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Sample records for samoyed auxiliary verb

  1. Verb Placement in Second Language Acquisition: Experimental Evidence for the Different Behavior of Auxiliary and Lexical Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of verb placement by Moroccan and Turkish second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Elicited production data corroborate earlier findings from L2 German that learners who do not produce auxiliaries do not raise lexical verbs over negation, whereas learners who produce auxiliaries do. Data from elicited…

  2. Auxiliary Verbs, Dictionaries and the Late Evolution of the Italian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinder, John J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of BE as an auxiliary verb with intransitive verbs has declined in all the Romance languages over the past five centuries. Today, Spanish and Portuguese use only HAVE, in Catalan and Romanian BE occurs in marginal contexts, and in French, BE is used with approximately 40 verbs. Italian is a notable exception, since BE is still used as the…

  3. Auxiliary Verbs, Dictionaries and the Late Evolution of the Italian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinder, John J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of BE as an auxiliary verb with intransitive verbs has declined in all the Romance languages over the past five centuries. Today, Spanish and Portuguese use only HAVE, in Catalan and Romanian BE occurs in marginal contexts, and in French, BE is used with approximately 40 verbs. Italian is a notable exception, since BE is still used as the…

  4. A suivre. La Conjugaison [le Subjonctif, Auxiliaire, Aspect, Conditionnel] (Conjugations [Subjunctive, Auxiliary Verbs, Aspect, Conditional]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerot, Jean-Louis

    1980-01-01

    Gives a grammar presentation complemented by a variety of exercises on the use of the subjunctive as opposed to the use of the indicative, on the use of the auxiliaries, on verb aspect, and on the conditional mood. (MES)

  5. An experimental analysis of auxiliary and copula verb generalization in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kearns, K P; Salmon, S J

    1984-05-01

    Two subjects with chronic Broca's aphasia were taught to produce third person singular auxiliary is in sentence contexts to determine if is production would generalize to untrained auxiliary is items and to copula is contexts. A single subject (ABAB) reversal design was employed. Results revealed that training a few exemplars of the present tense auxiliary is resulted in generalized responding to untrained auxiliary is and copula is plus predicate adjective items. Generalized responding to untrained copula is plus predicate nominative and locative items was marked by individual variability. Although auxiliary and copula is verb production was maintained on 2- and 6-week follow-up probes, transfer to spontaneous speech was negligible. The results were interpreted as providing partial support for the existence of a functional or generative response class between verbal auxiliary and the copula is verbs.

  6. Das modale Hilfsverb "will" (The Modal Auxiliary Verb "Will")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunsmann, Peter W.

    1975-01-01

    That "will" and "shall" are modal, not temporal, verbs is shown by their syntactic similarity to the modals and by the fact that they follow the same transformational rules as the modals. This example demonstrates the usefulness of transformational grammar in explaining grammatical relationships to students. (Text is in…

  7. World-Making and World-Revealing: Semantics and Pragmatics of Modal Auxiliary Verbs during the Third Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pea, Roy D.; And Others

    Extensive longitudinal data were gathered on a child's entry into the symbolically mediated modal world by examining changes in the semantics and pragmatics of her uses of modal auxiliary verbs. The data are 53 transcripts of natural conversations between a girl, Nina, and her mother recorded periodically from her 23rd month to her 39th month. The…

  8. An evaluation of the facilitative effects of inverted yes-no questions on the acquisition of auxiliary verbs.

    PubMed

    Fey, Marc E; Loeb, Diane Frome

    2002-02-01

    According to the Auxiliary Clarification Hypothesis (ACH), yes-no questions with sentence-initial auxiliaries (i.e., inverted questions) facilitate children's initial acquisition of auxiliary verbs. Sixteen 3-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 18 2-year-olds with typical language (TL) participated in an experiment to evaluate the ACH. The children were not yet making use of auxiliaries. Half of the children participated in twenty 30-min "enrichment" sessions over a 2-month period, during which an assistant produced 30 inverted question recasts in response to the child's own utterances. Fifteen question recasts contained the auxiliary is, and 15 contained the modal will. The other half of the children participated in play sessions but were not exposed to inverted is and will questions. Contrary to predictions based on the ACH, the results revealed no positive effects of the enrichment for is, for will, or for the broader BE and Modal auxiliary categories for either group of children. The children with TL demonstrated advantages over the children with SLI for the general category of BE forms but not for the category of Modals. Inverted questions may be too complex to foster the initial acquisition of auxiliaries in children not already using them productively.

  9. THE SAMOYED PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAJDU, PETER

    THIS VOLUME IS AN EXTENSIVELY REVISED AND EXPANDED VERSION OF AN EARLIER WORK BY THE SAME AUTHOR (PUBLICATION 76 OF THE HUNGARIAN LINGUISTIC SOCIETY, BUDAPEST, 1949). THE WRITER PRESENTS THE VARIOUS ASPECTS OF SAMOYED CULTURE, WHICH PLAYED A GREAT ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CULTURE OF NORTHERN SIBERIA. HE LINKS THE SAMOYEDS WITH THE…

  10. About the Spanish Verb HABER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Cecil

    1990-01-01

    The Spanish verb "haber" presents unresolved puzzles concerning its meaning and derivations. Apart from its familiar and recent function as auxiliary in the perfect tenses, the verb's underlying meaning "to have, to hold" persists in the impersonal "hay" while other morphemes previously associated with "haber" may prove unrelated. (Author/MSE)

  11. Dummy Auxiliaries in the Second Language Acquisition of Moroccan Learners of Dutch: Form and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Craats, Ineke; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    This study examines an interlanguage in which Moroccan learners of Dutch use non-thematic verbs in combination with thematic verbs that can be inflected as well. These non-thematic verbs are real dummy auxiliaries because they are deprived of semantic content and primarily have a syntactic function. Whereas in earlier second language (L2) research…

  12. Dummy Auxiliaries in the Second Language Acquisition of Moroccan Learners of Dutch: Form and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Craats, Ineke; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    This study examines an interlanguage in which Moroccan learners of Dutch use non-thematic verbs in combination with thematic verbs that can be inflected as well. These non-thematic verbs are real dummy auxiliaries because they are deprived of semantic content and primarily have a syntactic function. Whereas in earlier second language (L2) research…

  13. Modal Auxiliaries in Spanish. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Philip W.

    The author's stated purpose is to answer the questions: (1) Do auxiliary verbs exist in Spanish? If so, what are the characteristics which distinguish them as a class, and what specific verbs are included in that class? (2) Is there, in particular, a class of modal auxiliaries? If so, what are their defining characteristics, and what is the…

  14. Los problemas de contenido y de empleo del verbo haber (Problems of Meaning and Use of the Verb "Haber.")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Botero, Luis A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the derivation, meaning and both past and present uses of the Spanish verb "haber." The verb refers to relationships of possession, duration and existence, and is used as an auxiliary. Extant derivative forms of the verb in other languages and earlier Spanish meanings are noted. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  15. Los problemas de contenido y de empleo del verbo haber (Problems of Meaning and Use of the Verb "Haber.")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Botero, Luis A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the derivation, meaning and both past and present uses of the Spanish verb "haber." The verb refers to relationships of possession, duration and existence, and is used as an auxiliary. Extant derivative forms of the verb in other languages and earlier Spanish meanings are noted. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  16. Verb-Final Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogihara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a typological study of verb-final languages, the purpose of which is to examine various grammatical phenomena in verb-final languages to discover whether there are correlations between the final position of the verb and other aspects of grammar. It examines how finality of the verb interacts with argument coding in simple…

  17. The German and English Auxiliary Systems and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Terrence C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper explores the auxiliary systems of English and German and the use of the auxiliary verbs in various complex predicate structures in the two languages. It aims at alleviating two types of problems in learning German involving governing patterns and ordering problems in clauses. (CHK)

  18. Early verb constructions in French: adjacency on the left edge.

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Edy; Clark, Eve V

    2016-11-01

    Children acquiring French elaborate their early verb constructions by adding adjacent morphemes incrementally at the left edge of core verbs. This hypothesis was tested with 2657 verb uses from four children between 1;3 and 2;7. Consistent with the Adjacency Hypothesis, children added clitic subjects first only to present tense forms (as in il saute 'he jumps'); modals to infinitives (as in faut sauter 'has to jump'); and auxiliaries to past participles (as in a sauté 'has jumped'). Only after this did the children add subjects to the left of a modal or auxiliary, as in elle veut sauter 'she wants to jump', or elle a sauté 'she has jumped'. The order in which these elements were added, and the development in the frequencies of the constructions, all support the predictions of the Adjacency Hypothesis for left edge development in early verb constructions.

  19. Bulgarian Verbs of Motion: Slavic Verbs in a Balkan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Traci Speed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the motion verb system of Bulgarian, focusing both on the structure of the Bulgarian motion verb itself, and on the information typically encoded in the Bulgarian verb of motion. It then compares the Bulgarian motion verb system with the motion verb systems of two other Slavic languages, Russian and Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian…

  20. Bulgarian Verbs of Motion: Slavic Verbs in a Balkan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Traci Speed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the motion verb system of Bulgarian, focusing both on the structure of the Bulgarian motion verb itself, and on the information typically encoded in the Bulgarian verb of motion. It then compares the Bulgarian motion verb system with the motion verb systems of two other Slavic languages, Russian and Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian…

  1. The English Verb System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorayska, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Techniques of teaching the English finite verb to speakers of other languages must account for meaning that is signalled by the structure alone and meaning derived from the context. Accordingly, this study attempts to distinguish the semantic components of the finite verb structure. The structure is viewed as being always composed of the following…

  2. Light Verbs and Polysemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugman, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the polysemic structure of main verbs and their light counterparts. Suggests that light verbs are systematically related to their heavy counterparts in retaining the force-dynamic properties of the heavy sense, but that the conceptual domain in which that force-dynamic structure applies shifts from the physical to…

  3. Modal Auxiliaries and Their Semantic Functions Used by Advanced EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabiardakani, Najmeh; Khojasteh, Laleh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Since modal auxiliary verbs have been proved to be one of the most troublesome grammatical structures in English, the researchers of this study decided to do an analysis on the ways in which advanced EFL Iranian students use modal auxiliaries focusing specially on nine modals' semantic functions. Consequently, was conducted based on the following…

  4. New Mexican Spanish Verb Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, J. Donald

    This paper presents a morphophonemic analysis of the characteristics that distinguish verb structure in New Mexican Spanish from that of Standard Spanish. Verb structure and classification are discussed, and verbs are analyzed as being composed of four components: stem, thematic vowel, tense-aspect, and person-number. Verbs are classified as…

  5. Learning verbs without arguments: the problem of raising verbs.

    PubMed

    Becker, Misha

    2005-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning the class of raising verbs (e.g seem). These verbs are potentially problematic for learners in that unlike typical main verbs these verbs do not stand in a semantic relation with any Noun Phrase (NP) arguments. Moreover, a second class of verbs, known as control verbs, shares certain distributional properties with raising verbs, but the two verb classes differ in important structural properties. The central problem addressed here is that of how a learner would distinguish raising verbs from control verbs, given their partial overlap in distribution. A series of experiments with English-speaking adults using a fill-in-the-blank questionnaire revealed two main types of cues that led participants to distinguish the two verb classes: inanimate NPs and semantically empty subjects ("it's raining") yielded the highest proportion of raising verb responses from adults, while animate NPs paired with eventive predicates yielded a high rate of control verb responses. On the basis of these results, suggestions are made as to how one should study the learning of these verbs in children.

  6. Chuave Medial Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses two syntactic processes known as chaining and linkage, insofar as they are relevant to Chuave, a Papuan language spoken in the East New Guinea Highlands. These processes are discussed in relation to Chuave medial verbs. (CLK)

  7. Psychological Aspects of Transitive Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; Rohrman, Nicholas L.

    1970-01-01

    The experiments reported here confirmed the findings of earlier researchers that transitive verbs are more difficult to recall than intransitive ones and furthermore established a close relationship between transitive verbs and nouns. Implications for linguistic theory are discussed. (FB)

  8. How to Teach Phrasal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mart, Cagri Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Teaching phrasal verbs is a difficult area. Many a study has proved that contextualization has an important positive effect on the ability of the students to decipher the correct meaning of a phrasal verb. In this article you will read some useful approaches to the presentation of phrasal verbs through context to improve the students' level of…

  9. Modal Auxiliary Verbs in Prescribed Malaysian English Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Khojasteh, Laleh

    2011-01-01

    The use of corpus-based findings in order to inform L2 teaching materials have been emphasized by many researchers owing to the fact that the studies of authentic texts have revealed some inconsistencies between the use of grammatical structures in corpora, and those found in language textbooks that are based purely on hunch. Therefore, by…

  10. Unaccusative Verbs in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyagawa, Shigeru

    An approach to the study of numeral quantifiers in Japanese reveals some fundamental properties of Japanese, especially those pertaining to movement. Using numeral quantifiers, a demonstration shows that the subject of unaccusative verbs in Japanese originates in the object position and moves to the subject position at S-structure. It is also…

  11. Italian Verb Inflection in Alzheimer Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Lucia; Fonti, Cristina; Stracciari, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    A group of 20 patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) and a control group were tested in a verb generation task, in a verb synonym task and several cognitive tests. Three types of verbs and novel verbs were presented in simple sentence frames, in two different conditions. In one condition participants were presented with the verb in the…

  12. String Vacuous Overt Verb Raising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koisumi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Presents evidence for overt verb raising in Japanese, thereby defending the validity of the head parameter with its two values (head initial and head final). Explores consequences of the overt verb raising analysis of Japanese to various aspects of syntactic theory. (Author/VWL)

  13. RESULTATIVE VERBS AND OTHER PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HASHIMOTO, ANNE YUE

    THE SO-CALLED RESULTATIVE VERBS IN MANDARIN CHINESE ARE STUDIED WITHIN THE GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. THE RESULTATIVE VERBS ARE GENERALLY CONSIDERED AS CONSISTING OF TWO COMPONENTS--A VERBAL COMPONENT FOLLOWED BY A RESULTATIVE OR DIRECTIONAL COMPLEMENT. OTHER PROBLEMS RELATED TO COMPLEMENTS ARE ALSO TOUCHED UPON, FOR EXAMPLE,…

  14. String Vacuous Overt Verb Raising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koisumi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Presents evidence for overt verb raising in Japanese, thereby defending the validity of the head parameter with its two values (head initial and head final). Explores consequences of the overt verb raising analysis of Japanese to various aspects of syntactic theory. (Author/VWL)

  15. Acquiring Clothing Verbs in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameyama, Megumi

    The acquisition order of four Japanese verbs for the act of clothing was investigated. Each of the verbs investigated corresponds to the act of clothing different body parts. There are two theories for the prediction of acquisition order: the checklist and the prototype theories of word meaning. According to the checklist view, word meanings…

  16. The Illusory Co-Verb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J. Charles

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that there is no such part of speech in Chinese as the "co-verb" and demonstrates that such forms are simply transitive verbs which, in addition to several other Chinese structures, are used to translate English sentences with prepositional phrases. (FWB)

  17. Are Modal Auxiliaries in Malaysian English Language Textbooks in Line with Their Usage in Real Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Laleh; Kafipour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Based on the discrepancies found in many Malaysian English language textbooks, a detailed analysis on the way modal auxiliary verb forms and their semantic functions were introduced and presented in texts and exercises in five Malaysian textbooks was done. For that to be achieved, a qualitative page-by-page content analysis was applied. From the…

  18. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  19. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  20. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  1. On the Classification of Russian Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornyn, William S.

    1948-01-01

    An introduction to the Russian phonemic system leads to a model classification of verb forms derived from the infinitive and present stems of selected verbs. Correspondences between the two sets of verb forms are listed. A brief history of attempts at verb classification concentrates on the theory of Meyer, Berneker, and Bloomfield. A complete…

  2. Auxiliary Power Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-17

    Auxiliary Power Units Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to...information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports ...1. REPORT DATE 17 NOV 2010 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Auxiliary Power Units 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  3. Objects, Events and "to Be" Verbs in Spanish--An ERP Study of the Syntax-Semantics Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone-Fernandez, Barbara; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A.

    2012-01-01

    In Spanish, objects and events at subject position constrain the selection of different forms of the auxiliary verb "to be": locative predicates about objects require "estar en", while those relating to events require "ser en", both translatable as "to be in". Subjective ratings showed that while the "object + ser + en" is considered as incorrect,…

  4. Objects, Events and "to Be" Verbs in Spanish--An ERP Study of the Syntax-Semantics Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone-Fernandez, Barbara; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A.

    2012-01-01

    In Spanish, objects and events at subject position constrain the selection of different forms of the auxiliary verb "to be": locative predicates about objects require "estar en", while those relating to events require "ser en", both translatable as "to be in". Subjective ratings showed that while the "object + ser + en" is considered as incorrect,…

  5. Auxiliary incinerator apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, J.P.

    1987-08-11

    An auxiliary incinerator apparatus is described for an incinerator comprising: a main incinerator having primary and secondary chambers formed with a plurality of refractory walls, the main incinerator having a main door into the primary chamber, and the main incinerator having an outer framework and walls spaced from the refractory walls, and one refractory wall having an opening therethrough; a refractory passageway extending from the opening in the main incinerator wall to the outer wall and having an opening through the outer wall; an auxiliary incinerator attached to one side of the main incinerator adjacent to the opening from the refractory passageway through the outer wall, the auxiliary incinerator having an incineration chamber formed therein with an opening thereinto; and auxiliary door means for opening and closing over the opening from the refractory passageway through the outer wall and for opening and closing over the opening into the auxiliary incinerator, whereby partially incinerated materials can be moved from the main incinerator to the auxiliary incinerator for further combustion.

  6. Sodium channel auxiliary subunits.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tsai-Tien; McMahon, Allison M; Johnson, Victoria T; Mangubat, Erwin Z; Zahm, Robert J; Pacold, Mary E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are well known for their functional roles in excitable tissues. Excitable tissues rely on voltage-gated ion channels and their auxiliary subunits to achieve concerted electrical activity in living cells. Auxiliary subunits are also known to provide functional diversity towards the transport and biogenesis properties of the principal subunits. Recent interests in pharmacological properties of these auxiliary subunits have prompted significant amounts of efforts in understanding their physiological roles. Some auxiliary subunits can potentially serve as drug targets for novel analgesics. Three families of sodium channel auxiliary subunits are described here: beta1 and beta3, beta2 and beta4, and temperature-induced paralytic E (TipE). While sodium channel beta-subunits are encoded in many animal genomes, TipE has only been found exclusively in insects. In this review, we present phylogenetic analyses, discuss potential evolutionary origins and functional data available for each of these subunits. For each family, we also correlate the functional specificity with the history of evolution for the individual auxiliary subunits.

  7. Effects of Noun-Verb Conceptual/ Phonological Relatedness on Verb Production Changes in Broca's Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngmi Sophia; Goral, Mira; Verkuilen, Jay; Kempler, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with Broca's aphasia show better performance on nouns than on verbs, but distinction between nouns and verbs is not always clear; some verbs are conceptually and/ or phonologically related to nouns, while others are not. Inconsistent results on effects of noun-verb relatedness on verb production have been reported in the literature. We investigated (1) whether verb instrumentality (a conceptual relationship to nouns) or homonymy (a phonological relationship to nouns) would affect verb production in individuals with Broca's aphasia and (2) whether conceptual/ phonological noun-verb relationship would affect responsiveness to aphasia therapy that focused on verb production. Three English speaking individuals with Broca's aphasia produced 96 verbs in sentences in response to picture stimuli. The target verbs included those that use an instrument and those that do not (e.g., to hammer vs. to yawn) and verbs that are phonologically identical to a related noun (e.g., to comb - a comb), morpho-phonologically-related to a noun (e.g., to grind - a grinder), and verbs for which there is no phonologically similar noun (e.g., to lean). The participants' verb retrieval ability was assessed before and after a 4-week period of aphasia therapy. The participants produced more accurate instrumental than non-instrumental verbs both pre- and post-treatment. They also produced more verbs correctly that are homonyms of nouns than verbs that are phonologically related or unrelated to nouns before treatment. However, the effect of homonymy was not observed following treatment. Individuals with Broca's aphasia were more accurate in their production of verbs that were conceptually and phonologically related to nouns than on verb that were not. The performance on verb production improved significantly after therapy. We interpret the results to indicate that whereas prior to treatment the participants relied on phonologically related nouns to retrieve the target verbs, this

  8. Learning Transitive Verbs from Single-Word Verbs in the Input by Young Children Acquiring English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    The environmental context of verbs addressed by adults to young children is claimed to be uninformative regarding the verbs' meaning, yielding the Syntactic Bootstrapping Hypothesis that, for verb learning, full sentences are needed to demonstrate the semantic arguments of verbs. However, reanalysis of Gleitman's (1990) original data regarding…

  9. Learning Transitive Verbs from Single-Word Verbs in the Input by Young Children Acquiring English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    The environmental context of verbs addressed by adults to young children is claimed to be uninformative regarding the verbs' meaning, yielding the Syntactic Bootstrapping Hypothesis that, for verb learning, full sentences are needed to demonstrate the semantic arguments of verbs. However, reanalysis of Gleitman's (1990) original data regarding…

  10. Agrammatic aphasia verb and argument patterns in Kiswahili-English spontaneous language.

    PubMed

    Sang, Hillary K

    2015-06-08

    The spontaneous and narrative language of Kiswahili agrammatic aphasic and non-brain-damaged speakers was analysed. The bilingual participants were also tested in English to enable comparisons of verb production in the two languages. The significance of this study was to characterise bilingual Kiswahili-English spontaneous agrammatic output. This was done by describing Kiswahili-English bilingual output data with a specific focus on the production of verbs. The description involves comparison of verb and argument production in Kiswahili and English. The participants recruited for this study were drawn from two groups of participants (six non-fluent aphasic/agrammatic speakers and six non-brain-damaged). From each participant, a sample of spontaneous output was tape-recorded in English and Kiswahili based on the description and narration of the Flood rescue picture' and the 'Cookie theft picture'. The data elicited were compared for each subject and between the participants and relevant verb parameters have been analysed. The variables that were studied included mean length of utterance (MLU), inflectional errors, verb tokens and types, copulas and auxiliaries. Further, all verbs produced were classified as per their argument structure. The results from English data supported previous findings on agrammatic output. The agrammatic participants produced utterances with shorter MLU and simpler sentence structure. However, Kiswahili data surprisingly showed reversed results, with agrammatic speakers producing longer utterances than non-brain-damaged (NBD) controls. The results also revealed selective impairment in some agrammatic speakers who made inflectional errors. The verb argument structure showed contrasting results, with agrammatic speakers preferring transitive verbs whilst the NBD speakers used more intransitive verbs. The study attempts for the first time to characterise English-Kiswahili bilingual spontaneous and narrative output. A quantitative analysis of

  11. MC4000 Auxiliary Mover.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    EPOT NR-Ir -GOVT ACCESIN O . 11IMPINT’S CATALOG RUNUB 4. TITLE (and MOOdl ) S.Type or RmEORT a .gmoed cveffm Final. MC4000 AUXILIARY MOVER 6... Limited testing was conducted by the J. 1. Case Company to certify completion of the design objectives; final interface and brake system performance...identified the major capa- bilities and expected limitations of the MC4000 as an auziliary mover. The concept of using the uC4000 as the auxiliary mover

  12. The First Noun Principle and Ambitransitive Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored native English speakers' interpretations of second-language Spanish sentences featuring an animate subject and an ambitransitive verb (e.g., "Escuchan bien los ninos" "The children listen well"). First- (N=37), third- (N=39), and fifth-semester (N=23) participants heard eight subject-verb (SV) and eight verb-subject (VS)…

  13. The Schetic Categories of the Tlingit Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leer, Jeffry A.

    An analysis of verbs in Tlingit, a U.S. Northwest Coast Indian language, begins with an overview of its situation and usage and of previous research. The second chapter sketches its phonological and syntactic characteristics. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with the verb. An analysis of verb categories distinguishes two groups: argumental…

  14. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  15. Children Use Syntax to Learn Verb Meanings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naigles, Letitia

    1990-01-01

    Provides an experimental validation of Landau and Gleitman's (1985) syntactic bootstrapping procedure on how children may use syntactic information to learn new verbs. The children's choice of the correct referent for a given verb versus a nonsense verb in two syntactic structures is explained. (37 references) (GLR)

  16. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  17. The First Noun Principle and Ambitransitive Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored native English speakers' interpretations of second-language Spanish sentences featuring an animate subject and an ambitransitive verb (e.g., "Escuchan bien los ninos" "The children listen well"). First- (N=37), third- (N=39), and fifth-semester (N=23) participants heard eight subject-verb (SV) and eight verb-subject (VS)…

  18. Topics in the Nez Perce Verb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Amy Rose

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates several topics in the morphology, syntax and semantics of the Nez Perce verb and verbal clause. The first part of the dissertation focuses on the morphological segmentation of the Nez Perce verb and on the semantic description of the verb and clause. Chapter 1 provides a grammar sketch. Chapter 2 discusses the…

  19. Body Parts and Early-Learned Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maouene, Josita; Hidaka, Shohei; Smith, Linda B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the structure of associations among 101 common verbs and body parts. The verbs are those typically learned by children learning English prior to 3 years of age. In a free association task, 50 adults were asked to provide the single body part that came to mind when they thought of each verb. Analyses reveal highly systematic…

  20. Topics in the Nez Perce Verb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Amy Rose

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates several topics in the morphology, syntax and semantics of the Nez Perce verb and verbal clause. The first part of the dissertation focuses on the morphological segmentation of the Nez Perce verb and on the semantic description of the verb and clause. Chapter 1 provides a grammar sketch. Chapter 2 discusses the…

  1. Intensifying Modifiers for Chinese Modal Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaozhao

    While English modal verbs have been studied extensively, Chinese modal verbs have only been analyzed in a general way. A discussion of the six properties of Chinese modal verbs by Li and Thompson (1981, 1997) examined this area, though some of the properties that they proposed appear to be inaccurate or flawed. This paper concentrates on one of…

  2. A NEW CLASSIFICATION FOR THE JAPANESE VERB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAKAHASHI, GEORGE

    JAPANESE VERBS AND THE PARTICLES WHICH OFTEN ACCOMPANY THEM PRESENT DIFFICULTIES TO LEARNERS OF THAT LANGUAGE. THE TRADITIONAL GRAMMATICAL TERMS, "TRANSITIVE" AND "INTRANSITIVE" (VERBS), REFLECT CONCEPTS WHICH ARE VALID IN ENGLISH BUT NOT IN JAPANESE. THE AUTHOR, IN ATTEMPTING TO CLASSIFY ALL JAPANESE VERBS ACCORDING TO THEIR…

  3. Auxiliary and Service Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumph, Wayne J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the operation of auxiliary enterprises (i.e., college-owned and operated satellite business operations); service departments (i.e., college units that provide specialized services to other college units); and other revenue-producing units at community colleges. Suggests effective management and operational practices. Discusses the…

  4. 575 Tlingit Verbs: A Study of Tlingit Verb Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Keri M.

    2013-01-01

    The Tlingit language, indigenous to Southeast Alaska and neighboring parts of British Columbia and the Yukon territory, is related to the Athabascan languages and the recently extinct language Eyak. Like Athabascan and Eyak, Tlingit verbal morphology is highly complex. The conjugation of Tlingit verbs is unpredictable in certain respects, making…

  5. 575 Tlingit Verbs: A Study of Tlingit Verb Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Keri M.

    2013-01-01

    The Tlingit language, indigenous to Southeast Alaska and neighboring parts of British Columbia and the Yukon territory, is related to the Athabascan languages and the recently extinct language Eyak. Like Athabascan and Eyak, Tlingit verbal morphology is highly complex. The conjugation of Tlingit verbs is unpredictable in certain respects, making…

  6. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  7. The Zulu Ditransitive Verb Phrase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Nikki

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, several related aspects of arguments to ditransitive verbs are explored. The aim is to discover in what ways certain asymmetries in what is frequently referred to as a "symmetric object" language are interconnected while still allowing the other symmetric object behavior. These asymmetries are: (1) The requirement that the…

  8. Vocalic Variations in Spanish Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Linda Schwartz; Sanders, Gerald A.

    1977-01-01

    Roots of Spanish verbs exhibit systematic vowel alternations. In traditional accounts of these alternations, the mid simplex nuclei are assumed to be basic, with complex nuclei being derived from them by rule. This paper suggests an alternative analysis assuming that the complex nuclei are more basic than the simplex ones. (CHK)

  9. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

  10. Cinque's Functional Verbs in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlett, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntax of a number of subcategories of verb in French which are compatible with a following bare infinitive and which express various kinds of grammatical tense, mood, modality, aspect and voice, as well as such (more lexical?) notions as perception, causation and locomotion. The article starts by cataloguing a number…

  11. Verb Tone Patterns in Lamnsok

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebe, Karl; Grebe, Winnifred

    1975-01-01

    The article discusses the tonal system of Lamnsok, a language spoken in the North-West province of the United Republic of Cameroun with specific reference to verbs. The tone pattern for a given clause is dependent on various factors handled at length. Charts and extensive examples accompany the text. (CLK)

  12. Nouns, Verbs and NP Complements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, J. T.

    This paper investigates restrictions on three types of noun-phrase complements (gerundive, infinitive, clause) in English and seeks to point out some parallels between the occurrence of these three types in object positions. The author first presents a list of verbs which may be followed by noun-phrase complements; he then considers the occurrence…

  13. Czech Basic Course: Verb List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, William; Vit, Karel V.

    This compilation of verbs, intended for students of the Defense Language Institute (DLI) Basic Course, provides brief definitions for each entry. No sentence examples are included. The text is intended to serve as a compact reference and study aid. Examples are selected from the Basic Course and the DLI Czech-English Dictionary. Entries are listed…

  14. Auxiliary supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mylar, J.L.; O'toole, J.P.

    1982-10-19

    An internal combustion engine has a carburetor, with a throttle valve and a choke valve, that delivers a fuel-air mixture to the intake manifold. An auxiliary system uses a blending chamber which feeds the manifold exclusive of the engine carburetor and through a metering valve that responds to engine vacuum level for controlling the amount of blend drawn through the blending chamber. At the inlet of the blending chamber is an atomizing throat fed with fuel and air. The drawing of the blend from the outlet of the chamber draws air through the throat and into comminglement with liquid fuel which is atomized by action of the throat. Under normal operating conditions and adjustment, the auxiliary system improves engine performance by increasing fuel economy and reducing engine exhaust pollution.

  15. Diversity Matters: Parent Input Predicts Toddler Verb Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ning; Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of parent input to children's subsequent expressive verb diversity was explored in twenty typically developing toddlers with small verb lexicons. Child developmental factors and parent input measures (i.e. verb quantity, verb diversity, and verb-related structural cues) at age 1;9 were examined as potential predictors of…

  16. [Take] and the ASL Verb Complex: An Autolexical Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metlay, Donald S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation will show how linguistic description and an Autolexical account of the bound verb root [take] shed a light on the nature of complex verb constructions in American Sign Language (ASL). This is accomplished by creating a new ASL Verb Complex Model unifying all verbs into one category of VERB. This model also accounts for a variety…

  17. Diversity Matters: Parent Input Predicts Toddler Verb Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ning; Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of parent input to children's subsequent expressive verb diversity was explored in twenty typically developing toddlers with small verb lexicons. Child developmental factors and parent input measures (i.e. verb quantity, verb diversity, and verb-related structural cues) at age 1;9 were examined as potential predictors of…

  18. Cortical signatures of noun and verb production.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Kevin A; Moo, Lauren R; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2006-01-31

    Categories like "noun" and "verb" represent the basic units of grammar in all human languages, and the retrieval of categorical information associated with words is an essential step in the production of grammatical speech. Studies of brain-damaged patients suggest that knowledge of nouns and verbs can be spared or impaired selectively; however, the neuroanatomical correlates of this dissociation are not well understood. We used event-related functional MRI to identify cortical regions that were active when English-speaking subjects produced nouns or verbs in the context of short phrases. Two regions, in the left prefrontal cortex and left superior parietal lobule, were selectively activated for verb trials compared with noun trials; one region in the left inferior temporal lobe was more active during noun production than verb production. We propose that these regions are involved in representing core conceptual properties of nouns and verbs.

  19. Do Early Noun and Verb Production Predict Later Verb and Noun Production? Theoretical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have addressed the question of the relative dominance of nouns over verbs in the productive vocabularies of children in the second year of life. Surprisingly, cross-class (noun-to-verb and verb-to-noun) relations between these two lexical categories have seldom been investigated. The present longitudinal study employed observational…

  20. Neural correlates of abstract verb processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Gennari, Silvia P; Davies, Robert; Cuetos, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates of the processing of abstract (low imageability) verbs. An extensive body of literature has investigated concrete versus abstract nouns but little is known about how abstract verbs are processed. Spanish abstract verbs including emotion verbs (e.g., amar, "to love"; molestar, "to annoy") were compared to concrete verbs (e.g., llevar, "to carry"; arrastrar, "to drag"). Results indicated that abstract verbs elicited stronger activity in regions previously associated with semantic retrieval such as inferior frontal, anterior temporal, and posterior temporal regions, and that concrete and abstract activation networks (compared to that of pseudoverbs) were partially distinct, with concrete verbs eliciting more posterior activity in these regions. In contrast to previous studies investigating nouns, verbs strongly engage both left and right inferior frontal gyri, suggesting, as previously found, that right prefrontal cortex aids difficult semantic retrieval. Together with previous evidence demonstrating nonverbal conceptual roles for the active regions as well as experiential content for abstract word meanings, our results suggest that abstract verbs impose greater demands on semantic retrieval or property integration, and are less consistent with the view that abstract words recruit left-lateralized regions because they activate verbal codes or context, as claimed by proponents of the dual-code theory. Moreover, our results are consistent with distributed accounts of semantic memory because distributed networks may coexist with varying retrieval demands.

  1. Manual with auxiliary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission of the type in which a manual transmission has two parallel shafts. One shaft is connected through a transmission clutch to an engine in which manual transmission is connected in series to an auxiliary transmission having high and low speed transmission lines. The auxiliary transmission has a high speed transmission line equipped with a hydraulic clutch and a low speed transmission line equipped with a one-way clutch for allowing the overrun of the output side of the low speed transmission line so that the low speed transmission line is established when the hydraulic clutch is released. The high speed transmission is established when the hydraulic clutch is applied. A sleeve shaft is on one of the two shafts. A transmission gear mechanism connects the sleeve shaft to the other shaft. One shaft has an extension with a fixed gear. A coacting gear is fixed on the sleeve shaft, the hydraulic clutch and coacting gear positioned on the extension of one shaft, an idle gear mechanism in meshing engagement with both the coacting gear and the fixed gear. The idle gear mechanism has a low speed transmission line one-way clutch, and the hydraulic clutch is operable to connect and disconnect the sleeve shaft to and from the one shaft.

  2. The Effects of Verb Argument Complexity on Verb Production in Persons with Aphasia: Evidence from a Subject-Object-Verb Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jee Eun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of verb argument complexity on verb production in individuals with aphasia using a verb-final language. The verb-argument complexity was examined by the number of arguments (1-, 2-, and 3-place) and the types of arguments (unaccusative vs. unergative comparisons). Fifteen Korean-speaking…

  3. The Effects of Verb Argument Complexity on Verb Production in Persons with Aphasia: Evidence from a Subject-Object-Verb Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jee Eun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of verb argument complexity on verb production in individuals with aphasia using a verb-final language. The verb-argument complexity was examined by the number of arguments (1-, 2-, and 3-place) and the types of arguments (unaccusative vs. unergative comparisons). Fifteen Korean-speaking…

  4. Verb bias and verb-specific competition effects on sentence production

    PubMed Central

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Evans, Daniel G.; Poudel, Sonali

    2017-01-01

    How do speakers choose between structural options for expressing a given meaning? Overall preference for some structures over others as well as prior statistical association between specific verbs and sentence structures (“verb bias”) are known to broadly influence language use. However, the effects of prior statistical experience on the planning and execution of utterances and the mechanisms that facilitate structural choice for verbs with different biases have not been fully explored. In this study, we manipulated verb bias for English double-object (DO) and prepositional-object (PO) dative structures: some verbs appeared solely in the DO structure (DO-only), others solely in PO (PO-only) and yet others equally in both (Equi). Structural choices during subsequent free-choice sentence production revealed the expected dispreference for DO overall but critically also a reliable linear trend in DO production that was consistent with verb bias (DO-only > Equi > PO-only). Going beyond the general verb bias effect, three results suggested that Equi verbs, which were associated equally with the two structures, engendered verb-specific competition and required additional resources for choosing the dispreferred DO structure. First, DO production with Equi verbs but not the other verbs correlated with participants’ inhibition ability. Second, utterance duration prior to the choice of a DO structure showed a quadratic trend (DO-only < Equi > PO-only) with the longest durations for Equi verbs. Third, eye movements consistent with reimagining the event also showed a quadratic trend (DO-only < Equi > PO-only) prior to choosing DO, suggesting that participants used such recall particularly for Equi verbs. Together, these analyses of structural choices, utterance durations, eye movements and individual differences in executive functions shed light on the effects of verb bias and verb-specific competition on sentence production and the role of different executive functions

  5. Diversity matters: parent input predicts toddler verb production.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ning; Hadley, Pamela A; Rispoli, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of parent input to children's subsequent expressive verb diversity was explored in twenty typically developing toddlers with small verb lexicons. Child developmental factors and parent input measures (i.e. verb quantity, verb diversity, and verb-related structural cues) at age 1;9 were examined as potential predictors of children's verb production in spontaneous language samples at age 2;3. Parent verb input diversity, rather than input quantity, was the primary input factor contributing to children's subsequent verb diversity. Regression analysis showed that verb diversity in parent input at age 1;9 accounted for 30% of the variance in children's verb production six months later, with children's total vocabulary size at age 1;9 accounting for an additional 16% of the variance. These findings demonstrate the relative contributions of developmental and input factors to individual differences in toddlers' language development and establish the importance of input diversity to verb acquisition.

  6. Auxiliary air injector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, R.L.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes an auxiliary air injector assembly kit for replacement use to connect a secondary air line from an engine air pump to an exhaust pipe in a variety of combustion engine exhaust systems. The exhaust pipe has an auxiliary air receiving hole formed in a wall thereof. The assembly comprises a flexible conduit adapted to be readily cut to length and connected at one end to the secondary air line, a metal tube, means for connecting a first end of the metal tube to the other end of the flexible conduit, and a hollow fitting with an air flow-through passage and having a conical portion adapted to fit in the hole in a leak resistant manner. The fitting has a bearing portion with a convex spherical surface located outside the exhaust pipe when the conical portion is in the hole. A second end of the metal tube has a flange with a concave spherical surface to seat against the convex spherical surface in a leak resistant manner. A clamp means connects the metal tube to the exhaust pipe and applies pressure on the metal tube flange against the bearing portion of the fitting to hold the fitting in the hole. The clamp means includes a saddle having an opening larger than the tube but smaller than the tube flange. The tube extends through the saddle opening. The clamp means also includes a U-bolt assembly for extending around the exhaust pipe and forcing the saddle against the tube flange and toward the exhaust pipe.

  7. Student Services and Auxiliary Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    A greater number of campuses have broadened concepts related to student development connecting traditional student affairs and campus auxiliary services. This connection is increasingly evident in the evolution of sustainability concerns and activities. This chapter explores the role of campus auxiliaries in the promotion of campus environmental…

  8. Student Services and Auxiliary Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    A greater number of campuses have broadened concepts related to student development connecting traditional student affairs and campus auxiliary services. This connection is increasingly evident in the evolution of sustainability concerns and activities. This chapter explores the role of campus auxiliaries in the promotion of campus environmental…

  9. Broca's Aphasia, Verbs and the Mental Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; van Zonneveld, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Verb production is notoriously difficult for individuals with Broca's aphasia, both at the word and at the sentence level. An intriguing question is at which level in the speech production these problems arise. The aim of the present study is to identify the functional locus of the impairment that results in verb production deficits in Broca's…

  10. Verb Biases Are Shaped through Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryskin, Rachel A.; Qi, Zhenghan; Duff, Melissa C.; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Verbs often participate in more than 1 syntactic structure, but individual verbs can be biased in terms of whether they are used more often with 1 structure or the other. For instance, in a sentence such as "Bop the bunny with the flower," the phrase "with the flower" is more likely to indicate an instrument with which to…

  11. Structure of Complex Verb Forms in Meiteilon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Lourembam Surjit

    2016-01-01

    This piece of work proposes to descriptively investigate the structures of complex verbs in Meiteilon. The categorization of such verbs is based on the nature of semantic and syntactic functions of a lexeme or verbal lexeme. A lexeme or verbal lexeme in Meiteilon may have multifunctional properties in the nature of occurrence. Such lexical items…

  12. Attention to Novel Objects during Verb Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Alan W.; Smith, Linda B.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether preschoolers attend to actions or object when learning a novel verb. Findings showed that children learning nouns in the context of novel, moving objects attended exclusively to appearances of objects. Children learning verbs attended equally to appearances and motions. With familiar objects, children…

  13. Toddlers' Verb Lexicon Diversity and Grammatical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Hsu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to quantify longitudinal expectations for verb lexicon growth and to determine whether verb lexicon measures were better predictors of later grammatical outcomes than noun lexicon measures. Method: Longitudinal parent-report measures from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Fenson et al.,…

  14. Sound symbolism facilitates early verb learning.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel sound-symbolic verbs whose sounds were judged to match certain actions better than others, as confirmed by adult Japanese- as well as English speakers, and by 2- and 3-year-old Japanese-speaking children. These sound-symbolic verbs, together with other novel non-sound-symbolic verbs, were used in a verb learning task with 3-year-old Japanese children. In line with the previous literature, 3-year-olds could not generalize the meaning of novel non-sound-symbolic verbs on the basis of the sameness of action. However, 3-year-olds could correctly generalize the meaning of novel sound-symbolic verbs. These results suggest that iconic scaffolding by means of sound symbolism plays an important role in early verb learning.

  15. Situational Properties of Early Verb Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuvelier, Pol

    To test the claim that verbs consistently occur in particular illocutionary contexts and that illocutionary context thus should be included in models of early verb meanings, a Dutch-speaking child participated in a naturalistic case study in his home, as he grew between the ages of two and three years. The researcher taped the child's interactions…

  16. Toddlers' Verb Lexicon Diversity and Grammatical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Hsu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to quantify longitudinal expectations for verb lexicon growth and to determine whether verb lexicon measures were better predictors of later grammatical outcomes than noun lexicon measures. Method: Longitudinal parent-report measures from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Fenson et al.,…

  17. The Verb-Lists of Modern French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews and compares the main published repertoires of French verbs. By combining the material from these different sources, one can construct a database of approximately 10,300 formally distinct verbs. It is suggested that analysis of such a wide corpus may reveal structures not yet acknowledged. (Author/LMO)

  18. NOBELS Action Verbs and Synonyms, Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanham, Frank W.; Weber, Cathryn P.

    1970-01-01

    A taxonomy and a list of 108 verbs and their synonyms were compiled as first steps in developing a common language for describing the content of business and office education. By synthesizing the initial data, 57 principal verbs and their 162 synonyms proved adequate for describing 4,548 office tasks. Educational implications will be discussed in…

  19. Cortical signatures of noun and verb production

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Kevin A.; Moo, Lauren R.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Categories like “noun” and “verb” represent the basic units of grammar in all human languages, and the retrieval of categorical information associated with words is an essential step in the production of grammatical speech. Studies of brain-damaged patients suggest that knowledge of nouns and verbs can be spared or impaired selectively; however, the neuroanatomical correlates of this dissociation are not well understood. We used event-related functional MRI to identify cortical regions that were active when English-speaking subjects produced nouns or verbs in the context of short phrases. Two regions, in the left prefrontal cortex and left superior parietal lobule, were selectively activated for verb trials compared with noun trials; one region in the left inferior temporal lobe was more active during noun production than verb production. We propose that these regions are involved in representing core conceptual properties of nouns and verbs. PMID:16432232

  20. The Causes and Consequences Explicit in Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Hartshorne, Joshua K.; O’Donnell, Timothy J.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of a pronoun in one clause can be systematically affected by the verb in the previous clause. Compare Archibald angered Bartholomew because he… (he=Archibald) with Archibald criticized Bartholomew because he… (he=Bartholomew). While it is clear that meaning plays a critical role, it is unclear whether that meaning is directly encoded in the verb or, alternatively, inferred from world knowledge. We report evidence favoring the former account. We elicited pronoun biases for 502 verbs from seven Levin verb classes in two discourse contexts (implicit causality and implicit consequentiality), showing that in both contexts, verb class reliably predicts pronoun bias. These results confirm and extend recent findings about implicit causality and represent the first such study for implicit consequentiality. We discuss these findings in the context of recent work in semantics, and also develop a new, probabilistic generative account of pronoun interpretation. PMID:26052518

  1. Acquisition of English Verb Transitivity by Native Speakers of Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagano, Tomonori

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with the acquisition of English verb transitivity by native speakers of Japanese. Both a verb's semantic class (Levin, 1993; Pinker, 1989) and its frequency (Ambridge et al., 2008) have been proposed to influence the acquisition of verbs in L1. For example, verbs whose meaning entails change-of-location or…

  2. Breaking into the Hebrew Verb System: A Learning Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkenazi, Orit; Ravid, Dorit; Gillis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Verb learning is an important part of linguistic acquisition. The present study examines the early phases of verb acquisition in Hebrew, a language with complex derivational and inflectional verb morphology, analyzing verbs in dense recordings of CDS and CS of two Hebrew-speaking parent-child dyads aged 1;8-2;2. The goal was to pinpoint those cues…

  3. The Electrophysiological Manifestation of Dutch Verb Second Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the processing of violations of the verb position in Dutch, in a group of healthy subjects, by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) through electroencephalography (EEG). In Dutch, the base position of the verb is clause final, but in matrix clauses, the finite verb is in second position, a construction known as "Verb Second".…

  4. Acquisition of English Verb Transitivity by Native Speakers of Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagano, Tomonori

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with the acquisition of English verb transitivity by native speakers of Japanese. Both a verb's semantic class (Levin, 1993; Pinker, 1989) and its frequency (Ambridge et al., 2008) have been proposed to influence the acquisition of verbs in L1. For example, verbs whose meaning entails change-of-location or…

  5. Breaking into the Hebrew Verb System: A Learning Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkenazi, Orit; Ravid, Dorit; Gillis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Verb learning is an important part of linguistic acquisition. The present study examines the early phases of verb acquisition in Hebrew, a language with complex derivational and inflectional verb morphology, analyzing verbs in dense recordings of CDS and CS of two Hebrew-speaking parent-child dyads aged 1;8-2;2. The goal was to pinpoint those cues…

  6. Theory vs. Taxonomy: On Teaching 'Syntactically Irregular' Verbs in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plewes, S. Frank

    This paper suggests methods for teaching the Russian verbs that govern what are loosely termed "objects" in oblique cases. The case government of such verbs is not necessarily an individual irregularity. Definite patterns emerge, both morphological and semantic, to facilitate grouping these verbs into classes. Russian verbs requiring genitive…

  7. Lao Serial Verb Constructions and Their Event Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Douglas James

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation of serial verb constructions in Lao (Tai-Kadai, SVO) and the events that they encode. Serial verb constructions (SVCs), structures where multiple verbs appear in a single clause, raise several important questions for syntactic theory. One issue is how the verbs are related; proposals involving coordination…

  8. A STUDY IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE HINDI VERB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAHL, KALI C.

    A CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE OF HINDI WAS FORMULATED TO ACCOUNT FOR THE PHENOMENA OF COMPOUND AND CONJUNCT VERBS IN THE LANGUAGE. THE TRADITIONAL CLASS OF CONJUNCT VERBS OR THE COMPOUND VERBS, CONSISTING OF NOUN OR ADJECTIVE PLUS VERB, WAS REINTERPRETED IN THIS ANALYSIS. THE FOUR SECTIONS OF THE TEXT DEALT WITH (1) THE SUBJECT-PREDICATE KERNEL…

  9. The Electrophysiological Manifestation of Dutch Verb Second Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the processing of violations of the verb position in Dutch, in a group of healthy subjects, by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) through electroencephalography (EEG). In Dutch, the base position of the verb is clause final, but in matrix clauses, the finite verb is in second position, a construction known as "Verb Second".…

  10. Finiteness and Verb Placement in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parodi, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Provides a new perspective on whether there is a correlation between finiteness and verb placement in second language acquisition by analyzing data from speakers of Romance languages learning German as a second language. Verbs are classified as thematic and nonthematic and analyzed with respect to overt subject-verb agreement and verb placement as…

  11. Handling a Tricky Verb: Es handelt sich um "handeln".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn-Osius, K. E.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts to establish a practical approach to teaching the various meanings of the German verb "handeln". Exercises that aid advanced students in understanding the verb's meaning include a complete list of all possible meanings of the verb, as well as sample sentences using the verb in a wide range of contexts. (LMO)

  12. The Use of Subject-Verb Agreement and Verb Argument Structure in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure than the…

  13. Familiar Verbs Are Not Always Easier than Novel Verbs: How German Pre-School Children Comprehend Active and Passive Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show a developmental advantage for transitive sentences with familiar verbs over those with novel verbs. It might be that once familiar verbs become entrenched in particular constructions, they would be more difficult to understand (than would novel verbs) in non-prototypical constructions. We provide support for this hypothesis…

  14. Visual variability affects early verb learning.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Katherine E; Lush, Lauren; Pearce, Ruth; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-09-01

    Research demonstrates that within-category visual variability facilitates noun learning; however, the effect of visual variability on verb learning is unknown. We habituated 24-month-old children to a novel verb paired with an animated star-shaped actor. Across multiple trials, children saw either a single action from an action category (identical actions condition, for example, travelling while repeatedly changing into a circle shape) or multiple actions from that action category (variable actions condition, for example, travelling while changing into a circle shape, then a square shape, then a triangle shape). Four test trials followed habituation. One paired the habituated verb with a new action from the habituated category (e.g., 'dacking' + pentagon shape) and one with a completely novel action (e.g., 'dacking' + leg movement). The others paired a new verb with a new same-category action (e.g., 'keefing' + pentagon shape), or a completely novel category action (e.g., 'keefing' + leg movement). Although all children discriminated novel verb/action pairs, children in the identical actions condition discriminated trials that included the completely novel verb, while children in the variable actions condition discriminated the out-of-category action. These data suggest that - as in noun learning - visual variability affects verb learning and children's ability to form action categories. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Repetition priming within and between languages in verb generation: evidence for shared verb concepts.

    PubMed

    de la Riva López, Eva M; Francis, Wendy S; García, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Although translation equivalents for concrete nouns are known to have shared core conceptual representations in bilingual memory (Francis, 1999), the status of translation-equivalent verbs has not been systematically tested. Three repetition-priming experiments using a verb generation task were used to determine whether verbs have shared representations across languages and to identify the processes facilitated in repeated verb generation. In Experiment 1 fluent Spanish-English bilingual speakers exhibited repetition priming both within and between languages, but between-language priming was weaker. In Experiment 2 performance of non-bilingual English and Spanish speakers was equivalent to that of bilingual speakers responding in their dominant language. Experiment 3 used manipulations meant to isolate noun comprehension, verb concept selection, and verb production. The between-language priming in Experiments 1 and 3 indicates that verb concepts are shared across languages and that verb concept selection exhibits facilitation. Experiment 3 showed that the greater within-language priming was due primarily to facilitation of verb production processes.

  16. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  17. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  18. Participant roles and the processing of verbs during sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, K; Swinney, D

    1995-11-01

    This paper explores the nature of thematic information made available when a verb is accessed during sentence comprehension. Following Shapiro, Zurif, and Grimshaw (1987), a cross-modal lexical decision (interference) task was employed to examine whether either the number of argument structures or the number of participant (thematic) roles inherent in a verb cause an increase in processing load upon access of the verb. It was determined that there was no evidence for such an increased processing load covarying with the number of argument structures of the verb, at least for those verb types examined in this study. However, there was an increase in processing load as a direct function of the number of participant roles carried by the verb. It is concluded that the participant roles (thematic roles associated with the central meaning of the verb) are stored with the representation of a verb and are made immediately available upon access of the verb for further processing during comprehension.

  19. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary...

  20. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low...

  1. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low...

  2. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low...

  3. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low...

  4. Familiar verbs are not always easier than novel verbs: how German pre-school children comprehend active and passive sentences.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show a developmental advantage for transitive sentences with familiar verbs over those with novel verbs. It might be that once familiar verbs become entrenched in particular constructions, they would be more difficult to understand (than would novel verbs) in non-prototypical constructions. We provide support for this hypothesis investigating German children using a forced-choice pointing paradigm with reversed agent-patient roles. We tested active transitive verbs in study 1. The 2-year olds were better with familiar than novel verbs, while the 2½-year olds pointed correctly for both. In study 2, we tested passives: 2½-year olds were significantly below chance for familiar verbs and at chance for novel verbs, supporting the hypothesis that the entrenchment of the familiar verbs in the active transitive voice was interfering with interpreting them in the passive voice construction. The 3½-year olds were also at chance for novel verbs but above chance with familiar verbs. We interpret this as reflecting a lessening of the verb-in-construction entrenchment as the child develops knowledge that particular verbs can occur in a range of constructions. The 4½-year olds were above chance for both familiar and novel verbs. We discuss our findings in terms of the relative entrenchment of lexical and syntactic information and to interference between them. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Awareness of Verb Subcategorization Probabilities with Polysemous Verbs: The Second Language Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uckun, Berrin

    2012-01-01

    Different meanings of a verb are associated with different argument structures (subcategorization), which in this study are sentential complements (SC) and direct object (DO) arguments. Interaction between verbal meaning and argument structure is investigated at the production level using polysemous verbs in the absence (Norming Experiment) and…

  6. Building words on actions: verb enactment and verb recognition in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Levi, Gabriel; Colonnello, Valentina; Giacchè, Roberta; Piredda, Maria Letizia; Sogos, Carla

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that language processing is grounded in actions. Multiple independent research findings indicate that children with specific language impairment (SLI) show subtle difficulties beyond the language domain. Uncertainties remain on possible association between body-mediated, non-linguistic expression of verbs and early manifestation of SLI during verb acquisition. The present study was conducted to determine whether verb production through non-linguistic modalities is impaired in children with SLI. Children with SLI (mean age 41 months) and typically developing children (mean age 40 months) were asked to recognize target verbs while viewing video clips showing the action associated with the verb (verb-recognition task) and to enact the action corresponding to the verb (verb-enacting task). Children with SLI performed more poorly than control children in both tasks. The present study demonstrates that early language impairment emerges at the bodily level. These findings are consistent with the embodied theories of cognition and underscore the role of action-based representations during language development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is More Always Better for Verbs? Semantic Richness Effects and Verb Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, David M.; Heard, Alison; Pexman, Penny M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined how several semantic richness variables contribute to verb meaning, across a number of tasks. Because verbs can vary in tense, and the manner in which tense is coded (i.e., regularity), we also examined how these factors moderated the effects of semantic richness. In Experiment 1 we found that age of acquisition (AoA), valence, arousal and embodiment predicted faster response times in LDT. In Experiment 2 we examined a particular semantic richness variable, verb embodiment, and found that it was moderated by tense and regularity. In Experiment 3a we found that AoA predicted faster response times in verb reading. Finally, in Experiment 3b, semantic diversity predicted response times in a past tense generation task, either facilitating or inhibiting responses for regular or irregular verbs, respectively. These results demonstrate that semantic richness variables contribute to verb meaning even when verbs are presented in isolation, and that these effects depend on several factors unique to verbs. PMID:27303353

  8. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    PubMed Central

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny E.

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler “to speak,” [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter “to repeat,” [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer “to adore,” [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire “to drink,” [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French

  9. Verb and sentence production and comprehension in aphasia: Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS)

    PubMed Central

    Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Verbs and sentences are often impaired in individuals with aphasia, and differential impairment patterns are associated with different types of aphasia. With currently available test batteries, however, it is challenging to provide a comprehensive profile of aphasic language impairments because they do not examine syntactically important properties of verbs and sentences. Aims This study presents data derived from the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS; Thompson, 2011), a new test battery designed to examine syntactic deficits in aphasia. The NAVS includes tests for verb naming and comprehension, and production of verb argument structure in simple active sentences, with each examining the effects of the number and optionality of arguments. The NAVS also tests production and comprehension of canonical and non-canonical sentences. Methods & Procedures A total of 59 aphasic participants (35 agrammatic and 24 anomic) were tested using a set of action pictures. Participants produced verbs or sentences for the production subtests and identified pictures corresponding to auditorily provided verbs or sentences for the comprehension subtests. Outcomes & Results The agrammatic group, compared to the anomic group, performed significantly more poorly on all subtests except verb comprehension, and for both groups comprehension was less impaired than production. On verb naming and argument structure production tests both groups exhibited difficulty with three-argument verbs, affected by the number and optionality of arguments. However, production of sentences using three-argument verbs was more impaired in the agrammatic, compared to the anomic, group. On sentence production and comprehension tests, the agrammatic group showed impairments in all types of non-canonical sentences, whereas the anomic group exhibited difficulty primarily with the most difficult, object relative, structures. Conclusions Results show that verb and sentence deficits seen in

  10. Verb biases are shaped through lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Ryskin, Rachel A; Qi, Zhenghan; Duff, Melissa C; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2017-05-01

    Verbs often participate in more than 1 syntactic structure, but individual verbs can be biased in terms of whether they are used more often with 1 structure or the other. For instance, in a sentence such as "Bop the bunny with the flower," the phrase "with the flower" is more likely to indicate an instrument with which to "bop," rather than which "bunny" to bop. Conversely, in a sentence such as "Choose the cow with the flower," the phrase "with the flower" is more likely to indicate which "cow" to choose. An open question is where these biases come from and whether they continue to be shaped in adulthood in a way that has lasting consequences for real-time processing of language. In Experiment 1 we replicated previous findings that these language-wide biases guide online syntactic processing in a computer-based visual-world paradigm. In Experiment 2, we tested the malleability of these biases by exposing adults to initially unbiased verbs situated in unambiguous contexts that led to either instrument or modifier interpretations. During test, participants interpreted sentences containing either modifier- or instrument-trained verbs in ambiguous contexts. Eye-movement and action data show that participants' considerations of the candidate interpretations of the ambiguous with-phrases were guided by the newly learned verb biases. These results suggest that co-occurrence information about specific verbs and syntactic structures embedded in language experiences plays a role in forming, and continuously shaping, the verb biases that constitute a part of the broader representation of the language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The Effects of Verb Argument Complexity on Verb Production in Persons with Aphasia: Evidence from a Subject-Object-Verb Language.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jee Eun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of verb argument complexity on verb production in individuals with aphasia using a verb-final language. The verb-argument complexity was examined by the number of arguments (1-, 2-, and 3-place) and the types of arguments (unaccusative vs. unergative comparisons). Fifteen Korean-speaking individuals with aphasia and 16 normal controls participated in the study. A confrontation naming task was used to elicit verb production with a total of 36 items for each verb type (1-place unergative, 1-place unaccusative, 2-place, and 3-place verbs). Individuals with aphasia presented lower mean percentage correctness in 3-place than in 1-place verbs, and showed differentially greater difficulties with unaccusative constructions than with unergative verbs, compared to the control group. The effects of verb-argument complexity were clearly observed in Korean-speaking individuals with aphasia. The effects of the number of arguments were observed most clearly in Broca's and Wernicke's types of aphasia and individuals with lower overall aphasia severity. The effects of Korean unaccusativity manifested across aphasia groups. General patterns of verb-argument complexity in Korean were consistent with previous findings in English.

  12. A Pedagogic Corpus Analysis: Modal Auxiliary Verbs in Malaysian English Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Laleh; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2011-01-01

    Using corpus approach, over the past two decades, a growing number of researchers started to blame textbooks for neglecting important information on the use of grammatical structures in real language use and provided ample information about the mismatch between language used in textbooks and real language in use. Likewise, the prescribed Malaysian…

  13. A comparison of two procedures to elicit verbal auxiliary and copula in normal kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D; Till, J A

    1982-08-01

    Fourteen normal kindergarten children, all of whom spontaneously used verbal auxiliary and copular forms of BE (VACs) were studied. Two cloze procedures were designed to elicit all three forms of present tense VACs in uncontractible sentence positions. The syntactic elicitation (SE) procedure required the children to observe a syntactic constraint within a descriptive response; the emphatic elicitation (EE) procedure required observation of a stress constraint within a role-playing response. Personal pronouns were used as sentence subjects in both procedures. Results indicated that both procedures were effective in eliciting VACs approximately 75% of the time. The SE procedure was more effective than the EE procedure overall. The procedures did not differ in their ability to elicit auxiliary and copular forms. The effects of subject pronoun person and singular vs. plural verb form are discussed. The procedures have implications for supplementing spontaneous language samples in assessing expressive language.

  14. MSNJ Auxiliary: responsibility on water.

    PubMed

    Propsner, N M

    1992-07-01

    The Medical Society of New Jersey Auxiliary kicked off its Responsibility on Water program. Designed and planned by MSNJA President Marion H. Geib, the program is intended to make children and adults aware of the deadly mix of alcohol and water activities.

  15. The trouble with nouns and verbs in Greek fluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms; better verb retrieval, poorer verb retrieval and equal retrieval difficulties for verbs and nouns. Verbs and nouns in Greek are considered of similar morphological complexity thus it was predicted that anomic aphasic individuals would suffer from a non-dissociated impairment of verbs and nouns. Problems with verbs and/or nouns may arise at any stage in the process of lexical retrieval, i.e. lexical-semantic, lemma, lexeme or articulation. The aim of this research was to investigate verb and noun retrieval using a picture-naming task to explore any possible selective noun and/or verb comprehension or retrieval deficits in Greek individuals with anomic aphasia. The results revealed a significant verb/noun dichotomy with verbs significantly more difficult to retrieve than nouns. These findings lend support for the growing body of evidence showing a specific verb impairment in fluent anomic individuals as well as Broca's patients. Given the prevailing view, that anomic patients experience difficulty retrieving the morpho-phonological form of the target word, the results show that specific information of the grammatical category is also important during word form retrieval. LEARNER OUTCOMES: The reader will become familiar with (i) studies investigating grammatical word class breakdown in individuals with aphasia who speak different languages, (ii) the application of the serial model to word production breakdown in aphasia and (iii) the characteristics of verbs and nouns in Greek. It will be concluded that successful verb retrieval for fluent aphasic individuals who speak Greek is dependant on the retrieval of the morpho

  16. Do early noun and verb production predict later verb and noun production? Theoretical implications.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H

    2017-03-01

    Many studies have addressed the question of the relative dominance of nouns over verbs in the productive vocabularies of children in the second year of life. Surprisingly, cross-class (noun-to-verb and verb-to-noun) relations between these two lexical categories have seldom been investigated. The present longitudinal study employed observational and parent-report data obtained from thirty mother-child dyads at 1;4, 1;8, and 2;0 to examine this issue. Both the Natural Partitions/Relational Relativity (NP/RR) hypothesis and the Emergentist Coalition Model (ECM) predict that having an initial repertoire of common nouns should facilitate the acquisition of novel verbs, whereas only the ECM suggests that children exploit the syntactic and semantic constraints of known verbs to infer the meaning of novel nouns. In line with the ECM, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the percentages of nouns produced by children at 1;4 predicted later verbs at 1;8, whereas the percentages of verbs produced at 1;8 predicted later nouns at 2;0.

  17. Pointing out Frequent Phrasal Verbs: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This study attempts to shed new light on one of the most notoriously challenging aspects of English language instruction--the English phrasal verbs. The highest frequency phrasal verb constructions in the 100-million-word British National Corpus are identified and analyzed. The findings indicate that a small subset of 20 lexical verbs combines…

  18. Harder Words: Learning Abstract Verbs with Opaque Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Misha; Estigarribia, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Highly abstract predicates (e.g. "think") present a number of difficulties for language learners (Gleitman et al., 2005). A partial solution to learning these verbs is that learners exploit regularities in the syntactic frames in which these verbs occur. While agreeing with this general approach to learning verbs, we caution that this…

  19. Attention to Explicit and Implicit Contrast in Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Benavides, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Contrast information could be useful for verb learning, but few studies have examined children's ability to use this type of information. Contrast may be useful when children are told explicitly that different verbs apply, or when they hear two different verbs in a single context. Three studies examine children's attention to different types of…

  20. Harder Words: Learning Abstract Verbs with Opaque Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Misha; Estigarribia, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Highly abstract predicates (e.g. "think") present a number of difficulties for language learners (Gleitman et al., 2005). A partial solution to learning these verbs is that learners exploit regularities in the syntactic frames in which these verbs occur. While agreeing with this general approach to learning verbs, we caution that this…

  1. Toddlers Recognize Verbs in Novel Situations and Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naigles, Letitia R.; Bavin, Edith L.; Smith, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    Toddlers' (MA = 22 and 27 months) ability to extend newly taught verbs to new situational and sentential contexts was investigated. Children were interactively taught two novel verbs, presented in only the transitive frame (e.g. "You're lorping the ball"), in a playroom setting. They then viewed the verb actions presented on side-by-side monitors…

  2. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  3. Verb Aspect and the Activation of Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Kutas, Marta; McRae, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The authors show that verb aspect influences the activation of event knowledge with 4 novel results. First, common locations of events (e.g., arena) are primed following verbs with imperfective aspect (e.g., was skating) but not verbs with perfect aspect (e.g., had skated). Second, people generate more locative prepositional phrases as…

  4. The Crucial Role of Tense for Verb Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druks, J.; Carroll, E.

    2005-01-01

    The case of an aphasic patient whose spontaneous speech contains very few lexical verbs is reported. Instead of sentences with lexical verbs, the patient produces many (grammatical) copular constructions. He also substitutes lexical verbs with the copula. Although this results in ungrammatical utterances, by doing so, a resemblance of sentence…

  5. Verb Aspect and the Activation of Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Kutas, Marta; McRae, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The authors show that verb aspect influences the activation of event knowledge with 4 novel results. First, common locations of events (e.g., arena) are primed following verbs with imperfective aspect (e.g., was skating) but not verbs with perfect aspect (e.g., had skated). Second, people generate more locative prepositional phrases as…

  6. Verb-raising and Numeral Classifiers in Japanese: Incompatible Bedfellows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Examines verb raising in Japanese and looks at Koizumi's (2000) evidence for verb-raising based on data involving, among other things, numeral classifiers. Demonstrates that Koizumi's evidence based on numeral classifiers does not support his claim that verb-raising occurs in Japanese. (Author/VWL)

  7. Time Reference of Verbs in Biblical Hebrew Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwyghuizen, Jill E.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation suggests that the time reference of verbs in Hebrew poetry can be determined from a combination of form (aspect) and "Aktionsart" (stative vs. fientive). Specifically, perfective forms of stative verbs have past or present time reference. Perfective forms of fientive verbs have past time reference. Imperfective forms of…

  8. Reciprocal Pronouns Binding within Psych-Verb Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epoge, Napoleon

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at giving an analysis of certain syntactic peculiarities of reciprocal pronouns within verbs of psychological state, commonly known as psych-verbs. The analysis reveal that psych-verbs constructions have a peculiar property in that the binding conditions of reciprocal pronouns are satisfied in Experiencer-Subject (ES) psychverbs…

  9. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  10. Verb-raising and Numeral Classifiers in Japanese: Incompatible Bedfellows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Examines verb raising in Japanese and looks at Koizumi's (2000) evidence for verb-raising based on data involving, among other things, numeral classifiers. Demonstrates that Koizumi's evidence based on numeral classifiers does not support his claim that verb-raising occurs in Japanese. (Author/VWL)

  11. The Time Course of Verb Processing in Dutch Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Goede, Dieuwke; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Wester, Femke; Swinney, David A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2009-01-01

    The verb has traditionally been characterized as the central element in a sentence. Nevertheless, the exact role of the verb during the actual ongoing comprehension of a sentence as it unfolds in time remains largely unknown. This paper reports the results of two Cross-Modal Lexical Priming (CMLP) experiments detailing the pattern of verb priming…

  12. English Verb Accuracy of Bilingual Cantonese-English Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezzonico, Stefano; Goldberg, Ahuva; Milburn, Trelani; Belletti, Adriana; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge of verb development in typically developing bilingual preschoolers may inform clinicians about verb accuracy rates during the 1st 2 years of English instruction. This study aimed to investigate tensed verb accuracy in 2 assessment contexts in 4- and 5-year-old Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers. Method: The sample included…

  13. A Description of the Functional System of the Spanish Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, D. C.

    The discussion of Spanish verbs considers the problems of tense and aspect. Two tenses are used in the description: past and non-past. The past tense is considered the marked member and the non-past the unmarked member. Aspect is considered in terms of "telic" verbs which express an action tending towards a goal, and "atelic" verbs which do not…

  14. 33 CFR 5.47 - Auxiliary ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Auxiliary ensign is medium blue (Coast Guard blue) with a broad diagonal white slash upon which a matching blue Coast Guard Auxiliary emblem is centered. The white slash shall be at a 70 degree angle...

  15. Why Are Verbs so Hard to Remember? Effects of Semantic Context on Memory for Verbs and Nouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earles, Julie L.; Kersten, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments test the theory that verb meanings are more malleable than noun meanings in different semantic contexts, making a previously seen verb difficult to remember when it appears in a new semantic context. Experiment 1 revealed that changing the direct object noun in a transitive sentence reduced recognition of a previously seen verb,…

  16. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  17. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  18. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  19. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  20. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  1. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  2. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  4. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  5. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Underground Only § 57.6161 Auxiliary facilities. (a) Auxiliary facilities used to store explosive material... constructed or mined-out to provide equivalent impact resistance and confinement. (b) The auxiliary facilities shall be— (1) Constructed of nonsparking material on the inside when used for the storage of explosives...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Underground Only § 57.6161 Auxiliary facilities. (a) Auxiliary facilities used to store explosive material... constructed or mined-out to provide equivalent impact resistance and confinement. (b) The auxiliary facilities shall be— (1) Constructed of nonsparking material on the inside when used for the storage of explosives...

  8. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  9. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  10. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  11. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  12. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary facilities. 57.6161 Section 57.6161...-Underground Only § 57.6161 Auxiliary facilities. (a) Auxiliary facilities used to store explosive material near work places shall be wooden, box-type containers equipped with covers or doors, or...

  14. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  15. Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theakston, Anna L.; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __"want"__, __"see"__, and __"get"__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and…

  16. Does Verb Bias Modulate Syntactic Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In a corpus analysis of spontaneous speech Jaeger and Snider (2007) found that the strength of structural priming is correlated with verb alternation bias. This finding is consistent with an implicit learning account of syntactic priming: because the implicit learning model implemented by Chang (2002), Chang, Dell, and Bock (2006), and Chang,…

  17. Fast Mapping Verb Meaning from Argument Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Valerie E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine lexical knowledge in children through a fast mapping task. Method: This study compared the performance of 60 African American English-speaking and general American English-speaking children between the ages of 4 and 6 years. They were presented with a comprehension task involving the fast mapping of novel verbs in 4 different…

  18. Computense: Verb Drills on a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolphin, Emil

    1989-01-01

    A microcomputer program providing extensive and constantly changing practice with 35 irregular French verbs in 6 tenses is described. The program's objectives are to establish lateral associations between tense forms, provide continuous opportunity for recall, and shorten correct response time. (Author/MSE)

  19. Computense: Verb Drills on a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolphin, Emil

    1989-01-01

    A microcomputer program providing extensive and constantly changing practice with 35 irregular French verbs in 6 tenses is described. The program's objectives are to establish lateral associations between tense forms, provide continuous opportunity for recall, and shorten correct response time. (Author/MSE)

  20. Facilitation and Practice in Verb Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by…

  1. Southern White English: The Changing Verb Phrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feagin, Louise Crawford

    In a sociolinguistic study of the verb phrase in Southern White English, a pattern of change in progress was observed. The 14 variables studied showed that certain variants were increasing, others decreasing, and yet others stable across time within the community, and that each variable's change was progressing in a wave sensitive to age, social…

  2. Facilitation and Practice in Verb Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by…

  3. Does Verb Bias Modulate Syntactic Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In a corpus analysis of spontaneous speech Jaeger and Snider (2007) found that the strength of structural priming is correlated with verb alternation bias. This finding is consistent with an implicit learning account of syntactic priming: because the implicit learning model implemented by Chang (2002), Chang, Dell, and Bock (2006), and Chang,…

  4. Verb-Form Errors in EAP Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Roselind; Sim, Jacqueline; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify and describe the written verb-form errors found in the EAP writing of 39 second year learners pursuing a three-year Diploma Programme from a public university in Malaysia. Data for this study, which were collected from a written 350-word discursive essay, were analyzed to determine the types and frequency of…

  5. Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theakston, Anna L.; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __"want"__, __"see"__, and __"get"__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and…

  6. Verb Aspect, Event Structure, and Coreferential Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Rohde, Hannah; Kehler, Andrew; Crutchley, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    We used an off-line story continuation task and an online ERP reading task to investigate coreferential processing following sentences that portrayed transfer-of-possession events as either ongoing or completed, using imperfective and perfective verb aspect (e.g., Amanda was shifting/shifted some poker chips to Scott). The story continuation task…

  7. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  8. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  9. Fast Mapping Verb Meaning from Argument Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Valerie E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine lexical knowledge in children through a fast mapping task. Method: This study compared the performance of 60 African American English-speaking and general American English-speaking children between the ages of 4 and 6 years. They were presented with a comprehension task involving the fast mapping of novel verbs in 4 different…

  10. Robert Lowth and the Strong Verb System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ostade, Ingrid Tieken-Boon

    2002-01-01

    Traces the origin of the grammatical rule that strong verbs should distinguish between past tense and past participle forms. The rule, credited to Robert Lowth, did not in fact originate from Lowth nor did it reflect his usage as found in his private unpublished letters. (Author/VWL)

  11. The use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in monolingual and bilingual children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure than the control group (consisting of monolingual typically developing Dutch children matched on mean length of utterance in morphemes) in that they showed significantly more agreement errors as well as a relation between verb agreement structure complexity and omission, a relation that the typically developing children failed to show. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between the monolingual and the bilingual SLI group. These findings indicate that subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure are both affected in SLI, but not more severely in bilinguals than in monolinguals.

  12. A behavioral study of the nature of verb production deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Beber, Bárbara Costa; Cruz, Aline Nunes da; Chaves, Márcia L

    2015-10-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may experience greater difficulty with verb production than with noun production. In this study, we sought to assess the nature of verb production deficits in AD by using verb fluency and verb naming tasks. We designed two hypotheses for this verb deficit: (1) executive impairment drives the deficit; (2) semantic impairment drives the deficit. Thirty-five patients with AD and 35 matched healthy controls participated in the study. Both groups performed a verb naming task composed of 45 pictures (low-, medium-, and high-frequency subsets) and a verb fluency task (scored for total correct words and for mean word frequency). Patients with AD were equally impaired in verb naming and verb fluency, with an effect of disease severity on verb naming. Word frequency influenced verb naming, but not verb fluency, performance. Our results indicate that verb production deficits in AD seem to be driven more by semantic than by executive impairment.

  13. Vacuuming with My "Mouth"?: Children's Ability to Comprehend Novel Extensions of Familiar Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seston, Rebecca; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Ma, Weiyi; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Can 6- and 8-year-olds (and adults) comprehend common instrument verbs when extended to novel situations? Participants heard eight unusual extensions of common verbs and were asked to paraphrase the verbs' meanings. Half of the verbs used were "specified instrument" verbs that include the name of the instrument used to perform the action (e.g., a…

  14. Vacuuming with My "Mouth"?: Children's Ability to Comprehend Novel Extensions of Familiar Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seston, Rebecca; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Ma, Weiyi; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Can 6- and 8-year-olds (and adults) comprehend common instrument verbs when extended to novel situations? Participants heard eight unusual extensions of common verbs and were asked to paraphrase the verbs' meanings. Half of the verbs used were "specified instrument" verbs that include the name of the instrument used to perform the action (e.g., a…

  15. Age-Dependent Changes of Thinking about Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Bonivento, Carolina; Tomasino, Barbara; Garzitto, Marco; Piccin, Sara; Fabbro, Franco; Brambilla, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the knowledge of emotional and motor verbs in children and adolescents from three age ranges (8–11, 12–15, 16–19 years). Participants estimated the verbs familiarity, age of acquisition, valence, arousal, imageability, and motor- and emotion-relatedness. Participants were familiar with the verbs in our dataset. The younger (8–11) attributed an emotional character to the verbs less frequently than the middle (12–15) and the older (16–19) groups. In the 8–11 group males rated the verbs as emotion-related less frequently than females. Results indicate that processing verbal concepts as emotion-related develops gradually, and after 12–15 is rather stable. The age of acquisition (AoA) develops late: the older (16–19) had a higher awareness in reporting that they learnt the verbs earlier as compared to the estimations made by the younger (8–11 and 12–15). AoA positively correlated with attribution of emotion relatedness meaning that emotion-related verbs were learned later. Arousal was comparable across ages. Also it increased when attributing motor relatedness to verbs and decreased when attributing emotion relatedness. Reporting the verbs' affective valence (happy vs. unhappy) changes with age: younger (8–11) judged the verbs generally more “happy” than both the older groups. Instead the middle and the older group did not show differences. Happiness increased when processing the verbs as motor related and decreased when processing the verbs as emotion related. Age affected imageability: the younger (8–11) considered the verbs easier to be imagined than the two older groups, suggesting that at this age vividness estimation is still rough, while after 12–15 is stable as the 12–15 and 15–19 group did not differ. Imageability predicted arousal, AoA, emotion- and motor-relatedness indicating that this index influences the way verbs are processed. Imageability was positively correlated to emotion relatedness, indicating

  16. Verb Argument Structure in Narrative Speech: Mining AphasiaBank.

    PubMed

    Malyutina, Svetlana; Richardson, Jessica D; den Ouden, Dirk B

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has found that verb argument structure characteristics (such as the number of participant roles in the situation described by the verb) can facilitate or hinder aphasic language production and comprehension in constrained laboratory tasks. This research needs to be complemented by studies of narrative or unrestricted speech, which can capture the spontaneous selection of verbs and grammatical structures by people with aphasia and may be particularly sensitive to the relative cost of access to different verb types in more natural conditions. Focusing on the number of subcategorization options, we investigated verb argument structure effects in a large sample of narratives from AphasiaBank, by speakers with aphasia, as well as control speakers without brain damage. Verb argument structure complexity did not negatively affect verb selection in any type of aphasia. However, people with aphasia, particularly with Broca's aphasia, used verbs in less complex and diverse ways, with fewer arguments and less diverse subcategorization options. In line with previous research, this suggests that deficits in verb use in aphasia are likely due to difficulties with the online application of or partial damage to verb argument structure knowledge.

  17. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOEpatents

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  18. Live Action: Can Young Children Learn Verbs From Video?

    PubMed Central

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30–42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social interaction. Study 2 tested whether children could learn verbs from video alone. Study 3 clarified whether the benefits of social interaction remained when the experimenter was shown on a video screen rather than in person. Results suggest that younger children only learn verbs from video with live social interaction while older children can learn verbs from video alone. Implications for verb learning and educational media are discussed. PMID:19765005

  19. Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames.

    PubMed

    Theakston, Anna L; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V M; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __want__, __see__, and __get__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and creativity of use in these slots. We do so using a rigorously controlled sample of child speech and child directed speech from three English-speaking children between the ages of 2-3 years and their caregivers. We find different levels of creativity and flexibility between the adult and child samples for some measures, for some slots, and for some developmental periods. We discuss these differences in the context of verb frame semantics, conventionality versus creativity and child errors, and draw some tentative conclusions regarding developmental changes in children's early grammatical representations. © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. The Emergence of Grammar: Early Verbs and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Berman, Ruth A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper examines the first twenty verb-forms recorded for six Hebrew-speaking children aged between 1;2 and 2;1, and how they evolve into fully inflected verbs for three of these children. Discussion focuses first on what word-forms children initially select for the verbs they produce, what role these forms play in children's emergent grammar,…

  1. Objects, events and "to be" verbs in Spanish--an ERP study of the syntax-semantics interface.

    PubMed

    Leone-Fernandez, Barbara; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A

    2012-02-01

    In Spanish, objects and events at subject position constrain the selection of different forms of the auxiliary verb "to be": locative predicates about objects require "estar en", while those relating to events require "ser en", both translatable as "to be in". Subjective ratings showed that while the "object+ser+en" is considered as incorrect, the "event+estar+en" combination is also perceived as unacceptable but to a lesser degree. In an ERP study, we evaluated the impact of a purely semantic distinction (object versus events) on the subsequent processing of these auxiliary verbs followed by locatives in Spanish. For the "ser en" predicate, the P600 component was larger when the subject was an object than when it was an event. This P600 effect is consistent with an online repair of the defining predicate when it does not fit with the adequate semantic properties of the subject. On the other hand, for the "estar en" predicate, event subjects when compared to object subjects showed more positive ongoing amplitudes between 280 and 380 ms after the presentation of the "en" preposition, followed by a longer positive wave starting around 400 ms and lasting until 700 ms after the presentation of the following determiner, with central and frontal scalp distributions respectively. Thus, the different subject-predicate combinations, depending on the semantic features of the subjects, triggered syntactic reparatory processes at a structural level. These findings are consistent with an incremental interpretation of sentence meaning based on the interaction between syntactic and semantic information.

  2. Marking of verb transitivity by Hebrew-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Berman, R A

    1993-10-01

    The study examines children's command of transitivity permutations in Hebrew, where a change in verb-argument syntax entails a change in verb-morphology. 30 children aged two, three and eight were required to produce existing and novel Hebrew verbs differing in transitivity. Younger children showed a good grasp of the syntax and semantics, but not the morphological marking of transitivity, three-year-olds did much better, and eight-year-olds produced mainly adult-like responses. Results were higher on existing verbs than on novel forms. Direction of change had little effect with existing verbs, but with novel verbs success was much higher in changing intransitive to transitive forms than the converse. Some alternations proved easier than others, e.g. intransitive activity verbs in the basic pa'al verb-pattern yielded more causative hif'il forms than intransitive inchoative verbs in the nif'al pattern. Findings throw light on the development of derivational morphology, item-based versus class-based learning, and the impact of lexical productivity and language-particular properties on acquisition.

  3. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 1: Auxiliary BE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theakston, Anna L.; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The question of how and when English-speaking children acquire auxiliaries is the subject of extensive debate. Some researchers posit the existence of innately given Universal Grammar principles to guide acquisition, although some aspects of the auxiliary system must be learned from the input. Others suggest that auxiliaries can be…

  4. NASA electrothermal auxiliary propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Electrothermal auxiliary propulsion systems provide high performance options which can have major mission benefits. There are several electrothermal concepts which offer a range of characteristics and benefits. Resistojets are the highest thrust to power option and are currently operational at mission average values of specific impulse, I sub sp approximately 295 sec. Long life, multipropellant resistojets are being developed for the space station, and resistojet technology advancements are being pursued to improve the I sub sp by more than 20 percent for resistojets used in satellite applications. Direct current arcjets have the potential of I sub sp over 400 sec with storable propellants and should provide over 1000 sec with hydrogen. Advanced concepts are being investigated to provide high power density options and possible growth to primary propulsion applications. Broad based experimental and analytical research and technology programs of NASA are summarized and recent significant advances are reviewed.

  5. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  6. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign. 5... COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.48 Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign. (a) The Coast Guard Auxiliary Patrol Boat... this part. (b) The field of the Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign is white. A medium blue (Coast Guard blue...

  7. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign. 5... COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.48 Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign. (a) The Coast Guard Auxiliary Patrol Boat... this part. (b) The field of the Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign is white. A medium blue (Coast Guard blue...

  8. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary...

  9. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A holder...

  10. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A holder...

  11. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A holder...

  12. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A holder...

  13. 47 CFR 73.759 - Auxiliary transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... auxiliary transmitters, a license may be issued provided that: (a) Auxiliary transmitters may be installed... purposes: (1) The transmission of the regular programs upon the failure of the main transmitters. (2) The transmission of regular programs during maintenance or modification work on the main transmitter,...

  14. Psych verb production and comprehension in agrammatic Broca's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Lee, Miseon

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the factors that affect agrammatic sentence production by testing eight agrammatic aphasic participants' comprehension and production of active and passive sentences using two types of English psych verbs, those with an Experiencer-marked subject (Subject-Experiencer (SubExp)) and those with an Experiencer-marked object (Object-Experiencer (ObjExp)). The Argument Structure Complexity Hypothesis (ASCH, [J. Neuroling. 16 (2003) 151]) posits that the verb (and sentence) production difficulties observed in agrammatic aphasia can be attributed, at least in part, to the argument structure properties of verbs, with verbs that are marked for more complex argument structure (in terms of the number and type of arguments) presenting greater difficulty than those with less complex argument structure entries. Based on previous linguistic analyses of psych verbs, ObjExp psych verbs are more complex than SubjExp verbs. Therefore, we predicted that the former would present greater production (but not comprehension) difficulty than the latter. Results showed above chance comprehension of all sentence types, with the exception of SubjExp passive constructions, in which the subject position is occupied by a non-Experiencer argument. In active sentence production, ObjExp verbs were more impaired than SubjExp verbs. However, the opposite pattern was noted for passive sentence production. While all participants had difficulty producing passive sentences of both types, they showed better performance on ObjExp verbs, as compared to SubjExp verbs, in which the Experiencer is in the subject position. Further, agrammatic aphasic speakers showed a preference for producing actives for SubjExp verbs and passives for ObjExp verbs, indicating that the thematic role requirements of selected verbs (e.g., Experiencer, Theme) influence production patterns, as they do in normal speakers. These data, as well as the error patterns seen in our patients, support the ASCH and suggest

  15. Contribution of motor representations to action verb processing.

    PubMed

    Andres, Michael; Finocchiaro, Chiara; Buiatti, Marco; Piazza, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological and brain imaging studies show a somatotopic activation of the premotor cortex while subjects process action verbs. This somatotopic motor activation has been taken as an indication that the meaning of action verbs is embedded in motor representations. However, discrepancies in the literature led to the alternative hypothesis that motor representations are activated during the course of a mental imagery process emerging only after the meaning of the action has been accessed. In order to address this issue, we asked participants to decide whether a visually presented verb was concrete or abstract by pressing a button or a pedal (primary task) and then to provide a distinct vocal response to low and high sounds played soon after the verb display (secondary task). Manipulations of the visual display (lower vs. uppercase), verb imageability (concrete vs. abstract), verb meaning (hand vs. foot-related), and response effector (hand vs. foot) allowed us to trace the perceptual, semantic and response stages of verb processing. We capitalized on the psychological refractory period (PRP), which implies that the initiation of the secondary task should be delayed only by those factors that slow down the central decision process in the primary task. In line with this prediction, our results showed that the time cost resulting from the processing of abstract verbs, when compared to concrete verbs, was still observed in the subsequent response to the sounds, whereas the overall advantage of hand over foot responses did not influence sound judgments. Crucially, we also observed a verb-effector compatibility effect (i.e., foot-related verbs are responded faster with the foot and hand-related verbs with the hand) that contaminated the performance of the secondary task, providing clear evidence that motor interference from verb meaning occurred during the central decision stage. These results cannot be explained by a mental imagery process that would deploy only

  16. Learning classification with auxiliary probabilistic information.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quang; Valizadegan, Hamed; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2011-01-01

    Finding ways of incorporating auxiliary information or auxiliary data into the learning process has been the topic of active data mining and machine learning research in recent years. In this work we study and develop a new framework for classification learning problem in which, in addition to class labels, the learner is provided with an auxiliary (probabilistic) information that reflects how strong the expert feels about the class label. This approach can be extremely useful for many practical classification tasks that rely on subjective label assessment and where the cost of acquiring additional auxiliary information is negligible when compared to the cost of the example analysis and labelling. We develop classification algorithms capable of using the auxiliary information to make the learning process more efficient in terms of the sample complexity. We demonstrate the benefit of the approach on a number of synthetic and real world data sets by comparing it to the learning with class labels only.

  17. Vacuuming with my mouth?: Children's ability to comprehend novel extensions of familiar verbs

    PubMed Central

    Seston, Rebecca; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Ma, Weiyi; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Can 6- and 8-year-olds (and adults) comprehend common instrument verbs when extended to novel situations? Participants heard eight unusual extensions of common verbs and were asked to paraphrase the verbs' meanings. Half of the verbs used were specified instrument verbs that include the name of the instrument used to perform the action (e.g., a vacuum is used to vacuum); the other half were open instrument verbs (e.g., write) whose function can be performed with a range of objects. Results suggest that children's ability to interpret verb extensions increases with age, that open instrument verb extensions were more difficult to comprehend than specified instrument verb extensions and that performance on verb extension correlates with scores on a standardized test of language acquisition. Verb knowledge continues to develop well beyond the preschool years. PMID:20161104

  18. Interpretation of Verb Phrase Telicity: Sensitivity to Verb Type and Determiner Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogiela, Diane A.; Schmitt, Cristina; Casby, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examine how adults use linguistic information from verbs, direct objects, and particles to interpret an event description as encoding a logical endpoint to the event described (in which case, it is telic) or not (in which case, it is atelic). Current models of aspectual composition predict that quantity-sensitive verbs…

  19. Do Acting out Verbs with Dolls and Comparison Learning between Scenes Boost Toddlers' Verb Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Amy Louise; Van Kleeck, Anne; Maguire, Mandy J.; Abdi, Herve

    2017-01-01

    To better understand how toddlers integrate multiple learning strategies to acquire verbs, we compared sensorimotor recruitment and comparison learning because both strategies are thought to boost children's access to scene-level information. For sensorimotor recruitment, we tested having toddlers use dolls as agents and compared this strategy…

  20. Simultaneous Processing of Noun Cue and to-be-Produced Verb in Verb Generation Task: Electromagnetic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Butorina, Anna V.; Pavlova, Anna A.; Nikolaeva, Anastasia Y.; Prokofyev, Andrey O.; Bondarev, Denis P.; Stroganova, Tatiana A.

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing but implicit assumption is that words strongly associated with a presented cue are automatically activated in the memory through rapid spread of activation within brain semantic networks. The current study was aimed to provide direct evidence of such rapid access to words’ semantic representations and to investigate its neural sources using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and distributed source localization technique. Thirty-three neurotypical subjects underwent the MEG recording during verb generation task, which was to produce verbs related to the presented noun cues. Brain responses evoked by the noun cues were examined while manipulating the strength of association between the noun and the potential verb responses. The strong vs. weak noun-verb association led to a greater noun-related neural response at 250–400 ms after cue onset, and faster verb production. The cortical sources of the differential response were localized in left temporal pole, previously implicated in semantic access, and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), thought to subserve controlled semantic retrieval. The strength of the left VLPFC’s response to the nouns with strong verb associates was positively correlated to the speed of verbs production. Our findings empirically validate the theoretical expectation that in case of a strongly connected noun-verb pair, successful access to target verb representation may occur already at the stage of lexico-semantic analysis of the presented noun. Moreover, the MEG results suggest that contrary to the previous conclusion derived from fMRI studies left VLPFC supports selection of the target verb representations, even if they were retrieved from semantic memory rapidly and effortlessly. The discordance between MEG and fMRI findings in verb generation task may stem from different modes of neural activation captured by phase-locked activity in MEG and slow changes of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal in fMRI. PMID

  1. Simultaneous Processing of Noun Cue and to-be-Produced Verb in Verb Generation Task: Electromagnetic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Butorina, Anna V; Pavlova, Anna A; Nikolaeva, Anastasia Y; Prokofyev, Andrey O; Bondarev, Denis P; Stroganova, Tatiana A

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing but implicit assumption is that words strongly associated with a presented cue are automatically activated in the memory through rapid spread of activation within brain semantic networks. The current study was aimed to provide direct evidence of such rapid access to words' semantic representations and to investigate its neural sources using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and distributed source localization technique. Thirty-three neurotypical subjects underwent the MEG recording during verb generation task, which was to produce verbs related to the presented noun cues. Brain responses evoked by the noun cues were examined while manipulating the strength of association between the noun and the potential verb responses. The strong vs. weak noun-verb association led to a greater noun-related neural response at 250-400 ms after cue onset, and faster verb production. The cortical sources of the differential response were localized in left temporal pole, previously implicated in semantic access, and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), thought to subserve controlled semantic retrieval. The strength of the left VLPFC's response to the nouns with strong verb associates was positively correlated to the speed of verbs production. Our findings empirically validate the theoretical expectation that in case of a strongly connected noun-verb pair, successful access to target verb representation may occur already at the stage of lexico-semantic analysis of the presented noun. Moreover, the MEG results suggest that contrary to the previous conclusion derived from fMRI studies left VLPFC supports selection of the target verb representations, even if they were retrieved from semantic memory rapidly and effortlessly. The discordance between MEG and fMRI findings in verb generation task may stem from different modes of neural activation captured by phase-locked activity in MEG and slow changes of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal in fMRI.

  2. Comparing Nouns and Verbs in a Lexical Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordier, Francoise; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Rigalleau, Francois

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the…

  3. Noun-verb ambiguity in chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according to frequency of occurrence, where N>V, Nverb meanings are transparently related (e.g., "drain"), and unsystematic noun and verb meanings appear to be unrelated (e.g., "seal"), were also examined. Adults with schizophrenia overselected nouns, in both phrase and sentence tasks. Typical participants strongly preferred verbs in the phrase task, but nouns in the sentence task. Frequency of occurrence yielded statistically significant effects in control, but not in experimental groups. Effects of systematicity were statistically significant in some, but not all tasks and conditions. Age of typical participants was not significant. Readers will be introduced to (a) evidence of noun-verb organization in the brain; (b) evidence of ambiguous noun-verb preference to differentiate the language of schizophrenia from the language of typical adults; and (c) evidence of ambiguous noun-verb preference to differentiate the language of schizophrenia from fluent aphasia.

  4. The Role of Semantic Features in Verb Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnotte, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the general hypothesis that, as for nouns, stable representations of semantic knowledge relative to situations expressed by verbs are available and accessible in long term memory in normal people. Regular associations between verbs and past tenses in French adults allowed to abstract two superordinate semantic features…

  5. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  6. Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Rapid Verb Generation in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weinborn, Michael; Posada, Carolina; O'Grady, Joy

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that nouns and verbs are processed within relatively separable semantic memory networks. Although abnormal semantic processing is a common feature of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, no prior studies have specifically examined the comparability of noun and verb generation deficits in schizophrenia. In the current study,…

  7. Neural Correlates of Dutch Verb Second in Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Hoogduin, Hans; Stowe, Laurie A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2008-01-01

    Dutch speakers with agrammatic Broca's aphasia are known to have problems with the production of finite verbs in main clauses. This performance pattern has been accounted for in terms of the specific syntactic complexity of the Dutch main clause structure, which requires an extra syntactic operation (Verb Second), relative to the basic…

  8. The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;…

  9. The Role of Semantic Features in Verb Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnotte, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the general hypothesis that, as for nouns, stable representations of semantic knowledge relative to situations expressed by verbs are available and accessible in long term memory in normal people. Regular associations between verbs and past tenses in French adults allowed to abstract two superordinate semantic features…

  10. Frequency of Verb Use in Young Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Bernstein Ratner, Nan

    2007-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that young children who stutter (CWS) tend to show depressed lexical performance relative to peers. Given the developmental literature as well as several studies of verb processing in individuals who stutter, verbs may pose a particular challenge for this group. The purpose of the present study was to examine…

  11. Psych verbs, the linking problem, and the acquisition of language.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Joshua K; O'Donnell, Timothy J; Sudo, Yasutada; Uruwashi, Miki; Lee, Miseon; Snedeker, Jesse

    2016-12-01

    In acquiring language, children must learn to appropriately place the different participants of an event (e.g., causal agent, affected entity) into the correct syntactic positions (e.g., subject, object) so that listeners will know who did what to whom. While many of these mappings can be characterized by broad generalizations, both within and across languages (e.g., semantic agents tend to be mapped onto syntactic subjects), not all verbs fit neatly into these generalizations. One particularly striking example is verbs of psychological state: The experiencer of the state can appear as either the subject (Agnes fears/hates/loves Bartholomew) or the direct object (Agnes frightens/angers/delights Bartholomew). The present studies explore whether this apparent variability in subject/object mapping may actually result from differences in these verbs' underlying meanings. Specifically, we suggest that verbs like fear describe a habitual attitude towards some entity whereas verbs like frighten describe an externally caused emotional episode. We find that this distinction systematically characterizes verbs in English, Mandarin, and Korean. This pattern is generalized to novel verbs by adults in English, Japanese, and Russian, and even by English-speaking children who are just beginning to acquire psych verbs. This results support a broad role for systematic mappings between semantics and syntax in language acquisition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Verbs and Attention to Relational Roles in English and Tamil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethuraman, Nitya; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    English-learning children have been shown to reliably use cues from argument structure in learning verbs. However, languages pair overtly expressed arguments with verbs to varying extents, raising the question of whether children learning all languages expect the same, universal mapping between arguments and relational roles. Three experiments…

  13. Nouns and Verbs: A Comparison of Definitional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Johnson, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation is a study of the definitional style of nouns and verbs in typically developing school-age children. A total of 30 children in upper-elementary grades provided verbal definitions for 10 common high-frequency nouns (e.g., apple, boat, baby) and 10 common high- frequency verbs (e.g., climb, sing, throw). All definitions…

  14. The Timing of Verb Selection in Japanese Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momma, Shota; Slevc, L. Robert; Phillips, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Many influential models of sentence production (e.g., Bock & Levelt, 1994; Kempen & Hoenkamp, 1987; Levelt, 1989) emphasize the central role of verbs in structural encoding, and thus predict that verbs should be selected early in sentence formulation, possibly even before the phonological encoding of the first constituent (Ferreira, 2000).…

  15. Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Rapid Verb Generation in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weinborn, Michael; Posada, Carolina; O'Grady, Joy

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that nouns and verbs are processed within relatively separable semantic memory networks. Although abnormal semantic processing is a common feature of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, no prior studies have specifically examined the comparability of noun and verb generation deficits in schizophrenia. In the current study,…

  16. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  17. Frequency of Verb Use in Young Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Bernstein Ratner, Nan

    2007-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that young children who stutter (CWS) tend to show depressed lexical performance relative to peers. Given the developmental literature as well as several studies of verb processing in individuals who stutter, verbs may pose a particular challenge for this group. The purpose of the present study was to examine…

  18. Causative Errors with Unaccusative Verbs in L2 Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether intermediate Turkish-speaking and English-speaking learners of Spanish know which unaccusative verbs alternate in transitivity and which ones do not, and whether they find causative errors natural with intransitive verbs. Results confirm similar findings to those reported in English interlanguage and first-language acquisition…

  19. Learning to Construct Verbs in Navajo and Quechua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Ellen H.; Saville-Troike, Muriel

    2002-01-01

    Navajo and Quechua, both languages with a highly complex morphology, provide intriguing insights into the acquisition of inflectional systems. The development of the verb in the two languages is especially interesting, since the morphology encodes diverse grammatical notions, with the complex verb often constituting the entire sentence. While the…

  20. English Verb Accuracy of Bilingual Cantonese-English Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Stefano; Goldberg, Ahuva; Milburn, Trelani; Belletti, Adriana; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-07-26

    Knowledge of verb development in typically developing bilingual preschoolers may inform clinicians about verb accuracy rates during the 1st 2 years of English instruction. This study aimed to investigate tensed verb accuracy in 2 assessment contexts in 4- and 5-year-old Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers. The sample included 47 Cantonese-English bilinguals enrolled in English preschools. Half of the children were in their 1st 4 months of English language exposure, and half had completed 1 year and 4 months of exposure to English. Data were obtained from the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (Rice & Wexler, 2001) and from a narrative generated in English. By the 2nd year of formal exposure to English, children in the present study approximated 33% accuracy of tensed verbs in a formal testing context versus 61% in a narrative context. The use of the English verb BE approximated mastery. Predictors of English third-person singular verb accuracy were task, grade, English expressive vocabulary, and lemma frequency. Verb tense accuracy was low across both groups, but a precocious mastery of BE was observed. The results of the present study suggest that speech-language pathologists may consider, in addition to an elicitation task, evaluating the use of verbs during narratives in bilingual Cantonese-English bilingual children.

  1. Cerebellum engages in automation of verb-generation skill.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Paula; Weng, Xuchu; Bandettini, Peter A

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown cerebellar involvement in item-specific association, a form of explicit learning. However, very few have demonstrated cerebellar participation in automation of non-motor cognitive tasks. Applying fMRI to a repeated verb-generation task, we sought to distinguish cerebellar involvement in learning of item-specific noun-verb association and automation of verb generation skill. The same set of nouns was repeated in six verb-generation blocks so that subjects practiced generating verbs for the nouns. The practice was followed by a novel block with a different set of nouns. The cerebellar vermis (IV/V) and the right cerebellar lobule VI showed decreased activation following practice; activation in the right cerebellar Crus I was significantly lower in the novel challenge than in the initial verb-generation task. Furthermore, activation in this region during well-practiced blocks strongly correlated with improvement of behavioral performance in both the well-practiced and the novel blocks, suggesting its role in the learning of general mental skills not specific to the practiced noun-verb pairs. Therefore, the cerebellum processes both explicit verbal associative learning and automation of cognitive tasks. Different cerebellar regions predominate in this processing: lobule VI during the acquisition of item-specific association, and Crus I during automation of verb-generation skills through practice.

  2. A Conceptual Approach to the Instruction of Phrasal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Phrasal verbs present numerous challenges to second language learners of English, who often view verb + particle combinations as random (Side, 1990). This article proposes a pedagogical approach that focuses on particles as a means of spotlighting systematicity within this traditionally problematic area of English vocabulary. Informed by cognitive…

  3. Silent Movies: A Digitized Video Approach to the Russian Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkes, Lisa A.

    A HyperCard stack using digitized video to provide students of Russian with meaningful exercise in the use of verbal aspect and verbs of motion and position is described. Several problems presented by the Russian verb are defined. Examples of traditional textbook exercises are presented--translations, fill-ins, and picture-based approaches, and…

  4. Comparing Nouns and Verbs in a Lexical Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordier, Francoise; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Rigalleau, Francois

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the…

  5. Children Use Different Cues to Guide Noun and Verb Extensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Heard, M. Elaine; Ring, Kolette; Pai, Anushka; Sallquist, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Learning new words involves decoding both how a word fits the current situation and how it could be used in new situations. Three studies explore how two types of cues--sentence structure and the availability of multiple instances--affect children's extensions of nouns and verbs. In each study, 2.5-year-olds heard nouns, verbs, or no new word…

  6. Getting on Top of Idiomatic Verbs. Tausend Wendungen im Kontext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitkreuz, Hartmut; Bosewitz, Rene

    English idioms are catalogued for German speakers. The guide is designed to be used both as a reference and as a teaching tool. It is divided into sections, each listing and defining common idioms using a number of English verbs, then presenting them in the context of dialogues. Most sections contain idioms for six or seven more common verbs, then…

  7. Giant Steps: A Game to Enhance Semantic Development of Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwisle, Doris R.; And Others

    The game "Giant Steps" was described. It was designed to aid children in the semantic development of verbs. The purpose of the experimental evaluation was to determine whether playing the game actually did influence the associative structure of those verbs and adverbs that are "guessed" words in the game. Third graders from two classrooms in an…

  8. Exploring Atypical Verb+Noun Combinations in Learner Technical Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzon Marco, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and…

  9. Verbs and Attention to Relational Roles in English and Tamil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethuraman, Nitya; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    English-learning children have been shown to reliably use cues from argument structure in learning verbs. However, languages pair overtly expressed arguments with verbs to varying extents, raising the question of whether children learning all languages expect the same, universal mapping between arguments and relational roles. Three experiments…

  10. Parallelism Effects and Verb Activation: The Sustained Reactivation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes underlying parallelism by evaluating the activation of a parallel element (i.e., a verb) throughout "and"-coordinated sentences. Four points were tested: (1) approximately 1,600ms after the verb in the first conjunct (PP1), (2) immediately following the conjunction (PP2), (3) approximately 1,100ms after the…

  11. The Semantics and Syntax of Modal Verbs in Amoy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1980-01-01

    Modal verbs in Chinese are characterized in terms of internal and external modality; the former defines a state a noun is in or a quality a noun has while the latter defines a circumstantial factor that affects an event. Modal verbs and their compounds are contrasted in Mandarin and Amoy dialects. (Author/PJM)

  12. Englische Modalverben und Sprechakte (English Modal Verbs and Speech Acts)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kussmaul, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes the function of English modal verbs, arranging them in categories: permitting, asking permission, forbidding, commanding, exhorting, requesting, conjecturing, wishing. Various nuances are illustrated with numerous examples. For the clear, unambiguous functioning of each modal verb, an ample context is a prerequisite. (Text is in German.)…

  13. The Nahuatl Verb "maka": A Cognitive Grammar Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuggy, David

    The verb stem "maka" ("give") in Nahuatl is unusual in its range of options with respect to transitivity. Like all transitive verb stems, it regularly occurs with an object and must do so, but it also appears in an unusually large number of constructions in which it has two objects. These constructions are examined within the…

  14. Action verb comprehension in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    York, Collin; Olm, Christopher; Boller, Ashley; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Haley, Jenna; Seltzer, Emily; Chahine, Lama; Woo, John; Rascovsky, Katya; McMillan, Corey; Grossman, Murray

    2014-06-01

    Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have a motor disorder and cognitive difficulties, including difficulty with action verbs. However, the basis for the action verb impairment is unknown. Thirty-six participants with ALS and 22 with Parkinson's disease (PD) were assessed on a simple, two-alternative forced-choice associativity judgment task, where performance was untimed and did not depend on motor functioning. We probed 120 frequency-matched action verbs, cognition verbs, concrete nouns and abstract nouns. Performance was related to T1 MRI imaging of gray matter atrophy. Patients with ALS were significantly impaired relative to healthy senior control participants only for action verbs. Patients with PD did not differ from controls for all word categories. Regression analyses related action verb performance in ALS to motor-associated cortices, but action verb judgments in PD were not related to cortical atrophy. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that action verb difficulty in ALS is related in part to the degradation of action-related conceptual knowledge represented in motor-associated cortex.

  15. Instructional Architecture for Teaching Past and Past Participle Verb Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronnell, Bruce

    Noting that using correct verb forms is a problem for many elementary school students, and especially for those who are speakers of nonstandard English, this paper presents an instructional program for teaching past and past participle verb forms in writing to students in grade 3 through 6. The paper outlines the content of the instructional…

  16. Phrasal and Prepositional Verbs. Specialised Bibliography A14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This bibliography, which deals with phrasal and prepositional verbs in English, consists of three sections. The first section cites linguistic studies, while the second lists relevant articles. The third section cites textbooks that deal with the problems of teaching English verbs. Entries include both American and European publications, and most…

  17. The Semological Structure of the English Verbs of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegami, Yoshihiko

    Verbs of motion are understood in this paper as those verbs which refer to changes in locus. This definition is meant to exclude those cases in which only part of an object is moved, while the object as a whole remains in the same place ("swell,""expand,""stretch"). A discussion of this definition (Chapter 1) is…

  18. The Time Course of Verb Processing in Dutch Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lewis P.; Wester, Femke; Swinney, David A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2012-01-01

    The verb has traditionally been characterized as the central element in a sentence. Nevertheless, the exact role of the verb during the actual ongoing comprehension of a sentence as it unfolds in time remains largely unknown. This paper reports the results of two Cross-Modal Lexical Priming (CMLP) experiments detailing the pattern of verb priming during on-line processing of Dutch sentences. Results are contrasted with data from a third CMLP experiment on priming of nouns in similar sentences. It is demonstrated that the meaning of a matrix verb remains active throughout the entire matrix clause, while this is not the case for the meaning of a subject head noun. Activation of the meaning of the verb only dissipates upon encountering a clear signal as to the start of a new clause. PMID:19452278

  19. Verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia: Encoding of tense features ⋆

    PubMed Central

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2008-01-01

    Across most languages, verbs produced by agrammatic aphasic individuals are frequently marked by syntactically and semantically inappropriate inflectional affixes, such as Last night, I walking home. As per language production models, verb inflection errors in English agrammatism could arise from three potential sources: encoding the verbs’ morphology based on temporal information at the conceptual level, accessing syntactic well-formedness constraints of verbal morphology, and encoding morphophonological form. We investigate these aspects of encoding verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia. Using three sentence completion experiments, it was demonstrated that production of verb inflections was impaired whenever temporal reference was involved; while morphological complexity and syntactic constraints were less likely to be the source of verb inflection errors in agrammatism. These findings are discussed in relation to current language production models. PMID:18392120

  20. Verbs: some properties and their consequences for agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Rispens, Judith; Ruigendijk, Esther; Rabadaán, Oneésimo Juncos; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    It has repeatedly been shown that agrammatic Broca's aphasics have serious problems with the retrieval of verbs on action naming tests (Miceli, Silveri, Villa & Caramazza, 1984; Kohn, Lorch & Pearson, 1989; Basso, Razzano, Faglioni & Zanobio, 1990; Jonkers, 1998; Kim & Thompson, 2000). Less attention has been paid to the production of verbs at the sentence level (but see Miceli, Mazzuchi, Menn & Goodglass, 1983; Thompson, Shapiro, Li & Schendel, 1995; Thompson, Lange, Schneider & Shapiro, 1997; Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 1998; Bastiaanse, Rispens & Van Zonneveld, 2000; Friedmann, 2000), although it has been mentioned that in agrammatic spontaneous speech verbs are lacking (Saffran, Berndt & Schwartz, 1989; Thompson et al., 1995, but see Bastiaanse & Jonkers, 1998). In this paper, three cross-linguistic studies are discussed to show that these problems with verbs have consequences for other grammatical morphemes and structures that have been mentioned to be impaired in agrammatic speech and that these consequences are different per language, depending on linguistic characteristics. The first study focuses on finiteness and compares the production of finite verbs in matrix and embedded clauses in Dutch and English, showing that a linguistic rule in Dutch (Verb Second), which does not exist in English, can explain the different performance of Dutch and English agrammatic Broca's aphasics. The second study focuses on determiners and (finite) verbs in German and shows that poor determiner production is directly related to poor verb production. The last study demonstrates that the ability to construct negative sentences is dependent on the language specific relation between verb movement and negation: Dutch and Norwegian agrammatics perform equally well on affirmative and negative sentences, whereas English and Spanish agrammatics are more impaired on negative sentences. Overall, these studies show that the problems agrammatics encounter with verbs and their properties

  1. The Effect of Teaching Phrasal Verbs through Pictures on EFL Learners' Active Application of Phrasal Verbs in Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marashi, Hamid; Maherinia, Elaheh

    2011-01-01

    Lexical items, because they are language specific forms are undoubtedly one of the most difficult tasks in learning a second language. Phrasal verbs perhaps further exacerbate this difficult task since the meaning of already known verbs changes drastically when combined with different particles. Hence, facilitating the learning of these commonly…

  2. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  3. New Developments in Auxiliary Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norreys, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The role of heating arising from the propagation of orthogonal petawatt-laser driven relativistic electron beams in dense plasma will be discussed. The energy cascade mechanism begins first with the rapid growth at 45 degrees to the two beams of electrostatic waves near the electron plasma frequency. These waves reach high amplitudes and break, which then results in the generation of a strongly driven turbulent Langmuir spectrum. Parametric decay of these waves, particularly via the modulational instability, then gives rise to a coupled turbulent ion acoustic spectrum. The resulting waves also give rise to ion heating through collisions via equilibration of both electrons and ions. In this talk, I will present the most recent analytic modelling, and particle-in-cell / Vlasov-Poisson simulation results from my team within Oxford Physics and the Central Laser Facility that explores the optimum parameter space for this process, focusing in particular on the requirements for auxiliary heating of the central hot spot in inertial confinement fusion target experiments. I will also describe new methods for hole-boring through the coronal plasma surrounding the fuel using strongly relativistic laser beams that demonstrates the strong suppression of the hosing instability under these conditions. Proof-of-concept experiments are under design for the Orion and OMEGA EP facilities.

  4. H(curl) Auxiliary Mesh Preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, T V; Pasciak, J E; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-08-31

    This paper analyzes a two-level preconditioning scheme for H(curl) bilinear forms. The scheme utilizes an auxiliary problem on a related mesh that is more amenable for constructing optimal order multigrid methods. More specifically, we analyze the case when the auxiliary mesh only approximately covers the original domain. The latter assumption is important since it allows for easy construction of nested multilevel spaces on regular auxiliary meshes. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions illustrate the optimal performance of the method.

  5. Tuneable Auxiliary Control Mechanisms For RUM Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Alhorn, Dean C.

    1995-01-01

    Tuneable auxiliary control mechanisms for rotating unbalanced-mass (RUM) actuators used to maximize scan amplitudes and/or minimize power consumption during changing conditions. This type of mechanism more sophisticated version of type of mechanism described in "Auxiliary Control Mechanisms for RUM Actuators" (MFS-28817). Torsional stiffness of torsionally flexible coupling made adjustable on command. Torsionally flexible coupling in tuneable version of auxiliary control mechanism adjustable by use of stepping-motor-driven worm-gear mechanism that varies bending length of flexible blade.

  6. Tuneable Auxiliary Control Mechanisms For RUM Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Alhorn, Dean C.

    1995-01-01

    Tuneable auxiliary control mechanisms for rotating unbalanced-mass (RUM) actuators used to maximize scan amplitudes and/or minimize power consumption during changing conditions. This type of mechanism more sophisticated version of type of mechanism described in "Auxiliary Control Mechanisms for RUM Actuators" (MFS-28817). Torsional stiffness of torsionally flexible coupling made adjustable on command. Torsionally flexible coupling in tuneable version of auxiliary control mechanism adjustable by use of stepping-motor-driven worm-gear mechanism that varies bending length of flexible blade.

  7. Auxiliary Liver Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Naresh P; Al-Lawati, Tawfiq; Kelgeri, Chaya; Rela, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation is a technique where part of diseased native liver is removed and replaced with healthy donor liver so that, the left behind native liver could later regenerate. 2 year 6 month old girl with acute liver failure due to Hepatitis A. She underwent a successful auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation. Successful native liver regeneration and immunosuppression withdrawal after two and half years of surgery. In selective cases of acute liver failure, auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation could provide a chance for native liver regeneration and immunosuppression-free life.

  8. One cutting plane algorithm using auxiliary functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabotin, I. Ya; Kazaeva, K. E.

    2016-11-01

    We propose an algorithm for solving a convex programming problem from the class of cutting methods. The algorithm is characterized by the construction of approximations using some auxiliary functions, instead of the objective function. Each auxiliary function bases on the exterior penalty function. In proposed algorithm the admissible set and the epigraph of each auxiliary function are embedded into polyhedral sets. In connection with the above, the iteration points are found by solving linear programming problems. We discuss the implementation of the algorithm and prove its convergence.

  9. Electric auxiliary power unit for Shuttle evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Doug; Weber, Kent; Scott, Walter

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter currently uses three hydrazine fueled auxiliary power units (APUs) to provide hydraulic power for the vehicle aerodynamic surface controls, main engine thrust vector control, landing gear, steering, and brakes. Electric auxiliary power units have been proposed as possible replacements to the hydrazine auxiliary power units. Along with the potential advantages, this paper describes an Electric APU configuration and addresses the technical issues and risks associated with the subsystem components. Additionally, characteristics of an Electric APU compared to the existing APU and the direction of future study with respect to the Electric APU is suggested.

  10. Acquiring and Producing Sentences: Whether Learners Use Verb-Specific or Verb-General Information Depends on Cue Validity

    PubMed Central

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Rattinger, Michelle G.

    2016-01-01

    Learning to produce sentences involves learning patterns that enable the generation of new utterances. Language contains both verb-specific and verb-general regularities that are relevant to this capacity. Previous research has focused on whether one source is more important than the other. We tested whether the production system can flexibly learn to use either source, depending on the predictive validity of different cues in the input. Participants learned new sentence structures in a miniature language paradigm. In three experiments, we manipulated whether individual verbs or verb-general mappings better predicted the structures heard during learning. Evaluation of participants’ subsequent production revealed that they could use either the structural preferences of individual verbs or abstract meaning-to-form mappings to construct new sentences. Further, this choice varied according to cue validity. These results demonstrate flexibility within the production architecture and the importance of considering how language was learned when discussing how language is used. PMID:27047428

  11. Verb Deficits in Alzheimer's Disease and Agrammatism: Implications for Lexical Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mikyong; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the nature of verb deficits in 14 individuals with probable Alzheimer's Disease (PrAD) and nine with agrammatic aphasia. Production was tested, controlling both semantic and syntactic features of verbs, using noun and verb naming, sentence completion, and narrative tasks. Noun and verb comprehension and a grammaticality…

  12. Twenty-Five-Month-Old Children Do Not Have a Grammatical Category of Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olguin, Raquel; Tomasello, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A study of two year olds investigated the nature and development of children's early productivity with verb-argument structure and verb morphology. Results indicated that the children showed no signs of productive verb morphology, but they did use newly learned verbs in some creative ways involving nounlike uses and the appending of locatives.…

  13. A Conceptual Approach to Existential Verbs in Japanese: The Case of Aru versus Iru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative analysis of the two Japanese existential verbs: aru and iru. By appealing to the notion of conceptualisation that pervades the cognitive linguistic literature, I demonstrate that the two verbs pattern as motion verbs, and not simply as verbs of existence and/or location. Throughout the paper, I demonstrate that…

  14. Facilitation and practice in verb acquisition.

    PubMed

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by intensive use and common word order errors--and this slows down learning during the early stages of acquiring a structure. The facilitation and practice hypotheses were tested on naturalistic production samples of six Hebrew-acquiring children ranging from ages 1;1 to 2;7 (average ages 1;6 to 2;4 months). Results show that most structures did in fact accelerate; the notion of 'practice' is supported by the inverse correlation found between number of verbs and number of errors in the earliest productions in a given structure; and the absence of acceleration in a minority of the structures is due to the fact that they involve relatively less practice.

  15. Auxiliary circuit enables automatic monitoring of EKG'S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Auxiliary circuits allow direct, automatic monitoring of electrocardiograms by digital computers. One noiseless square-wave output signal for each trigger pulse from an electrocardiogram preamplifier is produced. The circuit also permits automatic processing of cardiovascular data from analog tapes.

  16. Ozonation of Common Textile Auxiliaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskender, Gulen; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Koyunluoglu, Sebnem; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Germirli Babuna, Fatos

    2016-10-01

    The treatability of four different commonly applied textile auxiliary chemicals, namely two tannin formulations (Tannin 1: a condensation product of aryl sulphonate; Tannin 2: natural tannic acid) and two biocidal finishing agents (Biocide 1: 2,4,4’-trichloro-2’- hydroxydiphenyl ether; Biocide 2: a nonionic diphenyl alkane derivative) with ozone was investigated. Increasing the ozone dose yielded higher COD removals for the natural tannin. Optimum ozone doses of 485 and 662 mg/h were obtained at a pH of 3.5 for natural and synthetic tannin carrying textile bath discharges, respectively. When the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0, a slight decrease in COD removal was observed for the natural tannin due to ozone selectivity towards its polyaromatic structure. The same increase in ozonation pH enhanced COD removals for the synthetic tannin as a result of enhanced ozone decomposition rendering free radical chain reactions dominant. Optimum ozone doses of 499 and 563 mg/h were established for Biocide 1 and 2, respectively. With the increase of ozonation, pH exhibited a positive influence on COD removals for both textile tannins. A substantial improvement in terms of TOC removals was observed as the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0 for the synthetic tannin, and from 7 to 12 for both textile biocides. Higher AOX removals were evident at pH 7 than at pH 12 for Biocide 1 as a result of the higher selectivity of the dehalogenation reaction at neutral pH.

  17. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-01-01

    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  18. An ontology for tactical behaviors derived from verb frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterline, Albert C., Jr.; BouSaba, Chafic W.

    2008-04-01

    We present an initial ontology for tactical behaviors conducted by unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). We focus on activities, which are the denotations of verbs, notably 'move' but also 'look (for)' and several others. These take collective subjects, allowing activities to be attributed to units at various hierarchical levels. The semantics of verbs must consider the denotations of their grammatical complements; that is, we must consider entire verb frames. The thematic relations of the noun-phrase complements are critical, but prepositions also play an important role. FrameNet is an online lexical database of frames derived from text corpora. Our other major resource is Levin's classification of verbs according to how changes in their frames affect their meanings. Although natural languages have a large variety of words for aspects of tactical behaviors, there is motivation to get by with as few basic verbs as possible. A variety of meanings can often be associated with a verb by altering its frame, and we can impose co-reference constraints on combinations of frames to generate structures denoting more complex activities. A simple grammar is developed for the verbs of interest. Protege-Frames ontologies include classes that inherit from linguistically inspired classes but capture domain-specific notions.

  19. Learning to construct verbs in Navajo and Quechua.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Ellen H; Saville-Troike, Muriel

    2002-08-01

    Navajo and Quechua, both languages with a highly complex morphology, provide intriguing insights into the acquisition of inflectional systems. The development of the verb in the two languages is especially interesting, since the morphology encodes diverse grammatical notions, with the complex verb often constituting the entire sentence. While the verb complex in Navajo is stem-final, with prefixes appended to the stem in a rigid sequence, Quechua verbs are assembled entirely through suffixation, with some variation in affix ordering. We explore issues relevant to the acquisition of verb morphology by children learning Navajo and Quechua as their first language. Our study presents naturalistic speech samples produced by five Navajo children, aged 1;1 to 4;7, and by four Quechua-speaking children, aged 2;0 to 3;5. We centre our analysis on the role of phonological criteria in segmentation of verb stems and affixes, the production of amalgams, the problem of homophony, and the significance of distributional learning and semantic criteria in the development of the verb template. The phenomena observed in our data are discussed in light of several proposals, especially those of Peters (1983, 1995), Pinker (1984), Slobin (1985), and Hyams (1986, 1994).

  20. Expectation and Locality Effects in German Verb-final Structures.

    PubMed

    Levy, Roger P; Keller, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Probabilistic expectations and memory limitations are central factors governing the real-time comprehension of natural language, but how the two factors interact remains poorly understood. One respect in which the two factors have come into theoretical conflict is the documentation of both locality effects, in which more dependents preceding a governing verb increase processing difficulty at the verb, and anti-locality effects, in which more preceding dependents facilitate processing at the verb. However, no controlled study has previously demonstrated both locality and anti-locality effects in the same type of dependency relation within the same language. Additionally, many previous demonstrations of anti-locality effects have been potentially confounded with lexical identity, plausibility, and sentence position. Here, we provide new evidence of both locality and anti-locality effects in the same type of dependency relation in a single language-verb-final constructions in German-while controlling for lexical identity, plausibility, and sentence position. In main clauses, we find clear anti-locality effects, with the presence of a preceding dative argument facilitating processing at the final verb; in subject-extracted relative clauses with identical linear ordering of verbal dependents, we find both anti-locality and locality effects, with processing facilitated when the verb is preceded by a dative argument alone, but hindered when the verb is preceded by both the dative argument and an adjunct. These results indicate that both expectations and memory limitations need to be accounted for in any complete theory of online syntactic comprehension.

  1. Verb class distinctions and AAC language-encoding limitations.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A E; Gallagher, T M

    1993-12-01

    This study explored the status of an English grammatical distinction in the language of individuals who have never been able to encode that distinction previously. English past tense marking was used as a context to examine regular and irregular verb class distinctions in the language of two adults with severe congenital physical impairments who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems to communicate. In the subjects' lexically based AAC systems, past tense was marked on regular verbs and irregular verbs using the same strategy. The subjects accessed their AAC displays using four-digit eye gaze number codes. They were shown a novel affixation strategy through manipulation of the four-digit codes that allowed them to mark past tense on regular verbs via an affixation process. Their semantic strategy for marking past tense on irregular verbs was not changed. The subjects' patterns of use of the two strategies on exemplars of each verb class revealed limited evidence of distinctive use of the two strategies based on verb class membership. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  2. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  3. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  4. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  6. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  7. Syntactic generalization with novel intransitive verbs.

    PubMed

    Kline, Melissa; Demuth, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    To understand how children develop adult argument structure, we must understand the nature of syntactic and semantic representations during development. The present studies compare the performance of children aged 2;6 on the two intransitive alternations in English: patient (Daddy is cooking the food/The food is cooking) and agent (Daddy is cooking). Children displayed abstract knowledge of both alternations, producing appropriate syntactic generalizations with novel verbs. These generalizations were adult-like in both flexibility and constraint. Rather than limiting their generalizations to lexicalized frames, children produced sentences with a variety of nouns and pronouns. They also avoided semantic overgeneralizations, producing intransitive sentences that respected the event restrictions and animacy cues. Some generated semantically appropriate agent intransitives when discourse pressure favored patient intransitives, indicating a stronger command of the first alternation. This was in line with frequency distributions in child-directed speech. These findings suggest that children have early access to representations that permit flexible argument structure generalization.

  8. The role of semantic features in verb processing.

    PubMed

    Bonnotte, Isabelle

    2008-05-01

    The present study examined the general hypothesis that, as for nouns, stable representations of semantic knowledge relative to situations expressed by verbs are available and accessible in long term memory in normal people. Regular associations between verbs and past tenses in French adults allowed to abstract two superordinate semantic features in the representation of verb meaning: durativity and resultativity. A pilot study was designed to select appropriate items according to these features: durative, non-resultative verbs and non-durative, resultative verbs. An experimental study was then conducted to assess semantic priming in French adults with two visual semantic-decision tasks at a 200- and 100-ms SOA. In the durativity decision task, participants had to decide if the target referred to a durable or non-durable situation. In the resultativity decision task, they had to decide if it referred to a situation with a directly observable outcome or without any clear external outcome. Targets were preceded by similar, opposite, and neutral primes. Results showed that semantic priming can tap verb meaning at a 200- and 100-ms SOA, with the restriction that only the positive value of each feature benefited from priming, that is the durative and resultative values. Moreover, processing of durativity and resultativity is far from comparable since facilitation was shown on the former with similar and opposite priming, whereas it was shown on the latter only with similar priming. Overall, these findings support Le Ny's (in: Saint-Dizier, Viegas (eds) Computational lexical semantics, 1995; Cahier de Recherche Linguistique LanDisCo 12:85-100, 1998; Comment l'esprit produit du sens, 2005) general hypothesis that classificatory properties of verbs could be interpreted as semantic features and the view that semantic priming can tap verb meaning, as noun meaning.

  9. A delta configured auxiliary resonant snubber inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; McKeever, J.W.; Peng, F.Z. |

    1995-09-01

    A delta ({Delta}) configured auxiliary resonant snubber inverter is developed to overcome the voltage floating problem in a wye (Y) configured resonant snubber inverter. The proposed inverter is to connect auxiliary resonant branches between phase outputs to avoid a floating point voltage which may cause over-voltage failure of the auxiliary switches. Each auxiliary branch consists of a resonant inductor and a reverse blocking auxiliary switch. Instead of using an anti-paralleled diode to allow resonant current to flow in the reverse direction, as in the Y-configured version, the resonant branch in the {Delta}-configured version must block the negative voltage, typically done by a series diode. This paper shows single-phase and three-phase versions of {Delta}-configured resonant snubber inverters and describes in detail the operating principle of a single-phase version. The extended three-phase version is proposed with non-adjacent state space vector modulation. For hardware implementation, a single-phase 1-kW unit and a three-phase 100-kW unit were built to prove the concept. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed topology.

  10. Alternative auxiliary fields for chiral multiplets

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2009-12-15

    We study 3-form auxiliary field formulation for chiral multiplets in the Wess-Zumino model. The conventional auxiliary fields F and G are replaced by their Hodge duals K{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {sigma}} and H{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {sigma}} which are the field strengths of the 3-form potential auxiliary fields G{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}} and F{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}. Even though duality transformations connect these two formulations, there exist certain differences from the conventional formulation. When boundary conditions are taken into account, the field equations in the 3-form formulation are equivalent to the conventional ones, while our Lagrangian is not. We also show that the new field strengths acquire generalized Chern-Simons terms. The O'Raifeartaigh mechanism works for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking also in the 3-form auxiliary field formulation via the boundary conditions on the 3-form auxiliary fields.

  11. Training verb argument structure production in agrammatic aphasia: Behavioral and neural recovery patterns

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Riley, Ellyn A.; den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Lukic, Sladjana

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neuroimaging and lesion studies indicate a left hemisphere network for verb and verb argument structure processing, involving both frontal and temporoparietal brain regions. Although their verb comprehension is generally unimpaired, it is well known that individuals with agrammatic aphasia often present with verb production deficits, characterized by an argument structure complexity hierarchy, indicating faulty access to argument structure representations for production and integration into syntactic contexts. Recovery of verb processing in agrammatism, however, has received little attention and no studies have examined the neural mechanisms associated with improved verb and argument structure processing. In the present study we trained agrammatic individuals on verbs with complex argument structure in sentence contexts and examined generalization to verbs with less complex argument structure. The neural substrates of improved verb production were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Eight individuals with chronic agrammatic aphasia participated in the study (four experimental and four control participants). Production of three-argument verbs in active sentences was trained using a sentence generation task emphasizing the verb’s argument structure and the thematic roles of sentential noun phrases. Before and after training, production of trained and untrained verbs was tested in naming and sentence production and fMRI scans were obtained, using an action naming task. Results Significant pre- to post-training improvement in trained and untrained (one- and two-argument) verbs was found for treated, but not control, participants, with between-group differences found for verb naming, production of verbs in sentences, and production of argument structure. fMRI activation derived from post-treatment compared to pre-treatment scans revealed upregulation in cortical regions implicated for verb and argument structure processing

  12. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  13. Design tradeoffs of a reciprocating auxiliary power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renquist, Jacob Vinod

    This thesis presents a comparison of reciprocating auxiliary power units to conventional, gas turbine auxiliary power units. A metric of interest is created to represent the specific auxiliary power system weight including the prime mover, generator, gearbox, and fuel consumed. The metric of interest is used to compare the different auxiliary power unit technologies by incorporating detailed engine simulations, auxiliary power unit system weight modeling, and flight path-realized fuel consumption modeling. Results show that reciprocating auxiliary power units can be competitive with gas turbines in near-term, more-electric aircraft applications.

  14. Grasping the world through words: from action to linguistic production of verbs in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Levi, Gabriel; Colonnello, Valentina; Giacchè, Roberta; Piredda, Maria Letizia; Sogos, Carla

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether the bodily-mediated production of verbs emerges earlier than verb recognition and oral production during early language acquisition. Children (aged 18-22, 23-27, 28-32, and 33-37 months) viewed animated pictures representing actions related to transitive and intransitive verbs and were asked to (i) orally indicate the verb presented, (ii) recognize the target verb among other verbs, and (iii) perform the actions corresponding to the target verb enunciated by the experimenter. Children 18-22 months showed a capacity to enact the verbs, while their recognition and oral production abilities were not comparably developed. Until 27 months of age, children produced more transitive than intransitive verbs across tasks. The gap between verb recognition and verb oral production was found in all ages tested. This is the first study to directly demonstrate that the ability to produce verbs, especially transitive verbs, via overt body actions emerges ontogenetically earlier than recognition and oral production. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Syntax and semantics in the acquisition of locative verbs.

    PubMed

    Gropen, J; Pinker, S; Hollander, M; Goldberg, R

    1991-02-01

    Children between the ages of three and seven occasionally make errors with locative verbs like pour and fill, such as *I filled water into the glass and *I poured the glass with water (Bowerman, 1982). To account for this pattern of errors, and for how they are eventually unlearned, we propose that children use a universal linking rule called object affectedness: the direct object corresponds to the argument that is specified as 'affected' in some particular way in the semantic representation of a verb. However, children must learn which verbs specify which of their arguments as being affected; specifically, whether it is the argument whose referent is undergoing a change of location, such as the content argument of pour, or the argument whose referent is undergoing a change of state, such as the container argument of fill. This predicts that syntactic errors should be associated with specific kinds of misinterpretations of verb meaning. Two experiments were performed on the ability of children and adults to understand and produce locative verbs. The results confirm that children tend to make syntactic errors with sentences containing fill and empty, encoding the content argument as direct object (e.g. fill the water). As predicted, children also misinterpreted the meanings of fill and empty as requiring not only that the container be brought into a full or empty state, but also that the content move in some specific manner (by pouring, or by dumping). Furthermore, children who misinterpreted the verbs' meanings were more likely to make syntactic errors with them. These findings support the hypothesis that verb meaning and syntax are linked in precise ways in the lexicons of language learners.

  16. The Changing Face of Auxiliary Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    With tuition on the rise, Auxiliary Services departments at a variety of colleges and universities are proving that they can innovate and still save their parent institutions cash. Primary areas of innovation include: (1) With advancements in technology, institutions are moving campus purchasing programs into the wireless space; (2) As junk mail …

  17. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Akasam, Sivaprasad; Johnson, Kris W.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Slone, Larry M.; Welter, James Milton

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  18. Ejector Noise Suppression with Auxiliary Jet Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Charles H.; Andersen, Otto P., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental program to reduce aircraft jet turbulence noise investigated the interaction of small auxiliary jets with a larger main jet. Significant reductions in the far field jet noise were obtained over a range of auxiliary jet pressures and flow rates when used in conjunction with an acoustically lined ejector. While the concept is similar to that of conventional ejector suppressors that use mechanical mixing devices, the present approach should improve thrust and lead to lower weight and less complex noise suppression systems since no hardware needs to be located in the main jet flow. A variety of auxiliary jet and ejector configurations and operating conditions were studied. The best conditions tested produced peak to peak noise reductions ranging from 11 to 16 dB, depending on measurement angle, for auxiliary jet mass flows that were 6.6% of the main jet flow with ejectors that were 8 times the main jet diameter in length. Much larger reductions in noise were found at the original peak frequencies of the unsuppressed jet over a range of far field measurement angles.

  19. 14 CFR 23.757 - Auxiliary floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary floats. 23.757 Section 23.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... fresh water, they provide a righting moment of at least 1.5 times the upsetting moment caused by the...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage... constructed or mined-out to provide equivalent impact resistance and confinement. (b) The auxiliary...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage... constructed or mined-out to provide equivalent impact resistance and confinement. (b) The auxiliary...

  2. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  3. 78 FR 27321 - Revision of Auxiliary Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... other administrative matters. These changes would address several problems common to Auxiliary units... Suits in Admiralty Act, the Admiralty Extension Act, and other matters related to non- contractual civil... (series)). Medals and awards are a matter of agency management and agency personnel, and therefore exempt...

  4. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  5. The Changing Face of Auxiliary Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    With tuition on the rise, Auxiliary Services departments at a variety of colleges and universities are proving that they can innovate and still save their parent institutions cash. Primary areas of innovation include: (1) With advancements in technology, institutions are moving campus purchasing programs into the wireless space; (2) As junk mail …

  6. Auxiliary School Personnel Programs for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dady, Milan B.

    This manual, constituting "a design to institutionalize auxiliary personnel in education in rural schools in America," deals with the recruitment, selection, training, utilization, and career development of paraprofessionals. (It is an outgrowth of a 1967 six-week training program for teacher-aide trainees at Morehead State University,…

  7. Window-mounted auxiliary solar heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K. G.; Herndon, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    System uses hot-air collectors, no thermal storage, and fan with thermostat switches. At cost of heating efficiency, unit could be manufactured and sold at price allowing immediate entry to market as auxiliary heating system. Its simplicity allows homeowner installation, and maintenance is minimal.

  8. Approaches to verb subcategorization for biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, Thomas; Rimell, Laura; Verspoor, Karin; Korhonen, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Information about verb subcategorization frames (SCFs) is important to many tasks in natural language processing (NLP) and, in turn, text mining. Biomedicine has a need for high-quality SCF lexicons to support the extraction of information from the biomedical literature, which helps biologists to take advantage of the latest biomedical knowledge despite the overwhelming growth of that literature. Unfortunately, techniques for creating such resources for biomedical text are relatively undeveloped compared to general language. This paper serves as an introduction to subcategorization and existing approaches to acquisition, and provides motivation for developing techniques that address issues particularly important to biomedical NLP. First, we give the traditional linguistic definition of subcategorization, along with several related concepts. Second, we describe approaches to learning SCF lexicons from large data sets for general and biomedical domains. Third, we consider the crucial issue of linguistic variation between biomedical fields (subdomain variation). We demonstrate significant variation among subdomains, and find the variation does not simply follow patterns of general lexical variation. Finally, we note several requirements for future research in biomedical SCF lexicon acquisition: a high-quality gold standard, investigation of different definitions of subcategorization, and minimally-supervised methods that can learn subdomain-specific lexical usage without the need for extensive manual work.

  9. Context effects on verb production in specific language impairment (SLI): confrontation naming versus connected speech.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2014-11-01

    A handful of studies have shown that verbs are more vulnerable than nouns to retrieval deficits on picture-based naming tasks for children with specific language impairment (SLI). The aim of this study was to examine if the disproportionate verb as opposed to noun production deficit reported for naming is also found in connected speech. Sixteen children participated in the study: eight children diagnosed with SLI (mean age: 6:3 years) and eight typically language developing (TLD, mean age: 5:9 years) controls. Verb and noun production was measured in connected speech and compared to picture confrontation naming. Both groups of children showed a significant difficulty naming verbs compared to nouns. In contrast, they did not differ on the total number of both verb tokens and verb types produced in connected speech. The findings indicate that the previously reported verb retrieval difficulties in SLI are a product of the confrontation naming task demands rather than a true verb deficit.

  10. Does Variability Across Events Affect Verb Learning in English, Mandarin, and Korean?

    PubMed

    Childers, Jane B; Paik, Jae H; Flores, Melissa; Lai, Gabrielle; Dolan, Megan

    2017-04-01

    Extending new verbs is important in becoming a productive speaker of a language. Prior results show children have difficulty extending verbs when they have seen events with varied agents. This study further examines the impact of variability on verb learning and asks whether variability interacts with event complexity or differs by language. Children (aged 2½ to 3 years) in the United States, China, Korea, and Singapore learned verbs linked to simple and complex events. Sets of events included one or three agents, and children were asked to extend the verb at test. Children learning verbs linked to simple movements performed similarly across conditions. However, children learning verbs linked to events with multiple objects were less successful if those events were enacted by multiple agents. A follow-up study rules out an influence of event order. Overall, similar patterns of results emerged across languages, suggesting common cognitive processes support children's verb learning. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Distributional structure in language: Contributions to noun–verb difficulty differences in infant word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Willits, Jon A.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2014-01-01

    What makes some words easy for infants to recognize, and other words difficult? We addressed this issue in the context of prior results suggesting that infants have difficulty recognizing verbs relative to nouns. In this work, we highlight the role played by the distributional contexts in which nouns and verbs occur. Distributional statistics predict that English nouns should generally be easier to recognize than verbs in fluent speech. However, there are situations in which distributional statistics provide similar support for verbs. The statistics for verbs that occur with the English morpheme –ing, for example, should facilitate verb recognition. In two experiments with 7.5- and 9.5-month-old infants, we tested the importance of distributional statistics for word recognition by varying the frequency of the contextual frames in which verbs occur. The results support the conclusion that distributional statistics are utilized by infant language learners and contribute to noun–verb differences in word recognition. PMID:24908342

  12. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ensign is authorized to be flown on all Auxiliary Operational Facility vessels under orders. The penalty for the unauthorized flying of any ensign, flag or pennant of the Auxiliary is set forth in § 5.67...

  13. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ensign is authorized to be flown on all Auxiliary Operational Facility vessels under orders. The penalty for the unauthorized flying of any ensign, flag or pennant of the Auxiliary is set forth in § 5.67...

  14. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ensign is authorized to be flown on all Auxiliary Operational Facility vessels under orders. The penalty for the unauthorized flying of any ensign, flag or pennant of the Auxiliary is set forth in § 5.67...

  15. Children Use Different Cues to Guide Noun and Verb Extensions.

    PubMed

    Childers, Jane B; Heard, M Elaine; Ring, Kolette; Pai, Anushka; Sallquist, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Learning new words involves decoding both how a word fits the current situation and how it could be used in new situations. Three studies explore how two types of cues- sentence structure and the availability of multiple instances-- affect children's extensions of nouns and verbs. In each study, 2½-year-olds heard nouns, verbs or no new word while seeing the experimenter use a novel object to perform an action; at test, they were asked to extend the word. In Study 1, children hearing nouns in simple sentences used object shape as the basis for extension even though, during the learning phase, they saw multiple objects in motion; children in the other conditions responded randomly. Study 2 shows that by changing in the type of sentences used in the noun and verb conditions, not only is the shape bias disrupted but children are successful in extending new verbs. In a final study, access to multiple examples was replaced by a direct teaching context, and produced findings similar to those in Study 2. An implication of this result is that seeing multiple examples can be as effective as receiving direct instruction from an adult. Overall, the set of results suggests the mix of cues available during learning influences noun and verb extensions differently. The findings are important for understanding how the ability to extend words emerges in complex contexts.

  16. Children Use Different Cues to Guide Noun and Verb Extensions

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Jane B.; Heard, M. Elaine; Ring, Kolette; Pai, Anushka; Sallquist, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Learning new words involves decoding both how a word fits the current situation and how it could be used in new situations. Three studies explore how two types of cues— sentence structure and the availability of multiple instances-- affect children’s extensions of nouns and verbs. In each study, 2½-year-olds heard nouns, verbs or no new word while seeing the experimenter use a novel object to perform an action; at test, they were asked to extend the word. In Study 1, children hearing nouns in simple sentences used object shape as the basis for extension even though, during the learning phase, they saw multiple objects in motion; children in the other conditions responded randomly. Study 2 shows that by changing in the type of sentences used in the noun and verb conditions, not only is the shape bias disrupted but children are successful in extending new verbs. In a final study, access to multiple examples was replaced by a direct teaching context, and produced findings similar to those in Study 2. An implication of this result is that seeing multiple examples can be as effective as receiving direct instruction from an adult. Overall, the set of results suggests the mix of cues available during learning influences noun and verb extensions differently. The findings are important for understanding how the ability to extend words emerges in complex contexts. PMID:24465184

  17. Methodology of the outcome evaluation of the VERB campaign.

    PubMed

    Potter, Lance D; Judkins, David R; Piesse, Andrea; Nolin, Mary Jo; Huhman, Marian

    2008-06-01

    This article summarizes the methods used in the outcome evaluation of the VERB campaign. The outcome evaluation was designed to measure the awareness and understanding of VERB among the target audience of children aged 9-13 years (tweens) and to determine the effect of VERB awareness on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Cohorts of tweens and parents were interviewed annually via a telephone survey (Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey). The first cohort (baseline) was surveyed in 2002 prior to VERB advertising and was repeated annually through 2006. A second cohort was surveyed in 2004-2006. A third, cross-sectional sample was surveyed in 2006. Each cohort consisted of a nationally representative sample of tweens to enable generalizability to the nation as a whole. Propensity scoring was used to control for confounding influences. The outcomes were analyzed for dose-response effects (i.e., whether higher levels of awareness led to stronger effects) and overall awareness effects (i.e., the difference between tweens unaware of VERB and all tweens in the U.S.). Secular trends in tweens' physical activity during the life of the campaign were also examined. This article also discusses weighting and imputation, alternative analyses used to assess the adequacy of the propensity methods, and the challenges involved in media campaign evaluations.

  18. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems shall...

  19. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recirculation of air. (b) If a deficiency exists in any auxiliary fan system, the deficiency shall be corrected... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing...

  20. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems shall...

  1. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recirculation of air. (b) If a deficiency exists in any auxiliary fan system, the deficiency shall be corrected... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing...

  2. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  3. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  4. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  5. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  6. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  7. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a)...

  8. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

  9. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

  10. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

  12. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2613 - Auxiliary power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary power sources. 193.2613 Section 193.2613...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2613 Auxiliary power sources. Each auxiliary power source must... would have to be served by that power source in an emergency. ...

  14. Stresses, Strains, and Joys of Utilizing Auxiliary Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Sheldon S.

    1970-01-01

    As the participants at the AHEA Workshop on Utilization and Training of Auxiliary Personnel in Home Economics realized, the experience of using auxiliary personnel involves many types of stress and strain. But it also brings individual joys and social benefits that need recognition in any exploration about auxiliary personnel. In his speech at the…

  15. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a) The...

  16. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a) The...

  17. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a) The...

  18. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a) The...

  19. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  20. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  1. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  2. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  3. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  4. Does Variability across Events Affect Verb Learning in English, Mandarin, and Korean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Paik, Jae H.; Flores, Melissa; Lai, Gabrielle; Dolan, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Extending new verbs is important in becoming a productive speaker of a language. Prior results show children have difficulty extending verbs when they have seen events with varied agents. This study further examines the impact of variability on verb learning and asks whether variability interacts with event complexity or differs by language.…

  5. Auditory Verb Perception Recruits Motor Systems in the Developing Brain: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin Harman; Maouene, Josita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated neural activation patterns during verb processing in children, using fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Preschool children (aged 4-6) passively listened to lists of verbs and adjectives while neural activation was measured. Findings indicated that verbs were processed differently than adjectives, as the verbs…

  6. Tlingit Verb Dictionary. Part 1, English--Tlingit; Part 2, Tlingit--English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Gillian L., Comp.; Naish, Constance M., Comp.

    This verb dictionary is divided into two main sections. The English-Tlingit section is organized by means of English headings or key words, followed by English meanings which convey the main sense of the Tlingit verb expression in question. A representation of the given Tlingit verb expression is provided, along with one or more examples of it in…

  7. Lexical Analysis of the Verb "COOK" and Learning Vocabulary: A Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priyono

    2011-01-01

    English verbs have built-in properties that determine how they behave syntactically and generate appropriate meaning associated. With these inherent properties some verbs can fill in only in certain syntactic structures and some in others. The observation of the verb "COOK" using English corpus has revealed its lexical properties…

  8. Tlingit Verb Dictionary. Part 1, English--Tlingit; Part 2, Tlingit--English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Gillian L., Comp.; Naish, Constance M., Comp.

    This verb dictionary is divided into two main sections. The English-Tlingit section is organized by means of English headings or key words, followed by English meanings which convey the main sense of the Tlingit verb expression in question. A representation of the given Tlingit verb expression is provided, along with one or more examples of it in…

  9. Chinese Learners' Acquisition of English Verbs: A Corpus-Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Linxiao; Jo, Hie-myung

    2012-01-01

    Limited research has investigated advanced language learners' acquisition of English verbs. The current study examines and compares the acquisition pattern of English verbs among Chinese second language (L2) learners at both intermediate and advanced levels to answer the following questions: (1) Do L2 learners acquire regular verbs and irregular…

  10. A Comparison of Two Theoretically Driven Treatments for Verb Inflection Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2008-01-01

    Errors in the production of verb inflections, especially tense inflections, are pervasive in agrammatic Broca's aphasia ("*The boy eat"). The neurolinguistic underpinnings of these errors are debated. One group of theories attributes verb inflection errors to disruptions in encoding the verb's morphophonological form, resulting from either a…

  11. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  12. Acquiring and Processing Verb Argument Structure: Distributional Learning in a Miniature Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Newport, Elissa L.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Adult knowledge of a language involves correctly balancing lexically-based and more language-general patterns. For example, verb argument structures may sometimes readily generalize to new verbs, yet with particular verbs may resist generalization. From the perspective of acquisition, this creates significant learnability problems, with some…

  13. Acquiring Explicit Grammatical Knowledge Using the Spanish Verbs "Ser" and "Estar" as Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winitz, Harris; Sagarna, Blanca

    2007-01-01

    The role of explicit and implicit acquisition of grammatical rules in second language learning was examined by assessing high school students performance after several years of study on the correct use of the Spanish verbs "ser" and "estar". These two verbs are essentially equivalent in use to the English verb "to be," but there is a complex set…

  14. Native and Nonnative Use of Multi-Word vs. One-Word Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyanova, Anna; Schmitt, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    One of the choices available in English is between one-word verbs (train at the gym) and their multi-word counterparts (work out at the gym). Multi-word verbs tend to be colloquial in tone and are a particular feature of informal spoken discourse. Previous research suggests that English learners often have problems with multi-word verbs, and may…

  15. The On-Line Processing of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Josee; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy; Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the on-line processing of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) constructions in two brain injured populations: Broca's and Anomic aphasics. VPE constructions are built from two simple clauses; the first is the antecedent clause and the second is the ellipsis clause. The ellipsis clause is missing its verb and object (i.e., its verb phrase…

  16. Learning Verb Syntax via Listening: New Evidence from 22-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Katherine; Yuan, Sylvia; Fisher, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Children recruit verb syntax to guide verb interpretation. We asked whether 22-month-olds spontaneously encode information about a particular novel verb's syntactic properties through listening to sentences, retain this information in long-term memory over a filled delay, and retrieve it to guide interpretation upon hearing the same novel verb…

  17. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  18. Nouns before verbs in comprehension vs. production: the view from pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, B A

    2000-10-01

    This study examines pragmatic factors that bias English-speaking children to produce more of the nouns and fewer of the verbs that they know. If nouns are favoured for production, parents should elicit more nouns than verbs in child speech. If verb comprehension is favoured over verb production, parents should more often prompt children to produce an action than to produce a verb. Data from 44 parent-child (age 1;8) dyads in the New England directory of the CHILDES data base were analysed. Children produced more nouns than verbs but mothers produced more verbs than nouns. Speech act analyses indicate that mothers elicited noun production but rarely prompted children to produce verbs. Mothers more often prompted children to produce an action than to produce a verb, and verbs occurred most often in maternal speech acts used to elicit children's actions. Moreover, children comprehended many more verbs than they produced. These data suggest that production measures underestimate the frequency and significance of verb-learning in early lexical development.

  19. Effects of Weight and Syntactic Priming on the Production of Cantonese Verb-Doubling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Elaine J.; Matthews, Stephen; Wong, Reace Wing Yan; Kwan, Stella Wing Man

    2011-01-01

    Verb-doubling, where a copy of the main verb occurs both before and after the direct object, is a structure commonly used in Chinese in sentences containing a frequency or duration phrase. In Cantonese, verb-doubling is highly optional and therefore problematic for existing syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic accounts of its distribution in…

  20. Gapping: Electrophysiological Evidence for Immediate Processing of ''Missing'' Verbs in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaan, Edith; Wijnen, Frank; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we use event related potentials (ERPs) to explore the time course of identification and resolution of verb gaps. ERPs were recorded while participants read sentences that contained a verb gap like "Ron took/sanded the planks, and Bill O the hammer"... Plausibility of the critical words ("hammer") that followed the verb gap was…

  1. Doing More with Less: Verb Learning in Korean-Acquiring 24-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arunachalam, Sudha; Leddon, Erin M.; Song, Hyun-joo; Lee, Yoonha; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early word learning reveals that verbs present a unique challenge. While English-acquiring 24-month-olds can learn novel verbs and extend them to new scenes, they perform better in rich linguistic contexts (when novel verbs appear with lexicalized noun phrases naming the event participants) than in sparser linguistic contexts…

  2. Analysis of the "-sja" Passive of Russian Verbs of Governing and Wanting as a Conceptual Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Junghee

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation represents a study of the formation of "-sja" passives of Russian verbs of governing and wanting. I explore five imperfective verbs of governing: "zavedovat" "manage"; "komandovat" "command"; "pravit" "govern"; "rukovdit" "direct"; and "upravljat" "manage"; as well as four imperfective verbs of wanting: "iskat" "seek"; "trebovat"…

  3. Eating Apples and Houseplants: Typicality Constraints on Thematic Roles in Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meints, Kerstin; Plunkett, Kim; Harris, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Are thematic roles linked to verbs in young children as in adults or will children accept any participant in a given role with any verb? To assess early verb comprehension we used typicality ratings with adults, parental questionnaires, and Intermodal Preferential Looking with children. We predicted that children would look at named targets, would…

  4. Asymmetries in the Acquisition of Subject-Verb Agreement in Dutch: Evidence from Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje; Blom, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Across languages, children do not comprehend 3SG/3PL subject-verb agreement before age five, despite early mastery in spontaneous speech. This study investigates subject-verb agreement in a language hitherto not studied in this respect, namely Dutch. The authors examine if (1) Dutch two- and three-year-olds comprehend subject-verb agreement and…

  5. Verb deficits in Alzheimer’s disease and agrammatism: Implications for lexical organization☆

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mikyong; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the nature of verb deficits in 14 individuals with probable Alzheimer’s Disease (PrAD) and nine with agrammatic aphasia. Production was tested, controlling both semantic and syntactic features of verbs, using noun and verb naming, sentence completion, and narrative tasks. Noun and verb comprehension and a grammaticality judgment task also were administered. Results showed that while both PrAD and agrammatic subjects showed impaired verb naming, the syntactic features of verbs (i.e., argument structure) influenced agrammatic, but not Alzheimer’s disease patients’ verb production ability. That is, agrammatic patients showed progressively greater difficulty with verbs associated with more arguments, as has been shown in previous studies (e.g., Kim & Thompson, 2000; Thompson, 2003; Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997), and suggest a syntactic basis for verb production deficits in agrammatism. Conversely, the semantic complexity of verbs affected PrAD, but not agrammatic, patients’ performance, suggesting “bottom-up” breakdown in their verb lexicon, paralleling that of nouns, resulting from the degradation or loss of semantic features of verbs. PMID:14698726

  6. The Input to Verb Learning in Mandarin Chinese: A Role for Syntactic Bootstrapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanne N.; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of syntax in verb learning in Mandarin Chinese, which allows pervasive ellipsis of noun arguments. Two questions were investigated using the Beijing corpus on CHILDES: (a) Does the input to young children manifest syntactic-semantic correspondences as needed for acquiring verb meanings? (b) Are verbs presented in…

  7. Rules and Construction Effects in Learning the Argument Structure of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine; Machobane, 'Malillo; Moloi, Francina

    2003-01-01

    Theorists of language acquisition have long debated the means by which children learn the argument structure of verbs (e.g. Bowerman, 1974, 1990; Pinker, 1984, 1989; Tomasello, 1992). Central to this controversy has been the possible role of verb semantics, especially in learning which verbs undergo dative-shift alternation in languages like…

  8. A Minimal Rule Approach to Teaching First-Year Russian Conjugation and Verb Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, David K.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a modification of the two-stem approach to teaching conjugation and verb stress in Russian which eliminates dictionary look-up for forms not predictable from the infinitive. Appendix A is an outline of Russian conjugation and verb stress. Appendix B is a verb list from Kostomarov's "Russkij jazyk dlja vsex." (Author/LMO)

  9. Gapping: Electrophysiological Evidence for Immediate Processing of ''Missing'' Verbs in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaan, Edith; Wijnen, Frank; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we use event related potentials (ERPs) to explore the time course of identification and resolution of verb gaps. ERPs were recorded while participants read sentences that contained a verb gap like "Ron took/sanded the planks, and Bill O the hammer"... Plausibility of the critical words ("hammer") that followed the verb gap was…

  10. Sensitivity to Verb Bias in American Sign Language-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anible, Benjamin; Twitchell, Paul; Waters, Gabriel S.; Dussias, Paola E.; Piñar, Pilar; Morford, Jill P.

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English are sensitive to the likelihood that a verb will appear in a specific subcategorization frame, known as "verb bias." Readers rely on verb bias to help them resolve temporary ambiguity in sentence comprehension. We investigate whether deaf sign-print bilinguals who have acquired English syntactic knowledge…

  11. Analysis of the "-sja" Passive of Russian Verbs of Governing and Wanting as a Conceptual Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Junghee

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation represents a study of the formation of "-sja" passives of Russian verbs of governing and wanting. I explore five imperfective verbs of governing: "zavedovat" "manage"; "komandovat" "command"; "pravit" "govern"; "rukovdit" "direct"; and "upravljat" "manage"; as well as four imperfective verbs of wanting: "iskat" "seek"; "trebovat"…

  12. Lexical Analysis of the Verb "COOK" and Learning Vocabulary: A Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priyono

    2011-01-01

    English verbs have built-in properties that determine how they behave syntactically and generate appropriate meaning associated. With these inherent properties some verbs can fill in only in certain syntactic structures and some in others. The observation of the verb "COOK" using English corpus has revealed its lexical properties…

  13. Acquiring and Processing Verb Argument Structure: Distributional Learning in a Miniature Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Newport, Elissa L.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Adult knowledge of a language involves correctly balancing lexically-based and more language-general patterns. For example, verb argument structures may sometimes readily generalize to new verbs, yet with particular verbs may resist generalization. From the perspective of acquisition, this creates significant learnability problems, with some…

  14. The Input to Verb Learning in Mandarin Chinese: A Role for Syntactic Bootstrapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanne N.; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of syntax in verb learning in Mandarin Chinese, which allows pervasive ellipsis of noun arguments. Two questions were investigated using the Beijing corpus on CHILDES: (a) Does the input to young children manifest syntactic-semantic correspondences as needed for acquiring verb meanings? (b) Are verbs presented in…

  15. Predictors of Verb-Mediated Anticipatory Eye Movements in the Visual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Florian; Meyer, Antje S.; Huettig, Falk

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that listeners use information extracted from verbs to guide anticipatory eye movements to objects in the visual context that satisfy the selection restrictions of the verb. An important question is what underlies such verb-mediated anticipatory eye gaze. Based on empirical and theoretical suggestions, we…

  16. Sensitivity to Verb Bias in American Sign Language-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anible, Benjamin; Twitchell, Paul; Waters, Gabriel S.; Dussias, Paola E.; Piñar, Pilar; Morford, Jill P.

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English are sensitive to the likelihood that a verb will appear in a specific subcategorization frame, known as "verb bias." Readers rely on verb bias to help them resolve temporary ambiguity in sentence comprehension. We investigate whether deaf sign-print bilinguals who have acquired English syntactic knowledge…

  17. Prefixation of Simplex Pairs in Czech: An Analysis of Spatial Semantics, Distributive Verbs, and Procedural Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilchey, Christian Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines prefixation of simplex pairs. A simplex pair consists of an iterative imperfective and a semelfactive perfective verb. When prefixed, both of these verbs are perfective. The prefixed forms derived from semelfactives are labeled single act verbs, while the prefixed forms derived from iterative imperfective simplex verbs…

  18. The Verb in Philippine English: A Preliminary Analysis of Modal Would

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Ma. Lourdes S.

    2004-01-01

    Taking its inspiration from a study conducted by Svalberg of Brunei English verb usage (1998), this paper examines the responses of a sample of 205 Filipino university freshmen to grammatically correct and incorrect verb forms in a 20-item Grammaticality Judgment Test. The test covered tense harmony, verb forms, tenses, and modals. Except in the…

  19. Optional Opacity: A Syntactically-Based Analysis of Early Hebrew Verb Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustigman, Lyle

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to account for the distribution of finite versus non-finite verbs during a developmental period when children use both types of verb forms in contexts requiring finiteness. To meet this goal, longitudinal samples from three Hebrew-acquiring children (aged 1;4-2;6) are examined from the onset of verb production and across the…

  20. Chinese Learners' Acquisition of English Verbs: A Corpus-Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Linxiao; Jo, Hie-myung

    2012-01-01

    Limited research has investigated advanced language learners' acquisition of English verbs. The current study examines and compares the acquisition pattern of English verbs among Chinese second language (L2) learners at both intermediate and advanced levels to answer the following questions: (1) Do L2 learners acquire regular verbs and irregular…

  1. Auditory Verb Perception Recruits Motor Systems in the Developing Brain: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin Harman; Maouene, Josita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated neural activation patterns during verb processing in children, using fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Preschool children (aged 4-6) passively listened to lists of verbs and adjectives while neural activation was measured. Findings indicated that verbs were processed differently than adjectives, as the verbs…

  2. Russian normative data for 375 action pictures and verbs.

    PubMed

    Akinina, Yulia; Malyutina, Svetlana; Ivanova, Maria; Iskra, Ekaterina; Mannova, Elena; Dragoy, Olga

    2015-09-01

    The present article introduces a Russian-language database of 375 action pictures and associated verbs with normative data. The pictures were normed for name agreement, conceptual familiarity, and subjective visual complexity, and measures of age of acquisition, imageability, and image agreement were collected for the verbs. Values of objective visual complexity, as well as information about verb frequency, length, argument structure, instrumentality, and name relation, are also provided. Correlations between these parameters are presented, along with a comparative analysis of the Russian name agreement norms and those collected in other languages. The full set of pictorial stimuli and the obtained norms may be freely downloaded from http://neuroling.ru/en/db.htm for use in research and for clinical purposes.

  3. Verb aspect and the activation of event knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Todd R; Kutas, Marta; McRae, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The authors show that verb aspect influences the activation of event knowledge with 4 novel results. First, common locations of events (e.g., arena) are primed following verbs with imperfective aspect (e.g., was skating) but not verbs with perfect aspect (e.g., had skated). Second, people generate more locative prepositional phrases as completions to sentence fragments with imperfective than those with perfect aspect. Third, the amplitude of the N400 component to location nouns varies as a function of aspect and typicality, being smallest for imperfective sentences with highly expected locations and largest for imperfective sentences with less expected locations. Fourth, the amplitude of a sustained frontal negativity spanning prepositional phrases is larger following perfect than following imperfective aspect. Taken together, these findings suggest a dynamic interplay between event knowledge and the linguistic stream.

  4. Frame semantics-based study of verbs across medical genres.

    PubMed

    Wandji Tchami, Ornella; L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Grabar, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The field of medicine gathers actors with different levels of expertise. These actors must interact, although their mutual understanding is not always completely successful. We propose to study corpora (with high and low levels of expertise) in order to observe their specificities. More specifically, we perform a contrastive analysis of verbs, and of the syntactic and semantic features of their participants, based on the Frame Semantics framework and the methodology implemented in FrameNet. In order to achieve this, we use an existing medical terminology to automatically annotate the semantics classes of participants of verbs, which we assume are indicative of semantics roles. Our results indicate that verbs show similar or very close semantics in some contexts, while in other contexts they behave differently. These results are important for studying the understanding of medical information by patients and for improving the communication between patients and medical doctors.

  5. Acquisition of comprehension of the verb phrase anaphora construction.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, M J; Lasky, E Z

    1978-03-01

    The verb phrase (VP) anaphora is a commonly used construction in English in which part of a sentence, including the verb, is replaced or deleted. The present study investigated comprehension of four types of VP anaphora constructions. Significant diffferences demonstrated that second graders performed better than first graders, and and first graders better than kindergarteners. Significant differences were also found among the different types of VP anaphoric constructions: VP deletion was easier than pro-form, pro-form was easier than prosententialization, and prosententialization was easier than gapping. Implications for evaluation of language, and specifically evaluation of comprehension of language for learning, are discussed.

  6. It's what you do! Reflections on the VERB campaign.

    PubMed

    Wong, Faye L; Greenwell, Michael; Gates, Suzanne; Berkowitz, Judy M

    2008-06-01

    This article shares the first-hand experiences of the CDC's VERB team in planning, executing, and evaluating a campaign that used social marketing principles, which involved paid media advertising, promotions, and national and community partnerships to increase physical activity among children aged 9-13 years (tweens). VERB staff gained valuable experience in applying commercial marketing techniques to a public health issue. This article describes how marketing, partnership, and evaluation activities were implemented to reach a tween audience. In doing so, fundamental differences in marketing between public health and the private sector were revealed.

  7. Zur systematischen Behandlung von phrasal-prepositional verbs im Englischunterricht der Mittelund Oberstufe (On the Systematic Treatment of Phrasal-Prepositional Verbs in Teaching English at the Intermediate and Upper Levels)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saftien, Volker

    1975-01-01

    Proposes an intensive introductory period, attacking problems presented by these verbs, using a basic list of 60 verbs, to be learned in active and passive, and a subsequent treatment, lasting for years, integrating these verbs into the student's active use, plus acquisition of more such verbs. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  8. The medical auxiliary in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, P C

    1973-05-05

    One of the steps taken by the government to break the cycle of poverty and ill-health in rural Malaysia is the establishment of a rural health service. Initially, the health unit served 50,000 people; it consisted of 1 main health center; 4 health subcenters, and 20 midwife stations. By the end of 1970, 44 main health centers, 180 health subcenters, and 943 midwife stations were in operation, creating a great demand for all types of health personnel: professional, paramedical, and auxiliary. Doctors are unevenly distributed in West Malaysia: in urban areas, the ratio of doctors to population is 1 to 1500; in rural areas, the ratio is 1 to 25,000. Paramedicals are unevenly distributed too. The scarcity of professionals in rural areas is attributed to professionals' demand for high salaries and the corresponding requirement of professional and social settings which rural areas cannot provide. The rural health unit utilized the tiered pyramidal system for staffing, with heavy reliance on auxiliary personnel. This system enabled the rapid expansion of rural health services, helping reach over a third of the population in just 15 years. As a consequence, infant, toddler and maternal mortality rates declined substantially. Traditional birth attendants, or kampong bidans, are currently being trained, on an experimental basis, simple principles of hygiene and family planning. With the enforcement of the Midwives Act in 1971, indigenous midwives have not been permitted to register as legitimate midwives and are now subject to supervision by health authorities. Future plans include retraining single-purpose midwives in child health and nursing, and giving all assistant nurses midwifery training. The aim is to make these 2 auxiliaries multipurpose community nurse-midwives. Experiences of developed countries show that demand for auxiliaries will continue to increase with the growth of professional personnel.

  9. Do sentences with unaccusative verbs involve syntactic movement? Evidence from neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Z.K.; van de Koot, H.; McGettigan, C.; Scott, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the neural processing of English sentences containing unergative, unaccusative and transitive verbs. We demonstrate common responses in bilateral superior temporal gyri in response to listening to sentences containing unaccusative and transitive verbs compared to unergative verbs; we did not detect any activation that was specific to unaccusatives. Our findings indicate that the neural processing of unaccusative and transitive verbs is highly similar, and very different from the processing of unergative verbs. We discuss the consequences of these results for the linguistic analysis of movement phenomena. PMID:25210717

  10. A Common Mechanism in Verb and Noun Naming Deficits in Alzheimer’s Patients

    PubMed Central

    Almor, Amit; Aronoff, Justin M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Gonnerman, Laura M.; Kempler, Daniel; Hintiryan, Houri; Hayes, UnJa L.; Arunachalam, Sudha; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of Alzheimer’s patients and elderly controls to name living and non-living nouns, and manner and instrument verbs. Patient’s error patterns and relative performance with different categories showed evidence of graceful degradation for both nouns and verbs, with particular domain specific impairments for living nouns and instrument verbs. Our results support feature-based, semantic representations for nouns and verbs and support the role of inter-correlated features in noun impairment, and the role of noun knowledge in instrument verb impairment. PMID:19699513

  11. Spoken verb processing in Spanish: An analysis using a new online resource.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Semilla M; Bates, Elizabeth A; Orozco-Figueroa, Araceli; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2010-01-01

    Verbs are one of the basic building blocks of grammar, yet few studies have examined the grammatical, morphological, and phonological factors contributing to lexical access and production of Spanish verb inflection. This report describes an online data set that incorporates psycholinguistic dimensions for 50 of the most common early-acquired Spanish verbs. Using this data set, predictors of response time (RT) from stimulus onset and mean differences at offset are examined. Native Spanish speakers, randomly assigned to one of two tasks, listened to prerecorded verbs and either repeated the verb (single word shadowing) or produced its corresponding pronoun. Factors such as stimulus duration, number of syllables, syllable stress position, and specific levels of initial phoneme facilitated both shadowing of a verb and production of its pronoun. Higher frequency verbs facilitated faster verb repetition, whereas verbs with alternative pronouns increased RT to pronoun production. Mean differences at offset (stimulus duration is removed) indicated that listeners begin speaking earlier when the verb is longer and multisyllabic compared to shorter, monosyllabic words. These results highlight the association between psycholinguistic factors and RT measures of verb processing, in particular, features unique to languages like Spanish, such as alternative pronoun and tense.

  12. Do verb bias effects on sentence production reflect sensitivity to comprehension or production factors?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Victor S.; Schotter, Elizabeth R.

    2014-01-01

    Speakers should be motivated to produce easy-to-understand sentences, but they must successfully say harder-to-produce sentences. Four experiments assessed how verb bias influences the mention of the optional “that” in sentence-complement structures. Without the “that,” such sentences can be incorrectly interpreted as including direct objects (garden paths), and especially so after direct-object biased verbs (compared to embedded clause biased verbs). But direct-object biased verbs are rarely produced as sentence-complement structures and so they might be harder to produce as such. Experiments 1 and 2 show that speakers mention the “that” more after direct-object biased verbs than after embedded clause biased verbs. Experiment 3a shows that sentences with verbs biased toward neither direct objects nor embedded subjects were often produced with the “that,” and Experiment 3b shows that post-verbal noun phrases after neither-biased verbs are interpreted as direct objects less than direct-object biased verbs and so should cause a milder garden path. Thus, frequent “that” mention is not sensitive to the tendency of a verb to be followed by a direct object, but by how rarely the verb has been produced in the formulated structure. PMID:23286581

  13. Spoken verb processing in Spanish: An analysis using a new online resource

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Semilla M.; Bates, Elizabeth A.; Orozco-Figueroa, Araceli; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Verbs are one of the basic building blocks of grammar, yet few studies have examined the grammatical, morphological, and phonological factors contributing to lexical access and production of Spanish verb inflection. This report describes an online data set that incorporates psycholinguistic dimensions for 50 of the most common early-acquired Spanish verbs. Using this data set, predictors of response time (RT) from stimulus onset and mean differences at offset are examined. Native Spanish speakers, randomly assigned to one of two tasks, listened to prerecorded verbs and either repeated the verb (single word shadowing) or produced its corresponding pronoun. Factors such as stimulus duration, number of syllables, syllable stress position, and specific levels of initial phoneme facilitated both shadowing of a verb and production of its pronoun. Higher frequency verbs facilitated faster verb repetition, whereas verbs with alternative pronouns increased RT to pronoun production. Mean differences at offset (stimulus duration is removed) indicated that listeners begin speaking earlier when the verb is longer and multisyllabic compared to shorter, monosyllabic words. These results highlight the association between psycholinguistic factors and RT measures of verb processing, in particular, features unique to languages like Spanish, such as alternative pronoun and tense. PMID:23002318

  14. Noun and verb processing in Greek-English bilingual individuals with anomic aphasia and the effect of instrumentality and verb-noun name relation.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria; van Steenbrugge, Willem

    2006-05-01

    Noun and verb comprehension and production was investigated in two groups of late bilingual, Greek-English speakers: individuals with anomic aphasia and a control group of non-brain injured individuals matched for age and gender. There were no significant differences in verb or noun comprehension between the two groups in either language. However, verb and noun production during picture naming was significantly worse in the bilingual individuals with anomic aphasia in both languages, who also showed a specific verb impairment in Greek and English. The potential underlying level of breakdown of the specific verb impairment was further investigation with reference to two specific features of verbs: instrumentality and verb-noun relationship. Additional results revealed a facilitatory effect of Instrumentality in both languages. However, there was no effect of verb-noun name relation in Greek, and a negative effect of verb-noun name relation was observed in English. Lemma retrieval seemed to be intact in this group of bilingual individuals whose main problem seemed to arise during the retrieval of the phonological representation of the target word. This impairment was greater in English. The findings are discussed in terms of three current models of word production.

  15. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  16. Preschoolers' Acquisition of Novel Verbs in the Double Object Dative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arunachalam, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Children have difficulty comprehending novel verbs in the double object dative (e.g., "Fred blicked the dog a stick") as compared to the prepositional dative (e.g., "Fred blicked a stick to the dog"). We explored this pattern with 3 and 4 year olds (N = 60). In Experiment 1, we replicated the documented difficulty with the…

  17. Production Latencies of Morphologically Simple and Complex Verbs in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2010-01-01

    There are several accounts of why some individuals with post-stroke aphasia experience difficulty in producing morphologically complex verbs. Although a majority of these individuals also produce syntactically flawed utterances, at least two accounts focus on word-level encoding operations. One account proposes a difficulty with rule-governed…

  18. Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

  19. Verbs and Adjectives in Literary Japanese According to Suzuki Akira.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedell, George

    This paper presents two views on the categorization of Japanese nouns, verbs, and adjectives into form classes: the traditional view and a view set forth in the writing of Suzuki Akira. The fundamental issue here is the criterion for categorization. Is it the meaning of words, or is it their grammatical behavior that determines the system of…

  20. A Grammar of Verb-Particles in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Shou-hsin

    1977-01-01

    The semantic properties of a set of verb-particles in Mandarin are specified in the framework of movements of a theme. This approach regularizes the diverse meanings of these particles and enables one to relate spatial and temporal dimensions of activities. (CHK)

  1. Hearing-Impaired Children's Comprehension of Verb-Particle Combinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, John-Allen; Quigley, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    A study of 45 hearing-impaired students (ages 10 to 19) investigated their understanding of English verb-particle combinations of varying syntactic and semantic difficulty. Results suggest an order of difficulty in learning. Idioms were found to be more difficult than literal meanings with little improvement over the age range of the subjects.…

  2. Verb Generation in Children and Adolescents with Acute Cerebellar Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, B.; Schoch, B.; Hein-Kropp, C.; Dimitrova, A.; Hovel, M.; Ziegler, W.; Gizewski, E. R.; Timmann, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine verb generation in a larger group of children and adolescents with acute focal lesions of the cerebellum. Nine children and adolescents with cerebellar tumours participated. Subjects were tested a few days after tumour surgery. For comparison, a subgroup was tested also 1 or 2 days before surgery. None…

  3. Language in Consultation: The Effect of Affect and Verb Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel S.; Guiney, Meaghan C.; Barrett, Courtenay A.

    2017-01-01

    This study was an exploration of school consultation interactions between instructional consultants and consultees. Of specific interest was how consultants (n = 18) and consultees (n = 18) used verb tense and emotion words during the problem identification and analysis instructional consultation stage, similarities and differences in…

  4. Variability, Negative Evidence, and the Acquisition of Verb Argument Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfors, Amy; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    We present a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the acquisition of verb argument constructions. It embodies a domain-general approach to learning higher-level knowledge in the form of inductive constraints (or overhypotheses), and has been used to explain other aspects of language development such as the shape bias in learning object…

  5. Verb Position and the Order of Adverbials in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, O. C., Jr.

    Recent work in word-order typology has demonstrated that the dominant order of verbs and objects (or complements) correlates well with the general ordering tendencies of languages. The work on German reported in this paper suggests, however, that certain traits, such as the order of adverbials, are influenced not only by general ordering…

  6. The Relation of Task to Performance in Testing Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradman, Harry L.; Hanania, Edith

    A study investigated the variability of language performance on different types of testing task, global versus discrete-focus. Three tests (cloze, multiple-choice, and fill-in-the-blank) were developed to measure learners' knowledge of five verb forms. The tests, containing corresponding items designed to elicit equivalent structures, were…

  7. Particle Choices and Collocation in Cameroon English Phrasal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epoge, Napoleon

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of some phrasal verbs can be guessed from the meanings of the parts (to sit down = sit + down, run after = run + after) and the meaning of some others have to be learned (to put up (a visitor) = accommodate, to hold up = cause delay or try to rob someone) due to their syntactic and semantic complexities. In this regard, the syntactic…

  8. Neural Dissociations between Action Verb Understanding and Motor Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, Roel M.; Toni, Ivan; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    According to embodied theories of language, people understand a verb like "throw", at least in part, by mentally simulating "throwing". This implicit simulation is often assumed to be similar or identical to motor imagery. Here we used fMRI to test whether implicit simulations of actions during language understanding involve the same cortical…

  9. VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard: Increasing Tween Girls' Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Thompson, Zachary; McDermott, Robert J.; Colquitt, Gavin; Jones, Jeffery A.; Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; Davis, Jenna L.; Zhu, Yiliang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We assessed changes in the frequency of self-reported physical activity (PA) among tween girls exposed and not exposed to the VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard (VSS) intervention in Lexington, Kentucky, during 2004, 2006, and 2007. Methods: Girls who reported 0-1 day per week of PA were classi?ed as having "little or no" PA. Girls…

  10. Syntax and Semantics in the Acquisition of Locative Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gropen, Jess; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments were performed on the ability of children and adults to understand and produce locative verbs. Results confirm that children tend to make syntactic errors with sentences containing "fill" and "empty," encoding the content argument as direct object. (33 references) (JL)

  11. Developing Structural Specification: Productivity in Early Hebrew Verb Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustigman, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates acquisition of verb inflections by four monolingual Hebrew-acquiring children from middle-class backgrounds, audio-recorded in longitudinal, weekly samples at a mean age-range of between 18 and 26 months. Productive use of inflectional morphology is shown to manifest increasing structural specification, as a function of…

  12. Neural Dissociations between Action Verb Understanding and Motor Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, Roel M.; Toni, Ivan; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    According to embodied theories of language, people understand a verb like "throw", at least in part, by mentally simulating "throwing". This implicit simulation is often assumed to be similar or identical to motor imagery. Here we used fMRI to test whether implicit simulations of actions during language understanding involve the same cortical…

  13. Gauging the Effects of Exercises on Verb-Noun Collocations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, Frank; Demecheleer, Murielle; Coxhead, Averil; Webb, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary textbooks for English as a foreign language (EFL) and books for vocabulary study contain exercises with a focus on collocations, with verb-noun collocations (e.g. "make a mistake") being particularly popular as targets for collocation learning. Common exercise formats used in textbooks and other pedagogic materials…

  14. Two Classes of Transitive Verbs: Evidence from Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Grant Warren

    2011-01-01

    The unaccusativity hypothesis (Burzio 1986; Levin & Rappaport Hovav 1995; Perlmutter 1978) posits that intransitive verbs may be divided into two broad classes: unaccusatives, whose sole argument is an internal argument and unergatives, whose sole argument is an external argument. In this dissertation I explore the idea that there is a similar,…

  15. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  16. VERB ACQUISITION AND REPRESENTATION IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Murray; Murray, Ryan; Koenig, Phyllis; Ash, Sherry; Cross, Katy; Moore, Peachie; Troiani, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    We examined the implicit acquisition and mental representation of a novel verb in patients with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Patients were exposed to the new verb in a naturalistic manner as part of a simple picture story. We probed grammatical, semantic and thematic matrix knowledge of the verb soon after presentation and again one week later. We found partial verb acquisition that was retained over one week. AD patients did not differ from controls in their acquisition and retention of a new verb’s major grammatical subcategory, although they acquired little of its semantic properties and displayed minimal acquisition of the new word’s thematic matrix. Moreover, AD patients appeared to maintain their acquired grammatical knowledge over one week. We discuss the implications of these findings from several perspectives, including the modularity of the language processing system, the relationship between episodic memory and semantic memory, and the role of the preserved implicit memory system in AD patients’ partially successful lexical acquisition. PMID:17482652

  17. Differences in Two Sisters' Acquisition of First Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunwald, Susan R.

    This study examined prior qualitative differences in the process of the emergence of verb use in two sisters when they were each 12 to 24 months of age (the older sister is 2 years and 9 months older than the younger sister). Daily diaries on both children were kept by the mother, who noted emergent structure and vocabulary. Systematic Analysis of…

  18. Verb Generation in Children and Adolescents with Acute Cerebellar Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, B.; Schoch, B.; Hein-Kropp, C.; Dimitrova, A.; Hovel, M.; Ziegler, W.; Gizewski, E. R.; Timmann, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine verb generation in a larger group of children and adolescents with acute focal lesions of the cerebellum. Nine children and adolescents with cerebellar tumours participated. Subjects were tested a few days after tumour surgery. For comparison, a subgroup was tested also 1 or 2 days before surgery. None…

  19. Developing Structural Specification: Productivity in Early Hebrew Verb Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustigman, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates acquisition of verb inflections by four monolingual Hebrew-acquiring children from middle-class backgrounds, audio-recorded in longitudinal, weekly samples at a mean age-range of between 18 and 26 months. Productive use of inflectional morphology is shown to manifest increasing structural specification, as a function of…

  20. English-Learning Infants' Segmentation of Verbs from Fluent Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazzi, Thierry; Dilley, Laura C.; Jusczyk, Ann Marie; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie; Jusczyk, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments sought to extend the demonstration of English-learning infants' abilities to segment nouns from fluent speech to a new lexical class: verbs. Moreover, we explored whether two factors previously shown to influence noun segmentation, stress pattern (strong-weak or weak-strong) and type of initial phoneme (consonant or vowel), also…

  1. Verb Agreement and the Structure of the Clause in Karaja.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maia, Marcus

    1997-01-01

    A study of verb agreement and clause structure in Karaja, a Brazilian indigenous language of Macro-Je stock, discusses the subject and object agreement systems with relation to the Feature Specification Constraint. Implementation of the SOV order in Karaja is then analyzed and evidence is presented for the existence of a single functional phrase…

  2. Gauging the Effects of Exercises on Verb-Noun Collocations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, Frank; Demecheleer, Murielle; Coxhead, Averil; Webb, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary textbooks for English as a foreign language (EFL) and books for vocabulary study contain exercises with a focus on collocations, with verb-noun collocations (e.g. "make a mistake") being particularly popular as targets for collocation learning. Common exercise formats used in textbooks and other pedagogic materials…

  3. Spelling of Inflected Verb Morphology in Children with Spelling Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauerwas, Laura Boynton; Walker, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-six children (ages 11-13) with spelling deficits, 31 younger spelling-level-matched children, and 31 age-matched children were asked to spell verbs with past tense and progressive markers in dictated sentences and list form. Children with spelling deficits had significant difficulty with inflections as well as spelling inflections and base…

  4. Nouns and verbs are retrieved with differently distributed neural systems.

    PubMed

    Damasio, A R; Tranel, D

    1993-06-01

    In a task designed to elicit the production of verbs, the patients known as AN-1033 and Boswell consistently produced the correct target words, performing no differently from normal controls. However, in a similar task designed to elicit the production of nouns, both patients performed quite defectively, and their scores were many SDs below those of controls. Language processing was otherwise normal--i.e., there were no impairments in grammar, morphology, phonetic implementation, or prosody; reading and writing were normal. In a third patient (KJ-1360), we obtained the reverse outcome--i.e., retrieval of common and proper nouns was preserved, but verb retrieval was defective. Together, the findings in the three patients constitute a double dissociation between noun and verb retrieval. In AN-1033 and Boswell, the lesions are located outside the so-called language areas (left frontoparietal operculum, posterior temporal region, inferior parietal lobule), where damage is associated with aphasia. The region of damage shared by the two patients is in left anterior and middle temporal lobe. This sector of left hemisphere contains systems for the retrieval of nouns that denote concrete entities. We propose that those systems are not essential for the retrieval of verbs and not involved in the vocal implementation of word forms. Those systems perform a two-way lexical-mediation role for concrete nouns and promote the reconstruction of a word form after the processing of sensory-motor characteristics of the entity denoted by that word. The findings in patient KJ-1360, whose lesion is in left premotor cortex, suggest that equivalent mediation systems for verbs are located in the left frontal region.

  5. Recurrent Neural Networks With Auxiliary Memory Units.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyong; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Quan; Yi, Zhang

    2017-03-21

    Memory is one of the most important mechanisms in recurrent neural networks (RNNs) learning. It plays a crucial role in practical applications, such as sequence learning. With a good memory mechanism, long term history can be fused with current information, and can thus improve RNNs learning. Developing a suitable memory mechanism is always desirable in the field of RNNs. This paper proposes a novel memory mechanism for RNNs. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) an auxiliary memory unit (AMU) is proposed, which results in a new special RNN model (AMU-RNN), separating the memory and output explicitly and 2) an efficient learning algorithm is developed by employing the technique of error flow truncation. The proposed AMU-RNN model, together with the developed learning algorithm, can learn and maintain stable memory over a long time range. This method overcomes both the learning conflict problem and gradient vanishing problem. Unlike the traditional method, which mixes the memory and output with a single neuron in a recurrent unit, the AMU provides an auxiliary memory neuron to maintain memory in particular. By separating the memory and output in a recurrent unit, the problem of learning conflicts can be eliminated easily. Moreover, by using the technique of error flow truncation, each auxiliary memory neuron ensures constant error flow during the learning process. The experiments demonstrate good performance of the proposed AMU-RNNs and the developed learning algorithm. The method exhibits quite efficient learning performance with stable convergence in the AMU-RNN learning and outperforms the state-of-the-art RNN models in sequence generation and sequence classification tasks.

  6. Auxiliary engine digital interface unit (DIU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This auxiliary propulsion engine digital unit controls both the valving of the fuel and oxidizer to the engine combustion chamber and the ignition spark required for timely and efficient engine burns. In addition to this basic function, the unit is designed to manage it's own redundancy such that it is still operational after two hard circuit failures. It communicates to the data bus system several selected information points relating to the operational status of the electronics as well as the engine fuel and burning processes.

  7. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2014-12-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  8. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, R.; Wicklund, L.; Baughman, J.; Weary, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power units (APUs) provide hydraulic power for the Orbiter vehicle control surfaces (rudder/speed brake, body flap, and elevon actuation systems), main engine gimbaling during ascent, landing gear deployment and steering and braking during landing. Operation occurs during launch/ascent, in-space exercise, reentry/descent, and landing/rollout. Operational effectiveness of the APU is predicated on reliable, failure-free operation during each flight, mission life (reusability) and serviceability between flights (turnaround). Along with the accumulating flight data base, the status and results of efforts to achieve these long-run objectives is presented.

  9. Computer Simulation of Auxiliary Power Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    reverse side if necessary and iden~ffy by block number) gas turbine engine turbine engine computer programs auxiliary power unit aircraft engine starter ,i...printed to that effect . d. Turbines There are three choices for the turbine configuration, see Figure 2: 1) a one-stage turbine, 2) a two-stage turbine...07000 MAIN CO!RBUSTION EFF = .99500 DESIGN FUEL FLOW (LB/IHR) 150.00 MAIN COMB FUEL HEATING VALUE AT T4 FOR JP4 * 18400. COMB DISCHARGE TEMP

  10. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  11. Hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey is provided of hydrogen/oxygen (H/O) auxiliary propulsion system (APS) concepts and low thrust H/O rocket technology. A review of H/O APS studies performed for the Space Shuttle, Space Tug, Space Station Freedom, and Advanced Manned Launch System programs is given. The survey also includes a review of low thrust H/O rocket technology programs, covering liquid H/O and gaseous H/O thrusters, ranging from 6600 N (1500 lbf) to 440 mN (0.1 lbf) thrust. Ignition concepts for H/O thrusters and high temperature, oxidation resistant chamber materials are also reviewed.

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    SciTech Connect

    J. Weber

    2001-12-12

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market.

  13. [Hospital auxiliary staff, between polyvalence and invisibility].

    PubMed

    Veissier, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Often underestimated, hospital auxiliary staff carry out on a daily basis a professional activity that may be difficult to define and/or recognize. What does their work consist in and what are the boundaries of the scope of their activity? Faced with a growing rate of absenteeism among these members of staff in a nursing home for elderly people attached to a hospital, an issue emerges: does the content of their professional activity have an impact on the causes and evolution of this phenomenon?

  14. Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, John H.

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

  15. Hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of hydogen/oxygen (H/O) auxiliary propulsion system (APS) concepts and low thrust H/O rocket technology. A review of H/O APS studies performed for the Space Shuttle, Space Tug, Space Station Freedom, and Advanced Manned Launch System programs is given. The survey also includes a review of low thrust H/O rocket technology programs, covering liquid H/O and gaseous H/O thrusters, ranging from 6600 N to 440 mN thrust. Ignition concepts for H/O thrusters and high-temperature, oxidation-resistant chamber materials are also reviewed.

  16. Effect of Constrained Arm Posture on the Processing of Action Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Masaaki; Stins, John F.; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that brain areas that are responsible for action planning and execution are activated during the information processing of action-related verbs (e.g., pick or kick). To obtain further evidence, we conducted three experiments to see if constraining arm posture, which could disturb the motor planning and imagery for that arm, would lead to delayed judgment of verbs referring to arm actions. In all experiments, native Japanese speakers judged as quickly as possible whether the presented object and the verb would be compatible (e.g., ball–throw) or not (e.g., ball–pour). Constrained arm posture was introduced to the task by asking participants to keep both hands behind their back. Two types of verbs were used: manual action verbs (i.e., verbs referring to actions performed on an object by a human hand) and non-manual action verbs. In contrast to our hypothesis that constrained arm posture would affect only the information processing of manual action verbs, the results showed delayed processing of both manual action and non-manual action verbs when the arm posture was constrained. The effect of constrained arm posture was observed even when participants responded with their voice, suggesting that the delayed judgment was not simply due to the difficulty of responding with the hand (i.e., basic motor interference). We discussed why, contrary to our hypothesis, constrained arm posture resulted in delayed CRTs regardless of the “manipulability” as symbolized by the verbs. PMID:28239336

  17. Expanded functions for dental auxiliaries education in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Morris L

    2011-01-01

    Access to care continues to be an overriding issue in dentistry. The development of new categories of dental auxiliaries, such as mid-level providers, is a matter of concern to many states and the dental profession. Tennessee has an EFDA educational program for dental auxiliaries taught by dental school educators who have trained more than 300 auxiliary personnel in restorative and prosthetic dentistry. Graduates of this educational program have helped keep Tennessee's dentists well ahead of any increased demand for dental care.

  18. Auxiliary propulsion requirements for large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloy, J. E.; Smith, W. W.; Machles, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    An insight into auxiliary propulsion systems (APS) requirements for large space systems (LSS) launchable by a single shuttle is presented. In an effort to scope the APS requirements for LSS, a set of generic LSSs were defined. For each generic LSS class a specific structural configuration, representative of that most likely to serve the needs of the 1980's and 1990's was defined. The environmental disturbance forces and torques which would be acting on each specific structural configuration in LEO and GEO orbits were then determined. Auxiliary propulsion requirements were determined as a function of: generic class specific configuration, size and openness of structure, orbit, angle of orientation, correction frequency, duty cycle, number and location of thrusters and direction of thrusters and APS/LSS interactions. The results of this analysis were used to define the APS characteristics of: (1) number and distribution of thrusters, (2) thruster modulation, (3) thrust level, (4) mission energy requirements, (5) total APS mass component breakdown, and (6) state of the art adequacy/deficiency. Previously announced in STAR as N83-26922

  19. Auxiliary propulsion requirements for large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloy, J. E.; Smith, W. W.; Machles, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    An insight into auxiliary propulsion systems (APS) requirements for large space systems (LSS) launchable by a single shuttle is presented. In an effort to scope the APS requirements for LSS, a set of generic LSSs were defined. For each generic LSS class a specific structural configuration, representative of that most likely to serve the needs of the 1980's and 1990's was defined. The environmental disturbance forces and torques which would be acting on each specific structural configuration in LEO and GEO orbits were then determined. Auxiliary propulsion requirements were determined as a function of: generic class specific configuration, size and openness of structure, orbit, angle of orientation, correction frequency, duty cycle, number and location of thrusters and direction of thrusters and APS/LSS interactions. The results of this analysis were used to define the APS characteristics of: (1) number and distribution of thrusters, (2) thruster modulation, (3) thrust level, (4) mission energy requirements, (5) total APS mass component breakdown, and (6) state of the art adequacy/deficiency.

  20. Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou

    2016-04-06

    Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.

  1. Corpus Study of Verb Patterns of Unaccusative Verbs "Appear," "Happen" and "Occur" in L2 English Written by Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owada, Kazuharu

    2013-01-01

    There have been many studies on the acquisition of English unaccusative verbs which make use of learner corpora. Most of these studies have so far concluded that even advanced learners of English ungrammatically passivize unaccusative verbs and produce sentences such as "*The accident was happened" and "*The mobile phone was…

  2. The Role of Input Frequency and Semantic Transparency in the Acquisition of Verb Meaning: Evidence from Placement Verbs in Tamil and Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how Tamil- and Dutch-speaking adults and four- to five-year-old children use caused posture verbs ("lay/stand a bottle on a table") to label placement events in which objects are oriented vertically or horizontally. Tamil caused posture verbs consist of morphemes that individually label the causal and result subevents ("nikka…

  3. Corpus Study of Verb Patterns of Unaccusative Verbs "Appear," "Happen" and "Occur" in L2 English Written by Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owada, Kazuharu

    2013-01-01

    There have been many studies on the acquisition of English unaccusative verbs which make use of learner corpora. Most of these studies have so far concluded that even advanced learners of English ungrammatically passivize unaccusative verbs and produce sentences such as "*The accident was happened" and "*The mobile phone was…

  4. When Verbs Collide: Papers from the Ohio State Mini-Conference on Serial Verbs (Columbus, Ohio, May 26-27, 1990). Working Papers in Linguistics No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brian D., Ed.; Zwicky, Arnold M., Ed.

    Papers from the conference on the occurrence of verbal constituents in series in certain languages, particularly pidgins and creoles, include the following: "What Are We Talking About When We Talk About Serial Verbs?" (Arnold M. Zwicky); "Serial Verb Constructions" (Pieter Seuren); "On the Definition and Distribution of…

  5. The Role of Input Frequency and Semantic Transparency in the Acquisition of Verb Meaning: Evidence from Placement Verbs in Tamil and Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how Tamil- and Dutch-speaking adults and four- to five-year-old children use caused posture verbs ("lay/stand a bottle on a table") to label placement events in which objects are oriented vertically or horizontally. Tamil caused posture verbs consist of morphemes that individually label the causal and result subevents ("nikka…

  6. Acquisition and evaluation of verb subcategorization resources for biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Rimell, Laura; Lippincott, Thomas; Verspoor, Karin; Johnson, Helen L; Korhonen, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Biomedical natural language processing (NLP) applications that have access to detailed resources about the linguistic characteristics of biomedical language demonstrate improved performance on tasks such as relation extraction and syntactic or semantic parsing. Such applications are important for transforming the growing unstructured information buried in the biomedical literature into structured, actionable information. In this paper, we address the creation of linguistic resources that capture how individual biomedical verbs behave. We specifically consider verb subcategorization, or the tendency of verbs to "select" co-occurrence with particular phrase types, which influences the interpretation of verbs and identification of verbal arguments in context. There are currently a limited number of biomedical resources containing information about subcategorization frames (SCFs), and these are the result of either labor-intensive manual collation, or automatic methods that use tools adapted to a single biomedical subdomain. Either method may result in resources that lack coverage. Moreover, the quality of existing verb SCF resources for biomedicine is unknown, due to a lack of available gold standards for evaluation. This paper presents three new resources related to verb subcategorization frames in biomedicine, and four experiments making use of the new resources. We present the first biomedical SCF gold standards, capturing two different but widely-used definitions of subcategorization, and a new SCF lexicon, BioCat, covering a large number of biomedical sub-domains. We evaluate the SCF acquisition methodologies for BioCat with respect to the gold standards, and compare the results with the accuracy of the only previously existing automatically-acquired SCF lexicon for biomedicine, the BioLexicon. Our results show that the BioLexicon has greater precision while BioCat has better coverage of SCFs. Finally, we explore the definition of subcategorization using these

  7. Mapping novel nouns and verbs onto dynamic action events: are verb meanings easier to learn than noun meanings for Japanese children?

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The present research examined how 3- and 5-year-old Japanese children map novel nouns and verbs onto dynamic action events and generalize them to new instances. Studies 1 to 3 demonstrated that although both 3- and 5-year-olds were able to map novel nouns onto novel objects, only 5-year-olds could generalize verbs solely on the basis of the sameness of the action. Study 4 showed that the difficulty young children experience in learning verbs lies mainly in mapping the appropriate element to a verb rather than in encoding and remembering an action itself. The results of this research are related to a long-debated issue of whether noun learning is privileged over verb learning.

  8. Pronouns and verbs in adult speech to children: a corpus analysis.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Aarre; Smith, Linda B

    2007-11-01

    Assessing whether domain-general mechanisms could account for language acquisition requires determining whether statistical regularities among surface cues in child directed speech (CDS) are sufficient for inducing deep syntactic and semantic structure. This paper reports a case study on the relation between pronoun usage in CDS, on the one hand, and broad verb classes, on the other. A corpus analysis reveals statistical regularities in co-occurrences between pronouns and verbs in CDS that could cue physical versus psychological verbs. A simulation demonstrates that a simple statistical learner can acquire these regularities and exploit them to activate verbs that are consistent with incomplete utterances in simple syntactic frames. Thus, in this case, surface regularities ARE sufficiently informative for inducing broad semantic categories. Children MIGHT use these regularities in pronoun/ verb co-occurrences to help learn verbs, although whether they ACTUALLY do so remains a topic of ongoing research.

  9. Imageability and semantic association in the representation and processing of event verbs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Kang, Chunyan; Guo, Taomei

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relative salience of imageability (the degree to which a word evokes mental imagery) versus semantic association (the density of semantic network in which a word is embedded) in the representation and processing of four types of event verbs: sensory, cognitive, speech, and motor verbs. ERP responses were recorded, while 34 university students performed on a lexical decision task. Analysis focused primarily on amplitude differences across verb conditions within the N400 time window where activities are considered representing meaning activation. Variation in N400 amplitude across four types of verbs was found significantly associated with the level of imageability, but not the level of semantic association. The findings suggest imageability as a more salient factor relative to semantic association in the processing of these verbs. The role of semantic association and the representation of speech verbs are also discussed.

  10. Noun versus verb emphasis in Italian mother-to-child speech.

    PubMed

    Camaioni, L; Longobardi, E

    2001-10-01

    This paper examines naturalistic adult-to-child speech produced by 15 Italian middle-class mothers to determine which specific patterns characterize linguistic input to children at 1;4 and 1;8. Since Italian is a pro-drop language, we expect that adult-to-child speech will show a bias towards a more salient semantic and morphological significance of verbs relative to nouns. We expect that verbs will more likely occupy the sentence-initial position, and have more morphological inflections relative to nouns. Mother-to-child speech was coded for type and token frequency, utterance position, and morphological variation of nouns and verbs. The results confirm our predictions. Namely, Italian-speaking mothers produced verb types and tokens more frequently than noun types and tokens, they placed verbs more frequently than nouns in salient utterance position, and they morphologically marked verb stems more than noun stems.

  11. Neuromagnetic hand and foot motor sources recruited during action verb processing.

    PubMed

    Klepp, Anne; Weissler, Hannah; Niccolai, Valentina; Terhalle, Anselm; Geisler, Hans; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated sensorimotor involvement in the processing of verbs describing actions performed with the hands, feet, or no body part. Actual movements were used to identify neuromagnetic sources for hand and foot actions. These sources constrained the analysis of verb processing. While hand and foot sources picked up activation in all three verb conditions, peak amplitudes showed an interaction of source and verb condition at 200 ms after word onset, thereby reflecting effector-specificity. Specifically, hand verbs elicited significantly higher peak amplitudes than foot verbs in hand sources. Our results are in line with theories of embodied cognition that assume an involvement of sensorimotor areas in early stages of lexico-semantic processing, even for single words without a semantic or motor task.

  12. Verb-specific constraints in sentence processing: separating effects of lexical preference from garden-paths.

    PubMed

    Trueswell, J C; Tanenhaus, M K; Kello, C

    1993-05-01

    Immediate effects of verb-specific syntactic (subcategorization) information were found in a cross-modal naming experiment, a self-paced reading experiment, and an experiment in which eye movements were monitored. In the reading studies, syntactic misanalysis effects in sentence complements (e.g., "The student forgot the solution was...") occurred at the verb in the complement (e.g., was) for matrix verbs typically used with noun phrase complements but not for verbs typically used with sentence complements. In addition, a complementizer effect for sentence-complement-biased verbs was not due to syntactic misanalysis but was correlated with how strongly a particular verb prefers to be followed by the complementizer that. The results support models that make immediate use of lexically specific constraints, especially constraint-based models, but are problematic for lexical filtering models.

  13. L2 speakers decompose morphologically complex verbs: fMRI evidence from priming of transparent derived verbs

    PubMed Central

    De Grauwe, Sophie; Lemhöfer, Kristin; Willems, Roel M.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) long-lag priming study, we investigated the processing of Dutch semantically transparent, derived prefix verbs. In such words, the meaning of the word as a whole can be deduced from the meanings of its parts, e.g., wegleggen “put aside.” Many behavioral and some fMRI studies suggest that native (L1) speakers decompose transparent derived words. The brain region usually implicated in morphological decomposition is the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). In non-native (L2) speakers, the processing of transparent derived words has hardly been investigated, especially in fMRI studies, and results are contradictory: some studies find more reliance on holistic (i.e., non-decompositional) processing by L2 speakers; some find no difference between L1 and L2 speakers. In this study, we wanted to find out whether Dutch transparent derived prefix verbs are decomposed or processed holistically by German L2 speakers of Dutch. Half of the derived verbs (e.g., omvallen “fall down”) were preceded by their stem (e.g., vallen “fall”) with a lag of 4–6 words (“primed”); the other half (e.g., inslapen “fall asleep”) were not (“unprimed”). L1 and L2 speakers of Dutch made lexical decisions on these visually presented verbs. Both region of interest analyses and whole-brain analyses showed that there was a significant repetition suppression effect for primed compared to unprimed derived verbs in the LIFG. This was true both for the analyses over L2 speakers only and for the analyses over the two language groups together. The latter did not reveal any interaction with language group (L1 vs. L2) in the LIFG. Thus, L2 speakers show a clear priming effect in the LIFG, an area that has been associated with morphological decomposition. Our findings are consistent with the idea that L2 speakers engage in decomposition of transparent derived verbs rather than processing them holistically. PMID:25346678

  14. L2 speakers decompose morphologically complex verbs: fMRI evidence from priming of transparent derived verbs.

    PubMed

    De Grauwe, Sophie; Lemhöfer, Kristin; Willems, Roel M; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) long-lag priming study, we investigated the processing of Dutch semantically transparent, derived prefix verbs. In such words, the meaning of the word as a whole can be deduced from the meanings of its parts, e.g., wegleggen "put aside." Many behavioral and some fMRI studies suggest that native (L1) speakers decompose transparent derived words. The brain region usually implicated in morphological decomposition is the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). In non-native (L2) speakers, the processing of transparent derived words has hardly been investigated, especially in fMRI studies, and results are contradictory: some studies find more reliance on holistic (i.e., non-decompositional) processing by L2 speakers; some find no difference between L1 and L2 speakers. In this study, we wanted to find out whether Dutch transparent derived prefix verbs are decomposed or processed holistically by German L2 speakers of Dutch. Half of the derived verbs (e.g., omvallen "fall down") were preceded by their stem (e.g., vallen "fall") with a lag of 4-6 words ("primed"); the other half (e.g., inslapen "fall asleep") were not ("unprimed"). L1 and L2 speakers of Dutch made lexical decisions on these visually presented verbs. Both region of interest analyses and whole-brain analyses showed that there was a significant repetition suppression effect for primed compared to unprimed derived verbs in the LIFG. This was true both for the analyses over L2 speakers only and for the analyses over the two language groups together. The latter did not reveal any interaction with language group (L1 vs. L2) in the LIFG. Thus, L2 speakers show a clear priming effect in the LIFG, an area that has been associated with morphological decomposition. Our findings are consistent with the idea that L2 speakers engage in decomposition of transparent derived verbs rather than processing them holistically.

  15. Verb particle and preposition acquisition in language-impaired preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Watkins, R V; Rice, M L

    1991-10-01

    This study examined the acquisition of verb particles and prepositions in language-impaired, language-matched, and age-matched preschool children. A videotape experimental task, in which subjects viewed and described brief action sequences, was implemented. The videotape task included particle, preposition, full noun phrase, and pronoun noun phrase items for six different particle/preposition words. Primary results indicated that the use of verb particles constituted a particularly challenging linguistic task for the language-impaired subjects relative to both their age- and language-matched peers. These results suggest multiple sources of difficulty for language-impaired children in the acquisition of grammatical form classes. Lexical and grammatical difficulties, as well as possible processing limitations, are implicated.

  16. When we think about thinking: the acquisition of belief verbs.

    PubMed

    Papafragou, Anna; Cassidy, Kimberly; Gleitman, Lila

    2007-10-01

    Mental-content verbs such as think, believe, imagine and hope seem to pose special problems for the young language learner. One possible explanation for these difficulties is that the concepts that these verbs express are hard to grasp and therefore their acquisition must await relevant conceptual development. According to a different, perhaps complementary, proposal, a major contributor to the difficulty of these items lies with the informational requirements for identifying them from the contexts in which they appear. The experiments reported here explore the implications of these proposals by investigating the contribution of observational and linguistic cues to the acquisition of mental predicate vocabulary. We first demonstrate that particular observed situations can be helpful in prompting reference to mental contents, specifically, contexts that include a salient and/or unusual mental state such as a false belief. We then compare the potency of such observational support to the reliability of alternate or concomitant syntactic information (e.g., sentential complementation) in tasks where both children and adults are asked to hypothesize the meaning of novel verbs. The findings support the efficacy of false belief situations for increasing the saliency of mental state descriptions, but also show that syntactic information is a more reliable indicator of mentalistic interpretations than even the most cooperative contextual cues. Moreover, when syntactic and observational information sources converge, both children and simulated adult learners are vastly more likely to build conjectures involving mental verbs. This is consistent with a multiple-cue constraint satisfaction view of vocabulary acquisition. Taken together, our findings support the position that the informational demands of mapping, rather than age-related cognitive deficiency, can bear much of the explanatory burden for the learning problems posed by abstract words.

  17. When we think about thinking: The acquisition of belief verbs

    PubMed Central

    Papafragou, Anna; Cassidy, Kimberly; Gleitman, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Mental-content verbs such as think, believe, imagine and hope seem to pose special problems for the young language learner. One possible explanation for these difficulties is that the concepts that these verbs express are hard to grasp and therefore their acquisition must await relevant conceptual development. According to a different, perhaps complementary, proposal, a major contributor to the difficulty of these items lies with the informational requirements for identifying them from the contexts in which they appear. The experiments reported here explore the implications of these proposals by investigating the contribution of observational and linguistic cues to the acquisition of mental predicate vocabulary. We first demonstrate that particular observed situations can be helpful in prompting reference to mental contents, specifically, contexts that include a salient and/or unusual mental state such as a false belief. We then compare the potency of such observational support to the reliability of alternate or concomitant syntactic information (e.g., sentential complementation) in tasks where both children and adults are asked to hypothesize the meaning of novel verbs. The findings support the efficacy of false belief situations for increasing the saliency of mental state descriptions, but also show that syntactic information is a more reliable indicator of mentalistic interpretations than even the most cooperative contextual cues. Moreover, when syntactic and observational information sources converge, both children and simulated adult learners are vastly more likely to build conjectures involving mental verbs. This is consistent with a multiple-cue constraint satisfaction view of vocabulary acquisition. Taken together, our findings support the position that the informational demands of mapping, rather than age-related cognitive deficiency, can bear much of the explanatory burden for the learning problems posed by abstract words. PMID:17094956

  18. Acquisition of the Argument-Structure of Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Mika

    The relationship between the realization of the argument-structure of a verb and its acquisition as a lexical item was investigated in a case study. The subject was a girl aged 2.3 years whose father was a native English-speaker and whose mother was a native Japanese speaker who also spoke English. The child had been born in the United States but…

  19. Understanding and use of phrasal verbs and idioms in medical/nursing texts.

    PubMed

    Polackova, G

    2008-01-01

    Phrasal verbs and idioms are frequently used in everyday English. They are also used in more specific language as equivalents for special terms. The use of phrasal verbs and idioms by native patients and health care workers makes their communication easier and less confusing. Non-native medical workers often come across with English phrasal verbs (idioms) in authentic texts and communication. They should be able to recognize them and after analyzing their meaning include them into their own active vocabulary (Ref. 5).

  20. Verb production tasks in the measurement of communicative abilities in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Rofes, Adrià; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The neurofunctional correlates of verbs and nouns have been the focus of many theoretically oriented studies. In clinical practice, however, more attention is typically paid to nouns, and the relative usefulness of tasks probing nouns and verbs is unclear. The routine administration of tasks that use verbs could be a relevant addition to current batteries. Evaluating performance on both noun and verb tasks may provide a more reliable account of everyday language abilities than an evaluation restricted to nouns. To assess the benefits of administering verb tasks in addition to noun tasks, and their relation to three functional measures of language. Twenty-one subjects with poststroke language disorders completed four picture-naming tasks and a role-playing test (Communicative Abilities in Daily Living, Second Edition, CADL-2), commonly used as measure of everyday language abilities. Two questionnaires (Communicative Effectiveness Index, CETI, and Communicative Activity Log, CAL) were completed by caregivers. Picture-naming tasks were matched for psycholinguistic variables to avoid lexicosemantic and morphosyntactic confounds. No significant differences emerged across picture-naming tasks. Scores on the role-playing test and the two questionnaires differed; scores between the two questionnaires did not. The four naming tasks correlated significantly with CADL-2, CETI, and CAL. The strength of the correlation with CADL-2 was significantly greater for Naming Finite Verbs than for Object Naming. Thirteen participants showed no differences in performance between tasks, 6 fared significantly worse on verb tasks than on Object Naming, 1 fared better at Naming Finite Verbs though his performance was poor overall, and 1 was significantly more impaired on verbs. Performance on tasks that use verbs, and especially Naming Finite Verbs, may provide a more accurate estimate of language abilities in daily living than Object Naming alone. Administering both verb and noun tasks may

  1. Novel Noun and Verb Learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif,…

  2. Comparing Different Models of the Development of Verb Inflection in Early Child Spanish

    PubMed Central

    Aguado-Orea, Javier; Pine, Julian M.

    2015-01-01

    How children acquire knowledge of verb inflection is a long-standing question in language acquisition research. In the present study, we test the predictions of some current constructivist and generativist accounts of the development of verb inflection by focusing on data from two Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 2;0 and 2;6. The constructivist claim that children’s early knowledge of verb inflection is only partially productive is tested by comparing the average number of different inflections per verb in matched samples of child and adult speech. The generativist claim that children’s early use of verb inflection is essentially error-free is tested by investigating the rate at which the children made subject-verb agreement errors in different parts of the present tense paradigm. Our results show: 1) that, although even adults’ use of verb inflection in Spanish tends to look somewhat lexically restricted, both children’s use of verb inflection was significantly less flexible than that of their caregivers, and 2) that, although the rate at which the two children produced subject-verb agreement errors in their speech was very low, this overall error rate hid a consistent pattern of error in which error rates were substantially higher in low frequency than in high frequency contexts, and substantially higher for low frequency than for high frequency verbs. These results undermine the claim that children’s use of verb inflection is fully productive from the earliest observable stages, and are consistent with the constructivist claim that knowledge of verb inflection develops only gradually. PMID:25760035

  3. LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G. F.; Mark, T. D.; Weber, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid oxygen (LOX)/hydrocarbon propulsion concepts for a "second generation' orbiter auxiliary propulsion system was evaluated. The most attractive fuel and system design approach identified, and the technology advancements that are needed to provide high confidence for a subsequent system development were determined. The fuel candidates were ethanol, methane, propane, and ammonia. Even though ammonia is not a hydrocarbon, it was included for evaluation because it is clean burning and has a good technology base. The major system design options were pump versus pressure feed, cryogenic versus ambient temperature RCS propellant feed, and the degree of OMS-RCS integration. Ethanol was determined to be the best fuel candidate. It is an earth-storable fuel with a vapor pressure slightly higher than monomethyl hydrazine. A pump-fed OMS was recommended because of its high specific impulse, enabling greater velocity change and greater payload capability than a pressure fed system.

  4. Superactivation of AMPA receptors by auxiliary proteins

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Anna L.; Plested, Andrew J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate receptors form complexes in the brain with auxiliary proteins, which control their activity during fast synaptic transmission through a seemingly bewildering array of effects. Here we devise a way to isolate the activation of complexes using polyamines, which enables us to show that transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) exert their effects principally on the channel opening reaction. A thermodynamic argument suggests that because TARPs promote channel opening, receptor activation promotes AMPAR-TARP complexes into a superactive state with high open probability. A simple model based on this idea predicts all known effects of TARPs on AMPA receptor function. This model also predicts unexpected phenomena including massive potentiation in the absence of desensitization and supramaximal recovery that we subsequently detected in electrophysiological recordings. This transient positive feedback mechanism has implications for information processing in the brain, because it should allow activity-dependent facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission through a postsynaptic mechanism. PMID:26744192

  5. Acquiring and Processing Verb Argument Structure: Distributional Learning in a Miniature Language

    PubMed Central

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Newport, Elissa L.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Adult knowledge of a language involves correctly balancing lexically-based and more language-general patterns. For example, verb-argument structures may sometimes readily generalize to new verbs, yet with particular verbs may resist generalization. From the perspective of acquisition, this creates significant learnability problems (Baker 1979), with some researchers claiming a crucial role for verb semantics in the determination of when generalization may and may not occur (Pinker, 1989). Similarly, there has been debate regarding how verb-specific and more generalized constraints interact in sentence processing (Trueswell et al 1993; Mitchell 1987) and on the role of semantics in this process (Hare et al 2003). The current work explores these issues using artificial language learning. In three experiments using languages without semantic cues to verb distribution, we demonstrate that learners can acquire both verb-specific and verb-general patterns, based on distributional information in the linguistic input regarding each of the verbs as well as across the language as a whole. As with natural languages, these factors are shown to affect production, judgments and real-time processing. We demonstrate that learners apply a rational procedure in determining their usage of these different input-statistics and conclude by suggesting that a Bayesian perspective on statistical learning may be an appropriate framework for capturing our findings. PMID:17662707

  6. Do lemmas speak German? A verb position effect in German structural priming.

    PubMed

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was performed which varied syntactic structure, verb position (encoded by tense and aspect), and verb overlap. Abstract structural priming was found, both within and across verb position, but priming was larger when the verb position was the same between prime and target. Priming was boosted by verb overlap, but there was no interaction with verb position. The results can be explained by a lemma model where tense and aspect are linked to structural choices in German. Since the architecture of this lemma model is not consistent with results from English, a connectionist model was developed which could explain the cross-linguistic variation in the production system. Together, these findings support the view that language learning plays an important role in determining the nature of structural priming in different languages.

  7. Beyond Picture Naming: Norms and Patient Data for a Verb Generation Task**

    PubMed Central

    Kurland, Jacquie; Reber, Alisson; Stokes, Polly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study aimed to: 1) acquire a set of verb generation to picture norms; and 2) probe its utility as an outcomes measure in aphasia treatment. Method Fifty healthy volunteers participated in Phase I, the verb generation normative sample. They generated verbs for 218 pictures of common objects (ISI=5s). In Phase II, four persons with aphasia (PWA) generated verbs for 60 objects (ISI=10s). Their stimuli consisted of objects which were: 1) recently trained (for object naming; n=20); 2) untrained (a control set; n=20); or 3) from a set of pictures named correctly at baseline (n=20). Verb generation was acquired twice: two months into, and following, a six-month home practice program. Results No objects elicited perfect verb agreement in the normed sample. Stimuli with the highest percent agreement were mostly artifacts and dominant verbs primary functional associates. Although not targeted in treatment or home practice, PWA mostly improved performance in verb generation post-practice. Conclusions A set of clinically and experimentally useful verb generation norms was acquired for a subset of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set. More cognitively demanding than confrontation naming, this task may help to fill the sizeable gap between object picture naming and propositional speech. PMID:24686752

  8. Effects of relative embodiment in lexical and semantic processing of verbs.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, David M; Kwan, Rachel; Pexman, Penny M; Siakaluk, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    Research examining semantic richness effects in visual word recognition has shown that multiple dimensions of meaning are activated in the process of word recognition (e.g., Yap et al., 2012). This research has, however, been limited to nouns. In the present research we extended the semantic richness approach to verb stimuli in order to investigate how verb meanings are represented. We characterized a dimension of relative embodiment for verbs, based on the bodily sense described by Borghi and Cimatti (2010), and collected ratings on that dimension for 687 English verbs. The relative embodiment ratings revealed that bodily experience was judged to be more important to the meanings of some verbs (e.g., dance, breathe) than to others (e.g., evaporate, expect). We then tested the effects of relative embodiment and imageability on verb processing in lexical decision (Experiment 1), action picture naming (Experiment 2), and syntactic classification (Experiment 3). In all three experiments results showed facilitatory effects of relative embodiment, but not imageability: latencies were faster for relatively more embodied verbs, even after several other lexical variables were controlled. The results suggest that relative embodiment is an important aspect of verb meaning, and that the semantic richness approach holds promise as a strategy for investigating other aspects of verb meaning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mapping nouns and finite verbs in left hemisphere tumors: a direct electrical stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Rofes, Adrià; Spena, Giannantonio; Talacchi, Andrea; Santini, Barbara; Miozzo, Antonio; Miceli, Gabriele

    2017-03-27

    Neurosurgical mapping studies with nouns and finite verbs are scarce and subcortical data are nonexistent. We used a new task that uses finite verbs in six Italian-speaking patients with gliomas in the left language-dominant hemisphere. Language-relevant positive areas were detected only with nouns in four patients, with both tasks yet in distinct cortical areas in one patient, and only with finite verbs in another patient. Positive areas and types of errors varied across participants. Finite verbs provide complementary information to nouns, and permit more accurate mapping of language production when nouns are unaffected by electrical stimulation.

  10. Hands typing what hands do: Action-semantic integration dynamics throughout written verb production.

    PubMed

    García, Adolfo M; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2016-04-01

    Processing action verbs, in general, and manual action verbs, in particular, involves activations in gross and hand-specific motor networks, respectively. While this is well established for receptive language processes, no study has explored action-semantic integration during written production. Moreover, little is known about how such crosstalk unfolds from motor planning to execution. Here we address both issues through our novel "action semantics in typing" paradigm, which allows to time keystroke operations during word typing. Specifically, we created a primed-verb-copying task involving manual action verbs, non-manual action verbs, and non-action verbs. Motor planning processes were indexed by first-letter lag (the lapse between target onset and first keystroke), whereas execution dynamics were assessed considering whole-word lag (the lapse between first and last keystroke). Each phase was differently delayed by action verbs. When these were processed for over one second, interference was strong and magnified by effector compatibility during programming, but weak and effector-blind during execution. Instead, when they were processed for less than 900ms, interference was reduced by effector compatibility during programming and it faded during execution. Finally, typing was facilitated by prime-target congruency, irrespective of the verbs' motor content. Thus, action-verb semantics seems to extend beyond its embodied foundations, involving conceptual dynamics not tapped by classical reaction-time measures. These findings are compatible with non-radical models of language embodiment and with predictions of event coding theory.

  11. Verb-based versus class-based accounts of actionality effects in children's comprehension of passives.

    PubMed

    Gordon, P; Chafetz, J

    1990-09-01

    Several studies have shown that children perform worse on tests of passive comprehension when the verb is non-actional than when it is actional. Most existing accounts focus on the semantic characteristics of the class of non-action verbs in explaining this difference. An alternative is a "verb-based" account in which passives are initially learned verb by verb, and children hear fewer non-actional passives in their language input. An analysis of the passives heard by Adam, Eve and Sarah (Brown, 1973) found more actional than non-actional passives, consistent with the verb-based account. In a second study, children tested for passive comprehension were re-tested a week later. The verb-based account predicts that children should show a consistent pattern of responses for individual verbs on test and re-test. Such consistency was found, with some inconsistency due to improvement over the re-test. Further analyses showed no effects of affectedness in explaining children's problems with passives. Finally, we discuss whether a mixed model containing both verb-based and class-based mechanisms is required to explain the actionality effects.

  12. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  7. User Evaluation of Student and Auxiliary Services, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weglarz, Shirley

    The Fall 1998 Student/Auxiliary Services User Evaluation for Johnson County Community College (JCCC) in Kansas was expanded to include information about service learning, vending services, services not included in the biennial evaluation, and answers to questions of topical interest submitted by managers of ten student/auxiliary services. A total…

  8. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  10. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  11. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  12. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Headlights and auxiliary lights. 229.125 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.125 Headlights and auxiliary lights. (a) Each lead locomotive used in road service.... (c) Headlights shall be provided with a device to dim the light. (d) Effective December 31,...

  13. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Headlights and auxiliary lights. 229.125 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.125 Headlights and auxiliary lights. (a) Each lead locomotive used in road service... light is aimed parallel to the tracks. If a locomotive or locomotive consist in road service...

  14. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Headlights and auxiliary lights. 229.125 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.125 Headlights and auxiliary lights. (a) Each lead locomotive used in road service... light is aimed parallel to the tracks. If a locomotive or locomotive consist in road service...

  15. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Headlights and auxiliary lights. 229.125 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.125 Headlights and auxiliary lights. (a) Each lead locomotive used in road service... light is aimed parallel to the tracks. If a locomotive or locomotive consist in road service...

  16. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Headlights and auxiliary lights. 229.125 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.125 Headlights and auxiliary lights. (a) Each lead locomotive used in road service.... (c) Headlights shall be provided with a device to dim the light. (d) Effective December 31,...

  17. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  18. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  19. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  20. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...