up to 98 °C and 208 gm-2d-1, respectively). Contrarily, the CO2 concentrations in the interstitial soil gases from the fissure (up to 513 mmol/mol) were markedly higher than the background values and comparable with those measured in the craters (up to 841 mmol/mol). Relatively high H2S, H2 and CH4 contents in soil gases from the fissure confirm the hydrothermal origin of these soil gases. However, their CH4/CO2 ratio were lower than those measured in the soil gases from the craters

  19. Interplay of thrust, back-thrust, strike-slip and salt tectonics in a fold and thrust belt system: an example from Zakynthos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelilidis, A.; Papatheodorou, G.; Maravelis, A. G.; Christodoulou, D.; Tserolas, P.; Fakiris, E.; Dimas, X.; Georgiou, N.; Ferentinos, G.

    2016-10-01

    The southwestern flank of the Hellenic fold and thrust belt, situated along the southern edge of the Dinarides-Albanides-Hellenides continental convergent zone, was examined for reconstructing the tectonic deformation. This investigation presents an integrated study of onshore sedimentological and structural analyses, as well as offshore seismic lines, across the Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentary succession in Zakynthos Island. Back-thrust faults, using the Triassic evaporites as decollement surface, during the Pliocene, and coeval diapiric intrusions formed three sub-basins on the hangingwall of the Kalamaki back-thrust fault. This interaction is responsible for the growth of the Skopos Mountain and the soft sediment deformation that formed synclines and slumps, respectively. Back-thrust and strike-slip faults were active during the early Pleistocene, and diapiric intrusions modified the bathymetry on the sea floor, giving rise to slumps and recumbent folds. At least five events of synsedimentary diapiric intrusions have been recognized and are marked by five slump horizons. During the Holocene, the diapiric intrusions between the Kalamaki back-thrust and the Vrachionas anticline could be either related to normal faults or gravitationally driven.

  20. The importance of geological data and derived information in seismic response assessment for urban sites. An example from the Island of Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonios; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude, frequency content and duration of an earthquake ground motion depends mainly on the surrounding geological, tectonic and geomorphological conditions. Numerous reports have been contacted illustrating the necessity of providing accurate geological information in order to estimate the level of seismic hazard. In this context, geological information is the outcome of processing primary, raw field data and geotechnical investigation data that are non - organized and associated with the geological model of the study area. In most cases, the geological information is provided as an advance element, a key component of the "function" that solves any geo-environmental problem and is primarily reflected on analogue or digital maps. The main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance of accurate geological information in the thirteen (13) selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island, in order to estimate the seismic action according to Eurocode (EC8). As an example the detailed geological-geotechnical map of the area around HAN site in Rethymno city, Crete is presented. The research area covers a 250m radius surrounding the RTHE HAN-station at a scale of 1: 2000 with detail description of the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the formations as well as the tectonic features (cracks, upthrust, thrust, etc) of the rock mass. The field survey showed that the RTHE station is founded over limestones and dolomites formations. The formations exhibit very good geomechanical behaviour; however they present extensive fragmentation and karstification. At this particular site the identification of a fault nearby the station proved to be significant information for the geophysical research as the location and orientation of the tectonic setting provided new perspective on the models of seismic wave prorogation. So, the geological data and the induced information along with the tectonic structure of

  1. New boron isotopic evidence for sedimentary and magmatic fluid influence in the shallow hydrothermal vent system of Milos Island (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shein-Fu; You, Chen-Feng; Lin, Yen-Po; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Baltatzis, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Magmatic sources may contribute a significant amount of volatiles in geothermal springs; however, their role is poorly understood in submarine hydrothermal systems worldwide. In this study, new results of B and δ11B in 41 hydrothermal vent waters collected from the shallow hydrothermal system of Milos island in the Aegean Sea were combined with previously published data from other tectonic settings and laboratory experiments to quantify the effects of phase separation, fluid/sediment interaction and magmatic contribution. Two Cl-extreme solutions were identified, high-Cl waters (Cl as high as 2000 mM) and low-Cl waters (Cl < 80 mM). Both sets of waters were characterized by high B/Cl (~ 1.2-5.3 × 10- 3 mol/mol) and extremely low δ11B (1.4-6.3‰), except for the waters with Mg content of near the seawater value and δ11B = 10.3-17.4‰. These high-Cl waters with high B/Cl and low δ11B plot close to the vent waters in sediment-hosted hydrothermal system (i.e., Okinawa Trough) or fumarole condensates from on-land volcanoes, implying B addition from sediment or magmatic fluids plays an important role. This is in agreement with fluid/sediment interactions resulting in the observed B and δ11B, as well as previously reported Br/I/Cl ratios, supporting a scenario of slab-derived fluid addition with elevated B, 11B-rich, and low Br/Cl and I/Cl, which is derived from the dehydration of subducted-sediments. The slab fluid becomes subsequently mixed with the parent magma of Milos. The deep brine reservoir is partially affected by injections of magmatic fluid/gases during degassing. The results presented here are crucial for deciphering the evolution of the brine reservoirs involved in phase separation, fluid/sediment interaction and magmatic contribution in the deep reaction zone of the Milos hydrothermal system; they also have implications in the understanding of the formation of metallic vein mineralization.

  2. Smoking behavior among nurses in rural Greece.

    PubMed

    Stamatopoulou, Eleni; Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Voulioti, Stefania; Christopoulos, George; Pantza, Eleni; Stamatopoulou, Athanasia; Giannopoulos, Dimitris

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that rural health care providers may be at increased risk for tobacco addiction. Few researchers have studied the habitual use of tobacco in rural Greece and no published studies have examined sustained tobacco use by nurses working in these areas or their knowledge and attitudes toward smoking cessation. To explore the above, the authors conducted a questionnaire-based study in 40 health centers in rural mainland and island Greece. Two hundred twenty nurses were surveyed (65% response rate). Thirty-two percent of the nurse respondents were smokers, 54% were non-smokers, and 14% were former smokers. Only 8% of respondents had been trained to assist clients with smoking cessation.

  3. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  4. The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mélange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mélange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt≡12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand

  5. English Language Teaching in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adoniou, Misty

    2001-01-01

    Highlights English language teaching in Greece, both in the government school system and in private English language education, focusing on the teachers, the classrooms, the classroom and syllabus, and inservice support. Discusses English in higher education, opportunities for teachers in Greece, and support for all teachers of English in Greece.…

  6. Divergence preceding island formation among Aegean insular populations of the freshwater snail genus Pseudorientalia (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea).

    PubMed

    Szarowska, Magdalena; Hofman, Sebastian; Osikowski, Artur; Falniowski, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Freshwater snails that inhabit islands are excellent model organisms for testing relationships between geological events and phylogeography, especially in the Aegean region. Although many Aegean islands were searched in the present study, species of the genus Pseudorientalia were only found on Lesvos, Samos, and Chios. Phylogenetic relationships between specimens living on these three islands were analysed using COI and 16S rRNA molecular markers and morphological data. A high level of diversity was found between islands. Genetic distances between clades showed differences high enough for the samples from different islands to be considered distinct species (p-distance: 0.105-0.133). These results are also supported by obvious morphological differences in shell morphology between islands. The mean divergence time between the Lesvos clade and Samos/Chios clade was 24.13 ± 3.30 Mya; between the Samos and Chios clades the divergence time was 14.80 ± 1.11 Mya. Our data suggest that high divergence may have occurred between Pseudorientalia populations during the Upper and Middle Miocene, when the Aegean region was part of a united landmass. It is possible that the observed highly divergent Pseudorientalia clades are relicts of high regional diversity that existed in the past. PMID:25284387

  7. Counseling in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikiosi-Loizos, Maria; Ivey, Allen E.

    2012-01-01

    There is rapid growth in Greece's professional and research activity in counseling, despite the lack of a clear professional identity for the field. It is hoped this will be overcome through the newly started graduate programs. Opportunities, objectives, and strategies for counseling's advancement should be directed toward close and essential…

  8. Alternative Use in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Situating the University of Thessaly in Volos and Larissa, Greece, represents the idea that the university has a role to play in the community, and, therefore, its facilities are integrated within the city. Describes an old factory warehouse converted to create "a building within a building," while preserving style of the former factory in terms…

  9. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  10. Phlebovirus infections in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsergouli, Katerina

    2015-07-01

    Sandfly fever viruses are endemic in the Mediterranean region causing to humans asymptomatic or mild infections to severe neurological syndromes. In order to investigate the epidemiology of phlebovirus infections in Greece, samples from 499 patients with acute febrile illness (50.2% accompanied by neurological symptoms) were tested during 2010-2014 by serological and molecular methods. Phlebovirus infection was detected in 40 (8%) patients, 25 of them presenting acute neurological infection. Most cases were observed in the summer, with a peak in August. Increased number of cases was observed in 2013, and three of them were observed in Athens. Toscana virus lineage C RNA was detected in one encephalitis case, while the serological results showed that most cases were caused by phleboviruses belonging to the sandfly fever Naples virus serocomplex. This study provided the first insight into the epidemiology of phleboviral disease in Greece.

  11. Leptospirosis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kotrotsiou, Tzimoula

    2015-09-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with increased public health concern worldwide. The disease occurs more often in temperate and tropical regions. The present study analyzes the demographic, epidemiological and clinical data of 168 leptospirosis cases laboratory diagnosed in northern Greece during 1998-2014. Most patients were males, aged 50-69 years, working in animal husbandry or farming. Cases were observed more frequently in summer and autumn. Severity of the disease was correlated with presence of pulmonary involvement and hemorrhagic manifestations.

  12. Access to health for refugees in Greece: lessons in inequalities.

    PubMed

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Myrsini; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P

    2016-01-01

    Eastern Greek islands have been direct passageways of (mainly Syrian) refugees to the European continent over the past year. However, basic medical care has been insufficient. Despite calls for reform, the Greek healthcare system has for many years been costly and dysfunctional, lacking universal equity of access. Thus, mainly volunteers look after the refugee camps in the Greek islands under adverse conditions. Communicable diseases, trauma related injuries and mental health problems are the most common issues facing the refugees. The rapid changes in the epidemiology of multiple conditions that are seen in countries with high immigration rates, like Greece, demand pragmatic solutions. Best available knowledge should be used in delivering health interventions. So far, Greece is failed by international aid, and cross-border policies have not effectively tackled underlying reasons for ill-health in this context, like poverty, conflict and equity of access. PMID:27485633

  13. Access to health for refugees in Greece: lessons in inequalities.

    PubMed

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Myrsini; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-02

    Eastern Greek islands have been direct passageways of (mainly Syrian) refugees to the European continent over the past year. However, basic medical care has been insufficient. Despite calls for reform, the Greek healthcare system has for many years been costly and dysfunctional, lacking universal equity of access. Thus, mainly volunteers look after the refugee camps in the Greek islands under adverse conditions. Communicable diseases, trauma related injuries and mental health problems are the most common issues facing the refugees. The rapid changes in the epidemiology of multiple conditions that are seen in countries with high immigration rates, like Greece, demand pragmatic solutions. Best available knowledge should be used in delivering health interventions. So far, Greece is failed by international aid, and cross-border policies have not effectively tackled underlying reasons for ill-health in this context, like poverty, conflict and equity of access.

  14. Magnus Hirschfeld in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vyras, P

    1997-01-01

    In 1932 Magnus Hirschfeld, the eminent German sexologist, visited Greece. It was after a long journey that took him round the world, lecturing about the new science he had created. In the Greek capital his unconventional theories concerning an intermediate "third sex" and his ideas about sexual reform became the object of an attack in the local press. Close examination of the debate which followed reveals some interesting points regarding Hirschfeld's approach to publicity and his attempts to foster an emancipation movement for homosexual issues.

  15. Astronomy Education in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxa, M.

    2006-06-01

    Astronomy, being an interdisciplinary science having to do with economics, technology, biology, chemistry, math, and physics, can enhance students' interest and overcome the educational problems we face daily in the classroom. Astronomy education, as with education in general, requires an approach from different aspects. Through it students must come into contact with their natural, historical, social, and technological environments. Having this in mind, we began to develop further astronomy education in Greece. According to the natural environment approach, the study of variable stars is of extreme interest to Greek students.

  16. Geochemical correlation of surface and subsurface oils, western Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Monopolis, D.; Nicolaou, C.A.; Anders, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Biodegraded seep oils, devoid of n-alkanes and most isoprenoid hydrocarbons, were successfully correlated with subsurface crude oils in western Greece primarily using carbon isotopes and the more microbially resistant tricyclic terpane and aromatic steroid hydrocarbon distributions. All the studied oils seem to fit into three major genetic groups which are consistent with the geologic, tectonic, and geographic settings and are presumably related to different source-rock facies. Group I oils are typical of the abundant oil shows in the Epirus province, northwest Greece. Minor but consistent biomarker differences necessitated subgrouping of the Epirus oils, implying derivation from slightly different sources. Group II oils are located in the Katakolon area, northwestern Peloponnese. Group III oils, which are clearly distinct from the other groups, are centered in Zakynthos Island. An oil seep at Trifos, west central Greece, and a subsurface oil from Paxi Island, because of uncertain correlations, are classed intermediate between Group I and II oils. An aromatic steroid hydrocarbon measurement, modified after Mackenzie et al. (1981), appears useful in determining the relative maturity of biodegraded and conventional oils and carbonate rock extracts. ?? 1986.

  17. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  18. Female genital mutilation in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N; Iavazzo, C; Iliodromiti, Z; Bakalianou, K; Kouiroukidou, P; Creatsas, G

    2012-01-01

    The number of migrants and refugees with a female genital mutilation (FGM) living in Greece is rising. This study explores the characteristics and psychosexual issues of women with FGM who were examined in the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens Medical School, Greece during the year 2009. The women were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire asking for demographic data, obstetric history, current complaints, and psychosexual problems. The results are presented and discussed, as FGM is a new reality for Greece. Healthcare providers have to familiarize themselves with issues related to FGM and improve their skills in transcultural care, so as to manage and support women with FGM adequately.

  19. Corinth Canal, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude

  20. Education and Modernization in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazamias, Andreas M.

    This history of Greek education traces the path of modernization from the emergence of Greece as an independent state in the early 1800's up to the present date. Educational philosophy and content are seen as pawns in the social and political struggles of those years. Detailed coverage of the historical events describes the structure of education…

  1. Adult Education: Greece, November 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, E. K. Townsend

    As part of a UNESCO program to assist the government of Greece in the preparation and implementation of a five-year plan for the development of adult education, an expert in the field and four Fellows were chosen to study adult education trends in Scotland, England, Denmark, France, Switzerland, and the Federal Republic of Germany. As a result of…

  2. The Educational System of Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massialas, Byron G.

    Education in Greece is examined in this document. The first section describes the basic system. Reform legislation of 1976 and 1977 modernized Greek education. The new laws required that school instruction at all levels be given in demotic or spoken Greek rather than formal or purist Greek; that compulsory school attendance be extended from six to…

  3. School Building Organisation in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the past and current organizational structure of Greece's School Building Organisation, a body established to work with government agencies in the design and construction of new buildings and the provisioning of educational equipment. Future planning to incorporate culture and creativity, sports, and laboratory learning in modern school…

  4. Street Children in Contemporary Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altanis, Panagiotis; Goddard, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the problem of street children in Greece, within the context of global research on street children. The article draws on preliminary findings from recent research on street children in the urban centre of Athens. This is an under-researched area, with weak policy responses to a problem associated with recent…

  5. Check list and zoogeographic analysis of the scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) of Greece.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Chadzidimitriou, Evangelia; Milonas, Panagiotis; Stathas, George J; Kozár, Ferenc

    2015-09-02

    This paper presents an updated checklist of the Greek scale insect fauna and the results of the first zoogeographic analysis of the Greek scale insect fauna. According to the latest data, the scale insect fauna of the whole Greek territory includes 207 species; of which 187 species are recorded from mainland Greece and the minor islands, whereas only 87 species are known from Crete. The most rich families are the Diaspididae (with 86 species), followed by Coccidae (with 35 species) and Pseudococcidae (with 34 species). In this study the results of a zoogeographic analysis of scale insect fauna from mainland Greece and Crete are also presented. Five species, four from mainland Greece and one from Crete are considered to be endemic. Comparison with the scale insect fauna of other countries is provided.

  6. 61 FR 25729 - Security Measures; Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-05-22

    ... Security Measures; Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece Summary The Secretary of Transportation has now determined that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, maintains and carries out... that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, did not maintain and carry out...

  7. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities. PMID:23766749

  8. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Pallantzas, A.; Kourakos, P.; Stampolidis, N.; Papagianni, E.; Balagoura, A.; Stathopoulos, A.; Polizoi, A.; Emvalomata, A.; Evaggelopoulou, M.; Castana, O.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a “rocket war”. The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department’s experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities. PMID:23766749

  9. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  10. History of leucotomies in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ploumpidis, D; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2015-03-01

    In order to present the social, scientific and institutional context which permitted the use of leucotomies in Greece, we have reviewed the Archives of the Medical Associations, the medical literature of the years 1946-56, a reader's dissertation and the memoirs of two psychiatrists. More than 250 leucotomies were done in the two public psychiatric hospitals in Athens from 1947 to 1954, as well as 40 leucotomies in the public psychiatric hospital in Thessaloniki. Although aware of the side effects, psychiatrists justified the use of the procedure. The performance of leucotomies in Greece declined because of reports of the dangers of the operation and its unpredictable outcome for the patients, but mainly because of the encouraging results with psychotropic drugs in the early 1950s.

  11. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (5th, Chania, Greece, June 19-21, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Educational Data Mining Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2012) is held in picturesque Chania on the beautiful Crete island in Greece, under the auspices of the International Educational Data Mining Society (IEDMS). The EDM 2012 conference is a leading international forum for high quality research that mines large data sets of educational…

  12. Metamorphic style and development of the blueschist- to eclogite-facies rocks, Cyclades, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, J. C.; Brady, J. B.; Cheney, J. T.

    2008-07-01

    The island of Syros, Greece is part of the Attic-Cycladic blueschist belt, formed during Mesozoic Eurasia-Africa subduction. The rocks of Syros can be broadly divided into three tectono-stratigraphic units: (I) metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks (marble-schist sequence), (II) remnants of oceanic crust with fault-bounded packages of blueschist/eclogite-facies mafic rocks and serpentinite (mafic-ultramafic rocks) and (III) the Vari gneiss, which is a tectonic klippe. Low-temperature, high-pressure assemblages are found on several islands in the Cyclades. The best preserved of these rocks are on Syros and Sifnos islands. Mineral compositions and peak metamorphic assemblages are similar on both islands. Both islands are considered to share similar P-T histories with highest-pressure mineral assemblages reflecting conditions of at least 15 kbar and about 500°C.

  13. A Critical Bibliography of Materials on Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witzel, Anne; Chapman, Rosemary

    This critical annotated bibliography of books on Greece is approached from a visitor's rather than a Greek's point of view. As it is very difficult to obtain books about modern Greece, in English, by Greeks, it has been necessary to rely mainly upon the impressions of non-Greeks, usually Englishmen or Americans, who have lived and traveled in that…

  14. Information in Educational Decision Making in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassimati, Koula

    This Unesco report, one in a series, examines the sources of data used in educational decision making in Greece and proposes innovations in the information system to promote educational planning. The main source of quantitative data is the National Statistical Service of Greece which regularly publishes data concerned with all educational levels.…

  15. The History of Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…

  16. [Suicide rates and mental health services in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Tsouvelas, G; Kontaxakis, V

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have shown that access to mental health services can have an impact on mental health outcomes, including the suicide rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between regional and prefecture suicide rates (suicides per 100.000 residents) and both the number of primary and mental health-care service providers and the number of mental health infrastructures in Greece. Data were taken mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.) and the Ministry of Health for the period 2002-2009. Spearman correlations were used to examine the relationship between primary health-care, mental health providers and suicide rates per 100,000 residents at the prefecture, administrative region and geographical region levels. Men showed significantly higher suicide rates than women (U=-7.20, p<0.001). For the period 2002-2009, the highest suicide rate at the prefecture level were in Rethymno (6.99), Rodopi (5.62) and Zakynthos (5.28). For the same period, the highest suicide rates at the geographical level were in Peloponnisos (4.01), Ionian Islands (4.03) and Grete (3.65). Increase in suicide rates (2009 vs 2002-2009) was observed in the following geographical regions of Greece: Crete (4.76 vs 3.65), Thrace (4.45 vs 2.02) Central Greece (3.61 vs 1.39) Aegean Islands (3.03 vs 1.28). The highest correlations between suiciderutes and health services at the geographic regional level were found to be during the period 2007-2009, where suicide rates showed a significant negative correlation with privately practicing psychiatrists (rho=-0.71, p<0.05), privately practicing psychologists (rho=-0.56, p<0.05), pathologists (rho=-0.73, p<0.01), and the number of the official mental health services (psychiatric clinics, day centers, mobile mental health units etc.) (rho=-0.73, p<0.01). In conclusion it was found that at all regional levels, suicide rates were reversely related to the number of primary health-care and mental health service providers, as

  17. Metallic mineral resources of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirambides, Ananias; Filippidis, Anestis

    2012-12-01

    Today Greece produces and exports raw bauxite and alumina, concentrates of galena and sphalerite and ferronickel. The indicated reserves of bauxite, located in the Mt Helikon-Mt Parnassus-Mt Giona-Mt Iti zone, are estimated at approximately 100 mt and those of aluminum 2.5 mt. The probable and indicated reserves of lead and zinc from Chalkidiki are approximately 3.125 mt. The total production of concentrates of galena and sphalerite is approximately 220,000 tpa. The proven reserves of nickel are approximately 1.392 mt and the production of ferronickel is approximately 18,500 tpa. Production of copper, silver and gold is pending in 2015. The probable and indicated reserves of copper from Skouries Chalkidiki are approximately 1.943 mt. In the Prefecture Units of Chalkidiki and Evros the probable and indicated reserves of gold are approximately 19.37 million ounces and those of silver 131.6 million ounces. Chromium, manganese and molybdenum present good prospects of exploitation. Calculated at current prices, the total gross value of the probable and indicated reserves of the metallic minerals of Greece is €79.4 billion.

  18. Description of female nymphal instars and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) based on specimens from Crete and mainland Greece, with a discussion on geographical variation.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Francesco; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2014-10-22

    The first-instar nymph, second- and third-instar female nymphs and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated; micrographs of morphological details are also provided. The species was collected on the island of Crete (Greece) and on mainland Greece, new localities for this species, and are compared with Israeli specimens from where it was originally described.

  19. The larvae of Hydropsyche rhadamanthys Malicky 2001 and Hydropsyche sarpedon Malicky 2001 (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae), endemics of Crete (South Aegean, Greece), with notes on their ecology.

    PubMed

    Karaouzas, Ioannis

    2016-04-04

    The larvae of Hydropsyche rhadamanthys Malicky 2001 and Hydropsyche sarpedon Malicky 2001, endemics of Crete Island, Greece, are described for the first time. The diagnostic features of the species are described and illustrated, and some information regarding their ecology is included. In addition, diagnostic characters for larvae of the known Aegean Hydropsyche species are provided.

  20. Using Educational Webcasts in Small Multigrade Schools of Isolated Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakos, Michail N.; Vlamos, Panayiotis

    2012-01-01

    In this study primary schools' educational system in small and isolated islands of Greece is presented. These areas are characterized by inaccessibility and isolation as it happens in most multigrade schools. For facing the difficulties of multigrade schooling, curriculums should be engaged with different learning strategies. In this case study…

  1. GREECE Sounding Rocket Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.; Hampton, D. L.; Jahn, J. M.; Donovan, E.; Gustavsson, B.; Lanchester, B. S.; McHarg, M. G.; Spanswick, E.; Trondsen, T. S.; Valek, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    On 03 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT the Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska . It reached an apogee of approximately 335 km over the native village of Venetie during a dynamic post-midnight auroral event. A wide range of precipitating electrons were measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) and Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), cumulatively covering 300 ev to 200 keV in varying time resolutions. DC to low frequency electric and magnetic fields were measured at the same time and a langmuir probe was also employed. In addition to the on board instrumentation a suite of ground based imagers was deployed under apogee. We used several electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) with different filters and field of views imaging along magnetic zenith. This yielded multi-emission line information about the auroral brightness at the magnetic footprint of the rocket critical for our main goal of exploring the correlation of the sheer flows often observed in high resolution imagery during aurora and the in situ signatures of precipitating particles and waves. The instruments used will be discussed in further detail along with preliminary results of an event rich in particle and wave signatures.

  2. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bazas, T.; Oakes, D.; Gilson, J.C.; Bazas, B.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified.

  3. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure and distribution of natural radioactivity in beach sands associated with plutonic rocks of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Koroneos, Antonios; Christofides, Georgios; Stoulos, Stylianos

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Th and 40K along beaches of Greece associated with plutonic rocks. They range from 6-940, 1-2292, 5-10143, 5-9953 and 27-1319 Bq/kg respectively, with some of them representing the highest values of natural radioactivity measured in sediments in Greece. The investigated beaches include Sithonia peninsula (Chalkidiki, N. Greece), some islands of the Aegean Sea (Mykonos, Paros, Naxos, Serifos, Ikaria), the area of Kavala (N. Greece), Samothraki island, NE Chalkidiki and Maronia (NE Greece). Several of these places are associated with high touristic activity such as Mykonos, Naxos, Paros, Serifos, Ikaria, Sithonia and Kavala. The (% wt.) heavy magnetic fraction (HM) (allanite, amphibole, mica, clinopyroxene, magnetite and hematite), the heavy non-magnetic fraction (HNM) (monazite, zircon, titanite and apatite) and the total heavy fraction (TH), were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main 238U and 232Th mineral carrier. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. The highest values of the equivalent dose have been reported in Mykonos, Naxos, Kavala and Sithonia. The annual equivalent dose which should be limited to at least 1 mSv y-1, varies between 0.003 and 0.759 mSv y-1 for tourists and from 0.012 to 3.164 mSv y-1 for local people working on the beach.

  4. New archaeointensity results from archaeological sites and variation of the geomagnetic field intensity for the last 7 millennia in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Kondopoulou, D.

    In this study six new intensity determinations are presented, obtained from five well dated archaeological sites, located in northern Greece and in Paros, Cyclades Islands. The fired structures consisted of ceramic and pottery kilns belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Between 8 and 21 samples of highly fired baked clays, tiles and bricks were taken, homogeneously distributed over the structures. The samples were analysed using the classical Thellier method, providing the past intensities and directions of the geomagnetic field recorded at each site. The intensity values have been corrected for anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetisation and cooling rate effects. Differences in the mean archaeointensities per site ranging from 1% to 11%, before and after TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, were obtained. The new results indicate a decrease of 20% of the geomagnetic field strength in Greece, during the last four centuries BC. In order to compare our results with previously published data, a catalogue of archaeo- and palaeointensity results for the Aegean area has been established, covering the last 7 millennia. It consists of 336 data from Greece, western Turkey and Former Yugoslavia, collected from various authors. Weighting factors have been applied to these data, that then have been treated with a hierarchical Bayesian modelling, and a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for Greece was constructed. A good agreement is observed when comparing the curve for Greece with the Bulgarian secular variation curve (SVC) for intensity. Satisfactory coincidence is also found with the archaeointensity data from Mesopotamia. Despite the presence of some time gaps, a more precise secular variation intensity curve has been constructed for Greece which, combined with a forthcoming directional SVC, will help for dating purposes.

  5. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  6. Stirring the Waters: University INSET in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheoudakis, Marina; Nicolaidis, Katerina

    2005-01-01

    In view of the increasing demand for in-service training in Greece, the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki launched English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher training courses, offered for the first time by a Greek state university. This paper discusses issues regarding the design and running of the courses as well as briefly presenting trainee…

  7. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Triantos, Christos; Konstantakis, Christos; Tselekouni, Paraskeui; Kalafateli, Maria; Aggeletopoulou, Ioanna; Manolakopoulos, Spilios

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a global health issue and constitutes a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In this article, a comprehensive literature search was conducted for the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Greece, since data on the HCV prevalence, viremia and genotypes are important for developing strategies to manage or eliminate HCV infection. In addition, the pattern of HCV infection was analyzed according to the geographic region and the risk factors. These differences reflect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among populations, but also differences on the strategy of data acquisition and quantification. Although there are not enough data, the estimation of the current prevalence of Hepatitis C in Greece ranges from 0.5% to 2%. The most important risk factors for HCV infection include blood product transfusion, intravenous drug use, chronic hemodialysis, organ transplantation, occupational exposure, sexual transmission, and vertical transmission. Because of lack of vaccine or effective post-exposure prophylaxis for HCV, the main focus of prevention is to recognize and control these risk factors. HCV infection in Greece is closely associated with the development of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. As far as the genotype distribution is concerned genotype 1 estimated to be 45%-47% and it constitutes the prevalent genotype in Greece, followed by genotype 3.

  8. Women of Ancient Greece: Participating in Sport?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.

    Based on evidence obtained from Greek literature and artifacts, this paper examines the extent to which women in ancient Greece participated in physical activity, sports, and games. Homer's "Odyssey" describes women playing ball and driving chariots; vases dating back to 700-675 B.C. portray women driving light chariots in a procession; a girl…

  9. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  10. The Preparation of School Psychologists in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of school psychologists in Greece. It discusses the social and cultural contexts that have influenced the evolution of the discipline of psychology, the beginning of training programs in school psychology, and the current status of school psychological services. The structure of the Graduate Program of School…

  11. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Greece.

    PubMed

    Triantos, Christos; Konstantakis, Christos; Tselekouni, Paraskeui; Kalafateli, Maria; Aggeletopoulou, Ioanna; Manolakopoulos, Spilios

    2016-09-28

    Hepatitis C is a global health issue and constitutes a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In this article, a comprehensive literature search was conducted for the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Greece, since data on the HCV prevalence, viremia and genotypes are important for developing strategies to manage or eliminate HCV infection. In addition, the pattern of HCV infection was analyzed according to the geographic region and the risk factors. These differences reflect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among populations, but also differences on the strategy of data acquisition and quantification. Although there are not enough data, the estimation of the current prevalence of Hepatitis C in Greece ranges from 0.5% to 2%. The most important risk factors for HCV infection include blood product transfusion, intravenous drug use, chronic hemodialysis, organ transplantation, occupational exposure, sexual transmission, and vertical transmission. Because of lack of vaccine or effective post-exposure prophylaxis for HCV, the main focus of prevention is to recognize and control these risk factors. HCV infection in Greece is closely associated with the development of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. As far as the genotype distribution is concerned genotype 1 estimated to be 45%-47% and it constitutes the prevalent genotype in Greece, followed by genotype 3. PMID:27688651

  12. Survey of Beta nana in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild species Beta nana is a crop wild relative of cultivated beets and a potential genetic resource for beet breeding. It is a rare but currently not threatened alpine species endemic to Greece which may be prone to extinction risk from climate warming in future. A plant exploration was conducte...

  13. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Triantos, Christos; Konstantakis, Christos; Tselekouni, Paraskeui; Kalafateli, Maria; Aggeletopoulou, Ioanna; Manolakopoulos, Spilios

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a global health issue and constitutes a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In this article, a comprehensive literature search was conducted for the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Greece, since data on the HCV prevalence, viremia and genotypes are important for developing strategies to manage or eliminate HCV infection. In addition, the pattern of HCV infection was analyzed according to the geographic region and the risk factors. These differences reflect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among populations, but also differences on the strategy of data acquisition and quantification. Although there are not enough data, the estimation of the current prevalence of Hepatitis C in Greece ranges from 0.5% to 2%. The most important risk factors for HCV infection include blood product transfusion, intravenous drug use, chronic hemodialysis, organ transplantation, occupational exposure, sexual transmission, and vertical transmission. Because of lack of vaccine or effective post-exposure prophylaxis for HCV, the main focus of prevention is to recognize and control these risk factors. HCV infection in Greece is closely associated with the development of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. As far as the genotype distribution is concerned genotype 1 estimated to be 45%-47% and it constitutes the prevalent genotype in Greece, followed by genotype 3. PMID:27688651

  14. Development of a Coastal Inventory in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Ghionis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Andreadis, Olympos; Monioudi, Isavella

    2015-04-01

    Greek coastline that accounts more than 16.000 km hosts hundreds of beaches, which constitute a great touristic destination. However, no gathered information exists relative to its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (e.g. physicogeographical characteristics, artificial structures, nearby land use). Therefore, the development of a coastal database that would successfully concentrate all relative data, in the form of a National Inventory, could be a valuable tool for the management and the sustainable use and exploitation of beaches and the coastal zone. This work presents an example of the development of a beach inventory in the case of the beach zones of Heraklion and Lassithi counties in the Island of Crete, which is one of the most touristic areas in Greece. Data were initially abstracted from satellite images and combined with in situ observations carried out along 98 beaches with shoreline length >100 m. The collected data included geomorphological, topographic and bathymetric mapping, sediment sampling from the subaerial and underwater part and recording of artificial structures. The initial mapping showed that beaches represent only the 18%, with 74% of the total coastline to be rocky while 8% of the coastline host some kind of artificial intervention. The combination of satellite and in situ mapping led to the development of a coastal geomorphological map. Beach widths were found to be limited with the majority of beaches (59%) to have maximum widths less than 25 m, 35% to range between 25 and 50m and about 6% with maximum widths >50m. Concerning beach length, the threshold of 1000 m is overcome only by the 46% of the beaches. Beaches with very smooth slopes (<2.5) are infrequent (~6%), whilst beaches with low slopes (2.5-5%) are the majority (42%) along with beaches with moderate slopes (5-7.5%) that account approximately the 32%. Beaches with high slopes (7.5-10%) are about 11%, whereas very high slopes and extremely high slopes are much less

  15. Seasonality analysis of hydrological characteristics and flash flood events in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroulis, A. G.; Tsanis, I. K.

    2009-04-01

    The seasonality of flash flood occurrence is strongly connected to the climate forcing mechanisms of each region. Hydrological characteristics such as precipitation and stream flow depict the regional climate mechanisms. Comparison of daily and mean monthly seasonality of selected precipitation and runoff characteristics reveals valuable information within the context of flood occurrence. The present study presents the preliminary findings of the seasonality analysis of flash flood events that occurred in Greece during the 1925 - 2007 period in combination with a seasonality analysis of their hydrological characteristics. A two level approach at national (Greece) and regional (Crete Island) level was followed, using a total of 206 flood events. Twenty two of these flood events enriched the European Flash Flood database, which is being developed in the HYDRATE project. The analysis of hydrological characteristics through seasonality indices was based on a dataset of 83 monthly and daily precipitation stations and additionally 22 monthly and 15 daily flow stations. Analysis concludes that on the island of Crete, the flood event-based seasonality coincides with the seasonality of the daily precipitation maxima during December and January. The seasonality of the 3 largest long term daily precipitation maxima indicates that 50% of the maximum precipitation events occur during and the November -December - January (NDJ) period. The event based seasonality analysis for Greece indicated that 57% of the events occur during the NDJ period. The annual maximum daily precipitation is lagging behind by approximately one month to the maximum annual stream flows for Crete. This is due to the snow melting process, the low soil percolation rates of winter period and the high baseflow of the local karstic aquifers that contribute to the maximum flows. The results will be compared with six different hydrometeorological regions within Europe in the frame of HYDRATE project, in order to

  16. 69 FR 11040 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa AGENCY... terminating its antidumping investigations on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland... dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa (investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048 and...

  17. 61 FR 13917 - Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece; Notification of Ineffective Security Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece; Notification of Ineffective... Republic of Greece that I had determined that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, did...

  18. Essential-oil diversity of Salvia tomentosa Mill. in Greece.

    PubMed

    Hanlidou, Effie; Karousou, Regina; Lazari, Diamanto

    2014-08-01

    Salvia tomentosa essential oils from Greece were studied for the first time here. The oils from five populations growing in Mediterranean pine forests on the island of Thassos (northern Aegean Sea) and from 14 populations situated in deciduous forests in Thrace (northeastern Greek mainland) were investigated. Their essential-oil contents ranged from 1.1 to 3.3% (v/w, based on the dry weight of the plant material). The populations from Thassos had high contents of α-pinene (18.0 ± 2.9%), 1,8-cineole (14.7 ± 3.0%), cis-thujone (14.0 ± 6.9%), and borneol (12.8 ± 2.2%) and smaller amounts of camphene, camphor, and β-pinene, whereas the populations from Thrace showed high α-pinene (16.7 ± 4.0%), β-pinene (22.8 ± 4.5%), camphor (18.3 ± 4.3%), and camphene (10.3 ± 2.4%) contents, much lower 1,8-cineole and borneol amounts, while cis-thujone was completely lacking. The comparison of the present results with published data showed that oils having cis-thujone as one of the main compounds were reported for the first time here. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the observed essential-oil variation was related to geographical and environmental factors.

  19. Problems experienced by haemodialysis patients in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kaba, E; Bellou, P; Iordanou, P; Andrea, S; Kyritsi, E; Gerogianni, G; Zetta, S; Swigart, V

    Even though Greece has a disproportionate number of haemodialysis stations for the treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and a rapidly rising number of patients on dialysis, there has been no study of the lived experience of haemodialysis treatment in Greece. ESRD and dialysis drastically impact patients' everyday life, therefore expectations and desires play a major role in adapting to alterations and restrictions. An understanding of these culturally-influenced expectations and desires is essential for the delivery of holistic nursing care. This study aimed to explore how Greek patients receiving long-term haemodialysis perceived their problems and to describe the impact of haemodialysis on their lives. Using a grounded theory approach, 23 patients with ESRD receiving haemodialysis were purposively recruited from two hospital dialysis centres in Athens, Greece. Data were collected during 2006 by personal interviews. Given a distinctive patient experience of haemodialysis, some insight into their common concerns can facilitate provision of healthcare services that adequately meets their needs. By developing an understanding of the experience of renal illness and therapy for a group of people using dialysis, this study was intended as a contribution towards enabling healthcare professionals to provide more effective support to people who are living with this chronic condition.

  20. Determinants of stillbirth mortality in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petridou, E; Kotsifakis, G; Revinthi, K; Polychronopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D

    1996-01-01

    A population-based case-control study of the determinants of stillbirths was conducted in Greece from 1989 to 1991. All reported stillbirths after 28 weeks of pregnancy (N = 2,006) during the three year study period comprised the case group. The control group derived from random sampling of 10% of all livebirths in Greece, during the same period (N = 30,705). The data were analysed by modelling through multiple logistic regression. The adjusted relative risk of stillbirth was significantly higher for males compared to females. A statistically significant monotonic increase in relative risk was observed with shorter gestational age, low maternal education, and older maternal age. Birthweight and parity showed a statistically significant U-shaped association with stillbirth risk, with a higher risk being observed among both low and high birthweight deliveries, as well as among primiparous or multiparous (4+) mothers. Positive associations of stillbirth with multiple births, out-of-wedlock marriage and non-Greek-orthodox maternal religion were noted in crude analyses, but these associations almost disappeared in logistic regression model. Maternal urban or rural residence showed no relation to risk. Overall, the prospective risk of stillbirth after the 24th week of gestation in Greece has been estimated to be higher than that in Japan (a more developed country) with more than 40% of stillbirths occurring after the 36th week of pregnancy. PMID:8693809

  1. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910

  2. First description of a fossil chamaeleonid from Greece and its relevance for the European biogeographic history of the group.

    PubMed

    Georgalis, Georgios L; Villa, Andrea; Delfino, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    The fossil record of Chamaeleonidae is very scarce and any new specimen is therefore considered important for our understanding of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. New specimens from the early Miocene of Aliveri (Evia Island), Greece constitute the only fossils of these lizards from southeastern Europe. Skull roofing material is tentatively attributed to the Czech species Chamaeleo cf. andrusovi, revealing a range extension for this taxon, whereas tooth-bearing elements are described as indeterminate chamaeleonids. The Aliveri fossils rank well among the oldest known reptiles from Greece, provide evidence for the dispersal routes of chameleons out of Africa towards the European continent and, additionally, imply strong affinities with coeval chamaeleonids from Central Europe. PMID:26820299

  3. First description of a fossil chamaeleonid from Greece and its relevance for the European biogeographic history of the group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgalis, Georgios L.; Villa, Andrea; Delfino, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    The fossil record of Chamaeleonidae is very scarce and any new specimen is therefore considered important for our understanding of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. New specimens from the early Miocene of Aliveri (Evia Island), Greece constitute the only fossils of these lizards from southeastern Europe. Skull roofing material is tentatively attributed to the Czech species Chamaeleo cf. andrusovi, revealing a range extension for this taxon, whereas tooth-bearing elements are described as indeterminate chamaeleonids. The Aliveri fossils rank well among the oldest known reptiles from Greece, provide evidence for the dispersal routes of chameleons out of Africa towards the European continent and, additionally, imply strong affinities with coeval chamaeleonids from Central Europe.

  4. First description of a fossil chamaeleonid from Greece and its relevance for the European biogeographic history of the group.

    PubMed

    Georgalis, Georgios L; Villa, Andrea; Delfino, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    The fossil record of Chamaeleonidae is very scarce and any new specimen is therefore considered important for our understanding of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. New specimens from the early Miocene of Aliveri (Evia Island), Greece constitute the only fossils of these lizards from southeastern Europe. Skull roofing material is tentatively attributed to the Czech species Chamaeleo cf. andrusovi, revealing a range extension for this taxon, whereas tooth-bearing elements are described as indeterminate chamaeleonids. The Aliveri fossils rank well among the oldest known reptiles from Greece, provide evidence for the dispersal routes of chameleons out of Africa towards the European continent and, additionally, imply strong affinities with coeval chamaeleonids from Central Europe.

  5. Nectar Secretion and Bee Guild Characteristics of Yellow Star-Thistle on Santa Cruz Island and Lesvos: Where Have the Honey Bees Gone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared nectar secretion rates and bee guilds of yellow star-thistle, Centaurea solstitialis on Santa Cruz Island (USA) and the Northeast Aegean Island of Lesvos (Greece). This plant species is non-native and highly invasive in the western USA but native to Eurasia (including Lesvos). "Nectar ...

  6. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  7. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Academic Libraries in Greece: The Present Situation and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Dean H., Ed.

    The purpose of this collection of essays is to examine academic libraries in Greece at a time when the potential for changes and advance in librarianship is great. The 15 papers are as follows: "International Interlibrary Cooperation: Exchanging Goals, Values and Culture" (Don L. Tolliver); "Academic Libraries in Greece" (James Krikelas);…

  9. Educational Reform in Greece: Central Concepts and a Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounari, Panayota; Grollios, George

    2012-01-01

    The case of Greece as the most recent neoliberal experiment can provide valuable insights not only about a generalized attack on the welfare state and the public good, but also about the radical changes in public education that are altering its public mission, vision, and goals. In this paper first we trace the educational landscape in Greece as…

  10. 64 FR 23675 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-05-03

    ... orders on imports of electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece and Japan (54 FR 15243). The Commission..., including the text of subpart F of part 207, are published at 63 FR 30599, June 5, 1998, and may be... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  11. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  12. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  13. Radon survey in Greece--risk assesment.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Louizi, Anna; Koukouliou, Virginia; Serefoglou, Athina; Georgiou, Evangelos; Ntalles, Konstantinos; Proukakis, Charalambos

    2002-01-01

    A large scale radon survey using track etch detectors has been carried out from 1995 to 1998 in Greece in order to estimate the radon concentrations in Greek dwellings and the exposure of the Greek population to radon. The total data set consisted of 1,277 samples. Residential potential alpha energy concentration values ranged between (0.024 +/- 0.009) and (8 +/- 1) WLM per year (P < 0.05) and effective doses between (0.09 +/- 0.04) and (28 +/- 4) mSv (P < 0.05). The mean lifetime risk for the Greek population due to radon was found to be 0.4%.

  14. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    PubMed

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy.

  15. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model

  16. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity?

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-09-01

    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece. PMID:24043676

  17. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model

  18. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  19. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  20. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... of the Mariana Islands in 1914 (the first year of World War l) and Germany released the islands to Japan in 1919. Japan received a ... States by the United Nations. The wreckage of a World War II B-29 Superfortress, a four-engine propeller-driven bomber, lies on the north ...

  1. A Comprehensive Mathematical Model for the Correlation of Earthquake Magnitude with Geochemical Measurements. A Case Study: the Nisyros Volcano in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Verros, G. D.; Latsos, T.; Liolios, C.; Anagnostou, K. E.

    2009-08-13

    A comprehensive mathematical model for the correlation of geological phenomena such as earthquake magnitude with geochemical measurements is presented in this work. This model is validated against measurements, well established in the literature, of {sup 220}Rn/{sup 222}Rn in the fumarolic gases of the Nisyros Island, Aegean Sea, Greece. It is believed that this model may be further used to develop a generalized methodology for the prediction of geological phenomena such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in the vicinity of the Nisyros Island.

  2. Caldera development during the Minoan eruption, Thira, Cyclades, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; McCoy F. Jr.

    1984-09-30

    The well-known caldera of Thira (Santorini), Greece, was not formed during a single eruption but is composed of two overlapping calderas superimposed upon a complex volcanic field that developed along a NE trending line of vents. Before the Minoan eruption of 1400 B.C., Thira consisted of three lava shields in the northern half of the island and a flooded depression surrounded by tuff deposits in the southern half. Andesitic lavas formed the overlapping shields of the north and were contemporaneous with and, in many places, interbedded with the southern tuff deposits. Although there appears to be little difference between the composition of magmas erupted, differences in eruption style indicate that most of the activity in the northern half of the volcanic field was subaerial, producing lava flows, whereas in the south, eruptions within a flooded depression produced a sequence of mostly phreatomagmatic tuffs. Many of these tuffs are plastered onto the walls of what appears to have been an older caldera, most probably associated with an eruption of rhyodiacitic tephra 100,000 years ago. The Minoan eruption of about 1400 B.C. had four distinct phases, each reflecting a different vent geometry and eruption mechanism. The Minoan activity was preceded by minor eruptions of fine ash. (1) The eruption began with a Plinian phase, from subaerial vent(s) located on the easternmost of the lave shields. (2) Vent(s) grew toward the SW into the flooded depression. Subsequent activity deposited large-scale base surge deposits during vent widening by phreatomagnetic activity. (3) The third eruptive phase was also phreatomagmatic and produced 60% of the volume of the Minoan Tuff. This activity was nearly continuous and formed a large featureless tuff ring with poorly defined bedding.

  3. Estimating the efficiency of P/V systems under a changing climate - the case study of Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillakis, Manolis; Panagea, Ioanna; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    The effect of climate change on P/V output is studied for the region of Greece. Solar radiation and temperature data from 9 RCMs of ENSEMBLES EU FP6 project are used to estimate the effect of these two parameters on the future P/V systems output over Greece. Examining the relative contributions of temperature and irradiance, a significant reduction due to the temperature increase is projected which is however outweighed by the irradiance increase, resulting an overall output increase in photovoltaic systems. Nonetheless, in some cases the temperature increase is too large to be compensated by the increase irradiance resulting reduction of PV output up to 3. This is projected after 2050s for the eastern parts of the Greek mainland, Aegean islands and some areas in Crete. Results show that the PV output is projected to have an increasing trend in all regions of Greece until 2050, and a steeper increase trend further until 2100. Moreover, high resolution topographic information was combined to the PV output results, producing high resolution of favorability for future PV systems installation.

  4. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece).

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Gabriella; Panayiotou, Eleni; Mylonas, Moisis; Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail

    2015-01-01

    Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas) were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity.

  5. Olive tree-ring problematic dating: a comparative analysis on Santorini (Greece).

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Paolo; Humbel, Turi; Beeckman, Hans; Gärtner, Holger; Mannes, David; Pearson, Charlotte; Schoch, Werner; Tognetti, Roberto; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    Olive trees are a classic component of Mediterranean environments and some of them are known historically to be very old. In order to evaluate the possibility to use olive tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece) show that the determination of the number of tree-rings is impossible because of intra-annual wood density fluctuations, variability in tree-ring boundary structure, and restriction of its cambial activity to shifting sectors of the circumference, causing the tree-ring sequences along radii of the same cross section to differ.

  6. On the geochemistry of the Kyra eruption sequence of Nisyros volcano on Nisyros and Tilos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Sterba, Johannes H; Steinhauser, Georg; Bichler, Max

    2011-11-01

    The Kyra sequence is a volcanic eruption sequence originating from the eastern flank of Nisyros volcano, Greece. Its eruptions products can be found not only on Nisyros itself but also on the nearby non-volcanic island of Tilos. In an extensive sampling campaign, outcrops of the Kyra eruption products on Nisyros were sampled and corresponding samples on Tilos were taken. The clear stratigraphical relationship between the different units within in the individual outcrops, combined with the chemical information gained by the application of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to the samples, made a detailed chemo-stratigraphy of the complete eruption sequence possible. It can be shown that the sequence is separated into eight distinguishable eruptions. Furthermore, no eruption products of the caldera-forming eruptions from Nisyros (Lower- and Upper Caldera Pumice) or from Santorin were found on Tilos. PMID:21530282

  7. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Papastefanou, Gabriella; Panayiotou, Eleni; Mylonas, Moisis; Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas) were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity. PMID:26257541

  8. Olive tree-ring problematic dating: a comparative analysis on Santorini (Greece).

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Paolo; Humbel, Turi; Beeckman, Hans; Gärtner, Holger; Mannes, David; Pearson, Charlotte; Schoch, Werner; Tognetti, Roberto; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    Olive trees are a classic component of Mediterranean environments and some of them are known historically to be very old. In order to evaluate the possibility to use olive tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece) show that the determination of the number of tree-rings is impossible because of intra-annual wood density fluctuations, variability in tree-ring boundary structure, and restriction of its cambial activity to shifting sectors of the circumference, causing the tree-ring sequences along radii of the same cross section to differ. PMID:23382949

  9. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece).

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Gabriella; Panayiotou, Eleni; Mylonas, Moisis; Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail

    2015-01-01

    Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas) were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity. PMID:26257541

  10. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  11. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  12. Suicide in Greece: 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Kontaxakis, V; Papaslanis, Th; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Tsouvelas, G; Giotakos, O; Papadimitriou, G Ν

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 several European countries have fallen into a financial crisis. This crisis has mainly affected the Greek population. The lower of income and the increase of unemployment as consequences of crisis lead to negative effects on people's mental health. Usually, in periods of economic crisis there is an increase of suicidality of population. The aim of this study is to examine the changes of suicide rates in Greece during the last decade (2001-2011) with particular consideration in the recent period of economic crisis (2008-2011). Data regarding the greek general population and the crude data on suicides were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT). We assessed the specific suicide rate, i.e. the number of suicide cases per 100.000 inhabitants (SSR) using population data on the 2001 and 2011 census. Yearly and mean total, age and sex-SSR were calculated in five years age groups. There were no suicide cases among children under the age of fifteen. We compared total and male, female SSR during the period before the crisis (2001-2007) and during the crisis (2008-2011). During the decade 2001-2011 a total number of 4133 suicide cases were recorded. There were 3423 (82.8%) male suicides and 710 (17.2%) female suicides. During the decade 2001-2011 total SSR increased by 38.4%. In males increased by 33.1% and in females by 69.6%. In the period before the crisis (2001-2007) total SSR decreased by 3.9%. In males decreased by 8.4% but in females increased by 22.3%. During the period of crisis (2008-2011) total SSR increased by 27.2%. In males increased by 26.9% and in females by 28.5%. There was a statistically significant increase in total SSR during the crisis regarding subjects 50-54 years old (t=3.43, p=0.007) and in total SSR of males (t=2.31, p=0.047) as well as of the males age groups 50-54 (t=3.56, p=0.006), 45-49 (t=2.87, p=0.02), 30-34 (t=2.96, p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences both in total SSR and in SSR of all

  13. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too.

  14. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  15. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too. PMID:26152994

  16. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality. PMID:26135766

  17. Validation of satellite rainfall products over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feidas, H.

    2010-01-01

    Six widely available satellite precipitation products were extensively validated and intercompared on monthly-to-seasonal timescales and various spatial scales, for the period 1998-2006, using a dense station network over Greece. Satellite products were divided into three groups according to their spatial resolution. The first group had high spatial (0.5°) resolution and consists only of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products: the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) precipitation product (3A12) and the TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis products (3B42 and 3B43). The second group comprised products with medium spatial (1°) resolution. These products included the TRMM 3B42 and 3B43 estimates (remapped to 1° resolution) and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project one-degree daily (GPCP-1DD) analysis. The third group consisted of low spatial (2.5°) resolution products and included the 3B43 product (remapped to 2.5° resolution), the GPCP Satellite and Gauge (GPCP-SG) product, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Prediction Center (NOAA-CPC) Merged Analysis (CMAP). Rain gauge data were first gridded and then compared with monthly and seasonal precipitation totals as well as with long-term averages of the six satellite products at different spatial resolutions (2.5°, 1°, and 0.5°). The results demonstrated the excellent performance of the 3B43 product over Greece in all three spatial scales. 3B42 from the first and second group and CMAP from the third exhibited a reasonable skill.

  18. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hotels of Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, S D; Antoniadis, A; Papapaganagiotou, J; Stefanou, T

    1989-03-01

    Twenty water samples collected from 6 hotels situated in various areas of Greece were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-like organisms. Five of the six hotels included in this investigation were associated with cases of legionellosis. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 8 were isolated from four of six hotels, mainly from the hot water supply system. This is the first isolation and identification of L. pneumophila in Greece.

  19. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... ocean are visible. The East Siberian Sea is part of the Arctic Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are ...

  20. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  1. 65 FR 12575 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To..., a portion of the Commission's hearing in Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Greece and Japan,...

  2. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  3. Asperity break after 12 years: The Mw6.4 2015 Lefkada (Greece) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokos, E.; Zahradník, J.; Gallovič, F.; Serpetsidaki, A.; Plicka, V.; Kiratzi, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Mw6.4 earthquake sequence of 2015 in western Greece is analyzed using seismic data. Multiple point source modeling, nonlinear slip patch, and linear slip inversions reveal a coherent rupture image with directivity toward the southwest and several moment release episodes, reflected in the complex aftershock distribution. The key feature is that the 2015 earthquake ruptured a strong asperity, which was left unbroken in between two large subevents of the Mw6.2 Lefkada doublet in 2003. This finding and the well-analyzed Cephalonia earthquake sequence of 2014 provide strong evidence of segmentation of the major dextral Cephalonia-Lefkada Transform Fault (CTF), being related to extensional duplex transform zones. We propose that the duplexes extend farther to the north and that the CTF runs parallel to the western coast of Lefkada and Cephalonia Islands, considerably closer to the inhabited islands than previously thought. Generally, this study demonstrates faulting complexity across short time scales (earthquake doublets) and long time scales (seismic gaps).

  4. 66 FR 54642 - Change in Disease Status of Greece Because of BSE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-10-30

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 94 Change in Disease Status of Greece Because of... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations by adding Greece to the list of regions where bovine.... Greece is currently listed among the regions that present an undue risk of introducing bovine...

  5. 59 FR- Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and Greece; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-11-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and Greece; Entry Into Force The... social security systems is effective beginning September 1, 1994. The agreement with Greece, which was... United States to work in Greece for 5 years or less remains covered only by the U.S. system....

  6. 62 FR 61036 - Changes in Disease Status of Belgium, France, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-11-14

    ... specified conditions, based on the regions' disease status (see 62 FR 56000-56033, October 28, 1997, Dockets..., Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...-mouth disease; Greece free of rinderpest; France, Greece, Luxembourg, and Spain free of exotic...

  7. 61 FR 352 - National Bank of Greece, et al.; Acquisitions of Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-01-04

    ... National Bank of Greece, et al.; Acquisitions of Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The.... Rutledge, Senior Vice President) 33 Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045: 1. National Bank of Greece, Athens, Greece; to retain shares of Worthington Limited Partnership, New York, New York, and...

  8. 66 FR 15399 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-03-19

    ...: Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Greece, 66 FR 1950 (January 10, 2001) (Preliminary Results). Scope of... International Trade Administration Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece. The review covers one...

  9. 65 FR 68978 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-11-15

    ... Administrative Review: Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Greece, 65 FR 26570 (May 8, 2000) (Preliminary Results... INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION (A-484-801) Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Final Results of... the antidumping duty order on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece. The review covers...

  10. 64 FR 85 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-01-04

    ... International Trade Administration Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Notice of Extension of Time... antidumping duty order on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece. The period of review is April 1, 1997... Greece. On May 29, 1998, the Department initiated this administrative review covering the period April...

  11. 64 FR 67861 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-12-03

    ... antidumping duty order on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece (64 FR 23596) pursuant to section 751(c... as an ``all others'' rate (54 FR 8771, March 2, 1989). The antidumping duty order on EMD from Greece... antidumping duty order on EMD from Greece (64 FR 23596), pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. The...

  12. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Education Policy Advice for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to boost productivity and improve social outcomes. In the current economic context, with the need to get best value for spending, Greece must and can address inefficiencies in its education system. The challenges are significant. For example, Greece lags behind many…

  13. Post-intrusive south directed Deformation of the Serifos metamorhic Core Complex (western Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambousek, C.; Grasemann, B.; Petrakakis, K.; Zamolyi, A.; Iglseder, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Attic - Cycladic belt is part of the Alpine orogen in the eastern Mediterranean. It is located SE of the Greek mainland and trends parallel to the Hellenic volcanic arc. Since the Miocene the whole area of the southern Aegean region is characterized by a NS oriented extensional regime partly accommodated by crustal low-angle normal faults. Some of the islands in the eastern Cyclades (Naxos, Paros, Ios) have been suggested to represent metamorphic core complex (MCC) indicating an asymmetric extension partly to the N and to the S (e.g. Lister et al. 1984). This work focuses on the S directed detachment of a newly found MCC on Serifos, in the western Cyclades. The SE part of the island is dominated by an undeformed Hornbelende-Biotite granodiorite pluton in the core, which becomes with increasing intensity foliated towards higher structural levels transforming into S-dipping low-temperature mylonitic to ultra-mylonitic rocks with abundant SSW-directed kinematic indicators (scc´ fabrics, sigma- and delta-clasts, flanking fold structures and mica-fish). This zone forms the main detachment of the Serifos MCC. The northern contact of the granodiorite is mainly intrusive cross cutting amphibolite facies highly deformed marbles, metabasic and metapelitic rocks with typical Ca-Fe-Mg skarns (Salemink, 1985). On the peninsular in the SE most part of Serifos (E of Livadi) statically recristallized mylonitic marbles and amphibolite grade metabasic and metapelitic rocks with the typical Ca-Fe-Mg skarns occur in the hanging wall of the main detachment zone. These characteristic lithologies also occur as mega boudins (several tens of meters long) in the main detachment zone and are lithologically similar to the host rocks in the north of the intrusion. There, these rocks are structurally in the footwall of the main detachment and therefore a minimum dip-slip 6 km can be estimated for the post-intrusive deformation. Geochronological cooling ages of the granodiorite using

  14. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season.

  15. [Emigration and immigration in Greece: recent trends and political questions].

    PubMed

    Pteroudis, E

    1996-01-01

    "In order to give an account of the migrations related to Greece, the Greek territory can be characterized by several attributes that account for the way in which a certain form of migration has been understood in relation to this country. Therefore, Greece can be spoken of, not only as a space of work, circulation, settlement, especially for the citizens of the EEC and for clandestine immigrants, but also as a space of retirement, retreat and transit, whether for refugees or for people belonging to a Greek minority.... We will attempt a statistical approach of the migratory phenomenon as well as a presentation of the figures for each country of origin, and a global appreciation of the economic and social importance of these migratory movements for Greece." The implications for migration policy are discussed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND ITA)

  16. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4–15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as “high” in 142 samples, “moderate” in 45 samples, and “low” in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season. PMID:26819799

  17. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season. PMID:26819799

  18. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  19. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between islands Mykonos, Kalymnos and Syros and for the town Tripoli in the Peloponnese. In the Dutch situation, total PFASs concentrations above the LOQ were detected in 48.6% of the samples, varying from 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ.

  20. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between islands Mykonos, Kalymnos and Syros and for the town Tripoli in the Peloponnese. In the Dutch situation, total PFASs concentrations above the LOQ were detected in 48.6% of the samples, varying from 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ. PMID:26366629

  1. Aquatic animal resources in Prehistoric Aegean, Greece.

    PubMed

    Mylona, Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the early stages in the history of fishing in the Aegean Sea in Greece, and highlights its formative phases and its specific characteristics in different points in time. This is testified by various physical remains, such as fish bones, fishing tools, and representations in art, which are gathered in the course of archaeological research. The aquatic resources in the Aegean Sea have been exploited and managed for millennia by communities that lived near the water and often made a living from it. The earliest evidence for a systematic, intensive exploitation of marine resources in the Aegean Sea dates to the Mesolithic, eleven millennia ago. In the Neolithic period, the adoption of a sedentary, agro-pastoral way of life led to a reduction in the intensity of fishing and shellfish gathering. Its importance as an economic resource remained high only in certain regions of rich, eutrophic waters. In the Bronze Age, an era of social complexity and centralized economy, the exploitation of aquatic, mostly marine, resources became a complex, multi-faceted activity which involved subsistence, industry and ideology. The range of preferred fish and invertebrate species, the fishing technology, and the processing of fish and shellfish in order to produce elaborate foods or prestige items are all traceable aspects of the complex relationship between humans and the aquatic resources throughout the prehistory of fishing and shellfish gathering in the Aegean area. The broadening of collaboration between archaeology and physical sciences offers new means to explore these issues in a more thorough and nuanced manner. PMID:25984485

  2. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  3. Dermatophytosis in northern Greece during the decade 1981-1990.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Badillet, G

    1995-01-01

    Dermatophytic infections are very common in Greece. In the Mycological Laboratory of the Venereal and Skin Diseases Hospital in Thessaloniki, 6572 isolates of different dermatophytes were obtained from 17,120 patients examined. It is suggested that 5% of the people who present with skin problems in Greece suffer from dermatophyte infections. They are frequent causative agents of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, tinea capitis and tinea unguium. In this paper, the species, the number and the prevalence of the dermatophytes were studied according to location and sex of the patients. The contribution of dermatophyte infections to the overall incidence of superficial fungal infection over 10 years was also studied.

  4. Historical bathymetric charts and the evolution of Santorini submarine volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. B.; Nomikou, P.; Parks, M.; Smith, J.

    2013-12-01

    Historical bathymetric charts are a potential resource for better understanding the dynamics of the seafloor and the role of active processes such as those associated with submarine faulting, landsliding, and magmatism. The UK Hydrographic Office, for example, has been involved in lead line measurements of seafloor depth since the early 1790s in a range of geological settings including ocean islands. Here, we report on an analysis of historical bathymetric charts in the region of Santorini volcano, Greece. Repeat lead line surveys in 1848, 1866 and 1928 and multibeam swath bathymetric surveys in 2001 and 2006 have been used to document changes in the depth of the seafloor in Santorini caldera. The data reveal that the flanks of the Kameni islands, a volcanic dome and dacitic lava complex in the caldera centre, have shallowed by up to 215 m and deepened by up to 60 m since 1848. The largest shallowing occurred between the 1866 and 1928 surveys and was accompanied by a significant increase in the surface area of the island of Nea Kameni, especially its southeast flank. Field observations by the French Geologist, F. A. Fouqué, during 1866-1870 suggest the shallowing is associated with the formation of the Giorgos and Aphroessa domes and their associated lava flows. Other shallowing probably occurred during 1925-1928 when lava flows filled the narrow strait between Nea Kameni and Mikra Kameni. The largest deepenings occurred between the 1928 and 2001 and 2006 surveys, on the shelf and slope of Nea Kameni. One possibility is that the deepening is caused by mass wasting due to large-scale slope failure and debris flow. Another is that it reflects a stress-induced viscoelastic relaxation of the crust following dome loading. Irrespective, the rates implied from the volumes and duration of the 19th century submarine magmatic activity are up to 0.11 km3/yr, which is significantly larger than rates inferred from mapping of surface lava flows.

  5. The pyramids of Greece: Ancient meridian observatories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Katsiotis, Marco

    Pyramids, "Dragon Houses" ("Drakospita") and megalithic structures in general create always a special interest. We postulate that, as happens with the Drakospita of Euboea, the pyramid-like structures of Argolis (Eastern Peloponnese) were constructed by the Dryops. It is known that, in addition to Euboea and some Cyclades islands, this prehellenic people had also settled in Argolis, where they founded the city of Asine. We also propose that the pyramids of Argolis and in particular the pyramid of Hellinikon village were very likely, besides being a burial monument or guard house, might be served also for astronomical observations.

  6. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  7. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0,37, p = 0.004) of Eginition Hospital. However, the data from the 4 hospitals of the study revealed a negative correlation between average income and visits to outpatients' departments (R2 = 0.70, p = 0.02) and emergency units (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the average income and suicide rates (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.007), as well as a positive correlation between the average income and divorce rates (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001) were found. The findings show several similarities with previous surveys in

  8. Information about Macedonian medicine in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Syrmos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Greek Macedonians were highly interested in the improvement of their physical and psychological health. At first, they worshiped the mythical god Asclepius and his daughter Hygieia. In at least 24 places in northern Greece, in Halkidiki, Thessaloniki, Kozani, Kavala, Thassos, Serres and other places, archaelogical findings were related to Asclepius. Macedonian kings were also interested in the development of medicine, for the sake of their fellow citizens and their soldiers. Characteristic examples are the close relations of Hippocrates with king Perdikas (5(th) century B.C.) and of Nicomachus (Aristotle's father being a physician) with king Amintas. Alexander the Great had as his personal physician, the famous physician Philippos of Acarnania. An incident between Alexander and Philippos of Acarnania shows the respect of Macedonian kings to their doctors: Alexander became ill after a bath in the frozen river Cydnus (near ancient Tarsus). At this time he received a letter from his general Parmenion for not to trust his physician. Alexander gave this letter to Philippos to read it and while Philippos was reading it and was rather frightened, he saw Alexander drinking the medicine he had given him. We may note that Alexander the Great as a student of Aristotle had a general education about medicine. Archaeological findings revealed two funerary monuments of physicians: a doctor from Thasos, who practiced in Pella as a public physician during the 3rd quarter of the 4(th) century B.C. and a physician named Alexander, who lived in the 1rst half of the 5(th) century A.D. The tomb of a third physician, probably a surgeon, excavated in Pydna, near mount Olympus (3(rd) century BC)also indicates the importance of physicians in Macedonia. Archaeological findings, like surgical knives, from the Hellinistic and Roman periods, found in the city of Veria, also showed the respect of Ancient Greeks to medicine and to their physicians. An example is the skeleton of a young

  9. Vaccinations for international travellers travelling from Greece.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Androula; Spilioti, Athina; Lymperi, Ioanna; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Maltezou, Helena C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective, questionnaire-based study is to assess pre-travel vaccinations for international travellers who receive pre-travel advice in Greece. A total of 2494 travellers were studied from January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2010. Travellers sought pre-travel advice at a median of 16 days (range: 0-349 days) before departure. Sub-Saharan Africa was the most common destination (34.7%). Most travellers (60.8%) travelled for <1 month, for recreation purposes (58.9%), stayed in hotels (65.3%), and in urban areas (53.6%). Yellow fever, tetravalent meningococcal, typhoid fever, cholera, and rabies vaccines were administered to 1629 (65.3%), 666 (26.7%), 615 (24.7%), 28 (1.1%), and/or 12 (0.5%) travellers, respectively. Of those who received Yellow fever vaccine, 737 (45.2%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 332 (20.4%) travelled to South America, 949 (58.3%) stayed for short term, and 762 (46.8%) stayed in urban areas. Of the 1629 travellers vaccinated against Yellow fever, 150 (9.2%) and 226 (13.8%) travelled to areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South America respectively, where the vaccine is not or generally not recommended. Of those travellers who received meningococcal vaccine, 327 (49.1%) travelled to the Middle East for the Hajj, 251 (29%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 410 (61.6%) for short term, and 540 (64.4%) stayed in urban areas. Of those travellers who received typhoid vaccine, 241 (39.2%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 78 (12.7%) to the Indian subcontinent, 234 (38%) for short term, and 419 (68.1%) stayed in urban areas. Regarding routine vaccines, tetanus-diphtheria, poliomyelitis, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines were administered to 707 (28.3%), 639 (25.6%) and/or 149 (6%) travellers, respectively. Of those to whom poliomyelitis vaccine was recommended, 295 (46.2%) and 137 (21.4%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, respectively, and 362 (56.7%) travelled for short term. In conclusion, this study revealed that

  10. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0,37, p = 0.004) of Eginition Hospital. However, the data from the 4 hospitals of the study revealed a negative correlation between average income and visits to outpatients' departments (R2 = 0.70, p = 0.02) and emergency units (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the average income and suicide rates (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.007), as well as a positive correlation between the average income and divorce rates (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001) were found. The findings show several similarities with previous surveys in

  11. Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The island of Kauai, of the Hawaiian Island archipelago (22.0N, 159.5W) peeks out from scattered cloud cover. The island's volcanic origins are easily seen by the distinctive lava flow topography and lush vegetation.

  12. [The health of migrants at the Greece-Macedonia border].

    PubMed

    Moutamalle, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    At the border between Greece and Macedonia, a transit camp for refugees is turning into a permanent camp. The management of the health emergency is assured by international teams from several humanitarian organisations, including the French Red Cross. The organisation of the care team, the cultural differences and the lack of resources are just some of the factors to be considered. PMID:27633699

  13. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  14. "Running the Gauntlet": The Bologna Process in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheou, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Greece has not been among the signatory countries that rushed enthusiastically into the implementation of the Bologna process; it has only gradually and grudgingly managed to adopt some of its provisions over the past decade. This paper sheds light on the forces and factors that have put obstacles in its way, including: (1) the epistemological…

  15. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development…

  16. Use of contraception and abortion in Greece: a review.

    PubMed

    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elizabeth

    2004-11-01

    Greece has one of the highest rates of abortions in Europe and a very low prevalence of contraceptive use apart from withdrawal and condoms. Based on limited data from the past 30 years, this paper describes the context in which Greek women make reproductive decisions, and the history of family planning and abortion policies and services in Greece. It shows that in spite of the persistence of the traditional importance placed on marriage and motherhood, the fertility rate in Greece is very low. Sex education is still not included in the school curriculum, and the lack of accurate information on contraception and the prevention of unwanted pregnancy, especially in adolescence, still have critical repercussions for women's life choices. Although the public sector has been required to provide family planning services since 1980, only 2% of women of reproductive age were accessing these services in 1990, based mainly in urban centres. In 2001, one in four women of reproductive age had had at least one unwanted pregnancy ending in abortion; the rate was one in ten in the 16-24 age group and one in three in the 35-45 age group. With an almost complete lack of preventive policies in Greece, women continue to have to rely on abortion to control births. PMID:15938171

  17. Mutual relationship between mathematics and astronomy in the ancient Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obradovic, S.

    2006-05-01

    In the paper we consider the foundations of mathematics in the ancient Greece as a deductive system, especially the Euclidean geometry. We investigate the concepts of continuum and discreteness in mathematics and nature. A special attention is given to the mathematics applied to the foundation of the Pythagorean concept of the universe and adoption of Aristotle's and Ptolemy's worldviews.

  18. Language Shift in Second Generation Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogonas, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin.…

  19. 63 FR 30254 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-06-03

    .../89 54 FR 16010 A-484-801 04/17/89 54 FR 15243 Japan 731-TA-408 4/10/89 54 FR 16010 A-588-806 04/17/89 54 FR 15244 SUMMARY: The Commission invites comments from the public on whether changed circumstances... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  20. 64 FR 54353 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-10-06

    ... published at 63 FR 30599, June 5, 1998, and may be downloaded from the Commission's World Wide Web site at... reviews pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (64 FR 46407, August 25, 1999). A record... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  1. 64 FR 46407 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-08-25

    ..., including the text of subpart F of part 207, are published at 63 FR 30599, June 5, 1998, and may be... interested party group response to its notice of institution (64 FR 23675, Mar. 3, 1999) was adequate with... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  2. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  3. Let's Play Doctor: Medical Rounds in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockler, Donald

    1998-01-01

    Biology students are exposed to historical theories of medicine by contrasting modern medicine and germ theory with the humoral theory of medicine in ancient Greece. After spending one day describing basic theories in humoral medicine, the teacher role-plays a Hippocratic physician treating ailing Greek patients in a Hippocratic medical workshop.…

  4. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Anna; Theocharopoulos, George; Dougas, Georgios; Athanasiou, Maria; Detsis, Marios; Baka, Agoritsa; Lytras, Theodoros; Mellou, Kassiani; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2011-01-01

    During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors. PMID:22000357

  5. Health Needs: Policy Plan and School Practice in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soultatou, Pelagia; Duncan, Peter; Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of health-related needs on a policy design and curriculum enactment basis in terms of the national school health education curriculum in Greek secondary education. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study, using an ethnographic approach, was conducted in Greece, seeking to…

  6. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered. Emphasis is given to…

  7. Inmates' Adult Education in Greece--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaioannou, Vasiliki; Anagnou, Evaggelos; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Correctional education in Greece has been implemented since 1980's. Second Chance Schools (SCS) in prisons were established in 2004, aiming at combating social exclusion. This study's aim is to look into the reasons of school dropout and to interpret why inmates take part in the educational program provided by SCS, registering the motives,…

  8. Implementing Innovation in Primary EFL: A Case Study in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karavas, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight and discuss the strategies used to diffuse and manage a primary ELT innovation in Greece, strategies that proved essential for developing stakeholders' acceptance and ownership of the innovation, thereby facilitating its further development and sustainability. The PEAP Programme, launched in 2010,…

  9. Rallou Manou and Her Contribution to Modern Dance in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagona, Bournelli

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present Rallou Manou's work, as well as to demonstrate her contribution to the development and emergence of modern dance in Greece. The data used were mostly collected from Rallou Manou's personal "Archive," but also from published reviews, interviews from her students and the personal experience of the writer. The…

  10. Psychometric Validation of the Youth Social Capital Scale in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutra, Kleio; Orfanos, Philippos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kritsotakis, George; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the psychometric validation of the Youth Social Capital scale (YSCS) in 16- to 17-year-old students living in rural and urban areas in Crete, Greece. Methods: Sampling was performed among 27 secondary education units of Heraklion Prefecture. The self-reported questionnaire was answered by 692 participants…

  11. Literacy in Ancient Greece: The Evidence from History and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Karyn

    In examining the nature of literacy in ancient Athens, this paper reviews the work of key modern scholars and their positions in the debates concerning the development of literacy in Greece, the oral culture preceeding this, and the technology that enabled it to occur. Following an introduction surveying the viewpoints of Rhys Carpenter, L. H.…

  12. The Staffing of Small Rural Primary Schools in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    In Greece, education is organised vertically into three levels: primary, secondary, and higher. In primary education, according to the number of permanent teaching posts allocated, primary schools are divided into one-teacher, two-teacher, and up to six- or twelve-teacher schools. Although their effect on the size and number of schools has changed…

  13. Lessons from Greece: A Body, Mind, Spirit Odyssey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2006-01-01

    In Spring Semester 2005, the author was a visiting Fulbright professor at Aristotle University in Greece. The purpose of the Fulbright Program is to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of the 150 or so countries that currently participate in the Fulbright Program. In this article, the author looks…

  14. School Adjustment Difficulties of Immigrant Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologou, Nektaria

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and main results of a longitudinal study in Greece that explored the learning and psychosocial difficulties of immigrant pupils, as compared with those of their Greek classmates. The "Teacher-Child Rating Scale" (T-CRS) and "Child Rating Scale" (CRS) were used as instruments to measure the school adjustment…

  15. Religious Education in Greece: A New Curriculum, an Old Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukounaras Liagkis, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Religious Education (RE) in Greece is a compulsory school subject according the 2011 new framework for compulsory education, entitled "New School". This article focuses on two statutory documents for RE, "The Curriculum for RE" and the "The Teacher's Guide for RE", and the pilot scheme of the new curriculum running in…

  16. School Psychology in Greece: A System of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Dioguardi, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses origin of school psychology in Greece which emerged with services for mentally disabled in 1937. Explains how laws were instituted with the growing demand for educational services for students with social and emotional needs. Includes discussions on diverse roles of school psychologists, present status of special education, and influence…

  17. Bullying among Primary School Children in Athens, Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pateraki, Lena; Houndoumadi, Anastasia

    2001-01-01

    Investigates bullying behavior in 8-12 year old children in Athens (Greece), using a self-report bullying inventory. Reports that 14.7 percent of children reported being victims of bullying, 6.25 percent stated that they were bullies, while 4.8 percent saw themselves as both. States that boys were usually in the latter categories. (CMK)

  18. Islands in the Midst of the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.

    The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a

  19. Recent seismic activity at Cephalonia (Greece): a study through candidate electromagnetic precursors in terms of non-linear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potirakis, Stelios M.; Contoyiannis, Yiannis; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Kopanas, John; Antonopoulos, George; Balasis, Georgios; Kontoes, Charalampos; Nomicos, Constantinos; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2016-08-01

    The preparation process of two recent earthquakes (EQs) that occurred in Cephalonia (Kefalonia), Greece, ((38.22° N, 20.53° E), 26 January 2014, Mw = 6.0, depth ˜ 20 km) and ((38.25° N, 20.39° E), 3 February 2014, Mw = 5.9, depth ˜ 10 km), respectively, is studied in terms of the critical dynamics revealed in observables of the involved non-linear processes. Specifically, we show, by means of the method of critical fluctuations (MCF), that signatures of critical, as well as tricritical, dynamics were embedded in the fracture-induced electromagnetic emissions (EMEs) recorded by two stations in locations near the epicentres of these two EQs. It is worth noting that both the MHz EMEs recorded by the telemetric stations on the island of Cephalonia and the neighbouring island of Zante (Zakynthos) reached a simultaneously critical condition a few days before the occurrence of each earthquake. The critical characteristics embedded in the EME signals were further verified using the natural time (NT) method. Moreover, we show, in terms of the NT method, that the foreshock seismic activity also presented critical characteristics before each event. Importantly, the revealed critical process seems to be focused on the area corresponding to the western Cephalonia zone, following the seismotectonic and hazard zoning of the Ionian Islands area near Cephalonia.

  20. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  1. Vertical Energy and Momentum Fluxes in the Centre of Athens, Greece During a Heatwave Period (Thermopolis 2009 Campaign)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapsomanikis, S.; Trepekli, A.; Loupa, G.; Polyzou, C.

    2015-03-01

    The atmospheric energy budget in the centre of Athens, Greece was determined during the Thermopolis 2009 campaign in order to investigate the development of the urban heat island. Heatwaves during summer are a common occurrence in this large conurbation. Micrometeorological data from a tower were acquired in a densely built central district, and net all-wave radiation, sensible heat, latent heat and momentum flux densities were derived by the eddy-covariance method and also estimated using Monin-Obukhov similarity relationships. Under the prevailing hot and dry conditions, sensible heat-flux density was on average five times larger than the latent heat-flux density. The anthropogenic contribution to the energy budget was also determined on the basis of the acquired data.

  2. Variation of the chemical profile and antioxidant behavior of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia fruticosa Miller grown in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Vassiliki; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Papaioannou, Marina; Komaitis, Michael

    2008-08-27

    In this study, the essential oil and the phenolic composition along with the antioxidant activity of R. officinalis L. and S. fruticosa Miller, collected in Zakynthos island (Ionian Sea, Greece), were investigated. The essential oil composition of the plants was characterized by the presence of 1,8-cineole. Mean values of the antioxidant activities of rosemary and sage essential oils indicated slight differences. The antioxidant activity of sage oil was correlated with the oxygenated sesquiterpenes and diterpenes concentrations. Concerning the methanolic extracts, a close relationship between the phenolic content and the development stage during vegetative cycle of these plants was observed. The identified flavonoids, except rutin, seemed to increase with the advancement of developmental stages, while phenolic acids followed an opposite pattern. The antioxidant activity was correlated with the amount of total phenolic content.

  3. Diffuse pollution by persistent organic pollutants as measured in plastic pellets sampled from various beaches in Greece.

    PubMed

    Karapanagioti, H K; Endo, S; Ogata, Y; Takada, H

    2011-02-01

    Plastic pellets found stranded on beaches are hydrophobic organic materials and thus, they are a favourable medium for persistent organic pollutants to absorb to. In the present study, plastic pellets are used to determine the diffuse pollution of selected Greek beaches. Samples of pellets were taken from these beaches and were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and PAHs. The observed differences among pellets from various sampling sites are related to the pollution occurring at each site. Plastic pellets collected in Saronikos Gulf beaches demonstrate much higher pollutant loading than the ones collected in a remote island or close to an agricultural area. Based on data collected in this study and the International Pellet Watch program, pollution in Saronikos Gulf, Greece, is comparable to other heavily industrialized places of the world. The present study demonstrates the potential of pellet watch to be utilized as a detailed-scale monitoring tool within a single country.

  4. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  5. Blueschists and eclogites from southern Sifnos (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Jonas; Petrakakis, Konstantin; Grasemann, Bernhard; Iglseder, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    -glaucophane and crossite- richer rims. Ep is zoned too with decreasing Fe from core to rim, while Grt-poikiloblasts are nearly homogeneous in composition. Eclogitic assemblages consist of Grt + Omp + Ep + Phg + Gln ± Qtz. A greenschist-facies overprint accompanied by Fe- and CO2- rich fluids is mostly evident along shear bands of variable thickness from thin section to outcrop scale. It is best documented by the growth of syntectonic Ab+Chl neoblasts. Metabasite layers intercalated with the marble show a pervasive greenschist-facies overprint with extensive, neoblastic growth of Chl an Ab. Early Ep remains unaffected, but Gln and Grt are preserved only as relics. Petrography and mineral chemistry of southern Sifnos HP-rocks comply with the occurrence in northern Sifnos (e.g. comprehensive description by Schliestedt 1986) References: Schliestedt, M., 1986. Eclogite-blueschist relationships as evidenced by mineral equilibria in the high-pressure rocks of Sifnos (Cycladic islands), Greece. Journal of Petrology, 27,1437-1459 Mineral abbreviations after Kretz, 1983: Symbols for rock-forming minerals. American Mineralogist, 68, 277-279

  6. Seismicity and strain transients in the Gulf of Corinth (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canitano, A.; Bernard, P.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S. I.; Boudin, F.

    2009-12-01

    The Gulf of Corinth (Greece) is one of the most seismic regions in Europe, producing some earthquakes of magnitude greater than 5.8 in the last 35 years, 1 to 1.5 cm/yr of north-south extension, and frequent seismic swarms. This structure is a 110 km long, N110°E oriented graben bounded by systems of very recent normal faults. This zone thus provides an ideal site for investigating in situ the physics of earthquake sources and for developing efficient seismic hazard reduction procedures. The Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL) project is concentrated in the western part of the rift, around the city of Aigion, where instrumental seismicity and strain rate is highest. The CRL Network is made up about fifteen seismic stations as well as tiltmeters, strainmeters or GPS in order to study the local seismicity, and to observe and model the short and long term mechanics of the normal fault system. The instrumental seismicity in the Aigion zone clearly shows a strong concentration of small earthquakes between 5 and 10 km. In order to study slow transient deformation, two borehole strainmeters have been installed in the Gulf (Trizonia, Monasteraki). The strainmeter installed in the Trizonia island is continuously recording the horizontal strain at 150m depth with a resolution better than 10-9. The dominant signal is the earth and sea tidal effects (few 10-7 strain), this one is modulated by the mechanical effects of the free oscillations of the Gulf with periods between 8 and 40 min. The barometric pressure fluctuations acts in combination with the mean sea level variation at longer periods and both effects are not independant. The comparison between the strain data and the two forcing signals (sea-level, barometric pressure) shows clearly a non zero phase delay of the sea-level. The analysis of time correlations between the signals in differents frequency range exhibits that the sea level delay and the strainmeter/sea-level coupling coefficient are increasing with period (about

  7. Strain transients in the Gulf of Corinth (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canitano, Alexandre; Bernard, Pascal; Linde, Alan; Sacks, Selwyn; Boudin, Frederick

    2010-05-01

    The Gulf of Corinth (Greece) is one of the most seismic regions in Europe, producing some earthquakes of magnitude greater than 5.8 in the last 35 years, 1 to 1.5 cm/yr of north-south extension, and frequent seismic swarms. This structure is a 110 km long, N110E oriented graben bounded by systems of very recent normal faults. This zone thus provides an ideal site for investigating in situ the physics of earthquake sources and for developing efficient seismic hazard reduction procedures. The Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL) project is concentrated in the western part of the rift, around the city of Aigion, where instrumental seismicity and strain rate is highest. The CRL Network is made up about fifteen seismic stations as well as tiltmeters, strainmeters or GPS in order to study the local seismicity, and to observe and model the short and long term mechanics of the normal fault system. The instrumental seismicity in the Aigion zone clearly shows a strong concentration of small earthquakes between 5 and 10 km. In order to study slow transient deformation, two borehole strainmeters have been installed in the Gulf (Trizonia, Monasteraki). The strainmeter installed in the Trizonia island is continuously recording the horizontal strain at 150m depth with a resolution better than 10-9. The dominant signal is the earth and sea tidal effects (few 10-7 strain), this one is modulated by the mechanical effects of the free oscillations of the Gulf with periods between 8 and 40 min. The barometric pressure fluctuations acts in combination with the mean sea level variation at longer periods and both effects are not independant. The comparison between the strain data and the two forcing signals (sea-level, barometric pressure) shows clearly a non zero phase delay of the sea-level. The analysis of time correlations between the signals in differents frequency range exhibits that the sea level delay and the strainmeter/sea-level coupling coefficient are increasing with period (about 1

  8. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    PubMed

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  9. Use of Wild Bird Surveillance, Human Case Data and GIS Spatial Analysis for Predicting Spatial Distributions of West Nile Virus in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R.; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723–1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841–6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence. PMID:24806216

  10. [Medical myths and notions in Ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Boulogne, J

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the views on health and disease prevalent in Ancient Greece, the cradle of modern European medicine, focusing on the ever-present myths functioning in that realm despite attempts to rationally explain medical phenomena. On the basis of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, the author has distinguished five different epistemological attitudes towards those phenomena: the holistic, macrocosmological, monistic, anti-hypothetical and eclectic. The first was based on the idea of mechanical and logical causes. In medicine it is marked by determinism connected with climatic conditions. Hippocrates believed that health depended on the weather, in particular on the effects of winds, types of water and properties of soil. Myth emerged in this conception in the way matter - earth, water, air and fire - was conceived, particular in the properties ascribed to them: cold, humidity, aridity and warmth. The author charges that this conception was permeated with ethnocentrism and cites examples invoked by Hippocrates on the basis of his observations on the Scythians. The macrocosmological attitude involves subordinating medicine to cosmology. Man's body is a microcosm. The author cites the treatise 'On Diets', in which the greatest importance both in the universe and in processes taking place in the human body as ascribed to two factors - fire and water. Their combination was said to have played a crucial role in the typology of corporal and mental constitutions. Those features, together with the seasons of the year, mode of behaviour and food, constitute the four forces guiding vital processes. The author then presents the embryogenic conception contained in the cosmological treatise. It was based on such things as numerological speculations, hence - despite its rationalistic assumptions, consigns it to the mythic. The third attitude, the monistic approach, presents a treatise ascribed to Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease' and dealing with epilepsy. The

  11. Dehydration History of Subducted Lithologies, Sifnos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragovic, B.; Baxter, E. F.; Caddick, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Garnet-forming reactions in subduction zones may be linked directly to dehydration. When coupled with precise zoned garnet geochronology, this permits quantification of H2O release rates and evaluation of models for progressive metamorphism (and thus dehydration) in subduction zones. Here, an integrated geochronologic and thermodynamic analysis seeks to determine the devolatization history of subducted lithologies from Sifnos, Greece, in the Attic Cycladic Blueschist Belt. Based on major element zoning, microsampling and Sm-Nd dating of chemically zoned garnets (greater than 1cm in diameter) from various lithologies, we constrain the rates and duration of garnet growth. Combined with bulk garnet analyses on several other samples where crystals were not sufficiently large for age zoning work, a chronology of garnet growth across all lithologies was constructed. After the slow initiation of garnet growth recorded by one 5cm crystal from a quartzofeldspathic gneiss (the innermost 1cm, radially, grew from 52.7 ± 3.3Ma to 47.19 ± 0.21 Ma), relatively rapid growth prevailed from 45.92 ± 0.18 Ma to 45.63 ± 0.22 Ma for the outermost 0.9 cm of the crystal. This equates to acceleration in volumetric growth rate of two orders of magnitude. In addition, garnet ages from six intermediate to mafic garnet-bearing lithologies span 46.48 ± 0.82 Ma to 43.90 ± 1.92 Ma, at least one of which (a mafic blueschist) indicates growth spanning just hundreds of thousands of years. Analysis of the garnet-forming reaction(s) provides information on the stoichiometric ratio between garnet produced and water released. For a range of bulk rock compositions, we find that garnet:water molar production ratios vary from approximately 0.4:1 to 1.2:1, depending mostly on the portion of the P-T path over which reaction occurs, the bulk composition, and the hydrous phases from which garnet forms. Hydrous phases contributing to garnet growth and water release typically include chloritoid, lawsonite

  12. First report of Neotrombicula autumnalis infestation in a cat and a dog from Corfu (Greece) and in a cat from Limassol (Cyprus).

    PubMed

    Giannoulopoulos, Giorgos D; Desilla, Lora J S; Desilla, Eleni S; Papadopoulos, Ilias; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2012-12-01

    Neotrombicula autumnalis is the most common species of the family Trombiculidae that parasitizes dogs, cats, and humans in Europe. Besides the skin lesions it may cause, this mite is a possible vector of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Two cases of N. autumnalis infestation in a cat and a dog in the island of Corfu, Greece, and 1 case of infestation in a cat living in Limassol, Cyprus, are presented. To the best or our knowledge, these are the first cases of feline and canine trombiculosis reported in both countries, and their appearance in islands points out to the possibility of introduction through importation of infested dogs and cats. For this reason, parasiticides that are effective for both the treatment and prevention of trombiculosis should be recommended for all dogs and cats that live in areas where the parasite is present as well as for all traveling pets.

  13. Submarine evidence of a debris avalanche deposit on the eastern slope of Santorini volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Katherine Lynn Croff; Carey, Steven N.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2013-06-01

    Hummocky seafloor features were discovered on the eastern flank of Santorini volcano, Greece. Multibeam bathymetric mapping, airgun seismic profiling, side scan sonar survey, and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives have been carried out to characterize the nature of the hummocks. These hummocks appear to be composed of several tens of blocks that are up to several hundred meters in diameter, and are the surface expression of a much larger deposit than is observed in the bathymetry. The sidescan and airgun data show that the deposit covers an area of approximately 6 km wide by 20 km long, and is up to 75 m thick. We estimate the total volume of the deposit to be approximately 4.4 × 109 m3. Sampling of these blocks show they are composed of pyroclastic flow deposits produced during the Minoan eruption of Santorini (ca. 3600 BP). We propose that the deposit is the result of a multi-stage landslide event that was caused by one of the several large earthquakes or volcanic eruptions that have occurred in the vicinity of Santorini since the Minoan eruption. One or more of these events likely triggered the destabilization of a part of the eastern flank of Santorini, which led to a debris avalanche, depositing blocks and forming a hummocky terrain at the base of the island's slope. The mass movement later evolved into a turbulent suspension flow that traveled 20 km or more from the presumed initial failure. Given the size of the landslide deposit, it might have a tsunami potentially affecting the islands across the southern Aegean Sea. The understanding of earthquake-landslide dynamics has important implications for hazard assessment in this seismically active, historical, and highly populated region of the world.

  14. Collembolan assemblages in Lesvos, Greece. Effects of differences in vegetation and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detsis, Vassilis; Diamantopoulos, John; Kosmas, Constantinos

    2000-03-01

    Epigeic Collembola were studied in a number of sites in Lesvos island in the north-eastern Aegean, Greece. The aim of the study was to detect differences, either at the species level or in the structure of the assemblage that can be attributed to environmental factors. Sites with two vegetation types, deciduous oak woodland and phrygana, under three different precipitation regimes were studied. Cluster analysis was applied and characteristic species were identified for the clusters produced. Geographic proximity was found to be the major grouping factor. Characteristic species were also identified for the different vegetation types revealing that species have individualistic responses and do not necessarily follow the classification obtained for the whole assemblages by cluster analysis. The relative abundance patterns observed showed two distinct features: a great number of extreme subordinate species in the oak sites and a change in dominance patterns also in the same sites with more abundant species becoming more strongly dominant at more humid sites. Assemblages from phrygana sites have a much more even species-abundance distribution. Differences were observed at the species level that can be attributed to environmental factors, but the geographic distance between sites should be taken into account in order to arrive at safe conclusions. At the assemblage level, the relative abundance patterns observed in the more humid oak sites were distinct from the patterns observed in sites less favourable in terms of vegetation cover and precipitation.

  15. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai

    2016-01-01

    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report (3)He/(4)He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a (3)He/(4)He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the (3)He/(4)He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10(-6)), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano. PMID:27311383

  16. Waterspout cloud top detection using MSG SEVIRI infrared brightness temperature over the northern Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papachristopoulou, K.; Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.

    2015-04-01

    Waterspouts pose a significant threat for coastal areas, maritime activities and structures and thus their study is essential. They are frequently occurring in the Mediterranean Sea and particularly in the northern coasts. A vulnerable area of waterspout formation is the Ionian Sea according to recent research and especially the water body around Corfu Island, Greece. The Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment of the University of Athens has assembled a detailed database of waterspout events, providing additional information such as location and time of these events; valuable information for the methodology followed. In this study, the waterspout data base concerns events from 20 March 2007 to 31 December 2013. Thus, a total of 74 events were recorded and catalogued on 47 days, as there were days with multiple waterspout events. The aim of this study is to investigate the temporal evolution of brightness temperature on tops of waterspout parent clouds that triggered the formation of single or multiple waterspout events, based on the aforementioned database. The cloud top temperature was assessed by using channel at 10.8 μm MSG SEVIRI Level 1.5 Image Data product. The minimum brightness temperature of the cloud top around the waterspout location for four different examined radiuses was estimated during 60 min prior to and after waterspout formation. Results are illustrated in terms of seasonal analysis. During autumn season a decrease of brightness temperature (colder values) was detected at waterspout parent cloud close to waterspout formation.

  17. Post-plutonic unroofing and morphogenesis of the Attic Cycladic complex (Aegea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejl, E.; Riedl, H.; Weingartner, H.

    2002-05-01

    The Attic-Cycladic complex of Greece comprises an Eocene high-P unit with blueschist occurrences. Unroofing of this unit took place in Oligocene-Miocene times and was accompanied by a regional low-P medium-T overprint and Miocene granitic plutonism. Apatite fission-track ages of 14 "crystalline" samples from the islands of Tinos, Mikonos and Serifos range between 13.1 and 5.3 Ma, corresponding to the middle and late Miocene. The frequency distributions of confined track lengths are characterised by high arithmetic means of 14.2-15.1 μm and by standard deviations from 0.9 to 1.6 μm. Thermochronological modelling of the data indicates rapid cooling between 10 and 6 Ma and subsequent deceleration of the cooling rates. For a short time, the Miocene plutons of Tinos, Mikonos and Serifos experienced maximum cooling rates above 50 °C/Ma. These exceptionally high cooling rates cannot be explained by strong vertical uplift and fast regional erosion. Such a process is disproved by preserved remnants of a former peneplain, including inselbergs and kaolinized tropical subsoil. On Mikonos, fast post-plutonic cooling of the lower plate was apparently accompanied by simultaneous sedimentation on the upper plate. We propose a post-plutonic cooling model which assumes strong periplutonic heat flow into much cooler host rocks and fast extensional unroofing.

  18. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai

    2016-06-17

    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report (3)He/(4)He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a (3)He/(4)He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the (3)He/(4)He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10(-6)), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  19. Energy consumption based on heating/cooling degree days within the urban environment of Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustris, K. P.; Nastos, P. T.; Bartzokas, A.; Larissi, I. K.; Zacharia, P. T.; Paliatsos, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    The degree-day method is considered to be a fundamental and a rather simple method to estimate heating and cooling energy demand. This study aims in a detailed and accurate assessment of cooling and heating degree days in different locations within the Greater Athens area (GAA), Greece. To achieve this goal, hourly values of air temperature from eight different locations within the GAA, covering the period 2001-2005, were used. Thus, the monthly and the annual number of cooling and heating degree days for each one of the examined locations could be estimated separately. Furthermore, an effort is made to evaluate the energy consumption for a specific building, based on the degree-day method, to indicate the impact of the canopy layer urban heat island on neighboring regions within the GAA. Results reveal that there is great spatial variability of energy demand and energy consumption along with significant differences in expenses for heating and cooling among neighboring regions within the GAA. Finally, regarding the energy demands of buildings, it is important to take into account intra-urban variability of canopy layer climates against an ensemble mean throughout the city, because the latter can result in inaccurate estimations and conclusions.

  20. Flux measurements in the surface Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Aegean Sea, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, V E; Helmis, C G

    2014-10-01

    Micro-meteorological measurements within the surface Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer took place at the shoreline of two islands at northern and south-eastern Aegean Sea of Greece. The primary goal of these experimental campaigns was to study the momentum, heat and humidity fluxes over this part of the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea, characterized by limited spatial and temporal scales which could affect these exchanges at the air-sea interface. The great majority of the obtained records from both sites gave higher values up to factor of two, compared with the estimations from the most widely used parametric formulas that came mostly from measurements over open seas and oceans. Friction velocity values from both campaigns varied within the same range and presented strong correlation with the wind speed at 10 m height while the calculated drag coefficient values at the same height for both sites were found to be constant in relation with the wind speed. Using eddy correlation analysis, the heat flux values were calculated (virtual heat fluxes varied from -60 to 40 W/m(2)) and it was found that they are affected by the limited spatial and temporal scales of the responding air-sea interaction mechanism. Similarly, the humidity fluxes appeared to be strongly influenced by the observed intense spatial heterogeneity of the sea surface temperature.

  1. Mineralogical investigation of soils formed in calcareous gravelly alluvium, eastern Crete, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Timpson, M.E.; Lee, S.Y.; Ammons, J.T.; Foss, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The mineralogical composition of soils along a toposequence formed on Quaternary-aged alluvium from the northeastern portion of the island of Crete, Greece, and the examination of their mineral weathering characteristics should help provide an insight into the stage of weathering and relative age of the soils. Four soils were described and sampled from three landscape positions along the toposequence and the clay and silt fractions from all horizons of each soil were examined using a combination of x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. Coarse and fine silt fractions from each soil contained dolomite, calcite, quartz, feldspars, mica, and chlorite. Feldspar content generally decreased with depth, whereas calcite increased with depth. Minerals identified in the silt fractions resulted from a combination of physical and chemical weathering and possible eolian additions. Clay fractions were dominated by trioctahedral ferrous chlorite and dioctahedral mica (muscovite), with minor amounts of kaolinite, quartz, dolomite, and calcite. Goethite was also identified in the clay fraction of some soil horizons. The source of the phyllosilicates was inheritance from phyllite gravels in the alluvium and chemical dissolution of the dolostone releasing entrained clay minerals. Some portion of the kaolinite in surface horizons was probably the result of eolian additions. All evidence suggests that these soils are still in the initial stages of weathering. 40 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai

    2016-01-01

    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report 3He/4He measurements in CO2–dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a 3He/4He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the 3He/4He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10−6), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like 3He/4He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano. PMID:27311383

  3. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai

    2016-06-01

    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report 3He/4He measurements in CO2–dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a 3He/4He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the 3He/4He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10‑6), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like 3He/4He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  4. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  5. The Marble Types of Thassos Island through the Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskaridis, Kostas; Patronis, Michael; Papatrechas, Christos; Schouenborg, Björn

    2013-04-01

    The first references to the "white whole-grain" marble of Thassos Island, Greece, date back to the 6th century BC when stones were quarried at Alyki peninsula and at Fanari and Vathy capes. Since that time, Thassos marble was exported to Samothraki and other neighbouring islands, Asia Minor coastal cities, Southern Greece and Rome. In ancient times, there were two principal types of marble quarries in Thassos: (a) those producing material for the construction of temples and for the creation of various art pieces, i.e. ornamental stones, and (b) those for extraction of rough blocks for export. This paper aims at describing the Thassos marble, the geological setting in brief, its historic use and future supply possibilities and other reasons why it is a time-enduring ornamental stone. The aesthetical characteristics and the physical mechanical properties of its two main types (i.e. calcitic and dolomitic) are described and evaluated. The relevant results justify the wide application range and the continuous use of Thassos marble from ancient to present times and confirm the ability of this stone to survive over time. Keywords: Thassos, Marble, Ornamental Stones, Physical Mechanical Properties, Historic use

  6. Diurnal variation of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balafoutis, Ch. J.

    1989-12-01

    The diurnal variations of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece, are considered using hourly data from January 1960 to December 1977. This is the first attempt in Greece to describe bioclimatic conditions using wind-chill data. The hourly values of wind-chill were calculated by Siple-Passel's formula which still appears to be most widely used. The values of wind-chill are discussed in terms of Terjung's scale. Thessaloniki does not experience “frost-bite” conditions during the coldest months but does experience “warm” conditions during the summer period. A comparison of hourly and daily mean values show that the means do not indicate the real range of wind-chill during the day.

  7. Development of the Social Capital Questionnaire in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kritsotakis, George; Koutis, Antonis D; Alegakis, Athanassios K; Philalithis, Anastas E

    2008-06-01

    The Greek version of the social capital questionnaire (SCQ-G) was evaluated in a sample of 521 adults drawn from three different urban areas in Greece. Exploratory factor analysis followed by multi-trait scaling yielded six factors: Participation in the Community, Feelings of Safety, Family/Friends Connections, Value of Life and Social Agency, Tolerance of Diversity, and Work Connections. The factor solution is similar to the patterns identified originally in Australia and the US. Variations suggest that social capital does not share the same structure in different countries. The SCQ-G is a useful scale to measure individual-level social capital in Greece. Social capital measurement tools should be validated in each cultural or national setting in which they are used.

  8. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years. PMID:19243609

  9. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Marinagi, C. E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Trivellas, P. E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Reklitis, Panagiotis E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com; Skourlas, C.

    2015-02-09

    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support.

  10. Effective ultraviolet irradiance measurements from artificial tanning devices in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petri, Aspasia; Karabetsos, Efthymios

    2015-12-01

    Artificial tanning remains very popular worldwide, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunbeds as 'carcinogenic to humans'. Greek Atomic Energy Commission has initiated a surveillance action of the artificial tanning devices in Greece in order to record the effective irradiance levels from the sunbeds and to inform and synchronise the domestic artificial tanning business sector with the requirements of the European Standard EN 60335-2-27:2010. In this direction, in situ measurements of UV emissions from sunbeds in solaria businesses all over Greece were performed from October 2013 until July 2014, with a radiometer and a portable single-monochromator spectrophotometer. Analysis of the measurements' results revealed that effective irradiance in ∼60 % of the measured sunbeds exceeded the 0.3 W m(-2) limit value set by EN 60335-2-27:2010 and only 20 % of the devices could be categorised as UV type 3.

  11. Essential-oil diversity of three Calamintha species from Greece.

    PubMed

    Karousou, Regina; Hanlidou, Effie; Lazari, Diamando

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the essential-oil composition of the Calamintha officinalis-nepeta complex in Greece and to clarify the main patterns of its variation. The oils obtained from 22 wild-growing populations of C. glandulosa, C. nepeta, and C. menthifolia were studied. They could be classified into two different chemotypes, which correspond to the main biosynthetic routes of the C(3)-oxygenated p-menthane compounds. Chemotype I includes oils rich in trans-piperitone oxide, cis-piperitone oxide, and piperitenone oxide, while Chemotype II comprises oils rich in pulegone and menthone or menthone and isomenthone. Within both chemotypes, quantitative fluctuations of the main components were observed. Comparison with published data showed that the presence of Chemotype II has not been observed before in C. menthifolia, while Chemotype I has been reported in C. nepeta plants from Greece for the first time. PMID:22782882

  12. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinagi, C.; Trivellas, P.; Reklitis, Panagiotis; Skourlas, C.

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support.

  13. Pyrolysis of forestry biomass by-products in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Zabaniotou, A.A.

    1999-06-01

    This article summarizes the technical characteristics of a biomass pyrolysis pilot plant recently constructed in central Greece. It highlights the considerations involved in achieving successful pyrolysis technology and environmental and developmental goals, by reviewing technical and nontechnical barriers associated with biomass treatment technology in Greece. Data from the start-up phase of the plant operation are presented and some aspects of the process are outlined. The capacity of the plant is 1200--1450 kg/hr, based on wet biomass (Arbutus Unedo) and the pyrolysis temperature is approximately 400 C. Char yield is 14--18% weight on dry basis and is of good quality consisting of 76% C with heat content 6760 kcal/kg. Bio-oil includes 64% C and its heat content is 6250 kcal/kg.

  14. Development of the Social Capital Questionnaire in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kritsotakis, George; Koutis, Antonis D; Alegakis, Athanassios K; Philalithis, Anastas E

    2008-06-01

    The Greek version of the social capital questionnaire (SCQ-G) was evaluated in a sample of 521 adults drawn from three different urban areas in Greece. Exploratory factor analysis followed by multi-trait scaling yielded six factors: Participation in the Community, Feelings of Safety, Family/Friends Connections, Value of Life and Social Agency, Tolerance of Diversity, and Work Connections. The factor solution is similar to the patterns identified originally in Australia and the US. Variations suggest that social capital does not share the same structure in different countries. The SCQ-G is a useful scale to measure individual-level social capital in Greece. Social capital measurement tools should be validated in each cultural or national setting in which they are used. PMID:18213683

  15. Porosity and distribution of water in perlite from the island of Milos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kaufhold, Stephan; Reese, Anke; Schwiebacher, Werner; Dohrmann, Reiner; Grathoff, Georg H; Warr, Laurence N; Halisch, Matthias; Müller, Cornelia; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Ufer, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A perlite sample representative of an operating mine in Milos was investigated with respect to the type and spatial distribution of water. A set of different methods was used which finally provided a consistent view on the water at least in this perlite. Infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of different water species (molecular water and hydroxyl groups / strongly bound water). The presence of more than 0.5 mass% smectite, however, could be excluded considering the cation exchange capacity results. The dehydration measured by thermal analysis occurred over a wide range of temperatures hence confirming the infrared spectroscopical results. Both methods point to the existence of a continuous spectrum of water binding energies. The spatial distribution of water and/or pores was investigated using different methods (CT: computer tomography, FIB: scanning electron microscopy including focused ion beam technology, IRM: infrared microscopy). Computer tomography (CT) showed large macropores (20 - 100 μm) and additionally revealed a mottled microstructure of the silicate matrix with low density areas up to a few μm in diameter. Scanning electron microscopy (FIB) confirmed the presence of μm sized pores and IRM showed the filling of these pores with water. In summary, two types of pores were found. Airfilled 20 - 100 μm pores and μm-sized pores disseminated in the glass matrix containing at least some water. Porosity measurements indicate a total porosity of 26 Vol%, 11 Vol% corresponding to the μm-sized pores. It remains unsolved wether the water in the μm-sized pores entered after or throughout perlite formation. However, the pores are sealed and no indications of cracks were found which indicated a primary source of the water, i.e. water was probably entrapped by quenching of the lava. The water in these pores may be the main reason for the thermal expandability which results in the extraordinarily porous expanded perlite building materials.

  16. Natural radioactivity content of granite tiles used in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaefthymiou, H

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in commercial granite tiles imported in Greece were performed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 1 to 434, 2 to 239 and 71 to 1576 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all granite samples examined were found to be within the EC limit values for superficial and other materials with restricted use.

  17. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in HIV infected patients in Greece.

    PubMed

    Politou, Marianna; Boti, Sofia; Androutsakos, Theodoros; Valsami, Serena; Pittaras, Theodoros; Kapsimali, Violetta

    2015-09-01

    HEV infection is an emerging public health problem worldwide Data concerning HEV infection in HIV+ patients in Greece is scare. The aim of the study was to determine HEV seroprevalence in patients with HIV infection in Greece. We studied 243 HIV(+) patients 214 men (88%) and 29 women (12%) with a median age of 45 years (range 19-83) who attended the HIV unit of Pathophysiology Department of Laikon General Hospital in Athens for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies with (EIA) (EIA HEV IgG, Adaltis, Rome, Italy Eighteen/243 patients (7.3%) were positive for HEV IgG antibodies, a seroprevalence that was not different from that described for the blood donors group from Greece There was no difference of the presence of HbsAg, hepatitis C and hepatitis A between the HEV(+) and HEV(-) patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the HEV(+) and HEV(-) group in terms of HIV acquisition, sexual orientation, median duration of HIV infection, ART treatment, or duration of ART. Only the median age of HEV(+) was 52 years (35-78) while that of HEV(-) was 44 years (19-83)(P = 0.03). Only 2/18(11.1%) HEV(+) HIV(+) patients had abnormal ALT and AST values. The seroprevalence of hepatitis E in HIV(+) patients in Greece seems to be the same with that of the general population thus implying that HIV infection is not a risk factor for HEV infection and only age shows a positive correlation with seropositivity.

  18. Current status of stroke epidemiology in Greece: a panorama.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, Angelo V; Zikić, Milorad

    2014-01-01

    Although strokes have been documented since about 3 millennia, they remain today as one of the leading causes of mortality, as well as of subsequent serious long-term physical and mental morbidity, among patients in many different countries all over the world. Greece presents an increase in mortality rates according to World Health Organization, and this fact underlines the need for early diagnosis and treatment, as well as, the need to implement effective prevention strategies for strokes. This review makes an effort to describe the current status of stroke epidemiological features, as well as to present the risk factors prevalent in Greece. The incidence rate is 261-319/100,000 based on the recent population based registry. Stroke appears to be more prevalent in men than in women, and the mean age of stroke onset in Greece is at 70 years of age. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus are the major risk factors of stroke in the Greek population, while smoking is the most commonly documented modifiable risk factor in young adults with ischemic stroke. Similar to other parts of the world, ischemic stroke is the most common stroke type. The 28-day case fatality rate for men and women was 26.5%. The mean in-hospital cost per stroke patient was 3624.9 € and the mean rehabilitation cost of outpatients with stroke was 5553.3 €, while the cost proportion of hemorrhagic stroke is higher when compared to ischemic stroke. Stroke is a devastating condition with recognized challenges in identifying effective prevention programs. In Greece, limited data exists regarding the epidemiology of strokes. As a result, the need to conduct new studies and researches across the country is well documented.

  19. [The sociology of migration in Greece since 1960].

    PubMed

    Moussourou, L M

    1984-01-01

    The sociological literature concerning international migration from Greece since 1960 is reviewed. The author suggests that a Marxist approach to the analysis of European migration is likely to be more useful than a country-oriented study: using this approach, migration can be analyzed in the context of the relationship between industrialized countries in the center receiving migrants and nonindustrialized countries on the periphery that send migrants. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12267759

  20. Current status of stroke epidemiology in Greece: a panorama.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, Angelo V; Zikić, Milorad

    2014-01-01

    Although strokes have been documented since about 3 millennia, they remain today as one of the leading causes of mortality, as well as of subsequent serious long-term physical and mental morbidity, among patients in many different countries all over the world. Greece presents an increase in mortality rates according to World Health Organization, and this fact underlines the need for early diagnosis and treatment, as well as, the need to implement effective prevention strategies for strokes. This review makes an effort to describe the current status of stroke epidemiological features, as well as to present the risk factors prevalent in Greece. The incidence rate is 261-319/100,000 based on the recent population based registry. Stroke appears to be more prevalent in men than in women, and the mean age of stroke onset in Greece is at 70 years of age. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus are the major risk factors of stroke in the Greek population, while smoking is the most commonly documented modifiable risk factor in young adults with ischemic stroke. Similar to other parts of the world, ischemic stroke is the most common stroke type. The 28-day case fatality rate for men and women was 26.5%. The mean in-hospital cost per stroke patient was 3624.9 € and the mean rehabilitation cost of outpatients with stroke was 5553.3 €, while the cost proportion of hemorrhagic stroke is higher when compared to ischemic stroke. Stroke is a devastating condition with recognized challenges in identifying effective prevention programs. In Greece, limited data exists regarding the epidemiology of strokes. As a result, the need to conduct new studies and researches across the country is well documented. PMID:25482257

  1. Generics market in Greece: the pharmaceutical industry's beliefs.

    PubMed

    Geitona, Mary; Zavras, Dimitrios; Hatzikou, Magda; Kyriopoulos, John

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs and perspectives of the pharmaceutical industry on generic medication in Greece. Questionnaires were mailed to all 58 members of the Hellenic Association of Pharmaceutical Companies from November 2002 to February 2003. The response rate was 52%, namely 30 questionnaires were completed and returned. The questionnaire requested information on companies' involvement in generics, their opinion on generics' characteristics and on public policies affecting the demand and supply of generic medication. A descriptive analysis of the outcomes, that is percentage comparison through binomial tests and Fisher tests, was performed. According to our findings, 43% of the respondents were involved in the production and distribution of generics and the mean period of their involvement was 12 years. The majority of the respondents were in favor of their companies' involvement in generics, despite the relatively small market share of generics in Greece; 9.7% of total pharmaceutical market in 2003. Bearing in mind that in Greece the promotion of generics is not encouraged, pharmaceutical companies believe that the mandatory introduction of bioequivalence studies is an indirect promotional strategy towards generics. Additionally, the majority declared that their main competitive advantages are their safety, efficacy and effectiveness as well as their economic benefit to the society. Finally, the respondents expressed their preference for the introduction of pharmacoeconomic submissions for drugs' reimbursement by social insurance funds. PMID:16386326

  2. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece. PMID:26688203

  3. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece.

  4. Generics market in Greece: the pharmaceutical industry's beliefs.

    PubMed

    Geitona, Mary; Zavras, Dimitrios; Hatzikou, Magda; Kyriopoulos, John

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs and perspectives of the pharmaceutical industry on generic medication in Greece. Questionnaires were mailed to all 58 members of the Hellenic Association of Pharmaceutical Companies from November 2002 to February 2003. The response rate was 52%, namely 30 questionnaires were completed and returned. The questionnaire requested information on companies' involvement in generics, their opinion on generics' characteristics and on public policies affecting the demand and supply of generic medication. A descriptive analysis of the outcomes, that is percentage comparison through binomial tests and Fisher tests, was performed. According to our findings, 43% of the respondents were involved in the production and distribution of generics and the mean period of their involvement was 12 years. The majority of the respondents were in favor of their companies' involvement in generics, despite the relatively small market share of generics in Greece; 9.7% of total pharmaceutical market in 2003. Bearing in mind that in Greece the promotion of generics is not encouraged, pharmaceutical companies believe that the mandatory introduction of bioequivalence studies is an indirect promotional strategy towards generics. Additionally, the majority declared that their main competitive advantages are their safety, efficacy and effectiveness as well as their economic benefit to the society. Finally, the respondents expressed their preference for the introduction of pharmacoeconomic submissions for drugs' reimbursement by social insurance funds.

  5. Preliminary background indoor EMF measurements in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kottou, Sofia; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Yannakopoulos, Panayiotis H; Vogiannis, Efstratios; Petraki, Ermioni; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Koulougliotis, Dionysios

    2015-11-01

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate the fluctuation of Greek indoor electromagnetic field (EMF) intensity values and identify peaks that might occur. The scientific interest is mainly focused on the bands of extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields and radiofrequency (RF) electric fields which have been suggested to be possibly carcinogenic to humans by the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements were performed in a variety of indoor dwellings, in Attica and in the islands of Zakynthos and Lesvos. A total number of 4540 measurements were taken in a wide frequency range (50 Hz-2100 MHz) of which 3301 in Attica, 963 in Lesvos and 276 in Zakynthos. Statistical analysis of the data revealed specific statistically significant differences between the mean values of the electric (ELF and RF) but not the magnetic (ELF) field strengths measured at different distances from the EMF source, as well as between some of the mean values of the RF electric field at different bands. Some statistically significant differences between mean electric field values at different geographic locations were also identified. As far as the RF electric field is concerned, the maximum values, in most cases, were below 0.5 V/m, however increased values above 1 V/m and up to 5.6 V/m were occasionally observed. The ELF magnetic field values were lower than 1 μT. It may be concluded that overall, the observed indoor EMF intensity values remained well below domestic and European established limits.

  6. A heuristic expert system for forest fire guidance in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, Lazaros S; Papastavrou, Anastasios K; Lefakis, Panagiotis D

    2002-07-01

    Forests and forestlands are common inheritance for all Greeks and a piece of the national wealth that must be handed over to the next generations in the best possible condition. After 1974, Greece faces a severe forest fire problem and forest fire forecasting is the process that will enable the Greek ministry of Agriculture to reduce the destruction. This paper describes the basic design principles of an Expert System that performs forest fire forecasting (for the following fire season) and classification of the prefectures of Greece into forest fire risk zones. The Expert system handles uncertainty and uses heuristics in order to produce scenarios based on the presence or absence of various qualitative factors. The initial research focused on the construction of a mathematical model which attempted to describe the annual number of forest fires and burnt area in Greece based on historical data. However this has proven to be impossible using regression analysis and time series. A closer analysis of the fire data revealed that two qualitative factors dramatically affect the number of forest fires and the hectares of burnt areas annually. The first is political stability and national elections and the other is drought cycles. Heuristics were constructed that use political stability and drought cycles, to provide forest fire guidance. Fuzzy logic was applied to produce a fuzzy expected interval for each prefecture of Greece. A fuzzy expected interval is a narrow interval of values that best describes the situation in the country or a part of the country for a certain time period. A successful classification of the prefectures of Greece in forest fire risk zones was done by the system, by comparing the fuzzy expected intervals to each other. The system was tested for the years 1994 and 1995. The testing has clearly shown that the system can predict accurately, the number of forest fires for each prefecture for the following year. The average accuracy was as high as 85

  7. Numerical simulation of the 2002 Northern Rhodes Slide (Greece) and evaluation of the generated tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaniboni, Filippo; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Small landslides are very common along the submarine margins, due to steep slopes and continuous material deposition that increment mass instability and supply collapse occurrences, even without earthquake triggering. This kind of events can have relevant consequences when occurring close to the coast, because they are characterized by sudden change of velocity and relevant speed achievement, reflecting into high tsunamigenic potential. This is the case for example of the slide of Rhodes Island (Greece), named Northern Rhodes Slide (NRS), where unusual 3-4 m waves were registered on 24 March 2002, provoking some damage in the coastal stretch of the city of Rhodes (Papadopoulos et al., 2007). The event was not associated with earthquake occurrence, and eyewitnesses supported the hypothesis of a non-seismic source for the tsunami, placed 1 km offshore. Subsequent marine geophysical surveys (Sakellariou et al., 2002) evidenced the presence of several detachment niches at about 300-400 m depth along the northern steep slope, one of which can be considered responsible of the observed tsunami, fitting with the previously mentioned supposition. In this work, that is carried out in the frame of the European funded project NearToWarn, we evaluated the tsunami effects due to the NRS by means of numerical modelling: after having reconstructed the sliding body basing on morphological assumptions (obtaining an esteemed volume of 33 million m3), we simulated the sliding motion through the in-house built code UBO-BLOCK1, adopting a Lagrangian approach and splitting the sliding mass into a "chain" of interacting blocks. This provides the complete dynamics of the landslide, including the shape changes that relevantly influence the tsunami generation. After the application of an intermediate code, accounting for the slide impulse filtering through the water depth, the tsunami propagation in the sea around the island of Rhodes and up to near coasts of Turkey was simulated via the

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of suspended particulate matter and particulate organic carbon in the Saronikos Gulf (eastern Mediterranean, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Karageorgis, Aristomenis P.

    2005-12-01

    In 1998-1999, beam attenuation coefficient ( bac) profiles, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations were assessed during five cruises in the Saronikos Gulf, eastern Mediterranean, Greece. SPM and POC concentrations (0.05-1.84 mg l-1 and 10.2-468.6 μg l-1, respectively) exhibited strong spatial and temporal variations, related to the different environmental characteristics of various sectors of the gulf, including wind regime and biological productivity. The Elefsis and Keratsini bays, as well as the area around Psyttaleia Island, showed the highest POC concentrations. The vertical distribution of POC at stations in the western basin, as well as in the inner and outer Saronikos Gulf is characterised by higher POC concentrations in surface waters, associated with higher biological activity. The wastewater treatment plant effluents discharged south of the Psyttaleia Island are a major source of organic particles which directly influence the intermediate water layers, at least during the stratification period. Assessments of relationships between bac and SPM or POC concentrations revealed a relatively strong correlation between bac and POC. An equation converting bac readings to POC concentration was established which can be applied to historical and/or future bac measurements, independently of season. POC concentrations estimated from calibrated continuous transmissometer readings were used to estimate the standing stock of POC in the Saronikos Gulf, which varied between 6,110×106 and 13,450×106 g C during the period June 1998 to February 1999.

  9. Field observations of geological effects triggered by the January-February 2014 Cephalonia (Ionian Sea, Greece) earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkaniotis, Sotirios; Ganas, Athanassios; Papathanassiou, George; Papanikolaou, Marios

    2014-09-01

    On Jan. 26 and Feb 3, 2014 Cephalonia Island, Ionian Sea, Greece, was struck by two strong, shallow earthquakes (NOA local magnitudes ML5.8 and ML5.7, respectively). The earthquakes ruptured two sub-parallel, strike-slip faults, with right-lateral kinematics. During both earthquakes, ground-shaking phenomena such as liquefaction, road failures, rock falls, small/medium size landslides and stonewall failures were widespread all over the western part of the island. No primary fault surface ruptures were observed, however one patch of the rupture of the second event may have nearly reached the surface, because of the abundance of surface cracks with cm-size offsets mapped in the field in north Paliki Peninsula. Liquefaction phenomena were mainly triggered in reclaimed lands in the waterfront areas of Argostoli and Lixouri inducing structural damages to quays, sidewalks and piers. We also present evidence for liquefaction-induced ground disruption in the recently constructed marina of Argostoli, which is situated at the opposite (eastern) shore to the town.

  10. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... deploying instruments aboard several ships, aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized ... These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 during Terra orbit ...

  11. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  12. Epicurus of Samos (341-270 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek philosopher, founded Epicurean philosophy in Athens, which divided the universe into `atoms' and the `void.' Epicureans regarded happiness as the chief human good, attainable through freedom from anxiety and fear, and their materialism was despised in subsequent years as anti-Christian....

  13. Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This cloudy view of the Hawaiian Islands (21.0N, 157.5W) demonstrates the phenomena of island water wakes and, to a lesser extent, cloud wakes as well. The islands form an obstruction to the ocean current flow and in effect create an observable turbulence in the water on the backside of the islands. The same effect can be observed in clouds as they leave wind blown wisps or streamers around obstacles in their path.

  14. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  15. Henderson Island, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Henderson Island (24.5S, 128.5W) Pacific Ocean southeast of the Tuamotu Archipelago, is a good example of the many barren islands that but for lack of a source of water could be another lush tropical paradise. The crew of HMS Bounty, in searching for a refuge, sailed past this island but rejected it in favor of nearby Pitcairn Island because of the lack of resources and water.

  16. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  18. Manpower Policy and Problems in Greece. Reviews of Manpower and Social Policies No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    A full solution of the employment problems of countries in the stage of development now existing in Greece, to a great extent depends upon the possibilities of achieving the accumulation of capital necessary for the establishment of new industries and other investment. It is important for Greece to promote economic progress in the different…

  19. Intercultural Education and Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleologou, Nektaria

    2004-01-01

    During the last ten years, intercultural education has gradually emerged in Greece as a new type of education. This paper focuses on several aspects of the implementation of intercultural education in the Greek context. Specifically, it highlights and addresses the following issues: (1) the multicultural situation in Greece and the discourse on…

  20. A Marvelous Journey: Calling from Greece to a U.S. Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lana; Sucich, John

    2007-01-01

    A unit of study on Ancient Greece is a part of the fourth grade social studies curriculum at Belmont Day School. The students spend 10 weeks exploring Greek history and mythology. This article discusses a new project that the authors conducted, wherein one of them was going to Greece on a study tour, while the other one stays in Belmont Day…

  1. 68 FR 47607 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-08-11

    ..., except to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan,...

  2. 79 FR 61125 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Delacroix's Greece on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Delacroix's Greece on the Ruins of..., 2003), I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Delacroix's Greece on...

  3. 68 FR 55062 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-09-22

    ..., Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of August 11, 2003 (68 FR 47607). The... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa... States is materially injured by reason of imports from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and...

  4. 65 FR 34661 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Orders: Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-05-31

    ...: Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece, 64 FR 67861(December 3, 1999); and Final Results of Expedited... foreseeable time. (See Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Greece and Japan, 65 FR 31348 (May 17, 2000) and... reasonably foreseeable time (65 FR 31348 (May 17, 2000)). Therefore, pursuant to section 751(d)(2) of the...

  5. 67 FR 9188 - Change in Disease Status of Greece Because of BSE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-02-28

    ... October 30, 2001 (66 FR 54642-54643, Docket No. 01- 065-1), we amended the regulations by adding Greece to... published at 66 FR 54642-54643 on October 30, 2001. Authority: 7 U.S.C. 450, 7711, 7712, 7713, 7714, 7751... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 94 Change in Disease Status of Greece Because...

  6. A Review of the Library and Information Services In Greece: Current Developments that Shape LIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garoufallou, Emmanouel; Siatri, Rania; Hartley, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper sets the context for this special issue on LIS education in Greece by explaining the Greek higher education system both in organisational terms and in the approaches to teaching and learning. In addition it briefly outlines the current state of development in libraries in Greece. Taken together they provide the background to the…

  7. 28 CFR 0.110 - Implementation of the Convention Between the United States and Greece.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Convention Between the United States and Greece. The Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization and immigration officers (as defined in 8 CFR 103.1(i)) are hereby designated as “local authorities” and... the United States and Greece. 0.110 Section 0.110 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. Working with Students with Special Educational Needs in Greece: Teachers' Stressors and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniou, Alexander-Stamatios; Polychroni, Fotini; Kotroni, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Few studies explore the specific sources of stress, and the coping strategies applied by teachers of children with special educational needs, particularly in small countries such as Greece. The present study investigated the specific work-related stressors affecting special educational needs teachers in Greece and the coping strategies applied by…

  9. Historical and Contemporary Aspects of the Relationship between the State and Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    An outgrowth of earlier research on historical and contemporary adult education in Greece, this paper provides highlights of the relationship between the state and adult education in that country. The highlights are organized by the following historical periods: prehistory (c. 3000-1100 B.C.); early and archaic Greece (c. 1100-700 B.C.);…

  10. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  11. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica     View ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during ... sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. ...

  12. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Effects of fragmentation on genetic diversity in island populations of the Aegean wall lizard Podarcis erhardii (Lacertidae, Reptilia).

    PubMed

    Hurston, H; Voith, L; Bonanno, J; Foufopoulos, J; Pafilis, P; Valakos, E; Anthony, N

    2009-08-01

    Landbridge islands offer unique opportunities for understanding the effects of fragmentation history on genetic variation in island taxa. The formation of islands by rising sea levels can be likened to a population bottleneck whose magnitude and duration is determined by island area and time since isolation, respectively. The Holocene landbridge islands of the Aegean Sea (Greece) were formed since the last glacial maximum and constitute an ideal system for disentangling the effects of island area, age and geographic isolation on genetic variability. Of the many reptile species inhabiting this island system, the Aegean wall lizard Podarcis erhardii is an excellent indicator of fragmentation history due to its widespread distribution and poor over-water dispersal abilities. In this study, we utilize a detailed record of Holocene fragmentation to investigate the effects of island history on wall lizard mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite diversity. Findings show that the spatial distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes reflects historical patterns of fragmentation rather than geographic proximity per se. In keeping with neutral bottleneck theory, larger and younger islands retain more nuclear genetic variation than smaller, older islands. Conversely, there is no evidence of an effect of isolation by distance or effect of distance to the nearest larger landmass on genetic variability, indicating little gene flow between islands. Lastly, population-specific measures of genetic differentiation are inversely correlated with island area, suggesting that smaller islands exhibit greater divergence due to their greater susceptibility to drift. Taken together, these results suggest that both island area and time since isolation are important predictors of genetic variation and that these patterns likely arose through the progressive fragmentation of ancestral diversity and the ensuing cumulative effects of drift.

  14. Emerging Trichinella britovi infections in free ranging pigs of Greece.

    PubMed

    Boutsini, S; Papatsiros, V G; Stougiou, D; Marucci, G; Liandris, E; Athanasiou, L V; Papadoudis, A; Karagiozopoulos, E; Bisias, A; Pozio, E

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.

  15. Transition from collision to subduction in Western Greece: the Katouna-Stamna active fault system and regional kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérouse, E.; Sébrier, M.; Braucher, R.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Bourlès, D.; Briole, P.; Sorel, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Arsenikos, S.

    2016-06-01

    Transition from subduction to collision occurs in Western Greece and is accommodated along the downgoing plate by the Kefalonia right-lateral fault that transfers the Hellenic subduction front to the Apulian collision front. Here we present an active tectonic study of Aitolo-Akarnania (Western Greece) that highlights how such a transition is accommodated in the overriding plate. Based on new multi-scale geomorphic and tectonic observations, we performed an accurate active fault trace mapping in the region, and provide evidence for active normal and left-lateral faulting along the Katouna-Stamna Fault (KSF), a 65-km-long NNW-striking fault system connecting the Amvrakikos Gulf to the Patras Gulf. We further show that the Cenozoic Hellenide thrusts located west of the KSF are no longer active, either in field observation or in GPS data, leading us to propose that the KSF forms the northeastern boundary of a rigid Ionian Islands-Akarnania Block (IAB). Cosmic ray exposure measurements of 10Be and 36Cl were performed on a Quaternary alluvial fan offset along the KSF (~50 m left-lateral offset). A maximum abandonment age of ~12-14 ka for the alluvial fan surface can be determined, giving an estimated KSF minimum geological left-lateral slip rate of ~4 mm year-1, in agreement with high GPS slip rates (~10 mm year-1). Despite this high slip rate, the KSF is characterized by subdued morphological evidence of tectonic activity, a gypsum-breccia bedrock and a low level of seismicity, suggesting a dominantly creeping behavior for this fault. Finally, we discuss how the IAB appears to have been progressively individualized during the Pleistocene (younger than ~1.5 Ma).

  16. Antifungal activities of selected aromatic plants growing wild in Greece.

    PubMed

    Soković, M; Tzakou, O; Pitarokili, D; Couladis, M

    2002-10-01

    Essential oils of Origanum onites, Satureja thymbra, Salvia fruticosa (Greek sage), and Salvia pomifera subsp. calycina plants growing wild in Greece and their components carvacrol, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, were assayed for antifungal activity against 13 fungal species. Among the fungi tested were food poisoning, plant, animals and human pathogenic species. The oils presented various degrees of inhibition against all the fungi investigated. The highest and broadest activity was shown by the carvacrol content oils (O. onites and S. thymbra), while the oil of sage was the least effective. Carvacrol exhibited the highest and 1,8-cineole the lowest level of antifungal activity among the components tested. PMID:12428445

  17. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  18. Tot Graeci Tot Sententiae: Astronomical Perspective Multiplicity in Ancient Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, O.

    2011-06-01

    Ancient Greece was made of a multiplicity of thinking heads, in an atmosphere of (relative) freedom of opinions, in every field of knowledge. then we should not wonder if many astronomical and cosmological theories, survived until our 17th century, had already been formulated by different philosophers and in different regions, cities and periods of Greek history. Geocentric and heliocentric theories, as well as an atomistic theory of an infinite universe (with infinite worlds), could survive without crashing with one another. In the same time, religious opinions regarding the planets and Sun as a series of gods were present, however not on a scientific ground.

  19. Two new Truncatelloidea species from Melissotrypa Cave in Greece (Caenogastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Falniowski, Andrzej; Sarbu, Serban

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the small lake located in the cave Melissotrypa in Thessalia, Greece, truncatelloidean gastropods representing two species were found, new to science. One of them, represented by two specimens only, has been described based on the shell characters only; with its cytochrome oxidase sequence it has been assigned to the genus Iglica, and to the family Moitessieriidae, Iglica hellenica sp. n. For the other species, represented by 30 collected specimens, the shell, protoconch, radula, head, penis and female reproductive organs have been described; all the morphological characters and cytochrome oxidase sequences have confirmed its assignment to the genus Daphniola (Hydrobiidae: Sadlerianinae), Daphniola magdalenae Falniowski, sp. n. PMID:26692797

  20. Numerical study of a downslope windstorm in Northwestern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koletsis, I.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Bartzokas, A.

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the leeside wind storm of 25-26 March 1998, the most intense wind storm of the last decade in Northwestern Greece. This wind storm produced wind gusts of ˜ 30 m s - 1 that resulted in tree uprooting, roof damaging, electric power network disruption and flooding in the lake-side areas of Ioannina city in Northwestern Greece. With the aim to identify the role of Mountain Mitsikeli near the city of Ioannina on the windstorm and to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for such orographically induced weather events, numerical simulations with MM5 model have been performed. The model results showed that a resolution of 2-km resolution is necessary in order to reproduce the localized character of the wind storm. The analysis revealed that a synergistic combination of the cross-barrier northeasterly flow, the stable layer above the mountain top and the presence of a critical level, led to the intensification of the lee side winds during the studied wind event. Sensitivity experiments with modified topography, further supported the important role of mountain Mitsikeli that stands as an isolated obstacle, on the modification of the wind field during the observed windstorm.

  1. Hexavalent chromium contamination in groundwaters of Thiva Basin, central Greece.

    PubMed

    Tziritis, Evangelos; Kelepertzis, Efstratios; Korres, George; Perivolaris, Dimitrios; Repani, Stella

    2012-11-01

    There is an increasing concern regarding elevated levels of Cr(VI) in the environment due to its higher mobility and toxicity compared to the trivalent form. Anomalous hexavalent chromium concentrations (up to 212 μg/L) were determined in irrigated groundwaters from the wider area of Thiva Basin (central Greece), frequently exceeding the permissible limit for human consumption (50 μg/L for total Cr). Based on the spatial distribution of Cr(VI) values, two groups of groundwater samples were distinguished, possibly reflecting different natural and/or anthropogenic factors that govern the levels of contamination. The first group is spatially located northwards of Thiva town and is consisted of concentrations that range from 13 to 212 μg/L (median 58 μg/L), while the second group is located near Mouriki village and Cr(VI) values range from <9 to 14 μg/L. The Cr(VI) chemical anomalies represent an important social problem because the agricultural products of this region are a major vegetable supply for Greece, bringing up the urgent need to evaluate the health effects associated with Cr(VI) exposure by ingesting the potentially contaminated foods.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of noroviruses in Northern Greece, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Ifantidou, Athina M; Kachrimanidou, Melina; Markopoulou, Soultana; Kansouzidou, Athina; Malisiovas, Nikolaos; Papa, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are important human pathogens associated with acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide, displaying significant genetic heterogeneity. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. A total of 460 faecal samples from sporadic gastroenteritis cases were screened for the presence of NoV RNA. Four additional human samples collected during a waterborne NoV gastroenteritis outbreak observed in 2005 in northern Greece, were also included in the study. All PCR-positive samples were tested further using a multiplex RT-PCR, which targets the viral capsid VP1 region D. PCR products from all outbreak samples and from 20 randomly selected samples were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that GII.4 genotype predominated (70%), while genotypes GII.2 (10%), GII.7 (15%), and GI.1 (5%) were also detected. All the outbreak NoV strains belonged to the GI.1 genotype. The present study provides a first insight into the epidemiology and genetic diversity of NoVs in Greece and shows that various strains are circulating in the country and cause sporadic cases or outbreaks.

  3. Echinococcus granulosus infection dynamics in livestock of Greece.

    PubMed

    Chaligiannis, I; Maillard, S; Boubaker, G; Spiliotis, M; Saratsis, A; Gottstein, B; Sotiraki, S

    2015-10-01

    An epidemiological and molecular survey on the occurrence of Echinococcus hydatid cysts in livestock was conducted in Greece. In total 898 sheep, 483 goats, 38 buffaloes, 273 wild boars and 15 deer were examined and 30.2% (6.45% cyst fertility), 7.86% (3.2% cyst fertility), 42% (7.9% cyst fertility), 1.1% (0% cyst fertility), 0% of them were found infected, respectively. Infection rate in different geographical regions varied between 26.1 and 53.8% (cyst fertility 2.04 and 34.6%) in sheep, 7.33 and 13.3% (cyst fertility 0 and 3.2%) in goats. Genotyping, based on cox1 and nad1 analyses, demonstrated the predominance of E. granulosus s.s. (G1 genotype). The presence of one single genotype-complex within a relatively large spectrum of intermediate host species in Greece indicates the presence of a dominant transmission dog-sheep cycle involving additional host species which may act as disease reservoir for human infections.

  4. Historical bathymetric charts and the evolution of Santorini submarine volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. B.; Nomikou, P.; Moore, J. D. P.; Parks, M. M.; Alexandri, M.

    2015-03-01

    Historical bathymetric charts are a potential resource for better understanding the dynamics of the seafloor and the role of active processes, such as submarine volcanism. The British Admiralty, for example, have been involved in lead line measurements of seafloor depth since the early 1790s. Here, we report on an analysis of historical charts in the region of Santorini volcano, Greece. Repeat lead line surveys in 1848, late 1866, and 1925-1928 as well as multibeam swath bathymetry surveys in 2001 and 2006 have been used to document changes in seafloor depth. These data reveal that the flanks of the Kameni Islands, a dacitic dome complex in the caldera center, have shallowed by up to ˜175 m and deepened by up to ˜80 m since 1848. The largest shallowing occurred between the late 1866 and 1925-1928 surveys and the largest deepening occurred during the 1925-1928 and 2001 and 2006 surveys. The shallowing is attributed to the emplacement of lavas during effusive eruptions in both 1866-1870 and 1925-1928 at rates of up to 0.18 and 0.05 km3 a-1, respectively. The deepening is attributed to a load-induced viscoelastic stress relaxation following the 1866-1870 and 1925-1928 lava eruptions. The elastic thickness and viscosity that best fits the observed deepening are 1.0 km and ˜1016 Pa s, respectively. This parameter pair, which is consistent with the predictions of a shallow magma chamber thermal model, explains both the amplitude and wavelength of the historical bathymetric data and the present day rate of subsidence inferred from InSAR analysis.

  5. Marine research in Greece and the additional Greek marine research centres: Progress and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonidis, S.

    1995-03-01

    Greece, as is known, has a coastline of 17 000 km, and over 2000 small and large islands. As expected, the quest of humankind for new sources of matter and energy has been focussed on the sea, with fishery being its primary interest. A number of philosophers and scientists have been involved in the study of this vast ecosystem since ancient times (Aristotle). The political, social and geographical upheavals witnessed in the Greek area, have, however resulted in bringing all these activities to a halt. The first contemporary research work commenced at the end of the 18th century/beginning of the 19th — with marine flora and fauna as its starting point. The first investigations had, of course, been limited to random collections of marine material done in the frame of international exploratory expeditions. Studies became more systematic by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with priority being given to the animal kingdom (fish, molluscs, etc.). Investigation of the marine phytobenthos (macrophyceae, phytoplankton) was to follow. The past 40 years research has been more extensive, not limited only to biogeographical evaluations, but also having expanded to physiological and ecological levels. The relevant institutes of Greek universities have all the while watched and contributed to this effort. Today, this kind of research is being supported by the N.M.R.C., the Center of Marine Research, University of Crete, and two research boats which sail the Greek seas. In the ever-changing world, the study of marine flora and fauna has certainly made great progress; however, there are still two big problems to be faced. The first deals with increasing pollution of the seas, the second, with the difficulties in finding and affording adequate financial resources that would enable a more detailed and complete execution of this research work.

  6. Heulandite and mordenite-rich tuffs from Greece: a potential source for pozzolanic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsopoulos, K. P.; Dunham, A. C.

    1996-09-01

    The microcystalline mass of the Pliocene tuffs of Santorini and Polyegos islands, in the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece, is very rich in zeolite minerals, more specifically heulandite type 3, i.e. clinoptilolite, and mordenite. In Santorini, clinoptilolite is the dominant authigenic phase and it was formed in a semi-closed system, by the activity of interstitial water within the volcaniclastic sequence. In Polyegos, mordenite dominates and it was formed by hydrothermal alteration of pyroclastics. Experiments described in this work show that the presence of the zeolite minerals has created materials with excellent pozzolanic properties. Tuffs from the two areas were calcined at 760 °C and for 12 h and then mixed with lime in a constant ratio of 1 part lime to 3 parts calcined tuff. As a result, the free lime content of the lime-calcined tuff mixtures was reduced from 25% to 2.05% (Santorini) and 1.31% (Polyegos). Compressive strength tests were carried out on concrete cubes made with 100% Portland cement as the cementitious agent, to be used as reference cubes, and concrete cubes in which the Portland cement has been replaced in 4% and 7% proportions by the calcined tuff as pozzolans. The free lime estimation and the compressive strength tests were all carried out in accordance with the British Standards Institution (BS 4550 and BS 1881) guidelines. Early stage measurements of the compressive strength showed that pozzolan-bearing concrete cubes reached values as high as 140% of the reference cubes. The pozzolan-bearing concrete cubes maintained this superior strength throughout the entire one year period of the experiments. After 360 days, they finally maintained 107% of the compressive strength of the reference cubes.

  7. Signature of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide from space: A case study for Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, C.; Christodoulakis, J.; Tzanis, C.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the variability of the tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns over mainland Greece, by using observations carried out by satellite-borne instrumentation and Multi Sensor Reanalysis. The results obtained show that the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) dispersed farther away than the tropospheric NO2 column (TNO), due to the longer TOR's lifetime in respect to that of TNO. This results in the influence of the air quality of the nearby southern islands from the air pollution of the greater Athens basin. Furthermore, the TOR and TNO columns over Athens, for the period October 2004 to December 2011 were found to be negatively correlated with a correlation coefficient -0.85, in contrast to recent findings which suggested strong positive correlation. Interestingly, this strong negative correlation into a slight positive correlation when the TNO concentration becomes higher than around 4 × 1015 molec cm-2, thus being best fitted by a quadratic relationship. In addition, the temporal evolution of TOR during 1979-1993 showed a decline of 0.2% per decade and just after 1993 it seems to obey a positive trend of 0.1% per decade, thus recovering during the period 1993-2011 almost 63% of the lost TOR amounts through the years 1979-1993. Finally, the association between TOR, the total ozone column (TOZ), the tropopause height and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is presented by analysing observations during 1979-2011. An unexpected positive correlation between OLR and TOR was found, which may probably be attributed to the fact that enhanced abundance in tropospheric water vapor reduces the summertime TOR maximum by destructing ozone in the lower and middle troposphere through uptake mechanisms, thus emitting higher amounts of longwave radiation upwards.

  8. Influence of geology on arsenic concentrations in ground and surface water in central Lesvos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Aloupi, Maria; Angelidis, Michael O; Gavriil, Apostolos M; Koulousaris, Michael; Varnavas, Soterios P

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of As was studied in groundwater used for human consumption and irrigation, in stream water and sediments and in water from thermal springs in the drainage basin of Kalloni Gulf, island of Lesvos, Greece, in order to investigate the potential influence of the geothermal field of Polichnitos-Lisvori on the ground and surface water systems of the area. Total dissolved As varied in the range <0.7-88.3 microg L(-1) in groundwater, 41.1-90.7 microg L(-1) in thermal spring water and 0.4-13.2 microg L(-1) in stream water, whereas As concentrations in stream sediments varied between 2.0-21.9 mg kg(-1). Four out of 31 groundwater samples exceeded the EC standard of 10 microg L(-1). The survey revealed an enrichment in both surface and groundwater hydrological systems in the northern part of the area (average concentrations of As in groundwater, stream water and stream sediment: 8.0 microg L(-1), 8.8 microg L(-1) and 15.0 mg kg(-1) respectively), in association with the volcanic bedrocks, while lower As concentrations were found in the eastern part (average concentrations in groundwater, stream water and stream sediment: 2.9 microg L(-1), 1.7 microg L(-1) and 5.9 mg kg(-1) respectively), which is dominated by ophiolitic ultramafic formations. The variation of As levels between the different parts of the study area suggests that local geology exerts a determinant influence on As geochemical behaviour. On the other hand, the geothermal activity manifested in the area of Polichnitos-Lisvori does not affect the presence of As in groundwater and streams.

  9. Crustal stress, seismicity, acoustic emission (AE), and tectonics: the Kefallinì;a (Greece) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G. P.; Poscolieri, M.; Paparo, G.; Ventrice, G.; de Simone, S.; Rafanelli, C.

    2009-04-01

    New inferences - confirming previous results (see references)- are presented dealing with a few years Acoustic Emission (AE) records collected at Kefallinìa (Ionian Islands, Greece). A physical distinction between HF (high frequency) vs. LF (low frequency) AE is required. Step-wise changes of the AE underground conductivity are evidenced, and can be suitably handled. "Smooth" results concern (i) the annual variation, (ii) some long-lasting stress "solitons" crossing through the area, and (iii) tidal effects. In particular, every AE station can be operated like a monitoring station both for Earth's tides and for the free oscillations of the Earth. In addition, Kefallinìa exhibits a much peculiar groundwater circulation, in which conduit flow is dominant, that originates a specific (and unique) AE effect. By means of AE time-series analysis, "extreme" or "catastrophic" events can be also monitored and possibly related to relevant tectonic occurrences (either earthquakes, or maybe other occasional phenomena). They can be investigated, and have a regional - rather than local - character. Therefore, every interpretation based on a single station record - being biased by some arbitrariness - can only result indicative. A standardized procedure and software is proposed for routine AE data handling and analysis. References.: Lagios et al., 2004. In Proc. SCI 2004 (The 8th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatic), Orlando, Florida, July 1004, 6 pp. Poscolieri et al., 2006. In. G. Cello and B. D. Malamud, (eds), 2006. Geol. Soc. London, Special Publ., 261, 63-78. Poscolieri et al., 2006a. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 6, 961-971.

  10. Cassini Scientist for a Day: an international contest in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Moussas, Xenophon; Xystouris, Georgios; Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Katsavrias, Christos; Bampasidis, Georgios; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Patsou, Ioanna

    2013-04-01

    The Cassini Outreach Team of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is being organizing a brilliant school contest in Astronomy focusing in the Saturnian system. This essay contest provides school students all around the worlds with the opportunity to get involved in astronomy and astrophysics and planetary sciences in particular. From 2010 the 'Cassini Scientist for a Day' contest has being one of the most successful as well as important outreach activities of ESA and NASA in Greece with hundreds of participants all over Greece. The number of participants is growing rapidly every year. This type of school competition in Greece is particularly important since Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Sciences, although very popular, are not included in the school curricula and thus students rarely have the opportunity to experience and participate actively in these subjects. For the years 2010 and 2011, the Space Physics Group of the Astronomy, Astrophysics and Mechanics section of the University of Athens in association with external colleagues has been selected as the co-ordinator of NASA for the competition in Greece. Under the guidance of Cassini Outreach team, the members of the Space Physics Group have informed, explained and spread the rules of the competition at primary, secondary and high schools all over Greece. In general, the students have the option to choose Cassini monitoring between three targets of the Saturnian system, which the participants show that will bring the best scientific result. Their arguments should be summarized in an essay of 500 words more or less. They also have the option to do team work through groups of maximum three students. The participation in the contest for 2010 was unexpectedly high and thoroughly satisfied. The winners awarded through a ceremony which was held in the largest amphitheater at the central building of the University of Athens, that was fully packed. The following year 2011 the participation increased up to 300% while

  11. Evidence of non-extensivity and complexity in the seismicity observed during 2011-2012 at the Santorini volcanic complex, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, F.; Tzanis, A.; Michas, G.; Papadakis, G.

    2012-04-01

    Since the middle of summer 2011, an increase in the seismicity rates of the volcanic complex system of Santorini Island, Greece, was observed. In the present work, the temporal distribution of seismicity, as well as the magnitude distribution of earthquakes, have been studied using the concept of Non-Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP; Tsallis, 2009) along with the evolution of Shanon entropy H (also called information entropy). The analysis is based on the earthquake catalogue of the Geodynamic Institute of the National Observatory of Athens for the period July 2011-January 2012 (http://www.gein.noa.gr/). Non-Extensive Statistical Physics, which is a generalization of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical physics, seems a suitable framework for studying complex systems. The observed distributions of seismicity rates at Santorini can be described (fitted) with NESP models to exceptionally well. This implies the inherent complexity of the Santorini volcanic seismicity, the applicability of NESP concepts to volcanic earthquake activity and the usefulness of NESP in investigating phenomena exhibiting multifractality and long-range coupling effects. Acknowledgments. This work was supported in part by the THALES Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled "Integrated understanding of Seismicity, using innovative Methodologies of Fracture mechanics along with Earthquake and non extensive statistical physics - Application to the geodynamic system of the Hellenic Arc. SEISMO FEAR HELLARC". GM and GP wish to acknowledge the partial support of the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (ΙΚΥ).

  12. Metsovo lung outside Metsovo. Endemic pleural calcifications in the ophiolite belts of Greece.

    PubMed

    Constantopoulos, S H; Theodoracopoulos, P; Dascalopoulos, G; Saratzis, N; Sideris, K

    1991-05-01

    Endemic PCs and high incidence of malignant mesothelioma from household use of asbestos have been reported in Metsovo in northwestern Greece ("Metsovo lung"). In the present study, we present similar findings in six more areas of Greece. Like Metsovo, all these areas are located within ophiolite belts. Like Metsovo, material similar to "Metsovo whitewash" has been used for various domestic uses. Asbestos fibers (chrysotile, antigorite and tremolite) were found in three of the six areas. Also, in two, MPM has been diagnosed. These findings suggest that "Metsovo lung" occurs in several areas of Greece and has similar etiology and epidemiology.

  13. Peri-equatorial paleolatitudes for Jurassic radiolarian cherts of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Radiolarian-rich sediments dominated pelagic deposition over large portions of the Tethys Ocean during middle to late Jurassic time as shown by extensive bedded chert sequences found in both continental margin and ophiolite units of the Mediterranean region. Which paleoceanographic mechanisms and paleotectonic setting favored radiolarian deposition during the Jurassic, and the nature of a Tethys-wide change from biosiliceous to biocalcareous (mainly nannofossil) deposition at the beginning of Cretaceous time, have remained open questions. Previous paleomagnetic analyses of Jurassic red radiolarian cherts in the Italian Apennines indicate that radiolarian deposition occurred at low peri-equatorial latitudes, similar to modern day deposition of radiolarian-rich sediments within equatorial zones of high biologic productivity. To test this result for other sectors of the Mediterranean region, we undertook paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic (mostly middle to upper Jurassic) red radiolarian cherts within the Aegean region on the Peloponnesus and in continental Greece. Sampled units are from the Sub-Pelagonian Zone on the Argolis Peninsula, the Pindos-Olonos Zone on the Koroni Peninsula, near Karpenissi in central Greece, and the Ionian Zone in the Varathi area of northwestern Greece. Thermal demagnetization of samples from all sections removed low-temperature viscous and moderate-temperature overprint magnetizations that fail the available fold tests. At Argolis and Koroni, however, the cherts carry a third high-temperature magnetization that generally exhibits a polarity stratigraphy and passes the available fold tests. We interpret the high-temperature component to be the primary magnetization acquired during chert deposition and early diagenesis. At Kandhia and Koliaky (Argolis), the primary declinations and previous results indicate clockwise vertical-axis rotations of ??? 40?? relative to "stable" Europe. Due to ambiguities in hemispheric origin (N or S) and thus

  14. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  15. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  16. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  17. Trends in suicidality amid the economic crisis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Savopoulos, Christos; Siamouli, Melina; Zaggelidou, Eleni; Mageiria, Stamatia; Iacovides, Apostolos; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I

    2013-08-01

    For the decade 2000-2010, suicidal rates appear to be both low and stable in Greece and unrelated to the socioeconomic environment. It is highly possible that the recent crisis caused a significant increase in dysphoria, stress, depression and maybe suicidal ideation in the general population, but completed suicides do not seem to have increased so far. Measures are needed to make sure there will be no increase in completed suicides in the near future, since historically, periods of socioeconomic instability might be related to increased suicidality. Community interventions reduce stigma and enhance help-seeking. However, only those including the creation of social support networks are essential in the fight against suicidality.

  18. Reengineering NHS Hospitals in Greece: Redistribution Leads to Rational Mergers

    PubMed Central

    Nikolentzos, Athanasios; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Polyzos, Nikolaos; Thireos, Eleftherios; Tountas, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate existing public hospital infrastructure of the National Health System (NHS), in terms of clinics and laboratories, as well as the healthcare workforce in each of these units and in every health region in Greece, in an attempt to optimize the allocation of these resources. An extensive analysis of raw data according to supply and performance indicators was performed to serve as a solid and objective scientific baseline for the proposed reengineering of the Greek public hospitals. Suggestions for “reshuffling” clinics and diagnostic laboratories, and their personnel, were made by using a best versus worst outcome indicator approach at a regional and national level. This study is expected to contribute to the academic debate about the gap between theory and evidence based decision-making in health policy. PMID:26156925

  19. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Psychiatric Nurses in Greece.

    PubMed

    Mangoulia, Polyxeni; Koukia, Evmorfia; Alevizopoulos, George; Fildissis, George; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress/compassion fatigue (STS/CF), burnout (BO) and compassion satisfaction (CS) in psychiatric nurses, and their risk factors. The Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL R-IV) and a demographic and work related characteristics questionnaire were distributed to 174 psychiatric nurses in 12 public hospitals in Greece. The majority of participants were at the high risk category for STS/CF (44.8%) and BO (49.4%), while only 8.1% of nurses expressed high potential for CS. Awareness of the factors associated with STS may help nurses to prevent or offset the development of this condition. PMID:26397438

  20. Cranial trauma in ancient Greece: from Homer to classical authors.

    PubMed

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Astyrakaki, Elisabeth; Stefanakis, George; Agouridakis, Panos; Askitopoulou, Helen

    2010-12-01

    This article presents literary evidence on traumatic cranio-cerebral injuries in ancient Greece from about 900 B.C. to 100 B.C. The main sources of information are epic and classic Greek texts of that period. Homer provides the first literary source of head trauma, which he portrayed in his epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. He describes 41 injuries of the head, face and cervical spine, of which all but two were fatal. Subsequently, other classical authors like Plato, Plutarch and others illustrate cases of cranial trauma that occurred mainly in the battlefields, during athletic games or in unusual accidents. They describe some interesting cases of head trauma in prominent men, such as the poet Aeschylos, the kings Pyrrhos and Kyros and Alexander the Great. Most of these descriptions show that the ancient Greeks possessed very good knowledge of the anatomy of the head and neck region and also of the pathophysiological consequences of trauma in the region.

  1. On extreme daily precipitation totals at Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2007-04-01

    The paper studies changes in daily precipitation records at the National Observatory, Athens, during the period 1891-2004. This is the longest available time series of precipitation for Greece. The results show that both the shape and scale parameter of a fitted two parameter gamma distribution for the last two decades do show a significant difference of these parameters, when compared to any previous period from the 1890s through the 1970s. Also important changes are observed in daily precipitation totals exceeding various thresholds such as 10, 20, 30 and 50 mm. More specifically, a negative trend in the number of wet days (remarkable after 1968) and a positive trend in extreme daily precipitation are evident. The changes of heavy and extreme precipitation events in this part of SE Europe have significant environmental consequences which cause considerable damage and loss of life.

  2. [Medicine in the pre-hippocratic civilization of ancient greece].

    PubMed

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    The beginnings of the magical-religious conception of disease would go back to before the development of writing (prehistory). During ancient times the world was conceived as a place where the supernatural was essential for mankind's survival, therefore, explanations of all phenomena, including disease, were based on supernatural causes. With the development of Greek civilization began the establishment of a rational approach to the nature of the world, which gradually included medicine. But the origin of the rational and naturalist perspective of medicine is due in part to the influence of ancient Egyptian civilization. Various terms were used to refer to healing agents at the pre-Hippocratic period of ancient Greece: iatromantis, phôlarcos, ouliads, and asclepiads. Later, in the ancient Greek civilization, healing through prophecy was gradually replaced, though not entirely displaced, by a new medicine, based on a rational theoretical framework about health and disease: téchnê iatrikê. PMID:25643891

  3. The Spatial Planning for the Renewable Energy Sources in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltas, E.

    2009-04-01

    This work defines the Special Framework for the Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development for the Renewable Energy Sources(RES) in Greece. This planning is very important for the development of the renewable energy because - Identifies criteria and guidelines for the location of RES projects, per RES category and type of geographic area, with emphasis on wind systems and hydropower units. - seeks to provide a clear framework to the competent authorities and the companies concerned, so be oriented suitably in terms of spatial installation areas and thus limit the ambiguities on land uses conflicts. - Determines the key prerequisites for the harmonisation and coherence between all other spatial and urban plans subject to the Special Framework for RES, contributing to the achievement of the targets set under national and EU policies with a further increase of RES participation to power supply.

  4. Long survival in a 69,XXX triploid infant in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Vassiliou, Georgia; Sekerli, Eleni; Sidiropoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiga, Alexandra; Dimopoulou, Despina; Voyiatzis, Nikolaos

    2005-12-30

    The live birth of a triploidy infant is a very rare event and death usually occurs within the first hours of life. Triploid cases with a survival of more than two months are infrequent. We report on an infant with a 69,XXX chromosome constitution who survived 164 days. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 69,XXX karyotype with no evidence of mosaicism. This is the longest survival reported for this condition to date in Greece and the fourth longest worldwide. The infant was admitted to our clinic several times due to respiratory problems, and supplementary oxygen was required. The improved survival of our case was possibly due to better management of respiratory illness and prematurity, and these are essential factors that physicians should consider carefully with such rare cases.

  5. Reengineering NHS Hospitals in Greece: Redistribution Leads to Rational Mergers.

    PubMed

    Nikolentzos, Athanasios; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Polyzos, Nikolaos; Thireos, Eleftherios; Tountas, Yannis

    2015-03-18

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate existing public hospital infrastructure of the National Health System (NHS), in terms of clinics and laboratories, as well as the healthcare workforce in each of these units and in every health region in Greece, in an attempt to optimize the allocation of these resources. An extensive analysis of raw data according to supply and performance indicators was performed to serve as a solid and objective scientific baseline for the proposed reengineering of the Greek public hospitals. Suggestions for "reshuffling" clinics and diagnostic laboratories, and their personnel, were made by using a best versus worst outcome indicator approach at a regional and national level. This study is expected to contribute to the academic debate about the gap between theory and evidence based decision-making in health policy.

  6. Investigating the orientation of eleven mosques in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazis, George; Lambrou, Evangelia

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates the orientation of eleven mosques situated in several regions of Greece. The aim of this work is to verify whether and how accurately the monuments have been constructed according to the Muslim tradition. As geodetic and astrogeodetic methods are used, the geometric documentation of each monument is carried out and its astronomical orientation is determined. The qibla for each monument is calculated by using geodetic equations. The mosques' main axis azimuths are determined by a precision of some arc minutes. Also, their orientation, relative to the Canopus star (Alpha Carinae) - which the tradition has closely related to Kaabah in Mecca - is examined. All the mosques seem to follow the religious rule.

  7. Reengineering NHS Hospitals in Greece: Redistribution Leads to Rational Mergers.

    PubMed

    Nikolentzos, Athanasios; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Polyzos, Nikolaos; Thireos, Eleftherios; Tountas, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate existing public hospital infrastructure of the National Health System (NHS), in terms of clinics and laboratories, as well as the healthcare workforce in each of these units and in every health region in Greece, in an attempt to optimize the allocation of these resources. An extensive analysis of raw data according to supply and performance indicators was performed to serve as a solid and objective scientific baseline for the proposed reengineering of the Greek public hospitals. Suggestions for "reshuffling" clinics and diagnostic laboratories, and their personnel, were made by using a best versus worst outcome indicator approach at a regional and national level. This study is expected to contribute to the academic debate about the gap between theory and evidence based decision-making in health policy. PMID:26156925

  8. First results on video meteors from Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, G.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the first systematic video meteor observations from a, forthcoming permanent, station in Crete, Greece, operating as the first official node within the International Meteor Organization's Video Network. It consists of a Watec 902 H2 Ultimate camera equipped with a Panasonic WV-LA1208 (focal length 12mm, f/0.8) lens running MetRec. The system operated for 42 nights during 2011 (August 19-December 30, 2011) recording 1905 meteors. It is significantly more performant than a previous system used by the author during the Perseids 2010 (DMK camera 21AF04.AS by The Imaging Source, CCTV lens of focal length 2.8 mm, UFO Capture v2.22), which operated for 17 nights (August 4-22, 2010) recording 32 meteors. Differences - according to the author's experience - between the two softwares (MetRec, UFO Capture) are discussed along with a small guide to video meteor hardware.

  9. [Medicine in the pre-hippocratic civilization of ancient greece].

    PubMed

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    The beginnings of the magical-religious conception of disease would go back to before the development of writing (prehistory). During ancient times the world was conceived as a place where the supernatural was essential for mankind's survival, therefore, explanations of all phenomena, including disease, were based on supernatural causes. With the development of Greek civilization began the establishment of a rational approach to the nature of the world, which gradually included medicine. But the origin of the rational and naturalist perspective of medicine is due in part to the influence of ancient Egyptian civilization. Various terms were used to refer to healing agents at the pre-Hippocratic period of ancient Greece: iatromantis, phôlarcos, ouliads, and asclepiads. Later, in the ancient Greek civilization, healing through prophecy was gradually replaced, though not entirely displaced, by a new medicine, based on a rational theoretical framework about health and disease: téchnê iatrikê.

  10. Juvenile (age 13-18) smoking incidence determinants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulos, Aristidis; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Hatzoglou, Chryssi; Roupa, Zoe

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a form of medical addiction, usually adopted during adolescence. The aim was to determine the prevalence of smoking in adolescents, aged 13-18 years old, to investigate their attitudes towards smoking and determine the contribution of social influences to onset and continuation of smoking. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was filled in by 873 high school students of Central Greece. Smoking incidence was 19.2%, with a 13.7% of regular smokers. The presence of a smoker in the family and a smoker friend were correlated with increased smoking rates. School grades were correlated negatively with smoking attitude and positively with allowance. Age was correlated negatively with social influence. Social influence appears stronger on younger ages and is a main determinant of smoking behavior. A more susceptible attitude towards smoking is formed during late adolescence. Certain social predictive factors for attitude towards smoking are proposed. PMID:24628676

  11. 62 FR 41134 - Training Programs in Canada, Germany, Greece, Italy, Turkey, and the United Kingdom

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES INFORMATION AGENCY Training Programs in Canada, Germany, Greece, Italy, Turkey, and the United Kingdom ACTION..., legislative structure, federalism, school to work transition and immigration/multiculturalism....

  12. Historical, Comparative and Statistical Perspectives of School Effectiveness Research: Rethinking Educational Evaluation in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdis, Athanasios; Kriemadis, Thanos; Pashiardis, Petros

    2003-01-01

    Offers insights into educational evaluation in Greece by presenting history and the current state of school effectiveness research. Reviews a number of studies, including studies from other countries, to examine the policy implications of school effectiveness research. (SLD)

  13. The significance of tectonism in the glaciations of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathrellos, George; Skilodimou, Hariklia; Maroukian, Habik

    2014-05-01

    In Greece, Middle to Late Pleistocene mountain glaciations appear to have been quite extensive, along the mountain range of Pindus, on Mt. Olympus and in the highlands of Peloponnesus. This study focuses on the Middle to Late Pleistocene glaciations based on the examination of cirque formations and their elevation changes due to vertical tectonism, in certain parts of Greece, namely Pindus, Mt. Olympus and Peloponnesus. An initial spatial database of these glacial forms was created including their location and mean elevation. Some of the glaciated sites have been taken from previous literature and others were recorded from topographic maps, air photos and field work. ArcGIS 10 software was used to process the glaciated sites. A map depicting the glaciated areas of Greek regions was compiled with over 230 cirques. A cirque's top, lip and margins of each location were mapped. So altitudes of apex and lip and mean altitude of each cirque ([apex+lip]/2), were calculated. A total number of 239 inactive cirques was recorded with limestone as the dominant lithology. As one moves to the south, in the case of Pindus range and its extension in the Peloponnesus, the number of cirques decreases. These glacial forms occur at altitudes varying from 2,770 to 1,600 m.a.s.l. Thus the preservation of ice for longer periods of time is more likely at altitudes higher than 1,600 m.a.s.l. Concerning the distribution of the mean elevations of cirques one should take into consideration the tectonic activity of the study area. Especially in the Pindus range, Mount Olympus, and Peloponnesus this process is in the form of uplift. This has increased the mean elevation of the cirques in every following ice age. So, in older times many cirques were a few hundred meters lower than the more recent glacial period.

  14. Occupational Dermatoses by Type of Work in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Zorba, Eleni; Karpouzis, Antony; Zorbas, Alexandros; Bazas, Theodore; Zorbas, Sam; Alexopoulos, Elias; Zorbas, Ilias; Kouskoukis, Konstantinos; Konstandinidis, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    Background To elucidate the relationship between seven occupational dermatoses (ODs) and 20 types of work in Greece. Methods This was a prevalence epidemiologic study of certain ODs among 4,000 workers employed in 20 types of enterprise, in 104 companies, in 2006–2012, using data from company medical records, questionnaires, occupational medical, and special examinations. The χ2 test was applied to reveal statistically significant relationships between types of enterprises and occurrence of ODs. Results A high percentage (39.9%) of employees included in the study population suffered from ODs. The highest prevalence rates were noted among hairdressers (of contact dermatitis: 30%), cooks (of contact dermatitis: 29.5%), bitumen workers (of acne: 23.5%), car industry workers (of mechanical injury: 15%), construction workers (of contact urticaria: 29.5%), industrial cleaning workers (of chemical burns: 13%), and farmers (of malignant tumors: 5.5%). We observed several statistical significant correlations between ODs (acute and chronic contact dermatitis, urticaria, mechanical injury, acne, burns, skin cancer) and certain types of enterprises. There was no statistically significant correlation between gender and prevalence of ODs, except for dermatoses caused by mechanical injuries afflicting mainly men [χ2 (1) = 13.40, p < 0.001] and for chronic contact dermatitis [χ2 (1) = 5.53, p = 0.019] afflicting mainly women. Conclusion Prevalence of ODs is high in Greece, contrary to all official reports by the Greek National Institute of Health. There is a need to introduce a nationwide voluntary surveillance system for reporting ODs and to enhance skin protection measures at work. PMID:24106644

  15. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal.

    PubMed

    Kleisiaris, Christos F; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient's health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, "healthy mind in a healthy body" was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today. PMID:25512827

  16. Spatio-temporal activity of lightnings over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.; Chronis, T. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events are always associated with convective weather conditions driving to intense lightning activity: Cloud to Ground (CG), Ground to Cloud (GC) and Cloud to Cloud (CC). Thus, the study of lightnings, which typically occur during thunderstorms, gives evidence of the spatio-temporal variability of intense precipitation. Lightning is a natural phenomenon in the atmosphere, being a major cause of storm related with deaths and main trigger of forest fires during dry season. Lightning affects the many electrochemical systems of the body causing nerve damage, memory loss, personality change, and emotional problems. Besides, among the various nitrogen oxides sources, the contribution from lightning likely represents the largest uncertainty. An operational lightning detection network (LDN) has been established since 2007 by HNMS, consisting of eight time-of-arrival sensors (TOA), spatially distributed across Greek territory. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of recorded lightnings (CG, GC and CC) are analyzed over Greece, during the period from January 14, 2008 to December 31, 2009, for the first time. The data for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of lightning were acquired from Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). In addition to the analysis of spatio-temporal activity over Greece, the HNMS-LDN characteristics are also presented. The results of the performed analysis reveal the specific geographical sub-regions associated with lightnings incidence. Lightning activity occurs mainly during the autumn season, followed by summer and spring. Higher frequencies of flashes appear over Ionian and Aegean Sea than over land during winter period against continental mountainous regions during summer period.

  17. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal

    PubMed Central

    Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, “healthy mind in a healthy body” was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today. PMID:25512827

  18. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal.

    PubMed

    Kleisiaris, Christos F; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient's health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, "healthy mind in a healthy body" was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today.

  19. Incidental findings from clinical sequencing in Greece: reporting experts' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Gourna, E G; Armstrong, N; Wallace, S E

    2014-10-01

    Unprecedented progress in sequencing technologies and decreasing cost have brought genomic testing into the clinical setting. At the same time, the debate in the literature concerning the return of incidental findings (IFs) has made this an important issue internationally. These developments reflect a shift in genetics that will also affect smaller countries, such as Greece, that are just starting to implement these technologies and may look to other countries for examples of good practice. Ten in-depth interviews were conducted with Greek experts in clinical sequencing. Previous experiences and attitudes toward IFs and clinical sequencing were investigated as well as views on the existing policy regarding managing genetic information generated through testing. . Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. All participants reported the lack of any legal or other supportive mechanism. IFs are currently managed at a "local" level, i.e. within the clinic or the laboratory in an ad hoc way. All participants thought that clinically valid and actionable IFs should be returned, but always with caution and in respect to patients' wishes, although several experts reported returning IFs according to their clinical discretion. Experts reported that most patients ask for all tests available but they felt that more counselling is needed to understand and manage genetic information. Due to the lack of any supporting mechanisms, professionals in Greece, even those with established experience in the field of genetic and genomic testing, have difficulties dealing with IFs. All experts agreed that it is now time, before the full integration of genomic testing into everyday clinical practice, for guidance to help Greek physicians work with patients and their families when IFs are discovered. PMID:25048384

  20. Climate change induced lanslide hazard mapping over Greece- A case study in Pelion Mountain (SE Thessaly, Central Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelitsa, Varvara; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Anagnwstopoulou, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Landslides, as a major type of geological hazard, represent one of the natural events that occur most frequently worldwide after hydro-meteorological events. Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes due to a number of factors, such as the steep terrain and prolonged precipitation. Identification of landslides and compilation of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk maps are very important issues for the public authorities providing substantial information regarding, the strategic planning and management of the land-use. Although landslides cannot be predicted accurately, many attempts have been made to compile these maps. Important factors for the the compilation of reliable maps are the quality and the amount of available data and the selection of the best method for the analysis. Numerous studies and publications providing landslide susceptibility,hazard and risk maps, for different regions of Greece, have completed up to now. Their common characteristic is that they are static, taking into account parameters like geology, mean annual precipitaion, slope, aspect, distance from roads, faults and drainage network, soil capability, land use etc., without introducing the dimension of time. The current study focuses on the Pelion Mountain, which is located at the southeastern part of Thessaly in Central Greece; aiming to compile "dynamic" susceptibility and hazard maps depending on climate changes. For this purpose, past and future precipipation data from regional climate models (RCMs) datasets are introduced as input parameters for the compilation of "dynamic" landslide hazard maps. Moreover, land motion mapping data produced by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are used for the validation of the landslide occurrence during the period from June 1992 to December 2003 and as a result for the calibration of the mapping procedure. The PSI data can be applied at a regional scale as support for land motion mapping and at local scale for the

  1. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  2. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  3. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  4. Islands in a Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay is actually a group of three islands: Ewell, Rhodes Point, and Tylerton. Dwindling enrollment jeopardizes the community's two schools that contain grades one through seven. The school board believes they can give the sixth and seventh graders at Ewell and Tylerton a better education on the mainland. (MLF)

  5. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  6. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  7. A new species of hydrobiid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae) from central Greece

    PubMed Central

    Radea, Canella

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Anew minute valvatiform species belonging to the genus Daphniola Radoman, 1973, Daphniola eptalophos sp. n., from mountain Parnassos, Greece is described. The new species has a transparent valvatiform-planispiral shell, wide and open umbilicus, grey-black pigmented soft body and head and a black penis with a small colorless outgrowth on the left side near its base. A comparative table of shell dimensions and a key to the species known for this endemic genus for Greece are provided. PMID:22144853

  8. Health, economic crisis, and austerity: A comparison of Greece, Finland and Iceland.

    PubMed

    Tapia Granados, José A; Rodriguez, Javier M

    2015-07-01

    Reports have attributed a public health tragedy in Greece to the Great Recession and the subsequent application of austerity programs. It is also claimed that the comparison of Greece with Iceland and Finland-where austerity policies were not applied-reveals the harmful effect of austerity on health and that by protecting spending in health and social budgets, governments can offset the harmful effects of economic crises on health. We use data on life expectancy, mortality rates, incidence of infectious diseases, rates of vaccination, self-reported health and other measures to examine the evolution of population health and health services performance in Greece, Finland and Iceland since 1990-2011 or 2012-the most recent years for which data are available. We find that in the three countries most indicators of population health continued improving after the Great Recession started. In terms of population health and performance of the health care system, in the period after 2007 for which data are available, Greece did as good as Iceland and Finland. The evidence does not support the claim that there is a health crisis in Greece. On the basis of the extant evidence, claims of a public health tragedy in Greece seem overly exaggerated.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface seawater and in indigenous mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from coastal areas of the Saronikos Gulf (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valavanidis, A.; Vlachogianni, Th.; Triantafillaki, S.; Dassenakis, M.; Androutsos, F.; Scoullos, M.

    2008-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified and measured in surface seawater and in the tissues (gills and mantle) of indigenous black mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from three coastal sites of Saronikos Gulf (Greece), a gulf that exhibits high levels of pollution. The total PAHs measured by spectrofluorometry in the surface seawater were found in the range of 425-459 ng L -1 at the most polluted sites 1 and 2 (Elefsis Bay-Salamis Island) and in the range of 103-124 ng L -1 at site 3 (Aegina Island). PAHs' sources in seawater were identified by application of specific PAH ratios, such as phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene. Levels of PAHs in soft tissues (gills and mantle) of indigenous mussels were much higher than those reported for seawater. Total PAH concentrations in mantle tissues were in the range of 1300-1800 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) tissue at sites 1 and 2 and approximately 380 ng g -1 dw at site 3. In gill tissues total PAH concentrations were in the range of 1480-2400 ng g -1 dw at sites 1 and 2 and approximately 430 ng g -1 dw at site 3. PAHs composition was dominated by two-, three- and four-ring compounds in seawater, where 17 different PAH compounds were identified and measured in mussel tissues. Mussels can be used as sentinel organisms to monitoring PAHs' contamination, since they concentrate PAHs from the surrounding water media and therefore making the chemical analysis simpler and less prone to error than that for water. In surface seawater possible weathering and photodegradation due to hot climates contribute to reduced PAHs concentrations.

  10. Distribution, lithotypes and mineralogical study of newly formed thermogenic travertines in Northern Euboea and Eastern Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanellopoulos, Christos

    2012-12-01

    In the northwestern part of Euboea Island and the neighbouring part of the mainland in eastern central Greece, many hot springs exist. We collected and analysed the newly formed material around the hot springs. The samples were studied at the lab with X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). In all cases the studied materials were thermogenic travertine presenting many different lithotypes. The studied travertine deposits consist mainly of aragonite and calcite, but in some cases, as the main mineral phase, an amorphous hydrous ferric oxyhydroxide, probably ferrihydrite (creating a laminated iron-rich travertine deposit), was identified. The lithotypes that were identified were of great variety (spicular, shrubs, etc). Some of them (pisoliths, rafts and foam rock types) are quite rare and one of them (framework type) is described for the first time. Morphological data and field observations suggest possible inorganic and organic controls on carbonate precipitation. Similar lithotypes have been recorded at Mammoth hot springs, Yellowstone National Park in USA and at Rapolano Terme, Italy.

  11. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  12. Geomorphologic Structures on the South Cretan Margin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Lykousis, Vasilis; Alexandri, Matina; Rousakis, Grigoris; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Lampridou, Danai; Alves, Tiago; Ballas, Dionysios

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphologic Structures on the South Cretan Margin, Greece Nomikou P.1, Lykousis V.2, Alexandri M.2, Rousakis G.2, Sakellariou D.2, Lampridou D.1 , Alves T.3, Ballas D.2 1University of Athens, Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, Panepistimioupoli Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece. 2Inst. of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Anavyssos, Greece. 33D Seismic Laboratory, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Main Building-Park Place, CF10 3AT Cardiff, UK. The swath bathymetric survey of the South Cretan Margin has been conducted during the HERMES-1 (May-June 2005) and HERMES-2 (September-October 2005) cruises onboard R/V "AEGAEO" using the 20 kHz, SEABEAM 2120 system. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry outlines in unprecedented detail the shape and the morphological features of the region. One of the most dominant geomorphological structures of the southwest Cretan slope is the submarine Samaria Canyon (Western Cretan Trough) which is characterized by high relief steep walls and V-shaped cross sections. Despite the fact that the trough trends predominantly northeastward, with a central axis oriented from east to west, the head displays a north-trending hook termination on the continental shelf. The minimum depth of its axis is 1400 m and the thalweg ranges from 1500 to 3500m. In addition, abrupt alternation in the axial trend of the canyon is observed, accompanied by sharp changes in axial gradient and in the geometry of the canyon profile ending in a flat area of 3600 m depth. From Paleochora up to Sindonia, numerous small canyons trending N-S crosscut the steep Cretan southern margin, that reaches the 2000 m isobath. These are transversal to the main direction E-W of the slope. Furthermore, the detailed bathymetric map reveals the morphology of several troughs bounded by steep flanks. Their flat bottom may reach up to 3000m water depth. The most characteristic one, Ptolemy trough (eastern South Cretan Trough), is located in

  13. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  14. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  15. The disease burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Hillas, Georgios; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to estimate the self-reported prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Greece and to quantify its burden on patients’ daily activities, productivity, and psychological status. Methods A population-based, random digit-dialed telephone nationwide survey was conducted between July 10, 2015 and July 31, 2015 in order to recruit patients with COPD in Greece. Among the 11,471 persons contacted, 3,414 met the inclusion criterion of age ≥40 years and completed the screening questions regarding COPD. Of the 362 subjects who reported that they had been diagnosed with COPD, 351 completed the survey. Data on demographic and lifestyle characteristics, comorbidities, disease history, perceived disease severity, breathlessness severity, symptoms severity, limitations in daily activities, psychological distress, and productivity were collected. All data were collected through the telephone interview method using a structured questionnaire. Results The overall self-reported COPD prevalence was 10.6%. Among 351 participants, only 9% reported that they suffered from severe breathlessness. The mean COPD assessment test score was 19.0, with 84% of participants having a COPD assessment test score ≥10. As for the perceived severity of COPD, the majority of subjects considered that their respiratory condition was of moderate (34.2%) or mild severity (33.9%). Overall, the participants reported a significant impact of COPD on their daily life. For instance, 61.5% of them reported that their respiratory condition has affected their sports activities. Moreover, 73% of subjects considered that the health care system could do more for them than it actually does. Almost one-fourth of the participants reported that they had missed work during the past 12 months due to their respiratory symptoms, with the mean number of days lost being 10. Conclusion This survey provides insightful data regarding the impact of COPD on Greek

  16. Statistical evaluation of the simulated convective activity over Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Karacostas, Theodore S.; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project DAPHNE (www.daphne-meteo.gr), the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1) is used to produce very high spatiotemporal resolution simulations of the convective activity over Thessaly plain and hence, enhancing our knowledge on the impact of high resolution elevation and land use data in the moist convection. The expecting results act as a precursor for the potential applicability of a planned precipitation enhancement program. The three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and Thessaly region-central Greece (d03), are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and boundary conditions of the coarse domain, while in the vertical, 39 sigma levels (up to 50 hPa) are used, with increased resolution in the boundary layer. Microphysical processes are represented by WSM6 scheme, sub-grid scale convection by Kain-Fritsch scheme, longwave and shortwave radiation by RRTMG scheme, surface layer by Monin-Obukhov (MM5), boundary layer by Yonsei University and soil physics by NOAH Unified model. Six representative days with different upper-air synoptic circulation types are selected, while high resolution (3'') elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM - version 4) are inserted in the innermost domain (d03), along with the Corine Land Cover 2000 raster data (3''x3''). The aforementioned data sets are used in different configurations, in order to evaluate the impact of each one on the simulated convective activity in the vicinity of Thessaly region, using a grid of available meteorological stations in the area. For each selected day, four (4) sensitivity simulations are performed, setting a total number of 24 runs. Finally, the best configuration provides

  17. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  18. The disease burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Hillas, Georgios; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to estimate the self-reported prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Greece and to quantify its burden on patients’ daily activities, productivity, and psychological status. Methods A population-based, random digit-dialed telephone nationwide survey was conducted between July 10, 2015 and July 31, 2015 in order to recruit patients with COPD in Greece. Among the 11,471 persons contacted, 3,414 met the inclusion criterion of age ≥40 years and completed the screening questions regarding COPD. Of the 362 subjects who reported that they had been diagnosed with COPD, 351 completed the survey. Data on demographic and lifestyle characteristics, comorbidities, disease history, perceived disease severity, breathlessness severity, symptoms severity, limitations in daily activities, psychological distress, and productivity were collected. All data were collected through the telephone interview method using a structured questionnaire. Results The overall self-reported COPD prevalence was 10.6%. Among 351 participants, only 9% reported that they suffered from severe breathlessness. The mean COPD assessment test score was 19.0, with 84% of participants having a COPD assessment test score ≥10. As for the perceived severity of COPD, the majority of subjects considered that their respiratory condition was of moderate (34.2%) or mild severity (33.9%). Overall, the participants reported a significant impact of COPD on their daily life. For instance, 61.5% of them reported that their respiratory condition has affected their sports activities. Moreover, 73% of subjects considered that the health care system could do more for them than it actually does. Almost one-fourth of the participants reported that they had missed work during the past 12 months due to their respiratory symptoms, with the mean number of days lost being 10. Conclusion This survey provides insightful data regarding the impact of COPD on Greek

  19. Lost island found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An abandoned ll-by-5-km kidney-shaped chunk of freshwater ice, used as a research station for 25 years, was rediscovered after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) lost track of the island for 6 months. The recent find may foreshadow another loss, however: The island is drifting through the Greenland Sea and into the North Atlantic where it should melt within several months and d u m p its cargo of oil drums, equipment, and a wrecked plane into the ocean.Known as Fletcher's Ice Island—after Joseph O. Fletcher, a member of the first team of researchers to inhabit the island and a recently retired NOAA climate researcher—the ice chunk has already melted to a third of its original 49 m thickness. A pilot flying over the area to measure annual pollution buildup in the Arctic located the drifting island 242 km from the North Pole near the International Date Line.

  20. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  1. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  2. Islands, resettlement and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Jon; O'Neill, Saffron J.

    2012-01-01

    Resettlement of people living on islands in anticipation of climate impacts risks maladaptation, but some forms of population movement carry fewer risks and larger rewards in terms of adapting to climate change.

  3. Breaking News: Decoding the earliest "computer": The antikythera astrolabe. Science and technology in ancient Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, I.

    In the Easter of 1900, just off the tiny island of Antikythera in the Aegean Sea, sponge-fishers from Simi found by chance a very important ancient shipwreck dated to 2nd to the early 1st century B.C. The plethora of objects included bronze fragments of furniture, marble and bronze statues and statuettes, pottery, luxury glass and silver vases, wooden parts of the ship and other. Of the most important find was a corroded bronze mechanism embedded to calcareous cemented matter caused by the seawater. The mechanism was associated to the School of Poseidonius of Rhodes and dated c.87 B.C. The mechanism is a four piece fragmentary, fragile and partly missing calculating device with geared wheels, display scales and Greek inscriptions, displayed at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. Early research (1902-1934) was made by Svoronos, Stais, Rados, Rediadis, Theophanides and even attempted a reconstruction. Later research (1953-1974) was applied by mechanical engineer in collaboration with Karakalos (1973) who applied industrial X-ray radiography and recovered revolutionary structural data and 30 geared wheels. Dr Derek de Solla Price made a second model (two replicas) (Price, 1974). Since then, several other models were made by Roumeliotis, Freeth (2002 a, b), Casselman and Lysozyme. The third research phase (1990 till today) was studied by computer scientists (Bromley and Gardner) as well as mechanical engineer Michael Wright, Greenwich Museum, London. The film images were taken by the laborious X-ray linear tomography. A replica was made by Michael Wright upgrading earlier model by Price producing eventually modifications till this year. The last research effort (2005 till today) the mechanism was studied by the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project researchers from a consortium of public and private establishments led by Mike Edmunds University of Cardiff and included Universities of Athens and Thessaloniki, The National Archaeological Museum Athens, the

  4. Fluids circulations during the formation of the Naxos Metamorphic Core Complex (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Siebenaller, Luc

    2015-04-01

    The island of Naxos, in the central part of the Cycladic Metamorphic Core Complex (Greece) represents a perfect example to address the evolution of fluid circulations during collapse of an orogenic belt. It displays a complex detachment system characterized by mylonites, cataclasites and high-angle normal faults which geometric relationships reflect rheological layering of the orogenic crust and its evolution during collapse. The chemistry of fluid inclusions determined by microthermometry, RAMAN spectroscopy, LA-ICPMS, and crush-leach combined with C and H isotopic signatures point to three distinct types of fluids, namely (i) a H2O-dominated fluid, (ii) a composite H2O-CO2 fluid, and (iii) a NaCl-rich fluid concentrated in metals. These different types of fluids are interpreted to reflect mixtures to various degrees among fluids generated by (i) condensation of clouds (meteoric aqueous fluid), (ii) dehydration and decarbonatation of metasedimentary rocks during metamorphism (metamorphic aqueous-carbonic fluid), and (iii) crystallization of granitic magmas (magmatic saline fluid with high metal contents). The distribution of fluids with respect to microstructures evidences the close link between deformation and fluid circulations at the mineral scale from intracristalline deformation to fracturing. The orientation of fluid inclusion planes, veins and alteration zones allows to identify the scale and geometry of the reservoir into which fluids are circulating and their evolution during the formation of the Metamorphic Core Complex. These data indicate that the orogenic crust is subdivided in two reservoirs separated by the ductile/fragile transition. Meteoric fluids circulate in the upper crust affected by brittle deformation whereas metamorphic and magmatic fluids circulate in relation to intracristalline ductile deformation affecting the lower crust. The geometry of these reservoirs evolves during the formation of the Naxos Metamorphic Core Complex as the

  5. Carbonate assimilation during magma evolution at Nisyros (Greece), South Aegean Arc: Evidence from clinopyroxenite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandler, Carl; Martin, Lukas H. J.; Pettke, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    To contribute to the understanding of magma evolution in arc settings we investigate the oldest volcanic unit (Kanafià Synthem) of Nisyros volcano, located in the eastern Aegean Sea (Greece). The unit consists of porphyritic pillow lavas of basaltic andesite composition with trace element signatures that are characteristic of island-arc magmas. Two lava types are distinguished on the basis of geochemistry and the presence or absence of xenoliths, with the xenolith-bearing lavas having distinctly elevated Sr, MREE/HREE and MgO/Fe2O3 compared to the xenolith-free lavas. Xenoliths include relatively rare quartzo-feldspathic fragments that represent continental-type material, and coarse clinopyroxenite xenoliths that consist largely of aluminous and calcic clinopyroxene, and accessory aluminous spinel. Anorthite-diopside reaction selvages preserved around the clinopyroxenite xenoliths demonstrate disequilibrium between the xenoliths and the host magma. The xenolith clinopyroxene is distinctly enriched in most lithophile trace elements compared to clinopyroxene phenocrysts in the host magmas. A notable exception is the Sr concentration, which is similar in both clinopyroxene types. The high Al and low Na contents of the clinopyroxenites preclude a cumulate, deep metamorphic, or mantle origin for these xenoliths. Instead, their composition and mineralogy are diagnostic of skarn rocks formed by magma-carbonate interaction in the mid/upper crust. The Kanafià lavas are interpreted to have undergone crystal fractionation, magma mixing/mingling and crustal assimilation while resident in the upper crust. We show that magma-carbonate reaction and associated skarn formation does not necessarily result in easily recognised modification of the melt composition, with the exception of increasing Sr contents. Carbonate assimilation also releases significant CO2, which will likely form a free vapour phase due to the low CO2 solubility of arc magmas. In the broader context, we stress

  6. Coastal Vulnerability and risk assessment of infrastructures, natural and cultural heritage sites in Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    considered as a case study, where the majority of the coastline appears to be undergoing erosion, with approximately 25% of the Aegean coastline, consisting mainly of beach zones and low-lying coastal (including deltaic) plains. In terms of economic activates coastal tourism is most effected, as beach zones are very high vulnerable to erosion. Also, small ports in remote islands are also found to be highly vulnerable. Acknowledgments This work was implemented within the framework of "Post-Doctoral Excellence Scholarship. State Scholarships Foundation, Greece IKY- Siemens Action"

  7. Evaluation of tsunami risk in Heraklion city, Crete, Greece, by using GIS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, Ioanna; Fokaefs, Anna; Novikova, Tatyana; Papadopoulos, Gerasimos A.; Vaitis, Michalis

    2016-04-01

    The Hellenic Arc is the most active seismotectonic structure in the Mediterranean region. The island of Crete occupies the central segment of the arc which is characterized by high seismic and tsunami activity. Several tsunamis generated by large earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides were reported that hit the capital city of Heraklion in the historical past. We focus our tsunami risk study in the northern coastal area of Crete (ca. 6 km in length and 1 km in maximum width) which includes the western part of the city of Heraklion and a large part of the neighboring municipality of Gazi. The evaluation of tsunami risk included calculations and mapping with QGIS of (1) cost for repairing buildings after tsunami damage, (2) population exposed to tsunami attack, (3) optimum routes and times for evacuation. To calculate the cost for building reparation after a tsunami attack we have determined the tsunami inundation zone in the study area after numerical simulations for extreme tsunami scenarios. The geographical distribution of buildings per building block, obtained from the 2011 census data of the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT) and satellite data, was mapped. By applying the SCHEMA Damage Tool we assessed the building vulnerability to tsunamis according to the types of buildings and their expected damage from the hydrodynamic impact. A set of official cost rates varying with the building types and the damage levels, following standards set by the state after the strong damaging earthquakes in Greece in 2014, was applied to calculate the cost of rebuilding or repairing buildings damaged by the tsunami. In the investigation of the population exposed to tsunami inundation we have used the interpolation method to smooth out the population geographical distribution per building block within the inundation zone. Then, the population distribution was correlated with tsunami hydrodynamic parameters in the inundation zone. The last approach of tsunami risk

  8. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  9. Haemoglobinopathies in Greece: prevention programme over the past 35 years

    PubMed Central

    Loukopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    At present, prevention of thalassaemia and sickle cell disease is the only realistic approach to control the birth of new patients in countries having high numbers of carriers. This is fully justified because avoiding the birth of an ever increasing number of patients may allow a more effective use of the available resources in improving the management of the patients surviving today and alleviate the already overloaded public health system from the inevitable tremendous and ever increasing cost. Moreover, prenatal diagnosis may help couples at risk to have non-thalassaemic children. Greece is one of the countries where the mean frequency of carriers is approximately 7.5 per cent (population 11 million) and has set up a nationwide programme for carrier identification in the early seventies; this is provided through a dozen of specific Units attached to the major Blood Transfusion Services of the country, on a voluntary basis and free of charge. Spread of information through mass media, the schools, and other groups has greatly contributed in creating the necessary sensitization; obstetricians and antenatal Clinics are also instrumental to this effect. Prenatal diagnosis is offered centrally (Athens) and covers satisfactorily the estimated needs (500-600 annually); the total number has already exceeded 35,000. According to information obtained from the major paediatric hospitals all over the country, the number of thalassaemia major or SCD admitted for treatment over the last ten years has been around 15 yearly (instead of an estimate of 120-130). PMID:22089622

  10. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.

  11. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  12. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece.

    PubMed

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-28

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  13. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-01-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011–2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano. PMID:26507183

  14. Resistant Shigella strains in refugees, August-October 2015, Greece.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulou, T; Mandilara, G; Mellou, K; Tryfinopoulou, K; Chrisostomou, A; Lillakou, H; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Vatopoulos, A

    2016-08-01

    Shigellosis is endemic in most developing countries and thus a known risk in refugees and internally displaced persons. In 2015, a massive influx of refugees into Greece, due to the political crisis in the Middle East, led to the development of appropriate conditions for outbreaks of communicable diseases as shigellosis. We present a cluster of 16 shigellosis cases in refugees, detected by the implementation of a syndromic notification system in one transit centre in Athens, between 20 August and 7 October 2015. Both Shigella flexneri (n = 8) and S. sonnei (n = 8) were identified, distributed in various serotypes. All tested isolates (n = 13) were multidrug resistant; seven were CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers. Our results indicate lack of a potential common source, although pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing results revealed small clusters in isolates of the same serotype indicating possible limited person-to-person transmission without identifying secondary community cases related to the refugees. To prevent the spread of shigellosis, empirical antibiotic treatment as well as environmental hygiene measures were implemented. The detection of multi-drug resistance is important for determining the appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment for the more severe cases, while at the same time real-time typing is useful for epidemiological investigation and control measures. PMID:27180973

  15. Sociodemographic determinants of low birthweight in Greece: a population study.

    PubMed

    Lekea-Karanika, V; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, C; Matsaniotis, N S

    1999-01-01

    A total population sample of 10,654 singleton births from the Greek National Perinatal Survey of April 1983 was analysed to identify factors independently associated with low birthweight (LBW). The sample was divided into two groups according to the gravidity of the mothers (3368 primigravidae and 7286 multigravidae). Data examined included regional characteristics, marital status, age at and duration of marriage, parental ages at delivery, crowding in the home, insurance status, parental occupational classification and parental education levels. Logistic regression was used to define the socio-economic and demographic characteristics independently associated with the delivery of an LBW singleton baby. Significantly different LBW rates were found among the two groups: 4.3% in the primigravidae and 5.2% for multigravidae. For primigravidae significant associations were found with marital status, maternal occupation and father's education, while for multigravidae significant features were mother's education and place (region) of residence. The study showed little to assist in devising strategies of primary prevention of LBW in Greece. PMID:9987786

  16. Middle Holocene rapid environmental changes and human adaptation in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lespez, Laurent; Glais, Arthur; Lopez-Saez, José-Antonio; Le Drezen, Yann; Tsirtsoni, Zoï; Davidson, Robert; Biree, Laetitia; Malamidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    Numerous researchers discuss of the collapse of civilizations in response to abrupt climate change in the Mediterranean region. The period between 6500 and 5000 cal yr BP is one of the least studied episodes of rapid climate change at the end of the Late Neolithic. This period is characterized by a dramatic decline in settlement and a cultural break in the Balkans. High-resolution paleoenvironmental proxy data obtained in the Lower Angitis Valley enables an examination of the societal responses to rapid climatic change in Greece. Development of a lasting fluvio-lacustrine environment followed by enhanced fluvial activity is evident from 6000 cal yr BP. Paleoecological data show a succession of dry events at 5800-5700, 5450 and 5000-4900 cal yr BP. These events correspond to incursion of cold air masses to the eastern Mediterranean, confirming the climatic instability of the middle Holocene climate transition. Two periods with farming and pastural activities (6300-5600 and 5100-4700 cal BP) are evident. The intervening period is marked by environmental changes, but the continuous occurrence of anthropogenic taxa suggests the persistence of human activities despite the absence of archaeological evidence. The environmental factors alone were not sufficient to trigger the observed societal changes.

  17. [Art-chance and art-experience in classical Greece].

    PubMed

    Ban, Deokjin

    2011-06-30

    In Classical Greece, works defining the nature of art appeared in the various disciplines like medicine, rhetoric, dietetics, architecture and painting. Hippocratic authors tried to show that an art of medicine existed indeed. They contrasted the concept of art with that of chance, not experience that Plato and Aristotle distinguished from art. In fact there are similarities and discrepancies between Hippocratic epistemology and Platoic epistemology. Hippocratic authors maintained that the products of chance were not captured by art. They distinguished the domain of art charactered by explanatory knowledge and prediction from the domain of chance ruled by the unexplained and the unforeseeable. They minimized the role of luck and believed the role of art. Hippocratic authors thought that professional ability contained both knowledge and experience. In Hippocratic corpus, experience is a synonym of competence and usually has a positive meaning. But Plato gave empirical knowledge the disdainful sense and decided a ranking between two types of knowledge. Both Hippocratic authors and Plato held that a genuine art had connection with explanatory knowledge of the nature of its subject matter. A common theme that goes through arguments about art-chance and art-chance is the connection between art and nature. Hippocratic authors and Plato regarded art as a highly systematic process. Art provides us with general and explanatory knowledge of human nature. Art and nature is a mutual relationship. The systematic understanding of nature helps us gain the exactness of art and an exact art helps us understand nature well.

  18. Tertiary geodynamical evolution of northwestern Greece: paleomagnetic results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo; Müller, Carla

    1985-02-01

    Paleomagnetic results have been obtained from 29 sites sampled in Lower to Upper Oligocene flysch sections of the Ionian Zone in northwestern Greece. They indicate a clockwise rotation of about 45° of the entire region. A comparison with previously published results relative to both younger and older formations shows that this rotation has occurred in two phases of comparable amplitude, one during Middle Miocene and the other during Pliocene and Quaternary, separated by a period of at least 7 Ma during which no significant rotation has occurred. No major rotation has occurred during the entire Paleocene and Eocene stages. This large measured rotation implies a horizontal displacement of at least 100 km in Epirus. Possible mechanisms involving a rotation of the nappe sheets, rotation of the basement or a combination of the two are discussed. The two phases of paleomagnetic rotation can be correlated with the Tertiary and Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanic activity in the Aegean Sea. A palinspastic reconstruction shows that the orientation of the major structures, now striking N155°, was almost east-west in the Middle Miocene at the epoch of their formation.

  19. Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

    The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

  20. Pleural plaques in a rural population in central Macedonia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Sichletidis, L; Daskalopoulou, E; Chloros, D; Vlachogiannis, E; Vamvalis, C

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the causative factor of pleural plaques (PP) in 7 neighbouring villages (Monastiraki, Promachi, Megaplatanos, Orma, Polykarpi, Sarakini and Koryphi) located south-west of Aridea in Macedonia, Greece, where many cases of bilateral pleural calcifications were observed in the past. Full size chest radiographs were obtained from 1086 of the 3901 inhabitants over 5 years of age who agreed to participate in the study. The chest radiographs were scrutinized for PP according to International Labour Office criteria. From the total of 1737 inhabitants aged between 5 and 40 years, 268 were examined. None had a positive chest radiograph for PP. Therefore the prevalence of PP was evaluated for the subjects over 40 years of age. The highest prevalence of PP (41.7%) was observed in Monastiraki and none in Koryphi, with the prevalence of the other villages lying in between. Extremely high concentrations of chrysotile and tremolite fibres were found, using polarised light microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in the "white stones" which people use for white-washing their houses prior to 1935. The environmental study revealed 0.01 fibres/ml in a room purposely recently painted with the offending material, and 17.9 ff/ml after scraping. During the 28 months of our study five cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma were diagnosed.

  1. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece.

    PubMed

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-01-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano. PMID:26507183

  2. Factors affecting breastfeeding duration in Greece: What is important?

    PubMed Central

    Tavoulari, Evangelia-Filothei; Benetou, Vassiliki; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Chrousos, George; Kreatsas, George; Gryparis, Alexandros; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate factors associated with breastfeeding duration (BD) in a sample of mothers living in Greece. METHODS Four hundred and twenty-eight mothers (438 infants) were initially recruited in a tertiary University Hospital. Monthly telephone interviews (1665 in total) using a structured questionnaire (one for each infant) were conducted until the sixth postpartum month. Cox regression analysis was used to assess factors influencing any BD. RESULTS Any breastfeeding rates in the first, third, and sixth month of the infant’s life reached 87.5%, 57.0% and 38.75%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, maternal smoking in the lactation period [hazard-ratio (HR) = 4.20] and psychological status (HR = 1.72), and the introduction of a pacifier (HR = 2.08), were inversely associated, while higher maternal education (HRuniversity/college vs primary/high school = 0.53, HRmaster’s vs primary/high school = 0.20), and being an immigrant (HR = 0.35) were positively associated with BD. CONCLUSION Public health interventions should focus on campaigns against smoking during lactation, target women of lower educational status, and endorse the delayed introduction of pacifiers. PMID:27610353

  3. The Greek mirror: the Uranians and their use of Greece.

    PubMed

    Mader, D H

    2005-01-01

    The Uranians comprised a loosely knit group of British and American homosexual poets writing between approximately 1880 and 1930, sharing a number of basic cultural and literary assumptions derived on one hand from Walter Pater, and on the other from Walt Whitman. Although they used Oriental, Christian and other motifs, one of the major elements many shared was a use of various allusions and themes from ancient Greece, including paganism, male companionship or intimate friendship (which was not defined in terms of sameness), and democracy and a natural aristocracy of virtue, which they applied to the concerns of their own society and era. The model of male relationships which they advocated (and in at least some cases practiced) was almost uniformly asymmetrical, either by age or class, or both. In addition to their poetry, various theoretical writings by members of the group are also involved in the discussion, and this article argues that these historical/ literary allusions and themes should not be understood as means of evasion which allowed them to write of tabooed subjects safely, but as part of a consciously adopted artistic/cultural strategy for homosexual emancipation. It also suggests that their arguments should be reexamined as a corrective to the present egalitarian model of homosexuality. PMID:16338901

  4. Cesium-137 monitoring using lichens from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2010-10-01

    (137)Cs content in lichens and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece was measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous collections was also used for comparison and a diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in epilithic lichens in comparison to epigeic or epiphytic ones. Furthermore, foliose or crustose lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoparmelia somloensis were more contaminated than filamentose at the same biotope. Among filamentose or fruticose species those with large surface area to biomass ratio e.g. Usnea sp. showed also greater accumulation capacity. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in lichen thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in lichens 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of fallout radionuclide fallout pattern.

  5. Molecular identification of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Roinioti, Erifylli; Papathanassopoulou, Aegli; Theodoropoulou, Ioanna; Simsek, Sami; Theodoropoulos, Georgios

    2016-08-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, a cestode with worldwide distribution. Data on the circulating Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Greek livestock is scant. The aim of the present study was to conduct a genetic analysis of 82 Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece, including areas which until today have not been the subject of studies. The analysis relied on a PCR assay targeting cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 1 gene (CO1), followed by bidirectional sequence analysis of the amplification product. Eighty (n=80) of the 82 (97.6%) isolates were allocated to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) and were classified in 13 distinct haplotypes (9 common and 4 novel) with 12 polymorphic sites. The presence of the dominant haplotype EG1 as was documented in the European populations, was indicated in the country. Almost all regions shared the same common haplotype. In comparison to this predominant haplotype, the number of the nucleotide changes in all the other haplotypes ranged from 1 to 5. All nucleotide changes proved to be transitions (A↔G or C↔T). Two fertile hydatid cysts of sheep origin in different areas (Arkadia, Ilia) of the Peloponnese were identified as Echinococcus canadensis (G7 genotype). PMID:27514899

  6. [Pityriasis versicolor in Greece and its predisposition factors].

    PubMed

    Parisis, N; Stratigos, J; Marcelou-Kinti, U; Capetanakis, J

    1977-11-01

    The age and seasonal incidence of 2610 patients with pityriasis versicolor in Greece were studied. Determination of the pH of Na and K ions of the sweat and the microbiol flora of the skin of pityriasis versicolor patients was undertaken. Besides these the effectiveness of a 1% selenium disulfid suspension was tested. The results indicate that the age groups of 20-29 and 30-30 years are mostly affected by the disease. A high incidence of the skin manifestation was noted during the summer and fall months. A difference of the pH of the sweat between pityriasis versicolor and healthy controls was observed, but no difference was found in the Na and K ions of the sweat among these two groups. Neither did the microbial flora from the skin lesions of patients and from corresponding sites of controls show any difference. The high relapse in this experiment indicates the relative ineffectiveness of selenium disulfid preparations when used as a 1% suspension in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor.

  7. Temporal and spatial variability of rainfall over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markonis, Y.; Batelis, S. C.; Dimakos, Y.; Moschou, E.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have showed that there is a significant decrease in rainfall over Greece during the last half of the pervious century, following an overall decrease of the precipitation at the eastern Mediterranean. However, during the last decade an increase in rainfall was observed in most regions of the country, contrary to the general circulation climate models forecasts. An updated high-resolution dataset of monthly sums and annual daily maxima records derived from 136 stations during the period 1940-2012 allowed us to present some new evidence for the observed change and its statistical significance. The statistical framework used to determine the significance of the slopes in annual rain was not limited to the time independency assumption (Mann-Kendall test), but we also investigated the effect of short- and long-term persistence through Monte Carlo simulation. Our findings show that (a) change occurs in different scales; most regions show a decline since 1950, an increase since 1980 and remain stable during the last 15 years; (b) the significance of the observed decline is highly dependent to the statistical assumptions used; there are indications that the Mann-Kendall test may be the least suitable method; and (c) change in time is strongly linked with the change in space; for scales below 40 years, relatively close regions may develop even opposite trends, while in larger scales change is more uniform.

  8. Haoma-Soma in the world of ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Wohlberg, J

    1990-01-01

    Evidence of the worship of (nonalcoholic) Haoma-Soma in Iran and India (identified by Wasson as Amanita muscaria) can be found in Greece and its neighboring lands. While Iranian and India peoples preserved their original worship in their final settlements, Indo-European tribes, including the Thracians, the Phrygians, and the Greeks, after settling in Europe and Asia Minor, abandoned their ancestral worship of Soma (Sabazios) and substituted the Semitic (alcoholic) Dionysos. However, they retained traces of the original Soma worship in Dionysiac rituals. This modified Dionysiac worship spread throughout the Western world. Six formal criteria are used to establish the identify of Soma with Dionysos (Sabazios): (1) both cults had the same aim (to cause ecstatic behavior); (2) both cults required the attainment of the same spiritual state (purity); (3) both cults had an idiosyncratic myth in common; (4) both cults showed the identical word root in the name of the worshipped god; (5) both cults had identical zoological and botanical associations with their god; and (6) the alcoholic god (Dionysos) was depicted as having the same physical effects on human beings as that of the ancient nonalcoholic god (Soma). PMID:2286867

  9. Molecular identification of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Roinioti, Erifylli; Papathanassopoulou, Aegli; Theodoropoulou, Ioanna; Simsek, Sami; Theodoropoulos, Georgios

    2016-08-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, a cestode with worldwide distribution. Data on the circulating Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Greek livestock is scant. The aim of the present study was to conduct a genetic analysis of 82 Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece, including areas which until today have not been the subject of studies. The analysis relied on a PCR assay targeting cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 1 gene (CO1), followed by bidirectional sequence analysis of the amplification product. Eighty (n=80) of the 82 (97.6%) isolates were allocated to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) and were classified in 13 distinct haplotypes (9 common and 4 novel) with 12 polymorphic sites. The presence of the dominant haplotype EG1 as was documented in the European populations, was indicated in the country. Almost all regions shared the same common haplotype. In comparison to this predominant haplotype, the number of the nucleotide changes in all the other haplotypes ranged from 1 to 5. All nucleotide changes proved to be transitions (A↔G or C↔T). Two fertile hydatid cysts of sheep origin in different areas (Arkadia, Ilia) of the Peloponnese were identified as Echinococcus canadensis (G7 genotype).

  10. Cesium-137 monitoring using mosses from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsikritzis, Lazaros; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos

    2009-06-01

    (137)Cs activities in mosses and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece were measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous studies was also used for comparison and diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in the epilithic mosses in comparison to the epiphytic ones. The (137)Cs content in the bark of the two broad-leaved species (oak and fagus) was higher than that of the conifer (pinus). Bark specimens of about 50 cm height were in general more contaminated than those of 200 cm. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in moss thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in mosses 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of radionuclide fallout pattern.

  11. Factors affecting breastfeeding duration in Greece: What is important?

    PubMed Central

    Tavoulari, Evangelia-Filothei; Benetou, Vassiliki; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Chrousos, George; Kreatsas, George; Gryparis, Alexandros; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate factors associated with breastfeeding duration (BD) in a sample of mothers living in Greece. METHODS Four hundred and twenty-eight mothers (438 infants) were initially recruited in a tertiary University Hospital. Monthly telephone interviews (1665 in total) using a structured questionnaire (one for each infant) were conducted until the sixth postpartum month. Cox regression analysis was used to assess factors influencing any BD. RESULTS Any breastfeeding rates in the first, third, and sixth month of the infant’s life reached 87.5%, 57.0% and 38.75%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, maternal smoking in the lactation period [hazard-ratio (HR) = 4.20] and psychological status (HR = 1.72), and the introduction of a pacifier (HR = 2.08), were inversely associated, while higher maternal education (HRuniversity/college vs primary/high school = 0.53, HRmaster’s vs primary/high school = 0.20), and being an immigrant (HR = 0.35) were positively associated with BD. CONCLUSION Public health interventions should focus on campaigns against smoking during lactation, target women of lower educational status, and endorse the delayed introduction of pacifiers.

  12. Transdermal opioid patches for pain treatment in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Adrian P; Hansen, Steen H; Bartels, Else M

    2012-11-01

    Pain treatment in ancient Greece, and through the middle ages in Europe, was to a great extent based on the expertise of the Greek physician Galen (c. 129-200 A.D.). Galen makes particular reference to "Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment" (OVDO), which is listed with a number of collyria. Galen states that OVDO can be useful for treating extreme pain and swellings, forming one of the best eye salves. Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment, an opium-based treatment, forms a "patch" when applied externally as an ointment, because it quickly dries to cover a localized region but still retains its elastic properties. This study has recreated OVDO and applied the ointment to abdominal mouse skin, in vitro. To assess the efficacy of OVDO, the transdermal transfer of morphine was measured when given as OVDO and compared to morphine administered in the form of a solution of Opium + PBS (ringer). Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment showed a transdermal transfer of morphine over time comparable to 25% of the most efficient modern transdermal opioid patches, while hardly any morphine was able to penetrate the skin when applied mixed in PBS. We conclude that OVDO is very efficient in its composition and may carry some forgotten abilities in terms of drug delivery, which could be transferred to modern medicine. Indeed, this may lead to a better choice of morphine use and controlled management in individual patient cases, taking both pain relief and anti-inflammatory aspects into account.

  13. 65 FR 1136 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Japan and Greece: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-01-07

    ... (64 FR 28973 and 64 FR 35124 respectively). Because it is not practicable to complete these reviews... International Trade Administration Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Japan and Greece: Notice of Extension of... antidumping duty orders on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Japan and Greece. The period of review is...

  14. 72 FR 7817 - Assignment of Functions Relating to the Transfer of a Ship to the Government of Greece

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-02-20

    ... HOUSE, Washington, February 15, 2007. [FR Doc. 07-786 Filed 2-16-07; 11:24 am] Billing code 4910-62-M ... of Greece #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 33... Greece Memorandum for the Secretary of Transportation Secretary of State By the authority vested in me...

  15. 67 FR 44524 - Change in Disease Status of Greece With Regard to Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-07-03

    ...-affected regions. On March 21, 2002, we published in the Federal Register (67 FR 13105-13108, Docket No. 01... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 94 Change in Disease Status of Greece With Regard... rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations to add Greece to the list of regions that are...

  16. 65 FR 6140 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Japan and Greece: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-02-08

    ... period April 1, 1998, through March 31, 1999 (64 FR 28973 and 64 FR 35124, respectively). On December 28... International Trade Administration Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Japan and Greece: Notice of Extension of... antidumping duty orders on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Japan and Greece. The period of review is...

  17. 65 FR 49227 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-08-11

    ... May 8, 2000, the Department published the preliminary results of review in the Federal Register (65 FR... International Trade Administration Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Notice of Extension of Time Limit... order on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece. The period of review is April 1, 1998,...

  18. 67 FR 13105 - Change in Disease Status of Greece With Regard to Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-03-21

    ... published in the Federal Register (64 FR 34155-34168, Docket No. 98-090-1) a proposal to amend Sec. 94.1 to... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 94 Change in Disease Status of Greece With Regard... rule. SUMMARY: We are proposing to amend the regulations to add Greece to the list of regions that...

  19. Is There a Need for a Higher Dance Institution in Greece? The Reality in Greek Contemporary Dance Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsompanaki, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Is there a need for dance to enter higher education in Greece? Can contemporary dance be viewed as a discipline on its own right? These questions inspired the research conducted in three case study institutions (out of six that exist) in Greece, examining the reality within them as experienced by dance students, lecturers, course leaders and the…

  20. Magnetotelluric Investigation of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisperi, Despina; Romano, Gerardo; Smirnov, Maxim; Kouli, Maria; Perrone, Angela; Makris, John P.; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    The South Aegean Volcanic Arc (SAVA) is a chain of volcanic islands in the South Aegean resulting from the subduction of the African tectonic plate beneath the Eurasian plate. It extends from Methana, northwest, to the Island of Nisyros southeast (450 km total length). SAVA comprises a series of dormant and historically active volcanoes, with the most prominent to be Aegina, Methana, Milos, Santorini, Kolumbo, Kos and Nisyros. The aim of the ongoing research project "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)" is to contribute to the investigation of the geoelectric structure of Southern Aegean, and particularly to attempt to image the Hellenic Subduction Zone. In this context, onshore magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were recently carried out on the central and eastern part of SAVA (Milos, Santorini, Nisyros and Kos Islands). Data were collected using two MT systems running simultaneously plus a remote reference station installed in Omalos plateau (Western Crete). Robust MT data analysis of the broad-band MT soundings and the resulting model of the conductivity structure of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc is presented. The research is co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and National Resources under the Operational Programme 'Education and Lifelong Learning (EdLL) within the context of the Action 'Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers' in the framework of the project title "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)".

  1. Constructed wetlands for wastewater and activated sludge treatment in north Greece: a review.

    PubMed

    Tsihrintzis, V A; Gikas, G D

    2010-01-01

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of urban, industrial and agricultural wastewater have become very popular treatment systems all over the world. In Greece, these systems are not very common, although the climate is favourable for their use. During recent years, there have been several attempts for the implementation of these systems in Greece, which include, among others, pilot-scale systems used for research, and full-scale systems designed and/or constructed to serve settlements or families. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of systems operating in Northern Greece, which have been studied by the Laboratory of Ecological Engineering and Technology of Democritus University of Thrace and others. A comparison is made of different system types, and the effect of various design and operational parameters is presented. Current research shows the good and continuous performance of these systems. PMID:20453340

  2. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  3. Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

    2002-01-01

    The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously

  4. Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar for locating buried petrified wood sites: a case study in the natural monument of the Petrified Forest of Evros, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargemezis, George; Diamanti, Nectaria; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Fikos, Ilias

    2014-05-01

    A geophysical survey was carried out in the Petrified Forest of Evros, the northernmost regional unit of Greece. This collection of petrified wood has an age of approximately 35 million years and it is the oldest in Greece (i.e., older than the well-known Petrified Forest of Lesvos island located in the North Aegean Sea and which is possibly the largest of the petrified forests worldwide). Protection, development and maintenance projects still need to be carried out at the area despite all fears regarding the forest's fate since many petrified logs remain exposed both in weather conditions - leading to erosion - and to the public. This survey was conducted as part of a more extensive framework regarding the development and protection of this natural monument. Geophysical surveying has been chosen as a non-destructive investigation method since the area of application is both a natural ecosystem and part of cultural heritage. Along with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have been carried out for investigating possible locations of buried fossilized tree trunks. The geoelectrical sections derived from ERT data in combination with the GPR profiles provided a broad view of the subsurface. Two and three dimensional subsurface geophysical images of the surveyed area have been constructed, pointing out probable locations of petrified logs. Regarding ERT, petrified trunks have been detected as high resistive bodies, while lower resistivity values were more related to the surrounding geological materials. GPR surveying has also indicated buried petrified log locations. As these two geophysical methods are affected in different ways by the subsurface conditions, the combined use of both techniques enhanced our ability to produce more reliable interpretations of the subsurface. After the completion of the geophysical investigations of this first stage, petrified trunks were revealed after a subsequent excavation at indicated

  5. Selenium content of sulfide ores related to ophiolites of Greece.

    PubMed

    Economou-Eliopoulos, M; Eliopoulos, D G

    1998-01-01

    Several deposits of sulfide mineralization have been described in the ophiolites of Greece. Based on their mineralogical and chemical composition and the host rocks, two types can be distinguished: (1) the Fe-Cu-Ni-Co type consisting of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, Co-pentlandite, pyrite, magnetite + arsenides, +/- chromite, hosted in serpentinites, gabbros or diabases, which have variable geochemical characteristics, and (2) sulfide mineralization of the Cyprus type containing variable proportions of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and sphalerite. The spatial association with shear zones and fault systems, which is a common feature in both types of mineralization, provided the necessary permeability for the circulation of the responsible mineralized hydrothermal fluids. The selenium (Se) content in representative samples of both types of mineralization from the ophiolites of Pindos (Kondro, Perivoli, and Neropriona), Othrys (Eretria and A. Theodoroi), Veria (Trilofon), and Argolis (Ermioni) shows a wide variation. The highest values of Se (130 to 1900 ppm) were found in massive Fe-Cu sulfide ores from Kondro, in particular the Cu-rich portions (average 1300 ppm Se). The average values of Se for the Othrys sulfides are low (< 40 ppm Se). The Se content in a diabase breccia pipe (50 x 200 m) with disseminated pyrite mineralization (Neropriona) ranges from < 1 to 35 ppm Se. The highest values were noted in strongly altered samples that also exhibited a significant enrichment in platinum (1 ppm Pt). Sulfide mineralization (irregular to lens-like masses and stringers) associated with magnetite, hosted in gabbros exposed in the Perivoli area (Tsouma hill), shows a content ranging from 40 to 350 ppm Se. The distribution of Se in the studied type of the sulfide mineralization may be of genetic significance, indicating that the Se level, which often is much higher than in typical magmatic sulfides related to mafic-ultramafic rocks (average 90-100 ppm Se), may positively affect

  6. Geodetic strain of Greece in the interval 1892-1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, R.; England, P.; Parsons, B.; Billiris, H.; Paradissis, D.; Veis, G.

    1997-11-01

    A first-order triangulation of Greece was carried out in the 1890s. Reoccupation, using Global Positioning System receivers, of 46 of the 93 original markers yielded estimates of the deformation of the region over the intervening interval. Broad regions have similar geodetic strain over the 100-year time span. Strain north of the Gulf of Korinthos is predominantly north-south extension, though with a significant east-west component. The central Peloponnisos is relatively stable, whereas the gulfs of the southern Peloponnisos are all characterized by uniaxial east-west extension. The seismic expression of strain for the entire region, calculated from the seismic moment tensors of earthquakes of MS≥5.8 during the past 100 years, accounts for only 20-50% of the geodetically determined strain. At a scale of 50-100 km, the fraction of the strain that is expressed seismically varies much more than this range. In particular, whereas seismic strain in the eastern Gulf of Korinthos over the past 100 years is commensurate with the geodetic strain, there is rapid extension across the western Gulf of Korinthos (˜0.3 μstrain yr-1), with negligible seismic strain for the 100 year period prior to 1992. The Egion earthquake of June 1995 in the western Gulf of Korinthos released only a small proportion (≤20%) of the elastic strain that had accumulated in that region. The observed distribution of displacements can be explained by the relative rotation of two plates with a broad accommodation zone between them, but it is equally consistent with the deformation that would be expected of a sheet of fluid moving toward a low-pressure boundary at the Hellenic Trench. A simple calculation implies that if the region does behave as a fluid, then its effective viscosity is ˜1022-1023 Pa s. Such viscosities are consistent with the deformation of a lithosphere obeying a rheological law similar to that obtained for olivine in the laboratory.

  7. Weather impacts on respiratory infections in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    In this study the contribution of meteorological parameters to the total variability of respiratory infections (RI) is analysed. For this purpose, data on the daily numbers of general practitioner (GP) consultations for RI during the year 2002 were used. This dataset has been compiled by the Local Health Service in the surroundings of Athens, Greece (Acharnes city). The meteorological data obtained by the Meteorological Station of the National Observatory of Athens comprise daily values of mean, maximum, and minimum air temperature, air temperature range, relative humidity, absolute humidity, sunshine, surface atmospheric pressure, wind speed, as well as day-to-day changes of these parameters. Furthermore, the following biometeorological parameters and thermal indices were also evaluated: mean radiant temperature ( T mrt), predicted mean vote (PMV), physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and standard effective temperature (SET*) as well as their day-to-day changes. First, the relationship between every meteorological-biometeorological parameter and consultations for RI was examined by applying the Pearson Chi-Square Test ( χ 2) to the data of the 25 compiled contingency tables. In the second stage, the application of generalised linear models (GLM) with Poisson distribution to the data revealed how much the weather variability leads to statistically important changes in consultations for RI. The results of this study contribute to the evidence that there is an association between weather conditions and the number of GP consultations for RI. More specifically, the influence of air temperature and absolute humidity on consultations on the same day is weaker than the lag effect (˜2 weeks) related to cold existence and absolute humidity, while a strong wind during the preceding 3 days drives a peak in GP consultations.

  8. Weather impacts on respiratory infections in Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Nastos, Panagiotis T; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    In this study the contribution of meteorological parameters to the total variability of respiratory infections (RI) is analysed. For this purpose, data on the daily numbers of general practitioner (GP) consultations for RI during the year 2002 were used. This dataset has been compiled by the Local Health Service in the surroundings of Athens, Greece (Acharnes city). The meteorological data obtained by the Meteorological Station of the National Observatory of Athens comprise daily values of mean, maximum, and minimum air temperature, air temperature range, relative humidity, absolute humidity, sunshine, surface atmospheric pressure, wind speed, as well as day-to-day changes of these parameters. Furthermore, the following biometeorological parameters and thermal indices were also evaluated: mean radiant temperature (T (mrt)), predicted mean vote (PMV), physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and standard effective temperature (SET*) as well as their day-to-day changes. First, the relationship between every meteorological-biometeorological parameter and consultations for RI was examined by applying the Pearson Chi-Square Test (chi (2)) to the data of the 25 compiled contingency tables. In the second stage, the application of generalised linear models (GLM) with Poisson distribution to the data revealed how much the weather variability leads to statistically important changes in consultations for RI. The results of this study contribute to the evidence that there is an association between weather conditions and the number of GP consultations for RI. More specifically, the influence of air temperature and absolute humidity on consultations on the same day is weaker than the lag effect ( approximately 2 weeks) related to cold existence and absolute humidity, while a strong wind during the preceding 3 days drives a peak in GP consultations.

  9. Selenium content of sulfide ores related to ophiolites of Greece.

    PubMed

    Economou-Eliopoulos, M; Eliopoulos, D G

    1998-01-01

    Several deposits of sulfide mineralization have been described in the ophiolites of Greece. Based on their mineralogical and chemical composition and the host rocks, two types can be distinguished: (1) the Fe-Cu-Ni-Co type consisting of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, Co-pentlandite, pyrite, magnetite + arsenides, +/- chromite, hosted in serpentinites, gabbros or diabases, which have variable geochemical characteristics, and (2) sulfide mineralization of the Cyprus type containing variable proportions of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and sphalerite. The spatial association with shear zones and fault systems, which is a common feature in both types of mineralization, provided the necessary permeability for the circulation of the responsible mineralized hydrothermal fluids. The selenium (Se) content in representative samples of both types of mineralization from the ophiolites of Pindos (Kondro, Perivoli, and Neropriona), Othrys (Eretria and A. Theodoroi), Veria (Trilofon), and Argolis (Ermioni) shows a wide variation. The highest values of Se (130 to 1900 ppm) were found in massive Fe-Cu sulfide ores from Kondro, in particular the Cu-rich portions (average 1300 ppm Se). The average values of Se for the Othrys sulfides are low (< 40 ppm Se). The Se content in a diabase breccia pipe (50 x 200 m) with disseminated pyrite mineralization (Neropriona) ranges from < 1 to 35 ppm Se. The highest values were noted in strongly altered samples that also exhibited a significant enrichment in platinum (1 ppm Pt). Sulfide mineralization (irregular to lens-like masses and stringers) associated with magnetite, hosted in gabbros exposed in the Perivoli area (Tsouma hill), shows a content ranging from 40 to 350 ppm Se. The distribution of Se in the studied type of the sulfide mineralization may be of genetic significance, indicating that the Se level, which often is much higher than in typical magmatic sulfides related to mafic-ultramafic rocks (average 90-100 ppm Se), may positively affect

  10. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated).

  11. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). PMID:27122558

  12. Big Events in Greece and HIV Infection Among People Who Inject Drugs.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Sypsa, Vana; Bonovas, Stefanos; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Malliori-Minerva, Melpomeni; Hatzakis, Angelos; Friedman, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    Big Events are processes like macroeconomic transitions that have lowered social well-being in various settings in the past. Greece has been hit by the global crisis and experienced an HIV outbreak among people who inject drugs. Since the crisis began (2008), Greece has seen population displacement, inter-communal violence, cuts in governmental expenditures, and social movements. These may have affected normative regulation, networks, and behaviors. However, most pathways to risk remain unknown or unmeasured. We use what is known and unknown about the Greek HIV outbreak to suggest modifications in Big Events models and the need for additional research.

  13. Big Events in Greece and HIV Infection Among People Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.; Sypsa, Vana; Bonovas, Stefanos; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Malliori-Minerva, Melpomeni; Hatzakis, Angelos; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Big Events are processes like macroeconomic transitions that have lowered social well-being in various settings in the past. Greece has been hit by the global crisis and experienced an HIV outbreak among people who inject drugs. Since the crisis began (2008), Greece has seen population displacement, inter-communal violence, cuts in governmental expenditures, and social movements. These may have affected normative regulation, networks, and behaviors. However, most pathways to risk remain unknown or unmeasured. We use what is known and unknown about the Greek HIV outbreak to suggest modifications in Big Events models and the need for additional research. PMID:25723309

  14. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  15. Island custom blocking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.J. )

    1988-03-01

    The technique of Island blocking is being used more frequently since the advent of our new head and neck blocking techniques and the implementation of a newly devised lung protocol. The system presented affords the mould room personnel a quick and accurate means of island block fabrication without the constant remeasuring or subtle shifting to approximate correct placement. The cookie cutter is easily implemented into any department's existing block cutting techniques. The device is easily and inexpensively made either in a machine shop or acquired by contacting the author.

  16. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  17. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  18. The Western Cycladic Detachment System on Makronisos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisl, Johannes; Lindner, Karoline; Huet, Benjamin; Grasemann, Bernhard; Rice, A. Hugh. N.; Soukis, Konstantinos; Schneider, David

    2014-05-01

    Makronisos, which lies 3 km east of the Attica port of Lavrion, is the northwesternmost part of the Western Cycladic archipelago. The Cyclades and adjacent part of Attica are dominated by Miocene low-angle detachments that developed during top-to-SSW crustal extension, forming the West Cycladic Detachment System. Although extension is well documented on the other Western Cycladic islands and in Attica, the geology of Makronisos is poorly known. The aim of this study is to provide data on the structural, microstructural and metamorphic evolution of Makronisos to resolve its tectonostratigraphic position and its relationships within the Cycladic realm. Most of Makronisos consists of grey, locally graphitic, pelitic schists and yellowish impure marbles, interlayed with blue-grey mylonitic marbles and quartzites, forming large-scale pinch-and-swell structures. Metabasites are present as small bodies along the east side of the island but are thicker and more continuous in the southeast. Petrography shows that metabasites usually contain blue amphiboles, although generally only as relicts after greenschist facies retrogression. Serpentinite has been found at two localities. The structurally highest level of the island consists of white-grey to pale-red ultramylonites up to 40 m thick. These mainly lie on the central ridge of the island, but, due to large-scale upright folding, also crop out along the east and west coasts. In several places, the ultramylonites overlie 1-2 m of foliated ultracataclasites derived from the footwall pelitic schists. Stretching lineations and macroscopic shear-criteria indicate a top-to-SSW shear-sense. Microstructural analyses consistently show the same shear-sense, indicated by shape and crystal preferred orientations, σ- and δ-clasts, mica-fish, rotated veins and SCC' structures. Deformation mechanisms observed in quartz (LT-bulging) and calcite (recrystallization) are evidence for deformation temperatures of c. 300°C. Albite

  19. Zircon U-Pb, O, and Hf isotopic constraints on Mesozoic magmatism in the Cyclades, Aegean Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bin; Bröcker, Michael; Ireland, Trevor; Holden, Peter; Kinsley, Leslie P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the well-documented Cenozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the Cyclades, Aegean Sea, Greece, the geodynamic context of older meta-igneous rocks occurring in the marble-schist sequences and mélanges of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit is as yet not fully understood. Here, we report O-Hf isotopic compositions of zircons ranging in age from ca. 320 Ma to ca. 80 Ma from metamorphic rocks exposed on the islands of Andros, Ios, Sifnos, and Syros with special emphasis on Triassic source rocks. Ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) single spot oxygen isotope analysis of pre-Cretaceous zircons from various felsic gneisses and meta-gabbros representing both the marble-schist sequences and the mélanges of the study area yielded a large range in δ18O values, varying from 2.7 ‰ to 10.1 ‰ VSMOW, with one outlier at -0.4 %. Initial ɛHf values (-12.5 to +15.7) suggest diverse sources for melts formed between Late Carboniferous to Late Cretaceous time that record derivation from mantle and reworked older continental crust. In particular, variable δ18O and ɛHf( t) values for Triassic igneous zircons suggest that magmatism of this age is more likely rift- than subduction-related. The significant crustal component in 160 Ma meta-gabbros from Andros implies that some Jurassic gabbroic rocks of the Hellenides are not part of SSZ-type (supra-subduction zone) ophiolites that are common elsewhere along the margin of the Pelagonian zone.

  20. Influence of hydrothermal venting on water column properties in the crater of the Kolumbo submarine volcano, Santorini volcanic field (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopoulou, Maria E.; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Carey, Steven; Mandalakis, Manolis

    2016-02-01

    The Kolumbo submarine volcano, located 7 km northeast of the island of Santorini, is part of Santorini's volcanic complex in the south Aegean Sea, Greece. Kolumbo's last eruption was in 1650 AD. However, a unique and active hydrothermal vent field has been revealed in the northern part of its crater floor during an oceanographic survey by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in 2006. In the present study, conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data collected by ROV Hercules during three oceanographic surveys onboard E/V Nautilus in 2010 and 2011 have served to investigate the distribution of physicochemical properties in the water column, as well as their behavior directly over the hydrothermal field. Additional CTD measurements were carried out in volcanic cone 3 (VC3) along the same volcanic chain but located 3 km northeast of Kolumbo where no hydrothermal activity has been detected to date. CTD profiles exhibit pronounced anomalies directly above the active vents on Kolumbo's crater floor. In contrast, VC3 data revealed no such anomalies, essentially resembling open-sea (background) conditions. Steep increases of temperature (e.g., from 16 to 19 °C) and conductivity near the maximum depth (504 m) inside Kolumbo's cone show marked spatiotemporal correlation. Vertical distributions of CTD signatures suggest a strong connection to Kolumbo's morphology, with four distinct zones identified (open sea, turbid flow, invariable state, hydrothermal vent field). Additionally, overlaying the near-seafloor temperature measurements on an X-Y coordinate grid generates a detailed 2D distribution of the hydrothermal vent field and clarifies the influence of fluid discharges in its formation.

  1. Comparison of the TRMM Precipitation Radar rainfall estimation with ground-based disdrometer and radar measurements in South Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidou, Melina P.; Kalogiros, John A.; Stavrakis, Adrian K.

    2016-11-01

    The performance of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) rainfall estimation algorithm is assessed, locally, in Crete island, south Greece, using data from a 2D-video disdrometer and a ground-based, X-band, polarimetric radar. A three-parameter, normalized Gamma drop size distribution is fitted to the disdrometer rain spectra; the latter are classified in stratiform and convective rain types characterized by different relations between distribution parameters. The method of moments estimates more accurately the distribution parameters than the best fit technique, which exhibits better agreement with and is more biased by the observed droplet distribution at large diameter values. Power laws between the radar reflectivity factor (Z) and the rainfall rate (R) are derived from the disdrometer data. A significant diversity of the prefactor and the exponent of the estimated power laws is observed, depending on the scattering model and the regression technique. The Z-R relationships derived from the disdrometer data are compared to those obtained from TRMM-PR data. Generally, the power laws estimated from the two datasets are different. Specifically, the greater prefactor found for the disdrometer data suggests an overestimation of rainfall rate by the TRMM-PR algorithm for light and moderate stratiform rain, which was the main rain type in the disdrometer dataset. Finally, contemporary data from the TRMM-PR and a ground-based, X-band, polarimetric radar are analyzed. Comparison of the corresponding surface rain rates for a rain event with convective characteristics indicates a large variability of R in a single TRMM-PR footprint, which typically comprises several hundreds of radar pixels. Thus, the coarse spatial resolution of TRMM-PR may lead to miss of significant high local peaks of convective rain. Also, it was found that the high temporal variability of convective rain may introduce significant errors in the estimation of bias of

  2. Source of the tsunami generated by the 1650 AD eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvrova, Martina; Paris, R.; Nomikou, P.; Kelfoun, K.; Leibrandt, S.; Tappin, D. R.; McCoy, F. W.

    2016-07-01

    The 1650 AD explosive eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece) generated a destructive tsunami. In this paper we propose a source mechanism of this poorly documented tsunami using both geological investigations and numerical simulations. Sedimentary evidence of the 1650 AD tsunami was found along the coast of Santorini Island at maximum altitudes ranging between 3.5 m a.s.l. (Perissa, southern coast) and 20 m a.s.l. (Monolithos, eastern coast), corresponding to a minimum inundation of 360 and 630 m respectively. Tsunami deposits consist of an irregular 5 to 30 cm thick layer of dark grey sand that overlies pumiceous deposits erupted during the Minoan eruption and are found at depths of 30-50 cm below the surface. Composition of the tsunami sand is similar to the composition of the present-day beach sand but differs from the pumiceous gravelly deposits on which it rests. The spatial distribution of the tsunami deposits was compared to available historical records and to the results of numerical simulations of tsunami inundation. Different source mechanisms were tested: earthquakes, underwater explosions, caldera collapse, and pyroclastic flows. The most probable source of the 1650 AD Kolumbo tsunami is a 250 m high water surface displacement generated by underwater explosion with an energy of ~ 2 × 1016 J at water depths between 20 and 150 m. The tsunamigenic explosion(s) occurred on September 29, 1650 during the transition between submarine and subaerial phases of the eruption. Caldera subsidence is not an efficient tsunami source mechanism as short (and probably unrealistic) collapse durations (< 5 min) are needed. Pyroclastic flows cannot be discarded, but the required flux (106 to 107 m3 · s- 1) is exceptionally high compared to the magnitude of the eruption.

  3. Evidence from cosmic-ray exposure dating based on 36Cl for the pre-Minoan caldera on Santorini, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassas, Constantin; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Regis; Druitt, Tim; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Léanni, Laetitia

    2016-04-01

    The physiography of Santorini prior to the Minoan (Late Bronze Age) eruption (17th century BCE) is of great archaeological interest, given the importance of Santorini as a commercial centre and port in the Minoan empire. However, the paleogeography of the pre-Minoan caldera has been a point of controversy: Heiken and McCoy (1984) advocated the existence, in the southern part of the present-day caldera, of a pre-existing caldera formed during the 172 ka Lower Pumice eruption, whereas Druitt and Francaviglia (1992), based on the presence of in situ plinian pumice from the Minoan eruption adhering to the modern cliff, conceived the pre-Minoan (22 ka) caldera as having occupied much of the northern basin of the present-day caldera. With the goal of settling the debate we performed cosmic ray exposure dating employing in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl to date different generations of caldera cliffs at Santorini, and hence to identify those cliffs predating the Minoan eruption. Our methodology involved the determination of the in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl in basaltic and andesitic rocks cropping out in the cliffs. The samples returned 36Cl CRE ages consistent with previously published field mapping of cliff populations based on geomorphological and stratigraphic arguments (Druitt and Francaviglia 1992), suggesting that much of the present cliff line of northern Santorini predated the Minoan eruption, or was superficially modified by landslips and rockfalls during that eruption. The 36Cl CRE ages enable us to better define the paleogeography of the pre-Minoan caldera. References [1] Druitt, T. H. and Francaviglia, V.1992. Caldera formation on Santorini and the physiography of the islands in the Late Bronze Age. Bulletin of Volcanology 54, 484-493. [2] Heiken G and McCoy F (1984) Caldera development during the Minoan eruption, Thira, Cyclades, Greece. Journal of Geophysical Research: 89 (B10), 8841-8862.

  4. Source of the tsunami generated by the 1650 AD eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvrova, Martina; Paris, Raphael; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Tappin, Dave

    2016-04-01

    The 1650 AD explosive eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece) generated a destructive tsunami. In this paper we propose a source mechanism of this poorly documented tsunami using both geological investigations and numerical simulations. Sedimentary evidences of the 1650 AD tsunami were found along the coast of Santorini Island at maximum altitudes ranging between 3.5 m a.s.l. (Perissa, southern coast) and 20 m a.s.l. (Monolithos, eastern coast), corresponding to a minimum inundation of 360 and 630 m respectively. Tsunami deposits correspond to an irregular 5 to 30 cm thick layer of dark grey sand intercalated in soil at depths between 30 and 50 cm. Composition of the tsunami sand is similar to the composition of the present-day beach and clearly differs from the pumiceous gravelly soil. Spatial distribution of the tsunami deposits was confronted to available historical records and to the results of numerical simulations of tsunami inundation. Different scenarios of source mechanism were tested: earthquakes, underwater explosions, caldera collapse, and pyroclastic flows. The most probable source of the 1650 AD Kolumbo tsunami is a 250 m high water surface displacement generated by underwater explosion with an energy of ~2 E15 J at water depths between 20 and 150 m. The tsunamigenic explosion(s) occurred on September 29, 1650 during the transition between submarine and subaerial phases. Caldera subsidence is not an efficient source of tsunami, as short (and probably unrealistic) collapse durations (< 5 minutes) are needed. Pyroclastic flows cannot be discarded, but the required flux (E6 to E7 m³.s-1) is exceptionally high compared to the magnitude of the eruption.

  5. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  6. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  7. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... supplies were discovered on the island in 1964, but their origin could not be determined. Seals in the area were declared to be ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  8. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  9. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  10. Magnetic island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Spong, D.A.

    2006-02-15

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)]. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter {delta}{sup '} for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  11. Magnetic Island Induced Bootstrap Current on Island Dynamics in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A; Shaing, K. C.

    2006-02-01

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)] . Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter |{Delta}{prime}| for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  12. Authigenic carbonate mineral formation in a latest Pleistocene palaeolake, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageorgis, A. P.; Kanellopoulos, T. D.; Mavromatis, V.; Anagnostou, C. L.; Koutsopoulou, E.; Schmidt, M.; Pavlopoulos, K.; Tripsanas, E. K.; Hallberg, R. O.

    2012-12-01

    The Pagassitikos Gulf in Greece, is a semi-enclosed bay with maximum depth 102 m. According to the present-day bathymetric configuration and the sea level during the latest Pleistocene, the gulf would have been isolated from the open sea, forming a palaeolake since ~32 cal. ka B.P.. Initial visual inspection of sediment core B-4 (length, 258 cm), recovered from the deepest sector of the Pagassitikos Gulf, revealed evidence of a totally different depositional environment in the lowest part of the core: this contained light grey-coloured sediments, contrasting strongly with the overlain olive grey muds of the upper part. Multi-proxy analyses (mineralogy, geochemistry and scanning electron microscopy) showed the predominance of carbonate minerals (aragonite, dolomite and calcite) together with gypsum in the lowest part of the core. Additional evidence (δ18O and δ13C isotopes, and AMS 14C datings) suggest that carbonate mineral deposition can be attributed to autochthonous precipitation that took place in a saline palaeolake during the last glacial-early deglacial period. High δ18O values recorded in the lowest part of the core were associated with hypersaline and evaporative depositional environment. The most plausible explanation for the formation of the observed carbonate minerals directs to dolomite precipitation from hypersaline evaporating water bodies at low precipitation rates. Under varying weather conditions the precipitation of aragonite is favoured. Alternatively, high evaporation rates and gypsum formation, favouring an increase in Mg/Ca ratio, is proposed as a possible mechanism supporting authigenic dolomite precipitation. The lowest core sample to be AMS 14C dated provided an age of 19.53 cal. ka B.P. The palaeolake was presumably reconnected to the open sea at ~13.2 cal. ka B.P. during the last sea-level rise, marking the commencement of marine sedimentation characterised by the predominance of terrigenous aluminosilicates and fairly homogeneous

  13. Fluid-induced Blueschist Preservation on Syros, Cyclades, Southern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine, B. I.; Huet, B.; Skelton, A. D. L.

    2012-04-01

    Local examples of preservation of high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) mineral assemblages within retrograde metamorphosed greenschist are recorded from the Cyclades, Greece. Several models have been proposed to explain the preservation of HP-LT rocks in these areas. On Sifnos, a capping effect of impermeable marble units below the preserved blueschists caused diversion of the upward, cross-layer infiltration of retrograde fluids [1]. On Tinos, blueschist preservation occurred due to retrograde fluid flow channelization along lithological contacts with high flux rates [2]. HP-LT minerals were preserved in regions adjacent to these contacts where fluid fluxes were smaller. We propose a different mechanism of blueschist preservation based on observations from a costal section near Fabrika on Syros. At this locality a high strain zone cuts through a retrograde greenschist. Along the fault a dark blue halo occurs within the greenschist. Whole rock analyses along a profile from the fault into the greenschist show that only the areas directly adjacent to the deformation zone show chemical evidence of metasomatism, whereas the areas further away are chemically similar to greenschist. Point counting of 1000 evenly spaced points in thin sections of the profile shows a clear blueschist to greenschist transition with a blueschist mineral assemblage (glaucophane+phengite+calcite) nearer to the metasomatic zone and a typical greenschist mineral assemblage (epidote+chlorite+albite) farther away. We propose the following model to explain preservation of HP-LT mineral assemblage in this locality. During retrograde metamorphism a water-rich fluid infiltrated the blueschist rock from below. This occurred close to the brittle-ductile transition. This fluid caused a reaction front to propagate into the overlying blueschist at which its mineral assemblage glaucophane+phengite+calcite was replaced by the greenschist mineral assemblage epidote+albite+chlorite. Upwards-flowing fluid

  14. Source and significance of pumices in tsunami deposits: examples from Tenerife (Canary Islands), Santorini (Greece) and Krakatau (Indonesia) volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, R.; Nauret, F.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are quite often associated with tsunamis, and particularly caldera-forming eruptions near the coasts (e.g. Santorini, Krakatau, Aniakchak, Kikai). The main tsunamigenic processes are the entrance of massive pyroclastic flows in water, and flank instability, even if other processes might be involved (e.g. explosions). Fresh tephras are often preserved in sedimentary deposits left inland by tsunamis associated with volcanic eruptions. We review the different sources and incorporation mechanisms of pumices in tsunami deposits, and their significance in terms of volcanic processes, hydrodynamic processes (tsunami inundation) and their possible interactions. Three examples are adressed: the Krakatau 1883 eruption, the Minoan Thera eruption, and the El Abrigo eruption / Teno tsunami in Tenerife.

  15. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is...

  16. Occupational Stress, Negative Affectivity and Physical Health in Special and General Education Teachers in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazuras, Lambros

    2006-01-01

    Teacher stress has attracted considerable attention, yet few studies have focused on special education teachers. This article, by Lambros Lazuras of the South-East European Research Centre (SEERC) in Thessaloniki, reports research designed to explore differences in the stress levels of general and special educators in Greece and provides…

  17. Local Directors of School Education in Greece: Their Role and Main Sources of Job Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lainas, Athanassios

    2010-01-01

    Directors of education in Greece operate at prefectural level and are the heads of the local directorates or bureaus of primary/secondary education. Because of the centralized character of the educational system, their role is restricted to facilitating the smooth operation of the local school system and implementing the national policy on school…

  18. Demographic Profile and Athletic Identity of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injured Wheelchair Basketball Athletes in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiliadis, Angelo; Evaggelinou, Christina; Avourdiadou, Sevastia; Grekinis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    An epidemiological study conducted across the country of Greece was conducted in order to determine the profile and the athletic identity of spinal cord injured (SCI) wheelchair basketball athletes who participated to the 13th Greek Wheelchair Basketball Championship and Cup. The Disability Sport Participation questionnaire was used for data…

  19. Educational Reforms in Greece (1959-1997) and Human Capital Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiadis, Nikos M.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the effects of Human Capital Theory on the theoretical frameworks, the rhetoric and the aims of the educational reforms that took place in Greece during the period 1959 to 1997. It also deals with the re-emergence of the theory in the 1990s within the new context, as an important element of the neo-liberal education…

  20. Professional Profile of National Health Service Physicians in Greece and Their Self-Expressed Training Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriopoulos, John; Gregory, Susan; Georgoussi, Eugenia; Dolgeras, Apostolos

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Continuing medical education is not yet mandatory in Greece, but an increasing number of training courses is becoming available. In recent years, 32 training centers have been accredited. Method: A postal survey of a national sample of 500 National Health Service doctors, weighted toward hospitals with accredited training centers,…