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Sample records for samoyed auxiliary verb

  1. Verb Placement in Second Language Acquisition: Experimental Evidence for the Different Behavior of Auxiliary and Lexical Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of verb placement by Moroccan and Turkish second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Elicited production data corroborate earlier findings from L2 German that learners who do not produce auxiliaries do not raise lexical verbs over negation, whereas learners who produce auxiliaries do. Data from elicited…

  2. Auxiliary Verbs, Dictionaries and the Late Evolution of the Italian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinder, John J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of BE as an auxiliary verb with intransitive verbs has declined in all the Romance languages over the past five centuries. Today, Spanish and Portuguese use only HAVE, in Catalan and Romanian BE occurs in marginal contexts, and in French, BE is used with approximately 40 verbs. Italian is a notable exception, since BE is still used as the…

  3. A suivre. La Conjugaison [le Subjonctif, Auxiliaire, Aspect, Conditionnel] (Conjugations [Subjunctive, Auxiliary Verbs, Aspect, Conditional]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerot, Jean-Louis

    1980-01-01

    Gives a grammar presentation complemented by a variety of exercises on the use of the subjunctive as opposed to the use of the indicative, on the use of the auxiliaries, on verb aspect, and on the conditional mood. (MES)

  4. An experimental analysis of auxiliary and copula verb generalization in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kearns, K P; Salmon, S J

    1984-05-01

    Two subjects with chronic Broca's aphasia were taught to produce third person singular auxiliary is in sentence contexts to determine if is production would generalize to untrained auxiliary is items and to copula is contexts. A single subject (ABAB) reversal design was employed. Results revealed that training a few exemplars of the present tense auxiliary is resulted in generalized responding to untrained auxiliary is and copula is plus predicate adjective items. Generalized responding to untrained copula is plus predicate nominative and locative items was marked by individual variability. Although auxiliary and copula is verb production was maintained on 2- and 6-week follow-up probes, transfer to spontaneous speech was negligible. The results were interpreted as providing partial support for the existence of a functional or generative response class between verbal auxiliary and the copula is verbs.

  5. Dummy Auxiliaries in the Second Language Acquisition of Moroccan Learners of Dutch: Form and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Craats, Ineke; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    This study examines an interlanguage in which Moroccan learners of Dutch use non-thematic verbs in combination with thematic verbs that can be inflected as well. These non-thematic verbs are real dummy auxiliaries because they are deprived of semantic content and primarily have a syntactic function. Whereas in earlier second language (L2) research…

  6. Los problemas de contenido y de empleo del verbo haber (Problems of Meaning and Use of the Verb "Haber.")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Botero, Luis A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the derivation, meaning and both past and present uses of the Spanish verb "haber." The verb refers to relationships of possession, duration and existence, and is used as an auxiliary. Extant derivative forms of the verb in other languages and earlier Spanish meanings are noted. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  7. The German and English Auxiliary Systems and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Terrence C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper explores the auxiliary systems of English and German and the use of the auxiliary verbs in various complex predicate structures in the two languages. It aims at alleviating two types of problems in learning German involving governing patterns and ordering problems in clauses. (CHK)

  8. Bulgarian Verbs of Motion: Slavic Verbs in a Balkan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Traci Speed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the motion verb system of Bulgarian, focusing both on the structure of the Bulgarian motion verb itself, and on the information typically encoded in the Bulgarian verb of motion. It then compares the Bulgarian motion verb system with the motion verb systems of two other Slavic languages, Russian and Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian…

  9. The English Verb System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorayska, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Techniques of teaching the English finite verb to speakers of other languages must account for meaning that is signalled by the structure alone and meaning derived from the context. Accordingly, this study attempts to distinguish the semantic components of the finite verb structure. The structure is viewed as being always composed of the following…

  10. Chuave Medial Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses two syntactic processes known as chaining and linkage, insofar as they are relevant to Chuave, a Papuan language spoken in the East New Guinea Highlands. These processes are discussed in relation to Chuave medial verbs. (CLK)

  11. Modal Auxiliaries and Their Semantic Functions Used by Advanced EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabiardakani, Najmeh; Khojasteh, Laleh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Since modal auxiliary verbs have been proved to be one of the most troublesome grammatical structures in English, the researchers of this study decided to do an analysis on the ways in which advanced EFL Iranian students use modal auxiliaries focusing specially on nine modals' semantic functions. Consequently, was conducted based on the following…

  12. Psychological Aspects of Transitive Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; Rohrman, Nicholas L.

    1970-01-01

    The experiments reported here confirmed the findings of earlier researchers that transitive verbs are more difficult to recall than intransitive ones and furthermore established a close relationship between transitive verbs and nouns. Implications for linguistic theory are discussed. (FB)

  13. How to Teach Phrasal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mart, Cagri Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Teaching phrasal verbs is a difficult area. Many a study has proved that contextualization has an important positive effect on the ability of the students to decipher the correct meaning of a phrasal verb. In this article you will read some useful approaches to the presentation of phrasal verbs through context to improve the students' level of…

  14. Italian Verb Inflection in Alzheimer Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Lucia; Fonti, Cristina; Stracciari, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    A group of 20 patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) and a control group were tested in a verb generation task, in a verb synonym task and several cognitive tests. Three types of verbs and novel verbs were presented in simple sentence frames, in two different conditions. In one condition participants were presented with the verb in the…

  15. String Vacuous Overt Verb Raising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koisumi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Presents evidence for overt verb raising in Japanese, thereby defending the validity of the head parameter with its two values (head initial and head final). Explores consequences of the overt verb raising analysis of Japanese to various aspects of syntactic theory. (Author/VWL)

  16. On the Classification of Russian Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornyn, William S.

    1948-01-01

    An introduction to the Russian phonemic system leads to a model classification of verb forms derived from the infinitive and present stems of selected verbs. Correspondences between the two sets of verb forms are listed. A brief history of attempts at verb classification concentrates on the theory of Meyer, Berneker, and Bloomfield. A complete…

  17. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  18. Are Modal Auxiliaries in Malaysian English Language Textbooks in Line with Their Usage in Real Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Laleh; Kafipour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Based on the discrepancies found in many Malaysian English language textbooks, a detailed analysis on the way modal auxiliary verb forms and their semantic functions were introduced and presented in texts and exercises in five Malaysian textbooks was done. For that to be achieved, a qualitative page-by-page content analysis was applied. From the…

  19. Objects, Events and "to Be" Verbs in Spanish--An ERP Study of the Syntax-Semantics Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone-Fernandez, Barbara; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A.

    2012-01-01

    In Spanish, objects and events at subject position constrain the selection of different forms of the auxiliary verb "to be": locative predicates about objects require "estar en", while those relating to events require "ser en", both translatable as "to be in". Subjective ratings showed that while the "object + ser + en" is considered as incorrect,…

  20. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  1. Learning Transitive Verbs from Single-Word Verbs in the Input by Young Children Acquiring English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    The environmental context of verbs addressed by adults to young children is claimed to be uninformative regarding the verbs' meaning, yielding the Syntactic Bootstrapping Hypothesis that, for verb learning, full sentences are needed to demonstrate the semantic arguments of verbs. However, reanalysis of Gleitman's (1990) original data regarding…

  2. The First Noun Principle and Ambitransitive Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored native English speakers' interpretations of second-language Spanish sentences featuring an animate subject and an ambitransitive verb (e.g., "Escuchan bien los ninos" "The children listen well"). First- (N=37), third- (N=39), and fifth-semester (N=23) participants heard eight subject-verb (SV) and eight verb-subject (VS)…

  3. Topics in the Nez Perce Verb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Amy Rose

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates several topics in the morphology, syntax and semantics of the Nez Perce verb and verbal clause. The first part of the dissertation focuses on the morphological segmentation of the Nez Perce verb and on the semantic description of the verb and clause. Chapter 1 provides a grammar sketch. Chapter 2 discusses the…

  4. Children Use Syntax to Learn Verb Meanings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naigles, Letitia

    1990-01-01

    Provides an experimental validation of Landau and Gleitman's (1985) syntactic bootstrapping procedure on how children may use syntactic information to learn new verbs. The children's choice of the correct referent for a given verb versus a nonsense verb in two syntactic structures is explained. (37 references) (GLR)

  5. A NEW CLASSIFICATION FOR THE JAPANESE VERB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAKAHASHI, GEORGE

    JAPANESE VERBS AND THE PARTICLES WHICH OFTEN ACCOMPANY THEM PRESENT DIFFICULTIES TO LEARNERS OF THAT LANGUAGE. THE TRADITIONAL GRAMMATICAL TERMS, "TRANSITIVE" AND "INTRANSITIVE" (VERBS), REFLECT CONCEPTS WHICH ARE VALID IN ENGLISH BUT NOT IN JAPANESE. THE AUTHOR, IN ATTEMPTING TO CLASSIFY ALL JAPANESE VERBS ACCORDING TO THEIR…

  6. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  7. The Schetic Categories of the Tlingit Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leer, Jeffry A.

    An analysis of verbs in Tlingit, a U.S. Northwest Coast Indian language, begins with an overview of its situation and usage and of previous research. The second chapter sketches its phonological and syntactic characteristics. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with the verb. An analysis of verb categories distinguishes two groups: argumental…

  8. 575 Tlingit Verbs: A Study of Tlingit Verb Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Keri M.

    2013-01-01

    The Tlingit language, indigenous to Southeast Alaska and neighboring parts of British Columbia and the Yukon territory, is related to the Athabascan languages and the recently extinct language Eyak. Like Athabascan and Eyak, Tlingit verbal morphology is highly complex. The conjugation of Tlingit verbs is unpredictable in certain respects, making…

  9. Auxiliary Power Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-17

    Auxiliary Power Units Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to...information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports ...1. REPORT DATE 17 NOV 2010 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Auxiliary Power Units 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  10. Vocalic Variations in Spanish Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Linda Schwartz; Sanders, Gerald A.

    1977-01-01

    Roots of Spanish verbs exhibit systematic vowel alternations. In traditional accounts of these alternations, the mid simplex nuclei are assumed to be basic, with complex nuclei being derived from them by rule. This paper suggests an alternative analysis assuming that the complex nuclei are more basic than the simplex ones. (CHK)

  11. Cinque's Functional Verbs in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlett, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntax of a number of subcategories of verb in French which are compatible with a following bare infinitive and which express various kinds of grammatical tense, mood, modality, aspect and voice, as well as such (more lexical?) notions as perception, causation and locomotion. The article starts by cataloguing a number…

  12. The Zulu Ditransitive Verb Phrase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Nikki

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, several related aspects of arguments to ditransitive verbs are explored. The aim is to discover in what ways certain asymmetries in what is frequently referred to as a "symmetric object" language are interconnected while still allowing the other symmetric object behavior. These asymmetries are: (1) The requirement that the…

  13. Nouns, Verbs and NP Complements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, J. T.

    This paper investigates restrictions on three types of noun-phrase complements (gerundive, infinitive, clause) in English and seeks to point out some parallels between the occurrence of these three types in object positions. The author first presents a list of verbs which may be followed by noun-phrase complements; he then considers the occurrence…

  14. Czech Basic Course: Verb List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, William; Vit, Karel V.

    This compilation of verbs, intended for students of the Defense Language Institute (DLI) Basic Course, provides brief definitions for each entry. No sentence examples are included. The text is intended to serve as a compact reference and study aid. Examples are selected from the Basic Course and the DLI Czech-English Dictionary. Entries are listed…

  15. Sodium channel auxiliary subunits.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tsai-Tien; McMahon, Allison M; Johnson, Victoria T; Mangubat, Erwin Z; Zahm, Robert J; Pacold, Mary E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are well known for their functional roles in excitable tissues. Excitable tissues rely on voltage-gated ion channels and their auxiliary subunits to achieve concerted electrical activity in living cells. Auxiliary subunits are also known to provide functional diversity towards the transport and biogenesis properties of the principal subunits. Recent interests in pharmacological properties of these auxiliary subunits have prompted significant amounts of efforts in understanding their physiological roles. Some auxiliary subunits can potentially serve as drug targets for novel analgesics. Three families of sodium channel auxiliary subunits are described here: beta1 and beta3, beta2 and beta4, and temperature-induced paralytic E (TipE). While sodium channel beta-subunits are encoded in many animal genomes, TipE has only been found exclusively in insects. In this review, we present phylogenetic analyses, discuss potential evolutionary origins and functional data available for each of these subunits. For each family, we also correlate the functional specificity with the history of evolution for the individual auxiliary subunits.

  16. Auxiliary incinerator apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, J.P.

    1987-08-11

    An auxiliary incinerator apparatus is described for an incinerator comprising: a main incinerator having primary and secondary chambers formed with a plurality of refractory walls, the main incinerator having a main door into the primary chamber, and the main incinerator having an outer framework and walls spaced from the refractory walls, and one refractory wall having an opening therethrough; a refractory passageway extending from the opening in the main incinerator wall to the outer wall and having an opening through the outer wall; an auxiliary incinerator attached to one side of the main incinerator adjacent to the opening from the refractory passageway through the outer wall, the auxiliary incinerator having an incineration chamber formed therein with an opening thereinto; and auxiliary door means for opening and closing over the opening from the refractory passageway through the outer wall and for opening and closing over the opening into the auxiliary incinerator, whereby partially incinerated materials can be moved from the main incinerator to the auxiliary incinerator for further combustion.

  17. Diversity Matters: Parent Input Predicts Toddler Verb Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ning; Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of parent input to children's subsequent expressive verb diversity was explored in twenty typically developing toddlers with small verb lexicons. Child developmental factors and parent input measures (i.e. verb quantity, verb diversity, and verb-related structural cues) at age 1;9 were examined as potential predictors of…

  18. [Take] and the ASL Verb Complex: An Autolexical Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metlay, Donald S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation will show how linguistic description and an Autolexical account of the bound verb root [take] shed a light on the nature of complex verb constructions in American Sign Language (ASL). This is accomplished by creating a new ASL Verb Complex Model unifying all verbs into one category of VERB. This model also accounts for a variety…

  19. Auxiliary and Service Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumph, Wayne J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the operation of auxiliary enterprises (i.e., college-owned and operated satellite business operations); service departments (i.e., college units that provide specialized services to other college units); and other revenue-producing units at community colleges. Suggests effective management and operational practices. Discusses the…

  20. The Effects of Verb Argument Complexity on Verb Production in Persons with Aphasia: Evidence from a Subject-Object-Verb Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jee Eun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of verb argument complexity on verb production in individuals with aphasia using a verb-final language. The verb-argument complexity was examined by the number of arguments (1-, 2-, and 3-place) and the types of arguments (unaccusative vs. unergative comparisons). Fifteen Korean-speaking…

  1. Diversity matters: parent input predicts toddler verb production.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ning; Hadley, Pamela A; Rispoli, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of parent input to children's subsequent expressive verb diversity was explored in twenty typically developing toddlers with small verb lexicons. Child developmental factors and parent input measures (i.e. verb quantity, verb diversity, and verb-related structural cues) at age 1;9 were examined as potential predictors of children's verb production in spontaneous language samples at age 2;3. Parent verb input diversity, rather than input quantity, was the primary input factor contributing to children's subsequent verb diversity. Regression analysis showed that verb diversity in parent input at age 1;9 accounted for 30% of the variance in children's verb production six months later, with children's total vocabulary size at age 1;9 accounting for an additional 16% of the variance. These findings demonstrate the relative contributions of developmental and input factors to individual differences in toddlers' language development and establish the importance of input diversity to verb acquisition.

  2. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  3. Sound symbolism facilitates early verb learning.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel sound-symbolic verbs whose sounds were judged to match certain actions better than others, as confirmed by adult Japanese- as well as English speakers, and by 2- and 3-year-old Japanese-speaking children. These sound-symbolic verbs, together with other novel non-sound-symbolic verbs, were used in a verb learning task with 3-year-old Japanese children. In line with the previous literature, 3-year-olds could not generalize the meaning of novel non-sound-symbolic verbs on the basis of the sameness of action. However, 3-year-olds could correctly generalize the meaning of novel sound-symbolic verbs. These results suggest that iconic scaffolding by means of sound symbolism plays an important role in early verb learning.

  4. The Verb-Lists of Modern French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews and compares the main published repertoires of French verbs. By combining the material from these different sources, one can construct a database of approximately 10,300 formally distinct verbs. It is suggested that analysis of such a wide corpus may reveal structures not yet acknowledged. (Author/LMO)

  5. NOBELS Action Verbs and Synonyms, Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanham, Frank W.; Weber, Cathryn P.

    1970-01-01

    A taxonomy and a list of 108 verbs and their synonyms were compiled as first steps in developing a common language for describing the content of business and office education. By synthesizing the initial data, 57 principal verbs and their 162 synonyms proved adequate for describing 4,548 office tasks. Educational implications will be discussed in…

  6. Toddlers' Verb Lexicon Diversity and Grammatical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Hsu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to quantify longitudinal expectations for verb lexicon growth and to determine whether verb lexicon measures were better predictors of later grammatical outcomes than noun lexicon measures. Method: Longitudinal parent-report measures from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Fenson et al.,…

  7. Structure of Complex Verb Forms in Meiteilon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Lourembam Surjit

    2016-01-01

    This piece of work proposes to descriptively investigate the structures of complex verbs in Meiteilon. The categorization of such verbs is based on the nature of semantic and syntactic functions of a lexeme or verbal lexeme. A lexeme or verbal lexeme in Meiteilon may have multifunctional properties in the nature of occurrence. Such lexical items…

  8. Broca's Aphasia, Verbs and the Mental Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; van Zonneveld, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Verb production is notoriously difficult for individuals with Broca's aphasia, both at the word and at the sentence level. An intriguing question is at which level in the speech production these problems arise. The aim of the present study is to identify the functional locus of the impairment that results in verb production deficits in Broca's…

  9. The Causes and Consequences Explicit in Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Hartshorne, Joshua K.; O’Donnell, Timothy J.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of a pronoun in one clause can be systematically affected by the verb in the previous clause. Compare Archibald angered Bartholomew because he… (he=Archibald) with Archibald criticized Bartholomew because he… (he=Bartholomew). While it is clear that meaning plays a critical role, it is unclear whether that meaning is directly encoded in the verb or, alternatively, inferred from world knowledge. We report evidence favoring the former account. We elicited pronoun biases for 502 verbs from seven Levin verb classes in two discourse contexts (implicit causality and implicit consequentiality), showing that in both contexts, verb class reliably predicts pronoun bias. These results confirm and extend recent findings about implicit causality and represent the first such study for implicit consequentiality. We discuss these findings in the context of recent work in semantics, and also develop a new, probabilistic generative account of pronoun interpretation. PMID:26052518

  10. Finiteness and Verb Placement in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parodi, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Provides a new perspective on whether there is a correlation between finiteness and verb placement in second language acquisition by analyzing data from speakers of Romance languages learning German as a second language. Verbs are classified as thematic and nonthematic and analyzed with respect to overt subject-verb agreement and verb placement as…

  11. Breaking into the Hebrew Verb System: A Learning Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkenazi, Orit; Ravid, Dorit; Gillis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Verb learning is an important part of linguistic acquisition. The present study examines the early phases of verb acquisition in Hebrew, a language with complex derivational and inflectional verb morphology, analyzing verbs in dense recordings of CDS and CS of two Hebrew-speaking parent-child dyads aged 1;8-2;2. The goal was to pinpoint those cues…

  12. The Electrophysiological Manifestation of Dutch Verb Second Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the processing of violations of the verb position in Dutch, in a group of healthy subjects, by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) through electroencephalography (EEG). In Dutch, the base position of the verb is clause final, but in matrix clauses, the finite verb is in second position, a construction known as "Verb Second".…

  13. Acquisition of English Verb Transitivity by Native Speakers of Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagano, Tomonori

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with the acquisition of English verb transitivity by native speakers of Japanese. Both a verb's semantic class (Levin, 1993; Pinker, 1989) and its frequency (Ambridge et al., 2008) have been proposed to influence the acquisition of verbs in L1. For example, verbs whose meaning entails change-of-location or…

  14. Handling a Tricky Verb: Es handelt sich um "handeln".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn-Osius, K. E.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts to establish a practical approach to teaching the various meanings of the German verb "handeln". Exercises that aid advanced students in understanding the verb's meaning include a complete list of all possible meanings of the verb, as well as sample sentences using the verb in a wide range of contexts. (LMO)

  15. A STUDY IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE HINDI VERB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAHL, KALI C.

    A CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE OF HINDI WAS FORMULATED TO ACCOUNT FOR THE PHENOMENA OF COMPOUND AND CONJUNCT VERBS IN THE LANGUAGE. THE TRADITIONAL CLASS OF CONJUNCT VERBS OR THE COMPOUND VERBS, CONSISTING OF NOUN OR ADJECTIVE PLUS VERB, WAS REINTERPRETED IN THIS ANALYSIS. THE FOUR SECTIONS OF THE TEXT DEALT WITH (1) THE SUBJECT-PREDICATE KERNEL…

  16. Repetition priming within and between languages in verb generation: evidence for shared verb concepts.

    PubMed

    de la Riva López, Eva M; Francis, Wendy S; García, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Although translation equivalents for concrete nouns are known to have shared core conceptual representations in bilingual memory (Francis, 1999), the status of translation-equivalent verbs has not been systematically tested. Three repetition-priming experiments using a verb generation task were used to determine whether verbs have shared representations across languages and to identify the processes facilitated in repeated verb generation. In Experiment 1 fluent Spanish-English bilingual speakers exhibited repetition priming both within and between languages, but between-language priming was weaker. In Experiment 2 performance of non-bilingual English and Spanish speakers was equivalent to that of bilingual speakers responding in their dominant language. Experiment 3 used manipulations meant to isolate noun comprehension, verb concept selection, and verb production. The between-language priming in Experiments 1 and 3 indicates that verb concepts are shared across languages and that verb concept selection exhibits facilitation. Experiment 3 showed that the greater within-language priming was due primarily to facilitation of verb production processes.

  17. Manual with auxiliary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission of the type in which a manual transmission has two parallel shafts. One shaft is connected through a transmission clutch to an engine in which manual transmission is connected in series to an auxiliary transmission having high and low speed transmission lines. The auxiliary transmission has a high speed transmission line equipped with a hydraulic clutch and a low speed transmission line equipped with a one-way clutch for allowing the overrun of the output side of the low speed transmission line so that the low speed transmission line is established when the hydraulic clutch is released. The high speed transmission is established when the hydraulic clutch is applied. A sleeve shaft is on one of the two shafts. A transmission gear mechanism connects the sleeve shaft to the other shaft. One shaft has an extension with a fixed gear. A coacting gear is fixed on the sleeve shaft, the hydraulic clutch and coacting gear positioned on the extension of one shaft, an idle gear mechanism in meshing engagement with both the coacting gear and the fixed gear. The idle gear mechanism has a low speed transmission line one-way clutch, and the hydraulic clutch is operable to connect and disconnect the sleeve shaft to and from the one shaft.

  18. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  19. Student Services and Auxiliary Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    A greater number of campuses have broadened concepts related to student development connecting traditional student affairs and campus auxiliary services. This connection is increasingly evident in the evolution of sustainability concerns and activities. This chapter explores the role of campus auxiliaries in the promotion of campus environmental…

  20. Is More Always Better for Verbs? Semantic Richness Effects and Verb Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, David M.; Heard, Alison; Pexman, Penny M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined how several semantic richness variables contribute to verb meaning, across a number of tasks. Because verbs can vary in tense, and the manner in which tense is coded (i.e., regularity), we also examined how these factors moderated the effects of semantic richness. In Experiment 1 we found that age of acquisition (AoA), valence, arousal and embodiment predicted faster response times in LDT. In Experiment 2 we examined a particular semantic richness variable, verb embodiment, and found that it was moderated by tense and regularity. In Experiment 3a we found that AoA predicted faster response times in verb reading. Finally, in Experiment 3b, semantic diversity predicted response times in a past tense generation task, either facilitating or inhibiting responses for regular or irregular verbs, respectively. These results demonstrate that semantic richness variables contribute to verb meaning even when verbs are presented in isolation, and that these effects depend on several factors unique to verbs. PMID:27303353

  1. Awareness of Verb Subcategorization Probabilities with Polysemous Verbs: The Second Language Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uckun, Berrin

    2012-01-01

    Different meanings of a verb are associated with different argument structures (subcategorization), which in this study are sentential complements (SC) and direct object (DO) arguments. Interaction between verbal meaning and argument structure is investigated at the production level using polysemous verbs in the absence (Norming Experiment) and…

  2. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    PubMed Central

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny E.

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler “to speak,” [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter “to repeat,” [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer “to adore,” [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire “to drink,” [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French

  3. Verb and sentence production and comprehension in aphasia: Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS)

    PubMed Central

    Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Verbs and sentences are often impaired in individuals with aphasia, and differential impairment patterns are associated with different types of aphasia. With currently available test batteries, however, it is challenging to provide a comprehensive profile of aphasic language impairments because they do not examine syntactically important properties of verbs and sentences. Aims This study presents data derived from the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS; Thompson, 2011), a new test battery designed to examine syntactic deficits in aphasia. The NAVS includes tests for verb naming and comprehension, and production of verb argument structure in simple active sentences, with each examining the effects of the number and optionality of arguments. The NAVS also tests production and comprehension of canonical and non-canonical sentences. Methods & Procedures A total of 59 aphasic participants (35 agrammatic and 24 anomic) were tested using a set of action pictures. Participants produced verbs or sentences for the production subtests and identified pictures corresponding to auditorily provided verbs or sentences for the comprehension subtests. Outcomes & Results The agrammatic group, compared to the anomic group, performed significantly more poorly on all subtests except verb comprehension, and for both groups comprehension was less impaired than production. On verb naming and argument structure production tests both groups exhibited difficulty with three-argument verbs, affected by the number and optionality of arguments. However, production of sentences using three-argument verbs was more impaired in the agrammatic, compared to the anomic, group. On sentence production and comprehension tests, the agrammatic group showed impairments in all types of non-canonical sentences, whereas the anomic group exhibited difficulty primarily with the most difficult, object relative, structures. Conclusions Results show that verb and sentence deficits seen in

  4. The Effects of Verb Argument Complexity on Verb Production in Persons with Aphasia: Evidence from a Subject-Object-Verb Language.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jee Eun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of verb argument complexity on verb production in individuals with aphasia using a verb-final language. The verb-argument complexity was examined by the number of arguments (1-, 2-, and 3-place) and the types of arguments (unaccusative vs. unergative comparisons). Fifteen Korean-speaking individuals with aphasia and 16 normal controls participated in the study. A confrontation naming task was used to elicit verb production with a total of 36 items for each verb type (1-place unergative, 1-place unaccusative, 2-place, and 3-place verbs). Individuals with aphasia presented lower mean percentage correctness in 3-place than in 1-place verbs, and showed differentially greater difficulties with unaccusative constructions than with unergative verbs, compared to the control group. The effects of verb-argument complexity were clearly observed in Korean-speaking individuals with aphasia. The effects of the number of arguments were observed most clearly in Broca's and Wernicke's types of aphasia and individuals with lower overall aphasia severity. The effects of Korean unaccusativity manifested across aphasia groups. General patterns of verb-argument complexity in Korean were consistent with previous findings in English.

  5. Verb-raising and Numeral Classifiers in Japanese: Incompatible Bedfellows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Examines verb raising in Japanese and looks at Koizumi's (2000) evidence for verb-raising based on data involving, among other things, numeral classifiers. Demonstrates that Koizumi's evidence based on numeral classifiers does not support his claim that verb-raising occurs in Japanese. (Author/VWL)

  6. Reciprocal Pronouns Binding within Psych-Verb Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epoge, Napoleon

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at giving an analysis of certain syntactic peculiarities of reciprocal pronouns within verbs of psychological state, commonly known as psych-verbs. The analysis reveal that psych-verbs constructions have a peculiar property in that the binding conditions of reciprocal pronouns are satisfied in Experiencer-Subject (ES) psychverbs…

  7. The Crucial Role of Tense for Verb Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druks, J.; Carroll, E.

    2005-01-01

    The case of an aphasic patient whose spontaneous speech contains very few lexical verbs is reported. Instead of sentences with lexical verbs, the patient produces many (grammatical) copular constructions. He also substitutes lexical verbs with the copula. Although this results in ungrammatical utterances, by doing so, a resemblance of sentence…

  8. Toddlers Recognize Verbs in Novel Situations and Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naigles, Letitia R.; Bavin, Edith L.; Smith, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    Toddlers' (MA = 22 and 27 months) ability to extend newly taught verbs to new situational and sentential contexts was investigated. Children were interactively taught two novel verbs, presented in only the transitive frame (e.g. "You're lorping the ball"), in a playroom setting. They then viewed the verb actions presented on side-by-side monitors…

  9. Harder Words: Learning Abstract Verbs with Opaque Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Misha; Estigarribia, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Highly abstract predicates (e.g. "think") present a number of difficulties for language learners (Gleitman et al., 2005). A partial solution to learning these verbs is that learners exploit regularities in the syntactic frames in which these verbs occur. While agreeing with this general approach to learning verbs, we caution that this…

  10. Attention to Explicit and Implicit Contrast in Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Benavides, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Contrast information could be useful for verb learning, but few studies have examined children's ability to use this type of information. Contrast may be useful when children are told explicitly that different verbs apply, or when they hear two different verbs in a single context. Three studies examine children's attention to different types of…

  11. Verb Aspect and the Activation of Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Kutas, Marta; McRae, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The authors show that verb aspect influences the activation of event knowledge with 4 novel results. First, common locations of events (e.g., arena) are primed following verbs with imperfective aspect (e.g., was skating) but not verbs with perfect aspect (e.g., had skated). Second, people generate more locative prepositional phrases as…

  12. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  13. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low...

  14. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low...

  15. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low...

  16. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low...

  17. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary...

  18. Verb-Form Errors in EAP Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Roselind; Sim, Jacqueline; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify and describe the written verb-form errors found in the EAP writing of 39 second year learners pursuing a three-year Diploma Programme from a public university in Malaysia. Data for this study, which were collected from a written 350-word discursive essay, were analyzed to determine the types and frequency of…

  19. Facilitation and Practice in Verb Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by…

  20. Fast Mapping Verb Meaning from Argument Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Valerie E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine lexical knowledge in children through a fast mapping task. Method: This study compared the performance of 60 African American English-speaking and general American English-speaking children between the ages of 4 and 6 years. They were presented with a comprehension task involving the fast mapping of novel verbs in 4 different…

  1. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  2. Verb Aspect, Event Structure, and Coreferential Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Rohde, Hannah; Kehler, Andrew; Crutchley, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    We used an off-line story continuation task and an online ERP reading task to investigate coreferential processing following sentences that portrayed transfer-of-possession events as either ongoing or completed, using imperfective and perfective verb aspect (e.g., Amanda was shifting/shifted some poker chips to Scott). The story continuation task…

  3. Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theakston, Anna L.; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __"want"__, __"see"__, and __"get"__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and…

  4. Southern White English: The Changing Verb Phrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feagin, Louise Crawford

    In a sociolinguistic study of the verb phrase in Southern White English, a pattern of change in progress was observed. The 14 variables studied showed that certain variants were increasing, others decreasing, and yet others stable across time within the community, and that each variable's change was progressing in a wave sensitive to age, social…

  5. Computense: Verb Drills on a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolphin, Emil

    1989-01-01

    A microcomputer program providing extensive and constantly changing practice with 35 irregular French verbs in 6 tenses is described. The program's objectives are to establish lateral associations between tense forms, provide continuous opportunity for recall, and shorten correct response time. (Author/MSE)

  6. Does Verb Bias Modulate Syntactic Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In a corpus analysis of spontaneous speech Jaeger and Snider (2007) found that the strength of structural priming is correlated with verb alternation bias. This finding is consistent with an implicit learning account of syntactic priming: because the implicit learning model implemented by Chang (2002), Chang, Dell, and Bock (2006), and Chang,…

  7. The use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in monolingual and bilingual children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure than the control group (consisting of monolingual typically developing Dutch children matched on mean length of utterance in morphemes) in that they showed significantly more agreement errors as well as a relation between verb agreement structure complexity and omission, a relation that the typically developing children failed to show. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between the monolingual and the bilingual SLI group. These findings indicate that subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure are both affected in SLI, but not more severely in bilinguals than in monolinguals.

  8. A behavioral study of the nature of verb production deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Beber, Bárbara Costa; Cruz, Aline Nunes da; Chaves, Márcia L

    2015-10-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may experience greater difficulty with verb production than with noun production. In this study, we sought to assess the nature of verb production deficits in AD by using verb fluency and verb naming tasks. We designed two hypotheses for this verb deficit: (1) executive impairment drives the deficit; (2) semantic impairment drives the deficit. Thirty-five patients with AD and 35 matched healthy controls participated in the study. Both groups performed a verb naming task composed of 45 pictures (low-, medium-, and high-frequency subsets) and a verb fluency task (scored for total correct words and for mean word frequency). Patients with AD were equally impaired in verb naming and verb fluency, with an effect of disease severity on verb naming. Word frequency influenced verb naming, but not verb fluency, performance. Our results indicate that verb production deficits in AD seem to be driven more by semantic than by executive impairment.

  9. Vacuuming with My "Mouth"?: Children's Ability to Comprehend Novel Extensions of Familiar Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seston, Rebecca; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Ma, Weiyi; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Can 6- and 8-year-olds (and adults) comprehend common instrument verbs when extended to novel situations? Participants heard eight unusual extensions of common verbs and were asked to paraphrase the verbs' meanings. Half of the verbs used were "specified instrument" verbs that include the name of the instrument used to perform the action (e.g., a…

  10. Age-Dependent Changes of Thinking about Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Bonivento, Carolina; Tomasino, Barbara; Garzitto, Marco; Piccin, Sara; Fabbro, Franco; Brambilla, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the knowledge of emotional and motor verbs in children and adolescents from three age ranges (8–11, 12–15, 16–19 years). Participants estimated the verbs familiarity, age of acquisition, valence, arousal, imageability, and motor- and emotion-relatedness. Participants were familiar with the verbs in our dataset. The younger (8–11) attributed an emotional character to the verbs less frequently than the middle (12–15) and the older (16–19) groups. In the 8–11 group males rated the verbs as emotion-related less frequently than females. Results indicate that processing verbal concepts as emotion-related develops gradually, and after 12–15 is rather stable. The age of acquisition (AoA) develops late: the older (16–19) had a higher awareness in reporting that they learnt the verbs earlier as compared to the estimations made by the younger (8–11 and 12–15). AoA positively correlated with attribution of emotion relatedness meaning that emotion-related verbs were learned later. Arousal was comparable across ages. Also it increased when attributing motor relatedness to verbs and decreased when attributing emotion relatedness. Reporting the verbs' affective valence (happy vs. unhappy) changes with age: younger (8–11) judged the verbs generally more “happy” than both the older groups. Instead the middle and the older group did not show differences. Happiness increased when processing the verbs as motor related and decreased when processing the verbs as emotion related. Age affected imageability: the younger (8–11) considered the verbs easier to be imagined than the two older groups, suggesting that at this age vividness estimation is still rough, while after 12–15 is stable as the 12–15 and 15–19 group did not differ. Imageability predicted arousal, AoA, emotion- and motor-relatedness indicating that this index influences the way verbs are processed. Imageability was positively correlated to emotion relatedness, indicating

  11. Verb Argument Structure in Narrative Speech: Mining AphasiaBank.

    PubMed

    Malyutina, Svetlana; Richardson, Jessica D; den Ouden, Dirk B

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has found that verb argument structure characteristics (such as the number of participant roles in the situation described by the verb) can facilitate or hinder aphasic language production and comprehension in constrained laboratory tasks. This research needs to be complemented by studies of narrative or unrestricted speech, which can capture the spontaneous selection of verbs and grammatical structures by people with aphasia and may be particularly sensitive to the relative cost of access to different verb types in more natural conditions. Focusing on the number of subcategorization options, we investigated verb argument structure effects in a large sample of narratives from AphasiaBank, by speakers with aphasia, as well as control speakers without brain damage. Verb argument structure complexity did not negatively affect verb selection in any type of aphasia. However, people with aphasia, particularly with Broca's aphasia, used verbs in less complex and diverse ways, with fewer arguments and less diverse subcategorization options. In line with previous research, this suggests that deficits in verb use in aphasia are likely due to difficulties with the online application of or partial damage to verb argument structure knowledge.

  12. MSNJ Auxiliary: responsibility on water.

    PubMed

    Propsner, N M

    1992-07-01

    The Medical Society of New Jersey Auxiliary kicked off its Responsibility on Water program. Designed and planned by MSNJA President Marion H. Geib, the program is intended to make children and adults aware of the deadly mix of alcohol and water activities.

  13. 33 CFR 5.47 - Auxiliary ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Auxiliary ensign is medium blue (Coast Guard blue) with a broad diagonal white slash upon which a matching blue Coast Guard Auxiliary emblem is centered. The white slash shall be at a 70 degree angle, rising away from the hoist. (c) The Auxiliary emblem consists of a disk with the shield of the Coat...

  14. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  17. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  18. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary facilities. 57.6161 Section 57.6161...-Underground Only § 57.6161 Auxiliary facilities. (a) Auxiliary facilities used to store explosive material near work places shall be wooden, box-type containers equipped with covers or doors, or...

  20. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  1. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  2. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  4. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  5. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  6. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  7. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  8. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  9. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  10. Objects, events and "to be" verbs in Spanish--an ERP study of the syntax-semantics interface.

    PubMed

    Leone-Fernandez, Barbara; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A

    2012-02-01

    In Spanish, objects and events at subject position constrain the selection of different forms of the auxiliary verb "to be": locative predicates about objects require "estar en", while those relating to events require "ser en", both translatable as "to be in". Subjective ratings showed that while the "object+ser+en" is considered as incorrect, the "event+estar+en" combination is also perceived as unacceptable but to a lesser degree. In an ERP study, we evaluated the impact of a purely semantic distinction (object versus events) on the subsequent processing of these auxiliary verbs followed by locatives in Spanish. For the "ser en" predicate, the P600 component was larger when the subject was an object than when it was an event. This P600 effect is consistent with an online repair of the defining predicate when it does not fit with the adequate semantic properties of the subject. On the other hand, for the "estar en" predicate, event subjects when compared to object subjects showed more positive ongoing amplitudes between 280 and 380 ms after the presentation of the "en" preposition, followed by a longer positive wave starting around 400 ms and lasting until 700 ms after the presentation of the following determiner, with central and frontal scalp distributions respectively. Thus, the different subject-predicate combinations, depending on the semantic features of the subjects, triggered syntactic reparatory processes at a structural level. These findings are consistent with an incremental interpretation of sentence meaning based on the interaction between syntactic and semantic information.

  11. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  12. Psych verb production and comprehension in agrammatic Broca's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Lee, Miseon

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the factors that affect agrammatic sentence production by testing eight agrammatic aphasic participants' comprehension and production of active and passive sentences using two types of English psych verbs, those with an Experiencer-marked subject (Subject-Experiencer (SubExp)) and those with an Experiencer-marked object (Object-Experiencer (ObjExp)). The Argument Structure Complexity Hypothesis (ASCH, [J. Neuroling. 16 (2003) 151]) posits that the verb (and sentence) production difficulties observed in agrammatic aphasia can be attributed, at least in part, to the argument structure properties of verbs, with verbs that are marked for more complex argument structure (in terms of the number and type of arguments) presenting greater difficulty than those with less complex argument structure entries. Based on previous linguistic analyses of psych verbs, ObjExp psych verbs are more complex than SubjExp verbs. Therefore, we predicted that the former would present greater production (but not comprehension) difficulty than the latter. Results showed above chance comprehension of all sentence types, with the exception of SubjExp passive constructions, in which the subject position is occupied by a non-Experiencer argument. In active sentence production, ObjExp verbs were more impaired than SubjExp verbs. However, the opposite pattern was noted for passive sentence production. While all participants had difficulty producing passive sentences of both types, they showed better performance on ObjExp verbs, as compared to SubjExp verbs, in which the Experiencer is in the subject position. Further, agrammatic aphasic speakers showed a preference for producing actives for SubjExp verbs and passives for ObjExp verbs, indicating that the thematic role requirements of selected verbs (e.g., Experiencer, Theme) influence production patterns, as they do in normal speakers. These data, as well as the error patterns seen in our patients, support the ASCH and suggest

  13. Contribution of motor representations to action verb processing.

    PubMed

    Andres, Michael; Finocchiaro, Chiara; Buiatti, Marco; Piazza, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological and brain imaging studies show a somatotopic activation of the premotor cortex while subjects process action verbs. This somatotopic motor activation has been taken as an indication that the meaning of action verbs is embedded in motor representations. However, discrepancies in the literature led to the alternative hypothesis that motor representations are activated during the course of a mental imagery process emerging only after the meaning of the action has been accessed. In order to address this issue, we asked participants to decide whether a visually presented verb was concrete or abstract by pressing a button or a pedal (primary task) and then to provide a distinct vocal response to low and high sounds played soon after the verb display (secondary task). Manipulations of the visual display (lower vs. uppercase), verb imageability (concrete vs. abstract), verb meaning (hand vs. foot-related), and response effector (hand vs. foot) allowed us to trace the perceptual, semantic and response stages of verb processing. We capitalized on the psychological refractory period (PRP), which implies that the initiation of the secondary task should be delayed only by those factors that slow down the central decision process in the primary task. In line with this prediction, our results showed that the time cost resulting from the processing of abstract verbs, when compared to concrete verbs, was still observed in the subsequent response to the sounds, whereas the overall advantage of hand over foot responses did not influence sound judgments. Crucially, we also observed a verb-effector compatibility effect (i.e., foot-related verbs are responded faster with the foot and hand-related verbs with the hand) that contaminated the performance of the secondary task, providing clear evidence that motor interference from verb meaning occurred during the central decision stage. These results cannot be explained by a mental imagery process that would deploy only

  14. Vacuuming with my mouth?: Children's ability to comprehend novel extensions of familiar verbs

    PubMed Central

    Seston, Rebecca; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Ma, Weiyi; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Can 6- and 8-year-olds (and adults) comprehend common instrument verbs when extended to novel situations? Participants heard eight unusual extensions of common verbs and were asked to paraphrase the verbs' meanings. Half of the verbs used were specified instrument verbs that include the name of the instrument used to perform the action (e.g., a vacuum is used to vacuum); the other half were open instrument verbs (e.g., write) whose function can be performed with a range of objects. Results suggest that children's ability to interpret verb extensions increases with age, that open instrument verb extensions were more difficult to comprehend than specified instrument verb extensions and that performance on verb extension correlates with scores on a standardized test of language acquisition. Verb knowledge continues to develop well beyond the preschool years. PMID:20161104

  15. A Conceptual Approach to the Instruction of Phrasal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Phrasal verbs present numerous challenges to second language learners of English, who often view verb + particle combinations as random (Side, 1990). This article proposes a pedagogical approach that focuses on particles as a means of spotlighting systematicity within this traditionally problematic area of English vocabulary. Informed by cognitive…

  16. Learning to Construct Verbs in Navajo and Quechua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Ellen H.; Saville-Troike, Muriel

    2002-01-01

    Navajo and Quechua, both languages with a highly complex morphology, provide intriguing insights into the acquisition of inflectional systems. The development of the verb in the two languages is especially interesting, since the morphology encodes diverse grammatical notions, with the complex verb often constituting the entire sentence. While the…

  17. Psych verbs, the linking problem, and the acquisition of language.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Joshua K; O'Donnell, Timothy J; Sudo, Yasutada; Uruwashi, Miki; Lee, Miseon; Snedeker, Jesse

    2016-12-01

    In acquiring language, children must learn to appropriately place the different participants of an event (e.g., causal agent, affected entity) into the correct syntactic positions (e.g., subject, object) so that listeners will know who did what to whom. While many of these mappings can be characterized by broad generalizations, both within and across languages (e.g., semantic agents tend to be mapped onto syntactic subjects), not all verbs fit neatly into these generalizations. One particularly striking example is verbs of psychological state: The experiencer of the state can appear as either the subject (Agnes fears/hates/loves Bartholomew) or the direct object (Agnes frightens/angers/delights Bartholomew). The present studies explore whether this apparent variability in subject/object mapping may actually result from differences in these verbs' underlying meanings. Specifically, we suggest that verbs like fear describe a habitual attitude towards some entity whereas verbs like frighten describe an externally caused emotional episode. We find that this distinction systematically characterizes verbs in English, Mandarin, and Korean. This pattern is generalized to novel verbs by adults in English, Japanese, and Russian, and even by English-speaking children who are just beginning to acquire psych verbs. This results support a broad role for systematic mappings between semantics and syntax in language acquisition.

  18. Cerebellum engages in automation of verb-generation skill.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Paula; Weng, Xuchu; Bandettini, Peter A

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown cerebellar involvement in item-specific association, a form of explicit learning. However, very few have demonstrated cerebellar participation in automation of non-motor cognitive tasks. Applying fMRI to a repeated verb-generation task, we sought to distinguish cerebellar involvement in learning of item-specific noun-verb association and automation of verb generation skill. The same set of nouns was repeated in six verb-generation blocks so that subjects practiced generating verbs for the nouns. The practice was followed by a novel block with a different set of nouns. The cerebellar vermis (IV/V) and the right cerebellar lobule VI showed decreased activation following practice; activation in the right cerebellar Crus I was significantly lower in the novel challenge than in the initial verb-generation task. Furthermore, activation in this region during well-practiced blocks strongly correlated with improvement of behavioral performance in both the well-practiced and the novel blocks, suggesting its role in the learning of general mental skills not specific to the practiced noun-verb pairs. Therefore, the cerebellum processes both explicit verbal associative learning and automation of cognitive tasks. Different cerebellar regions predominate in this processing: lobule VI during the acquisition of item-specific association, and Crus I during automation of verb-generation skills through practice.

  19. Silent Movies: A Digitized Video Approach to the Russian Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkes, Lisa A.

    A HyperCard stack using digitized video to provide students of Russian with meaningful exercise in the use of verbal aspect and verbs of motion and position is described. Several problems presented by the Russian verb are defined. Examples of traditional textbook exercises are presented--translations, fill-ins, and picture-based approaches, and…

  20. Getting on Top of Idiomatic Verbs. Tausend Wendungen im Kontext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitkreuz, Hartmut; Bosewitz, Rene

    English idioms are catalogued for German speakers. The guide is designed to be used both as a reference and as a teaching tool. It is divided into sections, each listing and defining common idioms using a number of English verbs, then presenting them in the context of dialogues. Most sections contain idioms for six or seven more common verbs, then…

  1. Nouns and Verbs: A Comparison of Definitional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Johnson, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation is a study of the definitional style of nouns and verbs in typically developing school-age children. A total of 30 children in upper-elementary grades provided verbal definitions for 10 common high-frequency nouns (e.g., apple, boat, baby) and 10 common high- frequency verbs (e.g., climb, sing, throw). All definitions…

  2. Giant Steps: A Game to Enhance Semantic Development of Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwisle, Doris R.; And Others

    The game "Giant Steps" was described. It was designed to aid children in the semantic development of verbs. The purpose of the experimental evaluation was to determine whether playing the game actually did influence the associative structure of those verbs and adverbs that are "guessed" words in the game. Third graders from two classrooms in an…

  3. Frequency of Verb Use in Young Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Bernstein Ratner, Nan

    2007-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that young children who stutter (CWS) tend to show depressed lexical performance relative to peers. Given the developmental literature as well as several studies of verb processing in individuals who stutter, verbs may pose a particular challenge for this group. The purpose of the present study was to examine…

  4. The Role of Semantic Features in Verb Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnotte, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the general hypothesis that, as for nouns, stable representations of semantic knowledge relative to situations expressed by verbs are available and accessible in long term memory in normal people. Regular associations between verbs and past tenses in French adults allowed to abstract two superordinate semantic features…

  5. The Timing of Verb Selection in Japanese Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momma, Shota; Slevc, L. Robert; Phillips, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Many influential models of sentence production (e.g., Bock & Levelt, 1994; Kempen & Hoenkamp, 1987; Levelt, 1989) emphasize the central role of verbs in structural encoding, and thus predict that verbs should be selected early in sentence formulation, possibly even before the phonological encoding of the first constituent (Ferreira, 2000).…

  6. Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Rapid Verb Generation in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weinborn, Michael; Posada, Carolina; O'Grady, Joy

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that nouns and verbs are processed within relatively separable semantic memory networks. Although abnormal semantic processing is a common feature of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, no prior studies have specifically examined the comparability of noun and verb generation deficits in schizophrenia. In the current study,…

  7. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  8. Instructional Architecture for Teaching Past and Past Participle Verb Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronnell, Bruce

    Noting that using correct verb forms is a problem for many elementary school students, and especially for those who are speakers of nonstandard English, this paper presents an instructional program for teaching past and past participle verb forms in writing to students in grade 3 through 6. The paper outlines the content of the instructional…

  9. Phrasal and Prepositional Verbs. Specialised Bibliography A14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This bibliography, which deals with phrasal and prepositional verbs in English, consists of three sections. The first section cites linguistic studies, while the second lists relevant articles. The third section cites textbooks that deal with the problems of teaching English verbs. Entries include both American and European publications, and most…

  10. The Semological Structure of the English Verbs of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegami, Yoshihiko

    Verbs of motion are understood in this paper as those verbs which refer to changes in locus. This definition is meant to exclude those cases in which only part of an object is moved, while the object as a whole remains in the same place ("swell,""expand,""stretch"). A discussion of this definition (Chapter 1) is…

  11. Comparing Nouns and Verbs in a Lexical Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordier, Francoise; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Rigalleau, Francois

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the…

  12. Verbs and Attention to Relational Roles in English and Tamil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethuraman, Nitya; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    English-learning children have been shown to reliably use cues from argument structure in learning verbs. However, languages pair overtly expressed arguments with verbs to varying extents, raising the question of whether children learning all languages expect the same, universal mapping between arguments and relational roles. Three experiments…

  13. Parallelism Effects and Verb Activation: The Sustained Reactivation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes underlying parallelism by evaluating the activation of a parallel element (i.e., a verb) throughout "and"-coordinated sentences. Four points were tested: (1) approximately 1,600ms after the verb in the first conjunct (PP1), (2) immediately following the conjunction (PP2), (3) approximately 1,100ms after the…

  14. Neural Correlates of Dutch Verb Second in Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Hoogduin, Hans; Stowe, Laurie A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2008-01-01

    Dutch speakers with agrammatic Broca's aphasia are known to have problems with the production of finite verbs in main clauses. This performance pattern has been accounted for in terms of the specific syntactic complexity of the Dutch main clause structure, which requires an extra syntactic operation (Verb Second), relative to the basic…

  15. The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;…

  16. The Nahuatl Verb "maka": A Cognitive Grammar Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuggy, David

    The verb stem "maka" ("give") in Nahuatl is unusual in its range of options with respect to transitivity. Like all transitive verb stems, it regularly occurs with an object and must do so, but it also appears in an unusually large number of constructions in which it has two objects. These constructions are examined within the…

  17. Action verb comprehension in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    York, Collin; Olm, Christopher; Boller, Ashley; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Haley, Jenna; Seltzer, Emily; Chahine, Lama; Woo, John; Rascovsky, Katya; McMillan, Corey; Grossman, Murray

    2014-06-01

    Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have a motor disorder and cognitive difficulties, including difficulty with action verbs. However, the basis for the action verb impairment is unknown. Thirty-six participants with ALS and 22 with Parkinson's disease (PD) were assessed on a simple, two-alternative forced-choice associativity judgment task, where performance was untimed and did not depend on motor functioning. We probed 120 frequency-matched action verbs, cognition verbs, concrete nouns and abstract nouns. Performance was related to T1 MRI imaging of gray matter atrophy. Patients with ALS were significantly impaired relative to healthy senior control participants only for action verbs. Patients with PD did not differ from controls for all word categories. Regression analyses related action verb performance in ALS to motor-associated cortices, but action verb judgments in PD were not related to cortical atrophy. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that action verb difficulty in ALS is related in part to the degradation of action-related conceptual knowledge represented in motor-associated cortex.

  18. Exploring Atypical Verb+Noun Combinations in Learner Technical Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzon Marco, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and…

  19. The Time Course of Verb Processing in Dutch Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lewis P.; Wester, Femke; Swinney, David A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2012-01-01

    The verb has traditionally been characterized as the central element in a sentence. Nevertheless, the exact role of the verb during the actual ongoing comprehension of a sentence as it unfolds in time remains largely unknown. This paper reports the results of two Cross-Modal Lexical Priming (CMLP) experiments detailing the pattern of verb priming during on-line processing of Dutch sentences. Results are contrasted with data from a third CMLP experiment on priming of nouns in similar sentences. It is demonstrated that the meaning of a matrix verb remains active throughout the entire matrix clause, while this is not the case for the meaning of a subject head noun. Activation of the meaning of the verb only dissipates upon encountering a clear signal as to the start of a new clause. PMID:19452278

  20. Verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia: Encoding of tense features ⋆

    PubMed Central

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2008-01-01

    Across most languages, verbs produced by agrammatic aphasic individuals are frequently marked by syntactically and semantically inappropriate inflectional affixes, such as Last night, I walking home. As per language production models, verb inflection errors in English agrammatism could arise from three potential sources: encoding the verbs’ morphology based on temporal information at the conceptual level, accessing syntactic well-formedness constraints of verbal morphology, and encoding morphophonological form. We investigate these aspects of encoding verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia. Using three sentence completion experiments, it was demonstrated that production of verb inflections was impaired whenever temporal reference was involved; while morphological complexity and syntactic constraints were less likely to be the source of verb inflection errors in agrammatism. These findings are discussed in relation to current language production models. PMID:18392120

  1. Verbs: some properties and their consequences for agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Rispens, Judith; Ruigendijk, Esther; Rabadaán, Oneésimo Juncos; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    It has repeatedly been shown that agrammatic Broca's aphasics have serious problems with the retrieval of verbs on action naming tests (Miceli, Silveri, Villa & Caramazza, 1984; Kohn, Lorch & Pearson, 1989; Basso, Razzano, Faglioni & Zanobio, 1990; Jonkers, 1998; Kim & Thompson, 2000). Less attention has been paid to the production of verbs at the sentence level (but see Miceli, Mazzuchi, Menn & Goodglass, 1983; Thompson, Shapiro, Li & Schendel, 1995; Thompson, Lange, Schneider & Shapiro, 1997; Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 1998; Bastiaanse, Rispens & Van Zonneveld, 2000; Friedmann, 2000), although it has been mentioned that in agrammatic spontaneous speech verbs are lacking (Saffran, Berndt & Schwartz, 1989; Thompson et al., 1995, but see Bastiaanse & Jonkers, 1998). In this paper, three cross-linguistic studies are discussed to show that these problems with verbs have consequences for other grammatical morphemes and structures that have been mentioned to be impaired in agrammatic speech and that these consequences are different per language, depending on linguistic characteristics. The first study focuses on finiteness and compares the production of finite verbs in matrix and embedded clauses in Dutch and English, showing that a linguistic rule in Dutch (Verb Second), which does not exist in English, can explain the different performance of Dutch and English agrammatic Broca's aphasics. The second study focuses on determiners and (finite) verbs in German and shows that poor determiner production is directly related to poor verb production. The last study demonstrates that the ability to construct negative sentences is dependent on the language specific relation between verb movement and negation: Dutch and Norwegian agrammatics perform equally well on affirmative and negative sentences, whereas English and Spanish agrammatics are more impaired on negative sentences. Overall, these studies show that the problems agrammatics encounter with verbs and their properties

  2. Acquiring and Producing Sentences: Whether Learners Use Verb-Specific or Verb-General Information Depends on Cue Validity

    PubMed Central

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Rattinger, Michelle G.

    2016-01-01

    Learning to produce sentences involves learning patterns that enable the generation of new utterances. Language contains both verb-specific and verb-general regularities that are relevant to this capacity. Previous research has focused on whether one source is more important than the other. We tested whether the production system can flexibly learn to use either source, depending on the predictive validity of different cues in the input. Participants learned new sentence structures in a miniature language paradigm. In three experiments, we manipulated whether individual verbs or verb-general mappings better predicted the structures heard during learning. Evaluation of participants’ subsequent production revealed that they could use either the structural preferences of individual verbs or abstract meaning-to-form mappings to construct new sentences. Further, this choice varied according to cue validity. These results demonstrate flexibility within the production architecture and the importance of considering how language was learned when discussing how language is used. PMID:27047428

  3. Twenty-Five-Month-Old Children Do Not Have a Grammatical Category of Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olguin, Raquel; Tomasello, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A study of two year olds investigated the nature and development of children's early productivity with verb-argument structure and verb morphology. Results indicated that the children showed no signs of productive verb morphology, but they did use newly learned verbs in some creative ways involving nounlike uses and the appending of locatives.…

  4. Verb Deficits in Alzheimer's Disease and Agrammatism: Implications for Lexical Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mikyong; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the nature of verb deficits in 14 individuals with probable Alzheimer's Disease (PrAD) and nine with agrammatic aphasia. Production was tested, controlling both semantic and syntactic features of verbs, using noun and verb naming, sentence completion, and narrative tasks. Noun and verb comprehension and a grammaticality…

  5. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOEpatents

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  6. Learning to construct verbs in Navajo and Quechua.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Ellen H; Saville-Troike, Muriel

    2002-08-01

    Navajo and Quechua, both languages with a highly complex morphology, provide intriguing insights into the acquisition of inflectional systems. The development of the verb in the two languages is especially interesting, since the morphology encodes diverse grammatical notions, with the complex verb often constituting the entire sentence. While the verb complex in Navajo is stem-final, with prefixes appended to the stem in a rigid sequence, Quechua verbs are assembled entirely through suffixation, with some variation in affix ordering. We explore issues relevant to the acquisition of verb morphology by children learning Navajo and Quechua as their first language. Our study presents naturalistic speech samples produced by five Navajo children, aged 1;1 to 4;7, and by four Quechua-speaking children, aged 2;0 to 3;5. We centre our analysis on the role of phonological criteria in segmentation of verb stems and affixes, the production of amalgams, the problem of homophony, and the significance of distributional learning and semantic criteria in the development of the verb template. The phenomena observed in our data are discussed in light of several proposals, especially those of Peters (1983, 1995), Pinker (1984), Slobin (1985), and Hyams (1986, 1994).

  7. Expectation and Locality Effects in German Verb-final Structures.

    PubMed

    Levy, Roger P; Keller, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Probabilistic expectations and memory limitations are central factors governing the real-time comprehension of natural language, but how the two factors interact remains poorly understood. One respect in which the two factors have come into theoretical conflict is the documentation of both locality effects, in which more dependents preceding a governing verb increase processing difficulty at the verb, and anti-locality effects, in which more preceding dependents facilitate processing at the verb. However, no controlled study has previously demonstrated both locality and anti-locality effects in the same type of dependency relation within the same language. Additionally, many previous demonstrations of anti-locality effects have been potentially confounded with lexical identity, plausibility, and sentence position. Here, we provide new evidence of both locality and anti-locality effects in the same type of dependency relation in a single language-verb-final constructions in German-while controlling for lexical identity, plausibility, and sentence position. In main clauses, we find clear anti-locality effects, with the presence of a preceding dative argument facilitating processing at the final verb; in subject-extracted relative clauses with identical linear ordering of verbal dependents, we find both anti-locality and locality effects, with processing facilitated when the verb is preceded by a dative argument alone, but hindered when the verb is preceded by both the dative argument and an adjunct. These results indicate that both expectations and memory limitations need to be accounted for in any complete theory of online syntactic comprehension.

  8. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-01-01

    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  9. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 1: Auxiliary BE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theakston, Anna L.; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The question of how and when English-speaking children acquire auxiliaries is the subject of extensive debate. Some researchers posit the existence of innately given Universal Grammar principles to guide acquisition, although some aspects of the auxiliary system must be learned from the input. Others suggest that auxiliaries can be…

  10. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  12. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  13. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  14. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  15. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign. 5... COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.48 Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign. (a) The Coast Guard Auxiliary Patrol Boat... this part. (b) The field of the Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign is white. A medium blue (Coast Guard...

  16. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign. 5... COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.48 Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign. (a) The Coast Guard Auxiliary Patrol Boat... this part. (b) The field of the Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign is white. A medium blue (Coast Guard...

  17. Syntactic generalization with novel intransitive verbs.

    PubMed

    Kline, Melissa; Demuth, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    To understand how children develop adult argument structure, we must understand the nature of syntactic and semantic representations during development. The present studies compare the performance of children aged 2;6 on the two intransitive alternations in English: patient (Daddy is cooking the food/The food is cooking) and agent (Daddy is cooking). Children displayed abstract knowledge of both alternations, producing appropriate syntactic generalizations with novel verbs. These generalizations were adult-like in both flexibility and constraint. Rather than limiting their generalizations to lexicalized frames, children produced sentences with a variety of nouns and pronouns. They also avoided semantic overgeneralizations, producing intransitive sentences that respected the event restrictions and animacy cues. Some generated semantically appropriate agent intransitives when discourse pressure favored patient intransitives, indicating a stronger command of the first alternation. This was in line with frequency distributions in child-directed speech. These findings suggest that children have early access to representations that permit flexible argument structure generalization.

  18. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A...

  19. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A...

  20. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A...

  1. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A...

  2. 47 CFR 73.759 - Auxiliary transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... auxiliary transmitters, a license may be issued provided that: (a) Auxiliary transmitters may be installed... purposes: (1) The transmission of the regular programs upon the failure of the main transmitters. (2) The transmission of regular programs during maintenance or modification work on the main transmitter,...

  3. Learning classification with auxiliary probabilistic information.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quang; Valizadegan, Hamed; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2011-01-01

    Finding ways of incorporating auxiliary information or auxiliary data into the learning process has been the topic of active data mining and machine learning research in recent years. In this work we study and develop a new framework for classification learning problem in which, in addition to class labels, the learner is provided with an auxiliary (probabilistic) information that reflects how strong the expert feels about the class label. This approach can be extremely useful for many practical classification tasks that rely on subjective label assessment and where the cost of acquiring additional auxiliary information is negligible when compared to the cost of the example analysis and labelling. We develop classification algorithms capable of using the auxiliary information to make the learning process more efficient in terms of the sample complexity. We demonstrate the benefit of the approach on a number of synthetic and real world data sets by comparing it to the learning with class labels only.

  4. New Developments in Auxiliary Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norreys, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The role of heating arising from the propagation of orthogonal petawatt-laser driven relativistic electron beams in dense plasma will be discussed. The energy cascade mechanism begins first with the rapid growth at 45 degrees to the two beams of electrostatic waves near the electron plasma frequency. These waves reach high amplitudes and break, which then results in the generation of a strongly driven turbulent Langmuir spectrum. Parametric decay of these waves, particularly via the modulational instability, then gives rise to a coupled turbulent ion acoustic spectrum. The resulting waves also give rise to ion heating through collisions via equilibration of both electrons and ions. In this talk, I will present the most recent analytic modelling, and particle-in-cell / Vlasov-Poisson simulation results from my team within Oxford Physics and the Central Laser Facility that explores the optimum parameter space for this process, focusing in particular on the requirements for auxiliary heating of the central hot spot in inertial confinement fusion target experiments. I will also describe new methods for hole-boring through the coronal plasma surrounding the fuel using strongly relativistic laser beams that demonstrates the strong suppression of the hosing instability under these conditions. Proof-of-concept experiments are under design for the Orion and OMEGA EP facilities.

  5. Tuneable Auxiliary Control Mechanisms For RUM Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Alhorn, Dean C.

    1995-01-01

    Tuneable auxiliary control mechanisms for rotating unbalanced-mass (RUM) actuators used to maximize scan amplitudes and/or minimize power consumption during changing conditions. This type of mechanism more sophisticated version of type of mechanism described in "Auxiliary Control Mechanisms for RUM Actuators" (MFS-28817). Torsional stiffness of torsionally flexible coupling made adjustable on command. Torsionally flexible coupling in tuneable version of auxiliary control mechanism adjustable by use of stepping-motor-driven worm-gear mechanism that varies bending length of flexible blade.

  6. One cutting plane algorithm using auxiliary functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabotin, I. Ya; Kazaeva, K. E.

    2016-11-01

    We propose an algorithm for solving a convex programming problem from the class of cutting methods. The algorithm is characterized by the construction of approximations using some auxiliary functions, instead of the objective function. Each auxiliary function bases on the exterior penalty function. In proposed algorithm the admissible set and the epigraph of each auxiliary function are embedded into polyhedral sets. In connection with the above, the iteration points are found by solving linear programming problems. We discuss the implementation of the algorithm and prove its convergence.

  7. Electric auxiliary power unit for Shuttle evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Doug; Weber, Kent; Scott, Walter

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter currently uses three hydrazine fueled auxiliary power units (APUs) to provide hydraulic power for the vehicle aerodynamic surface controls, main engine thrust vector control, landing gear, steering, and brakes. Electric auxiliary power units have been proposed as possible replacements to the hydrazine auxiliary power units. Along with the potential advantages, this paper describes an Electric APU configuration and addresses the technical issues and risks associated with the subsystem components. Additionally, characteristics of an Electric APU compared to the existing APU and the direction of future study with respect to the Electric APU is suggested.

  8. H(curl) Auxiliary Mesh Preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, T V; Pasciak, J E; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-08-31

    This paper analyzes a two-level preconditioning scheme for H(curl) bilinear forms. The scheme utilizes an auxiliary problem on a related mesh that is more amenable for constructing optimal order multigrid methods. More specifically, we analyze the case when the auxiliary mesh only approximately covers the original domain. The latter assumption is important since it allows for easy construction of nested multilevel spaces on regular auxiliary meshes. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions illustrate the optimal performance of the method.

  9. Syntax and semantics in the acquisition of locative verbs.

    PubMed

    Gropen, J; Pinker, S; Hollander, M; Goldberg, R

    1991-02-01

    Children between the ages of three and seven occasionally make errors with locative verbs like pour and fill, such as *I filled water into the glass and *I poured the glass with water (Bowerman, 1982). To account for this pattern of errors, and for how they are eventually unlearned, we propose that children use a universal linking rule called object affectedness: the direct object corresponds to the argument that is specified as 'affected' in some particular way in the semantic representation of a verb. However, children must learn which verbs specify which of their arguments as being affected; specifically, whether it is the argument whose referent is undergoing a change of location, such as the content argument of pour, or the argument whose referent is undergoing a change of state, such as the container argument of fill. This predicts that syntactic errors should be associated with specific kinds of misinterpretations of verb meaning. Two experiments were performed on the ability of children and adults to understand and produce locative verbs. The results confirm that children tend to make syntactic errors with sentences containing fill and empty, encoding the content argument as direct object (e.g. fill the water). As predicted, children also misinterpreted the meanings of fill and empty as requiring not only that the container be brought into a full or empty state, but also that the content move in some specific manner (by pouring, or by dumping). Furthermore, children who misinterpreted the verbs' meanings were more likely to make syntactic errors with them. These findings support the hypothesis that verb meaning and syntax are linked in precise ways in the lexicons of language learners.

  10. Ozonation of Common Textile Auxiliaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskender, Gulen; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Koyunluoglu, Sebnem; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Germirli Babuna, Fatos

    2016-10-01

    The treatability of four different commonly applied textile auxiliary chemicals, namely two tannin formulations (Tannin 1: a condensation product of aryl sulphonate; Tannin 2: natural tannic acid) and two biocidal finishing agents (Biocide 1: 2,4,4’-trichloro-2’- hydroxydiphenyl ether; Biocide 2: a nonionic diphenyl alkane derivative) with ozone was investigated. Increasing the ozone dose yielded higher COD removals for the natural tannin. Optimum ozone doses of 485 and 662 mg/h were obtained at a pH of 3.5 for natural and synthetic tannin carrying textile bath discharges, respectively. When the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0, a slight decrease in COD removal was observed for the natural tannin due to ozone selectivity towards its polyaromatic structure. The same increase in ozonation pH enhanced COD removals for the synthetic tannin as a result of enhanced ozone decomposition rendering free radical chain reactions dominant. Optimum ozone doses of 499 and 563 mg/h were established for Biocide 1 and 2, respectively. With the increase of ozonation, pH exhibited a positive influence on COD removals for both textile tannins. A substantial improvement in terms of TOC removals was observed as the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0 for the synthetic tannin, and from 7 to 12 for both textile biocides. Higher AOX removals were evident at pH 7 than at pH 12 for Biocide 1 as a result of the higher selectivity of the dehalogenation reaction at neutral pH.

  11. Approaches to verb subcategorization for biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, Thomas; Rimell, Laura; Verspoor, Karin; Korhonen, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Information about verb subcategorization frames (SCFs) is important to many tasks in natural language processing (NLP) and, in turn, text mining. Biomedicine has a need for high-quality SCF lexicons to support the extraction of information from the biomedical literature, which helps biologists to take advantage of the latest biomedical knowledge despite the overwhelming growth of that literature. Unfortunately, techniques for creating such resources for biomedical text are relatively undeveloped compared to general language. This paper serves as an introduction to subcategorization and existing approaches to acquisition, and provides motivation for developing techniques that address issues particularly important to biomedical NLP. First, we give the traditional linguistic definition of subcategorization, along with several related concepts. Second, we describe approaches to learning SCF lexicons from large data sets for general and biomedical domains. Third, we consider the crucial issue of linguistic variation between biomedical fields (subdomain variation). We demonstrate significant variation among subdomains, and find the variation does not simply follow patterns of general lexical variation. Finally, we note several requirements for future research in biomedical SCF lexicon acquisition: a high-quality gold standard, investigation of different definitions of subcategorization, and minimally-supervised methods that can learn subdomain-specific lexical usage without the need for extensive manual work.

  12. Context effects on verb production in specific language impairment (SLI): confrontation naming versus connected speech.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2014-11-01

    A handful of studies have shown that verbs are more vulnerable than nouns to retrieval deficits on picture-based naming tasks for children with specific language impairment (SLI). The aim of this study was to examine if the disproportionate verb as opposed to noun production deficit reported for naming is also found in connected speech. Sixteen children participated in the study: eight children diagnosed with SLI (mean age: 6:3 years) and eight typically language developing (TLD, mean age: 5:9 years) controls. Verb and noun production was measured in connected speech and compared to picture confrontation naming. Both groups of children showed a significant difficulty naming verbs compared to nouns. In contrast, they did not differ on the total number of both verb tokens and verb types produced in connected speech. The findings indicate that the previously reported verb retrieval difficulties in SLI are a product of the confrontation naming task demands rather than a true verb deficit.

  13. Does Variability Across Events Affect Verb Learning in English, Mandarin, and Korean?

    PubMed

    Childers, Jane B; Paik, Jae H; Flores, Melissa; Lai, Gabrielle; Dolan, Megan

    2016-07-25

    Extending new verbs is important in becoming a productive speaker of a language. Prior results show children have difficulty extending verbs when they have seen events with varied agents. This study further examines the impact of variability on verb learning and asks whether variability interacts with event complexity or differs by language. Children (aged 2½ to 3 years) in the United States, China, Korea, and Singapore learned verbs linked to simple and complex events. Sets of events included one or three agents, and children were asked to extend the verb at test. Children learning verbs linked to simple movements performed similarly across conditions. However, children learning verbs linked to events with multiple objects were less successful if those events were enacted by multiple agents. A follow-up study rules out an influence of event order. Overall, similar patterns of results emerged across languages, suggesting common cognitive processes support children's verb learning.

  14. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  15. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  16. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  17. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  18. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  19. Analysis of the "-sja" Passive of Russian Verbs of Governing and Wanting as a Conceptual Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Junghee

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation represents a study of the formation of "-sja" passives of Russian verbs of governing and wanting. I explore five imperfective verbs of governing: "zavedovat" "manage"; "komandovat" "command"; "pravit" "govern"; "rukovdit" "direct"; and "upravljat" "manage"; as well as four imperfective verbs of wanting: "iskat" "seek"; "trebovat"…

  20. The Input to Verb Learning in Mandarin Chinese: A Role for Syntactic Bootstrapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanne N.; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of syntax in verb learning in Mandarin Chinese, which allows pervasive ellipsis of noun arguments. Two questions were investigated using the Beijing corpus on CHILDES: (a) Does the input to young children manifest syntactic-semantic correspondences as needed for acquiring verb meanings? (b) Are verbs presented in…

  1. Doing More with Less: Verb Learning in Korean-Acquiring 24-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arunachalam, Sudha; Leddon, Erin M.; Song, Hyun-joo; Lee, Yoonha; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early word learning reveals that verbs present a unique challenge. While English-acquiring 24-month-olds can learn novel verbs and extend them to new scenes, they perform better in rich linguistic contexts (when novel verbs appear with lexicalized noun phrases naming the event participants) than in sparser linguistic contexts…

  2. Nouns before verbs in comprehension vs. production: the view from pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, B A

    2000-10-01

    This study examines pragmatic factors that bias English-speaking children to produce more of the nouns and fewer of the verbs that they know. If nouns are favoured for production, parents should elicit more nouns than verbs in child speech. If verb comprehension is favoured over verb production, parents should more often prompt children to produce an action than to produce a verb. Data from 44 parent-child (age 1;8) dyads in the New England directory of the CHILDES data base were analysed. Children produced more nouns than verbs but mothers produced more verbs than nouns. Speech act analyses indicate that mothers elicited noun production but rarely prompted children to produce verbs. Mothers more often prompted children to produce an action than to produce a verb, and verbs occurred most often in maternal speech acts used to elicit children's actions. Moreover, children comprehended many more verbs than they produced. These data suggest that production measures underestimate the frequency and significance of verb-learning in early lexical development.

  3. Gapping: Electrophysiological Evidence for Immediate Processing of ''Missing'' Verbs in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaan, Edith; Wijnen, Frank; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we use event related potentials (ERPs) to explore the time course of identification and resolution of verb gaps. ERPs were recorded while participants read sentences that contained a verb gap like "Ron took/sanded the planks, and Bill O the hammer"... Plausibility of the critical words ("hammer") that followed the verb gap was…

  4. Sensitivity to Verb Bias in American Sign Language-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anible, Benjamin; Twitchell, Paul; Waters, Gabriel S.; Dussias, Paola E.; Piñar, Pilar; Morford, Jill P.

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English are sensitive to the likelihood that a verb will appear in a specific subcategorization frame, known as "verb bias." Readers rely on verb bias to help them resolve temporary ambiguity in sentence comprehension. We investigate whether deaf sign-print bilinguals who have acquired English syntactic knowledge…

  5. Acquiring and Processing Verb Argument Structure: Distributional Learning in a Miniature Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Newport, Elissa L.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Adult knowledge of a language involves correctly balancing lexically-based and more language-general patterns. For example, verb argument structures may sometimes readily generalize to new verbs, yet with particular verbs may resist generalization. From the perspective of acquisition, this creates significant learnability problems, with some…

  6. Effects of Weight and Syntactic Priming on the Production of Cantonese Verb-Doubling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Elaine J.; Matthews, Stephen; Wong, Reace Wing Yan; Kwan, Stella Wing Man

    2011-01-01

    Verb-doubling, where a copy of the main verb occurs both before and after the direct object, is a structure commonly used in Chinese in sentences containing a frequency or duration phrase. In Cantonese, verb-doubling is highly optional and therefore problematic for existing syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic accounts of its distribution in…

  7. Rules and Construction Effects in Learning the Argument Structure of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine; Machobane, 'Malillo; Moloi, Francina

    2003-01-01

    Theorists of language acquisition have long debated the means by which children learn the argument structure of verbs (e.g. Bowerman, 1974, 1990; Pinker, 1984, 1989; Tomasello, 1992). Central to this controversy has been the possible role of verb semantics, especially in learning which verbs undergo dative-shift alternation in languages like…

  8. Prefixation of Simplex Pairs in Czech: An Analysis of Spatial Semantics, Distributive Verbs, and Procedural Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilchey, Christian Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines prefixation of simplex pairs. A simplex pair consists of an iterative imperfective and a semelfactive perfective verb. When prefixed, both of these verbs are perfective. The prefixed forms derived from semelfactives are labeled single act verbs, while the prefixed forms derived from iterative imperfective simplex verbs…

  9. Survival of the Strongest: Strong Verbs in the History of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branchaw, Sherrylyn Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The English strong verbs, throughout their history, have shown a tendency to be attracted into the large class of regular verbs. The retention of strong inflection for some verbs is a phenomenon that many scholars have sought to explain. The dissertation presents hypotheses that strong preterites have historically correlated with long vowels, and…

  10. The On-Line Processing of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Josee; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy; Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the on-line processing of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) constructions in two brain injured populations: Broca's and Anomic aphasics. VPE constructions are built from two simple clauses; the first is the antecedent clause and the second is the ellipsis clause. The ellipsis clause is missing its verb and object (i.e., its verb phrase…

  11. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  12. Auditory Verb Perception Recruits Motor Systems in the Developing Brain: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin Harman; Maouene, Josita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated neural activation patterns during verb processing in children, using fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Preschool children (aged 4-6) passively listened to lists of verbs and adjectives while neural activation was measured. Findings indicated that verbs were processed differently than adjectives, as the verbs…

  13. Lexical Analysis of the Verb "COOK" and Learning Vocabulary: A Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priyono

    2011-01-01

    English verbs have built-in properties that determine how they behave syntactically and generate appropriate meaning associated. With these inherent properties some verbs can fill in only in certain syntactic structures and some in others. The observation of the verb "COOK" using English corpus has revealed its lexical properties…

  14. Verb deficits in Alzheimer’s disease and agrammatism: Implications for lexical organization☆

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mikyong; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the nature of verb deficits in 14 individuals with probable Alzheimer’s Disease (PrAD) and nine with agrammatic aphasia. Production was tested, controlling both semantic and syntactic features of verbs, using noun and verb naming, sentence completion, and narrative tasks. Noun and verb comprehension and a grammaticality judgment task also were administered. Results showed that while both PrAD and agrammatic subjects showed impaired verb naming, the syntactic features of verbs (i.e., argument structure) influenced agrammatic, but not Alzheimer’s disease patients’ verb production ability. That is, agrammatic patients showed progressively greater difficulty with verbs associated with more arguments, as has been shown in previous studies (e.g., Kim & Thompson, 2000; Thompson, 2003; Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997), and suggest a syntactic basis for verb production deficits in agrammatism. Conversely, the semantic complexity of verbs affected PrAD, but not agrammatic, patients’ performance, suggesting “bottom-up” breakdown in their verb lexicon, paralleling that of nouns, resulting from the degradation or loss of semantic features of verbs. PMID:14698726

  15. A Minimal Rule Approach to Teaching First-Year Russian Conjugation and Verb Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, David K.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a modification of the two-stem approach to teaching conjugation and verb stress in Russian which eliminates dictionary look-up for forms not predictable from the infinitive. Appendix A is an outline of Russian conjugation and verb stress. Appendix B is a verb list from Kostomarov's "Russkij jazyk dlja vsex." (Author/LMO)

  16. Chinese Learners' Acquisition of English Verbs: A Corpus-Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Linxiao; Jo, Hie-myung

    2012-01-01

    Limited research has investigated advanced language learners' acquisition of English verbs. The current study examines and compares the acquisition pattern of English verbs among Chinese second language (L2) learners at both intermediate and advanced levels to answer the following questions: (1) Do L2 learners acquire regular verbs and irregular…

  17. Tlingit Verb Dictionary. Part 1, English--Tlingit; Part 2, Tlingit--English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Gillian L., Comp.; Naish, Constance M., Comp.

    This verb dictionary is divided into two main sections. The English-Tlingit section is organized by means of English headings or key words, followed by English meanings which convey the main sense of the Tlingit verb expression in question. A representation of the given Tlingit verb expression is provided, along with one or more examples of it in…

  18. Optional Opacity: A Syntactically-Based Analysis of Early Hebrew Verb Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustigman, Lyle

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to account for the distribution of finite versus non-finite verbs during a developmental period when children use both types of verb forms in contexts requiring finiteness. To meet this goal, longitudinal samples from three Hebrew-acquiring children (aged 1;4-2;6) are examined from the onset of verb production and across the…

  19. A Comparison of Two Theoretically Driven Treatments for Verb Inflection Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2008-01-01

    Errors in the production of verb inflections, especially tense inflections, are pervasive in agrammatic Broca's aphasia ("*The boy eat"). The neurolinguistic underpinnings of these errors are debated. One group of theories attributes verb inflection errors to disruptions in encoding the verb's morphophonological form, resulting from either a…

  20. Frame semantics-based study of verbs across medical genres.

    PubMed

    Wandji Tchami, Ornella; L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Grabar, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The field of medicine gathers actors with different levels of expertise. These actors must interact, although their mutual understanding is not always completely successful. We propose to study corpora (with high and low levels of expertise) in order to observe their specificities. More specifically, we perform a contrastive analysis of verbs, and of the syntactic and semantic features of their participants, based on the Frame Semantics framework and the methodology implemented in FrameNet. In order to achieve this, we use an existing medical terminology to automatically annotate the semantics classes of participants of verbs, which we assume are indicative of semantics roles. Our results indicate that verbs show similar or very close semantics in some contexts, while in other contexts they behave differently. These results are important for studying the understanding of medical information by patients and for improving the communication between patients and medical doctors.

  1. Verb aspect and the activation of event knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Todd R; Kutas, Marta; McRae, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The authors show that verb aspect influences the activation of event knowledge with 4 novel results. First, common locations of events (e.g., arena) are primed following verbs with imperfective aspect (e.g., was skating) but not verbs with perfect aspect (e.g., had skated). Second, people generate more locative prepositional phrases as completions to sentence fragments with imperfective than those with perfect aspect. Third, the amplitude of the N400 component to location nouns varies as a function of aspect and typicality, being smallest for imperfective sentences with highly expected locations and largest for imperfective sentences with less expected locations. Fourth, the amplitude of a sustained frontal negativity spanning prepositional phrases is larger following perfect than following imperfective aspect. Taken together, these findings suggest a dynamic interplay between event knowledge and the linguistic stream.

  2. Russian normative data for 375 action pictures and verbs.

    PubMed

    Akinina, Yulia; Malyutina, Svetlana; Ivanova, Maria; Iskra, Ekaterina; Mannova, Elena; Dragoy, Olga

    2015-09-01

    The present article introduces a Russian-language database of 375 action pictures and associated verbs with normative data. The pictures were normed for name agreement, conceptual familiarity, and subjective visual complexity, and measures of age of acquisition, imageability, and image agreement were collected for the verbs. Values of objective visual complexity, as well as information about verb frequency, length, argument structure, instrumentality, and name relation, are also provided. Correlations between these parameters are presented, along with a comparative analysis of the Russian name agreement norms and those collected in other languages. The full set of pictorial stimuli and the obtained norms may be freely downloaded from http://neuroling.ru/en/db.htm for use in research and for clinical purposes.

  3. Zur systematischen Behandlung von phrasal-prepositional verbs im Englischunterricht der Mittelund Oberstufe (On the Systematic Treatment of Phrasal-Prepositional Verbs in Teaching English at the Intermediate and Upper Levels)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saftien, Volker

    1975-01-01

    Proposes an intensive introductory period, attacking problems presented by these verbs, using a basic list of 60 verbs, to be learned in active and passive, and a subsequent treatment, lasting for years, integrating these verbs into the student's active use, plus acquisition of more such verbs. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  4. A delta configured auxiliary resonant snubber inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; McKeever, J.W.; Peng, F.Z. |

    1995-09-01

    A delta ({Delta}) configured auxiliary resonant snubber inverter is developed to overcome the voltage floating problem in a wye (Y) configured resonant snubber inverter. The proposed inverter is to connect auxiliary resonant branches between phase outputs to avoid a floating point voltage which may cause over-voltage failure of the auxiliary switches. Each auxiliary branch consists of a resonant inductor and a reverse blocking auxiliary switch. Instead of using an anti-paralleled diode to allow resonant current to flow in the reverse direction, as in the Y-configured version, the resonant branch in the {Delta}-configured version must block the negative voltage, typically done by a series diode. This paper shows single-phase and three-phase versions of {Delta}-configured resonant snubber inverters and describes in detail the operating principle of a single-phase version. The extended three-phase version is proposed with non-adjacent state space vector modulation. For hardware implementation, a single-phase 1-kW unit and a three-phase 100-kW unit were built to prove the concept. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed topology.

  5. Alternative auxiliary fields for chiral multiplets

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2009-12-15

    We study 3-form auxiliary field formulation for chiral multiplets in the Wess-Zumino model. The conventional auxiliary fields F and G are replaced by their Hodge duals K{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {sigma}} and H{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {sigma}} which are the field strengths of the 3-form potential auxiliary fields G{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}} and F{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}. Even though duality transformations connect these two formulations, there exist certain differences from the conventional formulation. When boundary conditions are taken into account, the field equations in the 3-form formulation are equivalent to the conventional ones, while our Lagrangian is not. We also show that the new field strengths acquire generalized Chern-Simons terms. The O'Raifeartaigh mechanism works for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking also in the 3-form auxiliary field formulation via the boundary conditions on the 3-form auxiliary fields.

  6. A Common Mechanism in Verb and Noun Naming Deficits in Alzheimer’s Patients

    PubMed Central

    Almor, Amit; Aronoff, Justin M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Gonnerman, Laura M.; Kempler, Daniel; Hintiryan, Houri; Hayes, UnJa L.; Arunachalam, Sudha; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of Alzheimer’s patients and elderly controls to name living and non-living nouns, and manner and instrument verbs. Patient’s error patterns and relative performance with different categories showed evidence of graceful degradation for both nouns and verbs, with particular domain specific impairments for living nouns and instrument verbs. Our results support feature-based, semantic representations for nouns and verbs and support the role of inter-correlated features in noun impairment, and the role of noun knowledge in instrument verb impairment. PMID:19699513

  7. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  8. Spoken verb processing in Spanish: An analysis using a new online resource

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Semilla M.; Bates, Elizabeth A.; Orozco-Figueroa, Araceli; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Verbs are one of the basic building blocks of grammar, yet few studies have examined the grammatical, morphological, and phonological factors contributing to lexical access and production of Spanish verb inflection. This report describes an online data set that incorporates psycholinguistic dimensions for 50 of the most common early-acquired Spanish verbs. Using this data set, predictors of response time (RT) from stimulus onset and mean differences at offset are examined. Native Spanish speakers, randomly assigned to one of two tasks, listened to prerecorded verbs and either repeated the verb (single word shadowing) or produced its corresponding pronoun. Factors such as stimulus duration, number of syllables, syllable stress position, and specific levels of initial phoneme facilitated both shadowing of a verb and production of its pronoun. Higher frequency verbs facilitated faster verb repetition, whereas verbs with alternative pronouns increased RT to pronoun production. Mean differences at offset (stimulus duration is removed) indicated that listeners begin speaking earlier when the verb is longer and multisyllabic compared to shorter, monosyllabic words. These results highlight the association between psycholinguistic factors and RT measures of verb processing, in particular, features unique to languages like Spanish, such as alternative pronoun and tense. PMID:23002318

  9. Production Latencies of Morphologically Simple and Complex Verbs in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2010-01-01

    There are several accounts of why some individuals with post-stroke aphasia experience difficulty in producing morphologically complex verbs. Although a majority of these individuals also produce syntactically flawed utterances, at least two accounts focus on word-level encoding operations. One account proposes a difficulty with rule-governed…

  10. Neural Dissociations between Action Verb Understanding and Motor Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, Roel M.; Toni, Ivan; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    According to embodied theories of language, people understand a verb like "throw", at least in part, by mentally simulating "throwing". This implicit simulation is often assumed to be similar or identical to motor imagery. Here we used fMRI to test whether implicit simulations of actions during language understanding involve the same cortical…

  11. Gauging the Effects of Exercises on Verb-Noun Collocations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, Frank; Demecheleer, Murielle; Coxhead, Averil; Webb, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary textbooks for English as a foreign language (EFL) and books for vocabulary study contain exercises with a focus on collocations, with verb-noun collocations (e.g. "make a mistake") being particularly popular as targets for collocation learning. Common exercise formats used in textbooks and other pedagogic materials…

  12. Two Classes of Transitive Verbs: Evidence from Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Grant Warren

    2011-01-01

    The unaccusativity hypothesis (Burzio 1986; Levin & Rappaport Hovav 1995; Perlmutter 1978) posits that intransitive verbs may be divided into two broad classes: unaccusatives, whose sole argument is an internal argument and unergatives, whose sole argument is an external argument. In this dissertation I explore the idea that there is a similar,…

  13. Verb Position and the Order of Adverbials in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, O. C., Jr.

    Recent work in word-order typology has demonstrated that the dominant order of verbs and objects (or complements) correlates well with the general ordering tendencies of languages. The work on German reported in this paper suggests, however, that certain traits, such as the order of adverbials, are influenced not only by general ordering…

  14. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  15. The Relation of Task to Performance in Testing Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradman, Harry L.; Hanania, Edith

    A study investigated the variability of language performance on different types of testing task, global versus discrete-focus. Three tests (cloze, multiple-choice, and fill-in-the-blank) were developed to measure learners' knowledge of five verb forms. The tests, containing corresponding items designed to elicit equivalent structures, were…

  16. Spelling of Inflected Verb Morphology in Children with Spelling Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauerwas, Laura Boynton; Walker, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-six children (ages 11-13) with spelling deficits, 31 younger spelling-level-matched children, and 31 age-matched children were asked to spell verbs with past tense and progressive markers in dictated sentences and list form. Children with spelling deficits had significant difficulty with inflections as well as spelling inflections and base…

  17. Verb Generation in Children and Adolescents with Acute Cerebellar Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, B.; Schoch, B.; Hein-Kropp, C.; Dimitrova, A.; Hovel, M.; Ziegler, W.; Gizewski, E. R.; Timmann, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine verb generation in a larger group of children and adolescents with acute focal lesions of the cerebellum. Nine children and adolescents with cerebellar tumours participated. Subjects were tested a few days after tumour surgery. For comparison, a subgroup was tested also 1 or 2 days before surgery. None…

  18. Differences in Two Sisters' Acquisition of First Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunwald, Susan R.

    This study examined prior qualitative differences in the process of the emergence of verb use in two sisters when they were each 12 to 24 months of age (the older sister is 2 years and 9 months older than the younger sister). Daily diaries on both children were kept by the mother, who noted emergent structure and vocabulary. Systematic Analysis of…

  19. Inservice Programs for Wyoming Education via Video--VERB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Coll. of Education.

    In cooperation with the Office of Extension Classes and the Continuing Education Program, the College has developed inservice teacher education courses utilizing video tapes and the Victor Electrowriter Remote Blackboard (VERB). These programs are offered for two semester units of graduate extension credit and include eleven 2 1/2-hour sessions.…

  20. Syntax and Semantics in the Acquisition of Locative Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gropen, Jess; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments were performed on the ability of children and adults to understand and produce locative verbs. Results confirm that children tend to make syntactic errors with sentences containing "fill" and "empty," encoding the content argument as direct object. (33 references) (JL)

  1. Verbs and Adjectives in Literary Japanese According to Suzuki Akira.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedell, George

    This paper presents two views on the categorization of Japanese nouns, verbs, and adjectives into form classes: the traditional view and a view set forth in the writing of Suzuki Akira. The fundamental issue here is the criterion for categorization. Is it the meaning of words, or is it their grammatical behavior that determines the system of…

  2. Particle Choices and Collocation in Cameroon English Phrasal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epoge, Napoleon

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of some phrasal verbs can be guessed from the meanings of the parts (to sit down = sit + down, run after = run + after) and the meaning of some others have to be learned (to put up (a visitor) = accommodate, to hold up = cause delay or try to rob someone) due to their syntactic and semantic complexities. In this regard, the syntactic…

  3. Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

  4. English-Learning Infants' Segmentation of Verbs from Fluent Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazzi, Thierry; Dilley, Laura C.; Jusczyk, Ann Marie; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie; Jusczyk, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments sought to extend the demonstration of English-learning infants' abilities to segment nouns from fluent speech to a new lexical class: verbs. Moreover, we explored whether two factors previously shown to influence noun segmentation, stress pattern (strong-weak or weak-strong) and type of initial phoneme (consonant or vowel), also…

  5. Developing Structural Specification: Productivity in Early Hebrew Verb Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustigman, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates acquisition of verb inflections by four monolingual Hebrew-acquiring children from middle-class backgrounds, audio-recorded in longitudinal, weekly samples at a mean age-range of between 18 and 26 months. Productive use of inflectional morphology is shown to manifest increasing structural specification, as a function of…

  6. Design tradeoffs of a reciprocating auxiliary power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renquist, Jacob Vinod

    This thesis presents a comparison of reciprocating auxiliary power units to conventional, gas turbine auxiliary power units. A metric of interest is created to represent the specific auxiliary power system weight including the prime mover, generator, gearbox, and fuel consumed. The metric of interest is used to compare the different auxiliary power unit technologies by incorporating detailed engine simulations, auxiliary power unit system weight modeling, and flight path-realized fuel consumption modeling. Results show that reciprocating auxiliary power units can be competitive with gas turbines in near-term, more-electric aircraft applications.

  7. 78 FR 27321 - Revision of Auxiliary Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... other administrative matters. These changes would address several problems common to Auxiliary units... Suits in Admiralty Act, the Admiralty Extension Act, and other matters related to non- contractual civil... (series)). Medals and awards are a matter of agency management and agency personnel, and therefore...

  8. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an...

  9. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Akasam, Sivaprasad; Johnson, Kris W.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Slone, Larry M.; Welter, James Milton

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  10. Ejector Noise Suppression with Auxiliary Jet Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Charles H.; Andersen, Otto P., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental program to reduce aircraft jet turbulence noise investigated the interaction of small auxiliary jets with a larger main jet. Significant reductions in the far field jet noise were obtained over a range of auxiliary jet pressures and flow rates when used in conjunction with an acoustically lined ejector. While the concept is similar to that of conventional ejector suppressors that use mechanical mixing devices, the present approach should improve thrust and lead to lower weight and less complex noise suppression systems since no hardware needs to be located in the main jet flow. A variety of auxiliary jet and ejector configurations and operating conditions were studied. The best conditions tested produced peak to peak noise reductions ranging from 11 to 16 dB, depending on measurement angle, for auxiliary jet mass flows that were 6.6% of the main jet flow with ejectors that were 8 times the main jet diameter in length. Much larger reductions in noise were found at the original peak frequencies of the unsuppressed jet over a range of far field measurement angles.

  11. The Changing Face of Auxiliary Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    With tuition on the rise, Auxiliary Services departments at a variety of colleges and universities are proving that they can innovate and still save their parent institutions cash. Primary areas of innovation include: (1) With advancements in technology, institutions are moving campus purchasing programs into the wireless space; (2) As junk mail …

  12. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage... constructed or mined-out to provide equivalent impact resistance and confinement. (b) The auxiliary...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage... constructed or mined-out to provide equivalent impact resistance and confinement. (b) The auxiliary...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage... constructed or mined-out to provide equivalent impact resistance and confinement. (b) The auxiliary...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage... constructed or mined-out to provide equivalent impact resistance and confinement. (b) The auxiliary...

  16. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  17. Window-mounted auxiliary solar heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K. G.; Herndon, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    System uses hot-air collectors, no thermal storage, and fan with thermostat switches. At cost of heating efficiency, unit could be manufactured and sold at price allowing immediate entry to market as auxiliary heating system. Its simplicity allows homeowner installation, and maintenance is minimal.

  18. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ensign is authorized to be flown on all Auxiliary Operational Facility vessels under orders. The penalty for the unauthorized flying of any ensign, flag or pennant of the Auxiliary is set forth in § 5.67...

  19. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ensign is authorized to be flown on all Auxiliary Operational Facility vessels under orders. The penalty for the unauthorized flying of any ensign, flag or pennant of the Auxiliary is set forth in § 5.67...

  20. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ensign is authorized to be flown on all Auxiliary Operational Facility vessels under orders. The penalty for the unauthorized flying of any ensign, flag or pennant of the Auxiliary is set forth in § 5.67...

  1. Effect of Constrained Arm Posture on the Processing of Action Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Masaaki; Stins, John F.; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that brain areas that are responsible for action planning and execution are activated during the information processing of action-related verbs (e.g., pick or kick). To obtain further evidence, we conducted three experiments to see if constraining arm posture, which could disturb the motor planning and imagery for that arm, would lead to delayed judgment of verbs referring to arm actions. In all experiments, native Japanese speakers judged as quickly as possible whether the presented object and the verb would be compatible (e.g., ball–throw) or not (e.g., ball–pour). Constrained arm posture was introduced to the task by asking participants to keep both hands behind their back. Two types of verbs were used: manual action verbs (i.e., verbs referring to actions performed on an object by a human hand) and non-manual action verbs. In contrast to our hypothesis that constrained arm posture would affect only the information processing of manual action verbs, the results showed delayed processing of both manual action and non-manual action verbs when the arm posture was constrained. The effect of constrained arm posture was observed even when participants responded with their voice, suggesting that the delayed judgment was not simply due to the difficulty of responding with the hand (i.e., basic motor interference). We discussed why, contrary to our hypothesis, constrained arm posture resulted in delayed CRTs regardless of the “manipulability” as symbolized by the verbs. PMID:28239336

  2. The Role of Input Frequency and Semantic Transparency in the Acquisition of Verb Meaning: Evidence from Placement Verbs in Tamil and Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how Tamil- and Dutch-speaking adults and four- to five-year-old children use caused posture verbs ("lay/stand a bottle on a table") to label placement events in which objects are oriented vertically or horizontally. Tamil caused posture verbs consist of morphemes that individually label the causal and result subevents ("nikka…

  3. Corpus Study of Verb Patterns of Unaccusative Verbs "Appear," "Happen" and "Occur" in L2 English Written by Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owada, Kazuharu

    2013-01-01

    There have been many studies on the acquisition of English unaccusative verbs which make use of learner corpora. Most of these studies have so far concluded that even advanced learners of English ungrammatically passivize unaccusative verbs and produce sentences such as "*The accident was happened" and "*The mobile phone was…

  4. When Verbs Collide: Papers from the Ohio State Mini-Conference on Serial Verbs (Columbus, Ohio, May 26-27, 1990). Working Papers in Linguistics No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brian D., Ed.; Zwicky, Arnold M., Ed.

    Papers from the conference on the occurrence of verbal constituents in series in certain languages, particularly pidgins and creoles, include the following: "What Are We Talking About When We Talk About Serial Verbs?" (Arnold M. Zwicky); "Serial Verb Constructions" (Pieter Seuren); "On the Definition and Distribution of…

  5. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recirculation of air. (b) If a deficiency exists in any auxiliary fan system, the deficiency shall be corrected... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and...

  6. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems...

  7. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems...

  8. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recirculation of air. (b) If a deficiency exists in any auxiliary fan system, the deficiency shall be corrected... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and...

  9. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a)...

  10. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  11. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  12. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  13. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  14. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  15. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  16. Neuromagnetic hand and foot motor sources recruited during action verb processing.

    PubMed

    Klepp, Anne; Weissler, Hannah; Niccolai, Valentina; Terhalle, Anselm; Geisler, Hans; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated sensorimotor involvement in the processing of verbs describing actions performed with the hands, feet, or no body part. Actual movements were used to identify neuromagnetic sources for hand and foot actions. These sources constrained the analysis of verb processing. While hand and foot sources picked up activation in all three verb conditions, peak amplitudes showed an interaction of source and verb condition at 200 ms after word onset, thereby reflecting effector-specificity. Specifically, hand verbs elicited significantly higher peak amplitudes than foot verbs in hand sources. Our results are in line with theories of embodied cognition that assume an involvement of sensorimotor areas in early stages of lexico-semantic processing, even for single words without a semantic or motor task.

  17. Imageability and semantic association in the representation and processing of event verbs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Kang, Chunyan; Guo, Taomei

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relative salience of imageability (the degree to which a word evokes mental imagery) versus semantic association (the density of semantic network in which a word is embedded) in the representation and processing of four types of event verbs: sensory, cognitive, speech, and motor verbs. ERP responses were recorded, while 34 university students performed on a lexical decision task. Analysis focused primarily on amplitude differences across verb conditions within the N400 time window where activities are considered representing meaning activation. Variation in N400 amplitude across four types of verbs was found significantly associated with the level of imageability, but not the level of semantic association. The findings suggest imageability as a more salient factor relative to semantic association in the processing of these verbs. The role of semantic association and the representation of speech verbs are also discussed.

  18. Noun versus verb emphasis in Italian mother-to-child speech.

    PubMed

    Camaioni, L; Longobardi, E

    2001-10-01

    This paper examines naturalistic adult-to-child speech produced by 15 Italian middle-class mothers to determine which specific patterns characterize linguistic input to children at 1;4 and 1;8. Since Italian is a pro-drop language, we expect that adult-to-child speech will show a bias towards a more salient semantic and morphological significance of verbs relative to nouns. We expect that verbs will more likely occupy the sentence-initial position, and have more morphological inflections relative to nouns. Mother-to-child speech was coded for type and token frequency, utterance position, and morphological variation of nouns and verbs. The results confirm our predictions. Namely, Italian-speaking mothers produced verb types and tokens more frequently than noun types and tokens, they placed verbs more frequently than nouns in salient utterance position, and they morphologically marked verb stems more than noun stems.

  19. The medical auxiliary in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, P C

    1973-05-05

    One of the steps taken by the government to break the cycle of poverty and ill-health in rural Malaysia is the establishment of a rural health service. Initially, the health unit served 50,000 people; it consisted of 1 main health center; 4 health subcenters, and 20 midwife stations. By the end of 1970, 44 main health centers, 180 health subcenters, and 943 midwife stations were in operation, creating a great demand for all types of health personnel: professional, paramedical, and auxiliary. Doctors are unevenly distributed in West Malaysia: in urban areas, the ratio of doctors to population is 1 to 1500; in rural areas, the ratio is 1 to 25,000. Paramedicals are unevenly distributed too. The scarcity of professionals in rural areas is attributed to professionals' demand for high salaries and the corresponding requirement of professional and social settings which rural areas cannot provide. The rural health unit utilized the tiered pyramidal system for staffing, with heavy reliance on auxiliary personnel. This system enabled the rapid expansion of rural health services, helping reach over a third of the population in just 15 years. As a consequence, infant, toddler and maternal mortality rates declined substantially. Traditional birth attendants, or kampong bidans, are currently being trained, on an experimental basis, simple principles of hygiene and family planning. With the enforcement of the Midwives Act in 1971, indigenous midwives have not been permitted to register as legitimate midwives and are now subject to supervision by health authorities. Future plans include retraining single-purpose midwives in child health and nursing, and giving all assistant nurses midwifery training. The aim is to make these 2 auxiliaries multipurpose community nurse-midwives. Experiences of developed countries show that demand for auxiliaries will continue to increase with the growth of professional personnel.

  20. When we think about thinking: The acquisition of belief verbs

    PubMed Central

    Papafragou, Anna; Cassidy, Kimberly; Gleitman, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Mental-content verbs such as think, believe, imagine and hope seem to pose special problems for the young language learner. One possible explanation for these difficulties is that the concepts that these verbs express are hard to grasp and therefore their acquisition must await relevant conceptual development. According to a different, perhaps complementary, proposal, a major contributor to the difficulty of these items lies with the informational requirements for identifying them from the contexts in which they appear. The experiments reported here explore the implications of these proposals by investigating the contribution of observational and linguistic cues to the acquisition of mental predicate vocabulary. We first demonstrate that particular observed situations can be helpful in prompting reference to mental contents, specifically, contexts that include a salient and/or unusual mental state such as a false belief. We then compare the potency of such observational support to the reliability of alternate or concomitant syntactic information (e.g., sentential complementation) in tasks where both children and adults are asked to hypothesize the meaning of novel verbs. The findings support the efficacy of false belief situations for increasing the saliency of mental state descriptions, but also show that syntactic information is a more reliable indicator of mentalistic interpretations than even the most cooperative contextual cues. Moreover, when syntactic and observational information sources converge, both children and simulated adult learners are vastly more likely to build conjectures involving mental verbs. This is consistent with a multiple-cue constraint satisfaction view of vocabulary acquisition. Taken together, our findings support the position that the informational demands of mapping, rather than age-related cognitive deficiency, can bear much of the explanatory burden for the learning problems posed by abstract words. PMID:17094956

  1. When we think about thinking: the acquisition of belief verbs.

    PubMed

    Papafragou, Anna; Cassidy, Kimberly; Gleitman, Lila

    2007-10-01

    Mental-content verbs such as think, believe, imagine and hope seem to pose special problems for the young language learner. One possible explanation for these difficulties is that the concepts that these verbs express are hard to grasp and therefore their acquisition must await relevant conceptual development. According to a different, perhaps complementary, proposal, a major contributor to the difficulty of these items lies with the informational requirements for identifying them from the contexts in which they appear. The experiments reported here explore the implications of these proposals by investigating the contribution of observational and linguistic cues to the acquisition of mental predicate vocabulary. We first demonstrate that particular observed situations can be helpful in prompting reference to mental contents, specifically, contexts that include a salient and/or unusual mental state such as a false belief. We then compare the potency of such observational support to the reliability of alternate or concomitant syntactic information (e.g., sentential complementation) in tasks where both children and adults are asked to hypothesize the meaning of novel verbs. The findings support the efficacy of false belief situations for increasing the saliency of mental state descriptions, but also show that syntactic information is a more reliable indicator of mentalistic interpretations than even the most cooperative contextual cues. Moreover, when syntactic and observational information sources converge, both children and simulated adult learners are vastly more likely to build conjectures involving mental verbs. This is consistent with a multiple-cue constraint satisfaction view of vocabulary acquisition. Taken together, our findings support the position that the informational demands of mapping, rather than age-related cognitive deficiency, can bear much of the explanatory burden for the learning problems posed by abstract words.

  2. Acquisition of the Argument-Structure of Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Mika

    The relationship between the realization of the argument-structure of a verb and its acquisition as a lexical item was investigated in a case study. The subject was a girl aged 2.3 years whose father was a native English-speaker and whose mother was a native Japanese speaker who also spoke English. The child had been born in the United States but…

  3. Comparing Different Models of the Development of Verb Inflection in Early Child Spanish

    PubMed Central

    Aguado-Orea, Javier; Pine, Julian M.

    2015-01-01

    How children acquire knowledge of verb inflection is a long-standing question in language acquisition research. In the present study, we test the predictions of some current constructivist and generativist accounts of the development of verb inflection by focusing on data from two Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 2;0 and 2;6. The constructivist claim that children’s early knowledge of verb inflection is only partially productive is tested by comparing the average number of different inflections per verb in matched samples of child and adult speech. The generativist claim that children’s early use of verb inflection is essentially error-free is tested by investigating the rate at which the children made subject-verb agreement errors in different parts of the present tense paradigm. Our results show: 1) that, although even adults’ use of verb inflection in Spanish tends to look somewhat lexically restricted, both children’s use of verb inflection was significantly less flexible than that of their caregivers, and 2) that, although the rate at which the two children produced subject-verb agreement errors in their speech was very low, this overall error rate hid a consistent pattern of error in which error rates were substantially higher in low frequency than in high frequency contexts, and substantially higher for low frequency than for high frequency verbs. These results undermine the claim that children’s use of verb inflection is fully productive from the earliest observable stages, and are consistent with the constructivist claim that knowledge of verb inflection develops only gradually. PMID:25760035

  4. Novel Noun and Verb Learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif,…

  5. Understanding and use of phrasal verbs and idioms in medical/nursing texts.

    PubMed

    Polackova, G

    2008-01-01

    Phrasal verbs and idioms are frequently used in everyday English. They are also used in more specific language as equivalents for special terms. The use of phrasal verbs and idioms by native patients and health care workers makes their communication easier and less confusing. Non-native medical workers often come across with English phrasal verbs (idioms) in authentic texts and communication. They should be able to recognize them and after analyzing their meaning include them into their own active vocabulary (Ref. 5).

  6. Hands typing what hands do: Action-semantic integration dynamics throughout written verb production.

    PubMed

    García, Adolfo M; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2016-04-01

    Processing action verbs, in general, and manual action verbs, in particular, involves activations in gross and hand-specific motor networks, respectively. While this is well established for receptive language processes, no study has explored action-semantic integration during written production. Moreover, little is known about how such crosstalk unfolds from motor planning to execution. Here we address both issues through our novel "action semantics in typing" paradigm, which allows to time keystroke operations during word typing. Specifically, we created a primed-verb-copying task involving manual action verbs, non-manual action verbs, and non-action verbs. Motor planning processes were indexed by first-letter lag (the lapse between target onset and first keystroke), whereas execution dynamics were assessed considering whole-word lag (the lapse between first and last keystroke). Each phase was differently delayed by action verbs. When these were processed for over one second, interference was strong and magnified by effector compatibility during programming, but weak and effector-blind during execution. Instead, when they were processed for less than 900ms, interference was reduced by effector compatibility during programming and it faded during execution. Finally, typing was facilitated by prime-target congruency, irrespective of the verbs' motor content. Thus, action-verb semantics seems to extend beyond its embodied foundations, involving conceptual dynamics not tapped by classical reaction-time measures. These findings are compatible with non-radical models of language embodiment and with predictions of event coding theory.

  7. Mapping nouns and finite verbs in left hemisphere tumors: a direct electrical stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Rofes, Adrià; Spena, Giannantonio; Talacchi, Andrea; Santini, Barbara; Miozzo, Antonio; Miceli, Gabriele

    2017-03-27

    Neurosurgical mapping studies with nouns and finite verbs are scarce and subcortical data are nonexistent. We used a new task that uses finite verbs in six Italian-speaking patients with gliomas in the left language-dominant hemisphere. Language-relevant positive areas were detected only with nouns in four patients, with both tasks yet in distinct cortical areas in one patient, and only with finite verbs in another patient. Positive areas and types of errors varied across participants. Finite verbs provide complementary information to nouns, and permit more accurate mapping of language production when nouns are unaffected by electrical stimulation.

  8. Do lemmas speak German? A verb position effect in German structural priming.

    PubMed

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was performed which varied syntactic structure, verb position (encoded by tense and aspect), and verb overlap. Abstract structural priming was found, both within and across verb position, but priming was larger when the verb position was the same between prime and target. Priming was boosted by verb overlap, but there was no interaction with verb position. The results can be explained by a lemma model where tense and aspect are linked to structural choices in German. Since the architecture of this lemma model is not consistent with results from English, a connectionist model was developed which could explain the cross-linguistic variation in the production system. Together, these findings support the view that language learning plays an important role in determining the nature of structural priming in different languages.

  9. Beyond Picture Naming: Norms and Patient Data for a Verb Generation Task**

    PubMed Central

    Kurland, Jacquie; Reber, Alisson; Stokes, Polly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study aimed to: 1) acquire a set of verb generation to picture norms; and 2) probe its utility as an outcomes measure in aphasia treatment. Method Fifty healthy volunteers participated in Phase I, the verb generation normative sample. They generated verbs for 218 pictures of common objects (ISI=5s). In Phase II, four persons with aphasia (PWA) generated verbs for 60 objects (ISI=10s). Their stimuli consisted of objects which were: 1) recently trained (for object naming; n=20); 2) untrained (a control set; n=20); or 3) from a set of pictures named correctly at baseline (n=20). Verb generation was acquired twice: two months into, and following, a six-month home practice program. Results No objects elicited perfect verb agreement in the normed sample. Stimuli with the highest percent agreement were mostly artifacts and dominant verbs primary functional associates. Although not targeted in treatment or home practice, PWA mostly improved performance in verb generation post-practice. Conclusions A set of clinically and experimentally useful verb generation norms was acquired for a subset of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set. More cognitively demanding than confrontation naming, this task may help to fill the sizeable gap between object picture naming and propositional speech. PMID:24686752

  10. The role of input frequency and semantic transparency in the acquisition of verb meaning: evidence from placement verbs in Tamil and Dutch.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne

    2011-06-01

    We investigate how Tamil- and Dutch-speaking adults and four- to five-year-old children use caused posture verbs ('lay/stand a bottle on a table') to label placement events in which objects are oriented vertically or horizontally. Tamil caused posture verbs consist of morphemes that individually label the causal and result subevents (nikka veyyii 'make stand'; paDka veyyii 'make lie'), occurring in situational and discourse contexts where object orientation is at issue. Dutch caused posture verbs are less semantically transparent: they are monomorphemic (zetten 'set/stand'; leggen 'lay'), often occurring in contexts where factors other than object orientation determine use. Caused posture verbs occur rarely in Tamil input corpora; in Dutch input, they are used frequently. Elicited production data reveal that Tamil four-year-olds use infrequent placement verbs appropriately whereas Dutch children use high-frequency placement verbs inappropriately even at age five. Semantic transparency exerts a stronger influence than input frequency in constraining children's verb meaning acquisition.

  11. The role of the input in the acquisition of third person singular verbs in English.

    PubMed

    Theakston, Anna L; Lieven, Elena V M; Tomasello, Michael

    2003-08-01

    During the early stages of language acquisition, children pass through a stage of development when they produce both finite and nonfinite verb forms in finite contexts (e.g., "it go there," "it goes there"). Theorists who assume that children operate with an abstract understanding of tense and agreement marking from the beginnings of language use tend to explain this phenomenon in terms of either performance limitations in production (e.g., V. Valian, 1991) or the optional use of finite forms in finite contexts due to a lack of knowledge that tense and agreement marking is obligatory (the optional infinitive hypothesis; K. Wexler, 1994, 1996). An alternative explanation, however, is that children's use of nonfinite forms is based on the presence of questions in the input ("Where does it go?") where the grammatical subject is immediately followed by a nonfinite verb form. To compare these explanations, 2 groups of 24 children aged between 2 years 6 months and 3 years were exposed to 6 known and 3 novel verbs produced in either declaratives or questions or in both declaratives and questions. The children were then questioned to elicit use of the verbs in either finite or nonfinite contexts. The results show that for novel verbs, the children's patterns of verb use were closely related to the patterns of verb use modeled in the language to which they were exposed. For known verbs, there were no differences in the children's use of individual verbs, regardless of the specific patterns of verb use modeled in the language they heard. The implications of these findings for theories of early verb use are discussed.

  12. A Comparative Study of the English Verbs "Say"/"Tell" and the Hebrew Words "Amar"/"Siper."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopher, H.

    1987-01-01

    Compares the use of the English verbs "say" and "tell" and the Hebrew verbs "amar" and "siper" and then examines the degree of correspondence between "say" and "amar" and between "tell" and "siper." (CB)

  13. A developmental shift from similar to language-specific strategies in verb acquisition: a comparison of English, Spanish, and Japanese.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Mandy J; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Imai, Mutsumi; Haryu, Etsuko; Vanegas, Sandra; Okada, Hiroyuki; Pulverman, Rachel; Sanchez-Davis, Brenda

    2010-03-01

    The world's languages draw on a common set of event components for their verb systems. Yet, these components are differentially distributed across languages. At what age do children begin to use language-specific patterns to narrow possible verb meanings? English-, Japanese-, and Spanish-speaking adults, toddlers, and preschoolers were shown videos of an animated star performing a novel manner along a novel path paired with a language-appropriate nonsense verb. They were then asked to extend that verb to either the same manner or the same path as in training. Across languages, toddlers (2- and 2.5-year-olds) revealed a significant preference for interpreting the verb as a path verb. In preschool (3- and 5-year-olds) and adulthood, the participants displayed language-specific patterns of verb construal. These findings illuminate the way in which verb construal comes to reflect the properties of the input language.

  14. Recurrent Neural Networks With Auxiliary Memory Units.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyong; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Quan; Yi, Zhang

    2017-03-21

    Memory is one of the most important mechanisms in recurrent neural networks (RNNs) learning. It plays a crucial role in practical applications, such as sequence learning. With a good memory mechanism, long term history can be fused with current information, and can thus improve RNNs learning. Developing a suitable memory mechanism is always desirable in the field of RNNs. This paper proposes a novel memory mechanism for RNNs. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) an auxiliary memory unit (AMU) is proposed, which results in a new special RNN model (AMU-RNN), separating the memory and output explicitly and 2) an efficient learning algorithm is developed by employing the technique of error flow truncation. The proposed AMU-RNN model, together with the developed learning algorithm, can learn and maintain stable memory over a long time range. This method overcomes both the learning conflict problem and gradient vanishing problem. Unlike the traditional method, which mixes the memory and output with a single neuron in a recurrent unit, the AMU provides an auxiliary memory neuron to maintain memory in particular. By separating the memory and output in a recurrent unit, the problem of learning conflicts can be eliminated easily. Moreover, by using the technique of error flow truncation, each auxiliary memory neuron ensures constant error flow during the learning process. The experiments demonstrate good performance of the proposed AMU-RNNs and the developed learning algorithm. The method exhibits quite efficient learning performance with stable convergence in the AMU-RNN learning and outperforms the state-of-the-art RNN models in sequence generation and sequence classification tasks.

  15. Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, John H.

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

  16. Hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of hydogen/oxygen (H/O) auxiliary propulsion system (APS) concepts and low thrust H/O rocket technology. A review of H/O APS studies performed for the Space Shuttle, Space Tug, Space Station Freedom, and Advanced Manned Launch System programs is given. The survey also includes a review of low thrust H/O rocket technology programs, covering liquid H/O and gaseous H/O thrusters, ranging from 6600 N to 440 mN thrust. Ignition concepts for H/O thrusters and high-temperature, oxidation-resistant chamber materials are also reviewed.

  17. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, R.; Wicklund, L.; Baughman, J.; Weary, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power units (APUs) provide hydraulic power for the Orbiter vehicle control surfaces (rudder/speed brake, body flap, and elevon actuation systems), main engine gimbaling during ascent, landing gear deployment and steering and braking during landing. Operation occurs during launch/ascent, in-space exercise, reentry/descent, and landing/rollout. Operational effectiveness of the APU is predicated on reliable, failure-free operation during each flight, mission life (reusability) and serviceability between flights (turnaround). Along with the accumulating flight data base, the status and results of efforts to achieve these long-run objectives is presented.

  18. Hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey is provided of hydrogen/oxygen (H/O) auxiliary propulsion system (APS) concepts and low thrust H/O rocket technology. A review of H/O APS studies performed for the Space Shuttle, Space Tug, Space Station Freedom, and Advanced Manned Launch System programs is given. The survey also includes a review of low thrust H/O rocket technology programs, covering liquid H/O and gaseous H/O thrusters, ranging from 6600 N (1500 lbf) to 440 mN (0.1 lbf) thrust. Ignition concepts for H/O thrusters and high temperature, oxidation resistant chamber materials are also reviewed.

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    SciTech Connect

    J. Weber

    2001-12-12

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market.

  20. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  1. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2014-12-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  2. Computer Simulation of Auxiliary Power Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    reverse side if necessary and iden~ffy by block number) gas turbine engine turbine engine computer programs auxiliary power unit aircraft engine starter ,i...printed to that effect . d. Turbines There are three choices for the turbine configuration, see Figure 2: 1) a one-stage turbine, 2) a two-stage turbine...07000 MAIN CO!RBUSTION EFF = .99500 DESIGN FUEL FLOW (LB/IHR) 150.00 MAIN COMB FUEL HEATING VALUE AT T4 FOR JP4 * 18400. COMB DISCHARGE TEMP

  3. Priming Nouns and Verbs: Differential Influences of Semantic and Grammatical Cues in the Two Cerebral Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arambel, Stella R.; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The current experiment investigated how sentential form-class expectancies influenced lexical-semantic priming within each hemisphere. Sentences were presented that led readers to expect a noun or a verb and the sentence-final target word was presented to one visual field/hemisphere for a lexical decision response. Noun and verb targets in the…

  4. The Production of Turkish Relative Clauses in Agrammatism: Verb Inflection and Constituent Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Tuba Yarbay; Aygen, Gulsat; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2008-01-01

    This study presents results from a sentence completion test that examines the production of finite main clauses and non-finite relative clauses in Turkish agrammatic speech. In main clauses, the verb is finite and all its constituents are in their base positions. In relative clauses, the verb is a participle and the NP undergoes overt movement to…

  5. Verb Selection and Past-Tense Morphology: Crystal's Criteria Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Research findings concerning verb-level influences on past-tense morphology carry implications for the careful selection of treatment targets. Using 6 of the broad criteria for "good verbs to choose" proposed by D. Crystal (1985) more than 25 years ago as a framework, this article summarizes some of the more recent research with a nod…

  6. The Emergence of Creole Subject-Verb Agreement and the Licensing of Null Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Miriam

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to resolve an outstanding question as to the most appropriate structural description of the relationship between subject and verb in Bislama (a Melanesian creole spoken in Vanuatu), discusses what the implications of this analysis might be for a Creole ontogeny, and attempts to unify this analysis to the verb system with the distribution…

  7. Syntactic Bootstrapping: A Partial Solution to the Induction Problem of Verb Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naigles, Letitia

    This experiment was designed to investigate the possibility that young children use syntax to constrain and focus verb meanings in their interpretations of novel scenes and novel verbs. Subjects were 24 children, 12 males and 12 females, of 23 to 27 months, all raised in English-speaking homes. Their mean productive vocabulary was 240 words. A…

  8. Spoken Verb Processing in Spanish: An Analysis Using a New Online Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Semilla M.; Bates, Elizabeth A.; Orozco-Fegueroa, Araceli; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Verbs are one of the basic building blocks of grammar, yet few studies have examined the grammatical, morphological, and phonological factors contributing to lexical access and production of Spanish verb inflection. This report describes an online data set that incorporates psycholinguistic dimensions for 50 of the most common early-acquired…

  9. Effects of Verb Semantics and Proficiency in Second Language Use of Constructional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Rah, Yangon

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the semantic heaviness of verbs (i.e., heavy or light verbs) and language proficiency on second language (L2) learners' use of constructional information in a sentence-sorting task and a corpus analysis. Previous studies employing a sentence-sorting task demonstrated that advanced L2 learners sorted English…

  10. The Use of Verb Information in Parsing: Different Statistical Analyses Lead to Contradictory Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennison, Shelia M.

    2009-01-01

    The research investigated how comprehenders use verb information during syntactic parsing. Two reading experiments investigated the relationship between verb-specific variables and reading time. These experiments were close replications of prior work; however, two statistical techniques were used, rather than one. These were item-by-item…

  11. Vestiges of "Nous" and the 1st Person Plural Verb in Informal Spoken French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coveney, Aidan

    2000-01-01

    Aims to find the extent to which subject clitic "nous" and 4th person verbs in French are used in a corpus of informal spoken language and to identify factors that may account for the productive use of nous +4p verb. (Author/VWL)

  12. Lexical Retrieval of Nouns and Verbs in a Sentence Completion Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Alyson D.; Maguire, Mandy J.; Naqvi, Fizza M.; Kim, Angela Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored noun and verb retrieval using a sentence completion task to expand upon previous findings from picture naming tasks. Participants completed sentences missing either a target noun or verb in the final position. Non-target responses were coded for substitution type, imageability and frequency. Like picture naming, nouns and verbs…

  13. Can We Separate Verbs from Their Argument Structure? A Group Study in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Sarah; Whitworth, Anne; Claessen, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Background: Given the integral role that verbs play in sentence production, understanding verb deficits is critical to clinical practice. Difficulties in sentence production are often directly related to an inability to retrieve argument structure information which, according to most theoretical accounts, is specified at a lexical level as part of…

  14. Cognate and Word Class Ambiguity Effects in Noun and Verb Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how noun and verb processing in bilingual visual word recognition are affected by within and between-language overlap. We investigated how word class ambiguous noun and verb cognates are processed by bilinguals, to see if co-activation of overlapping word forms between languages benefits from additional overlap within a…

  15. Clinical, Imaging and Pathological Correlates of a Hereditary Deficit in Verb and Action Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bak, Thomas H.; Yancopoulou, Despina; Nestor, Peter J.; Xuereb, John H.; Spillantini, Maria G.; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hodges, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Selective verb and noun deficits have been observed in a number of neurological conditions and their occurrence has been interpreted as evidence for different neural networks underlying the processing of specific word categories. We describe the first case of a familial occurrence of a selective deficit of verb processing. Father (Individual I)…

  16. Relations between Mental Verb and False Belief Understanding in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Him; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Yeung, William

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that linguistic forms that codify mental contents bear a specific relation with children's false belief understanding. These forms include mental verbs and their following complements, yet the two have not been considered separately. The current study examined the roles of mental verb semantics and the complement syntax…

  17. Neural Correlates of Comprehension and Production of Nouns and Verbs in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Xi; Bi, Yanchao; Han, Zaizhu; Zhu, Chaozhe; Law, Sam-Po

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a conjunction analysis between semantic relatedness judgment and semantic associate generation of Chinese nouns and verbs with concrete or abstract meanings. The results revealed a verb-specific task-independent region in LpSTG&MTG, and task-dependent activation in a left frontal region in semantic judgment and the left SMG in…

  18. The Effect of Context on the Processing of Type-Shifting Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Almeida, Roberto G.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research in lexical semantics has suggested that verbs such as begin and enjoy semantically select for a complement that denotes an activity or an event. When no such activity or event is specified in the form of a progressive or infinitival complement, as in John began (to read/reading) the book, the verb is said to ''coerce'' the NP…

  19. Complement Syntax, Mental Verbs, and Theory of Mind in Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddington, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in three parts. Each part analyzed theory of mind (ToM) development in children who are deaf in relation to mental verb and complement syntax understanding. In the first part, participants were given a series of tests for the purpose of correlational analysis of ToM, mental verb understanding, and memory for…

  20. A Common Mechanism in Verb and Noun Naming Deficits in Alzheimer's Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almor, Amit; Aronoff, Justin M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Gonnerman, Laura M.; Kempler, Daniel; Hintiryan, Houri; Hayes, UnJa L.; Arunachalam, Sudha; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of Alzheimer's patients and elderly controls to name living and non-living nouns, and manner and instrument verbs. Patients' error patterns and relative performance with different categories showed evidence of graceful degradation for both nouns and verbs, with particular domain-specific impairments for living nouns and…

  1. Early Verb Learning: How Do Children Learn How to Compare Events?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Parrish, Rebecca; Olson, Christina V.; Burch, Clare; Fung, Gavin; McIntyre, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    An important problem verb learners must solve is how to extend verbs. Children could use cross-situational information to guide their extensions; however, comparing events is difficult. In 2 studies, researchers tested whether children benefit from initially seeing a pair of similar events ("progressive alignment") while learning new…

  2. Development of Lexical and Syntactic Representations: The Acquisition of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurcanli, Ozge

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the acquisition of the interaction between lexicosemantic properties of verbs and syntax, focusing on symmetrical and asymmetrical verbs in different syntactic structures. Based on linguistic evidence, it is shown that two conceptual categories, Mutuality and Number, interact to give rise to four event-types: Single…

  3. Deaf Students' Knowledge of Subtle Lexical Properties of Transitive and Intransitive English Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Gerald P.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Albertini, John A.; Toscano, Rose Marie

    2013-01-01

    Deaf Learners' Acquisition of fundamental lexical properties of high-frequency English verbs related to transitivity and intransitivity was examined, including the subtle distinction between unergative and unaccusative verbs. A 140-item sentence acceptability rating scale was used to assess this lexical knowledge in deaf college students at two…

  4. Using Action Verbs as Learning Outcomes: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy in Measuring Instructional Objectives in Introductory Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; McClelland, Nate

    2013-01-01

    We used a set of action verbs based on Bloom's taxonomy to assess learning outcomes in two college-level introductory psychology courses. The action verbs represented an acronym, IDEA, comprising skills relating to identifying, defining or describing, evaluating or explaining, and applying psychological knowledge. Exam performance demonstrated…

  5. Treatment of Semantic Verb Classes in Aphasia: Acquisition and Generalization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Graham, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    Verb retrieval difficulties are common in aphasia; however, few successful treatments have been documented (e.g. Conroy, P., Sage, K., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2006). Towards theory-driven therapies for aphasic verb impairments: A review of current theory and practice. "Aphasiology", 20, 1159-1185). This study investigated the efficacy of a novel…

  6. Effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment in Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Babb, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase II treatment study examined the effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST) on individuals with moderate-to-severe aphasia. Research questions addressed (a) pre- to posttreatment changes and pretreatment to treatment phase changes on probe sentences containing trained verbs (e.g., "The carpenter is 'measuring' the…

  7. Imageability of Norwegian Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Lind, Marianne; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjorn-Helge

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study of imageability ratings for a set of 1599 Norwegian words (896 nouns, 483 verbs and 220 adjectives) from a web-based survey. To a large extent, the results are in accordance with previous studies of other languages: high imageability scores in general, higher imageability scores for nouns than for verbs, and an…

  8. Chinese L1 Children's English L2 Verb Morphology over Time: Individual Variation in Longterm Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Joanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti

    2016-01-01

    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a…

  9. Special Report: Conflicting Data on Spanish Intransitive Verbs in Two Leading Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teschner, Richard V.; Flemming, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a conflation of and a comparison between the 1,646 verbs the Royal Academy's "Diccionario de la lengua espanola" (Dictionary of the Spanish Language) classifies as solely or partly intransitive and the 1,382 verbs that are so classified by the "Pequeno Larousse ilustrado" (Illustrated Larousse Small Dictionary).…

  10. Early acquisition of verbs in Korean: a cross-linguistic study.

    PubMed

    Choi, S; Gopnik, A

    1995-10-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigates children's early lexical development in English and Korean, and compares caregivers' linguistic input in the two languages. In Study 1, the lexical development of nine Korean children was followed from 1;2 to 1;10 by monthly visits and maternal reports. These Korean data were compared to previously collected English longitudinal data. We find that: (1) Korean children as young as 1;3 use verbs productively with appropriate inflections. (2) Seven of the nine children show a verb spurt at around 1;7; for six of these children the verb spurt occurs before the noun spurt. No such early verb spurt is found in the English data. Unlike in English, both verbs and nouns in Korean are dominant categories from the single-word stage. (3) Korean children express language-specific distinctions of locative actions with verbs. Study 2, a crosslinguistic study of caregivers' input in English and Korean, shows that Korean mothers provide more action verbs but fewer object nouns than American mothers. Also, Korean mothers engage in activity-oriented discourse significantly more than American mothers. Our study suggests that verbs are accessible to children from the beginning, and that they may be acquired early in children who are encouraged to do so by their language-specific grammar and input.

  11. Competing Language Structures: The Acquisition of Verb Placement by Bilingual German-English Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopke, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the acquisition of verb placement by bilingual young children learning both German and English. Researchers recorded their speech monthly for three years and analyzed word order in the verb phrase. The children were actively involved in the process of determining structure in each language. Development of language output did not…

  12. Differential Effects of Language Attrition in the Domains of Verb Placement and Object Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the differential effects of language attrition in two diverse linguistic domains: verb placement and object expression. Linguistic phenomena at the syntax--discourse interface, such as object expression, have been shown to be more vulnerable to attrition than narrow syntax properties, such as verb placement. This study aims…

  13. Morphological processing in early bilinguals: an ERP study of regular and irregular verb processing.

    PubMed

    De Diego Balaguer, R; Sebastián-Gallés, N; Díaz, B; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2005-09-01

    Although the age of acquisition of a language has an effect when learning a second language, the similarity between languages may also have a crucial role. The aim of the present study is to understand the influence of this latter factor in the acquisition of morphosyntactic information. With this purpose, two groups of highly proficient early Catalan-Spanish bilinguals were presented with a repetition-priming paradigm with regular and irregular verbs of Spanish. Catalan and Spanish have a similar suffix (-o) for regular verbs and completely different alternations for irregular verbs. Two types of irregular verbs were studied (semi-regular verbs with a systematic diphthong alternation, sentir-siento, and verbs with idiosyncratic changes, venir-vengo). Regular verbs showed the same centro-parietal N400 priming effect in the second-language speakers (L2) as in primary-language (L1) speakers. However, differences between groups, in the ERP pattern and the topography of the N400 effect, were observed for irregular morphology. In L1 speakers, the N400 effect was attenuated only for semi-regular verbs. In contrast, L2 speakers showed a reduced N400 priming effect in both irregular contrasts. This pattern of results suggests that the similarity between languages may help for similar structures but may interfere for dissimilar structures, at least when the two languages have very similar morphological systems.

  14. Error Analysis of Support Verb Constructions in Written Spanish Learner Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salido, Marcos Garcia

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the use of support verb constructions (SVCs) in the written production of learners of Spanish. SVCs are lexical combinations whose content is similar to verbal predicates but is distributed between a verb and a noun, the noun being the carrier of the core lexical meaning of the predicate. Although there is considerable…

  15. Slowly but Surely: Adverbs Support Verb Learning in 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Arunachalam, Sudha; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2014-01-01

    To acquire the meanings of verbs, toddlers make use of the surrounding linguistic information. For example, 2-year-olds successfully acquire novel transitive verbs that appear in semantically rich frames containing content nouns ("The boy is gonna pilk a balloon"), but they have difficulty with pronominal frames ("He is gonna pilk…

  16. Twenty Four-Month-Old Infants' Interpretations of Novel Verbs and Nouns in Dynamic Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Lidz, Jeffrey L.; Braun, Irena E.; Lavin, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    The current experiments address several concerns, both empirical and theoretical in nature, that have surfaced within the verb learning literature. They begin to reconcile what, until now, has been a large and largely unexplained gap between infants' well-documented ability to acquire verbs in the natural course of their lives and their rather…

  17. Auditory Word Recognition of Nouns and Verbs in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Guardia-Olmos, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Nouns are fundamentally different from verbs semantically and syntactically, since verbs can specify one, two, or three nominal arguments. In this study, 25 children with Specific Language Impairment (age 5;3-8;2 years) and 50 typically developing children (3;3-8;2 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment of spoken language comprehension…

  18. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  19. Neural Mechanisms of Verb Argument Structure Processing in Agrammatic Aphasic and Healthy Age-Matched Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior peri-sylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions on the basis of argument structure complexity. The aim of…

  20. Mental Verb Input for Promoting Children's Theory of Mind: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gola, Alice Ann Howard

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study investigated the effect of the type of mental verb input (i.e., input with "think", "know", and "remember") on preschoolers' theory of mind development. Preschoolers (n = 72) heard 128 mental verb utterances presented in video format across four sessions over two weeks. The training conditions differed only in the way the…

  1. A Review of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment: Theory, Methods, Results, and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST), a relatively new treatment approach for anomia in people with aphasia. The VNeST protocol aims to promote generalization to increased lexical retrieval of untrained words across a hierarchy of linguistic tasks, including single-word naming of nouns and verbs, sentence production,…

  2. The PHaVE List: A Pedagogical List of Phrasal Verbs and Their Most Frequent Meaning Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier, Mélodie; Schmitt, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    As researchers and practitioners are becoming more aware of the importance of multi-word items in English, there is little doubt that phrasal verbs deserve teaching attention in the classroom. However, there are thousands of phrasal verbs in English, and so the question for practitioners is which phrasal verbs to focus attention upon. Phrasal verb…

  3. A Corpus-Based Study on Use of Copular Verbs by Chinese School Children Learning English in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Ailing

    2011-01-01

    By adopting corpus-based approach in this research study, the authors examined the various aspects of the copular verbs used by Chinese school children learning English. This study revealed that Chinese school children use copular verbs less frequently than native English speakers; they select a limited variety of copular verbs and less often use…

  4. An Image Is Worth a Thousand Words: Why Nouns Tend to Dominate Verbs in Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Colleen; Song, Lulu; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Lannon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Nouns are generally easier to learn than verbs (e.g. Bornstein, 2005; Bornstein et al., 2004; Gentner, 1982; Maguire, Hirsh-Pasek & Golinkoff, 2006). Yet, verbs appear in children's earliest vocabularies, creating a seeming paradox. This paper examines one hypothesis about the difference between noun and verb acquisition. Perhaps the advantage…

  5. Comparison of Different Test Construction Strategies in the Development of a Gender Fair Interest Inventory Using Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Eunike; Hell, Benedikt; Passler, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Three test construction strategies are described and illustrated in the development of the Verb Interest Test (VIT), an inventory that assesses vocational interests using verbs. Verbs might be a promising alternative to the descriptions of occupational activities used in most vocational interest inventories because they are context-independent,…

  6. Effects of Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus on Naming and Reading Nouns and Verbs in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Baldonero, Eleonora; Piano, Carla; Zinno, Massimiliano; Soleti, Francesco; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Albanese, Alberto; Daniele, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    An impairment for verbs has been described in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that a disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits may result in dysfunction of the neural systems involved in action-verb processing. A previous study suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during verb generation…

  7. Expanded functions for dental auxiliaries education in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Morris L

    2011-01-01

    Access to care continues to be an overriding issue in dentistry. The development of new categories of dental auxiliaries, such as mid-level providers, is a matter of concern to many states and the dental profession. Tennessee has an EFDA educational program for dental auxiliaries taught by dental school educators who have trained more than 300 auxiliary personnel in restorative and prosthetic dentistry. Graduates of this educational program have helped keep Tennessee's dentists well ahead of any increased demand for dental care.

  8. Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou

    2016-04-06

    Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.

  9. Auxiliary propulsion requirements for large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloy, J. E.; Smith, W. W.; Machles, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    An insight into auxiliary propulsion systems (APS) requirements for large space systems (LSS) launchable by a single shuttle is presented. In an effort to scope the APS requirements for LSS, a set of generic LSSs were defined. For each generic LSS class a specific structural configuration, representative of that most likely to serve the needs of the 1980's and 1990's was defined. The environmental disturbance forces and torques which would be acting on each specific structural configuration in LEO and GEO orbits were then determined. Auxiliary propulsion requirements were determined as a function of: generic class specific configuration, size and openness of structure, orbit, angle of orientation, correction frequency, duty cycle, number and location of thrusters and direction of thrusters and APS/LSS interactions. The results of this analysis were used to define the APS characteristics of: (1) number and distribution of thrusters, (2) thruster modulation, (3) thrust level, (4) mission energy requirements, (5) total APS mass component breakdown, and (6) state of the art adequacy/deficiency. Previously announced in STAR as N83-26922

  10. Auxiliary propulsion requirements for large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloy, J. E.; Smith, W. W.; Machles, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    An insight into auxiliary propulsion systems (APS) requirements for large space systems (LSS) launchable by a single shuttle is presented. In an effort to scope the APS requirements for LSS, a set of generic LSSs were defined. For each generic LSS class a specific structural configuration, representative of that most likely to serve the needs of the 1980's and 1990's was defined. The environmental disturbance forces and torques which would be acting on each specific structural configuration in LEO and GEO orbits were then determined. Auxiliary propulsion requirements were determined as a function of: generic class specific configuration, size and openness of structure, orbit, angle of orientation, correction frequency, duty cycle, number and location of thrusters and direction of thrusters and APS/LSS interactions. The results of this analysis were used to define the APS characteristics of: (1) number and distribution of thrusters, (2) thruster modulation, (3) thrust level, (4) mission energy requirements, (5) total APS mass component breakdown, and (6) state of the art adequacy/deficiency.

  11. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers' gender.

    PubMed

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker's gender, i.e., the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker's gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbors were upset because I (∗)stoleMASC plums') elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker's gender, a disagreement between a formally marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM (∗)stoleMASC plums) resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex.

  12. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers’ gender

    PubMed Central

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker’s identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker’s gender, i.e., the conceptual representation of gender, on subject–verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker’s gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker’s gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person ‘the neighbors were upset because I ∗stoleMASC plums’) elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker’s gender, a disagreement between a formally marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM ∗stoleMASC plums) resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex. PMID:26441771

  13. Developmental Coordination Disorder Affects the Processing of Action-Related Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Mirabella, Giovanni; Del Signore, Sara; Lakens, Daniel; Averna, Roberto; Penge, Roberta; Capozzi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Processing action-language affects the planning and execution of motor acts, which suggests that the motor system might be involved in action-language understanding. However, this claim is hotly debated. For the first time, we compared the processing of action-verbs in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a disease that specifically affects the motor system, with children with a typical development (TD). We administered two versions of a go/no-go task in which verbs expressing either hand, foot or abstract actions were presented. We found that only when the semantic content of a verb has to be retrieved, TD children showed an increase in reaction times if the verb involved the same effector used to give the response. In contrast, DCD patients did not show any difference between verb categories irrespective of the task. These findings suggest that the pathological functioning of the motor system in individuals with DCD also affects language processing. PMID:28119585

  14. Toddlers Default to Canonical Surface-to-Meaning Mapping When Learning Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Cristia, Alejandrina; Brusini, Perrine; Yuan, Sylvia; Fisher, Cynthia; Christophe, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has shown that toddlers readily encode each noun in the sentence as a distinct argument of the verb. However, languages allow multiple mappings between form and meaning which do not fit this canonical format. Two experiments examined French 28-month-olds’ interpretation of right-dislocated sentences (nouni-verb, nouni) where the presence of clear, language-specific cues should block such a canonical mapping. Toddlers (N = 96) interpreted novel verbs embedded in these sentences as transitive, disregarding prosodic cues to dislocation (Experiment 1) but correctly interpreted right-dislocated sentences containing well-known verbs (Experiment 2). These results suggest that toddlers can integrate multiple cues in ideal conditions, but default to canonical surface-to-meaning mapping when extracting structural information about novel verbs in semantically impoverished conditions. PMID:24117408

  15. Novel noun and verb learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif, 1996). The results also suggest that the input language uniquely shapes verb learning such that English-speaking children require grammatical support to learn verbs, whereas Chinese children require pragmatic as well as grammatical support. This research bears on how universally shared cognitive factors and language-specific linguistic factors interact in lexical development.

  16. Gavagai is as Gavagai does: learning nouns and verbs from cross-situational statistics.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Padraic; Mattock, Karen; Davies, Robert A I; Smith, Alastair C

    2015-07-01

    Learning to map words onto their referents is difficult, because there are multiple possibilities for forming these mappings. Cross-situational learning studies have shown that word-object mappings can be learned across multiple situations, as can verbs when presented in a syntactic context. However, these previous studies have presented either nouns or verbs in ambiguous contexts and thus bypass much of the complexity of multiple grammatical categories in speech. We show that noun word learning in adults is robust when objects are moving, and that verbs can also be learned from similar scenes without additional syntactic information. Furthermore, we show that both nouns and verbs can be acquired simultaneously, thus resolving category-level as well as individual word-level ambiguity. However, nouns were learned more quickly than verbs, and we discuss this in light of previous studies investigating the noun advantage in word learning.

  17. Normative study of the implicit causality of 100 interpersonal verbs in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Goikoetxea, Edurne; Pascual, Gema; Acha, Joana

    2008-08-01

    This study provides normative data on the implicit causality of interpersonal verbs in Spanish. Two experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1, ratings of the implicit causality of 100 verbs classified into four types (agent-patient, agent-evocator, stimulus-experiencer, and experiencer-stimulus) were examined. An offline task was used in which 105 adults and 163 children had to complete sentences containing one verb. Both age and gender effects in the causal biases were examined. In Experiment 2, reading times for sentences containing 60 verbs were analyzed. An online reading task was used in which 34 adults had to read sentences that were both congruent and incongruent with the implicit causality of the verb. The results support the effect of implicit causality in both adults and children, and they support the taxonomy used.

  18. The VERB campaign: applying a branding strategy in public health.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Lori D; Wong, Faye L; Price, Simani M; Nolin, Mary Jo

    2008-06-01

    A branding strategy was an integral component of the VERB Youth Media Campaign. Branding has a long history in commercial marketing, and recently it has also been applied to public health campaigns. This article describes the process that the CDC undertook to develop a physical activity brand that would resonate with children aged 9-13 years (tweens), to launch an unknown brand nationally, to build the brand's equity, and to protect and maintain the brand's integrity. Considerations for branding other public health campaigns are also discussed.

  19. Effects of verb meaning on lexical integration in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer E.; Ji, Woohyuk; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the time course of access to the lexical representations of verbs in agrammatic aphasia and its effects on the prediction and integration of the verb’s arguments. The present study used visual-world eyetracking to test whether verb meaning can be used by agrammatic aphasic individuals to predict and facilitate the integration of a subsequent noun argument. Nine adults with agrammatic aphasia and ten age-matched controls participated in the study. In Experiment 1, participants viewed arrays of four objects (e.g., jar, plate, stick, pencil) while listening to sentences containing either a restrictive verb that was semantically compatible only with the target object or an unrestrictive verb compatible with all four objects (e.g., Susan will open/break the jar). For both participant groups, the restrictive condition elicited more fixations to the target object immediately after the verb. Experiment 2 differed from Experiment 1 in that the auditory sentences presented were incomplete (e.g., Susan will open/break the…). For controls, restrictive verbs elicited more target fixations immediately after the verb; however, the effects of verb type were noted downstream from the verb for the aphasic listeners. The results suggest that individuals with agrammatic aphasia have preserved ability to use verb information to facilitate integration of overt arguments, but prediction of upcoming arguments is impaired. Impaired lexical-semantic prediction processes may be caused by damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been argued to support higher-level lexical processes. PMID:24092952

  20. Parallelism Effects and Verb Activation: The Sustained Reactivation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes underlying parallelism by evaluating the activation of a parallel element (i.e., a verb) throughout and-coordinated sentences. Four points were tested: (1) approximately 1,600ms after the verb in the first conjunct (PP1), (2) immediately following the conjunction (PP2), (3) approximately 1,100ms after the conjunction (PP3), (4) at the end of the second conjunct (PP4). The results revealed no activation at PP1, suggesting activation related to the initial presentation had decayed by this point; however, activation was observed at PP2, PP3, and PP4, suggesting the conjunction elicits reactivation that is sustained throughout the second conjunct. These findings support a specific hypothesis about parallelism, the sustained reactivation hypothesis. This hypothesis claims that, in conjoined structures, a cue that is associated with parallelism elicits the reactivation of material from the first conjunct and that this activation is sustained until integration with the second conjunct can be completed. PMID:19774464

  1. Superactivation of AMPA receptors by auxiliary proteins

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Anna L.; Plested, Andrew J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate receptors form complexes in the brain with auxiliary proteins, which control their activity during fast synaptic transmission through a seemingly bewildering array of effects. Here we devise a way to isolate the activation of complexes using polyamines, which enables us to show that transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) exert their effects principally on the channel opening reaction. A thermodynamic argument suggests that because TARPs promote channel opening, receptor activation promotes AMPAR-TARP complexes into a superactive state with high open probability. A simple model based on this idea predicts all known effects of TARPs on AMPA receptor function. This model also predicts unexpected phenomena including massive potentiation in the absence of desensitization and supramaximal recovery that we subsequently detected in electrophysiological recordings. This transient positive feedback mechanism has implications for information processing in the brain, because it should allow activity-dependent facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission through a postsynaptic mechanism. PMID:26744192

  2. LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G. F.; Mark, T. D.; Weber, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid oxygen (LOX)/hydrocarbon propulsion concepts for a "second generation' orbiter auxiliary propulsion system was evaluated. The most attractive fuel and system design approach identified, and the technology advancements that are needed to provide high confidence for a subsequent system development were determined. The fuel candidates were ethanol, methane, propane, and ammonia. Even though ammonia is not a hydrocarbon, it was included for evaluation because it is clean burning and has a good technology base. The major system design options were pump versus pressure feed, cryogenic versus ambient temperature RCS propellant feed, and the degree of OMS-RCS integration. Ethanol was determined to be the best fuel candidate. It is an earth-storable fuel with a vapor pressure slightly higher than monomethyl hydrazine. A pump-fed OMS was recommended because of its high specific impulse, enabling greater velocity change and greater payload capability than a pressure fed system.

  3. Lexical distributional cues, but not situational cues, are readily used to learn abstract locative verb-structure associations.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Katherine E; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben

    2016-08-01

    Children must learn the structural biases of locative verbs in order to avoid making overgeneralisation errors (e.g., (∗)I filled water into the glass). It is thought that they use linguistic and situational information to learn verb classes that encode structural biases. In addition to situational cues, we examined whether children and adults could use the lexical distribution of nouns in the post-verbal noun phrase of transitive utterances to assign novel verbs to locative classes. In Experiment 1, children and adults used lexical distributional cues to assign verb classes, but were unable to use situational cues appropriately. In Experiment 2, adults generalised distributionally-learned classes to novel verb arguments, demonstrating that distributional information can cue abstract verb classes. Taken together, these studies show that human language learners can use a lexical distributional mechanism that is similar to that used by computational linguistic systems that use large unlabelled corpora to learn verb meaning.

  4. A critique of Mark D. Allen's "the preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit".

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, David

    2008-07-01

    Allen [Allen, M. (2005). The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit. Brain and Language, 95, 255-264.] reports a single patient, WBN, who, during spoken language comprehension, is still able to access some of the syntactic properties of verbs despite being unable to access some of their semantic properties. Allen claims that these findings challenge linguistic theories which assume that much of the syntactic behavior of verbs can be predicted from their meanings. I argue, however, that this conclusion is not supported by the data for two reasons: first, Allen focuses on aspects of verb syntax that are not claimed to be influenced by verb semantics; and second, he ignores aspects of verb syntax that are claimed to be influenced by verb semantics.

  5. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  6. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  7. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  8. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  9. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  10. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Headlights and auxiliary lights. 229.125 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.125 Headlights and auxiliary lights. (a) Each lead locomotive used in road service... light is aimed parallel to the tracks. If a locomotive or locomotive consist in road service...

  11. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Headlights and auxiliary lights. 229.125 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.125 Headlights and auxiliary lights. (a) Each lead locomotive used in road service... light is aimed parallel to the tracks. If a locomotive or locomotive consist in road service...

  12. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Headlights and auxiliary lights. 229.125 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.125 Headlights and auxiliary lights. (a) Each lead locomotive used in road service.... (c) Headlights shall be provided with a device to dim the light. (d) Effective December 31,...

  13. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Headlights and auxiliary lights. 229.125 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.125 Headlights and auxiliary lights. (a) Each lead locomotive used in road service... light is aimed parallel to the tracks. If a locomotive or locomotive consist in road service...

  14. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  15. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  16. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  17. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  18. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  19. Auxiliary coil controls temperature of RF induction heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Auxiliary coil controls the temperature of an RF induction furnace that is powered by a relatively unstable RF generator. Manual or servoed adjustments of the relative position of the auxiliary coil, which is placed in close proximity to the RF coil, changes the looseness of the RF coil and hence the corresponding heating effect of its RF field.

  20. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Headlights and auxiliary lights. 229.125 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.125 Headlights and auxiliary lights. (a) Each lead locomotive used in road service.... (c) Headlights shall be provided with a device to dim the light. (d) Effective December 31,...

  1. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  17. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  18. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  19. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  20. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  1. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  2. Neural differences in the mapping of verb and noun concepts onto novel words.

    PubMed

    Mestres-Missé, Anna; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2010-02-01

    A dissociation between noun and verb processing has been found in brain damaged patients leading to the proposal that different word classes are supported by different neural representations. This notion is supported by the facts that children acquire nouns faster and adults usually perform better for nouns than verbs in a range of tasks. In the present study, we simulated word learning in a variant of the human simulation paradigm that provided only linguistic context information and required young healthy adults to map noun or verb meanings to novel words. The mapping of a meaning associated with a new-noun and a new-verb recruited different brain regions as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. While new-nouns showed greater activation in the left fusiform gyrus, larger activation was observed for new-verbs in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus (opercular part). Furthermore, the activation in several regions of the brain (for example the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral putamen) was positively correlated with the efficiency of new-noun but not new-verb learning. The present results suggest that the same brain regions that have previously been associated with the representation of meaning of nouns and verbs are also associated with the mapping of such meanings to novel words, a process needed in second language learning.

  3. Hebrew verbal passives in Later Language Development: the interface of register and verb morphology.

    PubMed

    Ravid, Dorit; Vered, Lizzy

    2016-11-17

    The current study examined the production of Hebrew verbal passives across adolescence as mediated by linguistic register and verb morphology. Participants aged eight to sixteen years and a group of adults were asked to change written active-voice sentences into corresponding passive-voice forms, divided by verb register (neutral and high), binyan pattern (Qal / Nif'al, Hif'il / Huf'al, and Pi'el / Pu'al), and verb tense (past and future tense). Results showed that Hebrew passive morphology is a very late acquisition, almost a decade later than in other languages, that passivizing neutral-register verbs was less challenging than high-register verbs, and that past tense verbs were easier to passivize than future tense verbs. An order of acquisition was determined among the three binyan pairs. The paper provides an account of these findings grounded in the event-telling role of Hebrew passives in discourse and the spurt of abstract, lexically specific vocabulary in Later Language Development.

  4. Doing More with Less: Verb Learning in Korean-Acquiring 24-Month-Olds.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Sudha; Leddon, Erin M; Song, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Yoonha; Waxman, Sandra R

    2013-01-01

    Research on early word learning reveals that verbs present a unique challenge. While English-acquiring 24-month-olds can learn novel verbs and extend them to new scenes, they perform better in rich linguistic contexts (when novel verbs appear with fully lexicalized noun phrases naming the event participants) than in sparser linguistic contexts (Arunachalam & Waxman, 2011; Waxman et al., 2009). However, in languages like Korean, where noun phrases are often omitted when their referents are highly accessible, rich linguistic contexts are less frequent. The current study investigates the influence of rich and sparse linguistic contexts in verb learning in Korean-acquiring 24-month-olds. In contrast to their English-acquiring counterparts, 24-month-olds acquiring Korean perform better when novel verbs appear in sparse linguistic contexts. These results, which provide the first experimental evidence on early verb learning in Korean, indicate that the optimal context for verb learning depends on many factors, including how event participants are typically referred to in the language being acquired.

  5. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery. PMID:27429808

  6. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, Kerstin; Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery.

  7. Combined convective and diffusive simulations: VERB-4D comparison with 17 March 2013 Van Allen Probes observations: VERB-4D

    SciTech Connect

    Shprits, Yuri Y.; Kellerman, Adam C.; Drozdov, Alexander Y.; Spence, Harlan E.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Baker, Daniel N.

    2015-11-19

    Our study focused on understanding the coupling between different electron populations in the inner magnetosphere and the various physical processes that determine evolution of electron fluxes at different energies. Observations during the 17 March 2013 storm and simulations with a newly developed Versatile Electron Radiation Belt-4D (VERB-4D) are presented. This analysis of the drift trajectories of the energetic and relativistic electrons shows that electron trajectories at transitional energies with a first invariant on the scale of ~100 MeV/G may resemble ring current or relativistic electron trajectories depending on the level of geomagnetic activity. Simulations with the VERB-4D code including convection, radial diffusion, and energy diffusion are presented. Sensitivity simulations including various physical processes show how different acceleration mechanisms contribute to the energization of energetic electrons at transitional energies. In particular, the range of energies where inward transport is strongly influenced by both convection and radial diffusion are studied. Our results of the 4-D simulations are compared to Van Allen Probes observations at a range of energies including source, seed, and core populations of the energetic and relativistic electrons in the inner magnetosphere.

  8. Combined convective and diffusive simulations: VERB-4D comparison with 17 March 2013 Van Allen Probes observations: VERB-4D

    DOE PAGES

    Shprits, Yuri Y.; Kellerman, Adam C.; Drozdov, Alexander Y.; ...

    2015-11-19

    Our study focused on understanding the coupling between different electron populations in the inner magnetosphere and the various physical processes that determine evolution of electron fluxes at different energies. Observations during the 17 March 2013 storm and simulations with a newly developed Versatile Electron Radiation Belt-4D (VERB-4D) are presented. This analysis of the drift trajectories of the energetic and relativistic electrons shows that electron trajectories at transitional energies with a first invariant on the scale of ~100 MeV/G may resemble ring current or relativistic electron trajectories depending on the level of geomagnetic activity. Simulations with the VERB-4D code including convection,more » radial diffusion, and energy diffusion are presented. Sensitivity simulations including various physical processes show how different acceleration mechanisms contribute to the energization of energetic electrons at transitional energies. In particular, the range of energies where inward transport is strongly influenced by both convection and radial diffusion are studied. Our results of the 4-D simulations are compared to Van Allen Probes observations at a range of energies including source, seed, and core populations of the energetic and relativistic electrons in the inner magnetosphere.« less

  9. A functional account of verb use in the early stages of English multiword development.

    PubMed

    Cameron-Faulkner, Thea

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigates flexibility of verb use in the early stages of English multiword development, and its relationship with patterns attested in the input. The data is taken from a case study of a monolingual English-speaking boy aged 2 ; 5-2 ; 9 and his mother while engaged in daily activities in the home. Data were coded according to Halliday's (1975) functional system. The findings suggest that early multiword verb use is functionally restricted and closely tied to verb use in the input.

  10. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  11. Word learning does not end at fast-mapping: evolution of verb meanings through reorganization of an entire semantic domain.

    PubMed

    Saji, Noburo; Imai, Mutsumi; Saalbach, Henrik; Zhang, Yuping; Shu, Hua; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the process through which children sort out the relations among verbs belonging to the same semantic domain. Using a set of Chinese verbs denoting a range of action events that are labeled by carrying or holding in English as a test case, we looked at how Chinese-speaking 3-, 5-, and 7-year-olds and adults apply 13 different verbs to a range of carrying/holding events. We asked how children learning Chinese originally divide and label the semantic space in this domain, how they discover the boundaries between different words, and how the meanings of verbs in the domain as a whole evolve toward the representations of adults. We also addressed the question of what factors make verb meaning acquisition easy or hard. Results showed that the pattern of children's verb use is largely different from that of adults and that it takes a long time for children to be able to use all verbs in this domain in the way adults do. We also found that children start to use broad-covering and frequent verbs the earliest, but use of these verbs tends to converge on adult use more slowly because children could not use these verbs as adults did until they had identified boundaries between these verbs and other near-synonyms with more specific meanings. This research highlights the importance of systematic investigation of words that belong to the same domain as a whole, examining how word meanings in a domain develop as parts of a connected system, instead of examining each word on its own: learning the meaning of a verb invites restructuring of the meanings of related, neighboring verbs.

  12. Aging assessment of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    ORNL is conducting aging assessments of auxiliary feedwater pumps to provide recommendations for monitoring and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation as well as to recommend maintenance and replacement practices. Cornerstones of these activities are the identification of failure modes and causes and ranking of causes. Failure modes and causes of interest are those due to aging and service wear. Design details, functional requirements, and operating experience data were used to identify failure modes and causes and to rank the latter. Based on this input, potentially useful inspection, surveillance, and condition monitoring methods that are currently available for use or in the developmental stage were examined and recommendations made. The methods selected are listed and discussed in terms of use and information to be obtained. Relationships between inspection, surveillance, and monitoring and maintenance practices entered prominently into maintenance recommendations. These recommendations, therefore, embrace predictive as well as corrective and preventative maintenance practices. The recommendations are described, inspection details are discussed, and periodic inspection and maintenance interval guidelines are given. Surveillance testing at low-flow conditions is also discussed. It is shown that this type of testing can lead to accelerated aging.

  13. Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit Flight Support Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guirl, Robert; Munroe, James; Scott, Walter

    1990-01-01

    This paper discussed the development of an integrated Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and Improved APU (IAPU) Flight Suuport Plan. The plan identifies hardware requirements for continued support of flight activities for the Space Shuttle Orbiter fleet. Each Orbiter vehicle has three APUs that provide power to the hydraulic system for flight control surface actuation, engine gimbaling, landing gear deployment, braking, and steering. The APUs contain hardware that has been found over the course of development and flight history to have operating time and on-vehicle exposure time limits. These APUs will be replaced by IAPUs with enhanced operating lives on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis during scheduled Orbiter modification periods. This Flight Support Plan is used by program management, engineering, logistics, contracts, and procurement groups to establish optimum use of available hardware and replacement quantities and delivery requirements for APUs until vehicle modifications and incorporation of IAPUs. Changes to the flight manifest and program delays are evaluated relative to their impact on hardware availability.

  14. The Jakobsonian One-Stem Analysis of the Russian Verb: Adaptations and Pedagogical Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Billie D.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of one-stem verb theory since Roman Jakobson's 1948 study of Russian conjugation is outlined, and adaptations of his one-stem conjugation methodology for current classroom use are discussed and compared. (MSE)

  15. The use of verb information in parsing: different statistical analyses lead to contradictory conclusions.

    PubMed

    Kennison, Shelia M

    2009-08-01

    The research investigated how comprehenders use verb information during syntactic parsing. Two reading experiments investigated the relationship between verb-specific variables and reading time. These experiments were close replications of prior work; however, two statistical techniques were used, rather than one. These were item-by-item correlations and participant-by-participant regression. In Experiment 1, reading time was measured using a self-paced moving window. In Experiment 2, eye movements were recorded during reading. The results of both experiments showed that the results of two types of statistical analyses support contradictory conclusions. The analyses involving participant-by-participant regression analyses provided no evidence for the early use of verb information in parsing and support syntax-first approaches to parsing. In contrast, the results of item-by-item correlation were consistent with the prior research, supporting the view that verb information can guide initial parsing decisions. Implications for theories of parsing are discussed.

  16. Imageability predicts the age of acquisition of verbs in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weiyi; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; McDonough, Colleen; Tardif, Twila

    2009-03-01

    Verbs are harder to learn than nouns in English and in many other languages, but are relatively easy to learn in Chinese. This paper evaluates one potential explanation for these findings by examining the construct of imageability, or the ability of a word to produce a mental image. Chinese adults rated the imageability of Chinese words from the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory (Tardif et al., in press). Imageability ratings were a reliable predictor of age of acquisition in Chinese for both nouns and verbs. Furthermore, whereas early Chinese and English nouns do not differ in imageability, verbs receive higher imageability ratings in Chinese than in English. Compared with input frequency, imageability independently accounts for a portion of the variance in age of acquisition (AoA) of verb learning in Chinese and English.

  17. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  18. Aspectual Features of the Verb and the Relative Position of the Locatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chung-yu

    1978-01-01

    Fundamental functional differences between preverbal and postverbal locatives in Mandarin Chinese are explored. The syntactic behaviors of the verbs are discussed in the context of compatibilities with locatives containing the element "zai." (Author/SW)

  19. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class.

  20. VERB - a social marketing campaign to increase physical activity among youth.

    PubMed

    Wong, Faye; Huhman, Marian; Heitzler, Carrie; Asbury, Lori; Bretthauer-Mueller, Rosemary; McCarthy, Susan; Londe, Paula

    2004-07-01

    The VERB campaign is a multiethnic media campaign with a goal to increase and maintain physical activity among tweens, or children aged nine to 13 years. Parents, especially mothers aged 29 to 46, and other sources of influence on tweens (e.g., teachers, youth program leaders) are the secondary audiences of the VERB initiative. VERB applies sophisticated commercial marketing techniques to address the public health problem of sedentary lifestyles of American children, using the social marketing principles of product, price, place, and promotion. In this paper, we describe how these four principles were applied to formulate the strategies and tactics of the VERB campaign, and we provide examples of the multimedia materials (e.g., posters, print advertising, television, radio spots) that were created.

  1. Solar powered actuator with continuously variable auxiliary power control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar powered system is disclosed in which a load such as a compressor is driven by a main induction motor powered by a solar array. An auxiliary motor shares the load with the solar powered motor in proportion to the amount of sunlight available, is provided with a power factor controller for controlling voltage applied to the auxiliary motor in accordance with the loading on that motor. In one embodiment, when sufficient power is available from the solar cell, the auxiliary motor is driven as a generator by excess power from the main motor so as to return electrical energy to the power company utility lines.

  2. Auxiliary signal processing system for a multiparameter radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Gray, G. R.; Caylor, I. J.

    1993-01-01

    The design of an auxiliary signal processor for a multiparameter radar is described with emphasis on low cost, quick development, and minimum disruption of radar operations. The processor is based around a low-cost digital signal processor card and personal computer controller. With the use of such a concept, an auxiliary processor was implemented for the NCAR CP-2 radar during a 1991 summer field campaign and allowed measurement of additional polarimetric parameters, namely, the differential phase and the copolar cross correlation. Sample data are presented from both the auxiliary and existing radar signal processors.

  3. A new type of auxiliary electrode for alkaline zinc cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowronski, J. M.; Reksc, Wl.; Jurewicz, K.

    1988-07-01

    Auxiliary electrodes having a low hydrogen overpotential were prepared by electrodepositing active nickel onto chemically-metallized polypropylene fiber. They effectively overcame the problem of zinc anode shape change in alkaline electrolyte by dissolving residual zinc, which remained on the anode plates due to passivation and exhaustion of cathode capacity. Residual discharge with such an auxiliary electrode restores the balance of charge efficiencies. Polypropylene-nickel auxiliary electrodes with a very long lifespan can be made in various shapes and sizes. Their polarization curves and the effect they have on the zinc anode discharge process are both illustrated.

  4. When Context Matters More than Language: Verb or Noun in French and Turkish Caregiver Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altinkamis, N. Feyza; Kern, Sophie; Sofu, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to study the respective role of language typology and context on the noun to verb asymmetry in caregiver speech. The speech of 20 French- and 20 Turkish-speaking mothers addressed to their children in two different situations (book-reading and toy-play) were analysed in terms of noun to verb ratio as well as in…

  5. Processing of Hand-Related Verbs Specifically Affects the Planning and Execution of Arm Reaching Movements

    PubMed Central

    Spadacenta, Silvia; Federico, Paolo; Gallese, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    Even though a growing body of research has shown that the processing of action language affects the planning and execution of motor acts, several aspects of this interaction are still hotly debated. The directionality (i.e. does understanding action-related language induce a facilitation or an interference with the corresponding action?), the time course, and the nature of the interaction (i.e. under what conditions does the phenomenon occur?) are largely unclear. To further explore this topic we exploited a go/no-go paradigm in which healthy participants were required to perform arm reaching movements toward a target when verbs expressing either hand or foot actions were shown, and to refrain from moving when abstract verbs were presented. We found that reaction times (RT) and percentages of errors increased when the verb involved the same effector used to give the response. This interference occurred very early, when the interval between verb presentation and the delivery of the go signal was 50 ms, and could be elicited until this delay was about 600 ms. In addition, RTs were faster when subjects used the right arm than when they used the left arm, suggesting that action–verb understanding is left-lateralized. Furthermore, when the color of the printed verb and not its meaning was the cue for movement execution the differences between RTs and error percentages between verb categories disappeared, unequivocally indicating that the phenomenon occurs only when the semantic content of a verb has to be retrieved. These results are compatible with the theory of embodied language, which hypothesizes that comprehending verbal descriptions of actions relies on an internal simulation of the sensory–motor experience of the action, and provide a new and detailed view of the interplay between action language and motor acts. PMID:22536380

  6. Native language influence on the distributive effect in producing second language subject-verb agreement.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoyan; Chen, Baoguo; Liang, Lijuan; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the distributive effect when producing subject-verb agreement in English as a second language (L2) when the participant's first language either does or does not require subject-verb agreement. Both Chinese-English and Uygur-English bilinguals were included in Experiment 1. Chinese has no required subject-verb agreement, whereas Uygur does. Results showed that the distributive effect was observed in Uygur-English bilinguals but not in Chinese-English bilinguals, indicating that this particular first language (L1) syntactic feature is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. Experiment 2 further investigated the matter by choosing Chinese-English participants with higher L2 proficiency. Still, no distributive effect was observed, suggesting that the absence of distributive effect in Chinese-English bilinguals in Experiment 1 was not due to low proficiency in the target language. Experiment 3 changed the way the stimuli were presented, highlighting the singular or distributive nature of the subject noun phrases, and the distributive effect was observed in Chinese-English bilinguals. Altogether, the results show that the L1 syntactic feature of subject-verb agreement is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. More specifically, distributive effects rarely occur in L2 when L1 has no requirement on subject-verb agreement, whereas distributive effects are more likely to occur in L2 when the L1 also has required subject-verb agreement.

  7. Improving Production of Treated and Untreated Verbs in Aphasia: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Vânia; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Miceli, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Demographic and clinical predictors of aphasia recovery have been identified in the literature. However, little attention has been devoted to identifying and distinguishing predictors of improvement for different outcomes, e.g., production of treated vs. untreated materials. These outcomes may rely on different mechanisms, and therefore be predicted by different variables. Furthermore, treatment features are not typically accounted for when studying predictors of aphasia recovery. This is partly due to the small numbers of cases reported in studies, but also to limitations of data analysis techniques usually employed. Method: We reviewed the literature on predictors of aphasia recovery, and conducted a meta-analysis of single-case studies designed to assess the efficacy of treatments for verb production. The contribution of demographic, clinical, and treatment-related variables was assessed by means of Random Forests (a machine-learning technique used in classification and regression). Two outcomes were investigated: production of treated (for 142 patients) and untreated verbs (for 166 patients). Results: Improved production of treated verbs was predicted by a three-way interaction of pre-treatment scores on tests for verb comprehension and word repetition, and the frequency of treatment sessions. Improvement in production of untreated verbs was predicted by an interaction including the use of morphological cues, presence of grammatical impairment, pre-treatment scores on a test for noun comprehension, and frequency of treatment sessions. Conclusion: Improvement in the production of treated verbs occurs frequently. It may depend on restoring access to and/or knowledge of lexeme representations, and requires relative sparing of semantic knowledge (as measured by verb comprehension) and phonological output abilities (including working memory, as measured by word repetition). Improvement in the production of untreated verbs has not been reported very often

  8. Improving Production of Treated and Untreated Verbs in Aphasia: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Vânia; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Miceli, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Demographic and clinical predictors of aphasia recovery have been identified in the literature. However, little attention has been devoted to identifying and distinguishing predictors of improvement for different outcomes, e.g., production of treated vs. untreated materials. These outcomes may rely on different mechanisms, and therefore be predicted by different variables. Furthermore, treatment features are not typically accounted for when studying predictors of aphasia recovery. This is partly due to the small numbers of cases reported in studies, but also to limitations of data analysis techniques usually employed. Method: We reviewed the literature on predictors of aphasia recovery, and conducted a meta-analysis of single-case studies designed to assess the efficacy of treatments for verb production. The contribution of demographic, clinical, and treatment-related variables was assessed by means of Random Forests (a machine-learning technique used in classification and regression). Two outcomes were investigated: production of treated (for 142 patients) and untreated verbs (for 166 patients). Results: Improved production of treated verbs was predicted by a three-way interaction of pre-treatment scores on tests for verb comprehension and word repetition, and the frequency of treatment sessions. Improvement in production of untreated verbs was predicted by an interaction including the use of morphological cues, presence of grammatical impairment, pre-treatment scores on a test for noun comprehension, and frequency of treatment sessions. Conclusion: Improvement in the production of treated verbs occurs frequently. It may depend on restoring access to and/or knowledge of lexeme representations, and requires relative sparing of semantic knowledge (as measured by verb comprehension) and phonological output abilities (including working memory, as measured by word repetition). Improvement in the production of untreated verbs has not been reported very often

  9. Using Informative Verbal Exchanges to Promote Verb Retrieval in Nonfluent Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Kristen K.; Conner, Peggy S.; Kempler, Daniel; Radvanski, Christina; Goral, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to determine whether positive treatment effects of a modified constraint-induced language therapy focused on verb production would generalize to unpracticed items and tasks. Method Four individuals participated in a single-subject treatment design protocol. The treatment involved intensive practice producing verbs in sentences in an informative communicative exchange. Direct treatment outcome was examined by measuring the accuracy of producing practiced verbs in an action description task, a task similar to those used in treatment. Generalization was assessed by measuring production of unpracticed verbs and sentence grammaticality in the action description task and by measuring verb production and sentence grammaticality in 2 relatively unstructured (unpracticed) language tasks. Results Two of the 4 participants showed a direct treatment effect, producing a greater number of practiced verbs in the action description task following treatment compared with before treatment. All participants improved sentence grammaticality following treatment, although grammaticality was not explicitly targeted in therapy. Generalization to unpracticed, less-structured tasks was variable across the participants. Conclusion Patterns of generalization may depend on participants’ specific language deficits and production characteristics, on the language tasks used, and on the measures used to detect change and assess generalization. PMID:24687161

  10. Dissociation between Semantic Representations for Motion and Action Verbs: Evidence from Patients with Left Hemisphere Lesions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lawrence J; Evans, Carys; Greer, Joanna; Senior, Carl; Coventry, Kenny R; Ietswaart, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This multiple single case study contrasted left hemisphere stroke patients (N = 6) to healthy age-matched control participants (N = 15) on their understanding of action (e.g., holding, clenching) and motion verbs (e.g., crumbling, flowing). The tasks required participants to correctly identify the matching verb or associated picture. Dissociations on action and motion verb content depending on lesion site were expected. As predicted for verbs containing an action and/or motion content, modified t-tests confirmed selective deficits in processing motion verbs in patients with lesions involving posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. In contrast, deficits in verbs describing motionless actions were found in patients with more anterior lesions sparing posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. These findings support the hypotheses that semantic representations for action and motion are behaviorally and neuro-anatomically dissociable. The findings clarify the differential and critical role of perceptual and motor regions in processing modality-specific semantic knowledge as opposed to a supportive but not necessary role. We contextualize these results within theories from both cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience that make claims over the role of sensory and motor information in semantic representation.

  11. A Cross-Linguistic Study of Sound-Symbolism in Children's Verb Learning.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hanako

    2012-01-01

    A long history of research has considered the role of iconicity in language and the existence and role of non-arbitrary properties in language and the use of language. Previous studies with Japanese-speaking children whose language defines a large grammatical class of words with clear sound symbolism suggest that iconicity properties in Japanese may aid early verb learning, and a recent extended work suggest that such early sensitivity is not limited to children whose language supports such word classes. The present study further considers the use of sounds symbolic words in verb learning context by conducting systematic cross-linguistic comparisons on early exposure to and effect of sound symbolism in verb mapping. Experiment 1 is an observational study of how English- and Japanese-speaking parents talk about verbs. More conventionalized symbolic words were found in Japanese-speaking parental input and more idiosyncratic use of sound symbolism in English-speaking parental input. Despite this different exposure of iconic forms to describe actions, the artificial verb learning task in Experiment 2 revealed that children in both language groups benefit from sound-meaning correspondences for their verb learning. These results together confirm more extensive use of conventionalized sound-symbolism among Japanese-speakers, and also support a cross-linguistic consistency of the effect, which has documented in the recent work. The work also points to the potential value of understanding the contexts in which sound-meaning correspondences matter in language learning.

  12. A double dissociation between the meanings of action verbs and locative prepositions.

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, David; Tranel, Daniel

    2003-10-01

    Abstract We describe two patients who manifested opposite patterns of performance on test batteries that evaluated production, comprehension, and semantic analysis of action verbs on the one hand (e.g. smile, wave, run ) and locative prepositions on the other (e.g. in, on, over ). JP failed all of the verb tests but passed all of the preposition tests, suggesting impaired knowledge of the meanings of action verbs but intact knowledge of the meanings of locative prepositions. In contrast, RR exhibited the reverse dissociation: he passed many of the verb tests but failed all of the preposition tests, suggesting mostly intact knowledge of the meanings of action verbs but impaired knowledge of the meanings of locative prepositions. This behavioral double dissociation reflects the fact that the two categories of words differ along several conceptual parameters. To a large extent, the patients exhibited a neuroanatomical double dissociation as well, since JP's lesion is predominantly in the left frontal operculum whereas RR's is predominantly in the left inferior parietal lobe and the posterior superior temporal region. This constitutes preliminary evidence that the meanings of action verbs and locative prepositions are represented by partially independent neural networks in the brain.

  13. Dissociation between Semantic Representations for Motion and Action Verbs: Evidence from Patients with Left Hemisphere Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Evans, Carys; Greer, Joanna; Senior, Carl; Coventry, Kenny R.; Ietswaart, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This multiple single case study contrasted left hemisphere stroke patients (N = 6) to healthy age-matched control participants (N = 15) on their understanding of action (e.g., holding, clenching) and motion verbs (e.g., crumbling, flowing). The tasks required participants to correctly identify the matching verb or associated picture. Dissociations on action and motion verb content depending on lesion site were expected. As predicted for verbs containing an action and/or motion content, modified t-tests confirmed selective deficits in processing motion verbs in patients with lesions involving posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. In contrast, deficits in verbs describing motionless actions were found in patients with more anterior lesions sparing posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. These findings support the hypotheses that semantic representations for action and motion are behaviorally and neuro-anatomically dissociable. The findings clarify the differential and critical role of perceptual and motor regions in processing modality-specific semantic knowledge as opposed to a supportive but not necessary role. We contextualize these results within theories from both cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience that make claims over the role of sensory and motor information in semantic representation. PMID:28261070

  14. Space shuttle auxiliary power unit study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binsley, R. L.; Krause, A. A.; Maddox, R. D.; Marcy, R. D.; Siegler, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A study was performed to establish the preliminary design of the space shuttle auxiliary power unit. Details of the analysis, optimizations, and design of the components, subsystems and systems are presented.

  15. 56. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND REMAINDER OF DAM -- CONCRETE MONOLITH PLAN AND WALL ELEVATIONS (WITH LOCK APPURTENANCES). Drawing V-601 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  16. Parallel Auxiliary Space AMG Solver for $H(div)$ Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, Tzanio V.; Vassilevski, Panayot S.

    2012-12-18

    We present a family of scalable preconditioners for matrices arising in the discretization of $H(div)$ problems using the lowest order Raviart--Thomas finite elements. Our approach belongs to the class of “auxiliary space''--based methods and requires only the finite element stiffness matrix plus some minimal additional discretization information about the topology and orientation of mesh entities. Also, we provide a detailed algebraic description of the theory, parallel implementation, and different variants of this parallel auxiliary space divergence solver (ADS) and discuss its relations to the Hiptmair--Xu (HX) auxiliary space decomposition of $H(div)$ [SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 45 (2007), pp. 2483--2509] and to the auxiliary space Maxwell solver AMS [J. Comput. Math., 27 (2009), pp. 604--623]. Finally, an extensive set of numerical experiments demonstrates the robustness and scalability of our implementation on large-scale $H(div)$ problems with large jumps in the material coefficients.

  17. Auxiliary power controls on the Nelson River HVDC scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, J. )

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes the auxiliary power controls on the Nelson River HVDC scheme. It shows how the fast control feature of the HVDC link can be utilized to enhance the operation of an integrated ac/dc power system.

  18. 15. SOUTH SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK SHOWING NEW AUXILIARY FLAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SOUTH SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK SHOWING NEW AUXILIARY FLAME DUCTS UNDER CONSTRUCTION, UMBILICAL MAST AT RIGHT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK MITER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK MITER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY LOCATED IN INTERMEDIATE WALL, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  20. MAN B&W`s latest HFO marine auxiliary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kunberger, K.

    1996-09-01

    The ability to operate marine auxiliary generator sets on heavy fuel oil (HFO) provides the advantages of using a single fuel source onboard ships for all engine power, but also requires attention directed to engine maintenance, reliability and emissions. MAN B&W Diesel in Holeby, Denmark, has a world reputation and substantial market share for HFO burning auxiliary engines above 500 kW. Offering a guaranteed 20000 operating hours before major overhaul on its HFO auxiliary gen-sets, the company has promoted the unifuel concept for ship propulsion and auxiliary power plants for many years. Based on this experience, a new generation of small HFO burning diesels has been designed. Low operating and maintenance costs, low initial cost, heavy fuel capabilities with unrestricted load profile, high reliability at long maintenance intervals and low emmisions were the main design targets. The design, specifications, and performance of these engines are discussed in this article.

  1. 72. VISITOR'S CENTER, MODEL OF BOILER CHAMBER, AUXILIARY CHAMBER, REACTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. VISITOR'S CENTER, MODEL OF BOILER CHAMBER, AUXILIARY CHAMBER, REACTOR AND CANAL (LOCATION T) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  2. Gauge symmetry breaking in gravity and auxiliary effective action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, Amin

    2017-02-01

    In the context of the covariant symmetry breaking in gravity, we study the quantum aspect of Chamseddine-Mukhanov model by making use of path integral method. Utilizing one of the gauge fixing constraints, we remove the specific ghost degree of freedom. In continuation, we define an auxiliary effective action. Introducing an auxiliary field, we will have a new dynamic field in addition to the fundamental field.

  3. Using Principal Components as Auxiliary Variables in Missing Data Estimation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Waylon J; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Little, Todd D

    2015-01-01

    To deal with missing data that arise due to participant nonresponse or attrition, methodologists have recommended an "inclusive" strategy where a large set of auxiliary variables are used to inform the missing data process. In practice, the set of possible auxiliary variables is often too large. We propose using principal components analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of possible auxiliary variables to a manageable number. A series of Monte Carlo simulations compared the performance of the inclusive strategy with eight auxiliary variables (inclusive approach) to the PCA strategy using just one principal component derived from the eight original variables (PCA approach). We examined the influence of four independent variables: magnitude of correlations, rate of missing data, missing data mechanism, and sample size on parameter bias, root mean squared error, and confidence interval coverage. Results indicate that the PCA approach results in unbiased parameter estimates and potentially more accuracy than the inclusive approach. We conclude that using the PCA strategy to reduce the number of auxiliary variables is an effective and practical way to reap the benefits of the inclusive strategy in the presence of many possible auxiliary variables.

  4. A Syntactic Account for the Power of Verbs within X-Phemism: A Corpus-Base Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Rawi, Maather Mohammad; Al-Shurafa, Nuha Suleiman Daoud

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to examine the syntactic status of a selected text-corpus focus, with a special focus on the verb within its Verb-Phrase. The major claim is that the power of the verb in its VP is loaded syntactically through which the speaker's desire of the doublespeak within X-Phemism is achieved. In order to fulfill this claim, a…

  5. [Event-related brain potentials when Russian verbs being conjugated: to the problem of language processing modularity].

    PubMed

    Dan'ko, S G; Boĭtsova, Iu A; Solov'eva, M L; Chernigovskaia, T V; Medvedev, S V

    2014-01-01

    In the light of alternative conceptions of "two-system" and "single-system" models of language processing the efforts have been undertaken to study brain mechanisnis for generation of regular and irregular forms of Russian verbs. The 19 EEG channels of evoked activity were registered along with casual alternations of speech morphology operations to be compared. Verbs of imperfective aspect in the form of an infinitive, belonging either to a group of productive verbs (default, conventionally regular class), or toan unproductive group of verbs (conventionally irregular class) were presented to healthy subjects. The subjects were requested to produce first person present time forms of these verbs. Results of analysis of event related potentials (ERP) for a group of 22 persons are presented. Statistically reliable ERP amplitude distinctions between the verb groups are found onlyin the latencies 600-850 ms in central and parietal zones of the cortex. In these latencies ERP values associated with a presentation of irregular verbs are negative in relation to ERP values associated with the presentation of regular verbs. The received results are interpreted as a consequence of various complexity of mental work with verbs of these different groups and presumably don't support a hypothesis of universality of the "two-system" brain mechanism for processing of the regular and irregular language forms.

  6. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout...

  7. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout...

  8. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout...

  9. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout...

  10. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout...

  11. Diesel reforming for SOFC auxiliary power units

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, R. L.; Parkinson, W. J. ,; Inbody, M. A.; Tafoya, J. I.; Guidry, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    The use of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to provide auxiliary power for heavy duty trucks can increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions by reducing engine idling time. The logical fuel of choice for a truck SOFC APU is diesel fuel, as diesel is the fuel of choice for these vehicles. SOFC's that directly oxidize hydrocarbon fuels have lower power densities than do SOFC's that operate from hydrocarbon reformate, and since the SOFC is a costly component, maximizing the fuel cell power density provides benefits in reducing the overall APU system cost. Thus current SOFC APU systems require the reformation of higher hydrocarbons for the most efficient and cost effect fuel cell system. The objective of this research is to develop the technology to enable diesel reforming for SOFC truck APU applications. Diesel fuel can be reformed into a H{sub 2} and CO-rich fuel feed stream for a SOFC by autothermal reforming (ATR), a combination of catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx), and steam reforming (SR). The typical autothermal reformer is an adiabatic, heterogeneous catalytic reactor and the challenges in its design, operation and durability on diesel fuel are manifold. These challenges begin with the vaporization and mixing of diesel fuel with air and steam where fuel pyrolysis can occur and improper mixing leads to hot and cold spots, which contribute to carbon formation and incomplete fuel conversion. The exotherm of the partial oxidation reaction can generate temperatures in excess of 800 C, a temperature at which catalysts rapidly sinter, thus reducing their lifetime. The temperature rise can be reduced by the steam reforming endotherm, but this requires the addition of water along with proper design to balance the kinetic rates. Carbon formation during operation and startup can lead to catalyst deactivation and fouling of downstream components, thus reducing durability of the fuel processor. Water addition helps to reduce carbon formation, but a key issue is the source

  12. Latent Semantics of Action Verbs Reflect Phonetic Parameters of Intensity and Emotional Content

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes. PMID:25849977

  13. Take a stand on understanding: electrophysiological evidence for stem access in German complex verbs

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Eva; Gondan, Matthias; Rösler, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lexical representation of complex words in Indo-European languages is generally assumed to depend on semantic compositionality. This study investigated whether semantically compositional and noncompositional derivations are accessed via their constituent units or as whole words. In an overt visual priming experiment (300 ms stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA), event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for verbs (e.g., ziehen, “pull”) that were preceded by purely semantically related verbs (e.g., zerren, “drag”), by morphologically related and semantically compositional verbs (e.g., zuziehen, “pull together”), by morphologically related and semantically noncompositional verbs (e.g., erziehen, “educate”), by orthographically similar verbs (e.g., zielen, “aim”), or by unrelated verbs (e.g., tarnen, “mask”). Compared to the unrelated condition, which evoked an N400 effect with the largest amplitude at centro-parietal recording sites, the N400 was reduced in all other conditions. The rank order of N400 amplitudes turned out as follows: morphologically related and semantically compositional ≈ morphologically related and semantically noncompositional < purely semantically related < orthographically similar < unrelated. Surprisingly, morphologically related primes produced similar N400 modulations—irrespective of their semantic compositionality. The control conditions with orthographic similarity confirmed that these morphological effects were not the result of a simple form overlap between primes and targets. Our findings suggest that the lexical representation of German complex verbs refers to their base form, regardless of meaning compositionality. Theories of the lexical representation of German words need to incorporate this aspect of language processing in German. PMID:25767442

  14. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

  15. The Impact of Verb Form, Sentence Position, Home Language, and Second Language Proficiency on Subject-Verb Agreement in Child Second Language Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Baayen, Harald R.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that children learning a second language (L2) omit agreement inflection because of communication demands. The conclusion of these studies is that L2 children know the morphological and syntactic properties of agreement inflection, but sometimes insert an inflectional default form (i.e., the bare verb) in production. The present…

  16. Influence of the Verb Prefix "o-/ob-" on the Distribution of Cases on the Nominal Objects: The Occurrence of Transitive Usage of Unprefixed Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Launer, Michael K.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates the influence of the prefix "o-/ob-" on the choice of case for nominal objects of prefixed verbs, using a semantic field analysis. Focuses on four semantic functions: (1) objective; (2) locative; (3) factitive; and (4) comparative. The results are useful both to theoretical linguists and to teachers of Russian. (LMO)

  17. Modulation of Arm Reaching Movements during Processing of Arm/Hand-Related Action Verbs with and without Emotional Connotation

    PubMed Central

    Spadacenta, Silvia; Gallese, Vittorio; Fragola, Michele; Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The theory of embodied language states that language comprehension relies on an internal reenactment of the sensorimotor experience associated with the processed word or sentence. Most evidence in support of this hypothesis had been collected using linguistic material without any emotional connotation. For instance, it had been shown that processing of arm-related verbs, but not of those leg-related verbs, affects the planning and execution of reaching movements; however, at present it is unknown whether this effect is further modulated by verbs evoking an emotional experience. Showing such a modulation might shed light on a very debated issue, i.e. the way in which the emotional meaning of a word is processed. To this end, we assessed whether processing arm/hand-related verbs describing actions with negative connotations (e.g. to stab) affects reaching movements differently from arm/hand-related verbs describing actions with neutral connotation (e.g. to comb). We exploited a go/no-go paradigm in which healthy participants were required to perform arm-reaching movements toward a target when verbs expressing emotional hand actions, neutral hand actions or foot actions were shown, and to refrain from moving when no-effector-related verbs were presented. Reaction times and percentages of errors increased when the verb involved the same effector as used to give the response. However, we also found that the size of this interference decreased when the arm/hand-related verbs had a negative emotional connotation. Crucially, we show that such modulation only occurred when the verb semantics had to be retrieved. These results suggest that the comprehension of negatively valenced verbs might require the simultaneous reenactment of the neural circuitry associated with the processing of the emotion evoked by their meaning and of the neural circuitry associated with their motor features. PMID:25093410

  18. Modulation of arm reaching movements during processing of arm/hand-related action verbs with and without emotional connotation.

    PubMed

    Spadacenta, Silvia; Gallese, Vittorio; Fragola, Michele; Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The theory of embodied language states that language comprehension relies on an internal reenactment of the sensorimotor experience associated with the processed word or sentence. Most evidence in support of this hypothesis had been collected using linguistic material without any emotional connotation. For instance, it had been shown that processing of arm-related verbs, but not of those leg-related verbs, affects the planning and execution of reaching movements; however, at present it is unknown whether this effect is further modulated by verbs evoking an emotional experience. Showing such a modulation might shed light on a very debated issue, i.e. the way in which the emotional meaning of a word is processed. To this end, we assessed whether processing arm/hand-related verbs describing actions with negative connotations (e.g. to stab) affects reaching movements differently from arm/hand-related verbs describing actions with neutral connotation (e.g. to comb). We exploited a go/no-go paradigm in which healthy participants were required to perform arm-reaching movements toward a target when verbs expressing emotional hand actions, neutral hand actions or foot actions were shown, and to refrain from moving when no-effector-related verbs were presented. Reaction times and percentages of errors increased when the verb involved the same effector as used to give the response. However, we also found that the size of this interference decreased when the arm/hand-related verbs had a negative emotional connotation. Crucially, we show that such modulation only occurred when the verb semantics had to be retrieved. These results suggest that the comprehension of negatively valenced verbs might require the simultaneous reenactment of the neural circuitry associated with the processing of the emotion evoked by their meaning and of the neural circuitry associated with their motor features.

  19. Effect of verb argument structure on picture naming in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI)

    PubMed Central

    Andreu, Llorenç; Sanz-Torrent, Mònica; Legaz, Lucia Buil; MacWhinney, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated verb argument structure effects in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Aims A picture-naming paradigm was used to compare the response times and naming accuracy for nouns and verbs with differing argument structure between Spanish-speaking children with and without language impairment. Methods & Procedures Twenty-four children with SLI (ages 5;3–8;2 [years;months]), 24 age-matched controls (ages 5;3–8;2), 24 MLU-w controls (ages 3;3–7;1 years), and 31 adults participated in a picture-naming study. Outcomes & Results The results show all groups produced more correct responses and were faster for nouns than all verbs together. As regards verb type accuracy, there were no differences between groups in naming one-argument verbs. However, for both two- and three-argument verbs, children with SLI were less accurate than adults and age-matched controls, but similar to the MLU-matched controls. For verb type latency, children with SLI were slower than both the age-matched controls and adults for one- and two-argument verbs, while no differences were found in three-argument verbs. No differences were found between children with SLI and MLU-matched controls for any verb type. Conclusions & Implications It has been shown that the naming of verbs is delayed in Spanish children with SLI. It is suggested that children with SLI may have problems encoding semantic representations. PMID:23121524

  20. Gate drive latching circuit for an auxiliary resonant commutation circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Eladio Clemente (Inventor); Kheraluwala, Mustansir Hussainy (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A gate drive latching circuit for an auxiliary resonant commutation circuit for a power switching inverter includes a current monitor circuit providing a current signal to a pair of analog comparators to implement latching of one of a pair of auxiliary switching devices which are used to provide commutation current for commutating switching inverters in the circuit. Each of the pair of comparators feeds a latching circuit which responds to an active one of the comparators for latching the associated gate drive circuit for one of the pair of auxiliary commutating switches. An initial firing signal is applied to each of the commutating switches to gate each into conduction and the resulting current is monitored to determine current direction and therefore the one of the switches which is carrying current. The comparator provides a latching signal to the one of the auxiliary power switches which is actually conducting current and latches that particular power switch into an on state for the duration of current through the device. The latching circuit is so designed that the only time one of the auxiliary switching devices can be latched on is during the duration of an initial firing command signal.

  1. Effects of Verb Bias and Syntactic Ambiguity on Reading in People with Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    DeDe, Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Lexical Bias Hypothesis (Gahl, 2002) claims that people with aphasia have difficulty understanding sentences when the verb’s argument structure bias conflicts with the sentence structure. This hypothesis can account for comprehension deficits that affect simple sentences, but the role of verb bias has not been clearly demonstrated in temporarily ambiguous sentences. Aims: This study examined how verb bias affects comprehension of temporarily ambiguous and unambiguous sentences using self-paced reading. Methods & Procedures: People with aphasia and controls read sentences that contained sentential complements (e.g., The talented photographer accepted (that) the fire could not have been prevented.). The main verb was biased to take a direct object (e.g., accepted) or a sentential complement (e.g., admitted). In addition, the sentential complement was either introduced by the complementizer that (i.e., unambiguous) or unmarked (i.e., ambiguous). Results: The people with aphasia’s reading times were affected more by verb bias than by the presence of the complementizer, whereas the control group’s reading times were more affected by the presence or absence of the complementizer. Conclusions: The results were generally consistent with the Lexical Bias Hypothesis, and showed that a mismatch between verb bias and sentence structure affected processing of unambiguous and temporarily ambiguous sentences in people with aphasia. PMID:24683286

  2. Infants use known verbs to learn novel nouns: evidence from 15- and 19-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brock; Graf, Eileen; Waxman, Sandra R

    2014-04-01

    Fluent speakers' representations of verbs include semantic knowledge about the nouns that can serve as their arguments. These "selectional restrictions" of a verb can in principle be recruited to learn the meaning of a novel noun. For example, the sentence He ate the carambola licenses the inference that carambola refers to something edible. We ask whether 15- and 19-month-old infants can recruit their nascent verb lexicon to identify the referents of novel nouns that appear as the verbs' subjects. We compared infants' interpretation of a novel noun (e.g., the dax) in two conditions: one in which dax is presented as the subject of animate-selecting construction (e.g., The dax is crying), and the other in which dax is the subject of an animacy-neutral construction (e.g., The dax is right here). Results indicate that by 19months, infants use their representations of known verbs to inform the meaning of a novel noun that appears as its argument.

  3. Verb inflection in monolingual Dutch and sequential bilingual Turkish-Dutch children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Blom, Elma; de Jong, Jan; Orgassa, Antje; Baker, Anne; Weerman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Both children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children who acquire a second language (L2) make errors with verb inflection. This overlap between SLI and L2 raises the question if verb inflection can discriminate between L2 children with and without SLI. In this study we addressed this question for Dutch. The secondary goal of the study was to investigate variation in error types and error profiles across groups. Data were collected from 6-8-year-old children with SLI who acquire Dutch as their first language (L1), Dutch L1 children with a typical development (TD), Dutch L2 children with SLI, and Dutch L1 TD children who were on average 2 years younger. An experimental elicitation task was employed that tested use of verb inflection; context (3SG, 3PL) was manipulated and word order and verb type were controlled. Accuracy analyses revealed effects of impairment in both L1 and L2 children with SLI. However, individual variation indicated that there is no specific error profile for SLI. Verb inflection use as measured in our study discriminated fairly well in the L1 group but classification was less accurate in the L2 group. Between-group differences emerged furthermore for certain types of errors, but all groups also showed considerable variation in errors and there was not a specific error profile that distinguished SLI from TD.

  4. Clinical, imaging and pathological correlates of a hereditary deficit in verb and action processing.

    PubMed

    Bak, Thomas H; Yancopoulou, Despina; Nestor, Peter J; Xuereb, John H; Spillantini, Maria G; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hodges, John R

    2006-02-01

    Selective verb and noun deficits have been observed in a number of neurological conditions and their occurrence has been interpreted as evidence for different neural networks underlying the processing of specific word categories. We describe the first case of a familial occurrence of a selective deficit of verb processing. Father (Individual I) and son (Individual II) developed a movement disorder resembling progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and associated with dementia. A second child of Individual II remained symptom-free on consecutive examinations. The dissociation between the processing of nouns and verbs in Individuals I and II was confirmed with different methods, including a longitudinal assessment of naming, comprehension, picture and word association, as well as a lexical decision task. The difference remained stable on follow-up testing despite overall deterioration. It was associated with left-sided frontal hypometabolism on FDG-PET imaging (Individual II) and with ubiquitin-positive inclusions on post-mortem examination (Individual I). The association of a selective verb deficit with a familial movement disorder raises the question whether related genetic factors might influence both movements and their abstract conceptual representations in the form of action verbs. By demonstrating a link between pathology, genetics, imaging and abstract cognitive impairments this study advances our understanding of degenerative brain disease with implications for both neuroscience and clinical practice.

  5. Verb morphology in Catalan and Spanish in children with specific language impairment: a developmental study.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Serrat, Elisabet; Andreu, Llorenc; Serra, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    In this article we examine language processing and development in Catalan or Spanish-speaking children with SLI, focusing on the study of the verb. We analyse the key initial phase of its process of acquisition and aim to define common features of the SLI group that distinguish them from children with normal language development. We intend to identify more precisely the kind of delay shown by these children in a language with a rich verb morphology, in terms of both structure and chronology. The sample comprised 18 Catalan-Spanish bilingual pre-school children, assigned to three groups of six; an SLI group and two control groups, one matched for age and the other matched for MLU-w. Developmental data were obtained by recording situations of spontaneous speech at two different time points. Certain differences were found between groups in verb production. Production of verb inflection by children with SLI was only partial at the first evaluation; they maintained the same percentage of errors after a year. The patterns of correct and incorrect verb forms found in Catalan and Spanish do not corroborate the EOI hypothesis, but they support the Surface Hypothesis, given that the number of errors is not particularly high. This suggests the presence of limitations in subjects' processing ability, linked to the typological characteristics of the specific language being learnt.

  6. The Retreat from Locative Overgeneralisation Errors: A Novel Verb Grammaticality Judgment Study

    PubMed Central

    Bidgood, Amy; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Whilst some locative verbs alternate between the ground- and figure-locative constructions (e.g. Lisa sprayed the flowers with water/Lisa sprayed water onto the flowers), others are restricted to one construction or the other (e.g. *Lisa filled water into the cup/*Lisa poured the cup with water). The present study investigated two proposals for how learners (aged 5–6, 9–10 and adults) acquire this restriction, using a novel-verb-learning grammaticality-judgment paradigm. In support of the semantic verb class hypothesis, participants in all age groups used the semantic properties of novel verbs to determine the locative constructions (ground/figure/both) in which they could and could not appear. In support of the frequency hypothesis, participants' tolerance of overgeneralisation errors decreased with each increasing level of verb frequency (novel/low/high). These results underline the need to develop an integrated account of the roles of semantics and frequency in the retreat from argument structure overgeneralisation. PMID:24830412

  7. TRAINING VERB PRODUCTION IN COMMUNICATIVE CONTEXT: EVIDENCE FROM A PERSON WITH CHRONIC NON-FLUENT APHASIA

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Kempler, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of constraint-induced treatment in aphasia therapy has yielded promising but mixed results. Aims We conducted a treatment study with an individual with chronic non-fluent aphasia. The goal of the treatment was to improve verb production in sentence- and narrative- contexts. Methods & Procedures We administered a modified constraint-induced aphasia treatment in a single-subject design. Treatment emphasized the production of verbs within informative exchanges. Verb production in narratives was assessed before and after the treatment. Outcomes & Results Results demonstrated a significant increase in the number of verbs produced during narrative generation following treatment. Moreover, a positive change was perceived by naïve listeners who rated the social-communicative impact of the participant’s narratives. Conclusions The increase in verb production seen in the post-treatment measures is attributed to a combination of the constraints imposed on sentence production during the treatment sessions, the informative nature of the treatment exchanges, and the relative intensity of the treatment schedule. PMID:19911035

  8. A connectionist model of the retreat from verb argument structure overgeneralization.

    PubMed

    Ambridge, Ben; Blything, Ryan P

    2016-11-01

    A central question in language acquisition is how children build linguistic representations that allow them to generalize verbs from one construction to another (e.g., The boy gave a present to the girl → The boy gave the girl a present), whilst appropriately constraining those generalizations to avoid non-adultlike errors (e.g., I said no to her → *I said her no). Although a consensus is emerging that learners solve this problem using both statistical and semantics-based learning procedures (e.g., entrenchment, pre-emption, and semantic verb class formation), there currently exist few - if any - proposals for a learning model that combines these mechanisms. The present study used a connectionist model to test an account that argues for competition between constructions based on (a) verb-in construction frequency, (b) relevance of constructions for the speaker's intended message, and (c) fit between the fine-grained semantic properties of individual verbs and individual constructions. The model was able not only (a) to simulate the overall pattern of overgeneralization-then-retreat, but also (b) to use the semantics of novel verbs to predict their argument structure privileges (just as real learners do), and

  9. The retreat from locative overgeneralisation errors: a novel verb grammaticality judgment study.

    PubMed

    Bidgood, Amy; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M; Rowland, Caroline F

    2014-01-01

    Whilst some locative verbs alternate between the ground- and figure-locative constructions (e.g. Lisa sprayed the flowers with water/Lisa sprayed water onto the flowers), others are restricted to one construction or the other (e.g. *Lisa filled water into the cup/*Lisa poured the cup with water). The present study investigated two proposals for how learners (aged 5-6, 9-10 and adults) acquire this restriction, using a novel-verb-learning grammaticality-judgment paradigm. In support of the semantic verb class hypothesis, participants in all age groups used the semantic properties of novel verbs to determine the locative constructions (ground/figure/both) in which they could and could not appear. In support of the frequency hypothesis, participants' tolerance of overgeneralisation errors decreased with each increasing level of verb frequency (novel/low/high). These results underline the need to develop an integrated account of the roles of semantics and frequency in the retreat from argument structure overgeneralisation.

  10. Treatment of verb anomia in aphasia: efficacy of self-administered therapy using a smart tablet.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Monica; Routhier, Sonia; Légaré, Annie; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is a chronic condition that usually requires long-term rehabilitation. However, even if many effective treatments can be offered to patients and families, speech therapy services for individuals with aphasia often remain limited because of logistical and financial considerations, especially more than 6 months after stroke. Therefore, the need to develop tools to maximize rehabilitation potential is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a self-administered treatment delivered with a smart tablet to improve written verb naming skills in CP, a 63-year-old woman with chronic aphasia. An ABA multiple baseline design was used to compare CP's performance in verb naming on three equivalent lists of stimuli trained with a hierarchy of cues, trained with no cues, and not trained. Results suggest that graphemic cueing therapy, done four times a week for 3 weeks, led to better written verb naming compared to baseline and to the untrained list. Moreover, generalization of the effects of treatment was observed in verb production, assessed with a noun-to-verb production task. Results of this study suggest that self-administered training with a smart tablet is effective in improving naming skills in chronic aphasia. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of new technologies in self-administered treatment of acquired language deficits.

  11. Reliability model of a monopropellant auxiliary propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    A mathematical model and associated computer code has been developed which computes the reliability of a monopropellant blowdown hydrazine spacecraft auxiliary propulsion system as a function of time. The propulsion system is used to adjust or modify the spacecraft orbit over an extended period of time. The multiple orbit corrections are the multiple objectives which the auxiliary propulsion system is designed to achieve. Thus the reliability model computes the probability of successfully accomplishing each of the desired orbit corrections. To accomplish this, the reliability model interfaces with a computer code that models the performance of a blowdown (unregulated) monopropellant auxiliary propulsion system. The computer code acts as a performance model and as such gives an accurate time history of the system operating parameters. The basic timing and status information is passed on to and utilized by the reliability model which establishes the probability of successfully accomplishing the orbit corrections.

  12. Electrospinning of aligned fibers with adjustable orientation using auxiliary electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arras, Matthias M. L.; Grasl, Christian; Bergmeister, Helga; Schima, Heinrich

    2012-06-01

    A conventional electrospinning setup was upgraded by two turnable plate-like auxiliary high-voltage electrodes that allowed aligned fiber deposition in adjustable directions. Fiber morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The auxiliary electric field constrained the jet bending instability and the fiber deposition became controllable. At target speeds of 0.9 m s-1 90% of the fibers had aligned within 2°, whereas the angular spread was 70° without the use of auxiliary electrodes. It was even possible to orient fibers perpendicular to the rotational direction of the target. The fiber diameter became smaller and its distribution narrower, while according to the FTIR-ATR measurement the molecular orientation of the polymer was unaltered. This study comprehensively documents the feasibility of directed fiber deposition and offers an easy upgrade to existing electrospinning setups.

  13. Non-Empirically Based Teaching Materials Can Be Positively Misleading: A Case of Modal Auxiliary Verbs in Malaysian English Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Laleh; Kafipour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Using corpus approach, a growing number of researchers blamed textbooks for neglecting important information on the use of grammatical structures in natural English. Likewise, the prescribed Malaysian English textbooks used in schools are reportedly prepared through a process of material development that involves intuition. Hence, a corpus-based…

  14. Transfer in SLA and Creoles: The Implications of Causative Serial Verbs in the Interlanguage of Vietnamese ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms-Park, Rena

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study that attributes verb serialization in the interlanguage of Vietnamese-speaking ESL learners to language transfer and, furthermore, puts forward the view that such transfer bears a resemblance to substrate influence in creoles with serial verb constructions (SVCs). In a task that elicited English causatives through…

  15. Acquiring Spanish at the Interfaces: An Integrative Approach to the L2 Acquisition of Psych-Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez Soler, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a comprehensive analysis of the L2 acquisition of Spanish psych-verbs (e.g. "gustar" "to like") across four different proficiency levels. In particular, psych-verbs constitute a testing ground for the predictions of the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace and Filiaci, 2006; Tsimpli, Sorace, Heycok &…

  16. A Corpus-Driven Investigation of Chinese English Learners' Performance of Verb-Noun Collocation: A Case Study of "Ability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    The paper makes a contrastive study on the performance of verb-noun collocation given by Chinese EFL learners based on the CLEC, ICLE and BNC. First, all the concordance lines with the token "ability" in the CLEC were collected and analyzed. Then, they were tagged manually in order to sort out the sentences in the verb-noun collocation…

  17. On the plasticity of semantic generalizations: Children and adults modify their verb lexicalization biases in response to changing input

    PubMed Central

    Shafto, Carissa L.; Havasi, Catherine; Snedeker, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Languages differ in how they package the components of an event into words to form sentences. For example, while some languages typically encode the manner of motion in the verb (e.g., running), others more often use verbs that encode the path (e.g., ascending). Prior research has demonstrated that children and adults have lexicalization biases; i.e. they assume that novel motion verbs will reflect the dominant pattern of their own language. These experiments explored the plasticity of these biases. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught English-speaking adults motion verbs, varying the proportion of manner and path verbs in the training set; their interpretation of subsequent verbs closely reflected the probabilistic variation in the input. In Experiments 3 and 4, five-year-old children also systematically shifted their lexicalization biases to reflect the verbs that they were taught. We conclude that lexicalization biases are adaptive inferences about verb meaning that are updated on the basis of experience. PMID:24001149

  18. Effect of Verb Argument Structure on Picture Naming in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Legaz, Lucia Buil; MacWhinney, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated verb argument structure effects in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Aims: A picture-naming paradigm was used to compare the response times and naming accuracy for nouns and verbs with differing argument structure between Spanish-speaking children with and without language impairment. Methods…

  19. A Generic Analysis of English Research Article Abstracts and the Use of Modal Verbs for Financial Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a generic study of schematic structures and the use of modal verbs of 50 English Research Article (RA) abstracts. With Bhatia's (1990) model as the framework, three other move patterns were obtained besides the normal move order. The density of modal verbs varies greatly from move to move with significant differences in the frequency…

  20. Verb and Noun Word Retrieval in Bilingual Aphasia: A Case Study of Language- and Modality-Specific Levels of Breakdown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the pattern of performance on spoken and written naming, spelling to dictation, and oral reading of single verbs and nouns in a bilingual speaker with aphasia in two first languages that differ in morphological complexity, orthographic transparency, and script: Greek (L1a) and English (L1b). The results reveal no verb/noun…

  1. Heritage, Second-Language and Native Speakers' Intuitions on Deictic Verbs in Spanish: Beyond the Linguist's Intuitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chui, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Previous analyses of the Spanish deictic verbs "venir" "to come", "ir" "to go", traer "to bring" and "llevar" "to take" have drawn upon Fillmore's (1975) series of lectures on deixis in noting that speakers of Spanish forbid the use of the verbs "venir" and…

  2. A Critique of Mark D. Allen's "The Preservation of Verb Subcategory Knowledge in a Spoken Language Comprehension Deficit"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David

    2008-01-01

    Allen [Allen, M. (2005). "The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit." "Brain and Language, 95", 255-264.] reports a single patient, WBN, who, during spoken language comprehension, is still able to access some of the syntactic properties of verbs despite being unable to access some of their semantic…

  3. The Most Frequent Phrasal Verbs in English Language EU Documents--A Corpus-Based Analysis and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebits, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the use of phrasal verbs in English language documents of the European Union (EU) as part of a larger-scale project examining the use of English in EU texts from various aspects including lexical, lexico-grammatical and textual features. Phrasal verbs, known to represent one of the most difficult aspects of learning English,…

  4. Processing Coordinated Verb Phrases: The Relevance of Lexical-Semantic, Conceptual, and Contextual Information towards Establishing Verbal Parallelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutunjian, Damon A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of lexical-semantic representations, conceptual similarity, and contextual fit on the processing of coordinated verb phrases. The study integrates information gleaned from current linguistic theory with current psycholinguistic approaches to examining the processing of coordinated verb phrases. It has…

  5. Influence of Verb and Noun Bases on Reading Aloud Derived Nouns: Evidence from Children with Good and Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traficante, Daniela; Marelli, Marco; Luzzatti, Claudio; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on children and adults with and without linguistic impairment have reported differences between verb and noun processing. The present study assessed whether noun and verb bases affect differently children's reading of derived words. Thirty-six Italian good readers and 18 poor readers, all 4th or 5th graders, were asked to read…

  6. The Effect of Explicit Instruction versus Exposure Only on ESL Learners' Ability to Recognize, Use and Recall Phrasal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Julina A.; Graham, C. Ray

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of explicit instruction and exposure only on ESL students' ability to recognize, use and recall phrasal verbs. Subjects included 55 intermediate-level ESL students in reading classes at an intensive English program. Thirty-seven idiomatic phrasal verbs were divided into two lists. In a repeated measures design, one…

  7. Processing of Regular and Irregular Past-Tense Verb Forms in First and Second Language Reading Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zeeuw, Marlies; Schreuder, Rob; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated written word identification of regular and irregular past-tense verb forms by first (L1) and second language (L2) learners of Dutch in third and sixth grade. Using a lexical decision task, we measured speed and accuracy in the identification of regular and irregular past-tense verb forms by children from Turkish-speaking homes (L2…

  8. Noun and Verb Production in Maternal and Child Language: Continuity, Stability, and Prediction across the Second Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined continuity/discontinuity and stability/instability of noun and verb production measures in 30 child-mother dyads observed at 16 and 20 months, and predictive relations with the acquisition of nouns and verbs at 24 months. Children exhibited significant discontinuity and robust stability in the frequency of nouns and…

  9. Vocabulary Learning: Sentence Contexts Linked by Events in Scenarios Facilitate Third Graders' Memory for Verb Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilton, Molly Welsh; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment compared the impact of more and less semantically connected sentence contexts on vocabulary learning. Third graders (N = 40) were taught the definitions and meanings of six unfamiliar verbs: "anticipate," "attain," "devise," "restrain," "wield," and "persist." The verbs were…

  10. Similarities and Variation in Noun and Verb Acquisition: A Crosslinguistic Study of Children Learning German, Korean, and Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauschke, Christina; Lee, Hae-Wook; Pae, Soyeong

    2007-01-01

    The present study focuses on noun and verb processing during language acquisition, whereby the word production and the word comprehension of preschool children of different ages were investigated across three languages. Two hypotheses were put forward: first, given that languages differ with respect to the clarity of the noun-verb distinction and…

  11. Verb Inflection in German-Learning Children with Typical and Atypical Language Acquisition: The Impact of Subsyllabic Frequencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Susan; Hohle, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that high phonotactic frequencies facilitate the production of regularly inflected verbs in English-learning children with specific language impairment (SLI) but not with typical development (TD). We asked whether this finding can be replicated for German, a language with a much more complex inflectional verb paradigm…

  12. Verbs and Syntactic Frames in Children's Elicited Actions: A Comparison of Tamil- and English-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethuraman, Nitya; Laakso, Aarre; Smith, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    We directly compare children learning argument expressing and argument dropping languages on the use of verb meaning and syntactic cues, by examining enactments of transitive and intransitive verbs given in transitive and intransitive syntactic frames. Our results show similarities in the children's knowledge: (1) Children were somewhat less…

  13. Production of Change-of-State, Change-of-Location and Alternating Verbs: A Comparison of Children with Specific Language Impairment and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbels, Susan H.; Dockrell, Julie E.; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2012-01-01

    Correct use of verb argument structure relies on accurate verb semantic representations whose formation depends partly on use of reverse linking. We predicted that children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), who have difficulties with reverse linking, would have inaccurate semantic representations for verbs and hence difficulties with verb…

  14. The Two-Level Theory of Verb Meaning: An Approach to Integrating the Semantics of Action with the Mirror Neuron System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the "root". The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the "event structure template". We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the…

  15. Simulations of the Dynamics of the Coupled Energetic and Relativistic Electrons Using VERB Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shprits, Y.; Kellerman, A. C.; Drozdov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling and understanding of ring current and radiation belt coupled system has been a grand challenge since the beginning of the space age. In this study we show long term simulations with a 3D VERB code of modeling the radiation belts with boundary conditions derived from observations around geosynchronous orbit. We also present 4D VERB simulations that include convective transport, radial diffusion, pitch angle scattering and local acceleration. VERB simulations show that the lower energy inward transport is dominated by the convection and higher energy transport is dominated by the diffusive radial transport. We also show that at energies of 100s of keV a number of processes work simultaneously including convective transport, radial diffusion, local acceleration, loss to the loss cone and loss to the magnetopause. The results of the simulaiton of March 2013 storm are compared with Van Allen Probes observations.

  16. Making simple sentences hard: Verb bias effects in simple direct object sentences

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael P.; Garnsey, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Constraint-based lexical models of language processing assume that readers resolve temporary ambiguities by relying on a variety of cues, including particular knowledge of how verbs combine with nouns. Previous experiments have demonstrated verb bias effects only in structurally complex sentences, and have been criticized on the grounds that such effects could be due to a rapid reanalysis stage in a two-stage modular processing system. In a self-paced reading experiment and an eyetracking experiment, we demonstrate verb bias effects in sentences with simple structures that should require no reanalyis, and thus provide evidence that the combinatorial properties of individual words influence the earliest stages of sentence comprehension. PMID:20160997

  17. Subjective age-of-acquisition norms for 4,640 verbs in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Alonso, María Ángeles; Díez, Emiliano; Fernandez, Angel

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have shown that how words are processed in a variety of language-related tasks is affected by their age of acquisition (AoA). Most AoA norms have been collected for nouns, a fact that limits the extent to which verb stimuli can be adequately manipulated and controlled in empirical studies. With the aim of increasing the number of verbs with AoA values in Spanish, 900 college students were recruited to provide subjective estimates for a total of 4,640 infinitive and reflexive forms. An AoA score for each verb was obtained by averaging the responses of the participants, and these norms were included, together with additional quantitative information (standard deviations, ranges, and z scores), in a database that can be downloaded with this article as supplemental materials.

  18. Listeners Exploit Syntactic Structure On-Line to Restrict Their Lexical Search to a Subclass of Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Brusini, Perrine; Brun, Mélanie; Brunet, Isabelle; Christophe, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments have shown that listeners actively build expectations about up-coming words, rather than simply waiting for information to accumulate. The online construction of a syntactic structure is one of the cues that listeners may use to construct strong expectations about the possible words they will be exposed to. For example, speakers of verb-final languages use pre-verbal arguments to predict on-line the kind of arguments that are likely to occur next (e.g., Kamide, 2008, for a review). Although in SVO languages information about a verb's arguments typically follows the verb, some languages use pre-verbal object pronouns, potentially allowing listeners to build on-line expectations about the nature of the upcoming verb. For instance, if a pre-verbal direct object pronoun is heard, then the following verb has to be able to enter a transitive structure, thus excluding intransitive verbs. To test this, we used French, in which object pronouns have to appear pre-verbally, to investigate whether listeners use this cue to predict the occurrence of a transitive verb. In a word detection task, we measured the number of false alarms to sentences that contained a transitive verb whose first syllable was homophonous to the target monosyllabic verb (e.g., target “dort” /dɔʁ/ to sleep and false alarm verb “dorlote” /dɔʁlɔt/ to cuddle). The crucial comparison involved two sentence types, one without a pre-verbal object clitic, for which an intransitive verb was temporarily a plausible option (e.g., “Il dorlote” / He cuddles) and the other with a pre-verbal object clitic, that made the appearance of an intransitive verb impossible (“Il le dorlote” / He cuddles it). Results showed a lower rate of false alarms for sentences with a pre-verbal object pronoun (3%) compared to locally ambiguous sentences (about 20%). Participants rapidly incorporate information about a verb's argument structure to constrain lexical access to verbs that match the

  19. Listeners Exploit Syntactic Structure On-Line to Restrict Their Lexical Search to a Subclass of Verbs.

    PubMed

    Brusini, Perrine; Brun, Mélanie; Brunet, Isabelle; Christophe, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments have shown that listeners actively build expectations about up-coming words, rather than simply waiting for information to accumulate. The online construction of a syntactic structure is one of the cues that listeners may use to construct strong expectations about the possible words they will be exposed to. For example, speakers of verb-final languages use pre-verbal arguments to predict on-line the kind of arguments that are likely to occur next (e.g., Kamide, 2008, for a review). Although in SVO languages information about a verb's arguments typically follows the verb, some languages use pre-verbal object pronouns, potentially allowing listeners to build on-line expectations about the nature of the upcoming verb. For instance, if a pre-verbal direct object pronoun is heard, then the following verb has to be able to enter a transitive structure, thus excluding intransitive verbs. To test this, we used French, in which object pronouns have to appear pre-verbally, to investigate whether listeners use this cue to predict the occurrence of a transitive verb. In a word detection task, we measured the number of false alarms to sentences that contained a transitive verb whose first syllable was homophonous to the target monosyllabic verb (e.g., target "dort" /dɔʁ/ to sleep and false alarm verb "dorlote" /dɔʁlɔt/ to cuddle). The crucial comparison involved two sentence types, one without a pre-verbal object clitic, for which an intransitive verb was temporarily a plausible option (e.g., "Il dorlote" / He cuddles) and the other with a pre-verbal object clitic, that made the appearance of an intransitive verb impossible ("Il le dorlote" / He cuddles it). Results showed a lower rate of false alarms for sentences with a pre-verbal object pronoun (3%) compared to locally ambiguous sentences (about 20%). Participants rapidly incorporate information about a verb's argument structure to constrain lexical access to verbs that match the expected

  20. Efficient auxiliary-mode approach for time-dependent nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Bogdan Stefan; Croy, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    A new scheme for numerically solving the equations arising in the time-dependent non-equilibrium Green's function formalism is developed. It is based on an auxiliary-mode expansion of the self-energies which convert the complicated set of integro-differential equations into a set of ordinary differential equations. In the new scheme all auxiliary matrices are replaced by vectors or scalars. This drastically reduces the computational effort and memory requirements of the method, rendering it applicable to topical problems in electron quantum optics and molecular electronics. As an illustrative example we consider the dynamics of a Leviton wave-packet in a 1D wire.

  1. New braneworld models in the presence of auxiliary fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bazeia, D.; Marques, M.A.; Menezes, R.; Moreira, D.C.

    2015-10-15

    We study braneworld models in the presence of auxiliary fields. We use the first-order framework to investigate several distinct possibilities, where the standard braneworld scenario changes under the presence of the parameter that controls the auxiliary fields introduced to modify Einstein’s equation. The results add to previous ones, to show that the minimal modification that we investigate contributes to change quantitatively the thick braneworld profile, although no new qualitative effect is capable of being induced by the minimal modification here considered.

  2. History of Sandia National Laboratories` auxiliary closure mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Weydert, J.C.; Ponder, G.M.

    1993-12-01

    An essential component of a horizontal, underground nuclear test setup at the Nevada Test Site is the auxiliary closure system. The massive gates that slam shut immediately after a device has been detonated allow the prompt radiation to pass, but block debris and hot gases from continuing down the tunnel. Thus, the gates protect experiments located in the horizontal line-of-sight steel pipe. Sandia National Laboratories has been the major designer and developer of these closure systems. This report records the history of SNL`s participation in and contributions to the technology of auxiliary closure systems used in horizontal tunnel tests in the underground test program.

  3. Outcome- and auxiliary-dependent subsampling and its statistical inference.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Wu, Yougui; Zhou, Haibo

    2009-11-01

    The performance of a biomarker predicting clinical outcome is often evaluated in a large prospective study. Due to high costs associated with bioassay, investigators need to select a subset from all available patients for biomarker assessment. We consider an outcome- and auxiliary-dependent subsampling (OADS) scheme, in which the probability of selecting a patient into the subset depends on the patient's clinical outcome and an auxiliary variable. We proposed a semiparametric empirical likelihood method to estimate the association between biomarker and clinical outcome. Asymptotic properties of the estimator are given. Simulation study shows that the proposed method outperforms alternative methods.

  4. Feature-Specific Event-Related Potential Effects to Action- and Sound-Related Verbs during Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Margot; Trumpp, Natalie M.; Kiefer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition theories suggest that conceptual representations essentially depend on modality-specific sensory and motor systems. Feature-specific brain activation across different feature types such as action or audition has been intensively investigated in nouns, while feature-specific conceptual category differences in verbs mainly focused on body part specific effects. The present work aimed at assessing whether feature-specific event-related potential (ERP) differences between action and sound concepts, as previously observed in nouns, can also be found within the word class of verbs. In Experiment 1, participants were visually presented with carefully matched sound and action verbs within a lexical decision task, which provides implicit access to word meaning and minimizes strategic access to semantic word features. Experiment 2 tested whether pre-activating the verb concept in a context phase, in which the verb is presented with a related context noun, modulates subsequent feature-specific action vs. sound verb processing within the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, ERP analyses revealed a differential ERP polarity pattern for action and sound verbs at parietal and central electrodes similar to previous results in nouns. Pre-activation of the meaning of verbs in the preceding context phase in Experiment 2 resulted in a polarity-reversal of feature-specific ERP effects in the lexical decision task compared with Experiment 1. This parallels analogous earlier findings for primed action and sound related nouns. In line with grounded cognitions theories, our ERP study provides evidence for a differential processing of action and sound verbs similar to earlier observation for concrete nouns. Although the localizational value of ERPs must be viewed with caution, our results indicate that the meaning of verbs is linked to different neural circuits depending on conceptual feature relevance. PMID:28018201

  5. The influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Warren, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    Event-related conceptual knowledge outside the language system rapidly affects verb-argument processing in unimpaired adults (McRae and Matsuki, 2009). Some have argued that verb-argument processing is in fact reducible to the activation of such event-related knowledge. However, data favoring this conclusion have come primarily from college-aged healthy adults, for whom both linguistic and conceptual semantic processing is fast and automatic. This study examined the influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing among adults with aphasia (n = 8) and older unimpaired controls (n = 60), in two self-paced reading studies. Participants read sentences containing a plausible verb-argument combination (Mary used a knife to chop the large carrots before dinner), a combination that violated event-related world knowledge (Mary used some bleach to clean the large carrots before dinner), or a combination that violated the verb's selectional restrictions (Mary used a pump to inflate the large carrots before dinner). The participants with aphasia naturally split into two groups: Group 1 (n = 4) had conceptual-semantic impairments (evidenced by poor performance on tasks like Pyramids & Palm Trees) but reasonably intact language processing (higher Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotients), while Group 2 (n = 4) had intact conceptual semantics but poorer language processing. Older unimpaired controls and aphasic Group 1 showed rapid on-line disruption for sentences with selectional-restriction violations (SRVs) and event-related knowledge violations, and also showed SRV-specific penalties in sentence-final acceptability judgments (Experiment 1) and comprehension questions (Experiment 2). In contrast, Group 2 showed very few reliable differences across conditions in either on-line or off-line measures. This difference between aphasic groups suggests that verb-related information and event-related knowledge may be dissociated in aphasia. Furthermore, it suggests

  6. Virtual Environment Training: Auxiliary Machinery Room (AMR) Watchstation Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hriber, Dennis C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project implemented at Newport News Shipbuilding that used Virtual Environment Training to improve the performance of submarine crewmen. Highlights include development of the Auxiliary Machine Room (AMR) Watchstation Trainer; Digital Video Interactive (DVI); screen layout; test design and evaluation; user reactions; authoring language;…

  7. Auxiliary basis expansions for large-scale electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yousung; Sodt, Alex; Gill, Peter M W; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2005-05-10

    One way to reduce the computational cost of electronic structure calculations is to use auxiliary basis expansions to approximate four-center integrals in terms of two- and three-center integrals, usually by using the variationally optimum Coulomb metric to determine the expansion coefficients. However, the long-range decay behavior of the auxiliary basis expansion coefficients has not been characterized. We find that this decay can be surprisingly slow. Numerical experiments on linear alkanes and a toy model both show that the decay can be as slow as 1/r in the distance between the auxiliary function and the fitted charge distribution. The Coulomb metric fitting equations also involve divergent matrix elements for extended systems treated with periodic boundary conditions. An attenuated Coulomb metric that is short-range can eliminate these oddities without substantially degrading calculated relative energies. The sparsity of the fit coefficients is assessed on simple hydrocarbon molecules and shows quite early onset of linear growth in the number of significant coefficients with system size using the attenuated Coulomb metric. Hence it is possible to design linear scaling auxiliary basis methods without additional approximations to treat large systems.

  8. Development of Auxiliaries in Young Children Learning African American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Stockman, Ida J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We examined language samples of young children learning African American English (AAE) to determine if and when their use of auxiliaries shows dialect-universal and dialect-specific effects. Method: The data were longitudinal language samples obtained from two children, ages 18 to 36 months, and three children, ages 33 to 51 months.…

  9. 76 FR 15791 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 56, 145, 146, and 147 RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and...: We are amending the National Poultry Improvement Plan (the Plan) and its auxiliary provisions by... Conference. These changes will keep the provisions of the Plan current with changes in the poultry...

  10. 76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the issue...

  11. Comparative assessment of selected PWR auxiliary feedwater system reliability analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Tsao, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a sample of results obtained in reviewing utility submittals of Auxiliary Feedwater System reliability studies. These results are then used to illustrate a few general points regarding such studies. The submittals and reviews for operating license applications are quite significant in that they represent an application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques in the licensing process.

  12. Auxiliary Propulsion Activities in Support of NASA's Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Philip J.; Unger, Ronald J.; Waits, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI) procurement mechanism NRA8-30 initiated the Auxiliary Propulsion System/Main Propulsion System (APS/MPS) Project in 2001 to address technology gaps and development risks for non-toxic and cryogenic propellants for auxiliary propulsion applications. These applications include reaction control and orbital maneuvering engines, and storage, pressure control, and transfer technologies associated with on-orbit maintenance of cryogens. The project has successfully evolved over several years in response to changing requirements for re-usable launch vehicle technologies, general launch technology improvements, and, most recently, exploration technologies. Lessons learned based on actual hardware performance have also played a part in the project evolution to focus now on those technologies deemed specifically relevant to the Exploration Initiative. Formal relevance reviews held in the spring of 2004 resulted in authority for continuation of the Auxiliary Propulsion Project through Fiscal Year 2005 (FY05), and provided for a direct reporting path to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The tasks determined to be relevant under the project were: continuation of the development, fabrication, and delivery of three 870 lbf thrust prototype LOX/ethanol reaction control engines; the fabrication, assembly, engine integration and testing of the Auxiliary Propulsion Test Bed at White Sands Test Facility; and the completion of FY04 cryogenic fluid management component and subsystem development tasks (mass gauging, pressure control, and liquid acquisition elements). This paper presents an overview of those tasks, their scope, expectations, and results to-date as carried forward into the Exploration Initiative.

  13. The Number Line: An Auxiliary Means or an Obstacle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoumpourdi, Chrysanthi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the ways in which the number line can function in solving mathematical tasks by first graders (6 year olds). The main research question was whether the number line functioned as an auxiliary means or as an obstacle for these students. Through analysis of the 32 students' answers it appears that the number…

  14. Search and Rescue. Auxiliary Operational Specialty Course. Student Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coast Guard, Washington, DC.

    This text, based on the National Search and Rescue (SAR) Plan, was prepared to provide a course of study on common procedures for SAR operations so that any basically qualified person in the U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary can effectively accomplish a SAR mission and act as on-scene commander if required. There are 13 chapters: Introduction to Search…

  15. 49 CFR 193.2613 - Auxiliary power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary power sources. 193.2613 Section 193.2613 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  16. Green Propulsion Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    MSFC has embarked on use of green propellant replacement of hydrazine for a variety of applications. This paper focused on activities for auxiliary power unit but MSFC is actively investigating use of green propellants for thruster applications. MSFC is interested in partnership with the international community to address the infusion of green propellant into greater use.

  17. POLICIES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE TRAINING OF DENTAL AUXILIARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Dental Education.

    ALTHOUGH THE DENTAL PROFESSION NOW SEEKS SUPPORT FOR AUXILIARY TRAINING PROGRAMS FROM EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES OTHER THAN DENTAL SCHOOLS, IT IS CONCERNED THAT TRAINING IN NONDENTAL SCHOOL SETTINGS SUCH AS JUNIOR COLLEGES, TECHNICAL INSTITUTES, UNIVERSITY EXTENSION PROGRAMS, AND POST-HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS PREVENTS TRAINEE EXPOSURE TO…

  18. Auxiliary anatomical labels for joint segmentation and atlas registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, Tobias; Szekely, Gabor; Goksel, Orcun

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies improving joint segmentation and registration by introducing auxiliary labels for anatomy that has similar appearance to the target anatomy while not being part of that target. Such auxiliary labels help avoid false positive labelling of non-target anatomy by resolving ambiguity. A known registration of a segmented atlas can help identify where a target segmentation should lie. Conversely, segmentations of anatomy in two images can help them be better registered. Joint segmentation and registration is then a method that can leverage information from both registration and segmentation to help one another. It has received increasing attention recently in the literature. Often, merely a single organ of interest is labelled in the atlas. In the presense of other anatomical structures with similar appearance, this leads to ambiguity in intensity based segmentation; for example, when segmenting individual bones in CT images where other bones share the same intensity profile. To alleviate this problem, we introduce automatic generation of additional labels in atlas segmentations, by marking similar-appearance non-target anatomy with an auxiliary label. Information from the auxiliary-labeled atlas segmentation is then incorporated by using a novel coherence potential, which penalizes differences between the deformed atlas segmentation and the target segmentation estimate. We validated this on a joint segmentation-registration approach that iteratively alternates between registering an atlas and segmenting the target image to find a final anatomical segmentation. The results show that automatic auxiliary labelling outperforms the same approach using a single label atlasses, for both mandibular bone segmentation in 3D-CT and corpus callosum segmentation in 2D-MRI.

  19. Approaching the Hartree-Fock Limit through the Complementary Auxiliary Basis Set Singles Correction and Auxiliary Basis Sets.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Robert A; Hill, J Grant

    2017-03-08

    Auxiliary basis sets for use in the resolution of the identity (RI) approximation in explicitly correlated methods are presented for the elements H-Ar. These extend the cc-pVnZ-F12/OptRI (n = D-Q) auxiliary basis sets of Peterson and co-workers by the addition of a small number of s- and p-functions, optimized so as to yield the greatest complementary auxiliary basis set (CABS) singles correction to the Hartree-Fock energy. The new sets, denoted OptRI+, also lead to a reduction in errors due to the RI approximation and hence an improvement in correlation energies. The atomization energies and heats of formation for a test set of small molecules, and spectroscopic constants for 27 diatomics, calculated at the CCSD(T)-F12b level, are shown to have improved error distributions for the new auxiliary basis sets with negligible additional effort. The OptRI+ sets retain all of the desirable properties of the original OptRI, including the production of smooth potential energy surfaces, while maintaining a compact nature.

  20. When transparency doesn't mean ease: learning the meaning of resultative verb compounds in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jidong

    2016-04-14

    Children have to figure out the lexicalization of meaning components in learning verb semantics (e.g. Behrens, 1998; Gentner, 1982; Tomasello & Brooks, 1998). The meaning of an English state-change verb (e.g. break) is divided into two portions (i.e. cause and result), respectively encoded with a separate verb in a Mandarin resultative verb compound (RVC). The majority of Mandarin monomorphemic verbs do not specify any realization of a state change (like hunt), or only imply it (like wash) (Talmy, 2000). This study examines the acquisition of the constructional meaning of RVCs and the semantic division of labor between the component verbs. Four groups of Mandarin-learning children (aged 2;6, 3;6, 4;6, and 6;1) participated in an elicitation experiment. The results reveal that, although transparency in form facilitates their learning of the state-change meanings of RVCs, Mandarin children have difficulties in unpacking the meanings of individual verbs, revealing language-specific learning issues.