#### Sample records for sample size formula

1. A New Sample Size Formula for Regression.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brooks, Gordon P.; Barcikowski, Robert S.

The focus of this research was to determine the efficacy of a new method of selecting sample sizes for multiple linear regression. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to study both empirical predictive power rates and empirical statistical power rates of the new method and seven other methods: those of C. N. Park and A. L. Dudycha (1974); J. Cohen…

2. Approximate sample size formulas for the two-sample trimmed mean test with unequal variances.

PubMed

Luh, Wei-Ming; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

2007-05-01

Yuen's two-sample trimmed mean test statistic is one of the most robust methods to apply when variances are heterogeneous. The present study develops formulas for the sample size required for the test. The formulas are applicable for the cases of unequal variances, non-normality and unequal sample sizes. Given the specified alpha and the power (1-beta), the minimum sample size needed by the proposed formulas under various conditions is less than is given by the conventional formulas. Moreover, given a specified size of sample calculated by the proposed formulas, simulation results show that Yuen's test can achieve statistical power which is generally superior to that of the approximate t test. A numerical example is provided.

3. Comparison of Sample Size by Bootstrap and by Formulas Based on Normal Distribution Assumption.

PubMed

Wang, Zuozhen

2018-01-01

Bootstrapping technique is distribution-independent, which provides an indirect way to estimate the sample size for a clinical trial based on a relatively smaller sample. In this paper, sample size estimation to compare two parallel-design arms for continuous data by bootstrap procedure are presented for various test types (inequality, non-inferiority, superiority, and equivalence), respectively. Meanwhile, sample size calculation by mathematical formulas (normal distribution assumption) for the identical data are also carried out. Consequently, power difference between the two calculation methods is acceptably small for all the test types. It shows that the bootstrap procedure is a credible technique for sample size estimation. After that, we compared the powers determined using the two methods based on data that violate the normal distribution assumption. To accommodate the feature of the data, the nonparametric statistical method of Wilcoxon test was applied to compare the two groups in the data during the process of bootstrap power estimation. As a result, the power estimated by normal distribution-based formula is far larger than that by bootstrap for each specific sample size per group. Hence, for this type of data, it is preferable that the bootstrap method be applied for sample size calculation at the beginning, and that the same statistical method as used in the subsequent statistical analysis is employed for each bootstrap sample during the course of bootstrap sample size estimation, provided there is historical true data available that can be well representative of the population to which the proposed trial is planning to extrapolate.

4. Type-II generalized family-wise error rate formulas with application to sample size determination.

PubMed

Delorme, Phillipe; de Micheaux, Pierre Lafaye; Liquet, Benoit; Riou, Jérémie

2016-07-20

Multiple endpoints are increasingly used in clinical trials. The significance of some of these clinical trials is established if at least r null hypotheses are rejected among m that are simultaneously tested. The usual approach in multiple hypothesis testing is to control the family-wise error rate, which is defined as the probability that at least one type-I error is made. More recently, the q-generalized family-wise error rate has been introduced to control the probability of making at least q false rejections. For procedures controlling this global type-I error rate, we define a type-II r-generalized family-wise error rate, which is directly related to the r-power defined as the probability of rejecting at least r false null hypotheses. We obtain very general power formulas that can be used to compute the sample size for single-step and step-wise procedures. These are implemented in our R package rPowerSampleSize available on the CRAN, making them directly available to end users. Complexities of the formulas are presented to gain insight into computation time issues. Comparison with Monte Carlo strategy is also presented. We compute sample sizes for two clinical trials involving multiple endpoints: one designed to investigate the effectiveness of a drug against acute heart failure and the other for the immunogenicity of a vaccine strategy against pneumococcus. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

5. A novel sample size formula for the weighted log-rank test under the proportional hazards cure model.

PubMed

Xiong, Xiaoping; Wu, Jianrong

2017-01-01

The treatment of cancer has progressed dramatically in recent decades, such that it is no longer uncommon to see a cure or log-term survival in a significant proportion of patients with various types of cancer. To adequately account for the cure fraction when designing clinical trials, the cure models should be used. In this article, a sample size formula for the weighted log-rank test is derived under the fixed alternative hypothesis for the proportional hazards cure models. Simulation showed that the proposed sample size formula provides an accurate estimation of sample size for designing clinical trials under the proportional hazards cure models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

6. Generalized SAMPLE SIZE Determination Formulas for Investigating Contextual Effects by a Three-Level Random Intercept Model.

PubMed

Usami, Satoshi

2017-03-01

Behavioral and psychological researchers have shown strong interests in investigating contextual effects (i.e., the influences of combinations of individual- and group-level predictors on individual-level outcomes). The present research provides generalized formulas for determining the sample size needed in investigating contextual effects according to the desired level of statistical power as well as width of confidence interval. These formulas are derived within a three-level random intercept model that includes one predictor/contextual variable at each level to simultaneously cover various kinds of contextual effects that researchers can show interest. The relative influences of indices included in the formulas on the standard errors of contextual effects estimates are investigated with the aim of further simplifying sample size determination procedures. In addition, simulation studies are performed to investigate finite sample behavior of calculated statistical power, showing that estimated sample sizes based on derived formulas can be both positively and negatively biased due to complex effects of unreliability of contextual variables, multicollinearity, and violation of assumption regarding the known variances. Thus, it is advisable to compare estimated sample sizes under various specifications of indices and to evaluate its potential bias, as illustrated in the example.

7. Robust Covariate-Adjusted Log-Rank Statistics and Corresponding Sample Size Formula for Recurrent Events Data

PubMed Central

Song, Rui; Kosorok, Michael R.; Cai, Jianwen

2009-01-01

Summary Recurrent events data are frequently encountered in clinical trials. This article develops robust covariate-adjusted log-rank statistics applied to recurrent events data with arbitrary numbers of events under independent censoring and the corresponding sample size formula. The proposed log-rank tests are robust with respect to different data-generating processes and are adjusted for predictive covariates. It reduces to the Kong and Slud (1997, Biometrika 84, 847–862) setting in the case of a single event. The sample size formula is derived based on the asymptotic normality of the covariate-adjusted log-rank statistics under certain local alternatives and a working model for baseline covariates in the recurrent event data context. When the effect size is small and the baseline covariates do not contain significant information about event times, it reduces to the same form as that of Schoenfeld (1983, Biometrics 39, 499–503) for cases of a single event or independent event times within a subject. We carry out simulations to study the control of type I error and the comparison of powers between several methods in finite samples. The proposed sample size formula is illustrated using data from an rhDNase study. PMID:18162107

8. Approximate Sample Size Formulas for Testing Group Mean Differences when Variances Are Unequal in One-Way ANOVA

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guo, Jiin-Huarng; Luh, Wei-Ming

2008-01-01

This study proposes an approach for determining appropriate sample size for Welch's F test when unequal variances are expected. Given a certain maximum deviation in population means and using the quantile of F and t distributions, there is no need to specify a noncentrality parameter and it is easy to estimate the approximate sample size needed…

9. Phylogenetic effective sample size.

PubMed

Bartoszek, Krzysztof

2016-10-21

In this paper I address the question-how large is a phylogenetic sample? I propose a definition of a phylogenetic effective sample size for Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes-the regression effective sample size. I discuss how mutual information can be used to define an effective sample size in the non-normal process case and compare these two definitions to an already present concept of effective sample size (the mean effective sample size). Through a simulation study I find that the AICc is robust if one corrects for the number of species or effective number of species. Lastly I discuss how the concept of the phylogenetic effective sample size can be useful for biodiversity quantification, identification of interesting clades and deciding on the importance of phylogenetic correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

10. Sample Size Determination for One- and Two-Sample Trimmed Mean Tests

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Luh, Wei-Ming; Olejnik, Stephen; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

2008-01-01

Formulas to determine the necessary sample sizes for parametric tests of group comparisons are available from several sources and appropriate when population distributions are normal. However, in the context of nonnormal population distributions, researchers recommend Yuen's trimmed mean test, but formulas to determine sample sizes have not been…

11. Estimation of sample size and testing power (Part 4).

PubMed

Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

2012-01-01

Sample size estimation is necessary for any experimental or survey research. An appropriate estimation of sample size based on known information and statistical knowledge is of great significance. This article introduces methods of sample size estimation of difference test for data with the design of one factor with two levels, including sample size estimation formulas and realization based on the formulas and the POWER procedure of SAS software for quantitative data and qualitative data with the design of one factor with two levels. In addition, this article presents examples for analysis, which will play a leading role for researchers to implement the repetition principle during the research design phase.

12. Infant formula samples: perinatal sources and breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum.

PubMed

Thurston, Amanda; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Chezem, Jo Carol

2013-01-01

The purpose was to describe sources of infant formula samples during the perinatal period and assess their associations with breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum. Subjects included expectant mothers who anticipated breast-feeding at least 1 month. Infant feeding history and sources of formula samples were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Associations between sources and breast-feeding outcomes were assessed using partial correlation. Of the 61 subjects who initiated breast-feeding, most were white (87%), married (75%), college-educated (75%), and planned exclusive breast-feeding (82%). Forty-two subjects (69%) continued breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum. Subjects received formula samples from the hospital (n = 40; 66%), physician's office (n = 10; 16%), and mail (n = 41; 67%). There were no significant correlations between formula samples from the hospital, physician's office, and/or mail and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month (P > .05). In addition to the hospital, a long-standing source of formula samples, mail was also frequently reported as a route for distribution. The lack of statistically significant associations between formula samples and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month may be related to small sample size and unique characteristics of the group studied.

13. Biostatistics Series Module 5: Determining Sample Size

PubMed Central

Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

2016-01-01

principles are long known, historically, sample size determination has been difficult, because of relatively complex mathematical considerations and numerous different formulas. However, of late, there has been remarkable improvement in the availability, capability, and user-friendliness of power and sample size determination software. Many can execute routines for determination of sample size and power for a wide variety of research designs and statistical tests. With the drudgery of mathematical calculation gone, researchers must now concentrate on determining appropriate sample size and achieving these targets, so that study conclusions can be accepted as meaningful. PMID:27688437

14. Estimation of sample size and testing power (part 5).

PubMed

Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

2012-02-01

Estimation of sample size and testing power is an important component of research design. This article introduced methods for sample size and testing power estimation of difference test for quantitative and qualitative data with the single-group design, the paired design or the crossover design. To be specific, this article introduced formulas for sample size and testing power estimation of difference test for quantitative and qualitative data with the above three designs, the realization based on the formulas and the POWER procedure of SAS software and elaborated it with examples, which will benefit researchers for implementing the repetition principle.

15. The large sample size fallacy.

PubMed

Lantz, Björn

2013-06-01

Significance in the statistical sense has little to do with significance in the common practical sense. Statistical significance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for practical significance. Hence, results that are extremely statistically significant may be highly nonsignificant in practice. The degree of practical significance is generally determined by the size of the observed effect, not the p-value. The results of studies based on large samples are often characterized by extreme statistical significance despite small or even trivial effect sizes. Interpreting such results as significant in practice without further analysis is referred to as the large sample size fallacy in this article. The aim of this article is to explore the relevance of the large sample size fallacy in contemporary nursing research. Relatively few nursing articles display explicit measures of observed effect sizes or include a qualitative discussion of observed effect sizes. Statistical significance is often treated as an end in itself. Effect sizes should generally be calculated and presented along with p-values for statistically significant results, and observed effect sizes should be discussed qualitatively through direct and explicit comparisons with the effects in related literature. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

16. Evaluation of a formula that categorizes female gray wolf breeding status by nipple size

USGS Publications Warehouse

Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

2015-01-01

The proportion by age class of wild Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) females that reproduce in any given year remains unclear; thus, we evaluated the applicability to our long-term (1972–2013) data set of the Mech et al. (1993) formula that categorizes female Gray Wolf breeding status by nipple size and time of year. We used the formula to classify Gray Wolves from 68 capture events into 4 categories (yearling, adult non-breeder, former breeder, current breeder). To address issues with small sample size and variance, we created an ambiguity index to allow some Gray Wolves to be classed into 2 categories. We classified 20 nipple measurements ambiguously: 16 current or former breeder, 3 former or adult non-breeder, and 1 yearling or adult non-breeder. The formula unambiguously classified 48 (71%) of the nipple measurements; based on supplemental field evidence, at least 5 (10%) of these were incorrect. When used in conjunction with an ambiguity index we developed and with corrections made for classifications involving very large nipples, and supplemented with available field evidence, the Mech et al. (1993) formula provided reasonably reliable classification of breeding status in wild female Gray Wolves.

17. The Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression Sample Size Method.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brooks, Gordon P.; Barcikowski, Robert S.

The general purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of the Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression (PEAR) method for choosing appropriate sample sizes in regression studies used for precision. The PEAR method, which is based on the algebraic manipulation of an accepted cross-validity formula, essentially uses an effect size to…

18. Requirements for Minimum Sample Size for Sensitivity and Specificity Analysis

PubMed Central

2016-01-01

Sensitivity and specificity analysis is commonly used for screening and diagnostic tests. The main issue researchers face is to determine the sufficient sample sizes that are related with screening and diagnostic studies. Although the formula for sample size calculation is available but concerning majority of the researchers are not mathematicians or statisticians, hence, sample size calculation might not be easy for them. This review paper provides sample size tables with regards to sensitivity and specificity analysis. These tables were derived from formulation of sensitivity and specificity test using Power Analysis and Sample Size (PASS) software based on desired type I error, power and effect size. The approaches on how to use the tables were also discussed. PMID:27891446

19. How Sample Size Affects a Sampling Distribution

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mulekar, Madhuri S.; Siegel, Murray H.

2009-01-01

If students are to understand inferential statistics successfully, they must have a profound understanding of the nature of the sampling distribution. Specifically, they must comprehend the determination of the expected value and standard error of a sampling distribution as well as the meaning of the central limit theorem. Many students in a high…

20. Sample Size Estimation: The Easy Way

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weller, Susan C.

2015-01-01

This article presents a simple approach to making quick sample size estimates for basic hypothesis tests. Although there are many sources available for estimating sample sizes, methods are not often integrated across statistical tests, levels of measurement of variables, or effect sizes. A few parameters are required to estimate sample sizes and…

1. Developing the Noncentrality Parameter for Calculating Group Sample Sizes in Heterogeneous Analysis of Variance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Luh, Wei-Ming; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

2011-01-01

Sample size determination is an important issue in planning research. In the context of one-way fixed-effect analysis of variance, the conventional sample size formula cannot be applied for the heterogeneous variance cases. This study discusses the sample size requirement for the Welch test in the one-way fixed-effect analysis of variance with…

2. Sample Size Determination for Regression Models Using Monte Carlo Methods in R

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beaujean, A. Alexander

2014-01-01

A common question asked by researchers using regression models is, What sample size is needed for my study? While there are formulae to estimate sample sizes, their assumptions are often not met in the collected data. A more realistic approach to sample size determination requires more information such as the model of interest, strength of the…

3. Sample size calculation for studies with grouped survival data.

PubMed

Li, Zhiguo; Wang, Xiaofei; Wu, Yuan; Owzar, Kouros

2018-06-10

Grouped survival data arise often in studies where the disease status is assessed at regular visits to clinic. The time to the event of interest can only be determined to be between two adjacent visits or is right censored at one visit. In data analysis, replacing the survival time with the endpoint or midpoint of the grouping interval leads to biased estimators of the effect size in group comparisons. Prentice and Gloeckler developed a maximum likelihood estimator for the proportional hazards model with grouped survival data and the method has been widely applied. Previous work on sample size calculation for designing studies with grouped data is based on either the exponential distribution assumption or the approximation of variance under the alternative with variance under the null. Motivated by studies in HIV trials, cancer trials and in vitro experiments to study drug toxicity, we develop a sample size formula for studies with grouped survival endpoints that use the method of Prentice and Gloeckler for comparing two arms under the proportional hazards assumption. We do not impose any distributional assumptions, nor do we use any approximation of variance of the test statistic. The sample size formula only requires estimates of the hazard ratio and survival probabilities of the event time of interest and the censoring time at the endpoints of the grouping intervals for one of the two arms. The formula is shown to perform well in a simulation study and its application is illustrated in the three motivating examples. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

4. [Practical aspects regarding sample size in clinical research].

PubMed

Vega Ramos, B; Peraza Yanes, O; Herrera Correa, G; Saldívar Toraya, S

1996-01-01

The knowledge of the right sample size let us to be sure if the published results in medical papers had a suitable design and a proper conclusion according to the statistics analysis. To estimate the sample size we must consider the type I error, type II error, variance, the size of the effect, significance and power of the test. To decide what kind of mathematics formula will be used, we must define what kind of study we have, it means if its a prevalence study, a means values one or a comparative one. In this paper we explain some basic topics of statistics and we describe four simple samples of estimation of sample size.

5. Association Between Bottle Size and Formula Intake in 2-Month-Old Infants.

PubMed

Wood, Charles T; Skinner, Asheley C; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan; Ravanbakht, Sophie N; Perrin, Eliana M

2016-04-01

To determine range of bottle sizes used and examine the relationship between bottle size and total daily consumption of infant formula. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected as part of Greenlight, a cluster randomized trial to prevent childhood obesity at 4 pediatric resident clinics. The Greenlight study included healthy, term infants. For our analysis, parents of exclusively formula-fed infants reported volume per feed, number of feeds per day, and bottle size, which was dichotomized into small (<6 oz) or large (≥6 oz). We identified determinants of bottle size, and then examined relationships between bottle size and volume fed with log-transformed ordinary least squares regression, adjusting for infant age, sex, birth weight, current weight, race/ethnicity, and enrollment in Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Of 865 participants in the Greenlight study, 44% (n = 378; 21.8% white, 40.6% black, 35.3% Hispanic, 2.4% other) of infants were exclusively formula fed at 2 months. Median volume per day was 30 oz (interquartile range 12), and 46.0% of infants were fed with large bottles. Adjusted for covariates, parents using larger bottles reported feeding 4 oz more formula per day (34.2 oz, 95% confidence interval 33.5-34.9 vs 29.7 oz, 95% confidence interval 29.2-30.3, P = .03). Among exclusively formula-fed infants, use of a larger bottle is associated with parental report of more formula intake compared to infants fed with smaller bottles. If infants fed with larger bottles receive more formula, these infants may be overfed and consequently at risk for obesity. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

6. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II Total...

7. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II Total...

8. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II Total...

9. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II Total...

10. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II Total...

11. Sample Size and Correlational Inference

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anderson, Richard B.; Doherty, Michael E.; Friedrich, Jeff C.

2008-01-01

In 4 studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that the structure of the informational environment makes small samples more informative than large ones for drawing inferences about population correlations. The specific purpose of the studies was to test predictions arising from the signal detection simulations of R. B. Anderson, M. E. Doherty,…

12. Quadratic formula for determining the drop size in pressure-atomized sprays with and without swirl

SciTech Connect

Lee, T.-W, E-mail: attwl@asu.edu; An, Keju

2016-06-15

We use a theoretical framework based on the integral form of the conservation equations, along with a heuristic model of the viscous dissipation, to find a closed-form solution to the liquid atomization problem. The energy balance for the spray renders to a quadratic formula for the drop size as a function, primarily of the liquid velocity. The Sauter mean diameter found using the quadratic formula shows good agreements and physical trends, when compared with experimental observations. This approach is shown to be applicable toward specifying initial drop size in computational fluid dynamics of spray flows.

13. Sample size and power for cost-effectiveness analysis (part 1).

PubMed

Glick, Henry A

2011-03-01

Basic sample size and power formulae for cost-effectiveness analysis have been established in the literature. These formulae are reviewed and the similarities and differences between sample size and power for cost-effectiveness analysis and for the analysis of other continuous variables such as changes in blood pressure or weight are described. The types of sample size and power tables that are commonly calculated for cost-effectiveness analysis are also described and the impact of varying the assumed parameter values on the resulting sample size and power estimates is discussed. Finally, the way in which the data for these calculations may be derived are discussed.

14. Sample size calculations for comparative clinical trials with over-dispersed Poisson process data.

PubMed

Matsui, Shigeyuki

2005-05-15

This paper develops a new formula for sample size calculations for comparative clinical trials with Poisson or over-dispersed Poisson process data. The criteria for sample size calculations is developed on the basis of asymptotic approximations for a two-sample non-parametric test to compare the empirical event rate function between treatment groups. This formula can accommodate time heterogeneity, inter-patient heterogeneity in event rate, and also, time-varying treatment effects. An application of the formula to a trial for chronic granulomatous disease is provided. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

15. Optimum sample size allocation to minimize cost or maximize power for the two-sample trimmed mean test.

PubMed

Guo, Jiin-Huarng; Luh, Wei-Ming

2009-05-01

When planning a study, sample size determination is one of the most important tasks facing the researcher. The size will depend on the purpose of the study, the cost limitations, and the nature of the data. By specifying the standard deviation ratio and/or the sample size ratio, the present study considers the problem of heterogeneous variances and non-normality for Yuen's two-group test and develops sample size formulas to minimize the total cost or maximize the power of the test. For a given power, the sample size allocation ratio can be manipulated so that the proposed formulas can minimize the total cost, the total sample size, or the sum of total sample size and total cost. On the other hand, for a given total cost, the optimum sample size allocation ratio can maximize the statistical power of the test. After the sample size is determined, the present simulation applies Yuen's test to the sample generated, and then the procedure is validated in terms of Type I errors and power. Simulation results show that the proposed formulas can control Type I errors and achieve the desired power under the various conditions specified. Finally, the implications for determining sample sizes in experimental studies and future research are discussed.

16. Methods for sample size determination in cluster randomized trials

PubMed Central

Rutterford, Clare; Copas, Andrew; Eldridge, Sandra

2015-01-01

Background: The use of cluster randomized trials (CRTs) is increasing, along with the variety in their design and analysis. The simplest approach for their sample size calculation is to calculate the sample size assuming individual randomization and inflate this by a design effect to account for randomization by cluster. The assumptions of a simple design effect may not always be met; alternative or more complicated approaches are required. Methods: We summarise a wide range of sample size methods available for cluster randomized trials. For those familiar with sample size calculations for individually randomized trials but with less experience in the clustered case, this manuscript provides formulae for a wide range of scenarios with associated explanation and recommendations. For those with more experience, comprehensive summaries are provided that allow quick identification of methods for a given design, outcome and analysis method. Results: We present first those methods applicable to the simplest two-arm, parallel group, completely randomized design followed by methods that incorporate deviations from this design such as: variability in cluster sizes; attrition; non-compliance; or the inclusion of baseline covariates or repeated measures. The paper concludes with methods for alternative designs. Conclusions: There is a large amount of methodology available for sample size calculations in CRTs. This paper gives the most comprehensive description of published methodology for sample size calculation and provides an important resource for those designing these trials. PMID:26174515

17. Nomogram for sample size calculation on a straightforward basis for the kappa statistic.

PubMed

Hong, Hyunsook; Choi, Yunhee; Hahn, Seokyung; Park, Sue Kyung; Park, Byung-Joo

2014-09-01

Kappa is a widely used measure of agreement. However, it may not be straightforward in some situation such as sample size calculation due to the kappa paradox: high agreement but low kappa. Hence, it seems reasonable in sample size calculation that the level of agreement under a certain marginal prevalence is considered in terms of a simple proportion of agreement rather than a kappa value. Therefore, sample size formulae and nomograms using a simple proportion of agreement rather than a kappa under certain marginal prevalences are proposed. A sample size formula was derived using the kappa statistic under the common correlation model and goodness-of-fit statistic. The nomogram for the sample size formula was developed using SAS 9.3. The sample size formulae using a simple proportion of agreement instead of a kappa statistic and nomograms to eliminate the inconvenience of using a mathematical formula were produced. A nomogram for sample size calculation with a simple proportion of agreement should be useful in the planning stages when the focus of interest is on testing the hypothesis of interobserver agreement involving two raters and nominal outcome measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

18. Sample size, confidence, and contingency judgement.

PubMed

Clément, Mélanie; Mercier, Pierre; Pastò, Luigi

2002-06-01

According to statistical models, the acquisition function of contingency judgement is due to confidence increasing with sample size. According to associative models, the function reflects the accumulation of associative strength on which the judgement is based. Which view is right? Thirty university students assessed the relation between a fictitious medication and a symptom of skin discoloration in conditions that varied sample size (4, 6, 8 or 40 trials) and contingency (delta P = .20, .40, .60 or .80). Confidence was also collected. Contingency judgement was lower for smaller samples, while confidence level correlated inversely with sample size. This dissociation between contingency judgement and confidence contradicts the statistical perspective.

19. Rock sampling. [apparatus for controlling particle size

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blum, P. (Inventor)

1971-01-01

An apparatus for sampling rock and other brittle materials and for controlling resultant particle sizes is described. The device includes grinding means for cutting grooves in the rock surface and to provide a grouping of thin, shallow, parallel ridges and cutter means to reduce these ridges to a powder specimen. Collection means is provided for the powder. The invention relates to rock grinding and particularly to the sampling of rock specimens with good size control.

20. Selection of the effect size for sample size determination for a continuous response in a superiority clinical trial using a hybrid classical and Bayesian procedure.

PubMed

Ciarleglio, Maria M; Arendt, Christopher D; Peduzzi, Peter N

2016-06-01

When designing studies that have a continuous outcome as the primary endpoint, the hypothesized effect size ([Formula: see text]), that is, the hypothesized difference in means ([Formula: see text]) relative to the assumed variability of the endpoint ([Formula: see text]), plays an important role in sample size and power calculations. Point estimates for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are often calculated using historical data. However, the uncertainty in these estimates is rarely addressed. This article presents a hybrid classical and Bayesian procedure that formally integrates prior information on the distributions of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] into the study's power calculation. Conditional expected power, which averages the traditional power curve using the prior distributions of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] as the averaging weight, is used, and the value of [Formula: see text] is found that equates the prespecified frequentist power ([Formula: see text]) and the conditional expected power of the trial. This hypothesized effect size is then used in traditional sample size calculations when determining sample size for the study. The value of [Formula: see text] found using this method may be expressed as a function of the prior means of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and their prior standard deviations, [Formula: see text]. We show that the "naïve" estimate of the effect size, that is, the ratio of prior means, should be down-weighted to account for the variability in the parameters. An example is presented for designing a placebo-controlled clinical trial testing the antidepressant effect of alprazolam as monotherapy for major depression. Through this method, we are able to formally integrate prior information on the uncertainty and variability of both the treatment effect and the common standard deviation into the design of the study while maintaining a frequentist framework for

1. Estimation of sample size and testing power (Part 3).

PubMed

Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

2011-12-01

This article introduces the definition and sample size estimation of three special tests (namely, non-inferiority test, equivalence test and superiority test) for qualitative data with the design of one factor with two levels having a binary response variable. Non-inferiority test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the efficacy of the experimental drug is not clinically inferior to that of the positive control drug. Equivalence test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the experimental drug and the control drug have clinically equivalent efficacy. Superiority test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the efficacy of the experimental drug is clinically superior to that of the control drug. By specific examples, this article introduces formulas of sample size estimation for the three special tests, and their SAS realization in detail.

2. RnaSeqSampleSize: real data based sample size estimation for RNA sequencing.

PubMed

Zhao, Shilin; Li, Chung-I; Guo, Yan; Sheng, Quanhu; Shyr, Yu

2018-05-30

One of the most important and often neglected components of a successful RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) experiment is sample size estimation. A few negative binomial model-based methods have been developed to estimate sample size based on the parameters of a single gene. However, thousands of genes are quantified and tested for differential expression simultaneously in RNA-Seq experiments. Thus, additional issues should be carefully addressed, including the false discovery rate for multiple statistic tests, widely distributed read counts and dispersions for different genes. To solve these issues, we developed a sample size and power estimation method named RnaSeqSampleSize, based on the distributions of gene average read counts and dispersions estimated from real RNA-seq data. Datasets from previous, similar experiments such as the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) can be used as a point of reference. Read counts and their dispersions were estimated from the reference's distribution; using that information, we estimated and summarized the power and sample size. RnaSeqSampleSize is implemented in R language and can be installed from Bioconductor website. A user friendly web graphic interface is provided at http://cqs.mc.vanderbilt.edu/shiny/RnaSeqSampleSize/ . RnaSeqSampleSize provides a convenient and powerful way for power and sample size estimation for an RNAseq experiment. It is also equipped with several unique features, including estimation for interested genes or pathway, power curve visualization, and parameter optimization.

3. Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

2009-01-01

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

4. Determining sample size for tree utilization surveys

Treesearch

Stanley J. Zarnoch; James W. Bentley; Tony G. Johnson

2004-01-01

The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service has conducted many studies to determine what proportion of the timber harvested in the South is actually utilized. This paper describes the statistical methods used to determine required sample sizes for estimating utilization ratios for a required level of precision. The data used are those for 515 hardwood and 1,557...

5. Statistical Analysis Techniques for Small Sample Sizes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Navard, S. E.

1984-01-01

The small sample sizes problem which is encountered when dealing with analysis of space-flight data is examined. Because of such a amount of data available, careful analyses are essential to extract the maximum amount of information with acceptable accuracy. Statistical analysis of small samples is described. The background material necessary for understanding statistical hypothesis testing is outlined and the various tests which can be done on small samples are explained. Emphasis is on the underlying assumptions of each test and on considerations needed to choose the most appropriate test for a given type of analysis.

6. Sample size calculation for stepped wedge and other longitudinal cluster randomised trials.

PubMed

Hooper, Richard; Teerenstra, Steven; de Hoop, Esther; Eldridge, Sandra

2016-11-20

The sample size required for a cluster randomised trial is inflated compared with an individually randomised trial because outcomes of participants from the same cluster are correlated. Sample size calculations for longitudinal cluster randomised trials (including stepped wedge trials) need to take account of at least two levels of clustering: the clusters themselves and times within clusters. We derive formulae for sample size for repeated cross-section and closed cohort cluster randomised trials with normally distributed outcome measures, under a multilevel model allowing for variation between clusters and between times within clusters. Our formulae agree with those previously described for special cases such as crossover and analysis of covariance designs, although simulation suggests that the formulae could underestimate required sample size when the number of clusters is small. Whether using a formula or simulation, a sample size calculation requires estimates of nuisance parameters, which in our model include the intracluster correlation, cluster autocorrelation, and individual autocorrelation. A cluster autocorrelation less than 1 reflects a situation where individuals sampled from the same cluster at different times have less correlated outcomes than individuals sampled from the same cluster at the same time. Nuisance parameters could be estimated from time series obtained in similarly clustered settings with the same outcome measure, using analysis of variance to estimate variance components. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

7. Simple and multiple linear regression: sample size considerations.

PubMed

Hanley, James A

2016-11-01

The suggested "two subjects per variable" (2SPV) rule of thumb in the Austin and Steyerberg article is a chance to bring out some long-established and quite intuitive sample size considerations for both simple and multiple linear regression. This article distinguishes two of the major uses of regression models that imply very different sample size considerations, neither served well by the 2SPV rule. The first is etiological research, which contrasts mean Y levels at differing "exposure" (X) values and thus tends to focus on a single regression coefficient, possibly adjusted for confounders. The second research genre guides clinical practice. It addresses Y levels for individuals with different covariate patterns or "profiles." It focuses on the profile-specific (mean) Y levels themselves, estimating them via linear compounds of regression coefficients and covariates. By drawing on long-established closed-form variance formulae that lie beneath the standard errors in multiple regression, and by rearranging them for heuristic purposes, one arrives at quite intuitive sample size considerations for both research genres. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

8. Sample size allocation in multiregional equivalence studies.

PubMed

Liao, Jason J Z; Yu, Ziji; Li, Yulan

2018-06-17

With the increasing globalization of drug development, the multiregional clinical trial (MRCT) has gained extensive use. The data from MRCTs could be accepted by regulatory authorities across regions and countries as the primary sources of evidence to support global marketing drug approval simultaneously. The MRCT can speed up patient enrollment and drug approval, and it makes the effective therapies available to patients all over the world simultaneously. However, there are many challenges both operationally and scientifically in conducting a drug development globally. One of many important questions to answer for the design of a multiregional study is how to partition sample size into each individual region. In this paper, two systematic approaches are proposed for the sample size allocation in a multiregional equivalence trial. A numerical evaluation and a biosimilar trial are used to illustrate the characteristics of the proposed approaches. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

9. Sample size calculation in economic evaluations.

PubMed

Al, M J; van Hout, B A; Michel, B C; Rutten, F F

1998-06-01

A simulation method is presented for sample size calculation in economic evaluations. As input the method requires: the expected difference and variance of costs and effects, their correlation, the significance level (alpha) and the power of the testing method and the maximum acceptable ratio of incremental effectiveness to incremental costs. The method is illustrated with data from two trials. The first compares primary coronary angioplasty with streptokinase in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, in the second trial, lansoprazole is compared with omeprazole in the treatment of reflux oesophagitis. These case studies show how the various parameters influence the sample size. Given the large number of parameters that have to be specified in advance, the lack of knowledge about costs and their standard deviation, and the difficulty of specifying the maximum acceptable ratio of incremental effectiveness to incremental costs, the conclusion of the study is that from a technical point of view it is possible to perform a sample size calculation for an economic evaluation, but one should wonder how useful it is.

10. "PowerUp"!: A Tool for Calculating Minimum Detectable Effect Sizes and Minimum Required Sample Sizes for Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design Studies

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca

2013-01-01

This paper and the accompanying tool are intended to complement existing supports for conducting power analysis tools by offering a tool based on the framework of Minimum Detectable Effect Sizes (MDES) formulae that can be used in determining sample size requirements and in estimating minimum detectable effect sizes for a range of individual- and…

11. Sample size determination for logistic regression on a logit-normal distribution.

PubMed

Kim, Seongho; Heath, Elisabeth; Heilbrun, Lance

2017-06-01

Although the sample size for simple logistic regression can be readily determined using currently available methods, the sample size calculation for multiple logistic regression requires some additional information, such as the coefficient of determination ([Formula: see text]) of a covariate of interest with other covariates, which is often unavailable in practice. The response variable of logistic regression follows a logit-normal distribution which can be generated from a logistic transformation of a normal distribution. Using this property of logistic regression, we propose new methods of determining the sample size for simple and multiple logistic regressions using a normal transformation of outcome measures. Simulation studies and a motivating example show several advantages of the proposed methods over the existing methods: (i) no need for [Formula: see text] for multiple logistic regression, (ii) available interim or group-sequential designs, and (iii) much smaller required sample size.

12. Sample size considerations for paired experimental design with incomplete observations of continuous outcomes.

PubMed

Zhu, Hong; Xu, Xiaohan; Ahn, Chul

2017-01-01

Paired experimental design is widely used in clinical and health behavioral studies, where each study unit contributes a pair of observations. Investigators often encounter incomplete observations of paired outcomes in the data collected. Some study units contribute complete pairs of observations, while the others contribute either pre- or post-intervention observations. Statistical inference for paired experimental design with incomplete observations of continuous outcomes has been extensively studied in literature. However, sample size method for such study design is sparsely available. We derive a closed-form sample size formula based on the generalized estimating equation approach by treating the incomplete observations as missing data in a linear model. The proposed method properly accounts for the impact of mixed structure of observed data: a combination of paired and unpaired outcomes. The sample size formula is flexible to accommodate different missing patterns, magnitude of missingness, and correlation parameter values. We demonstrate that under complete observations, the proposed generalized estimating equation sample size estimate is the same as that based on the paired t-test. In the presence of missing data, the proposed method would lead to a more accurate sample size estimate comparing with the crude adjustment. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the finite-sample performance of the generalized estimating equation sample size formula. A real application example is presented for illustration.

13. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 110 - Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) C Appendix C to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... Appendix C to Part 110—Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I Zone...

14. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I...

15. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Logistic Regression Tests for Differential Item Functioning

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Li, Zhushan

2014-01-01

Logistic regression is a popular method for detecting uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning (DIF) effects. Theoretical formulas for the power and sample size calculations are derived for likelihood ratio tests and Wald tests based on the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimators for the logistic regression model.…

16. Sample size requirements for the design of reliability studies: precision consideration.

PubMed

Shieh, Gwowen

2014-09-01

In multilevel modeling, the intraclass correlation coefficient based on the one-way random-effects model is routinely employed to measure the reliability or degree of resemblance among group members. To facilitate the advocated practice of reporting confidence intervals in future reliability studies, this article presents exact sample size procedures for precise interval estimation of the intraclass correlation coefficient under various allocation and cost structures. Although the suggested approaches do not admit explicit sample size formulas and require special algorithms for carrying out iterative computations, they are more accurate than the closed-form formulas constructed from large-sample approximations with respect to the expected width and assurance probability criteria. This investigation notes the deficiency of existing methods and expands the sample size methodology for the design of reliability studies that have not previously been discussed in the literature.

17. Sample sizes needed for specified margins of relative error in the estimates of the repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations.

PubMed

McClure, Foster D; Lee, Jung K

2005-01-01

Sample size formulas are developed to estimate the repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations (Sr and S(R)) such that the actual error in (Sr and S(R)) relative to their respective true values, sigmar and sigmaR, are at predefined levels. The statistical consequences associated with AOAC INTERNATIONAL required sample size to validate an analytical method are discussed. In addition, formulas to estimate the uncertainties of (Sr and S(R)) were derived and are provided as supporting documentation. Formula for the Number of Replicates Required for a Specified Margin of Relative Error in the Estimate of the Repeatability Standard Deviation.

18. Assessing the failure of continuum formula for solid-solid drag force using discrete element method in large size ratios

Jalali, Payman; Hyppänen, Timo

2017-06-01

In loose or moderately-dense particle mixtures, the contact forces between particles due to successive collisions create average volumetric solid-solid drag force between different granular phases (of different particle sizes). The derivation of the mathematical formula for this drag force is based on the homogeneity of mixture within the calculational control volume. This assumption especially fails when the size ratio of particles grows to a large value of 10 or greater. The size-driven inhomogeneity is responsible to the deviation of intergranular force from the continuum formula. In this paper, we have implemented discrete element method (DEM) simulations to obtain the volumetric mean force exchanged between the granular phases with the size ratios greater than 10. First, the force is calculated directly from DEM averaged over a proper time window. Second, the continuum formula is applied to calculate the drag forces using the DEM quantities. We have shown the two volumetric forces are in good agreement as long as the homogeneity condition is maintained. However, the relative motion of larger particles in a cloud of finer particles imposes the inhomogeneous distribution of finer particles around the larger ones. We have presented correction factors to the volumetric force from continuum formula.

19. Public Opinion Polls, Chicken Soup and Sample Size

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nguyen, Phung

2005-01-01

Cooking and tasting chicken soup in three different pots of very different size serves to demonstrate that it is the absolute sample size that matters the most in determining the accuracy of the findings of the poll, not the relative sample size, i.e. the size of the sample in relation to its population.

20. A modified approach to estimating sample size for simple logistic regression with one continuous covariate.

PubMed

Novikov, I; Fund, N; Freedman, L S

2010-01-15

Different methods for the calculation of sample size for simple logistic regression (LR) with one normally distributed continuous covariate give different results. Sometimes the difference can be large. Furthermore, some methods require the user to specify the prevalence of cases when the covariate equals its population mean, rather than the more natural population prevalence. We focus on two commonly used methods and show through simulations that the power for a given sample size may differ substantially from the nominal value for one method, especially when the covariate effect is large, while the other method performs poorly if the user provides the population prevalence instead of the required parameter. We propose a modification of the method of Hsieh et al. that requires specification of the population prevalence and that employs Schouten's sample size formula for a t-test with unequal variances and group sizes. This approach appears to increase the accuracy of the sample size estimates for LR with one continuous covariate.

1. Random Evolutionary Dynamics Driven by Fitness and House-of-Cards Mutations: Sampling Formulae

Huillet, Thierry E.

2017-07-01

We first revisit the multi-allelic mutation-fitness balance problem, especially when mutations obey a house of cards condition, where the discrete-time deterministic evolutionary dynamics of the allelic frequencies derives from a Shahshahani potential. We then consider multi-allelic Wright-Fisher stochastic models whose deviation to neutrality is from the Shahshahani mutation/selection potential. We next focus on the weak selection, weak mutation cases and, making use of a Gamma calculus, we compute the normalizing partition functions of the invariant probability densities appearing in their Wright-Fisher diffusive approximations. Using these results, generalized Ewens sampling formulae (ESF) from the equilibrium distributions are derived. We start treating the ESF in the mixed mutation/selection potential case and then we restrict ourselves to the ESF in the simpler house-of-cards mutations only situation. We also address some issues concerning sampling problems from infinitely-many alleles weak limits.

2. Designing image segmentation studies: Statistical power, sample size and reference standard quality.

PubMed

Gibson, Eli; Hu, Yipeng; Huisman, Henkjan J; Barratt, Dean C

2017-12-01

Segmentation algorithms are typically evaluated by comparison to an accepted reference standard. The cost of generating accurate reference standards for medical image segmentation can be substantial. Since the study cost and the likelihood of detecting a clinically meaningful difference in accuracy both depend on the size and on the quality of the study reference standard, balancing these trade-offs supports the efficient use of research resources. In this work, we derive a statistical power calculation that enables researchers to estimate the appropriate sample size to detect clinically meaningful differences in segmentation accuracy (i.e. the proportion of voxels matching the reference standard) between two algorithms. Furthermore, we derive a formula to relate reference standard errors to their effect on the sample sizes of studies using lower-quality (but potentially more affordable and practically available) reference standards. The accuracy of the derived sample size formula was estimated through Monte Carlo simulation, demonstrating, with 95% confidence, a predicted statistical power within 4% of simulated values across a range of model parameters. This corresponds to sample size errors of less than 4 subjects and errors in the detectable accuracy difference less than 0.6%. The applicability of the formula to real-world data was assessed using bootstrap resampling simulations for pairs of algorithms from the PROMISE12 prostate MR segmentation challenge data set. The model predicted the simulated power for the majority of algorithm pairs within 4% for simulated experiments using a high-quality reference standard and within 6% for simulated experiments using a low-quality reference standard. A case study, also based on the PROMISE12 data, illustrates using the formulae to evaluate whether to use a lower-quality reference standard in a prostate segmentation study. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

3. The Correlation Between Actual Uncuffed Endotracheal Tube Size, the Diameter of the Distal Digit of the Little Finger and the Penlington Formula

DTIC Science & Technology

1990-01-01

Uncuffed Endotracheal Tube Size, the Diameter of the Distal Digit of the Little Finger and the Penlington Formula 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Roy H. Fukuoka 13a...BETWEEN ACTUAL UNCUFFED ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE SIZE, THE DIAMETER OF THE DISTAL DIGIT OF THE LITTLE FINGER AND THE PENLINGTON FORMULA By Roy H. Fukuoka May... PENLINGTON FORMULA A THESIS PROPOSAL Presented to the Department of Nursing California State University, Long Beach In Partial Fulfillment of the

4. The Relationship between Sample Sizes and Effect Sizes in Systematic Reviews in Education

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Slavin, Robert; Smith, Dewi

2009-01-01

Research in fields other than education has found that studies with small sample sizes tend to have larger effect sizes than those with large samples. This article examines the relationship between sample size and effect size in education. It analyzes data from 185 studies of elementary and secondary mathematics programs that met the standards of…

5. A note on sample size calculation for mean comparisons based on noncentral t-statistics.

PubMed

Chow, Shein-Chung; Shao, Jun; Wang, Hansheng

2002-11-01

One-sample and two-sample t-tests are commonly used in analyzing data from clinical trials in comparing mean responses from two drug products. During the planning stage of a clinical study, a crucial step is the sample size calculation, i.e., the determination of the number of subjects (patients) needed to achieve a desired power (e.g., 80%) for detecting a clinically meaningful difference in the mean drug responses. Based on noncentral t-distributions, we derive some sample size calculation formulas for testing equality, testing therapeutic noninferiority/superiority, and testing therapeutic equivalence, under the popular one-sample design, two-sample parallel design, and two-sample crossover design. Useful tables are constructed and some examples are given for illustration.

6. Sample size adjustments for varying cluster sizes in cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes analyzed with second-order PQL mixed logistic regression.

PubMed

Candel, Math J J M; Van Breukelen, Gerard J P

2010-06-30

Adjustments of sample size formulas are given for varying cluster sizes in cluster randomized trials with a binary outcome when testing the treatment effect with mixed effects logistic regression using second-order penalized quasi-likelihood estimation (PQL). Starting from first-order marginal quasi-likelihood (MQL) estimation of the treatment effect, the asymptotic relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes is derived. A Monte Carlo simulation study shows this asymptotic relative efficiency to be rather accurate for realistic sample sizes, when employing second-order PQL. An approximate, simpler formula is presented to estimate the efficiency loss due to varying cluster sizes when planning a trial. In many cases sampling 14 per cent more clusters is sufficient to repair the efficiency loss due to varying cluster sizes. Since current closed-form formulas for sample size calculation are based on first-order MQL, planning a trial also requires a conversion factor to obtain the variance of the second-order PQL estimator. In a second Monte Carlo study, this conversion factor turned out to be 1.25 at most. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

7. Sample size determination for bibliographic retrieval studies

PubMed Central

Yao, Xiaomei; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Walter, Stephen D; Haynes, R Brian

2008-01-01

Background Research for developing search strategies to retrieve high-quality clinical journal articles from MEDLINE is expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this study was to determine the minimal number of high-quality articles in a journal subset that would need to be hand-searched to update or create new MEDLINE search strategies for treatment, diagnosis, and prognosis studies. Methods The desired width of the 95% confidence intervals (W) for the lowest sensitivity among existing search strategies was used to calculate the number of high-quality articles needed to reliably update search strategies. New search strategies were derived in journal subsets formed by 2 approaches: random sampling of journals and top journals (having the most high-quality articles). The new strategies were tested in both the original large journal database and in a low-yielding journal (having few high-quality articles) subset. Results For treatment studies, if W was 10% or less for the lowest sensitivity among our existing search strategies, a subset of 15 randomly selected journals or 2 top journals were adequate for updating search strategies, based on each approach having at least 99 high-quality articles. The new strategies derived in 15 randomly selected journals or 2 top journals performed well in the original large journal database. Nevertheless, the new search strategies developed using the random sampling approach performed better than those developed using the top journal approach in a low-yielding journal subset. For studies of diagnosis and prognosis, no journal subset had enough high-quality articles to achieve the expected W (10%). Conclusion The approach of randomly sampling a small subset of journals that includes sufficient high-quality articles is an efficient way to update or create search strategies for high-quality articles on therapy in MEDLINE. The concentrations of diagnosis and prognosis articles are too low for this approach. PMID:18823538

8. Optimal flexible sample size design with robust power.

PubMed

Zhang, Lanju; Cui, Lu; Yang, Bo

2016-08-30

It is well recognized that sample size determination is challenging because of the uncertainty on the treatment effect size. Several remedies are available in the literature. Group sequential designs start with a sample size based on a conservative (smaller) effect size and allow early stop at interim looks. Sample size re-estimation designs start with a sample size based on an optimistic (larger) effect size and allow sample size increase if the observed effect size is smaller than planned. Different opinions favoring one type over the other exist. We propose an optimal approach using an appropriate optimality criterion to select the best design among all the candidate designs. Our results show that (1) for the same type of designs, for example, group sequential designs, there is room for significant improvement through our optimization approach; (2) optimal promising zone designs appear to have no advantages over optimal group sequential designs; and (3) optimal designs with sample size re-estimation deliver the best adaptive performance. We conclude that to deal with the challenge of sample size determination due to effect size uncertainty, an optimal approach can help to select the best design that provides most robust power across the effect size range of interest. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

9. Sample size for post-marketing safety studies based on historical controls.

PubMed

Wu, Yu-te; Makuch, Robert W

2010-08-01

As part of a drug's entire life cycle, post-marketing studies are an important part in the identification of rare, serious adverse events. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has begun to implement new post-marketing safety mandates as a consequence of increased emphasis on safety. The purpose of this research is to provide exact sample size formula for the proposed hybrid design, based on a two-group cohort study with incorporation of historical external data. Exact sample size formula based on the Poisson distribution is developed, because the detection of rare events is our outcome of interest. Performance of exact method is compared to its approximate large-sample theory counterpart. The proposed hybrid design requires a smaller sample size compared to the standard, two-group prospective study design. In addition, the exact method reduces the number of subjects required in the treatment group by up to 30% compared to the approximate method for the study scenarios examined. The proposed hybrid design satisfies the advantages and rationale of the two-group design with smaller sample sizes generally required. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

10. Simple, Defensible Sample Sizes Based on Cost Efficiency

PubMed Central

Bacchetti, Peter; McCulloch, Charles E.; Segal, Mark R.

2009-01-01

Summary The conventional approach of choosing sample size to provide 80% or greater power ignores the cost implications of different sample size choices. Costs, however, are often impossible for investigators and funders to ignore in actual practice. Here, we propose and justify a new approach for choosing sample size based on cost efficiency, the ratio of a study’s projected scientific and/or practical value to its total cost. By showing that a study’s projected value exhibits diminishing marginal returns as a function of increasing sample size for a wide variety of definitions of study value, we are able to develop two simple choices that can be defended as more cost efficient than any larger sample size. The first is to choose the sample size that minimizes the average cost per subject. The second is to choose sample size to minimize total cost divided by the square root of sample size. This latter method is theoretically more justifiable for innovative studies, but also performs reasonably well and has some justification in other cases. For example, if projected study value is assumed to be proportional to power at a specific alternative and total cost is a linear function of sample size, then this approach is guaranteed either to produce more than 90% power or to be more cost efficient than any sample size that does. These methods are easy to implement, based on reliable inputs, and well justified, so they should be regarded as acceptable alternatives to current conventional approaches. PMID:18482055

11. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I...

12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 110 - Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... Female Members) (Sample) C Appendix C to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. C Appendix C to Part 110—Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I Zone...

13. Sample size calculations for cluster randomised crossover trials in Australian and New Zealand intensive care research.

PubMed

Arnup, Sarah J; McKenzie, Joanne E; Pilcher, David; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Forbes, Andrew B

2018-06-01

The cluster randomised crossover (CRXO) design provides an opportunity to conduct randomised controlled trials to evaluate low risk interventions in the intensive care setting. Our aim is to provide a tutorial on how to perform a sample size calculation for a CRXO trial, focusing on the meaning of the elements required for the calculations, with application to intensive care trials. We use all-cause in-hospital mortality from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database clinical registry to illustrate the sample size calculations. We show sample size calculations for a two-intervention, two 12-month period, cross-sectional CRXO trial. We provide the formulae, and examples of their use, to determine the number of intensive care units required to detect a risk ratio (RR) with a designated level of power between two interventions for trials in which the elements required for sample size calculations remain constant across all ICUs (unstratified design); and in which there are distinct groups (strata) of ICUs that differ importantly in the elements required for sample size calculations (stratified design). The CRXO design markedly reduces the sample size requirement compared with the parallel-group, cluster randomised design for the example cases. The stratified design further reduces the sample size requirement compared with the unstratified design. The CRXO design enables the evaluation of routinely used interventions that can bring about small, but important, improvements in patient care in the intensive care setting.

14. Sample size determination in combinatorial chemistry.

PubMed Central

Zhao, P L; Zambias, R; Bolognese, J A; Boulton, D; Chapman, K

1995-01-01

Combinatorial chemistry is gaining wide appeal as a technique for generating molecular diversity. Among the many combinatorial protocols, the split/recombine method is quite popular and particularly efficient at generating large libraries of compounds. In this process, polymer beads are equally divided into a series of pools and each pool is treated with a unique fragment; then the beads are recombined, mixed to uniformity, and redivided equally into a new series of pools for the subsequent couplings. The deviation from the ideal equimolar distribution of the final products is assessed by a special overall relative error, which is shown to be related to the Pearson statistic. Although the split/recombine sampling scheme is quite different from those used in analysis of categorical data, the Pearson statistic is shown to still follow a chi2 distribution. This result allows us to derive the required number of beads such that, with 99% confidence, the overall relative error is controlled to be less than a pregiven tolerable limit L1. In this paper, we also discuss another criterion, which determines the required number of beads so that, with 99% confidence, all individual relative errors are controlled to be less than a pregiven tolerable limit L2 (0 < L2 < 1). PMID:11607586

15. Sample size calculations for case-control studies

Cancer.gov

This R package can be used to calculate the required samples size for unconditional multivariate analyses of unmatched case-control studies. The sample sizes are for a scalar exposure effect, such as binary, ordinal or continuous exposures. The sample sizes can also be computed for scalar interaction effects. The analyses account for the effects of potential confounder variables that are also included in the multivariate logistic model.

16. A computer program for sample size computations for banding studies

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wilson, K.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

1989-01-01

Sample sizes necessary for estimating survival rates of banded birds, adults and young, are derived based on specified levels of precision. The banding study can be new or ongoing. The desired coefficient of variation (CV) for annual survival estimates, the CV for mean annual survival estimates, and the length of the study must be specified to compute sample sizes. A computer program is available for computation of the sample sizes, and a description of the input and output is provided.

17. Sample size determination for mediation analysis of longitudinal data.

PubMed

Pan, Haitao; Liu, Suyu; Miao, Danmin; Yuan, Ying

2018-03-27

Sample size planning for longitudinal data is crucial when designing mediation studies because sufficient statistical power is not only required in grant applications and peer-reviewed publications, but is essential to reliable research results. However, sample size determination is not straightforward for mediation analysis of longitudinal design. To facilitate planning the sample size for longitudinal mediation studies with a multilevel mediation model, this article provides the sample size required to achieve 80% power by simulations under various sizes of the mediation effect, within-subject correlations and numbers of repeated measures. The sample size calculation is based on three commonly used mediation tests: Sobel's method, distribution of product method and the bootstrap method. Among the three methods of testing the mediation effects, Sobel's method required the largest sample size to achieve 80% power. Bootstrapping and the distribution of the product method performed similarly and were more powerful than Sobel's method, as reflected by the relatively smaller sample sizes. For all three methods, the sample size required to achieve 80% power depended on the value of the ICC (i.e., within-subject correlation). A larger value of ICC typically required a larger sample size to achieve 80% power. Simulation results also illustrated the advantage of the longitudinal study design. The sample size tables for most encountered scenarios in practice have also been published for convenient use. Extensive simulations study showed that the distribution of the product method and bootstrapping method have superior performance to the Sobel's method, but the product method was recommended to use in practice in terms of less computation time load compared to the bootstrapping method. A R package has been developed for the product method of sample size determination in mediation longitudinal study design.

18. Optimal sample sizes for the design of reliability studies: power consideration.

PubMed

Shieh, Gwowen

2014-09-01

Intraclass correlation coefficients are used extensively to measure the reliability or degree of resemblance among group members in multilevel research. This study concerns the problem of the necessary sample size to ensure adequate statistical power for hypothesis tests concerning the intraclass correlation coefficient in the one-way random-effects model. In view of the incomplete and problematic numerical results in the literature, the approximate sample size formula constructed from Fisher's transformation is reevaluated and compared with an exact approach across a wide range of model configurations. These comprehensive examinations showed that the Fisher transformation method is appropriate only under limited circumstances, and therefore it is not recommended as a general method in practice. For advance design planning of reliability studies, the exact sample size procedures are fully described and illustrated for various allocation and cost schemes. Corresponding computer programs are also developed to implement the suggested algorithms.

19. Publication Bias in Psychology: A Diagnosis Based on the Correlation between Effect Size and Sample Size

PubMed Central

Kühberger, Anton; Fritz, Astrid; Scherndl, Thomas

2014-01-01

Background The p value obtained from a significance test provides no information about the magnitude or importance of the underlying phenomenon. Therefore, additional reporting of effect size is often recommended. Effect sizes are theoretically independent from sample size. Yet this may not hold true empirically: non-independence could indicate publication bias. Methods We investigate whether effect size is independent from sample size in psychological research. We randomly sampled 1,000 psychological articles from all areas of psychological research. We extracted p values, effect sizes, and sample sizes of all empirical papers, and calculated the correlation between effect size and sample size, and investigated the distribution of p values. Results We found a negative correlation of r = −.45 [95% CI: −.53; −.35] between effect size and sample size. In addition, we found an inordinately high number of p values just passing the boundary of significance. Additional data showed that neither implicit nor explicit power analysis could account for this pattern of findings. Conclusion The negative correlation between effect size and samples size, and the biased distribution of p values indicate pervasive publication bias in the entire field of psychology. PMID:25192357

20. Publication bias in psychology: a diagnosis based on the correlation between effect size and sample size.

PubMed

Kühberger, Anton; Fritz, Astrid; Scherndl, Thomas

2014-01-01

The p value obtained from a significance test provides no information about the magnitude or importance of the underlying phenomenon. Therefore, additional reporting of effect size is often recommended. Effect sizes are theoretically independent from sample size. Yet this may not hold true empirically: non-independence could indicate publication bias. We investigate whether effect size is independent from sample size in psychological research. We randomly sampled 1,000 psychological articles from all areas of psychological research. We extracted p values, effect sizes, and sample sizes of all empirical papers, and calculated the correlation between effect size and sample size, and investigated the distribution of p values. We found a negative correlation of r = -.45 [95% CI: -.53; -.35] between effect size and sample size. In addition, we found an inordinately high number of p values just passing the boundary of significance. Additional data showed that neither implicit nor explicit power analysis could account for this pattern of findings. The negative correlation between effect size and samples size, and the biased distribution of p values indicate pervasive publication bias in the entire field of psychology.

1. Effects of Calibration Sample Size and Item Bank Size on Ability Estimation in Computerized Adaptive Testing

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sahin, Alper; Weiss, David J.

2015-01-01

This study aimed to investigate the effects of calibration sample size and item bank size on examinee ability estimation in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). For this purpose, a 500-item bank pre-calibrated using the three-parameter logistic model with 10,000 examinees was simulated. Calibration samples of varying sizes (150, 250, 350, 500,…

2. Estimating population size with correlated sampling unit estimates

Treesearch

David C. Bowden; Gary C. White; Alan B. Franklin; Joseph L. Ganey

2003-01-01

Finite population sampling theory is useful in estimating total population size (abundance) from abundance estimates of each sampled unit (quadrat). We develop estimators that allow correlated quadrat abundance estimates, even for quadrats in different sampling strata. Correlated quadrat abundance estimates based on markârecapture or distance sampling methods occur...

3. 40 CFR 80.127 - Sample size guidelines.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample size guidelines. 80.127 Section 80.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Attest Engagements § 80.127 Sample size guidelines. In performing the...

4. Compared with feeding infants breast milk or cow-milk formula, soy formula feeding does not affect subsequent reproductive organ size at 5 years of age

USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

Abstract Background: Literature reports suggest that phytochemicals, such as isoflavones found in soybeans, impair reproductive function in animals and raise the possibility that consuming soy infant formula could alter hormonally sensitive organ development in children. Objective: This study compar...

5. Sample Size in Qualitative Interview Studies: Guided by Information Power.

PubMed

Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit

2015-11-27

Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is "saturation." Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose the concept "information power" to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power depends on (a) the aim of the study, (b) sample specificity, (c) use of established theory, (d) quality of dialogue, and (e) analysis strategy. We present a model where these elements of information and their relevant dimensions are related to information power. Application of this model in the planning and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

6. [Effect sizes, statistical power and sample sizes in "the Japanese Journal of Psychology"].

PubMed

Suzukawa, Yumi; Toyoda, Hideki

2012-04-01

This study analyzed the statistical power of research studies published in the "Japanese Journal of Psychology" in 2008 and 2009. Sample effect sizes and sample statistical powers were calculated for each statistical test and analyzed with respect to the analytical methods and the fields of the studies. The results show that in the fields like perception, cognition or learning, the effect sizes were relatively large, although the sample sizes were small. At the same time, because of the small sample sizes, some meaningful effects could not be detected. In the other fields, because of the large sample sizes, meaningless effects could be detected. This implies that researchers who could not get large enough effect sizes would use larger samples to obtain significant results.

7. A note on power and sample size calculations for the Kruskal-Wallis test for ordered categorical data.

PubMed

Fan, Chunpeng; Zhang, Donghui

2012-01-01

Although the Kruskal-Wallis test has been widely used to analyze ordered categorical data, power and sample size methods for this test have been investigated to a much lesser extent when the underlying multinomial distributions are unknown. This article generalizes the power and sample size procedures proposed by Fan et al. ( 2011 ) for continuous data to ordered categorical data, when estimates from a pilot study are used in the place of knowledge of the true underlying distribution. Simulations show that the proposed power and sample size formulas perform well. A myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) induced experimental autoimmunce encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse study is used to demonstrate the application of the methods.

8. Sample Size Calculations for Population Size Estimation Studies Using Multiplier Methods With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys.

PubMed

Fearon, Elizabeth; Chabata, Sungai T; Thompson, Jennifer A; Cowan, Frances M; Hargreaves, James R

2017-09-14

While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey. ©Elizabeth Fearon, Sungai T Chabata, Jennifer A Thompson, Frances M Cowan, James R Hargreaves. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 14.09.2017.

9. Sample sizes and model comparison metrics for species distribution models

Treesearch

B.B. Hanberry; H.S. He; D.C. Dey

2012-01-01

Species distribution models use small samples to produce continuous distribution maps. The question of how small a sample can be to produce an accurate model generally has been answered based on comparisons to maximum sample sizes of 200 observations or fewer. In addition, model comparisons often are made with the kappa statistic, which has become controversial....

10. Sampling strategies for estimating brook trout effective population size

Treesearch

Andrew R. Whiteley; Jason A. Coombs; Mark Hudy; Zachary Robinson; Keith H. Nislow; Benjamin H. Letcher

2012-01-01

The influence of sampling strategy on estimates of effective population size (Ne) from single-sample genetic methods has not been rigorously examined, though these methods are increasingly used. For headwater salmonids, spatially close kin association among age-0 individuals suggests that sampling strategy (number of individuals and location from...

11. Determination of the optimal sample size for a clinical trial accounting for the population size.

PubMed

Stallard, Nigel; Miller, Frank; Day, Simon; Hee, Siew Wan; Madan, Jason; Zohar, Sarah; Posch, Martin

2017-07-01

The problem of choosing a sample size for a clinical trial is a very common one. In some settings, such as rare diseases or other small populations, the large sample sizes usually associated with the standard frequentist approach may be infeasible, suggesting that the sample size chosen should reflect the size of the population under consideration. Incorporation of the population size is possible in a decision-theoretic approach either explicitly by assuming that the population size is fixed and known, or implicitly through geometric discounting of the gain from future patients reflecting the expected population size. This paper develops such approaches. Building on previous work, an asymptotic expression is derived for the sample size for single and two-arm clinical trials in the general case of a clinical trial with a primary endpoint with a distribution of one parameter exponential family form that optimizes a utility function that quantifies the cost and gain per patient as a continuous function of this parameter. It is shown that as the size of the population, N, or expected size, N∗ in the case of geometric discounting, becomes large, the optimal trial size is O(N1/2) or O(N∗1/2). The sample size obtained from the asymptotic expression is also compared with the exact optimal sample size in examples with responses with Bernoulli and Poisson distributions, showing that the asymptotic approximations can also be reasonable in relatively small sample sizes. © 2016 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

12. Neuromuscular dose-response studies: determining sample size.

PubMed

Kopman, A F; Lien, C A; Naguib, M

2011-02-01

Investigators planning dose-response studies of neuromuscular blockers have rarely used a priori power analysis to determine the minimal sample size their protocols require. Institutional Review Boards and peer-reviewed journals now generally ask for this information. This study outlines a proposed method for meeting these requirements. The slopes of the dose-response relationships of eight neuromuscular blocking agents were determined using regression analysis. These values were substituted for γ in the Hill equation. When this is done, the coefficient of variation (COV) around the mean value of the ED₅₀ for each drug is easily calculated. Using these values, we performed an a priori one-sample two-tailed t-test of the means to determine the required sample size when the allowable error in the ED₅₀ was varied from ±10-20%. The COV averaged 22% (range 15-27%). We used a COV value of 25% in determining the sample size. If the allowable error in finding the mean ED₅₀ is ±15%, a sample size of 24 is needed to achieve a power of 80%. Increasing 'accuracy' beyond this point requires increasing greater sample sizes (e.g. an 'n' of 37 for a ±12% error). On the basis of the results of this retrospective analysis, a total sample size of not less than 24 subjects should be adequate for determining a neuromuscular blocking drug's clinical potency with a reasonable degree of assurance.

13. The cost of large numbers of hypothesis tests on power, effect size and sample size.

PubMed

Lazzeroni, L C; Ray, A

2012-01-01

Advances in high-throughput biology and computer science are driving an exponential increase in the number of hypothesis tests in genomics and other scientific disciplines. Studies using current genotyping platforms frequently include a million or more tests. In addition to the monetary cost, this increase imposes a statistical cost owing to the multiple testing corrections needed to avoid large numbers of false-positive results. To safeguard against the resulting loss of power, some have suggested sample sizes on the order of tens of thousands that can be impractical for many diseases or may lower the quality of phenotypic measurements. This study examines the relationship between the number of tests on the one hand and power, detectable effect size or required sample size on the other. We show that once the number of tests is large, power can be maintained at a constant level, with comparatively small increases in the effect size or sample size. For example at the 0.05 significance level, a 13% increase in sample size is needed to maintain 80% power for ten million tests compared with one million tests, whereas a 70% increase in sample size is needed for 10 tests compared with a single test. Relative costs are less when measured by increases in the detectable effect size. We provide an interactive Excel calculator to compute power, effect size or sample size when comparing study designs or genome platforms involving different numbers of hypothesis tests. The results are reassuring in an era of extreme multiple testing.

14. Sample size calculation for a proof of concept study.

PubMed

Yin, Yin

2002-05-01

Sample size calculation is vital for a confirmatory clinical trial since the regulatory agencies require the probability of making Type I error to be significantly small, usually less than 0.05 or 0.025. However, the importance of the sample size calculation for studies conducted by a pharmaceutical company for internal decision making, e.g., a proof of concept (PoC) study, has not received enough attention. This article introduces a Bayesian method that identifies the information required for planning a PoC and the process of sample size calculation. The results will be presented in terms of the relationships between the regulatory requirements, the probability of reaching the regulatory requirements, the goalpost for PoC, and the sample size used for PoC.

15. The choice of sample size: a mixed Bayesian / frequentist approach.

PubMed

Pezeshk, Hamid; Nematollahi, Nader; Maroufy, Vahed; Gittins, John

2009-04-01

Sample size computations are largely based on frequentist or classical methods. In the Bayesian approach the prior information on the unknown parameters is taken into account. In this work we consider a fully Bayesian approach to the sample size determination problem which was introduced by Grundy et al. and developed by Lindley. This approach treats the problem as a decision problem and employs a utility function to find the optimal sample size of a trial. Furthermore, we assume that a regulatory authority, which is deciding on whether or not to grant a licence to a new treatment, uses a frequentist approach. We then find the optimal sample size for the trial by maximising the expected net benefit, which is the expected benefit of subsequent use of the new treatment minus the cost of the trial.

16. Relative efficiency and sample size for cluster randomized trials with variable cluster sizes.

PubMed

You, Zhiying; Williams, O Dale; Aban, Inmaculada; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Tiwari, Hemant K; Cutter, Gary

2011-02-01

The statistical power of cluster randomized trials depends on two sample size components, the number of clusters per group and the numbers of individuals within clusters (cluster size). Variable cluster sizes are common and this variation alone may have significant impact on study power. Previous approaches have taken this into account by either adjusting total sample size using a designated design effect or adjusting the number of clusters according to an assessment of the relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes. This article defines a relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes using noncentrality parameters, investigates properties of this measure, and proposes an approach for adjusting the required sample size accordingly. We focus on comparing two groups with normally distributed outcomes using t-test, and use the noncentrality parameter to define the relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes and show that statistical power depends only on this parameter for a given number of clusters. We calculate the sample size required for an unequal cluster sizes trial to have the same power as one with equal cluster sizes. Relative efficiency based on the noncentrality parameter is straightforward to calculate and easy to interpret. It connects the required mean cluster size directly to the required sample size with equal cluster sizes. Consequently, our approach first determines the sample size requirements with equal cluster sizes for a pre-specified study power and then calculates the required mean cluster size while keeping the number of clusters unchanged. Our approach allows adjustment in mean cluster size alone or simultaneous adjustment in mean cluster size and number of clusters, and is a flexible alternative to and a useful complement to existing methods. Comparison indicated that we have defined a relative efficiency that is greater than the relative efficiency in the literature under some conditions. Our measure

17. Coalescence computations for large samples drawn from populations of time-varying sizes

PubMed Central

Polanski, Andrzej; Szczesna, Agnieszka; Garbulowski, Mateusz; Kimmel, Marek

2017-01-01

We present new results concerning probability distributions of times in the coalescence tree and expected allele frequencies for coalescent with large sample size. The obtained results are based on computational methodologies, which involve combining coalescence time scale changes with techniques of integral transformations and using analytical formulae for infinite products. We show applications of the proposed methodologies for computing probability distributions of times in the coalescence tree and their limits, for evaluation of accuracy of approximate expressions for times in the coalescence tree and expected allele frequencies, and for analysis of large human mitochondrial DNA dataset. PMID:28170404

18. Sample Size and Allocation of Effort in Point Count Sampling of Birds in Bottomland Hardwood Forests

Treesearch

Winston P. Smith; Daniel J. Twedt; Robert J. Cooper; David A. Wiedenfeld; Paul B. Hamel; Robert P. Ford

1995-01-01

To examine sample size requirements and optimum allocation of effort in point count sampling of bottomland hardwood forests, we computed minimum sample sizes from variation recorded during 82 point counts (May 7-May 16, 1992) from three localities containing three habitat types across three regions of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Also, we estimated the effect...

19. Sample size determination for equivalence assessment with multiple endpoints.

PubMed

Sun, Anna; Dong, Xiaoyu; Tsong, Yi

2014-01-01

Equivalence assessment between a reference and test treatment is often conducted by two one-sided tests (TOST). The corresponding power function and sample size determination can be derived from a joint distribution of the sample mean and sample variance. When an equivalence trial is designed with multiple endpoints, it often involves several sets of two one-sided tests. A naive approach for sample size determination in this case would select the largest sample size required for each endpoint. However, such a method ignores the correlation among endpoints. With the objective to reject all endpoints and when the endpoints are uncorrelated, the power function is the production of all power functions for individual endpoints. With correlated endpoints, the sample size and power should be adjusted for such a correlation. In this article, we propose the exact power function for the equivalence test with multiple endpoints adjusted for correlation under both crossover and parallel designs. We further discuss the differences in sample size for the naive method without and with correlation adjusted methods and illustrate with an in vivo bioequivalence crossover study with area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) as the two endpoints.

20. Rasch fit statistics and sample size considerations for polytomous data.

PubMed

Smith, Adam B; Rush, Robert; Fallowfield, Lesley J; Velikova, Galina; Sharpe, Michael

2008-05-29

Previous research on educational data has demonstrated that Rasch fit statistics (mean squares and t-statistics) are highly susceptible to sample size variation for dichotomously scored rating data, although little is known about this relationship for polytomous data. These statistics help inform researchers about how well items fit to a unidimensional latent trait, and are an important adjunct to modern psychometrics. Given the increasing use of Rasch models in health research the purpose of this study was therefore to explore the relationship between fit statistics and sample size for polytomous data. Data were collated from a heterogeneous sample of cancer patients (n = 4072) who had completed both the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Ten samples were drawn with replacement for each of eight sample sizes (n = 25 to n = 3200). The Rating and Partial Credit Models were applied and the mean square and t-fit statistics (infit/outfit) derived for each model. The results demonstrated that t-statistics were highly sensitive to sample size, whereas mean square statistics remained relatively stable for polytomous data. It was concluded that mean square statistics were relatively independent of sample size for polytomous data and that misfit to the model could be identified using published recommended ranges.

1. Rasch fit statistics and sample size considerations for polytomous data

PubMed Central

Smith, Adam B; Rush, Robert; Fallowfield, Lesley J; Velikova, Galina; Sharpe, Michael

2008-01-01

Background Previous research on educational data has demonstrated that Rasch fit statistics (mean squares and t-statistics) are highly susceptible to sample size variation for dichotomously scored rating data, although little is known about this relationship for polytomous data. These statistics help inform researchers about how well items fit to a unidimensional latent trait, and are an important adjunct to modern psychometrics. Given the increasing use of Rasch models in health research the purpose of this study was therefore to explore the relationship between fit statistics and sample size for polytomous data. Methods Data were collated from a heterogeneous sample of cancer patients (n = 4072) who had completed both the Patient Health Questionnaire – 9 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Ten samples were drawn with replacement for each of eight sample sizes (n = 25 to n = 3200). The Rating and Partial Credit Models were applied and the mean square and t-fit statistics (infit/outfit) derived for each model. Results The results demonstrated that t-statistics were highly sensitive to sample size, whereas mean square statistics remained relatively stable for polytomous data. Conclusion It was concluded that mean square statistics were relatively independent of sample size for polytomous data and that misfit to the model could be identified using published recommended ranges. PMID:18510722

2. Choosing the Best Correction Formula for the Pearson r[superscript 2] Effect Size

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Thompson, Bruce

2011-01-01

In the present Monte Carlo simulation study, the authors compared bias and precision of 7 sampling error corrections to the Pearson r[superscript 2] under 6 x 3 x 6 conditions (i.e., population ρ values of 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9, respectively; population shapes normal, skewness = kurtosis = 1, and skewness = -1.5 with kurtosis =…

3. Conservative Sample Size Determination for Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance.

PubMed

Morgan, Timothy M; Case, L Douglas

2013-07-05

In the design of a randomized clinical trial with one pre and multiple post randomized assessments of the outcome variable, one needs to account for the repeated measures in determining the appropriate sample size. Unfortunately, one seldom has a good estimate of the variance of the outcome measure, let alone the correlations among the measurements over time. We show how sample sizes can be calculated by making conservative assumptions regarding the correlations for a variety of covariance structures. The most conservative choice for the correlation depends on the covariance structure and the number of repeated measures. In the absence of good estimates of the correlations, the sample size is often based on a two-sample t-test, making the 'ultra' conservative and unrealistic assumption that there are zero correlations between the baseline and follow-up measures while at the same time assuming there are perfect correlations between the follow-up measures. Compared to the case of taking a single measurement, substantial savings in sample size can be realized by accounting for the repeated measures, even with very conservative assumptions regarding the parameters of the assumed correlation matrix. Assuming compound symmetry, the sample size from the two-sample t-test calculation can be reduced at least 44%, 56%, and 61% for repeated measures analysis of covariance by taking 2, 3, and 4 follow-up measures, respectively. The results offer a rational basis for determining a fairly conservative, yet efficient, sample size for clinical trials with repeated measures and a baseline value.

4. Causality in Statistical Power: Isomorphic Properties of Measurement, Research Design, Effect Size, and Sample Size.

PubMed

Heidel, R Eric

2016-01-01

Statistical power is the ability to detect a significant effect, given that the effect actually exists in a population. Like most statistical concepts, statistical power tends to induce cognitive dissonance in hepatology researchers. However, planning for statistical power by an a priori sample size calculation is of paramount importance when designing a research study. There are five specific empirical components that make up an a priori sample size calculation: the scale of measurement of the outcome, the research design, the magnitude of the effect size, the variance of the effect size, and the sample size. A framework grounded in the phenomenon of isomorphism, or interdependencies amongst different constructs with similar forms, will be presented to understand the isomorphic effects of decisions made on each of the five aforementioned components of statistical power.

5. Revisiting sample size: are big trials the answer?

PubMed

Lurati Buse, Giovanna A L; Botto, Fernando; Devereaux, P J

2012-07-18

The superiority of the evidence generated in randomized controlled trials over observational data is not only conditional to randomization. Randomized controlled trials require proper design and implementation to provide a reliable effect estimate. Adequate random sequence generation, allocation implementation, analyses based on the intention-to-treat principle, and sufficient power are crucial to the quality of a randomized controlled trial. Power, or the probability of the trial to detect a difference when a real difference between treatments exists, strongly depends on sample size. The quality of orthopaedic randomized controlled trials is frequently threatened by a limited sample size. This paper reviews basic concepts and pitfalls in sample-size estimation and focuses on the importance of large trials in the generation of valid evidence.

6. Sample size in psychological research over the past 30 years.

PubMed

Marszalek, Jacob M; Barber, Carolyn; Kohlhart, Julie; Holmes, Cooper B

2011-04-01

The American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Statistical Inference was formed in 1996 in response to a growing body of research demonstrating methodological issues that threatened the credibility of psychological research, and made recommendations to address them. One issue was the small, even dramatically inadequate, size of samples used in studies published by leading journals. The present study assessed the progress made since the Task Force's final report in 1999. Sample sizes reported in four leading APA journals in 1955, 1977, 1995, and 2006 were compared using nonparametric statistics, while data from the last two waves were fit to a hierarchical generalized linear growth model for more in-depth analysis. Overall, results indicate that the recommendations for increasing sample sizes have not been integrated in core psychological research, although results slightly vary by field. This and other implications are discussed in the context of current methodological critique and practice.

7. A formula for evaluating colour differences for thread sewn into fabric samples

Steder, Thorsten

SIZE: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">In-service rails can develop several types of structural defects due to fatigue and wear caused by rolling stock passing over them. Most rail defects will develop gradually over time thus permitting inspection engineers to detect them in time before final failure occurs. In the UK, certain types of severe rail defects such as tache ovales, require the fitting of emergency clamps and the imposing of an Emergency Speed Restriction (ESR) until the defects are removed. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques can be applied for the detection and continuous monitoring of defect growth therefore removing the need of imposing strict ESRs. The work reported herewith aims to develop a sound methodology for the application of AE in order to detect and subsequently monitor damage evolution in rails. To validate the potential of the AE technique, tests have been carried out under laboratory conditions on three and four-point bending samples manufactured from 260 grade rail steel. Further tests, simulating the background noise conditions caused by passing rolling stock have been carried out using special experimental setups. The crack growth events have been simulated using a pencil tip break..

8. Sample Size Calculations for Precise Interval Estimation of the Eta-Squared Effect Size

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shieh, Gwowen

2015-01-01

Analysis of variance is one of the most frequently used statistical analyses in the behavioral, educational, and social sciences, and special attention has been paid to the selection and use of an appropriate effect size measure of association in analysis of variance. This article presents the sample size procedures for precise interval estimation…

9. Confidence intervals and sample size calculations for the standardized mean difference effect size between two normal populations under heteroscedasticity.

PubMed

Shieh, G

2013-12-01

The use of effect sizes and associated confidence intervals in all empirical research has been strongly emphasized by journal publication guidelines. To help advance theory and practice in the social sciences, this article describes an improved procedure for constructing confidence intervals of the standardized mean difference effect size between two independent normal populations with unknown and possibly unequal variances. The presented approach has advantages over the existing formula in both theoretical justification and computational simplicity. In addition, simulation results show that the suggested one- and two-sided confidence intervals are more accurate in achieving the nominal coverage probability. The proposed estimation method provides a feasible alternative to the most commonly used measure of Cohen's d and the corresponding interval procedure when the assumption of homogeneous variances is not tenable. To further improve the potential applicability of the suggested methodology, the sample size procedures for precise interval estimation of the standardized mean difference are also delineated. The desired precision of a confidence interval is assessed with respect to the control of expected width and to the assurance probability of interval width within a designated value. Supplementary computer programs are developed to aid in the usefulness and implementation of the introduced techniques.

10. Sample size considerations for clinical research studies in nuclear cardiology.

PubMed

Chiuzan, Cody; West, Erin A; Duong, Jimmy; Cheung, Ken Y K; Einstein, Andrew J

2015-12-01

Sample size calculation is an important element of research design that investigators need to consider in the planning stage of the study. Funding agencies and research review panels request a power analysis, for example, to determine the minimum number of subjects needed for an experiment to be informative. Calculating the right sample size is crucial to gaining accurate information and ensures that research resources are used efficiently and ethically. The simple question "How many subjects do I need?" does not always have a simple answer. Before calculating the sample size requirements, a researcher must address several aspects, such as purpose of the research (descriptive or comparative), type of samples (one or more groups), and data being collected (continuous or categorical). In this article, we describe some of the most frequent methods for calculating the sample size with examples from nuclear cardiology research, including for t tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), non-parametric tests, correlation, Chi-squared tests, and survival analysis. For the ease of implementation, several examples are also illustrated via user-friendly free statistical software.

11. Approximate sample sizes required to estimate length distributions

USGS Publications Warehouse

Miranda, L.E.

2007-01-01

The sample sizes required to estimate fish length were determined by bootstrapping from reference length distributions. Depending on population characteristics and species-specific maximum lengths, 1-cm length-frequency histograms required 375-1,200 fish to estimate within 10% with 80% confidence, 2.5-cm histograms required 150-425 fish, proportional stock density required 75-140 fish, and mean length required 75-160 fish. In general, smaller species, smaller populations, populations with higher mortality, and simpler length statistics required fewer samples. Indices that require low sample sizes may be suitable for monitoring population status, and when large changes in length are evident, additional sampling effort may be allocated to more precisely define length status with more informative estimators. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

12. Ranked set sampling: cost and optimal set size.

PubMed

Nahhas, Ramzi W; Wolfe, Douglas A; Chen, Haiying

2002-12-01

McIntyre (1952, Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 3, 385-390) introduced ranked set sampling (RSS) as a method for improving estimation of a population mean in settings where sampling and ranking of units from the population are inexpensive when compared with actual measurement of the units. Two of the major factors in the usefulness of RSS are the set size and the relative costs of the various operations of sampling, ranking, and measurement. In this article, we consider ranking error models and cost models that enable us to assess the effect of different cost structures on the optimal set size for RSS. For reasonable cost structures, we find that the optimal RSS set sizes are generally larger than had been anticipated previously. These results will provide a useful tool for determining whether RSS is likely to lead to an improvement over simple random sampling in a given setting and, if so, what RSS set size is best to use in this case.

13. Sample-size needs for forestry herbicide trials

Treesearch

S.M. Zedaker; T.G. Gregoire; James H. Miller

1994-01-01

Forest herbicide experiments are increasingly being designed to evaluate smaller treatment differences when comparing existing effective treatments, tank mix ratios, surfactants, and new low-rate products. The ability to detect small differences in efficacy is dependent upon the relationship among sample size. type I and II error probabilities, and the coefficients of...

14. Small Sample Sizes Yield Biased Allometric Equations in Temperate Forests

PubMed Central

Duncanson, L.; Rourke, O.; Dubayah, R.

2015-01-01

Accurate quantification of forest carbon stocks is required for constraining the global carbon cycle and its impacts on climate. The accuracies of forest biomass maps are inherently dependent on the accuracy of the field biomass estimates used to calibrate models, which are generated with allometric equations. Here, we provide a quantitative assessment of the sensitivity of allometric parameters to sample size in temperate forests, focusing on the allometric relationship between tree height and crown radius. We use LiDAR remote sensing to isolate between 10,000 to more than 1,000,000 tree height and crown radius measurements per site in six U.S. forests. We find that fitted allometric parameters are highly sensitive to sample size, producing systematic overestimates of height. We extend our analysis to biomass through the application of empirical relationships from the literature, and show that given the small sample sizes used in common allometric equations for biomass, the average site-level biomass bias is ~+70% with a standard deviation of 71%, ranging from −4% to +193%. These findings underscore the importance of increasing the sample sizes used for allometric equation generation. PMID:26598233

15. An Investigation of Sample Size Splitting on ATFIND and DIMTEST

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socha, Alan; DeMars, Christine E.

2013-01-01

Modeling multidimensional test data with a unidimensional model can result in serious statistical errors, such as bias in item parameter estimates. Many methods exist for assessing the dimensionality of a test. The current study focused on DIMTEST. Using simulated data, the effects of sample size splitting for use with the ATFIND procedure for…

16. Sample Size Bias in Judgments of Perceptual Averages

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Price, Paul C.; Kimura, Nicole M.; Smith, Andrew R.; Marshall, Lindsay D.

2014-01-01

Previous research has shown that people exhibit a sample size bias when judging the average of a set of stimuli on a single dimension. The more stimuli there are in the set, the greater people judge the average to be. This effect has been demonstrated reliably for judgments of the average likelihood that groups of people will experience negative,…

17. A simple approach to power and sample size calculations in logistic regression and Cox regression models.

PubMed

Vaeth, Michael; Skovlund, Eva

2004-06-15

For a given regression problem it is possible to identify a suitably defined equivalent two-sample problem such that the power or sample size obtained for the two-sample problem also applies to the regression problem. For a standard linear regression model the equivalent two-sample problem is easily identified, but for generalized linear models and for Cox regression models the situation is more complicated. An approximately equivalent two-sample problem may, however, also be identified here. In particular, we show that for logistic regression and Cox regression models the equivalent two-sample problem is obtained by selecting two equally sized samples for which the parameters differ by a value equal to the slope times twice the standard deviation of the independent variable and further requiring that the overall expected number of events is unchanged. In a simulation study we examine the validity of this approach to power calculations in logistic regression and Cox regression models. Several different covariate distributions are considered for selected values of the overall response probability and a range of alternatives. For the Cox regression model we consider both constant and non-constant hazard rates. The results show that in general the approach is remarkably accurate even in relatively small samples. Some discrepancies are, however, found in small samples with few events and a highly skewed covariate distribution. Comparison with results based on alternative methods for logistic regression models with a single continuous covariate indicates that the proposed method is at least as good as its competitors. The method is easy to implement and therefore provides a simple way to extend the range of problems that can be covered by the usual formulas for power and sample size determination. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

18. Effects of sample size on KERNEL home range estimates

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seaman, D.E.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Kernohan, Brian J.; Brundige, Gary C.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Gitzen, Robert A.

1999-01-01

Kernel methods for estimating home range are being used increasingly in wildlife research, but the effect of sample size on their accuracy is not known. We used computer simulations of 10-200 points/home range and compared accuracy of home range estimates produced by fixed and adaptive kernels with the reference (REF) and least-squares cross-validation (LSCV) methods for determining the amount of smoothing. Simulated home ranges varied from simple to complex shapes created by mixing bivariate normal distributions. We used the size of the 95% home range area and the relative mean squared error of the surface fit to assess the accuracy of the kernel home range estimates. For both measures, the bias and variance approached an asymptote at about 50 observations/home range. The fixed kernel with smoothing selected by LSCV provided the least-biased estimates of the 95% home range area. All kernel methods produced similar surface fit for most simulations, but the fixed kernel with LSCV had the lowest frequency and magnitude of very poor estimates. We reviewed 101 papers published in The Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) between 1980 and 1997 that estimated animal home ranges. A minority of these papers used nonparametric utilization distribution (UD) estimators, and most did not adequately report sample sizes. We recommend that home range studies using kernel estimates use LSCV to determine the amount of smoothing, obtain a minimum of 30 observations per animal (but preferably a?Y50), and report sample sizes in published results.

19. Rock sampling. [method for controlling particle size distribution

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blum, P. (Inventor)

1971-01-01

A method for sampling rock and other brittle materials and for controlling resultant particle sizes is described. The method involves cutting grooves in the rock surface to provide a grouping of parallel ridges and subsequently machining the ridges to provide a powder specimen. The machining step may comprise milling, drilling, lathe cutting or the like; but a planing step is advantageous. Control of the particle size distribution is effected primarily by changing the height and width of these ridges. This control exceeds that obtainable by conventional grinding.

20. Sample size and power considerations in network meta-analysis

PubMed Central

2012-01-01

Background Network meta-analysis is becoming increasingly popular for establishing comparative effectiveness among multiple interventions for the same disease. Network meta-analysis inherits all methodological challenges of standard pairwise meta-analysis, but with increased complexity due to the multitude of intervention comparisons. One issue that is now widely recognized in pairwise meta-analysis is the issue of sample size and statistical power. This issue, however, has so far only received little attention in network meta-analysis. To date, no approaches have been proposed for evaluating the adequacy of the sample size, and thus power, in a treatment network. Findings In this article, we develop easy-to-use flexible methods for estimating the ‘effective sample size’ in indirect comparison meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. The effective sample size for a particular treatment comparison can be interpreted as the number of patients in a pairwise meta-analysis that would provide the same degree and strength of evidence as that which is provided in the indirect comparison or network meta-analysis. We further develop methods for retrospectively estimating the statistical power for each comparison in a network meta-analysis. We illustrate the performance of the proposed methods for estimating effective sample size and statistical power using data from a network meta-analysis on interventions for smoking cessation including over 100 trials. Conclusion The proposed methods are easy to use and will be of high value to regulatory agencies and decision makers who must assess the strength of the evidence supporting comparative effectiveness estimates. PMID:22992327

1. Sample size calculations for stepped wedge and cluster randomised trials: a unified approach

PubMed Central

Hemming, Karla; Taljaard, Monica

2016-01-01

Objectives To clarify and illustrate sample size calculations for the cross-sectional stepped wedge cluster randomized trial (SW-CRT) and to present a simple approach for comparing the efficiencies of competing designs within a unified framework. Study Design and Setting We summarize design effects for the SW-CRT, the parallel cluster randomized trial (CRT), and the parallel cluster randomized trial with before and after observations (CRT-BA), assuming cross-sectional samples are selected over time. We present new formulas that enable trialists to determine the required cluster size for a given number of clusters. We illustrate by example how to implement the presented design effects and give practical guidance on the design of stepped wedge studies. Results For a fixed total cluster size, the choice of study design that provides the greatest power depends on the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) and the cluster size. When the ICC is small, the CRT tends to be more efficient; when the ICC is large, the SW-CRT tends to be more efficient and can serve as an alternative design when the CRT is an infeasible design. Conclusion Our unified approach allows trialists to easily compare the efficiencies of three competing designs to inform the decision about the most efficient design in a given scenario. PMID:26344808

2. Inference and sample size calculation for clinical trials with incomplete observations of paired binary outcomes.

PubMed

Zhang, Song; Cao, Jing; Ahn, Chul

2017-02-20

We investigate the estimation of intervention effect and sample size determination for experiments where subjects are supposed to contribute paired binary outcomes with some incomplete observations. We propose a hybrid estimator to appropriately account for the mixed nature of observed data: paired outcomes from those who contribute complete pairs of observations and unpaired outcomes from those who contribute either pre-intervention or post-intervention outcomes. We theoretically prove that if incomplete data are evenly distributed between the pre-intervention and post-intervention periods, the proposed estimator will always be more efficient than the traditional estimator. A numerical research shows that when the distribution of incomplete data is unbalanced, the proposed estimator will be superior when there is moderate-to-strong positive within-subject correlation. We further derive a closed-form sample size formula to help researchers determine how many subjects need to be enrolled in such studies. Simulation results suggest that the calculated sample size maintains the empirical power and type I error under various design configurations. We demonstrate the proposed method using a real application example. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

3. Confidence intervals for the population mean tailored to small sample sizes, with applications to survey sampling.

PubMed

Rosenblum, Michael A; Laan, Mark J van der

2009-01-07

The validity of standard confidence intervals constructed in survey sampling is based on the central limit theorem. For small sample sizes, the central limit theorem may give a poor approximation, resulting in confidence intervals that are misleading. We discuss this issue and propose methods for constructing confidence intervals for the population mean tailored to small sample sizes. We present a simple approach for constructing confidence intervals for the population mean based on tail bounds for the sample mean that are correct for all sample sizes. Bernstein's inequality provides one such tail bound. The resulting confidence intervals have guaranteed coverage probability under much weaker assumptions than are required for standard methods. A drawback of this approach, as we show, is that these confidence intervals are often quite wide. In response to this, we present a method for constructing much narrower confidence intervals, which are better suited for practical applications, and that are still more robust than confidence intervals based on standard methods, when dealing with small sample sizes. We show how to extend our approaches to much more general estimation problems than estimating the sample mean. We describe how these methods can be used to obtain more reliable confidence intervals in survey sampling. As a concrete example, we construct confidence intervals using our methods for the number of violent deaths between March 2003 and July 2006 in Iraq, based on data from the study "Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: A cross sectional cluster sample survey," by Burnham et al. (2006).

4. Estimation of sample size and testing power (part 6).

PubMed

Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

2012-03-01

The design of one factor with k levels (k ≥ 3) refers to the research that only involves one experimental factor with k levels (k ≥ 3), and there is no arrangement for other important non-experimental factors. This paper introduces the estimation of sample size and testing power for quantitative data and qualitative data having a binary response variable with the design of one factor with k levels (k ≥ 3).

5. GLIMMPSE Lite: Calculating Power and Sample Size on Smartphone Devices

PubMed Central

Munjal, Aarti; Sakhadeo, Uttara R.; Muller, Keith E.; Glueck, Deborah H.; Kreidler, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

Researchers seeking to develop complex statistical applications for mobile devices face a common set of difficult implementation issues. In this work, we discuss general solutions to the design challenges. We demonstrate the utility of the solutions for a free mobile application designed to provide power and sample size calculations for univariate, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), GLIMMPSE Lite. Our design decisions provide a guide for other scientists seeking to produce statistical software for mobile platforms. PMID:25541688

6. Estimating the sample mean and standard deviation from the sample size, median, range and/or interquartile range.

PubMed

Wan, Xiang; Wang, Wenqian; Liu, Jiming; Tong, Tiejun

2014-12-19

In systematic reviews and meta-analysis, researchers often pool the results of the sample mean and standard deviation from a set of similar clinical trials. A number of the trials, however, reported the study using the median, the minimum and maximum values, and/or the first and third quartiles. Hence, in order to combine results, one may have to estimate the sample mean and standard deviation for such trials. In this paper, we propose to improve the existing literature in several directions. First, we show that the sample standard deviation estimation in Hozo et al.'s method (BMC Med Res Methodol 5:13, 2005) has some serious limitations and is always less satisfactory in practice. Inspired by this, we propose a new estimation method by incorporating the sample size. Second, we systematically study the sample mean and standard deviation estimation problem under several other interesting settings where the interquartile range is also available for the trials. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods through simulation studies for the three frequently encountered scenarios, respectively. For the first two scenarios, our method greatly improves existing methods and provides a nearly unbiased estimate of the true sample standard deviation for normal data and a slightly biased estimate for skewed data. For the third scenario, our method still performs very well for both normal data and skewed data. Furthermore, we compare the estimators of the sample mean and standard deviation under all three scenarios and present some suggestions on which scenario is preferred in real-world applications. In this paper, we discuss different approximation methods in the estimation of the sample mean and standard deviation and propose some new estimation methods to improve the existing literature. We conclude our work with a summary table (an Excel spread sheet including all formulas) that serves as a comprehensive guidance for performing meta-analysis in different

7. Geometrical characteristics of sandstone with different sample sizes

Cheon, D. S.; Takahashi, M., , Dr

2017-12-01

In many rock engineering projects such as CO2 underground storage, engineering geothermal system, it is important things to understand the fluid flow behavior in the deep geological conditions. This fluid flow is generally affected by the geometrical characteristics of rock, especially porous media. Furthermore, physical properties in rock may depend on the existence of voids space in rock. Total porosity and pore size distribution can be measured by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry and the other geometrical and spatial information of pores can be obtained through micro-focus X-ray CT. Using the micro-focus X-ray CT, we obtained the extracted void space and transparent image from the original CT voxel images of with different sample sizes like 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm cubes. The test samples are Berea sandstone and Otway sandstone. The former is well-known sandstone and it is used for the standard sample to compared to the result from the Otway sandstone. Otway sandstone was obtained from the CO2CRC Otway pilot site for the CO2 geosequestraion project. From the X-ray scan and ExFACT software, we get the informations including effective pore radii, coordination number, tortuosity and effective throat/pore radius ratio etc. The geometrical information analysis showed that for Berea sandstone and Otway sandstone, there is rarely differences with different sample sizes and total value of coordination number show high porosity, the tortuosity of Berea sandstone is higher than the Otway sandstone. In the future, these information will be used for the permeability of the samples.

8. Size Matters: FTIR Spectral Analysis of Apollo Regolith Samples Exhibits Grain Size Dependence.

Martin, Dayl; Joy, Katherine; Pernet-Fisher, John; Wogelius, Roy; Morlok, Andreas; Hiesinger, Harald

2017-04-01

The Mercury Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) on the upcoming BepiColombo mission is designed to analyse the surface of Mercury in thermal infrared wavelengths (7-14 μm) to investigate the physical properties of the surface materials [1]. Laboratory analyses of analogue materials are useful for investigating how various sample properties alter the resulting infrared spectrum. Laboratory FTIR analysis of Apollo fine (<1mm) soil samples 14259,672, 15401,147, and 67481,96 have provided an insight into how grain size, composition, maturity (i.e., exposure to space weathering processes), and proportion of glassy material affect their average infrared spectra. Each of these samples was analysed as a bulk sample and five size fractions: <25, 25-63, 63-125, 125-250, and <250 μm. Sample 14259,672 is a highly mature highlands regolith with a large proportion of agglutinates [2]. The high agglutinate content (>60%) causes a 'flattening' of the spectrum, with reduced reflectance in the Reststrahlen Band region (RB) as much as 30% in comparison to samples that are dominated by a high proportion of crystalline material. Apollo 15401,147 is an immature regolith with a high proportion of volcanic glass pyroclastic beads [2]. The high mafic mineral content results in a systematic shift in the Christiansen Feature (CF - the point of lowest reflectance) to longer wavelength: 8.6 μm. The glass beads dominate the spectrum, displaying a broad peak around the main Si-O stretch band (at 10.8 μm). As such, individual mineral components of this sample cannot be resolved from the average spectrum alone. Apollo 67481,96 is a sub-mature regolith composed dominantly of anorthite plagioclase [2]. The CF position of the average spectrum is shifted to shorter wavelengths (8.2 μm) due to the higher proportion of felsic minerals. Its average spectrum is dominated by anorthite reflectance bands at 8.7, 9.1, 9.8, and 10.8 μm. The average reflectance is greater than the other samples due to

9. Sample size of the reference sample in a case-augmented study.

PubMed

Ghosh, Palash; Dewanji, Anup

2017-05-01

The case-augmented study, in which a case sample is augmented with a reference (random) sample from the source population with only covariates information known, is becoming popular in different areas of applied science such as pharmacovigilance, ecology, and econometrics. In general, the case sample is available from some source (for example, hospital database, case registry, etc.); however, the reference sample is required to be drawn from the corresponding source population. The required minimum size of the reference sample is an important issue in this regard. In this work, we address the minimum sample size calculation and discuss related issues. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

10. Assessing the precision of a time-sampling-based study among GPs: balancing sample size and measurement frequency.

PubMed

van Hassel, Daniël; van der Velden, Lud; de Bakker, Dinny; van der Hoek, Lucas; Batenburg, Ronald

2017-12-04

Our research is based on a technique for time sampling, an innovative method for measuring the working hours of Dutch general practitioners (GPs), which was deployed in an earlier study. In this study, 1051 GPs were questioned about their activities in real time by sending them one SMS text message every 3 h during 1 week. The required sample size for this study is important for health workforce planners to know if they want to apply this method to target groups who are hard to reach or if fewer resources are available. In this time-sampling method, however, standard power analyses is not sufficient for calculating the required sample size as this accounts only for sample fluctuation and not for the fluctuation of measurements taken from every participant. We investigated the impact of the number of participants and frequency of measurements per participant upon the confidence intervals (CIs) for the hours worked per week. Statistical analyses of the time-use data we obtained from GPs were performed. Ninety-five percent CIs were calculated, using equations and simulation techniques, for various different numbers of GPs included in the dataset and for various frequencies of measurements per participant. Our results showed that the one-tailed CI, including sample and measurement fluctuation, decreased from 21 until 3 h between one and 50 GPs. As a result of the formulas to calculate CIs, the increase of the precision continued and was lower with the same additional number of GPs. Likewise, the analyses showed how the number of participants required decreased if more measurements per participant were taken. For example, one measurement per 3-h time slot during the week requires 300 GPs to achieve a CI of 1 h, while one measurement per hour requires 100 GPs to obtain the same result. The sample size needed for time-use research based on a time-sampling technique depends on the design and aim of the study. In this paper, we showed how the precision of the

11. Experimental design, power and sample size for animal reproduction experiments.

PubMed

Chapman, Phillip L; Seidel, George E

2008-01-01

The present paper concerns statistical issues in the design of animal reproduction experiments, with emphasis on the problems of sample size determination and power calculations. We include examples and non-technical discussions aimed at helping researchers avoid serious errors that may invalidate or seriously impair the validity of conclusions from experiments. Screen shots from interactive power calculation programs and basic SAS power calculation programs are presented to aid in understanding statistical power and computing power in some common experimental situations. Practical issues that are common to most statistical design problems are briefly discussed. These include one-sided hypothesis tests, power level criteria, equality of within-group variances, transformations of response variables to achieve variance equality, optimal specification of treatment group sizes, 'post hoc' power analysis and arguments for the increased use of confidence intervals in place of hypothesis tests.

12. Variance Estimation, Design Effects, and Sample Size Calculations for Respondent-Driven Sampling

PubMed Central

2006-01-01

Hidden populations, such as injection drug users and sex workers, are central to a number of public health problems. However, because of the nature of these groups, it is difficult to collect accurate information about them, and this difficulty complicates disease prevention efforts. A recently developed statistical approach called respondent-driven sampling improves our ability to study hidden populations by allowing researchers to make unbiased estimates of the prevalence of certain traits in these populations. Yet, not enough is known about the sample-to-sample variability of these prevalence estimates. In this paper, we present a bootstrap method for constructing confidence intervals around respondent-driven sampling estimates and demonstrate in simulations that it outperforms the naive method currently in use. We also use simulations and real data to estimate the design effects for respondent-driven sampling in a number of situations. We conclude with practical advice about the power calculations that are needed to determine the appropriate sample size for a study using respondent-driven sampling. In general, we recommend a sample size twice as large as would be needed under simple random sampling. PMID:16937083

13. Fast determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling procedure

López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

2007-01-01

A procedure for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas using slurried samples is described. Suspensions prepared in a medium containing 50% v/v concentrated hydrogen peroxide, 1% v/v concentrated nitric acid, 10% m/v glucose, 5% m/v sucrose and 100 mg l - 1 of potassium were introduced directly into the furnace. For the honey samples, multiple injection of the sample was necessary. The modifier selected was a mixture of 20 μg palladium and 5 μg magnesium nitrate, which was injected after the sample and before proceeding with the drying and calcination steps. Calibration was performed using aqueous standards prepared in the same suspension medium and the graph was linear between 5 and 80 mg l - 1 of phosphorus. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained by the new developed method with those found when using a reference spectrophotometric method after a mineralization step, and by analyzing several certified reference materials.

14. Automated sampling assessment for molecular simulations using the effective sample size

PubMed Central

Zhang, Xin; Bhatt, Divesh; Zuckerman, Daniel M.

2010-01-01

To quantify the progress in the development of algorithms and forcefields used in molecular simulations, a general method for the assessment of the sampling quality is needed. Statistical mechanics principles suggest the populations of physical states characterize equilibrium sampling in a fundamental way. We therefore develop an approach for analyzing the variances in state populations, which quantifies the degree of sampling in terms of the effective sample size (ESS). The ESS estimates the number of statistically independent configurations contained in a simulated ensemble. The method is applicable to both traditional dynamics simulations as well as more modern (e.g., multi–canonical) approaches. Our procedure is tested in a variety of systems from toy models to atomistic protein simulations. We also introduce a simple automated procedure to obtain approximate physical states from dynamic trajectories: this allows sample–size estimation in systems for which physical states are not known in advance. PMID:21221418

15. Actual distribution of Cronobacter spp. in industrial batches of powdered infant formula and consequences for performance of sampling strategies.

PubMed

Jongenburger, I; Reij, M W; Boer, E P J; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

2011-11-15

The actual spatial distribution of microorganisms within a batch of food influences the results of sampling for microbiological testing when this distribution is non-homogeneous. In the case of pathogens being non-homogeneously distributed, it markedly influences public health risk. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Cronobacter spp. in powdered infant formula (PIF) on industrial batch-scale for both a recalled batch as well a reference batch. Additionally, local spatial occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter cells was assessed, as well as the performance of typical sampling strategies to determine the presence of the microorganisms. The concentration of Cronobacter spp. was assessed in the course of the filling time of each batch, by taking samples of 333 g using the most probable number (MPN) enrichment technique. The occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter spp. cells was investigated by plate counting. From the recalled batch, 415 MPN samples were drawn. The expected heterogeneous distribution of Cronobacter spp. could be quantified from these samples, which showed no detectable level (detection limit of -2.52 log CFU/g) in 58% of samples, whilst in the remainder concentrations were found to be between -2.52 and 2.75 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the recalled batch was -2.78 log CFU/g and a standard deviation of 1.10 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the reference batch was -4.41 log CFU/g, with 99% of the 93 samples being below the detection limit. In the recalled batch, clusters of cells occurred sporadically in 8 out of 2290 samples of 1g taken. The two largest clusters contained 123 (2.09 log CFU/g) and 560 (2.75 log CFU/g) cells. Various sampling strategies were evaluated for the recalled batch. Taking more and smaller samples and keeping the total sampling weight constant, considerably improved the performance of the sampling plans to detect such a type of contaminated batch. Compared to random sampling

16. On sample size and different interpretations of snow stability datasets

Schirmer, M.; Mitterer, C.; Schweizer, J.

2009-04-01

Interpretations of snow stability variations need an assessment of the stability itself, independent of the scale investigated in the study. Studies on stability variations at a regional scale have often chosen stability tests such as the Rutschblock test or combinations of various tests in order to detect differences in aspect and elevation. The question arose: ‘how capable are such stability interpretations in drawing conclusions'. There are at least three possible errors sources: (i) the variance of the stability test itself; (ii) the stability variance at an underlying slope scale, and (iii) that the stability interpretation might not be directly related to the probability of skier triggering. Various stability interpretations have been proposed in the past that provide partly different results. We compared a subjective one based on expert knowledge with a more objective one based on a measure derived from comparing skier-triggered slopes vs. slopes that have been skied but not triggered. In this study, the uncertainties are discussed and their effects on regional scale stability variations will be quantified in a pragmatic way. An existing dataset with very large sample sizes was revisited. This dataset contained the variance of stability at a regional scale for several situations. The stability in this dataset was determined using the subjective interpretation scheme based on expert knowledge. The question to be answered was how many measurements were needed to obtain similar results (mainly stability differences in aspect or elevation) as with the complete dataset. The optimal sample size was obtained in several ways: (i) assuming a nominal data scale the sample size was determined with a given test, significance level and power, and by calculating the mean and standard deviation of the complete dataset. With this method it can also be determined if the complete dataset consists of an appropriate sample size. (ii) Smaller subsets were created with similar

17. Effect of gage size on the measurement of local heat flux. [formulas for determining gage averaging errors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baumeister, K. J.; Papell, S. S.

1973-01-01

General formulas are derived for determining gage averaging errors of strip-type heat flux meters used in the measurement of one-dimensional heat flux distributions. In addition, a correction procedure is presented which allows a better estimate for the true value of the local heat flux. As an example of the technique, the formulas are applied to the cases of heat transfer to air slot jets impinging on flat and concave surfaces. It is shown that for many practical problems, the use of very small heat flux gages is often unnecessary.

18. Sample size for positive and negative predictive value in diagnostic research using case–control designs

PubMed Central

Steinberg, David M.; Fine, Jason; Chappell, Rick

2009-01-01

Important properties of diagnostic methods are their sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV). These methods are typically assessed via case–control samples, which include one cohort of cases known to have the disease and a second control cohort of disease-free subjects. Such studies give direct estimates of sensitivity and specificity but only indirect estimates of PPV and NPV, which also depend on the disease prevalence in the tested population. The motivating example arises in assay testing, where usage is contemplated in populations with known prevalences. Further instances include biomarker development, where subjects are selected from a population with known prevalence and assessment of PPV and NPV is crucial, and the assessment of diagnostic imaging procedures for rare diseases, where case–control studies may be the only feasible designs. We develop formulas for optimal allocation of the sample between the case and control cohorts and for computing sample size when the goal of the study is to prove that the test procedure exceeds pre-stated bounds for PPV and/or NPV. Surprisingly, the optimal sampling schemes for many purposes are highly unbalanced, even when information is desired on both PPV and NPV. PMID:18556677

19. Infant Formula

MedlinePlus

... doctor will probably recommend a formula made from cow’s milk. Some formulas are iron-fortified. This means ... formulas are made from soy milk instead of cow’s milk. If your baby seems to be allergic ...

20. Quantum state discrimination bounds for finite sample size

SciTech Connect

Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.; Mosonyi, Milan; Mathematical Institute, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Egry Jozsef u 1., Budapest 1111

2012-12-15

In the problem of quantum state discrimination, one has to determine by measurements the state of a quantum system, based on the a priori side information that the true state is one of the two given and completely known states, {rho} or {sigma}. In general, it is not possible to decide the identity of the true state with certainty, and the optimal measurement strategy depends on whether the two possible errors (mistaking {rho} for {sigma}, or the other way around) are treated as of equal importance or not. Results on the quantum Chernoff and Hoeffding bounds and the quantum Stein'smore » lemma show that, if several copies of the system are available then the optimal error probabilities decay exponentially in the number of copies, and the decay rate is given by a certain statistical distance between {rho} and {sigma} (the Chernoff distance, the Hoeffding distances, and the relative entropy, respectively). While these results provide a complete solution to the asymptotic problem, they are not completely satisfying from a practical point of view. Indeed, in realistic scenarios one has access only to finitely many copies of a system, and therefore it is desirable to have bounds on the error probabilities for finite sample size. In this paper we provide finite-size bounds on the so-called Stein errors, the Chernoff errors, the Hoeffding errors, and the mixed error probabilities related to the Chernoff and the Hoeffding errors.« less

1. Enhancing sampling design in mist-net bat surveys by accounting for sample size optimization.

PubMed

Trevelin, Leonardo Carreira; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Colas-Rosas, Paul François; Benathar, Thayse Cristhina Melo; Peres, Carlos A

2017-01-01

The advantages of mist-netting, the main technique used in Neotropical bat community studies to date, include logistical implementation, standardization and sampling representativeness. Nonetheless, study designs still have to deal with issues of detectability related to how different species behave and use the environment. Yet there is considerable sampling heterogeneity across available studies in the literature. Here, we approach the problem of sample size optimization. We evaluated the common sense hypothesis that the first six hours comprise the period of peak night activity for several species, thereby resulting in a representative sample for the whole night. To this end, we combined re-sampling techniques, species accumulation curves, threshold analysis, and community concordance of species compositional data, and applied them to datasets of three different Neotropical biomes (Amazonia, Atlantic Forest and Cerrado). We show that the strategy of restricting sampling to only six hours of the night frequently results in incomplete sampling representation of the entire bat community investigated. From a quantitative standpoint, results corroborated the existence of a major Sample Area effect in all datasets, although for the Amazonia dataset the six-hour strategy was significantly less species-rich after extrapolation, and for the Cerrado dataset it was more efficient. From the qualitative standpoint, however, results demonstrated that, for all three datasets, the identity of species that are effectively sampled will be inherently impacted by choices of sub-sampling schedule. We also propose an alternative six-hour sampling strategy (at the beginning and the end of a sample night) which performed better when resampling Amazonian and Atlantic Forest datasets on bat assemblages. Given the observed magnitude of our results, we propose that sample representativeness has to be carefully weighed against study objectives, and recommend that the trade-off between

2. Enhancing sampling design in mist-net bat surveys by accounting for sample size optimization

PubMed Central

Trevelin, Leonardo Carreira; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Colas-Rosas, Paul François; Benathar, Thayse Cristhina Melo; Peres, Carlos A.

2017-01-01

The advantages of mist-netting, the main technique used in Neotropical bat community studies to date, include logistical implementation, standardization and sampling representativeness. Nonetheless, study designs still have to deal with issues of detectability related to how different species behave and use the environment. Yet there is considerable sampling heterogeneity across available studies in the literature. Here, we approach the problem of sample size optimization. We evaluated the common sense hypothesis that the first six hours comprise the period of peak night activity for several species, thereby resulting in a representative sample for the whole night. To this end, we combined re-sampling techniques, species accumulation curves, threshold analysis, and community concordance of species compositional data, and applied them to datasets of three different Neotropical biomes (Amazonia, Atlantic Forest and Cerrado). We show that the strategy of restricting sampling to only six hours of the night frequently results in incomplete sampling representation of the entire bat community investigated. From a quantitative standpoint, results corroborated the existence of a major Sample Area effect in all datasets, although for the Amazonia dataset the six-hour strategy was significantly less species-rich after extrapolation, and for the Cerrado dataset it was more efficient. From the qualitative standpoint, however, results demonstrated that, for all three datasets, the identity of species that are effectively sampled will be inherently impacted by choices of sub-sampling schedule. We also propose an alternative six-hour sampling strategy (at the beginning and the end of a sample night) which performed better when resampling Amazonian and Atlantic Forest datasets on bat assemblages. Given the observed magnitude of our results, we propose that sample representativeness has to be carefully weighed against study objectives, and recommend that the trade-off between

3. MEPAG Recommendations for a 2018 Mars Sample Return Caching Lander - Sample Types, Number, and Sizes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Allen, Carlton C.

2011-01-01

The return to Earth of geological and atmospheric samples from the surface of Mars is among the highest priority objectives of planetary science. The MEPAG Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (MEPAG E2E-iSAG) was chartered to propose scientific objectives and priorities for returned sample science, and to map out the implications of these priorities, including for the proposed joint ESA-NASA 2018 mission that would be tasked with the crucial job of collecting and caching the samples. The E2E-iSAG identified four overarching scientific aims that relate to understanding: (A) the potential for life and its pre-biotic context, (B) the geologic processes that have affected the martian surface, (C) planetary evolution of Mars and its atmosphere, (D) potential for future human exploration. The types of samples deemed most likely to achieve the science objectives are, in priority order: (1A). Subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments (1B). Hydrothermally altered rocks or low temperature fluid-altered rocks (equal priority) (2). Unaltered igneous rocks (3). Regolith, including airfall dust (4). Present-day atmosphere and samples of sedimentary-igneous rocks containing ancient trapped atmosphere Collection of geologically well-characterized sample suites would add considerable value to interpretations of all collected rocks. To achieve this, the total number of rock samples should be about 30-40. In order to evaluate the size of individual samples required to meet the science objectives, the E2E-iSAG reviewed the analytical methods that would likely be applied to the returned samples by preliminary examination teams, for planetary protection (i.e., life detection, biohazard assessment) and, after distribution, by individual investigators. It was concluded that sample size should be sufficient to perform all high-priority analyses in triplicate. In keeping with long-established curatorial practice of extraterrestrial material, at least 40% by

4. 7 CFR 51.1406 - Sample for grade or size determination.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

..., AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Sample for Grade Or Size Determination § 51.1406 Sample for grade or size determination. Each sample shall consist of 100 pecans. The...

5. Analysis of Sample Size, Counting Time, and Plot Size from an Avian Point Count Survey on Hoosier National Forest, Indiana

Treesearch

Frank R. Thompson; Monica J. Schwalbach

1995-01-01

We report results of a point count survey of breeding birds on Hoosier National Forest in Indiana. We determined sample size requirements to detect differences in means and the effects of count duration and plot size on individual detection rates. Sample size requirements ranged from 100 to >1000 points with Type I and II error rates of <0.1 and 0.2. Sample...

6. Sample size and allocation of effort in point count sampling of birds in bottomland hardwood forests

USGS Publications Warehouse

Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.; Cooper, R.J.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Hamel, P.B.; Ford, R.P.; Ralph, C. John; Sauer, John R.; Droege, Sam

1995-01-01

To examine sample size requirements and optimum allocation of effort in point count sampling of bottomland hardwood forests, we computed minimum sample sizes from variation recorded during 82 point counts (May 7-May 16, 1992) from three localities containing three habitat types across three regions of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Also, we estimated the effect of increasing the number of points or visits by comparing results of 150 four-minute point counts obtained from each of four stands on Delta Experimental Forest (DEF) during May 8-May 21, 1991 and May 30-June 12, 1992. For each stand, we obtained bootstrap estimates of mean cumulative number of species each year from all possible combinations of six points and six visits. ANOVA was used to model cumulative species as a function of number of points visited, number of visits to each point, and interaction of points and visits. There was significant variation in numbers of birds and species between regions and localities (nested within region); neither habitat, nor the interaction between region and habitat, was significant. For a = 0.05 and a = 0.10, minimum sample size estimates (per factor level) varied by orders of magnitude depending upon the observed or specified range of desired detectable difference. For observed regional variation, 20 and 40 point counts were required to accommodate variability in total individuals (MSE = 9.28) and species (MSE = 3.79), respectively, whereas ? 25 percent of the mean could be achieved with five counts per factor level. Sample size sufficient to detect actual differences of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) was >200, whereas the Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) required <10 counts. Differences in mean cumulative species were detected among number of points visited and among number of visits to a point. In the lower MAV, mean cumulative species increased with each added point through five points and with each additional visit through four visits

7. Considerations for throughfall chemistry sample-size determination

Treesearch

Pamela J. Edwards; Paul Mohai; Howard G. Halverson; David R. DeWalle

1989-01-01

Both the number of trees sampled per species and the number of sampling points under each tree are important throughfall sampling considerations. Chemical loadings obtained from an urban throughfall study were used to evaluate the relative importance of both of these sampling factors in tests for determining species' differences. Power curves for detecting...

8. Evaluation of Pump Pulsation in Respirable Size-Selective Sampling: Part II. Changes in Sampling Efficiency

PubMed Central

Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M.; Harper, Martin

2015-01-01

This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

9. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part II. Changes in sampling efficiency.

PubMed

Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M; Harper, Martin

2014-01-01

This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

10. 14CO2 analysis of soil gas: Evaluation of sample size limits and sampling devices

Wotte, Anja; Wischhöfer, Philipp; Wacker, Lukas; Rethemeyer, Janet

2017-12-01

Radiocarbon (14C) analysis of CO2 respired from soils or sediments is a valuable tool to identify different carbon sources. The collection and processing of the CO2, however, is challenging and prone to contamination. We thus continuously improve our handling procedures and present a refined method for the collection of even small amounts of CO2 in molecular sieve cartridges (MSCs) for accelerator mass spectrometry 14C analysis. Using a modified vacuum rig and an improved desorption procedure, we were able to increase the CO2 recovery from the MSC (95%) as well as the sample throughput compared to our previous study. By processing series of different sample size, we show that our MSCs can be used for CO2 samples of as small as 50 μg C. The contamination by exogenous carbon determined in these laboratory tests, was less than 2.0 μg C from fossil and less than 3.0 μg C from modern sources. Additionally, we tested two sampling devices for the collection of CO2 samples released from soils or sediments, including a respiration chamber and a depth sampler, which are connected to the MSC. We obtained a very promising, low process blank for the entire CO2 sampling and purification procedure of ∼0.004 F14C (equal to 44,000 yrs BP) and ∼0.003 F14C (equal to 47,000 yrs BP). In contrast to previous studies, we observed no isotopic fractionation towards lighter δ13C values during the passive sampling with the depth samplers.

11. A U-statistics based approach to sample size planning of two-arm trials with discrete outcome criterion aiming to establish either superiority or noninferiority.

PubMed

Wellek, Stefan

2017-02-28

In current practice, the most frequently applied approach to the handling of ties in the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon (MWW) test is based on the conditional distribution of the sum of mid-ranks, given the observed pattern of ties. Starting from this conditional version of the testing procedure, a sample size formula was derived and investigated by Zhao et al. (Stat Med 2008). In contrast, the approach we pursue here is a nonconditional one exploiting explicit representations for the variances of and the covariance between the two U-statistics estimators involved in the Mann-Whitney form of the test statistic. The accuracy of both ways of approximating the sample sizes required for attaining a prespecified level of power in the MWW test for superiority with arbitrarily tied data is comparatively evaluated by means of simulation. The key qualitative conclusions to be drawn from these numerical comparisons are as follows: With the sample sizes calculated by means of the respective formula, both versions of the test maintain the level and the prespecified power with about the same degree of accuracy. Despite the equivalence in terms of accuracy, the sample size estimates obtained by means of the new formula are in many cases markedly lower than that calculated for the conditional test. Perhaps, a still more important advantage of the nonconditional approach based on U-statistics is that it can be also adopted for noninferiority trials. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

12. Measurement of prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production in [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text].

PubMed

2017-01-01

This paper reports the measurement of [Formula: see text] meson production in proton-proton ([Formula: see text]) and proton-lead ([Formula: see text]) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of [Formula: see text] by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The data samples used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 28[Formula: see text] and 35[Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions, respectively. Prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] mesons, the latter produced in the decay of [Formula: see text] hadrons, are measured in their dimuon decay channels. Differential cross sections are measured in the transverse momentum range of [Formula: see text], and center-of-mass rapidity ranges of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The nuclear modification factor, [Formula: see text], is measured as a function of both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Small modifications to the [Formula: see text] cross sections are observed in [Formula: see text] relative to [Formula: see text] collisions. The ratio of [Formula: see text] production cross sections in [Formula: see text]-going and Pb-going directions, [Formula: see text], studied as functions of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], shows a significant decrease for increasing transverse energy deposited at large pseudorapidities. These results, which cover a wide kinematic range, provide new insight on the role of cold nuclear matter effects on prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production.

13. Comparing Server Energy Use and Efficiency Using Small Sample Sizes

SciTech Connect

Coles, Henry C.; Qin, Yong; Price, Phillip N.

This report documents a demonstration that compared the energy consumption and efficiency of a limited sample size of server-type IT equipment from different manufacturers by measuring power at the server power supply power cords. The results are specific to the equipment and methods used. However, it is hoped that those responsible for IT equipment selection can used the methods described to choose models that optimize energy use efficiency. The demonstration was conducted in a data center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. It was performed with five servers of similar mechanical and electronic specifications; three from Intel andmore » one each from Dell and Supermicro. Server IT equipment is constructed using commodity components, server manufacturer-designed assemblies, and control systems. Server compute efficiency is constrained by the commodity component specifications and integration requirements. The design freedom, outside of the commodity component constraints, provides room for the manufacturer to offer a product with competitive efficiency that meets market needs at a compelling price. A goal of the demonstration was to compare and quantify the server efficiency for three different brands. The efficiency is defined as the average compute rate (computations per unit of time) divided by the average energy consumption rate. The research team used an industry standard benchmark software package to provide a repeatable software load to obtain the compute rate and provide a variety of power consumption levels. Energy use when the servers were in an idle state (not providing computing work) were also measured. At high server compute loads, all brands, using the same key components (processors and memory), had similar results; therefore, from these results, it could not be concluded that one brand is more efficient than the other brands. The test results show that the power consumption variability caused by the key components

14. Infant formulas

MedlinePlus

... to 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... than 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

15. On Using a Pilot Sample Variance for Sample Size Determination in the Detection of Differences between Two Means: Power Consideration

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shieh, Gwowen

2013-01-01

The a priori determination of a proper sample size necessary to achieve some specified power is an important problem encountered frequently in practical studies. To establish the needed sample size for a two-sample "t" test, researchers may conduct the power analysis by specifying scientifically important values as the underlying population means…

16. Alternative sample sizes for verification dose experiments and dose audits

Taylor, W. A.; Hansen, J. M.

1999-01-01

ISO 11137 (1995), "Sterilization of Health Care Products—Requirements for Validation and Routine Control—Radiation Sterilization", provides sampling plans for performing initial verification dose experiments and quarterly dose audits. Alternative sampling plans are presented which provide equivalent protection. These sampling plans can significantly reduce the cost of testing. These alternative sampling plans have been included in a draft ISO Technical Report (type 2). This paper examines the rational behind the proposed alternative sampling plans. The protection provided by the current verification and audit sampling plans is first examined. Then methods for identifying equivalent plans are highlighted. Finally, methods for comparing the cost associated with the different plans are provided. This paper includes additional guidance for selecting between the original and alternative sampling plans not included in the technical report.

17. Optimality, sample size, and power calculations for the sequential parallel comparison design.

PubMed

Ivanova, Anastasia; Qaqish, Bahjat; Schoenfeld, David A

2011-10-15

The sequential parallel comparison design (SPCD) has been proposed to increase the likelihood of success of clinical trials in therapeutic areas where high-placebo response is a concern. The trial is run in two stages, and subjects are randomized into three groups: (i) placebo in both stages; (ii) placebo in the first stage and drug in the second stage; and (iii) drug in both stages. We consider the case of binary response data (response/no response). In the SPCD, all first-stage and second-stage data from placebo subjects who failed to respond in the first stage of the trial are utilized in the efficacy analysis. We develop 1 and 2 degree of freedom score tests for treatment effect in the SPCD. We give formulae for asymptotic power and for sample size computations and evaluate their accuracy via simulation studies. We compute the optimal allocation ratio between drug and placebo in stage 1 for the SPCD to determine from a theoretical viewpoint whether a single-stage design, a two-stage design with placebo only in the first stage, or a two-stage design is the best design for a given set of response rates. As response rates are not known before the trial, a two-stage approach with allocation to active drug in both stages is a robust design choice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

18. A contemporary decennial global sample of changing agricultural field sizes

White, E.; Roy, D. P.

2011-12-01

In the last several hundred years agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) with dramatic cropland expansion and a marked increase in agricultural productivity. The size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLUC. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, diffusion of disease pathogens and pests, and loss or degradation in buffers to nutrient, herbicide and pesticide flows. In this study, globally distributed locations with significant contemporary field size change were selected guided by a global map of agricultural yield and literature review and were selected to be representative of different driving forces of field size change (associated with technological innovation, socio-economic conditions, government policy, historic patterns of land cover land use, and environmental setting). Seasonal Landsat data acquired on a decadal basis (for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were used to extract field boundaries and the temporal changes in field size quantified and their causes discussed.

19. Determining Sample Size for Accurate Estimation of the Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Algina, James; Olejnik, Stephen

2000-01-01

Discusses determining sample size for estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient and presents regression equations that permit determination of the sample size for estimating this parameter for up to 20 predictor variables. (SLD)

20. 7 CFR 201.43 - Size of sample.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... examination: (a) Two ounces (57 grams) of grass seed not otherwise mentioned, white or alsike clover, or seeds not larger than these. (b) Five ounces (142 grams) of red or crimson clover, alfalfa, lespedeza, ryegrass, bromegrass, millet, flax, rape, or seeds of similar size. (c) One pound (454 grams) of sudangrass...

1. 7 CFR 201.43 - Size of sample.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... examination: (a) Two ounces (57 grams) of grass seed not otherwise mentioned, white or alsike clover, or seeds not larger than these. (b) Five ounces (142 grams) of red or crimson clover, alfalfa, lespedeza, ryegrass, bromegrass, millet, flax, rape, or seeds of similar size. (c) One pound (454 grams) of sudangrass...

2. 7 CFR 201.43 - Size of sample.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... examination: (a) Two ounces (57 grams) of grass seed not otherwise mentioned, white or alsike clover, or seeds not larger than these. (b) Five ounces (142 grams) of red or crimson clover, alfalfa, lespedeza, ryegrass, bromegrass, millet, flax, rape, or seeds of similar size. (c) One pound (454 grams) of sudangrass...

3. 7 CFR 201.43 - Size of sample.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... examination: (a) Two ounces (57 grams) of grass seed not otherwise mentioned, white or alsike clover, or seeds not larger than these. (b) Five ounces (142 grams) of red or crimson clover, alfalfa, lespedeza, ryegrass, bromegrass, millet, flax, rape, or seeds of similar size. (c) One pound (454 grams) of sudangrass...

4. 7 CFR 201.43 - Size of sample.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... examination: (a) Two ounces (57 grams) of grass seed not otherwise mentioned, white or alsike clover, or seeds not larger than these. (b) Five ounces (142 grams) of red or crimson clover, alfalfa, lespedeza, ryegrass, bromegrass, millet, flax, rape, or seeds of similar size. (c) One pound (454 grams) of sudangrass...

5. 7 CFR 52.775 - Sample unit size.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... material)—100 cherries. (c) Harmless extraneous material—The total contents of each container in the sample...

6. 7 CFR 52.775 - Sample unit size.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... extraneous material—The total contents of each container in the sample. Factors of Quality ...

7. 7 CFR 52.775 - Sample unit size.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... material)—100 cherries. (c) Harmless extraneous material—The total contents of each container in the sample...

8. 7 CFR 52.775 - Sample unit size.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... extraneous material—The total contents of each container in the sample. Factors of Quality ...

9. 7 CFR 52.775 - Sample unit size.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... extraneous material—The total contents of each container in the sample. Factors of Quality ...

10. Validating a biometric authentication system: sample size requirements.

PubMed

Dass, Sarat C; Zhu, Yongfang; Jain, Anil K

2006-12-01

Authentication systems based on biometric features (e.g., fingerprint impressions, iris scans, human face images, etc.) are increasingly gaining widespread use and popularity. Often, vendors and owners of these commercial biometric systems claim impressive performance that is estimated based on some proprietary data. In such situations, there is a need to independently validate the claimed performance levels. System performance is typically evaluated by collecting biometric templates from n different subjects, and for convenience, acquiring multiple instances of the biometric for each of the n subjects. Very little work has been done in 1) constructing confidence regions based on the ROC curve for validating the claimed performance levels and 2) determining the required number of biometric samples needed to establish confidence regions of prespecified width for the ROC curve. To simplify the analysis that address these two problems, several previous studies have assumed that multiple acquisitions of the biometric entity are statistically independent. This assumption is too restrictive and is generally not valid. We have developed a validation technique based on multivariate copula models for correlated biometric acquisitions. Based on the same model, we also determine the minimum number of samples required to achieve confidence bands of desired width for the ROC curve. We illustrate the estimation of the confidence bands as well as the required number of biometric samples using a fingerprint matching system that is applied on samples collected from a small population.

11. Utility of Inferential Norming with Smaller Sample Sizes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsin-Yi

2011-01-01

We examined the utility of inferential norming using small samples drawn from the larger "Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition" (WISC-IV) standardization data set. The quality of the norms was estimated with multiple indexes such as polynomial curve fit, percentage of cases receiving the same score, average absolute…

12. Body Size Regression Formulae, Proximate Composition and Energy Density of Eastern Bering Sea Mesopelagic Fish and Squid

PubMed Central

2015-01-01

The ecological significance of fish and squid of the mesopelagic zone (200 m–1000 m) is evident by their pervasiveness in the diets of a broad spectrum of upper pelagic predators including other fishes and squids, seabirds and marine mammals. As diel vertical migrators, mesopelagic micronekton are recognized as an important trophic link between the deep scattering layer and upper surface waters, yet fundamental aspects of the life history and energetic contribution to the food web for most are undescribed. Here, we present newly derived regression equations for 32 species of mesopelagic fish and squid based on the relationship between body size and the size of hard parts typically used to identify prey species in predator diet studies. We describe the proximate composition and energy density of 31 species collected in the eastern Bering Sea during May 1999 and 2000. Energy values are categorized by body size as a proxy for relative age and can be cross-referenced with the derived regression equations. Data are tabularized to facilitate direct application to predator diet studies and food web models. PMID:26287534

13. Body Size Regression Formulae, Proximate Composition and Energy Density of Eastern Bering Sea Mesopelagic Fish and Squid.

PubMed

Sinclair, Elizabeth H; Walker, William A; Thomason, James R

2015-01-01

The ecological significance of fish and squid of the mesopelagic zone (200 m-1000 m) is evident by their pervasiveness in the diets of a broad spectrum of upper pelagic predators including other fishes and squids, seabirds and marine mammals. As diel vertical migrators, mesopelagic micronekton are recognized as an important trophic link between the deep scattering layer and upper surface waters, yet fundamental aspects of the life history and energetic contribution to the food web for most are undescribed. Here, we present newly derived regression equations for 32 species of mesopelagic fish and squid based on the relationship between body size and the size of hard parts typically used to identify prey species in predator diet studies. We describe the proximate composition and energy density of 31 species collected in the eastern Bering Sea during May 1999 and 2000. Energy values are categorized by body size as a proxy for relative age and can be cross-referenced with the derived regression equations. Data are tabularized to facilitate direct application to predator diet studies and food web models.

14. Preconcentration and determination of boron in milk, infant formula, and honey samples by solid phase extraction-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

2009-02-01

This work presents alternative procedures for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of boron in milk, infant formulas, and honey samples. Honey samples (10% m/v) were diluted in a medium containing 1% v/v HNO 3 and 50% v/v H 2O 2 and introduced in the atomizer. A mixture of 20 µg Pd and 0.5 µg Mg was used for chemical modification. Calibration was carried out using aqueous solutions prepared in the same medium, in the presence of 10% m/v sucrose. The detection limit was 2 µg g - 1 , equivalent to three times the standard error of the estimate ( sy/ x) of the regression line. For both infant formulas and milk samples, due to their very low boron content, we used a procedure based on preconcentration by solid phase extraction (Amberlite IRA 743), followed by elution with 2 mol L - 1 hydrochloric acid. Detection limits were 0.03 µg g - 1 for 4% m/v honey, 0.04 µg g - 1 for 5% m/v infant formula and 0.08 µg mL - 1 for 15% v/v cow milk. We confirmed the accuracy of the procedure by comparing the obtained results with those found via a comparable independent procedure, as well by the analysis of four certified reference materials.

15. Geoscience Education Research Methods: Thinking About Sample Size

Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.; CenterAstronomy; Physics Education Research

2011-12-01

Geoscience education research is at a critical point in which conditions are sufficient to propel our field forward toward meaningful improvements in geosciences education practices. Our field has now reached a point where the outcomes of our research is deemed important to endusers and funding agencies, and where we now have a large number of scientists who are either formally trained in geosciences education research, or who have dedicated themselves to excellence in this domain. At this point we now must collectively work through our epistemology, our rules of what methodologies will be considered sufficiently rigorous, and what data and analysis techniques will be acceptable for constructing evidence. In particular, we have to work out our answer to that most difficult of research questions: "How big should my 'N' be??" This paper presents a very brief answer to that question, addressing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Research question/methodology alignment, effect size and statistical power will be discussed, in addition to a defense of the notion that bigger is not always better.

16. Observation of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays.

PubMed

Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhokhov, A; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

2017-01-01

The decays [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are observed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8[Formula: see text]. The branching fractions relative to that of [Formula: see text] are measured to be [Formula: see text]where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic.

17. A Note on Sample Size and Solution Propriety for Confirmatory Factor Analytic Models

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jackson, Dennis L.; Voth, Jennifer; Frey, Marc P.

2013-01-01

Determining an appropriate sample size for use in latent variable modeling techniques has presented ongoing challenges to researchers. In particular, small sample sizes are known to present concerns over sampling error for the variances and covariances on which model estimation is based, as well as for fit indexes and convergence failures. The…

18. Elastic moduli in nano-size samples of amorphous solids: System size dependence

Cohen, Yossi; Procaccia, Itamar

2012-08-01

This letter is motivated by some recent experiments on pan-cake-shaped nano-samples of metallic glass that indicate a decline in the measured shear modulus upon decreasing the sample radius. Similar measurements on crystalline samples of the same dimensions showed a much more modest change. In this letter we offer a theory of this phenomenon; we argue that such results are generically expected for any amorphous solid, with the main effect being related to the increased contribution of surfaces with respect to the bulk when the samples get smaller. We employ exact relations between the shear modulus and the eigenvalues of the system's Hessian matrix to explore the role of surface modes in affecting the elastic moduli.

19. Evaluation of design flood estimates with respect to sample size

Kobierska, Florian; Engeland, Kolbjorn

2016-04-01

Estimation of design floods forms the basis for hazard management related to flood risk and is a legal obligation when building infrastructure such as dams, bridges and roads close to water bodies. Flood inundation maps used for land use planning are also produced based on design flood estimates. In Norway, the current guidelines for design flood estimates give recommendations on which data, probability distribution, and method to use dependent on length of the local record. If less than 30 years of local data is available, an index flood approach is recommended where the local observations are used for estimating the index flood and regional data are used for estimating the growth curve. For 30-50 years of data, a 2 parameter distribution is recommended, and for more than 50 years of data, a 3 parameter distribution should be used. Many countries have national guidelines for flood frequency estimation, and recommended distributions include the log Pearson II, generalized logistic and generalized extreme value distributions. For estimating distribution parameters, ordinary and linear moments, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods are used. The aim of this study is to r-evaluate the guidelines for local flood frequency estimation. In particular, we wanted to answer the following questions: (i) Which distribution gives the best fit to the data? (ii) Which estimation method provides the best fit to the data? (iii) Does the answer to (i) and (ii) depend on local data availability? To answer these questions we set up a test bench for local flood frequency analysis using data based cross-validation methods. The criteria were based on indices describing stability and reliability of design flood estimates. Stability is used as a criterion since design flood estimates should not excessively depend on the data sample. The reliability indices describe to which degree design flood predictions can be trusted.

20. Sample Size in Clinical Cardioprotection Trials Using Myocardial Salvage Index, Infarct Size, or Biochemical Markers as Endpoint.

PubMed

Engblom, Henrik; Heiberg, Einar; Erlinge, David; Jensen, Svend Eggert; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Hoffmann, Pavel; Koul, Sasha; Carlsson, Marcus; Atar, Dan; Arheden, Håkan

2016-03-09

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can quantify myocardial infarct (MI) size and myocardium at risk (MaR), enabling assessment of myocardial salvage index (MSI). We assessed how MSI impacts the number of patients needed to reach statistical power in relation to MI size alone and levels of biochemical markers in clinical cardioprotection trials and how scan day affect sample size. Controls (n=90) from the recent CHILL-MI and MITOCARE trials were included. MI size, MaR, and MSI were assessed from CMR. High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CKMB) levels were assessed in CHILL-MI patients (n=50). Utilizing distribution of these variables, 100 000 clinical trials were simulated for calculation of sample size required to reach sufficient power. For a treatment effect of 25% decrease in outcome variables, 50 patients were required in each arm using MSI compared to 93, 98, 120, 141, and 143 for MI size alone, hsTnT (area under the curve [AUC] and peak), and CKMB (AUC and peak) in order to reach a power of 90%. If average CMR scan day between treatment and control arms differed by 1 day, sample size needs to be increased by 54% (77 vs 50) to avoid scan day bias masking a treatment effect of 25%. Sample size in cardioprotection trials can be reduced 46% to 65% without compromising statistical power when using MSI by CMR as an outcome variable instead of MI size alone or biochemical markers. It is essential to ensure lack of bias in scan day between treatment and control arms to avoid compromising statistical power. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

1. Caution regarding the choice of standard deviations to guide sample size calculations in clinical trials.

PubMed

Chen, Henian; Zhang, Nanhua; Lu, Xiaosun; Chen, Sophie

2013-08-01

The method used to determine choice of standard deviation (SD) is inadequately reported in clinical trials. Underestimations of the population SD may result in underpowered clinical trials. This study demonstrates how using the wrong method to determine population SD can lead to inaccurate sample sizes and underpowered studies, and offers recommendations to maximize the likelihood of achieving adequate statistical power. We review the practice of reporting sample size and its effect on the power of trials published in major journals. Simulated clinical trials were used to compare the effects of different methods of determining SD on power and sample size calculations. Prior to 1996, sample size calculations were reported in just 1%-42% of clinical trials. This proportion increased from 38% to 54% after the initial Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) was published in 1996, and from 64% to 95% after the revised CONSORT was published in 2001. Nevertheless, underpowered clinical trials are still common. Our simulated data showed that all minimal and 25th-percentile SDs fell below 44 (the population SD), regardless of sample size (from 5 to 50). For sample sizes 5 and 50, the minimum sample SDs underestimated the population SD by 90.7% and 29.3%, respectively. If only one sample was available, there was less than 50% chance that the actual power equaled or exceeded the planned power of 80% for detecting a median effect size (Cohen's d = 0.5) when using the sample SD to calculate the sample size. The proportions of studies with actual power of at least 80% were about 95%, 90%, 85%, and 80% when we used the larger SD, 80% upper confidence limit (UCL) of SD, 70% UCL of SD, and 60% UCL of SD to calculate the sample size, respectively. When more than one sample was available, the weighted average SD resulted in about 50% of trials being underpowered; the proportion of trials with power of 80% increased from 90% to 100% when the 75th percentile and the

2. A "three-in-one" sample preparation method for simultaneous determination of B-group water-soluble vitamins in infant formula using VitaFast(®) kits.

PubMed

Zhang, Heng; Lan, Fang; Shi, Yupeng; Wan, Zhi-Gang; Yue, Zhen-Feng; Fan, Fang; Lin, Yan-Kui; Tang, Mu-Jin; Lv, Jing-Zhang; Xiao, Tan; Yi, Changqing

2014-06-15

VitaFast(®) test kits designed for the microbiological assay in microtiter plate format can be applied to quantitative determination of B-group water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin B12, folic acid and biotin, et al. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, VitaFast(®) kits significantly reduce sample processing time and provide greater reliability, higher productivity and better accuracy. Recently, simultaneous determination of vitamin B12, folic acid and biotin in one sample is urgently required when evaluating the quality of infant formulae in our practical work. However, the present sample preparation protocols which are developed for individual test systems, are incompatible with simultaneous determination of several analytes. To solve this problem, a novel "three-in-one" sample preparation method is herein developed for simultaneous determination of B-group water-soluble vitamins using VitaFast(®) kits. The performance of this novel "three-in-one" sample preparation method was systematically evaluated through comparing with individual sample preparation protocols. The experimental results of the assays which employed "three-in-one" sample preparation method were in good agreement with those obtained from conventional VitaFast(®) extraction methods, indicating that the proposed "three-in-one" sample preparation method is applicable to the present three VitaFast(®) vitamin test systems, thus offering a promising alternative for the three independent sample preparation methods. The proposed new sample preparation method will significantly improve the efficiency of infant formulae inspection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

3. Breaking Free of Sample Size Dogma to Perform Innovative Translational Research

PubMed Central

Bacchetti, Peter; Deeks, Steven G.; McCune, Joseph M.

2011-01-01

Innovative clinical and translational research is often delayed or prevented by reviewers’ expectations that any study performed in humans must be shown in advance to have high statistical power. This supposed requirement is not justifiable and is contradicted by the reality that increasing sample size produces diminishing marginal returns. Studies of new ideas often must start small (sometimes even with an N of 1) because of cost and feasibility concerns, and recent statistical work shows that small sample sizes for such research can produce more projected scientific value per dollar spent than larger sample sizes. Renouncing false dogma about sample size would remove a serious barrier to innovation and translation. PMID:21677197

4. [Formal sample size calculation and its limited validity in animal studies of medical basic research].

PubMed

Mayer, B; Muche, R

2013-01-01

Animal studies are highly relevant for basic medical research, although their usage is discussed controversially in public. Thus, an optimal sample size for these projects should be aimed at from a biometrical point of view. Statistical sample size calculation is usually the appropriate methodology in planning medical research projects. However, required information is often not valid or only available during the course of an animal experiment. This article critically discusses the validity of formal sample size calculation for animal studies. Within the discussion, some requirements are formulated to fundamentally regulate the process of sample size determination for animal experiments.

5. Sampling bee communities using pan traps: alternative methods increase sample size

USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

Monitoring of the status of bee populations and inventories of bee faunas require systematic sampling. Efficiency and ease of implementation has encouraged the use of pan traps to sample bees. Efforts to find an optimal standardized sampling method for pan traps have focused on pan trap color. Th...

6. Sample Size for Measuring Grammaticality in Preschool Children from Picture-Elicited Language Samples

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu

2015-01-01

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a shorter language sample elicited with fewer pictures (i.e., 7) would yield a percent grammatical utterances (PGU) score similar to that computed from a longer language sample elicited with 15 pictures for 3-year-old children. Method: Language samples were elicited by asking forty…

7. Distribution of the two-sample t-test statistic following blinded sample size re-estimation.

PubMed

Lu, Kaifeng

2016-05-01

We consider the blinded sample size re-estimation based on the simple one-sample variance estimator at an interim analysis. We characterize the exact distribution of the standard two-sample t-test statistic at the final analysis. We describe a simulation algorithm for the evaluation of the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis at given treatment effect. We compare the blinded sample size re-estimation method with two unblinded methods with respect to the empirical type I error, the empirical power, and the empirical distribution of the standard deviation estimator and final sample size. We characterize the type I error inflation across the range of standardized non-inferiority margin for non-inferiority trials, and derive the adjusted significance level to ensure type I error control for given sample size of the internal pilot study. We show that the adjusted significance level increases as the sample size of the internal pilot study increases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

8. Reporting of sample size calculations in analgesic clinical trials: ACTTION systematic review.

PubMed

McKeown, Andrew; Gewandter, Jennifer S; McDermott, Michael P; Pawlowski, Joseph R; Poli, Joseph J; Rothstein, Daniel; Farrar, John T; Gilron, Ian; Katz, Nathaniel P; Lin, Allison H; Rappaport, Bob A; Rowbotham, Michael C; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H; Smith, Shannon M

2015-03-01

Sample size calculations determine the number of participants required to have sufficiently high power to detect a given treatment effect. In this review, we examined the reporting quality of sample size calculations in 172 publications of double-blind randomized controlled trials of noninvasive pharmacologic or interventional (ie, invasive) pain treatments published in European Journal of Pain, Journal of Pain, and Pain from January 2006 through June 2013. Sixty-five percent of publications reported a sample size calculation but only 38% provided all elements required to replicate the calculated sample size. In publications reporting at least 1 element, 54% provided a justification for the treatment effect used to calculate sample size, and 24% of studies with continuous outcome variables justified the variability estimate. Publications of clinical pain condition trials reported a sample size calculation more frequently than experimental pain model trials (77% vs 33%, P < .001) but did not differ in the frequency of reporting all required elements. No significant differences in reporting of any or all elements were detected between publications of trials with industry and nonindustry sponsorship. Twenty-eight percent included a discrepancy between the reported number of planned and randomized participants. This study suggests that sample size calculation reporting in analgesic trial publications is usually incomplete. Investigators should provide detailed accounts of sample size calculations in publications of clinical trials of pain treatments, which is necessary for reporting transparency and communication of pre-trial design decisions. In this systematic review of analgesic clinical trials, sample size calculations and the required elements (eg, treatment effect to be detected; power level) were incompletely reported. A lack of transparency regarding sample size calculations may raise questions about the appropriateness of the calculated sample size. Copyright

9. Accounting for twin births in sample size calculations for randomised trials.

PubMed

Yelland, Lisa N; Sullivan, Thomas R; Collins, Carmel T; Price, David J; McPhee, Andrew J; Lee, Katherine J

2018-05-04

Including twins in randomised trials leads to non-independence or clustering in the data. Clustering has important implications for sample size calculations, yet few trials take this into account. Estimates of the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC), or the correlation between outcomes of twins, are needed to assist with sample size planning. Our aims were to provide ICC estimates for infant outcomes, describe the information that must be specified in order to account for clustering due to twins in sample size calculations, and develop a simple tool for performing sample size calculations for trials including twins. ICCs were estimated for infant outcomes collected in four randomised trials that included twins. The information required to account for clustering due to twins in sample size calculations is described. A tool that calculates the sample size based on this information was developed in Microsoft Excel and in R as a Shiny web app. ICC estimates ranged between -0.12, indicating a weak negative relationship, and 0.98, indicating a strong positive relationship between outcomes of twins. Example calculations illustrate how the ICC estimates and sample size calculator can be used to determine the target sample size for trials including twins. Clustering among outcomes measured on twins should be taken into account in sample size calculations to obtain the desired power. Our ICC estimates and sample size calculator will be useful for designing future trials that include twins. Publication of additional ICCs is needed to further assist with sample size planning for future trials. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

10. Sample size calculation in cost-effectiveness cluster randomized trials: optimal and maximin approaches.

PubMed

Manju, Md Abu; Candel, Math J J M; Berger, Martijn P F

2014-07-10

In this paper, the optimal sample sizes at the cluster and person levels for each of two treatment arms are obtained for cluster randomized trials where the cost-effectiveness of treatments on a continuous scale is studied. The optimal sample sizes maximize the efficiency or power for a given budget or minimize the budget for a given efficiency or power. Optimal sample sizes require information on the intra-cluster correlations (ICCs) for effects and costs, the correlations between costs and effects at individual and cluster levels, the ratio of the variance of effects translated into costs to the variance of the costs (the variance ratio), sampling and measuring costs, and the budget. When planning, a study information on the model parameters usually is not available. To overcome this local optimality problem, the current paper also presents maximin sample sizes. The maximin sample sizes turn out to be rather robust against misspecifying the correlation between costs and effects at the cluster and individual levels but may lose much efficiency when misspecifying the variance ratio. The robustness of the maximin sample sizes against misspecifying the ICCs depends on the variance ratio. The maximin sample sizes are robust under misspecification of the ICC for costs for realistic values of the variance ratio greater than one but not robust under misspecification of the ICC for effects. Finally, we show how to calculate optimal or maximin sample sizes that yield sufficient power for a test on the cost-effectiveness of an intervention.

11. The attention-weighted sample-size model of visual short-term memory: Attention capture predicts resource allocation and memory load.

PubMed

Smith, Philip L; Lilburn, Simon D; Corbett, Elaine A; Sewell, David K; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

2016-09-01

We investigated the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) in a phase discrimination task that required judgments about the configural relations between pairs of black and white features. Sewell et al. (2014) previously showed that VSTM capacity in an orientation discrimination task was well described by a sample-size model, which views VSTM as a resource comprised of a finite number of noisy stimulus samples. The model predicts the invariance of [Formula: see text] , the sum of squared sensitivities across items, for displays of different sizes. For phase discrimination, the set-size effect significantly exceeded that predicted by the sample-size model for both simultaneously and sequentially presented stimuli. Instead, the set-size effect and the serial position curves with sequential presentation were predicted by an attention-weighted version of the sample-size model, which assumes that one of the items in the display captures attention and receives a disproportionate share of resources. The choice probabilities and response time distributions from the task were well described by a diffusion decision model in which the drift rates embodied the assumptions of the attention-weighted sample-size model. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

12. Weighting by Inverse Variance or by Sample Size in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marin-Martinez, Fulgencio; Sanchez-Meca, Julio

2010-01-01

Most of the statistical procedures in meta-analysis are based on the estimation of average effect sizes from a set of primary studies. The optimal weight for averaging a set of independent effect sizes is the inverse variance of each effect size, but in practice these weights have to be estimated, being affected by sampling error. When assuming a…

13. The Statistics and Mathematics of High Dimension Low Sample Size Asymptotics.

PubMed

Shen, Dan; Shen, Haipeng; Zhu, Hongtu; Marron, J S

2016-10-01

The aim of this paper is to establish several deep theoretical properties of principal component analysis for multiple-component spike covariance models. Our new results reveal an asymptotic conical structure in critical sample eigendirections under the spike models with distinguishable (or indistinguishable) eigenvalues, when the sample size and/or the number of variables (or dimension) tend to infinity. The consistency of the sample eigenvectors relative to their population counterparts is determined by the ratio between the dimension and the product of the sample size with the spike size. When this ratio converges to a nonzero constant, the sample eigenvector converges to a cone, with a certain angle to its corresponding population eigenvector. In the High Dimension, Low Sample Size case, the angle between the sample eigenvector and its population counterpart converges to a limiting distribution. Several generalizations of the multi-spike covariance models are also explored, and additional theoretical results are presented.

14. Implications of sampling design and sample size for national carbon accounting systems

Treesearch

Michael Köhl; Andrew Lister; Charles T. Scott; Thomas Baldauf; Daniel Plugge

2011-01-01

Countries willing to adopt a REDD regime need to establish a national Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system that provides information on forest carbon stocks and carbon stock changes. Due to the extensive areas covered by forests the information is generally obtained by sample based surveys. Most operational sampling approaches utilize a combination of...

15. Sample Size and Item Parameter Estimation Precision When Utilizing the One-Parameter "Rasch" Model

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Custer, Michael

2015-01-01

This study examines the relationship between sample size and item parameter estimation precision when utilizing the one-parameter model. Item parameter estimates are examined relative to "true" values by evaluating the decline in root mean squared deviation (RMSD) and the number of outliers as sample size increases. This occurs across…

16. Sample size in studies on diagnostic accuracy in ophthalmology: a literature survey.

PubMed

Bochmann, Frank; Johnson, Zoe; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

2007-07-01

To assess the sample sizes used in studies on diagnostic accuracy in ophthalmology. Design and sources: A survey literature published in 2005. The frequency of reporting calculations of sample sizes and the samples' sizes were extracted from the published literature. A manual search of five leading clinical journals in ophthalmology with the highest impact (Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Ophthalmology, Archives of Ophthalmology, American Journal of Ophthalmology and British Journal of Ophthalmology) was conducted by two independent investigators. A total of 1698 articles were identified, of which 40 studies were on diagnostic accuracy. One study reported that sample size was calculated before initiating the study. Another study reported consideration of sample size without calculation. The mean (SD) sample size of all diagnostic studies was 172.6 (218.9). The median prevalence of the target condition was 50.5%. Only a few studies consider sample size in their methods. Inadequate sample sizes in diagnostic accuracy studies may result in misleading estimates of test accuracy. An improvement over the current standards on the design and reporting of diagnostic studies is warranted.

17. Sample Size Requirements for Structural Equation Models: An Evaluation of Power, Bias, and Solution Propriety

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wolf, Erika J.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Miller, Mark W.

2013-01-01

Determining sample size requirements for structural equation modeling (SEM) is a challenge often faced by investigators, peer reviewers, and grant writers. Recent years have seen a large increase in SEMs in the behavioral science literature, but consideration of sample size requirements for applied SEMs often relies on outdated rules-of-thumb.…

18. Using the Student's "t"-Test with Extremely Small Sample Sizes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

de Winter, J. C .F.

2013-01-01

Researchers occasionally have to work with an extremely small sample size, defined herein as "N" less than or equal to 5. Some methodologists have cautioned against using the "t"-test when the sample size is extremely small, whereas others have suggested that using the "t"-test is feasible in such a case. The present…

19. Post-stratified estimation: with-in strata and total sample size recommendations

Treesearch

James A. Westfall; Paul L. Patterson; John W. Coulston

2011-01-01

Post-stratification is used to reduce the variance of estimates of the mean. Because the stratification is not fixed in advance, within-strata sample sizes can be quite small. The survey statistics literature provides some guidance on minimum within-strata sample sizes; however, the recommendations and justifications are inconsistent and apply broadly for many...

20. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E Pt. 1356, App. C Appendix C to Part 1356—Calculating Sample Size for NYTD...

1. Implications of sampling design and sample size for national carbon accounting systems.

PubMed

Köhl, Michael; Lister, Andrew; Scott, Charles T; Baldauf, Thomas; Plugge, Daniel

2011-11-08

Countries willing to adopt a REDD regime need to establish a national Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system that provides information on forest carbon stocks and carbon stock changes. Due to the extensive areas covered by forests the information is generally obtained by sample based surveys. Most operational sampling approaches utilize a combination of earth-observation data and in-situ field assessments as data sources. We compared the cost-efficiency of four different sampling design alternatives (simple random sampling, regression estimators, stratified sampling, 2-phase sampling with regression estimators) that have been proposed in the scope of REDD. Three of the design alternatives provide for a combination of in-situ and earth-observation data. Under different settings of remote sensing coverage, cost per field plot, cost of remote sensing imagery, correlation between attributes quantified in remote sensing and field data, as well as population variability and the percent standard error over total survey cost was calculated. The cost-efficiency of forest carbon stock assessments is driven by the sampling design chosen. Our results indicate that the cost of remote sensing imagery is decisive for the cost-efficiency of a sampling design. The variability of the sample population impairs cost-efficiency, but does not reverse the pattern of cost-efficiency of the individual design alternatives. Our results clearly indicate that it is important to consider cost-efficiency in the development of forest carbon stock assessments and the selection of remote sensing techniques. The development of MRV-systems for REDD need to be based on a sound optimization process that compares different data sources and sampling designs with respect to their cost-efficiency. This helps to reduce the uncertainties related with the quantification of carbon stocks and to increase the financial benefits from adopting a REDD regime.

2. Sample size determination in group-sequential clinical trials with two co-primary endpoints

PubMed Central

Asakura, Koko; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Kenichi; Evans, Scott R; Sozu, Takashi

2014-01-01

We discuss sample size determination in group-sequential designs with two endpoints as co-primary. We derive the power and sample size within two decision-making frameworks. One is to claim the test intervention’s benefit relative to control when superiority is achieved for the two endpoints at the same interim timepoint of the trial. The other is when the superiority is achieved for the two endpoints at any interim timepoint, not necessarily simultaneously. We evaluate the behaviors of sample size and power with varying design elements and provide a real example to illustrate the proposed sample size methods. In addition, we discuss sample size recalculation based on observed data and evaluate the impact on the power and Type I error rate. PMID:24676799

3. Understanding the cluster randomised crossover design: a graphical illustraton of the components of variation and a sample size tutorial.

PubMed

Arnup, Sarah J; McKenzie, Joanne E; Hemming, Karla; Pilcher, David; Forbes, Andrew B

2017-08-15

In a cluster randomised crossover (CRXO) design, a sequence of interventions is assigned to a group, or 'cluster' of individuals. Each cluster receives each intervention in a separate period of time, forming 'cluster-periods'. Sample size calculations for CRXO trials need to account for both the cluster randomisation and crossover aspects of the design. Formulae are available for the two-period, two-intervention, cross-sectional CRXO design, however implementation of these formulae is known to be suboptimal. The aims of this tutorial are to illustrate the intuition behind the design; and provide guidance on performing sample size calculations. Graphical illustrations are used to describe the effect of the cluster randomisation and crossover aspects of the design on the correlation between individual responses in a CRXO trial. Sample size calculations for binary and continuous outcomes are illustrated using parameters estimated from the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Society - Adult Patient Database (ANZICS-APD) for patient mortality and length(s) of stay (LOS). The similarity between individual responses in a CRXO trial can be understood in terms of three components of variation: variation in cluster mean response; variation in the cluster-period mean response; and variation between individual responses within a cluster-period; or equivalently in terms of the correlation between individual responses in the same cluster-period (within-cluster within-period correlation, WPC), and between individual responses in the same cluster, but in different periods (within-cluster between-period correlation, BPC). The BPC lies between zero and the WPC. When the WPC and BPC are equal the precision gained by crossover aspect of the CRXO design equals the precision lost by cluster randomisation. When the BPC is zero there is no advantage in a CRXO over a parallel-group cluster randomised trial. Sample size calculations illustrate that small changes in the specification of

4. Drying step optimization to obtain large-size transparent magnesium-aluminate spinel samples

Petit, Johan; Lallemant, Lucile

2017-05-01

In the transparent ceramics processing, the green body elaboration step is probably the most critical one. Among the known techniques, wet shaping processes are particularly interesting because they enable the particles to find an optimum position on their own. Nevertheless, the presence of water molecules leads to drying issues. During the water removal, its concentration gradient induces cracks limiting the sample size: laboratory samples are generally less damaged because of their small size but upscaling the samples for industrial applications lead to an increasing cracking probability. Thanks to the drying step optimization, large size spinel samples were obtained.

5. Two-sample binary phase 2 trials with low type I error and low sample size

PubMed Central

Litwin, Samuel; Basickes, Stanley; Ross, Eric A.

2017-01-01

Summary We address design of two-stage clinical trials comparing experimental and control patients. Our end-point is success or failure, however measured, with null hypothesis that the chance of success in both arms is p0 and alternative that it is p0 among controls and p1 > p0 among experimental patients. Standard rules will have the null hypothesis rejected when the number of successes in the (E)xperimental arm, E, sufficiently exceeds C, that among (C)ontrols. Here, we combine one-sample rejection decision rules, E ≥ m, with two-sample rules of the form E – C > r to achieve two-sample tests with low sample number and low type I error. We find designs with sample numbers not far from the minimum possible using standard two-sample rules, but with type I error of 5% rather than 15% or 20% associated with them, and of equal power. This level of type I error is achieved locally, near the stated null, and increases to 15% or 20% when the null is significantly higher than specified. We increase the attractiveness of these designs to patients by using 2:1 randomization. Examples of the application of this new design covering both high and low success rates under the null hypothesis are provided. PMID:28118686

6. Two-sample binary phase 2 trials with low type I error and low sample size.

PubMed

Litwin, Samuel; Basickes, Stanley; Ross, Eric A

2017-04-30

We address design of two-stage clinical trials comparing experimental and control patients. Our end point is success or failure, however measured, with null hypothesis that the chance of success in both arms is p 0 and alternative that it is p 0 among controls and p 1  > p 0 among experimental patients. Standard rules will have the null hypothesis rejected when the number of successes in the (E)xperimental arm, E, sufficiently exceeds C, that among (C)ontrols. Here, we combine one-sample rejection decision rules, E⩾m, with two-sample rules of the form E - C > r to achieve two-sample tests with low sample number and low type I error. We find designs with sample numbers not far from the minimum possible using standard two-sample rules, but with type I error of 5% rather than 15% or 20% associated with them, and of equal power. This level of type I error is achieved locally, near the stated null, and increases to 15% or 20% when the null is significantly higher than specified. We increase the attractiveness of these designs to patients by using 2:1 randomization. Examples of the application of this new design covering both high and low success rates under the null hypothesis are provided. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

7. Direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and solid sample analysis.

PubMed

Silva, Arlene S; Brandao, Geovani C; Matos, Geraldo D; Ferreira, Sergio L C

2015-11-01

The present work proposed an analytical method for the direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing the high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry combined with the solid sample analysis (SS-HR-CS ET AAS). Sample masses up to 2.0mg were directly weighted on a solid sampling platform and introduced into the graphite tube. In order to minimize the formation of carbonaceous residues and to improve the contact of the modifier solution with the solid sample, a volume of 10 µL of a solution containing 6% (v/v) H2O2, 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1% (v/v) HNO3 was added. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures established were 1600 and 2400 °C, respectively, using magnesium as chemical modifier. The calibration technique was evaluated by comparing the slopes of calibration curves established using aqueous and solid standards. This test revealed that chromium can be determined employing the external calibration technique using aqueous standards. Under these conditions, the method developed allows the direct determination of chromium with limit of quantification of 11.5 ng g(-1), precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 4.0-17.9% (n=3) and a characteristic mass of 1.2 pg of chromium. The accuracy was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of tomato leaves furnished by National Institute of Standards and Technology. The method proposed was applied for the determination of chromium in five different infant formula samples. The chromium content found varied in the range of 33.9-58.1 ng g(-1) (n=3). These samples were also analyzed employing ICP-MS. A statistical test demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the results found by two methods. The chromium concentrations achieved are lower than the maximum limit permissible for chromium in foods by Brazilian Legislation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

8. Sample size estimation for alternating logistic regressions analysis of multilevel randomized community trials of under-age drinking.

PubMed

Reboussin, Beth A; Preisser, John S; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

2012-07-01

Under-age drinking is an enormous public health issue in the USA. Evidence that community level structures may impact on under-age drinking has led to a proliferation of efforts to change the environment surrounding the use of alcohol. Although the focus of these efforts is to reduce drinking by individual youths, environmental interventions are typically implemented at the community level with entire communities randomized to the same intervention condition. A distinct feature of these trials is the tendency of the behaviours of individuals residing in the same community to be more alike than that of others residing in different communities, which is herein called 'clustering'. Statistical analyses and sample size calculations must account for this clustering to avoid type I errors and to ensure an appropriately powered trial. Clustering itself may also be of scientific interest. We consider the alternating logistic regressions procedure within the population-averaged modelling framework to estimate the effect of a law enforcement intervention on the prevalence of under-age drinking behaviours while modelling the clustering at multiple levels, e.g. within communities and within neighbourhoods nested within communities, by using pairwise odds ratios. We then derive sample size formulae for estimating intervention effects when planning a post-test-only or repeated cross-sectional community-randomized trial using the alternating logistic regressions procedure.

9. Detecting spatial structures in throughfall data: the effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and variogram estimation method

Voss, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Beate; Zimmermann, Alexander

2016-04-01

In the last three decades, an increasing number of studies analyzed spatial patterns in throughfall to investigate the consequences of rainfall redistribution for biogeochemical and hydrological processes in forests. In the majority of cases, variograms were used to characterize the spatial properties of the throughfall data. The estimation of the variogram from sample data requires an appropriate sampling scheme: most importantly, a large sample and an appropriate layout of sampling locations that often has to serve both variogram estimation and geostatistical prediction. While some recommendations on these aspects exist, they focus on Gaussian data and high ratios of the variogram range to the extent of the study area. However, many hydrological data, and throughfall data in particular, do not follow a Gaussian distribution. In this study, we examined the effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and calculation methods on variogram estimation of throughfall data. For our investigation, we first generated non-Gaussian random fields based on throughfall data with heavy outliers. Subsequently, we sampled the fields with three extents (plots with edge lengths of 25 m, 50 m, and 100 m), four common sampling designs (two grid-based layouts, transect and random sampling), and five sample sizes (50, 100, 150, 200, 400). We then estimated the variogram parameters by method-of-moments and residual maximum likelihood. Our key findings are threefold. First, the choice of the extent has a substantial influence on the estimation of the variogram. A comparatively small ratio of the extent to the correlation length is beneficial for variogram estimation. Second, a combination of a minimum sample size of 150, a design that ensures the sampling of small distances and variogram estimation by residual maximum likelihood offers a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency. Third, studies relying on method-of-moments based variogram estimation may have to employ at least

10. Detecting spatial structures in throughfall data: The effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and variogram estimation method

Voss, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Beate; Zimmermann, Alexander

2016-09-01

In the last decades, an increasing number of studies analyzed spatial patterns in throughfall by means of variograms. The estimation of the variogram from sample data requires an appropriate sampling scheme: most importantly, a large sample and a layout of sampling locations that often has to serve both variogram estimation and geostatistical prediction. While some recommendations on these aspects exist, they focus on Gaussian data and high ratios of the variogram range to the extent of the study area. However, many hydrological data, and throughfall data in particular, do not follow a Gaussian distribution. In this study, we examined the effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and calculation method on variogram estimation of throughfall data. For our investigation, we first generated non-Gaussian random fields based on throughfall data with large outliers. Subsequently, we sampled the fields with three extents (plots with edge lengths of 25 m, 50 m, and 100 m), four common sampling designs (two grid-based layouts, transect and random sampling) and five sample sizes (50, 100, 150, 200, 400). We then estimated the variogram parameters by method-of-moments (non-robust and robust estimators) and residual maximum likelihood. Our key findings are threefold. First, the choice of the extent has a substantial influence on the estimation of the variogram. A comparatively small ratio of the extent to the correlation length is beneficial for variogram estimation. Second, a combination of a minimum sample size of 150, a design that ensures the sampling of small distances and variogram estimation by residual maximum likelihood offers a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency. Third, studies relying on method-of-moments based variogram estimation may have to employ at least 200 sampling points for reliable variogram estimates. These suggested sample sizes exceed the number recommended by studies dealing with Gaussian data by up to 100 %. Given that most previous

11. Speeding Up Non-Parametric Bootstrap Computations for Statistics Based on Sample Moments in Small/Moderate Sample Size Applications

PubMed Central

Chaibub Neto, Elias

2015-01-01

In this paper we propose a vectorized implementation of the non-parametric bootstrap for statistics based on sample moments. Basically, we adopt the multinomial sampling formulation of the non-parametric bootstrap, and compute bootstrap replications of sample moment statistics by simply weighting the observed data according to multinomial counts instead of evaluating the statistic on a resampled version of the observed data. Using this formulation we can generate a matrix of bootstrap weights and compute the entire vector of bootstrap replications with a few matrix multiplications. Vectorization is particularly important for matrix-oriented programming languages such as R, where matrix/vector calculations tend to be faster than scalar operations implemented in a loop. We illustrate the application of the vectorized implementation in real and simulated data sets, when bootstrapping Pearson’s sample correlation coefficient, and compared its performance against two state-of-the-art R implementations of the non-parametric bootstrap, as well as a straightforward one based on a for loop. Our investigations spanned varying sample sizes and number of bootstrap replications. The vectorized bootstrap compared favorably against the state-of-the-art implementations in all cases tested, and was remarkably/considerably faster for small/moderate sample sizes. The same results were observed in the comparison with the straightforward implementation, except for large sample sizes, where the vectorized bootstrap was slightly slower than the straightforward implementation due to increased time expenditures in the generation of weight matrices via multinomial sampling. PMID:26125965

12. The effect of clustering on lot quality assurance sampling: a probabilistic model to calculate sample sizes for quality assessments

PubMed Central

2013-01-01

Background Traditional Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) designs assume observations are collected using simple random sampling. Alternatively, randomly sampling clusters of observations and then individuals within clusters reduces costs but decreases the precision of the classifications. In this paper, we develop a general framework for designing the cluster(C)-LQAS system and illustrate the method with the design of data quality assessments for the community health worker program in Rwanda. Results To determine sample size and decision rules for C-LQAS, we use the beta-binomial distribution to account for inflated risk of errors introduced by sampling clusters at the first stage. We present general theory and code for sample size calculations. The C-LQAS sample sizes provided in this paper constrain misclassification risks below user-specified limits. Multiple C-LQAS systems meet the specified risk requirements, but numerous considerations, including per-cluster versus per-individual sampling costs, help identify optimal systems for distinct applications. Conclusions We show the utility of C-LQAS for data quality assessments, but the method generalizes to numerous applications. This paper provides the necessary technical detail and supplemental code to support the design of C-LQAS for specific programs. PMID:24160725

13. The effect of clustering on lot quality assurance sampling: a probabilistic model to calculate sample sizes for quality assessments.

PubMed

Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Mitsunaga, Tisha; Hund, Lauren; Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello

2013-10-26

Traditional Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) designs assume observations are collected using simple random sampling. Alternatively, randomly sampling clusters of observations and then individuals within clusters reduces costs but decreases the precision of the classifications. In this paper, we develop a general framework for designing the cluster(C)-LQAS system and illustrate the method with the design of data quality assessments for the community health worker program in Rwanda. To determine sample size and decision rules for C-LQAS, we use the beta-binomial distribution to account for inflated risk of errors introduced by sampling clusters at the first stage. We present general theory and code for sample size calculations.The C-LQAS sample sizes provided in this paper constrain misclassification risks below user-specified limits. Multiple C-LQAS systems meet the specified risk requirements, but numerous considerations, including per-cluster versus per-individual sampling costs, help identify optimal systems for distinct applications. We show the utility of C-LQAS for data quality assessments, but the method generalizes to numerous applications. This paper provides the necessary technical detail and supplemental code to support the design of C-LQAS for specific programs.

14. The endothelial sample size analysis in corneal specular microscopy clinical examinations.

PubMed

Abib, Fernando C; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Schaefer, Artur; Schaefer, Tania; Godois, Ronialci

2012-05-01

To evaluate endothelial cell sample size and statistical error in corneal specular microscopy (CSM) examinations. One hundred twenty examinations were conducted with 4 types of corneal specular microscopes: 30 with each BioOptics, CSO, Konan, and Topcon corneal specular microscopes. All endothelial image data were analyzed by respective instrument software and also by the Cells Analyzer software with a method developed in our lab. A reliability degree (RD) of 95% and a relative error (RE) of 0.05 were used as cut-off values to analyze images of the counted endothelial cells called samples. The sample size mean was the number of cells evaluated on the images obtained with each device. Only examinations with RE < 0.05 were considered statistically correct and suitable for comparisons with future examinations. The Cells Analyzer software was used to calculate the RE and customized sample size for all examinations. Bio-Optics: sample size, 97 ± 22 cells; RE, 6.52 ± 0.86; only 10% of the examinations had sufficient endothelial cell quantity (RE < 0.05); customized sample size, 162 ± 34 cells. CSO: sample size, 110 ± 20 cells; RE, 5.98 ± 0.98; only 16.6% of the examinations had sufficient endothelial cell quantity (RE < 0.05); customized sample size, 157 ± 45 cells. Konan: sample size, 80 ± 27 cells; RE, 10.6 ± 3.67; none of the examinations had sufficient endothelial cell quantity (RE > 0.05); customized sample size, 336 ± 131 cells. Topcon: sample size, 87 ± 17 cells; RE, 10.1 ± 2.52; none of the examinations had sufficient endothelial cell quantity (RE > 0.05); customized sample size, 382 ± 159 cells. A very high number of CSM examinations had sample errors based on Cells Analyzer software. The endothelial sample size (examinations) needs to include more cells to be reliable and reproducible. The Cells Analyzer tutorial routine will be useful for CSM examination reliability and reproducibility.

15. Sample size determination for estimating antibody seroconversion rate under stable malaria transmission intensity.

PubMed

Sepúlveda, Nuno; Drakeley, Chris

2015-04-03

In the last decade, several epidemiological studies have demonstrated the potential of using seroprevalence (SP) and seroconversion rate (SCR) as informative indicators of malaria burden in low transmission settings or in populations on the cusp of elimination. However, most of studies are designed to control ensuing statistical inference over parasite rates and not on these alternative malaria burden measures. SP is in essence a proportion and, thus, many methods exist for the respective sample size determination. In contrast, designing a study where SCR is the primary endpoint, is not an easy task because precision and statistical power are affected by the age distribution of a given population. Two sample size calculators for SCR estimation are proposed. The first one consists of transforming the confidence interval for SP into the corresponding one for SCR given a known seroreversion rate (SRR). The second calculator extends the previous one to the most common situation where SRR is unknown. In this situation, data simulation was used together with linear regression in order to study the expected relationship between sample size and precision. The performance of the first sample size calculator was studied in terms of the coverage of the confidence intervals for SCR. The results pointed out to eventual problems of under or over coverage for sample sizes ≤250 in very low and high malaria transmission settings (SCR ≤ 0.0036 and SCR ≥ 0.29, respectively). The correct coverage was obtained for the remaining transmission intensities with sample sizes ≥ 50. Sample size determination was then carried out for cross-sectional surveys using realistic SCRs from past sero-epidemiological studies and typical age distributions from African and non-African populations. For SCR < 0.058, African studies require a larger sample size than their non-African counterparts in order to obtain the same precision. The opposite happens for the remaining transmission

16. Estimating the size of hidden populations using respondent-driven sampling data: Case examples from Morocco

PubMed Central

Johnston, Lisa G; McLaughlin, Katherine R; Rhilani, Houssine El; Latifi, Amina; Toufik, Abdalla; Bennani, Aziza; Alami, Kamal; Elomari, Boutaina; Handcock, Mark S

2015-01-01

Background Respondent-driven sampling is used worldwide to estimate the population prevalence of characteristics such as HIV/AIDS and associated risk factors in hard-to-reach populations. Estimating the total size of these populations is of great interest to national and international organizations, however reliable measures of population size often do not exist. Methods Successive Sampling-Population Size Estimation (SS-PSE) along with network size imputation allows population size estimates to be made without relying on separate studies or additional data (as in network scale-up, multiplier and capture-recapture methods), which may be biased. Results Ten population size estimates were calculated for people who inject drugs, female sex workers, men who have sex with other men, and migrants from sub-Sahara Africa in six different cities in Morocco. SS-PSE estimates fell within or very close to the likely values provided by experts and the estimates from previous studies using other methods. Conclusions SS-PSE is an effective method for estimating the size of hard-to-reach populations that leverages important information within respondent-driven sampling studies. The addition of a network size imputation method helps to smooth network sizes allowing for more accurate results. However, caution should be used particularly when there is reason to believe that clustered subgroups may exist within the population of interest or when the sample size is small in relation to the population. PMID:26258908

17. Effects of sample size on estimates of population growth rates calculated with matrix models.

PubMed

Fiske, Ian J; Bruna, Emilio M; Bolker, Benjamin M

2008-08-28

Matrix models are widely used to study the dynamics and demography of populations. An important but overlooked issue is how the number of individuals sampled influences estimates of the population growth rate (lambda) calculated with matrix models. Even unbiased estimates of vital rates do not ensure unbiased estimates of lambda-Jensen's Inequality implies that even when the estimates of the vital rates are accurate, small sample sizes lead to biased estimates of lambda due to increased sampling variance. We investigated if sampling variability and the distribution of sampling effort among size classes lead to biases in estimates of lambda. Using data from a long-term field study of plant demography, we simulated the effects of sampling variance by drawing vital rates and calculating lambda for increasingly larger populations drawn from a total population of 3842 plants. We then compared these estimates of lambda with those based on the entire population and calculated the resulting bias. Finally, we conducted a review of the literature to determine the sample sizes typically used when parameterizing matrix models used to study plant demography. We found significant bias at small sample sizes when survival was low (survival = 0.5), and that sampling with a more-realistic inverse J-shaped population structure exacerbated this bias. However our simulations also demonstrate that these biases rapidly become negligible with increasing sample sizes or as survival increases. For many of the sample sizes used in demographic studies, matrix models are probably robust to the biases resulting from sampling variance of vital rates. However, this conclusion may depend on the structure of populations or the distribution of sampling effort in ways that are unexplored. We suggest more intensive sampling of populations when individual survival is low and greater sampling of stages with high elasticities.

18. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... collecting a sample. 761.286 Section 761.286 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With Â§ 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion of...

19. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... collecting a sample. 761.286 Section 761.286 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With Â§ 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion of...

20. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... collecting a sample. 761.286 Section 761.286 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With Â§ 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion of...

1. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... collecting a sample. 761.286 Section 761.286 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With Â§ 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion of...

2. Reduced Sampling Size with Nanopipette for Tapping-Mode Scanning Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

PubMed Central

Kohigashi, Tsuyoshi; Otsuka, Yoichi; Shimazu, Ryo; Matsumoto, Takuya; Iwata, Futoshi; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

2016-01-01

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with ambient sampling and ionization can rapidly and easily capture the distribution of chemical components in a solid sample. Because the spatial resolution of MSI is limited by the size of the sampling area, reducing sampling size is an important goal for high resolution MSI. Here, we report the first use of a nanopipette for sampling and ionization by tapping-mode scanning probe electrospray ionization (t-SPESI). The spot size of the sampling area of a dye molecular film on a glass substrate was decreased to 6 μm on average by using a nanopipette. On the other hand, ionization efficiency increased with decreasing solvent flow rate. Our results indicate the compatibility between a reduced sampling area and the ionization efficiency using a nanopipette. MSI of micropatterns of ink on a glass and a polymer substrate were also demonstrated. PMID:28101441

3. Sample size determinations for group-based randomized clinical trials with different levels of data hierarchy between experimental and control arms.

PubMed

Heo, Moonseong; Litwin, Alain H; Blackstock, Oni; Kim, Namhee; Arnsten, Julia H

2017-02-01

We derived sample size formulae for detecting main effects in group-based randomized clinical trials with different levels of data hierarchy between experimental and control arms. Such designs are necessary when experimental interventions need to be administered to groups of subjects whereas control conditions need to be administered to individual subjects. This type of trial, often referred to as a partially nested or partially clustered design, has been implemented for management of chronic diseases such as diabetes and is beginning to emerge more commonly in wider clinical settings. Depending on the research setting, the level of hierarchy of data structure for the experimental arm can be three or two, whereas that for the control arm is two or one. Such different levels of data hierarchy assume correlation structures of outcomes that are different between arms, regardless of whether research settings require two or three level data structure for the experimental arm. Therefore, the different correlations should be taken into account for statistical modeling and for sample size determinations. To this end, we considered mixed-effects linear models with different correlation structures between experimental and control arms to theoretically derive and empirically validate the sample size formulae with simulation studies.

4. Novel joint selection methods can reduce sample size for rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials with ultrasound endpoints.

PubMed

Allen, John C; Thumboo, Julian; Lye, Weng Kit; Conaghan, Philip G; Chew, Li-Ching; Tan, York Kiat

2018-03-01

To determine whether novel methods of selecting joints through (i) ultrasonography (individualized-ultrasound [IUS] method), or (ii) ultrasonography and clinical examination (individualized-composite-ultrasound [ICUS] method) translate into smaller rheumatoid arthritis (RA) clinical trial sample sizes when compared to existing methods utilizing predetermined joint sites for ultrasonography. Cohen's effect size (ES) was estimated (ES^) and a 95% CI (ES^L, ES^U) calculated on a mean change in 3-month total inflammatory score for each method. Corresponding 95% CIs [nL(ES^U), nU(ES^L)] were obtained on a post hoc sample size reflecting the uncertainty in ES^. Sample size calculations were based on a one-sample t-test as the patient numbers needed to provide 80% power at α = 0.05 to reject a null hypothesis H 0 : ES = 0 versus alternative hypotheses H 1 : ES = ES^, ES = ES^L and ES = ES^U. We aimed to provide point and interval estimates on projected sample sizes for future studies reflecting the uncertainty in our study ES^S. Twenty-four treated RA patients were followed up for 3 months. Utilizing the 12-joint approach and existing methods, the post hoc sample size (95% CI) was 22 (10-245). Corresponding sample sizes using ICUS and IUS were 11 (7-40) and 11 (6-38), respectively. Utilizing a seven-joint approach, the corresponding sample sizes using ICUS and IUS methods were nine (6-24) and 11 (6-35), respectively. Our pilot study suggests that sample size for RA clinical trials with ultrasound endpoints may be reduced using the novel methods, providing justification for larger studies to confirm these observations. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

5. What is the optimum sample size for the study of peatland testate amoeba assemblages?

PubMed

Mazei, Yuri A; Tsyganov, Andrey N; Esaulov, Anton S; Tychkov, Alexander Yu; Payne, Richard J

2017-10-01

Testate amoebae are widely used in ecological and palaeoecological studies of peatlands, particularly as indicators of surface wetness. To ensure data are robust and comparable it is important to consider methodological factors which may affect results. One significant question which has not been directly addressed in previous studies is how sample size (expressed here as number of Sphagnum stems) affects data quality. In three contrasting locations in a Russian peatland we extracted samples of differing size, analysed testate amoebae and calculated a number of widely-used indices: species richness, Simpson diversity, compositional dissimilarity from the largest sample and transfer function predictions of water table depth. We found that there was a trend for larger samples to contain more species across the range of commonly-used sample sizes in ecological studies. Smaller samples sometimes failed to produce counts of testate amoebae often considered minimally adequate. It seems likely that analyses based on samples of different sizes may not produce consistent data. Decisions about sample size need to reflect trade-offs between logistics, data quality, spatial resolution and the disturbance involved in sample extraction. For most common ecological applications we suggest that samples of more than eight Sphagnum stems are likely to be desirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

6. Parameter Estimation with Small Sample Size: A Higher-Order IRT Model Approach

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan

2010-01-01

Sample size ranks as one of the most important factors that affect the item calibration task. However, due to practical concerns (e.g., item exposure) items are typically calibrated with much smaller samples than what is desired. To address the need for a more flexible framework that can be used in small sample item calibration, this article…

7. Analysis of \$sup 239\$Pu and \$sup 241\$Am in NAEG large-sized bovine samples

SciTech Connect

Major, W.J.; Lee, K.D.; Wessman, R.A.

Methods are described for the analysis of environmental levels of \$sup 239\$Pu and \$sup 241\$Am in large-sized bovine samples. Special procedure modifications to overcome the complexities of sample preparation and analyses and special techniques employed to prepare and analyze different types of bovine samples, such as muscle, blood, liver, and bone are discussed. (CH)

8. Three-year-olds obey the sample size principle of induction: the influence of evidence presentation and sample size disparity on young children's generalizations.

PubMed

Lawson, Chris A

2014-07-01

Three experiments with 81 3-year-olds (M=3.62years) examined the conditions that enable young children to use the sample size principle (SSP) of induction-the inductive rule that facilitates generalizations from large rather than small samples of evidence. In Experiment 1, children exhibited the SSP when exemplars were presented sequentially but not when exemplars were presented simultaneously. Results from Experiment 3 suggest that the advantage of sequential presentation is not due to the additional time to process the available input from the two samples but instead may be linked to better memory for specific individuals in the large sample. In addition, findings from Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that adherence to the SSP is mediated by the disparity between presented samples. Overall, these results reveal that the SSP appears early in development and is guided by basic cognitive processes triggered during the acquisition of input. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9. Sample size considerations when groups are the appropriate unit of analyses

PubMed Central

Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine Marie; Alisangco, Jennifer; Rosbrook, Bradley P.; Miller, Eric; Fullerton, Judith

2007-01-01

This paper discusses issues to be considered by nurse researchers when groups should be used as a unit of randomization. Advantages and disadvantages are presented, with statistical calculations needed to determine effective sample size. Examples of these concepts are presented using data from the Black Cosmetologists Promoting Health Program. Different hypothetical scenarios and their impact on sample size are presented. Given the complexity of calculating sample size when using groups as a unit of randomization, it’s advantageous for researchers to work closely with statisticians when designing and implementing studies that anticipate the use of groups as the unit of randomization. PMID:17693219

10. Species richness in soil bacterial communities: a proposed approach to overcome sample size bias.

PubMed

Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

2008-09-01

Estimates of species richness based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries are increasingly utilized to gauge the level of bacterial diversity within various ecosystems. However, previous studies have indicated that regardless of the utilized approach, species richness estimates obtained are dependent on the size of the analyzed clone libraries. We here propose an approach to overcome sample size bias in species richness estimates in complex microbial communities. Parametric (Maximum likelihood-based and rarefaction curve-based) and non-parametric approaches were used to estimate species richness in a library of 13,001 near full-length 16S rRNA clones derived from soil, as well as in multiple subsets of the original library. Species richness estimates obtained increased with the increase in library size. To obtain a sample size-unbiased estimate of species richness, we calculated the theoretical clone library sizes required to encounter the estimated species richness at various clone library sizes, used curve fitting to determine the theoretical clone library size required to encounter the "true" species richness, and subsequently determined the corresponding sample size-unbiased species richness value. Using this approach, sample size-unbiased estimates of 17,230, 15,571, and 33,912 were obtained for the ML-based, rarefaction curve-based, and ACE-1 estimators, respectively, compared to bias-uncorrected values of 15,009, 11,913, and 20,909.

11. Sample size and power calculations for detecting changes in malaria transmission using antibody seroconversion rate.

PubMed

Sepúlveda, Nuno; Paulino, Carlos Daniel; Drakeley, Chris

2015-12-30

Several studies have highlighted the use of serological data in detecting a reduction in malaria transmission intensity. These studies have typically used serology as an adjunct measure and no formal examination of sample size calculations for this approach has been conducted. A sample size calculator is proposed for cross-sectional surveys using data simulation from a reverse catalytic model assuming a reduction in seroconversion rate (SCR) at a given change point before sampling. This calculator is based on logistic approximations for the underlying power curves to detect a reduction in SCR in relation to the hypothesis of a stable SCR for the same data. Sample sizes are illustrated for a hypothetical cross-sectional survey from an African population assuming a known or unknown change point. Overall, data simulation demonstrates that power is strongly affected by assuming a known or unknown change point. Small sample sizes are sufficient to detect strong reductions in SCR, but invariantly lead to poor precision of estimates for current SCR. In this situation, sample size is better determined by controlling the precision of SCR estimates. Conversely larger sample sizes are required for detecting more subtle reductions in malaria transmission but those invariantly increase precision whilst reducing putative estimation bias. The proposed sample size calculator, although based on data simulation, shows promise of being easily applicable to a range of populations and survey types. Since the change point is a major source of uncertainty, obtaining or assuming prior information about this parameter might reduce both the sample size and the chance of generating biased SCR estimates.

12. Small sample sizes in the study of ontogenetic allometry; implications for palaeobiology

PubMed Central

Vavrek, Matthew J.

2015-01-01

Quantitative morphometric analyses, particularly ontogenetic allometry, are common methods used in quantifying shape, and changes therein, in both extinct and extant organisms. Due to incompleteness and the potential for restricted sample sizes in the fossil record, palaeobiological analyses of allometry may encounter higher rates of error. Differences in sample size between fossil and extant studies and any resulting effects on allometric analyses have not been thoroughly investigated, and a logical lower threshold to sample size is not clear. Here we show that studies based on fossil datasets have smaller sample sizes than those based on extant taxa. A similar pattern between vertebrates and invertebrates indicates this is not a problem unique to either group, but common to both. We investigate the relationship between sample size, ontogenetic allometric relationship and statistical power using an empirical dataset of skull measurements of modern Alligator mississippiensis. Across a variety of subsampling techniques, used to simulate different taphonomic and/or sampling effects, smaller sample sizes gave less reliable and more variable results, often with the result that allometric relationships will go undetected due to Type II error (failure to reject the null hypothesis). This may result in a false impression of fewer instances of positive/negative allometric growth in fossils compared to living organisms. These limitations are not restricted to fossil data and are equally applicable to allometric analyses of rare extant taxa. No mathematically derived minimum sample size for ontogenetic allometric studies is found; rather results of isometry (but not necessarily allometry) should not be viewed with confidence at small sample sizes. PMID:25780770

13. Sensitive determination of melamine in milk and powdered infant formula samples by high-performance liquid chromatography using dabsyl chloride derivatization followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

PubMed

2017-04-15

A new and sensitive pre-column derivatization with dabsyl chloride followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the analysis of melamine (MEL) in raw milk and powdered infant formula samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with visible detection. Derivatization with dabsyl chloride leads to improving sensitivity and hydrophobicity of MEL. Under optimum conditions of derivatization and microextraction steps, the method yielded a linear calibration curve ranging from 1.0 to 500μgL -1 with a determination coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9995. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.1 and 0.3μgL -1 , respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) for intra-day (repeatability) and inter-day (reproducibility) at 25 and 100μgL -1 levels of MEL was less than 7.0% (n=6). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration and determination of MEL in different raw milk and powdered infant formula, and satisfactory results were obtained (relative recovery ⩾94%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

14. Frictional behaviour of sandstone: A sample-size dependent triaxial investigation

Roshan, Hamid; Masoumi, Hossein; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

2017-01-01

Frictional behaviour of rocks from the initial stage of loading to final shear displacement along the formed shear plane has been widely investigated in the past. However the effect of sample size on such frictional behaviour has not attracted much attention. This is mainly related to the limitations in rock testing facilities as well as the complex mechanisms involved in sample-size dependent frictional behaviour of rocks. In this study, a suite of advanced triaxial experiments was performed on Gosford sandstone samples at different sizes and confining pressures. The post-peak response of the rock along the formed shear plane has been captured for the analysis with particular interest in sample-size dependency. Several important phenomena have been observed from the results of this study: a) the rate of transition from brittleness to ductility in rock is sample-size dependent where the relatively smaller samples showed faster transition toward ductility at any confining pressure; b) the sample size influences the angle of formed shear band and c) the friction coefficient of the formed shear plane is sample-size dependent where the relatively smaller sample exhibits lower friction coefficient compared to larger samples. We interpret our results in terms of a thermodynamics approach in which the frictional properties for finite deformation are viewed as encompassing a multitude of ephemeral slipping surfaces prior to the formation of the through going fracture. The final fracture itself is seen as a result of the self-organisation of a sufficiently large ensemble of micro-slip surfaces and therefore consistent in terms of the theory of thermodynamics. This assumption vindicates the use of classical rock mechanics experiments to constrain failure of pressure sensitive rocks and the future imaging of these micro-slips opens an exciting path for research in rock failure mechanisms.

15. A reliability evaluation methodology for memory chips for space applications when sample size is small

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chen, Y.; Nguyen, D.; Guertin, S.; Berstein, J.; White, M.; Menke, R.; Kayali, S.

2003-01-01

This paper presents a reliability evaluation methodology to obtain the statistical reliability information of memory chips for space applications when the test sample size needs to be kept small because of the high cost of the radiation hardness memories.

16. The Impact of Sample Size and Other Factors When Estimating Multilevel Logistic Models

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schoeneberger, Jason A.

2016-01-01

The design of research studies utilizing binary multilevel models must necessarily incorporate knowledge of multiple factors, including estimation method, variance component size, or number of predictors, in addition to sample sizes. This Monte Carlo study examined the performance of random effect binary outcome multilevel models under varying…

17. Differentiating gold nanorod samples using particle size and shape distributions from transmission electron microscope images

Grulke, Eric A.; Wu, Xiaochun; Ji, Yinglu; Buhr, Egbert; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Song, Nam Woong; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Burchett, Woodrow W.; Lambert, Joshua; Stromberg, Arnold J.

2018-04-01

Size and shape distributions of gold nanorod samples are critical to their physico-chemical properties, especially their longitudinal surface plasmon resonance. This interlaboratory comparison study developed methods for measuring and evaluating size and shape distributions for gold nanorod samples using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The objective was to determine whether two different samples, which had different performance attributes in their application, were different with respect to their size and/or shape descriptor distributions. Touching particles in the captured images were identified using a ruggedness shape descriptor. Nanorods could be distinguished from nanocubes using an elongational shape descriptor. A non-parametric statistical test showed that cumulative distributions of an elongational shape descriptor, that is, the aspect ratio, were statistically different between the two samples for all laboratories. While the scale parameters of size and shape distributions were similar for both samples, the width parameters of size and shape distributions were statistically different. This protocol fulfills an important need for a standardized approach to measure gold nanorod size and shape distributions for applications in which quantitative measurements and comparisons are important. Furthermore, the validated protocol workflow can be automated, thus providing consistent and rapid measurements of nanorod size and shape distributions for researchers, regulatory agencies, and industry.

18. Size and modal analyses of fines and ultrafines from some Apollo 17 samples

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Greene, G. M.; King, D. T., Jr.; Banholzer, G. S., Jr.; King, E. A.

1975-01-01

Scanning electron and optical microscopy techniques have been used to determine the grain-size frequency distributions and morphology-based modal analyses of fine and ultrafine fractions of some Apollo 17 regolith samples. There are significant and large differences between the grain-size frequency distributions of the less than 10-micron size fraction of Apollo 17 samples, but there are no clear relations to the local geologic setting from which individual samples have been collected. This may be due to effective lateral mixing of regolith particles in this size range by micrometeoroid impacts. None of the properties of the frequency distributions support the idea of selective transport of any fine grain-size fraction, as has been proposed by other workers. All of the particle types found in the coarser size fractions also occur in the less than 10-micron particles. In the size range from 105 to 10 microns there is a strong tendency for the percentage of regularly shaped glass to increase as the graphic mean grain size of the less than 1-mm size fraction decreases, both probably being controlled by exposure age.

19. Sample size re-assessment leading to a raised sample size does not inflate type I error rate under mild conditions.

PubMed

Broberg, Per

2013-07-19

One major concern with adaptive designs, such as the sample size adjustable designs, has been the fear of inflating the type I error rate. In (Stat Med 23:1023-1038, 2004) it is however proven that when observations follow a normal distribution and the interim result show promise, meaning that the conditional power exceeds 50%, type I error rate is protected. This bound and the distributional assumptions may seem to impose undesirable restrictions on the use of these designs. In (Stat Med 30:3267-3284, 2011) the possibility of going below 50% is explored and a region that permits an increased sample size without inflation is defined in terms of the conditional power at the interim. A criterion which is implicit in (Stat Med 30:3267-3284, 2011) is derived by elementary methods and expressed in terms of the test statistic at the interim to simplify practical use. Mathematical and computational details concerning this criterion are exhibited. Under very general conditions the type I error rate is preserved under sample size adjustable schemes that permit a raise. The main result states that for normally distributed observations raising the sample size when the result looks promising, where the definition of promising depends on the amount of knowledge gathered so far, guarantees the protection of the type I error rate. Also, in the many situations where the test statistic approximately follows a normal law, the deviation from the main result remains negligible. This article provides details regarding the Weibull and binomial distributions and indicates how one may approach these distributions within the current setting. There is thus reason to consider such designs more often, since they offer a means of adjusting an important design feature at little or no cost in terms of error rate.

20. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... not be used subsequently. (d) Distribution and retention of approved formulas. One copy of each... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132 and...

1. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... not be used subsequently. (d) Distribution and retention of approved formulas. One copy of each... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132 and...

2. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... not be used subsequently. (d) Distribution and retention of approved formulas. One copy of each... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132 and...

3. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... not be used subsequently. (d) Distribution and retention of approved formulas. One copy of each... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132 and...

4. The impact of sample size on the reproducibility of voxel-based lesion-deficit mappings.

PubMed

Lorca-Puls, Diego L; Gajardo-Vidal, Andrea; White, Jitrachote; Seghier, Mohamed L; Leff, Alexander P; Green, David W; Crinion, Jenny T; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Hope, Thomas M H; Bowman, Howard; Price, Cathy J

2018-07-01

This study investigated how sample size affects the reproducibility of findings from univariate voxel-based lesion-deficit analyses (e.g., voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry). Our effect of interest was the strength of the mapping between brain damage and speech articulation difficulties, as measured in terms of the proportion of variance explained. First, we identified a region of interest by searching on a voxel-by-voxel basis for brain areas where greater lesion load was associated with poorer speech articulation using a large sample of 360 right-handed English-speaking stroke survivors. We then randomly drew thousands of bootstrap samples from this data set that included either 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, or 360 patients. For each resample, we recorded effect size estimates and p values after conducting exactly the same lesion-deficit analysis within the previously identified region of interest and holding all procedures constant. The results show (1) how often small effect sizes in a heterogeneous population fail to be detected; (2) how effect size and its statistical significance varies with sample size; (3) how low-powered studies (due to small sample sizes) can greatly over-estimate as well as under-estimate effect sizes; and (4) how large sample sizes (N ≥ 90) can yield highly significant p values even when effect sizes are so small that they become trivial in practical terms. The implications of these findings for interpreting the results from univariate voxel-based lesion-deficit analyses are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

5. Development of a sampling strategy and sample size calculation to estimate the distribution of mammographic breast density in Korean women.

PubMed

Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Mi Jin; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jung, Kyu-Won

2012-01-01

Mammographic breast density is a known risk factor for breast cancer. To conduct a survey to estimate the distribution of mammographic breast density in Korean women, appropriate sampling strategies for representative and efficient sampling design were evaluated through simulation. Using the target population from the National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP) for breast cancer in 2009, we verified the distribution estimate by repeating the simulation 1,000 times using stratified random sampling to investigate the distribution of breast density of 1,340,362 women. According to the simulation results, using a sampling design stratifying the nation into three groups (metropolitan, urban, and rural), with a total sample size of 4,000, we estimated the distribution of breast density in Korean women at a level of 0.01% tolerance. Based on the results of our study, a nationwide survey for estimating the distribution of mammographic breast density among Korean women can be conducted efficiently.

6. Sample Size for Tablet Compression and Capsule Filling Events During Process Validation.

PubMed

2017-12-01

During solid dosage form manufacturing, the uniformity of dosage units (UDU) is ensured by testing samples at 2 stages, that is, blend stage and tablet compression or capsule/powder filling stage. The aim of this work is to propose a sample size selection approach based on quality risk management principles for process performance qualification (PPQ) and continued process verification (CPV) stages by linking UDU to potential formulation and process risk factors. Bayes success run theorem appeared to be the most appropriate approach among various methods considered in this work for computing sample size for PPQ. The sample sizes for high-risk (reliability level of 99%), medium-risk (reliability level of 95%), and low-risk factors (reliability level of 90%) were estimated to be 299, 59, and 29, respectively. Risk-based assignment of reliability levels was supported by the fact that at low defect rate, the confidence to detect out-of-specification units would decrease which must be supplemented with an increase in sample size to enhance the confidence in estimation. Based on level of knowledge acquired during PPQ and the level of knowledge further required to comprehend process, sample size for CPV was calculated using Bayesian statistics to accomplish reduced sampling design for CPV. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

7. A normative inference approach for optimal sample sizes in decisions from experience

PubMed Central

Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger; Hertwig, Ralph

2015-01-01

“Decisions from experience” (DFE) refers to a body of work that emerged in research on behavioral decision making over the last decade. One of the major experimental paradigms employed to study experience-based choice is the “sampling paradigm,” which serves as a model of decision making under limited knowledge about the statistical structure of the world. In this paradigm respondents are presented with two payoff distributions, which, in contrast to standard approaches in behavioral economics, are specified not in terms of explicit outcome-probability information, but by the opportunity to sample outcomes from each distribution without economic consequences. Participants are encouraged to explore the distributions until they feel confident enough to decide from which they would prefer to draw from in a final trial involving real monetary payoffs. One commonly employed measure to characterize the behavior of participants in the sampling paradigm is the sample size, that is, the number of outcome draws which participants choose to obtain from each distribution prior to terminating sampling. A natural question that arises in this context concerns the “optimal” sample size, which could be used as a normative benchmark to evaluate human sampling behavior in DFE. In this theoretical study, we relate the DFE sampling paradigm to the classical statistical decision theoretic literature and, under a probabilistic inference assumption, evaluate optimal sample sizes for DFE. In our treatment we go beyond analytically established results by showing how the classical statistical decision theoretic framework can be used to derive optimal sample sizes under arbitrary, but numerically evaluable, constraints. Finally, we critically evaluate the value of deriving optimal sample sizes under this framework as testable predictions for the experimental study of sampling behavior in DFE. PMID:26441720

8. Blinded sample size re-estimation in three-arm trials with 'gold standard' design.

PubMed

Mütze, Tobias; Friede, Tim

2017-10-15

In this article, we study blinded sample size re-estimation in the 'gold standard' design with internal pilot study for normally distributed outcomes. The 'gold standard' design is a three-arm clinical trial design that includes an active and a placebo control in addition to an experimental treatment. We focus on the absolute margin approach to hypothesis testing in three-arm trials at which the non-inferiority of the experimental treatment and the assay sensitivity are assessed by pairwise comparisons. We compare several blinded sample size re-estimation procedures in a simulation study assessing operating characteristics including power and type I error. We find that sample size re-estimation based on the popular one-sample variance estimator results in overpowered trials. Moreover, sample size re-estimation based on unbiased variance estimators such as the Xing-Ganju variance estimator results in underpowered trials, as it is expected because an overestimation of the variance and thus the sample size is in general required for the re-estimation procedure to eventually meet the target power. To overcome this problem, we propose an inflation factor for the sample size re-estimation with the Xing-Ganju variance estimator and show that this approach results in adequately powered trials. Because of favorable features of the Xing-Ganju variance estimator such as unbiasedness and a distribution independent of the group means, the inflation factor does not depend on the nuisance parameter and, therefore, can be calculated prior to a trial. Moreover, we prove that the sample size re-estimation based on the Xing-Ganju variance estimator does not bias the effect estimate. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

9. Maximum type 1 error rate inflation in multiarmed clinical trials with adaptive interim sample size modifications.

PubMed

Graf, Alexandra C; Bauer, Peter; Glimm, Ekkehard; Koenig, Franz

2014-07-01

Sample size modifications in the interim analyses of an adaptive design can inflate the type 1 error rate, if test statistics and critical boundaries are used in the final analysis as if no modification had been made. While this is already true for designs with an overall change of the sample size in a balanced treatment-control comparison, the inflation can be much larger if in addition a modification of allocation ratios is allowed as well. In this paper, we investigate adaptive designs with several treatment arms compared to a single common control group. Regarding modifications, we consider treatment arm selection as well as modifications of overall sample size and allocation ratios. The inflation is quantified for two approaches: a naive procedure that ignores not only all modifications, but also the multiplicity issue arising from the many-to-one comparison, and a Dunnett procedure that ignores modifications, but adjusts for the initially started multiple treatments. The maximum inflation of the type 1 error rate for such types of design can be calculated by searching for the "worst case" scenarios, that are sample size adaptation rules in the interim analysis that lead to the largest conditional type 1 error rate in any point of the sample space. To show the most extreme inflation, we initially assume unconstrained second stage sample size modifications leading to a large inflation of the type 1 error rate. Furthermore, we investigate the inflation when putting constraints on the second stage sample sizes. It turns out that, for example fixing the sample size of the control group, leads to designs controlling the type 1 error rate. © 2014 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

10. Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.

2012-01-01

A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

11. Sampling Theory and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Using ESCI To Illustrate "Bouncing"; Confidence Intervals.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Du, Yunfei

This paper discusses the impact of sampling error on the construction of confidence intervals around effect sizes. Sampling error affects the location and precision of confidence intervals. Meta-analytic resampling demonstrates that confidence intervals can haphazardly bounce around the true population parameter. Special software with graphical…

12. Sample sizes to control error estimates in determining soil bulk density in California forest soils

Treesearch

Youzhi Han; Jianwei Zhang; Kim G. Mattson; Weidong Zhang; Thomas A. Weber

2016-01-01

Characterizing forest soil properties with high variability is challenging, sometimes requiring large numbers of soil samples. Soil bulk density is a standard variable needed along with element concentrations to calculate nutrient pools. This study aimed to determine the optimal sample size, the number of observation (n), for predicting the soil bulk density with a...

13. Norm Block Sample Sizes: A Review of 17 Individually Administered Intelligence Tests

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norfolk, Philip A.; Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Woods, Isaac L.; Hawkins, Haley K.; Irby, Sarah M.

2015-01-01

The representativeness, recency, and size of norm samples strongly influence the accuracy of inferences drawn from their scores. Inadequate norm samples may lead to inflated or deflated scores for individuals and poorer prediction of developmental and academic outcomes. The purpose of this study was to apply Kranzler and Floyd's method for…

14. Generating Random Samples of a Given Size Using Social Security Numbers.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Erickson, Richard C.; Brauchle, Paul E.

1984-01-01

The purposes of this article are (1) to present a method by which social security numbers may be used to draw cluster samples of a predetermined size and (2) to describe procedures used to validate this method of drawing random samples. (JOW)

15. Developing optimum sample size and multistage sampling plans for Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larval infestation and injury in northern Greece.

PubMed

Ifoulis, A A; Savopoulou-Soultani, M

2006-10-01

The purpose of this research was to quantify the spatial pattern and develop a sampling program for larvae of Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important vineyard pest in northern Greece. Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness regression were used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance of larval counts. Analysis of covariance was carried out, separately for infestation and injury, with combined second and third generation data, for vine and half-vine sample units. Common regression coefficients were estimated to permit use of the sampling plan over a wide range of conditions. Optimum sample sizes for infestation and injury, at three levels of precision, were developed. An investigation of a multistage sampling plan with a nested analysis of variance showed that if the goal of sampling is focusing on larval infestation, three grape clusters should be sampled in a half-vine; if the goal of sampling is focusing on injury, then two grape clusters per half-vine are recommended.

16. Optimally estimating the sample mean from the sample size, median, mid-range, and/or mid-quartile range.

PubMed

Luo, Dehui; Wan, Xiang; Liu, Jiming; Tong, Tiejun

2018-06-01

The era of big data is coming, and evidence-based medicine is attracting increasing attention to improve decision making in medical practice via integrating evidence from well designed and conducted clinical research. Meta-analysis is a statistical technique widely used in evidence-based medicine for analytically combining the findings from independent clinical trials to provide an overall estimation of a treatment effectiveness. The sample mean and standard deviation are two commonly used statistics in meta-analysis but some trials use the median, the minimum and maximum values, or sometimes the first and third quartiles to report the results. Thus, to pool results in a consistent format, researchers need to transform those information back to the sample mean and standard deviation. In this article, we investigate the optimal estimation of the sample mean for meta-analysis from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. A major drawback in the literature is that the sample size, needless to say its importance, is either ignored or used in a stepwise but somewhat arbitrary manner, e.g. the famous method proposed by Hozo et al. We solve this issue by incorporating the sample size in a smoothly changing weight in the estimators to reach the optimal estimation. Our proposed estimators not only improve the existing ones significantly but also share the same virtue of the simplicity. The real data application indicates that our proposed estimators are capable to serve as "rules of thumb" and will be widely applied in evidence-based medicine.

17. A Formula for Factoring.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roebuck, Kay I. Meeks

1997-01-01

Suggests use of the quadratic formula to build understanding that connections between factors and solutions to equations work both ways. Making use of natural connections among concepts allows students to work more efficiently. Presents four sample problems showing the roots of equations. Messy quadratic equations with rational roots can be solved…

18. Sampling benthic macroinvertebrates in a large flood-plain river: Considerations of study design, sample size, and cost

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Naimo, T.J.

1998-01-01

Estimation of benthic macroinvertebrate populations over large spatial scales is difficult due to the high variability in abundance and the cost of sample processing and taxonomic analysis. To determine a cost-effective, statistically powerful sample design, we conducted an exploratory study of the spatial variation of benthic macroinvertebrates in a 37 km reach of the Upper Mississippi River. We sampled benthos at 36 sites within each of two strata, contiguous backwater and channel border. Three standard ponar (525 cm(2)) grab samples were obtained at each site ('Original Design'). Analysis of variance and sampling cost of strata-wide estimates for abundance of Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, and total invertebrates showed that only one ponar sample per site ('Reduced Design') yielded essentially the same abundance estimates as the Original Design, while reducing the overall cost by 63%. A posteriori statistical power analysis (alpha = 0.05, beta = 0.20) on the Reduced Design estimated that at least 18 sites per stratum were needed to detect differences in mean abundance between contiguous backwater and channel border areas for Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, and total invertebrates. Statistical power was nearly identical for the three taxonomic groups. The abundances of several taxa of concern (e.g., Hexagenia mayflies and Musculium fingernail clams) were too spatially variable to estimate power with our method. Resampling simulations indicated that to achieve adequate sampling precision for Oligochaeta, at least 36 sample sites per stratum would be required, whereas a sampling precision of 0.2 would not be attained with any sample size for Hexagenia in channel border areas, or Chironomidae and Musculium in both strata given the variance structure of the original samples. Community-wide diversity indices (Brillouin and 1-Simpsons) increased as sample area per site increased. The backwater area had higher diversity than the channel border area. The number of sampling sites

19. Sample Size Estimation for Alzheimer's Disease Trials from Japanese ADNI Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

PubMed

Fujishima, Motonobu; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Maikusa, Norihide; Kuwano, Ryozo; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Matsuda, Hiroshi

2017-01-01

Little is known about the sample sizes required for clinical trials of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-modifying treatments using atrophy measures from serial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the Japanese population. The primary objective of the present study was to estimate how large a sample size would be needed for future clinical trials for AD-modifying treatments in Japan using atrophy measures of the brain as a surrogate biomarker. Sample sizes were estimated from the rates of change of the whole brain and hippocampus by the k-means normalized boundary shift integral (KN-BSI) and cognitive measures using the data of 537 Japanese Alzheimer's Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI) participants with a linear mixed-effects model. We also examined the potential use of ApoE status as a trial enrichment strategy. The hippocampal atrophy rate required smaller sample sizes than cognitive measures of AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Inclusion of ApoE status reduced sample sizes for AD and MCI patients in the atrophy measures. These results show the potential use of longitudinal hippocampal atrophy measurement using automated image analysis as a progression biomarker and ApoE status as a trial enrichment strategy in a clinical trial of AD-modifying treatment in Japanese people.

20. Demonstration of Multi- and Single-Reader Sample Size Program for Diagnostic Studies software.

PubMed

Hillis, Stephen L; Schartz, Kevin M

2015-02-01

The recently released software Multi- and Single-Reader Sample Size Sample Size Program for Diagnostic Studies , written by Kevin Schartz and Stephen Hillis, performs sample size computations for diagnostic reader-performance studies. The program computes the sample size needed to detect a specified difference in a reader performance measure between two modalities, when using the analysis methods initially proposed by Dorfman, Berbaum, and Metz (DBM) and Obuchowski and Rockette (OR), and later unified and improved by Hillis and colleagues. A commonly used reader performance measure is the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve. The program can be used with typical common reader-performance measures which can be estimated parametrically or nonparametrically. The program has an easy-to-use step-by-step intuitive interface that walks the user through the entry of the needed information. Features of the software include the following: (1) choice of several study designs; (2) choice of inputs obtained from either OR or DBM analyses; (3) choice of three different inference situations: both readers and cases random, readers fixed and cases random, and readers random and cases fixed; (4) choice of two types of hypotheses: equivalence or noninferiority; (6) choice of two output formats: power for specified case and reader sample sizes, or a listing of case-reader combinations that provide a specified power; (7) choice of single or multi-reader analyses; and (8) functionality in Windows, Mac OS, and Linux.

1. Optimal number of features as a function of sample size for various classification rules.

PubMed

Hua, Jianping; Xiong, Zixiang; Lowey, James; Suh, Edward; Dougherty, Edward R

2005-04-15

Given the joint feature-label distribution, increasing the number of features always results in decreased classification error; however, this is not the case when a classifier is designed via a classification rule from sample data. Typically (but not always), for fixed sample size, the error of a designed classifier decreases and then increases as the number of features grows. The potential downside of using too many features is most critical for small samples, which are commonplace for gene-expression-based classifiers for phenotype discrimination. For fixed sample size and feature-label distribution, the issue is to find an optimal number of features. Since only in rare cases is there a known distribution of the error as a function of the number of features and sample size, this study employs simulation for various feature-label distributions and classification rules, and across a wide range of sample and feature-set sizes. To achieve the desired end, finding the optimal number of features as a function of sample size, it employs massively parallel computation. Seven classifiers are treated: 3-nearest-neighbor, Gaussian kernel, linear support vector machine, polynomial support vector machine, perceptron, regular histogram and linear discriminant analysis. Three Gaussian-based models are considered: linear, nonlinear and bimodal. In addition, real patient data from a large breast-cancer study is considered. To mitigate the combinatorial search for finding optimal feature sets, and to model the situation in which subsets of genes are co-regulated and correlation is internal to these subsets, we assume that the covariance matrix of the features is blocked, with each block corresponding to a group of correlated features. Altogether there are a large number of error surfaces for the many cases. These are provided in full on a companion website, which is meant to serve as resource for those working with small-sample classification. For the companion website, please

2. Bayesian sample size calculations in phase II clinical trials using a mixture of informative priors.

PubMed

Gajewski, Byron J; Mayo, Matthew S

2006-08-15

A number of researchers have discussed phase II clinical trials from a Bayesian perspective. A recent article by Mayo and Gajewski focuses on sample size calculations, which they determine by specifying an informative prior distribution and then calculating a posterior probability that the true response will exceed a prespecified target. In this article, we extend these sample size calculations to include a mixture of informative prior distributions. The mixture comes from several sources of information. For example consider information from two (or more) clinicians. The first clinician is pessimistic about the drug and the second clinician is optimistic. We tabulate the results for sample size design using the fact that the simple mixture of Betas is a conjugate family for the Beta- Binomial model. We discuss the theoretical framework for these types of Bayesian designs and show that the Bayesian designs in this paper approximate this theoretical framework. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

3. A cautionary note on Bayesian estimation of population size by removal sampling with diffuse priors.

PubMed

Bord, Séverine; Bioche, Christèle; Druilhet, Pierre

2018-05-01

We consider the problem of estimating a population size by removal sampling when the sampling rate is unknown. Bayesian methods are now widespread and allow to include prior knowledge in the analysis. However, we show that Bayes estimates based on default improper priors lead to improper posteriors or infinite estimates. Similarly, weakly informative priors give unstable estimators that are sensitive to the choice of hyperparameters. By examining the likelihood, we show that population size estimates can be stabilized by penalizing small values of the sampling rate or large value of the population size. Based on theoretical results and simulation studies, we propose some recommendations on the choice of the prior. Then, we applied our results to real datasets. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

4. Threshold-dependent sample sizes for selenium assessment with stream fish tissue

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David R.

2015-01-01

Natural resource managers are developing assessments of selenium (Se) contamination in freshwater ecosystems based on fish tissue concentrations. We evaluated the effects of sample size (i.e., number of fish per site) on the probability of correctly detecting mean whole-body Se values above a range of potential management thresholds. We modeled Se concentrations as gamma distributions with shape and scale parameters fitting an empirical mean-to-variance relationship in data from southwestern West Virginia, USA (63 collections, 382 individuals). We used parametric bootstrapping techniques to calculate statistical power as the probability of detecting true mean concentrations up to 3 mg Se/kg above management thresholds ranging from 4 to 8 mg Se/kg. Sample sizes required to achieve 80% power varied as a function of management thresholds and Type I error tolerance (α). Higher thresholds required more samples than lower thresholds because populations were more heterogeneous at higher mean Se levels. For instance, to assess a management threshold of 4 mg Se/kg, a sample of eight fish could detect an increase of approximately 1 mg Se/kg with 80% power (given α = 0.05), but this sample size would be unable to detect such an increase from a management threshold of 8 mg Se/kg with more than a coin-flip probability. Increasing α decreased sample size requirements to detect above-threshold mean Se concentrations with 80% power. For instance, at an α-level of 0.05, an 8-fish sample could detect an increase of approximately 2 units above a threshold of 8 mg Se/kg with 80% power, but when α was relaxed to 0.2, this sample size was more sensitive to increasing mean Se concentrations, allowing detection of an increase of approximately 1.2 units with equivalent power. Combining individuals into 2- and 4-fish composite samples for laboratory analysis did not decrease power because the reduced number of laboratory samples was compensated for by increased

5. Effects of sample size and sampling frequency on studies of brown bear home ranges and habitat use

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arthur, Steve M.; Schwartz, Charles C.

1999-01-01

We equipped 9 brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, with collars containing both conventional very-high-frequency (VHF) transmitters and global positioning system (GPS) receivers programmed to determine an animal's position at 5.75-hr intervals. We calculated minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed and adaptive kernel home ranges for randomly-selected subsets of the GPS data to examine the effects of sample size on accuracy and precision of home range estimates. We also compared results obtained by weekly aerial radiotracking versus more frequent GPS locations to test for biases in conventional radiotracking data. Home ranges based on the MCP were 20-606 km2 (x = 201) for aerial radiotracking data (n = 12-16 locations/bear) and 116-1,505 km2 (x = 522) for the complete GPS data sets (n = 245-466 locations/bear). Fixed kernel home ranges were 34-955 km2 (x = 224) for radiotracking data and 16-130 km2 (x = 60) for the GPS data. Differences between means for radiotracking and GPS data were due primarily to the larger samples provided by the GPS data. Means did not differ between radiotracking data and equivalent-sized subsets of GPS data (P > 0.10). For the MCP, home range area increased and variability decreased asymptotically with number of locations. For the kernel models, both area and variability decreased with increasing sample size. Simulations suggested that the MCP and kernel models required >60 and >80 locations, respectively, for estimates to be both accurate (change in area <1%/additional location) and precise (CV < 50%). Although the radiotracking data appeared unbiased, except for the relationship between area and sample size, these data failed to indicate some areas that likely were important to bears. Our results suggest that the usefulness of conventional radiotracking data may be limited by potential biases and variability due to small samples. Investigators that use home range estimates in statistical tests should consider the

6. Sample size requirements for indirect association studies of gene-environment interactions (G x E).

PubMed

Hein, Rebecca; Beckmann, Lars; Chang-Claude, Jenny

2008-04-01

Association studies accounting for gene-environment interactions (G x E) may be useful for detecting genetic effects. Although current technology enables very dense marker spacing in genetic association studies, the true disease variants may not be genotyped. Thus, causal genes are searched for by indirect association using genetic markers in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the true disease variants. Sample sizes needed to detect G x E effects in indirect case-control association studies depend on the true genetic main effects, disease allele frequencies, whether marker and disease allele frequencies match, LD between loci, main effects and prevalence of environmental exposures, and the magnitude of interactions. We explored variables influencing sample sizes needed to detect G x E, compared these sample sizes with those required to detect genetic marginal effects, and provide an algorithm for power and sample size estimations. Required sample sizes may be heavily inflated if LD between marker and disease loci decreases. More than 10,000 case-control pairs may be required to detect G x E. However, given weak true genetic main effects, moderate prevalence of environmental exposures, as well as strong interactions, G x E effects may be detected with smaller sample sizes than those needed for the detection of genetic marginal effects. Moreover, in this scenario, rare disease variants may only be detectable when G x E is included in the analyses. Thus, the analysis of G x E appears to be an attractive option for the detection of weak genetic main effects of rare variants that may not be detectable in the analysis of genetic marginal effects only.

7. Mesh-size effects on drift sample composition as determined with a triple net sampler

USGS Publications Warehouse

Slack, K.V.; Tilley, L.J.; Kennelly, S.S.

1991-01-01

Nested nets of three different mesh apertures were used to study mesh-size effects on drift collected in a small mountain stream. The innermost, middle, and outermost nets had, respectively, 425 ??m, 209 ??m and 106 ??m openings, a design that reduced clogging while partitioning collections into three size groups. The open area of mesh in each net, from largest to smallest mesh opening, was 3.7, 5.7 and 8.0 times the area of the net mouth. Volumes of filtered water were determined with a flowmeter. The results are expressed as (1) drift retained by each net, (2) drift that would have been collected by a single net of given mesh size, and (3) the percentage of total drift (the sum of the catches from all three nets) that passed through the 425 ??m and 209 ??m nets. During a two day period in August 1986, Chironomidae larvae were dominant numerically in all 209 ??m and 106 ??m samples and midday 425 ??m samples. Large drifters (Ephemerellidae) occurred only in 425 ??m or 209 ??m nets, but the general pattern was an increase in abundance and number of taxa with decreasing mesh size. Relatively more individuals occurred in the larger mesh nets at night than during the day. The two larger mesh sizes retained 70% of the total sediment/detritus in the drift collections, and this decreased the rate of clogging of the 106 ??m net. If an objective of a sampling program is to compare drift density or drift rate between areas or sampling dates, the same mesh size should be used for all sample collection and processing. The mesh aperture used for drift collection should retain all species and life stages of significance in a study. The nested net design enables an investigator to test the adequacy of drift samples. ?? 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

8. An opportunity cost approach to sample size calculation in cost-effectiveness analysis.

PubMed

Gafni, A; Walter, S D; Birch, S; Sendi, P

2008-01-01

The inclusion of economic evaluations as part of clinical trials has led to concerns about the adequacy of trial sample size to support such analysis. The analytical tool of cost-effectiveness analysis is the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which is compared with a threshold value (lambda) as a method to determine the efficiency of a health-care intervention. Accordingly, many of the methods suggested to calculating the sample size requirements for the economic component of clinical trials are based on the properties of the ICER. However, use of the ICER and a threshold value as a basis for determining efficiency has been shown to be inconsistent with the economic concept of opportunity cost. As a result, the validity of the ICER-based approaches to sample size calculations can be challenged. Alternative methods for determining improvements in efficiency have been presented in the literature that does not depend upon ICER values. In this paper, we develop an opportunity cost approach to calculating sample size for economic evaluations alongside clinical trials, and illustrate the approach using a numerical example. We compare the sample size requirement of the opportunity cost method with the ICER threshold method. In general, either method may yield the larger required sample size. However, the opportunity cost approach, although simple to use, has additional data requirements. We believe that the additional data requirements represent a small price to pay for being able to perform an analysis consistent with both concept of opportunity cost and the problem faced by decision makers. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

9. Chi-Squared Test of Fit and Sample Size-A Comparison between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method.

PubMed

Bergh, Daniel

2015-01-01

Chi-square statistics are commonly used for tests of fit of measurement models. Chi-square is also sensitive to sample size, which is why several approaches to handle large samples in test of fit analysis have been developed. One strategy to handle the sample size problem may be to adjust the sample size in the analysis of fit. An alternative is to adopt a random sample approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare these two strategies using simulated data. Given an original sample size of 21,000, for reductions of sample sizes down to the order of 5,000 the adjusted sample size function works as good as the random sample approach. In contrast, when applying adjustments to sample sizes of lower order the adjustment function is less effective at approximating the chi-square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, the fit is exaggerated and misfit under-estimated using the adjusted sample size function. Although there are big differences in chi-square values between the two approaches at lower sample sizes, the inferences based on the p-values may be the same.

10. On the role of dimensionality and sample size for unstructured and structured covariance matrix estimation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morgera, S. D.; Cooper, D. B.

1976-01-01

The experimental observation that a surprisingly small sample size vis-a-vis dimension is needed to achieve good signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) performance with an adaptive predetection filter is explained. The adaptive filter requires estimates as obtained by a recursive stochastic algorithm of the inverse of the filter input data covariance matrix. The SIR performance with sample size is compared for the situations where the covariance matrix estimates are of unstructured (generalized) form and of structured (finite Toeplitz) form; the latter case is consistent with weak stationarity of the input data stochastic process.

11. Treatment Trials for Neonatal Seizures: The Effect of Design on Sample Size

PubMed Central

Stevenson, Nathan J.; Boylan, Geraldine B.; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

2016-01-01

Neonatal seizures are common in the neonatal intensive care unit. Clinicians treat these seizures with several anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) to reduce seizures in a neonate. Current AEDs exhibit sub-optimal efficacy and several randomized control trials (RCT) of novel AEDs are planned. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of trial design on the required sample size of a RCT. We used seizure time courses from 41 term neonates with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy to build seizure treatment trial simulations. We used five outcome measures, three AED protocols, eight treatment delays from seizure onset (Td) and four levels of trial AED efficacy to simulate different RCTs. We performed power calculations for each RCT design and analysed the resultant sample size. We also assessed the rate of false positives, or placebo effect, in typical uncontrolled studies. We found that the false positive rate ranged from 5 to 85% of patients depending on RCT design. For controlled trials, the choice of outcome measure had the largest effect on sample size with median differences of 30.7 fold (IQR: 13.7–40.0) across a range of AED protocols, Td and trial AED efficacy (p<0.001). RCTs that compared the trial AED with positive controls required sample sizes with a median fold increase of 3.2 (IQR: 1.9–11.9; p<0.001). Delays in AED administration from seizure onset also increased the required sample size 2.1 fold (IQR: 1.7–2.9; p<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that RCTs in neonates treated with hypothermia required a median fold increase in sample size of 2.6 (IQR: 2.4–3.0) compared to trials in normothermic neonates (p<0.001). These results show that RCT design has a profound influence on the required sample size. Trials that use a control group, appropriate outcome measure, and control for differences in Td between groups in analysis will be valid and minimise sample size. PMID:27824913

12. Heavy metal content and element analysis of infant formula and milk powder samples purchased on the Tanzanian market: International branded versus black market products.

PubMed

Sager, M; McCulloch, C R; Schoder, D

2018-07-30

Milk powder is a food for malnourished African children and for healthy infants of women with HIV/AIDS. High demand and low purchasing power has resulted in a huge informal, black market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Forty-three milk powder batches were analyzed for 43 chemical elements using ICP-MS One sample (2.3%) was contaminated at a lead concentration of 240 µg/kg dry weight exceeding the European threshold (130 µg/kg dry weight). Macroelement contents revealed a trend decreasing in concentration through skimmed, full cream products to infant formulae. Concentration ranges by dry weight differed in respect of uncertainty intervals of  ±10%. Median Ca, K and P concentrations declined from 11.14 g/kg to 3.21 g/kg, 14.11 g/kg to 4.95 g/kg and 9.12 g/kg to 2.75 g/kg dry mass, respectively. Milk powder samples obtained from the Tanzanian black market were comparable in respect of nutritional and chemical content to international branded full cream products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

13. Assessing readability formula differences with written health information materials: application, results, and recommendations.

PubMed

Wang, Lih-Wern; Miller, Michael J; Schmitt, Michael R; Wen, Frances K

2013-01-01

Readability formulas are often used to guide the development and evaluation of literacy-sensitive written health information. However, readability formula results may vary considerably as a result of differences in software processing algorithms and how each formula is applied. These variations complicate interpretations of reading grade level estimates, particularly without a uniform guideline for applying and interpreting readability formulas. This research sought to (1) identify commonly used readability formulas reported in the health care literature, (2) demonstrate the use of the most commonly used readability formulas on written health information, (3) compare and contrast the differences when applying common readability formulas to identical selections of written health information, and (4) provide recommendations for choosing an appropriate readability formula for written health-related materials to optimize their use. A literature search was conducted to identify the most commonly used readability formulas in health care literature. Each of the identified formulas was subsequently applied to word samples from 15 unique examples of written health information about the topic of depression and its treatment. Readability estimates from common readability formulas were compared based on text sample size, selection, formatting, software type, and/or hand calculations. Recommendations for their use were provided. The Flesch-Kincaid formula was most commonly used (57.42%). Readability formulas demonstrated variability up to 5 reading grade levels on the same text. The Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) readability formula performed most consistently. Depending on the text sample size, selection, formatting, software, and/or hand calculations, the individual readability formula estimated up to 6 reading grade levels of variability. The SMOG formula appears best suited for health care applications because of its consistency of results, higher level of expected

14. Influence of sampling window size and orientation on parafoveal cone packing density

PubMed Central

Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Ducoli, Pietro; Lombardo, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

We assessed the agreement between sampling windows of different size and orientation on packing density estimates in images of the parafoveal cone mosaic acquired using a flood-illumination adaptive optics retinal camera. Horizontal and vertical oriented sampling windows of different size (320x160 µm, 160x80 µm and 80x40 µm) were selected in two retinal locations along the horizontal meridian in one eye of ten subjects. At each location, cone density tended to decline with decreasing sampling area. Although the differences in cone density estimates were not statistically significant, Bland-Altman plots showed that the agreement between cone density estimated within the different sampling window conditions was moderate. The percentage of the preferred packing arrangements of cones by Voronoi tiles was slightly affected by window size and orientation. The results illustrated the high importance of specifying the size and orientation of the sampling window used to derive cone metric estimates to facilitate comparison of different studies. PMID:24009995

15. Simulation analyses of space use: Home range estimates, variability, and sample size

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bekoff, Marc; Mech, L. David

1984-01-01

Simulations of space use by animals were run to determine the relationship among home range area estimates, variability, and sample size (number of locations). As sample size increased, home range size increased asymptotically, whereas variability decreased among mean home range area estimates generated by multiple simulations for the same sample size. Our results suggest that field workers should ascertain between 100 and 200 locations in order to estimate reliably home range area. In some cases, this suggested guideline is higher than values found in the few published studies in which the relationship between home range area and number of locations is addressed. Sampling differences for small species occupying relatively small home ranges indicate that fewer locations may be sufficient to allow for a reliable estimate of home range. Intraspecific variability in social status (group member, loner, resident, transient), age, sex, reproductive condition, and food resources also have to be considered, as do season, habitat, and differences in sampling and analytical methods. Comparative data still are needed.

16. Big Data and Large Sample Size: A Cautionary Note on the Potential for Bias

PubMed Central

Chambers, David A.; Glasgow, Russell E.

2014-01-01

Abstract A number of commentaries have suggested that large studies are more reliable than smaller studies and there is a growing interest in the analysis of “big data” that integrates information from many thousands of persons and/or different data sources. We consider a variety of biases that are likely in the era of big data, including sampling error, measurement error, multiple comparisons errors, aggregation error, and errors associated with the systematic exclusion of information. Using examples from epidemiology, health services research, studies on determinants of health, and clinical trials, we conclude that it is necessary to exercise greater caution to be sure that big sample size does not lead to big inferential errors. Despite the advantages of big studies, large sample size can magnify the bias associated with error resulting from sampling or study design. Clin Trans Sci 2014; Volume #: 1–5 PMID:25043853

17. Thermal conductivity measurements of particulate materials: 3. Natural samples and mixtures of particle sizes

Presley, Marsha A.; Craddock, Robert A.

2006-09-01

A line-heat source apparatus was used to measure thermal conductivities of natural fluvial and eolian particulate sediments under low pressures of a carbon dioxide atmosphere. These measurements were compared to a previous compilation of the dependence of thermal conductivity on particle size to determine a thermal conductivity-derived particle size for each sample. Actual particle-size distributions were determined via physical separation through brass sieves. Comparison of the two analyses indicates that the thermal conductivity reflects the larger particles within the samples. In each sample at least 85-95% of the particles by weight are smaller than or equal to the thermal conductivity-derived particle size. At atmospheric pressures less than about 2-3 torr, samples that contain a large amount of small particles (<=125 μm or 4 Φ) exhibit lower thermal conductivities relative to those for the larger particles within the sample. Nonetheless, 90% of the sample by weight still consists of particles that are smaller than or equal to this lower thermal conductivity-derived particle size. These results allow further refinement in the interpretation of geomorphologic processes acting on the Martian surface. High-energy fluvial environments should produce poorer-sorted and coarser-grained deposits than lower energy eolian environments. Hence these results will provide additional information that may help identify coarser-grained fluvial deposits and may help differentiate whether channel dunes are original fluvial sediments that are at most reworked by wind or whether they represent a later overprint of sediment with a separate origin.

18. The Effects of Test Length and Sample Size on Item Parameters in Item Response Theory

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sahin, Alper; Anil, Duygu

2017-01-01

This study investigates the effects of sample size and test length on item-parameter estimation in test development utilizing three unidimensional dichotomous models of item response theory (IRT). For this purpose, a real language test comprised of 50 items was administered to 6,288 students. Data from this test was used to obtain data sets of…

19. Analysis of variograms with various sample sizes from a multispectral image

USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

Variogram plays a crucial role in remote sensing application and geostatistics. It is very important to estimate variogram reliably from sufficient data. In this study, the analysis of variograms with various sample sizes of remotely sensed data was conducted. A 100x100-pixel subset was chosen from ...

20. Analysis of variograms with various sample sizes from a multispectral image

USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

Variograms play a crucial role in remote sensing application and geostatistics. In this study, the analysis of variograms with various sample sizes of remotely sensed data was conducted. A 100 X 100 pixel subset was chosen from an aerial multispectral image which contained three wavebands, green, ...

1. Got Power? A Systematic Review of Sample Size Adequacy in Health Professions Education Research

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cook, David A.; Hatala, Rose

2015-01-01

Many education research studies employ small samples, which in turn lowers statistical power. We re-analyzed the results of a meta-analysis of simulation-based education to determine study power across a range of effect sizes, and the smallest effect that could be plausibly excluded. We systematically searched multiple databases through May 2011,…

2. Using Structural Equation Modeling to Assess Functional Connectivity in the Brain: Power and Sample Size Considerations

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sideridis, Georgios; Simos, Panagiotis; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Fletcher, Jack

2014-01-01

The present study assessed the impact of sample size on the power and fit of structural equation modeling applied to functional brain connectivity hypotheses. The data consisted of time-constrained minimum norm estimates of regional brain activity during performance of a reading task obtained with magnetoencephalography. Power analysis was first…

3. The Effects of Model Misspecification and Sample Size on LISREL Maximum Likelihood Estimates.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baldwin, Beatrice

The robustness of LISREL computer program maximum likelihood estimates under specific conditions of model misspecification and sample size was examined. The population model used in this study contains one exogenous variable; three endogenous variables; and eight indicator variables, two for each latent variable. Conditions of model…

4. [Sample size calculation in clinical post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine].

PubMed

Fu, Yingkun; Xie, Yanming

2011-10-01

In recent years, as the Chinese government and people pay more attention on the post-marketing research of Chinese Medicine, part of traditional Chinese medicine breed has or is about to begin after the listing of post-marketing evaluation study. In the post-marketing evaluation design, sample size calculation plays a decisive role. It not only ensures the accuracy and reliability of post-marketing evaluation. but also assures that the intended trials will have a desired power for correctly detecting a clinically meaningful difference of different medicine under study if such a difference truly exists. Up to now, there is no systemic method of sample size calculation in view of the traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, according to the basic method of sample size calculation and the characteristic of the traditional Chinese medicine clinical evaluation, the sample size calculation methods of the Chinese medicine efficacy and safety are discussed respectively. We hope the paper would be beneficial to medical researchers, and pharmaceutical scientists who are engaged in the areas of Chinese medicine research.

5. How Big Is Big Enough? Sample Size Requirements for CAST Item Parameter Estimation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chuah, Siang Chee; Drasgow, Fritz; Luecht, Richard

2006-01-01

Adaptive tests offer the advantages of reduced test length and increased accuracy in ability estimation. However, adaptive tests require large pools of precalibrated items. This study looks at the development of an item pool for 1 type of adaptive administration: the computer-adaptive sequential test. An important issue is the sample size required…

6. Required sample size for monitoring stand dynamics in strict forest reserves: a case study

Treesearch

Diego Van Den Meersschaut; Bart De Cuyper; Kris Vandekerkhove; Noel Lust

2000-01-01

Stand dynamics in European strict forest reserves are commonly monitored using inventory densities of 5 to 15 percent of the total surface. The assumption that these densities guarantee a representative image of certain parameters is critically analyzed in a case study for the parameters basal area and stem number. The required sample sizes for different accuracy and...

7. Sample Size Calculation for Estimating or Testing a Nonzero Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Krishnamoorthy, K.; Xia, Yanping

2008-01-01

The problems of hypothesis testing and interval estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient of a multivariate normal distribution are considered. It is shown that available one-sided tests are uniformly most powerful, and the one-sided confidence intervals are uniformly most accurate. An exact method of calculating sample size to…

8. Influence of tree spatial pattern and sample plot type and size on inventory

Treesearch

John-Pascall Berrill; Kevin L. O' Hara

2012-01-01

Sampling with different plot types and sizes was simulated using tree location maps and data collected in three even-aged coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) stands selected to represent uniform, random, and clumped spatial patterns of tree locations. Fixed-radius circular plots, belt transects, and variable-radius plots were installed by...

9. Sample size determination for disease prevalence studies with partially validated data.

PubMed

Qiu, Shi-Fang; Poon, Wai-Yin; Tang, Man-Lai

2016-02-01

Disease prevalence is an important topic in medical research, and its study is based on data that are obtained by classifying subjects according to whether a disease has been contracted. Classification can be conducted with high-cost gold standard tests or low-cost screening tests, but the latter are subject to the misclassification of subjects. As a compromise between the two, many research studies use partially validated datasets in which all data points are classified by fallible tests, and some of the data points are validated in the sense that they are also classified by the completely accurate gold-standard test. In this article, we investigate the determination of sample sizes for disease prevalence studies with partially validated data. We use two approaches. The first is to find sample sizes that can achieve a pre-specified power of a statistical test at a chosen significance level, and the second is to find sample sizes that can control the width of a confidence interval with a pre-specified confidence level. Empirical studies have been conducted to demonstrate the performance of various testing procedures with the proposed sample sizes. The applicability of the proposed methods are illustrated by a real-data example. © The Author(s) 2012.

10. Size Distributions and Characterization of Native and Ground Samples for Toxicology Studies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.; Taylor, Larry A.

2010-01-01

This slide presentation shows charts and graphs that review the particle size distribution and characterization of natural and ground samples for toxicology studies. There are graphs which show the volume distribution versus the number distribution for natural occurring dust, jet mill ground dust, and ball mill ground dust.

11. Estimating the Size of a Large Network and its Communities from a Random Sample

PubMed Central

Chen, Lin; Karbasi, Amin; Crawford, Forrest W.

2017-01-01

Most real-world networks are too large to be measured or studied directly and there is substantial interest in estimating global network properties from smaller sub-samples. One of the most important global properties is the number of vertices/nodes in the network. Estimating the number of vertices in a large network is a major challenge in computer science, epidemiology, demography, and intelligence analysis. In this paper we consider a population random graph G = (V, E) from the stochastic block model (SBM) with K communities/blocks. A sample is obtained by randomly choosing a subset W ⊆ V and letting G(W) be the induced subgraph in G of the vertices in W. In addition to G(W), we observe the total degree of each sampled vertex and its block membership. Given this partial information, we propose an efficient PopULation Size Estimation algorithm, called PULSE, that accurately estimates the size of the whole population as well as the size of each community. To support our theoretical analysis, we perform an exhaustive set of experiments to study the effects of sample size, K, and SBM model parameters on the accuracy of the estimates. The experimental results also demonstrate that PULSE significantly outperforms a widely-used method called the network scale-up estimator in a wide variety of scenarios. PMID:28867924

12. Estimating the Size of a Large Network and its Communities from a Random Sample.

PubMed

Chen, Lin; Karbasi, Amin; Crawford, Forrest W

2016-01-01

Most real-world networks are too large to be measured or studied directly and there is substantial interest in estimating global network properties from smaller sub-samples. One of the most important global properties is the number of vertices/nodes in the network. Estimating the number of vertices in a large network is a major challenge in computer science, epidemiology, demography, and intelligence analysis. In this paper we consider a population random graph G = ( V, E ) from the stochastic block model (SBM) with K communities/blocks. A sample is obtained by randomly choosing a subset W ⊆ V and letting G ( W ) be the induced subgraph in G of the vertices in W . In addition to G ( W ), we observe the total degree of each sampled vertex and its block membership. Given this partial information, we propose an efficient PopULation Size Estimation algorithm, called PULSE, that accurately estimates the size of the whole population as well as the size of each community. To support our theoretical analysis, we perform an exhaustive set of experiments to study the effects of sample size, K , and SBM model parameters on the accuracy of the estimates. The experimental results also demonstrate that PULSE significantly outperforms a widely-used method called the network scale-up estimator in a wide variety of scenarios.

13. Sample size for estimating mean and coefficient of variation in species of crotalarias.

PubMed

Toebe, Marcos; Machado, Letícia N; Tartaglia, Francieli L; Carvalho, Juliana O DE; Bandeira, Cirineu T; Cargnelutti Filho, Alberto

2018-04-16

The objective of this study was to determine the sample size necessary to estimate the mean and coefficient of variation in four species of crotalarias (C. juncea, C. spectabilis, C. breviflora and C. ochroleuca). An experiment was carried out for each species during the season 2014/15. At harvest, 1,000 pods of each species were randomly collected. In each pod were measured: mass of pod with and without seeds, length, width and height of pods, number and mass of seeds per pod, and mass of hundred seeds. Measures of central tendency, variability and distribution were calculated, and the normality was verified. The sample size necessary to estimate the mean and coefficient of variation with amplitudes of the confidence interval of 95% (ACI95%) of 2%, 4%, ..., 20% was determined by resampling with replacement. The sample size varies among species and characters, being necessary a larger sample size to estimate the mean in relation of the necessary for the coefficient of variation.

14. On the repeated measures designs and sample sizes for randomized controlled trials.

PubMed

Tango, Toshiro

2016-04-01

For the analysis of longitudinal or repeated measures data, generalized linear mixed-effects models provide a flexible and powerful tool to deal with heterogeneity among subject response profiles. However, the typical statistical design adopted in usual randomized controlled trials is an analysis of covariance type analysis using a pre-defined pair of "pre-post" data, in which pre-(baseline) data are used as a covariate for adjustment together with other covariates. Then, the major design issue is to calculate the sample size or the number of subjects allocated to each treatment group. In this paper, we propose a new repeated measures design and sample size calculations combined with generalized linear mixed-effects models that depend not only on the number of subjects but on the number of repeated measures before and after randomization per subject used for the analysis. The main advantages of the proposed design combined with the generalized linear mixed-effects models are (1) it can easily handle missing data by applying the likelihood-based ignorable analyses under the missing at random assumption and (2) it may lead to a reduction in sample size, compared with the simple pre-post design. The proposed designs and the sample size calculations are illustrated with real data arising from randomized controlled trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

15. Impact of Different Visual Field Testing Paradigms on Sample Size Requirements for Glaucoma Clinical Trials.

PubMed

Wu, Zhichao; Medeiros, Felipe A

2018-03-20

Visual field testing is an important endpoint in glaucoma clinical trials, and the testing paradigm used can have a significant impact on the sample size requirements. To investigate this, this study included 353 eyes of 247 glaucoma patients seen over a 3-year period to extract real-world visual field rates of change and variability estimates to provide sample size estimates from computer simulations. The clinical trial scenario assumed that a new treatment was added to one of two groups that were both under routine clinical care, with various treatment effects examined. Three different visual field testing paradigms were evaluated: a) evenly spaced testing, b) United Kingdom Glaucoma Treatment Study (UKGTS) follow-up scheme, which adds clustered tests at the beginning and end of follow-up in addition to evenly spaced testing, and c) clustered testing paradigm, with clusters of tests at the beginning and end of the trial period and two intermediary visits. The sample size requirements were reduced by 17-19% and 39-40% using the UKGTS and clustered testing paradigms, respectively, when compared to the evenly spaced approach. These findings highlight how the clustered testing paradigm can substantially reduce sample size requirements and improve the feasibility of future glaucoma clinical trials.

16. Effect of sample moisture content on XRD-estimated cellulose crystallinity index and crystallite size

Treesearch

Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Carlos Baez; Richard S. Reiner; Steve P. Verrill

2017-01-01

Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been the most widely used technique to investigate crystallinity index (CrI) and crystallite size (L200) of cellulose materials, there are not many studies that have taken into account the role of sample moisture on these measurements. The present investigation focuses on a variety of celluloses and cellulose...

17. Introduction to Sample Size Choice for Confidence Intervals Based on "t" Statistics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Liu, Xiaofeng Steven; Loudermilk, Brandon; Simpson, Thomas

2014-01-01

Sample size can be chosen to achieve a specified width in a confidence interval. The probability of obtaining a narrow width given that the confidence interval includes the population parameter is defined as the power of the confidence interval, a concept unfamiliar to many practitioners. This article shows how to utilize the Statistical Analysis…

18. Sample size determination for a three-arm equivalence trial of Poisson and negative binomial responses.

PubMed

Chang, Yu-Wei; Tsong, Yi; Zhao, Zhigen

2017-01-01

Assessing equivalence or similarity has drawn much attention recently as many drug products have lost or will lose their patents in the next few years, especially certain best-selling biologics. To claim equivalence between the test treatment and the reference treatment when assay sensitivity is well established from historical data, one has to demonstrate both superiority of the test treatment over placebo and equivalence between the test treatment and the reference treatment. Thus, there is urgency for practitioners to derive a practical way to calculate sample size for a three-arm equivalence trial. The primary endpoints of a clinical trial may not always be continuous, but may be discrete. In this paper, the authors derive power function and discuss sample size requirement for a three-arm equivalence trial with Poisson and negative binomial clinical endpoints. In addition, the authors examine the effect of the dispersion parameter on the power and the sample size by varying its coefficient from small to large. In extensive numerical studies, the authors demonstrate that required sample size heavily depends on the dispersion parameter. Therefore, misusing a Poisson model for negative binomial data may easily lose power up to 20%, depending on the value of the dispersion parameter.

19. The effect of sample size and disease prevalence on supervised machine learning of narrative data.

PubMed Central

McKnight, Lawrence K.; Wilcox, Adam; Hripcsak, George

2002-01-01

This paper examines the independent effects of outcome prevalence and training sample sizes on inductive learning performance. We trained 3 inductive learning algorithms (MC4, IB, and Naïve-Bayes) on 60 simulated datasets of parsed radiology text reports labeled with 6 disease states. Data sets were constructed to define positive outcome states at 4 prevalence rates (1, 5, 10, 25, and 50%) in training set sizes of 200 and 2,000 cases. We found that the effect of outcome prevalence is significant when outcome classes drop below 10% of cases. The effect appeared independent of sample size, induction algorithm used, or class label. Work is needed to identify methods of improving classifier performance when output classes are rare. PMID:12463878

20. Support vector regression to predict porosity and permeability: Effect of sample size

Al-Anazi, A. F.; Gates, I. D.

2012-02-01

Porosity and permeability are key petrophysical parameters obtained from laboratory core analysis. Cores, obtained from drilled wells, are often few in number for most oil and gas fields. Porosity and permeability correlations based on conventional techniques such as linear regression or neural networks trained with core and geophysical logs suffer poor generalization to wells with only geophysical logs. The generalization problem of correlation models often becomes pronounced when the training sample size is small. This is attributed to the underlying assumption that conventional techniques employing the empirical risk minimization (ERM) inductive principle converge asymptotically to the true risk values as the number of samples increases. In small sample size estimation problems, the available training samples must span the complexity of the parameter space so that the model is able both to match the available training samples reasonably well and to generalize to new data. This is achieved using the structural risk minimization (SRM) inductive principle by matching the capability of the model to the available training data. One method that uses SRM is support vector regression (SVR) network. In this research, the capability of SVR to predict porosity and permeability in a heterogeneous sandstone reservoir under the effect of small sample size is evaluated. Particularly, the impact of Vapnik's ɛ-insensitivity loss function and least-modulus loss function on generalization performance was empirically investigated. The results are compared to the multilayer perception (MLP) neural network, a widely used regression method, which operates under the ERM principle. The mean square error and correlation coefficients were used to measure the quality of predictions. The results demonstrate that SVR yields consistently better predictions of the porosity and permeability with small sample size than the MLP method. Also, the performance of SVR depends on both kernel function

1. Repopulation of calibrations with samples from the target site: effect of the size of the calibration.

Guerrero, C.; Zornoza, R.; Gómez, I.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Mataix-Beneyto, J.; García-Orenes, F.

2009-04-01

Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy offers important advantages because is a non-destructive technique, the pre-treatments needed in samples are minimal, and the spectrum of the sample is obtained in less than 1 minute without the needs of chemical reagents. For these reasons, NIR is a fast and cost-effective method. Moreover, NIR allows the analysis of several constituents or parameters simultaneously from the same spectrum once it is obtained. For this, a needed steep is the development of soil spectral libraries (set of samples analysed and scanned) and calibrations (using multivariate techniques). The calibrations should contain the variability of the target site soils in which the calibration is to be used. Many times this premise is not easy to fulfil, especially in libraries recently developed. A classical way to solve this problem is through the repopulation of libraries and the subsequent recalibration of the models. In this work we studied the changes in the accuracy of the predictions as a consequence of the successive addition of samples to repopulation. In general, calibrations with high number of samples and high diversity are desired. But we hypothesized that calibrations with lower quantities of samples (lower size) will absorb more easily the spectral characteristics of the target site. Thus, we suspect that the size of the calibration (model) that will be repopulated could be important. For this reason we also studied this effect in the accuracy of predictions of the repopulated models. In this study we used those spectra of our library which contained data of soil Kjeldahl Nitrogen (NKj) content (near to 1500 samples). First, those spectra from the target site were removed from the spectral library. Then, different quantities of samples of the library were selected (representing the 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the total library). These samples were used to develop calibrations with different sizes (%) of samples. We used partial least

2. Forestry inventory based on multistage sampling with probability proportional to size

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lee, D. C. L.; Hernandez, P., Jr.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1983-01-01

A multistage sampling technique, with probability proportional to size, is developed for a forest volume inventory using remote sensing data. The LANDSAT data, Panchromatic aerial photographs, and field data are collected. Based on age and homogeneity, pine and eucalyptus classes are identified. Selection of tertiary sampling units is made through aerial photographs to minimize field work. The sampling errors for eucalyptus and pine ranged from 8.34 to 21.89 percent and from 7.18 to 8.60 percent, respectively.

3. The effects of sample size on population genomic analyses--implications for the tests of neutrality.

PubMed

Subramanian, Sankar

2016-02-20

One of the fundamental measures of molecular genetic variation is the Watterson's estimator (θ), which is based on the number of segregating sites. The estimation of θ is unbiased only under neutrality and constant population growth. It is well known that the estimation of θ is biased when these assumptions are violated. However, the effects of sample size in modulating the bias was not well appreciated. We examined this issue in detail based on large-scale exome data and robust simulations. Our investigation revealed that sample size appreciably influences θ estimation and this effect was much higher for constrained genomic regions than that of neutral regions. For instance, θ estimated for synonymous sites using 512 human exomes was 1.9 times higher than that obtained using 16 exomes. However, this difference was 2.5 times for the nonsynonymous sites of the same data. We observed a positive correlation between the rate of increase in θ estimates (with respect to the sample size) and the magnitude of selection pressure. For example, θ estimated for the nonsynonymous sites of highly constrained genes (dN/dS < 0.1) using 512 exomes was 3.6 times higher than that estimated using 16 exomes. In contrast this difference was only 2 times for the less constrained genes (dN/dS > 0.9). The results of this study reveal the extent of underestimation owing to small sample sizes and thus emphasize the importance of sample size in estimating a number of population genomic parameters. Our results have serious implications for neutrality tests such as Tajima D, Fu-Li D and those based on the McDonald and Kreitman test: Neutrality Index and the fraction of adaptive substitutions. For instance, use of 16 exomes produced 2.4 times higher proportion of adaptive substitutions compared to that obtained using 512 exomes (24% vs 10 %).

4. Individual cell lag time distributions of Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii) and impact of pooling samples on its detection in powdered infant formula.

PubMed

Miled, Rabeb Bennour; Guillier, Laurent; Neves, Sandra; Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Colin, Pierre; Besse, Nathalie Gnanou

2011-06-01

Cells of six strains of Cronobacter were subjected to dry stress and stored for 2.5 months at ambient temperature. The individual cell lag time distributions of recovered cells were characterized at 25 °C and 37 °C in non-selective broth. The individual cell lag times were deduced from the times taken by cultures from individual cells to reach an optical density threshold. In parallel, growth curves for each strain at high contamination levels were determined in the same growth conditions. In general, the extreme value type II distribution with a shape parameter fixed to 5 (EVIIb) was the most effective at describing the 12 observed distributions of individual cell lag times. Recently, a model for characterizing individual cell lag time distribution from population growth parameters was developed for other food-borne pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. We confirmed this model's applicability to Cronobacter by comparing the mean and the standard deviation of individual cell lag times to populational lag times observed with high initial concentration experiments. We also validated the model in realistic conditions by studying growth in powdered infant formula decimally diluted in Buffered Peptone Water, which represents the first enrichment step of the standard detection method for Cronobacter. Individual lag times and the pooling of samples significantly affect detection performances. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

5. The Power of Low Back Pain Trials: A Systematic Review of Power, Sample Size, and Reporting of Sample Size Calculations Over Time, in Trials Published Between 1980 and 2012.

PubMed

Froud, Robert; Rajendran, Dévan; Patel, Shilpa; Bright, Philip; Bjørkli, Tom; Eldridge, Sandra; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Underwood, Martin

2017-06-01

A systematic review of nonspecific low back pain trials published between 1980 and 2012. To explore what proportion of trials have been powered to detect different bands of effect size; whether there is evidence that sample size in low back pain trials has been increasing; what proportion of trial reports include a sample size calculation; and whether likelihood of reporting sample size calculations has increased. Clinical trials should have a sample size sufficient to detect a minimally important difference for a given power and type I error rate. An underpowered trial is one within which probability of type II error is too high. Meta-analyses do not mitigate underpowered trials. Reviewers independently abstracted data on sample size at point of analysis, whether a sample size calculation was reported, and year of publication. Descriptive analyses were used to explore ability to detect effect sizes, and regression analyses to explore the relationship between sample size, or reporting sample size calculations, and time. We included 383 trials. One-third were powered to detect a standardized mean difference of less than 0.5, and 5% were powered to detect less than 0.3. The average sample size was 153 people, which increased only slightly (∼4 people/yr) from 1980 to 2000, and declined slightly (∼4.5 people/yr) from 2005 to 2011 (P < 0.00005). Sample size calculations were reported in 41% of trials. The odds of reporting a sample size calculation (compared to not reporting one) increased until 2005 and then declined (Equation is included in full-text article.). Sample sizes in back pain trials and the reporting of sample size calculations may need to be increased. It may be justifiable to power a trial to detect only large effects in the case of novel interventions. 3.

6. Size selective isocyanate aerosols personal air sampling using porous plastic foams

Khanh Huynh, Cong; Duc, Trinh Vu

2009-02-01

As part of a European project (SMT4-CT96-2137), various European institutions specialized in occupational hygiene (BGIA, HSL, IOM, INRS, IST, Ambiente e Lavoro) have established a program of scientific collaboration to develop one or more prototypes of European personal samplers for the collection of simultaneous three dust fractions: inhalable, thoracic and respirable. These samplers based on existing sampling heads (IOM, GSP and cassettes) use Polyurethane Plastic Foam (PUF) according to their porosity to support sampling and separator size of the particles. In this study, the authors present an original application of size selective personal air sampling using chemical impregnated PUF to perform isocyanate aerosols capturing and derivatizing in industrial spray-painting shops.

7. Study of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays with the ATLAS detector.

PubMed

The decays [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are studied with the ATLAS detector at the LHC using a dataset corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9 and 20.6 fb[Formula: see text] of pp collisions collected at centre-of-mass energies [Formula: see text] TeV and 8 TeV, respectively. Signal candidates are identified through [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays. With a two-dimensional likelihood fit involving the [Formula: see text] reconstructed invariant mass and an angle between the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] candidate momenta in the muon pair rest frame, the yields of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and the transverse polarisation fraction in [Formula: see text] decay are measured. The transverse polarisation fraction is determined to be [Formula: see text], and the derived ratio of the branching fractions of the two modes is [Formula: see text], where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Finally, a sample of [Formula: see text] decays is used to derive the ratios of branching fractions [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], where the third error corresponds to the uncertainty of the branching fraction of [Formula: see text] decay. The available theoretical predictions are generally consistent with the measurement.

8. The importance of plot size and the number of sampling seasons on capturing macrofungal species richness.

PubMed

Li, Huili; Ostermann, Anne; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Hyde, Kevin D; Mortimer, Peter E

2018-07-01

The species-area relationship is an important factor in the study of species diversity, conservation biology, and landscape ecology. A deeper understanding of this relationship is necessary, in order to provide recommendations on how to improve the quality of data collection on macrofungal diversity in different land use systems in future studies, a systematic assessment of methodological parameters, in particular optimal plot sizes. The species-area relationship of macrofungi in tropical and temperate climatic zones and four different land use systems were investigated by determining the macrofungal species richness in plot sizes ranging from 100 m 2 to 10 000 m 2 over two sampling seasons. We found that the effect of plot size on recorded species richness significantly differed between land use systems with the exception of monoculture systems. For both climate zones, land use system needs to be considered when determining optimal plot size. Using an optimal plot size was more important than temporal replication (over two sampling seasons) in accurately recording species richness. Copyright © 2018 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

9. Topological Analysis and Gaussian Decision Tree: Effective Representation and Classification of Biosignals of Small Sample Size.

PubMed

Zhang, Zhifei; Song, Yang; Cui, Haochen; Wu, Jayne; Schwartz, Fernando; Qi, Hairong

2017-09-01

Bucking the trend of big data, in microdevice engineering, small sample size is common, especially when the device is still at the proof-of-concept stage. The small sample size, small interclass variation, and large intraclass variation, have brought biosignal analysis new challenges. Novel representation and classification approaches need to be developed to effectively recognize targets of interests with the absence of a large training set. Moving away from the traditional signal analysis in the spatiotemporal domain, we exploit the biosignal representation in the topological domain that would reveal the intrinsic structure of point clouds generated from the biosignal. Additionally, we propose a Gaussian-based decision tree (GDT), which can efficiently classify the biosignals even when the sample size is extremely small. This study is motivated by the application of mastitis detection using low-voltage alternating current electrokinetics (ACEK) where five categories of bisignals need to be recognized with only two samples in each class. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness of the topological features as well as the advantage of GDT over some conventional classifiers in handling small dataset. Our method reduces the voltage of ACEK to a safe level and still yields high-fidelity results with a short assay time. This paper makes two distinctive contributions to the field of biosignal analysis, including performing signal processing in the topological domain and handling extremely small dataset. Currently, there have been no related works that can efficiently tackle the dilemma between avoiding electrochemical reaction and accelerating assay process using ACEK.

10. Global Sensitivity Analysis with Small Sample Sizes: Ordinary Least Squares Approach

SciTech Connect

Davis, Michael J.; Liu, Wei; Sivaramakrishnan, Raghu

2016-12-21

A new version of global sensitivity analysis is developed in this paper. This new version coupled with tools from statistics, machine learning, and optimization can devise small sample sizes that allow for the accurate ordering of sensitivity coefficients for the first 10-30 most sensitive chemical reactions in complex chemical-kinetic mechanisms, and is particularly useful for studying the chemistry in realistic devices. A key part of the paper is calibration of these small samples. Because these small sample sizes are developed for use in realistic combustion devices, the calibration is done over the ranges of conditions in such devices, with amore » test case being the operating conditions of a compression ignition engine studied earlier. Compression ignition engines operate under low-temperature combustion conditions with quite complicated chemistry making this calibration difficult, leading to the possibility of false positives and false negatives in the ordering of the reactions. So an important aspect of the paper is showing how to handle the trade-off between false positives and false negatives using ideas from the multiobjective optimization literature. The combination of the new global sensitivity method and the calibration are sample sizes a factor of approximately 10 times smaller than were available with our previous algorithm.« less

11. Sample size allocation for food item radiation monitoring and safety inspection.

PubMed

Seto, Mayumi; Uriu, Koichiro

2015-03-01

The objective of this study is to identify a procedure for determining sample size allocation for food radiation inspections of more than one food item to minimize the potential risk to consumers of internal radiation exposure. We consider a simplified case of food radiation monitoring and safety inspection in which a risk manager is required to monitor two food items, milk and spinach, in a contaminated area. Three protocols for food radiation monitoring with different sample size allocations were assessed by simulating random sampling and inspections of milk and spinach in a conceptual monitoring site. Distributions of (131)I and radiocesium concentrations were determined in reference to (131)I and radiocesium concentrations detected in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, for March and April 2011. The results of the simulations suggested that a protocol that allocates sample size to milk and spinach based on the estimation of (131)I and radiocesium concentrations using the apparent decay rate constants sequentially calculated from past monitoring data can most effectively minimize the potential risks of internal radiation exposure. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

12. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval does...

13. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval does...

14. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval does...

15. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval does...

16. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval does...

17. Effect of finite sample size on feature selection and classification: a simulation study.

PubMed

Way, Ted W; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Chan, Heang-Ping

2010-02-01

The small number of samples available for training and testing is often the limiting factor in finding the most effective features and designing an optimal computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. Training on a limited set of samples introduces bias and variance in the performance of a CAD system relative to that trained with an infinite sample size. In this work, the authors conducted a simulation study to evaluate the performances of various combinations of classifiers and feature selection techniques and their dependence on the class distribution, dimensionality, and the training sample size. The understanding of these relationships will facilitate development of effective CAD systems under the constraint of limited available samples. Three feature selection techniques, the stepwise feature selection (SFS), sequential floating forward search (SFFS), and principal component analysis (PCA), and two commonly used classifiers, Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM), were investigated. Samples were drawn from multidimensional feature spaces of multivariate Gaussian distributions with equal or unequal covariance matrices and unequal means, and with equal covariance matrices and unequal means estimated from a clinical data set. Classifier performance was quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve Az. The mean Az values obtained by resubstitution and hold-out methods were evaluated for training sample sizes ranging from 15 to 100 per class. The number of simulated features available for selection was chosen to be 50, 100, and 200. It was found that the relative performance of the different combinations of classifier and feature selection method depends on the feature space distributions, the dimensionality, and the available training sample sizes. The LDA and SVM with radial kernel performed similarly for most of the conditions evaluated in this study, although the SVM classifier showed a slightly higher

18. Influence of Sample Size of Polymer Materials on Aging Characteristics in the Salt Fog Test

Otsubo, Masahisa; Anami, Naoya; Yamashita, Seiji; Honda, Chikahisa; Takenouchi, Osamu; Hashimoto, Yousuke

Polymer insulators have been used in worldwide because of some superior properties; light weight, high mechanical strength, good hydrophobicity etc., as compared with porcelain insulators. In this paper, effect of sample size on the aging characteristics in the salt fog test is examined. Leakage current was measured by using 100 MHz AD board or 100 MHz digital oscilloscope and separated three components as conductive current, corona discharge current and dry band arc discharge current by using FFT and the current differential method newly proposed. Each component cumulative charge was estimated automatically by a personal computer. As the results, when the sample size increased under the same average applied electric field, the peak values of leakage current and each component current increased. Especially, the cumulative charges and the arc discharge length of dry band arc discharge increased remarkably with the increase of gap length.

19. A contemporary decennial global Landsat sample of changing agricultural field sizes

White, Emma; Roy, David

2014-05-01

Agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change, with dramatic cropland expansion in the last century and significant increases in productivity over the past few decades. Satellite data have been used for agricultural applications including cropland distribution mapping, crop condition monitoring, crop production assessment and yield prediction. Satellite based agricultural applications are less reliable when the sensor spatial resolution is small relative to the field size. However, to date, studies of agricultural field size distributions and their change have been limited, even though this information is needed to inform the design of agricultural satellite monitoring systems. Moreover, the size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLU change. In many parts of the world field sizes may have increased. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, and impacts on the diffusion of herbicides, pesticides, disease pathogens, and pests. The Landsat series of satellites provide the longest record of global land observations, with 30m observations available since 1982. Landsat data are used to examine contemporary field size changes in a period (1980 to 2010) when significant global agricultural changes have occurred. A multi-scale sampling approach is used to locate global hotspots of field size change by examination of a recent global agricultural yield map and literature review. Nine hotspots are selected where significant field size change is apparent and where change has been driven by technological advancements (Argentina and U.S.), abrupt societal changes (Albania and Zimbabwe), government land use and agricultural policy changes (China, Malaysia, Brazil), and/or constrained by

20. Scale-dependent effect sizes of ecological drivers on biodiversity: why standardised sampling is not enough.

PubMed

Chase, Jonathan M; Knight, Tiffany M

2013-05-01

There is little consensus about how natural (e.g. productivity, disturbance) and anthropogenic (e.g. invasive species, habitat destruction) ecological drivers influence biodiversity. Here, we show that when sampling is standardised by area (species density) or individuals (rarefied species richness), the measured effect sizes depend critically on the spatial grain and extent of sampling, as well as the size of the species pool. This compromises comparisons of effects sizes within studies using standard statistics, as well as among studies using meta-analysis. To derive an unambiguous effect size, we advocate that comparisons need to be made on a scale-independent metric, such as Hurlbert's Probability of Interspecific Encounter. Analyses of this metric can be used to disentangle the relative influence of changes in the absolute and relative abundances of individuals, as well as their intraspecific aggregations, in driving differences in biodiversity among communities. This and related approaches are necessary to achieve generality in understanding how biodiversity responds to ecological drivers and will necessitate a change in the way many ecologists collect and analyse their data. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

1. On the validity of the Poisson assumption in sampling nanometer-sized aerosols

SciTech Connect

Damit, Brian E; Wu, Dr. Chang-Yu; Cheng, Mengdawn

2014-01-01

A Poisson process is traditionally believed to apply to the sampling of aerosols. For a constant aerosol concentration, it is assumed that a Poisson process describes the fluctuation in the measured concentration because aerosols are stochastically distributed in space. Recent studies, however, have shown that sampling of micrometer-sized aerosols has non-Poissonian behavior with positive correlations. The validity of the Poisson assumption for nanometer-sized aerosols has not been examined and thus was tested in this study. Its validity was tested for four particle sizes - 10 nm, 25 nm, 50 nm and 100 nm - by sampling from indoor air withmore » a DMA- CPC setup to obtain a time series of particle counts. Five metrics were calculated from the data: pair-correlation function (PCF), time-averaged PCF, coefficient of variation, probability of measuring a concentration at least 25% greater than average, and posterior distributions from Bayesian inference. To identify departures from Poissonian behavior, these metrics were also calculated for 1,000 computer-generated Poisson time series with the same mean as the experimental data. For nearly all comparisons, the experimental data fell within the range of 80% of the Poisson-simulation values. Essentially, the metrics for the experimental data were indistinguishable from a simulated Poisson process. The greater influence of Brownian motion for nanometer-sized aerosols may explain the Poissonian behavior observed for smaller aerosols. Although the Poisson assumption was found to be valid in this study, it must be carefully applied as the results here do not definitively prove applicability in all sampling situations.« less

2. Robustness of methods for blinded sample size re-estimation with overdispersed count data.

PubMed

Schneider, Simon; Schmidli, Heinz; Friede, Tim

2013-09-20

Counts of events are increasingly common as primary endpoints in randomized clinical trials. With between-patient heterogeneity leading to variances in excess of the mean (referred to as overdispersion), statistical models reflecting this heterogeneity by mixtures of Poisson distributions are frequently employed. Sample size calculation in the planning of such trials requires knowledge on the nuisance parameters, that is, the control (or overall) event rate and the overdispersion parameter. Usually, there is only little prior knowledge regarding these parameters in the design phase resulting in considerable uncertainty regarding the sample size. In this situation internal pilot studies have been found very useful and very recently several blinded procedures for sample size re-estimation have been proposed for overdispersed count data, one of which is based on an EM-algorithm. In this paper we investigate the EM-algorithm based procedure with respect to aspects of their implementation by studying the algorithm's dependence on the choice of convergence criterion and find that the procedure is sensitive to the choice of the stopping criterion in scenarios relevant to clinical practice. We also compare the EM-based procedure to other competing procedures regarding their operating characteristics such as sample size distribution and power. Furthermore, the robustness of these procedures to deviations from the model assumptions is explored. We find that some of the procedures are robust to at least moderate deviations. The results are illustrated using data from the US National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute sponsored Asymptomatic Cardiac Ischemia Pilot study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

3. Power and sample size for multivariate logistic modeling of unmatched case-control studies.

PubMed

Gail, Mitchell H; Haneuse, Sebastien

2017-01-01

Sample size calculations are needed to design and assess the feasibility of case-control studies. Although such calculations are readily available for simple case-control designs and univariate analyses, there is limited theory and software for multivariate unconditional logistic analysis of case-control data. Here we outline the theory needed to detect scalar exposure effects or scalar interactions while controlling for other covariates in logistic regression. Both analytical and simulation methods are presented, together with links to the corresponding software.

4. Sample Size Methods for Estimating HIV Incidence from Cross-Sectional Surveys

PubMed Central

Brookmeyer, Ron

2015-01-01

Summary Understanding HIV incidence, the rate at which new infections occur in populations, is critical for tracking and surveillance of the epidemic. In this paper we derive methods for determining sample sizes for cross-sectional surveys to estimate incidence with sufficient precision. We further show how to specify sample sizes for two successive cross-sectional surveys to detect changes in incidence with adequate power. In these surveys biomarkers such as CD4 cell count, viral load, and recently developed serological assays are used to determine which individuals are in an early disease stage of infection. The total number of individuals in this stage, divided by the number of people who are uninfected, is used to approximate the incidence rate. Our methods account for uncertainty in the durations of time spent in the biomarker defined early disease stage. We find that failure to account for this uncertainty when designing surveys can lead to imprecise estimates of incidence and underpowered studies. We evaluated our sample size methods in simulations and found that they performed well in a variety of underlying epidemics. Code for implementing our methods in R is available with this paper at the Biometrics website on Wiley Online Library. PMID:26302040

5. Re-estimating sample size in cluster randomised trials with active recruitment within clusters.

PubMed

van Schie, S; Moerbeek, M

2014-08-30

Often only a limited number of clusters can be obtained in cluster randomised trials, although many potential participants can be recruited within each cluster. Thus, active recruitment is feasible within the clusters. To obtain an efficient sample size in a cluster randomised trial, the cluster level and individual level variance should be known before the study starts, but this is often not the case. We suggest using an internal pilot study design to address this problem of unknown variances. A pilot can be useful to re-estimate the variances and re-calculate the sample size during the trial. Using simulated data, it is shown that an initially low or high power can be adjusted using an internal pilot with the type I error rate remaining within an acceptable range. The intracluster correlation coefficient can be re-estimated with more precision, which has a positive effect on the sample size. We conclude that an internal pilot study design may be used if active recruitment is feasible within a limited number of clusters. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

6. Sample size methods for estimating HIV incidence from cross-sectional surveys.

PubMed

Konikoff, Jacob; Brookmeyer, Ron

2015-12-01

Understanding HIV incidence, the rate at which new infections occur in populations, is critical for tracking and surveillance of the epidemic. In this article, we derive methods for determining sample sizes for cross-sectional surveys to estimate incidence with sufficient precision. We further show how to specify sample sizes for two successive cross-sectional surveys to detect changes in incidence with adequate power. In these surveys biomarkers such as CD4 cell count, viral load, and recently developed serological assays are used to determine which individuals are in an early disease stage of infection. The total number of individuals in this stage, divided by the number of people who are uninfected, is used to approximate the incidence rate. Our methods account for uncertainty in the durations of time spent in the biomarker defined early disease stage. We find that failure to account for this uncertainty when designing surveys can lead to imprecise estimates of incidence and underpowered studies. We evaluated our sample size methods in simulations and found that they performed well in a variety of underlying epidemics. Code for implementing our methods in R is available with this article at the Biometrics website on Wiley Online Library. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

7. Monitoring the impact of Bt maize on butterflies in the field: estimation of required sample sizes.

PubMed

Lang, Andreas

2004-01-01

The monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) after deliberate release is important in order to assess and evaluate possible environmental effects. Concerns have been raised that the transgenic crop, Bt maize, may affect butterflies occurring in field margins. Therefore, a monitoring of butterflies was suggested accompanying the commercial cultivation of Bt maize. In this study, baseline data on the butterfly species and their abundance in maize field margins is presented together with implications for butterfly monitoring. The study was conducted in Bavaria, South Germany, between 2000-2002. A total of 33 butterfly species was recorded in field margins. A small number of species dominated the community, and butterflies observed were mostly common species. Observation duration was the most important factor influencing the monitoring results. Field margin size affected the butterfly abundance, and habitat diversity had a tendency to influence species richness. Sample size and statistical power analyses indicated that a sample size in the range of 75 to 150 field margins for treatment (transgenic maize) and control (conventional maize) would detect (power of 80%) effects larger than 15% in species richness and the butterfly abundance pooled across species. However, a much higher number of field margins must be sampled in order to achieve a higher statistical power, to detect smaller effects, and to monitor single butterfly species.

8. Sample size calculations for the design of cluster randomized trials: A summary of methodology.

PubMed

Gao, Fei; Earnest, Arul; Matchar, David B; Campbell, Michael J; Machin, David

2015-05-01

Cluster randomized trial designs are growing in popularity in, for example, cardiovascular medicine research and other clinical areas and parallel statistical developments concerned with the design and analysis of these trials have been stimulated. Nevertheless, reviews suggest that design issues associated with cluster randomized trials are often poorly appreciated and there remain inadequacies in, for example, describing how the trial size is determined and the associated results are presented. In this paper, our aim is to provide pragmatic guidance for researchers on the methods of calculating sample sizes. We focus attention on designs with the primary purpose of comparing two interventions with respect to continuous, binary, ordered categorical, incidence rate and time-to-event outcome variables. Issues of aggregate and non-aggregate cluster trials, adjustment for variation in cluster size and the effect size are detailed. The problem of establishing the anticipated magnitude of between- and within-cluster variation to enable planning values of the intra-cluster correlation coefficient and the coefficient of variation are also described. Illustrative examples of calculations of trial sizes for each endpoint type are included. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121 Section 17.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132 and...

10. (Sample) Size Matters: Best Practices for Defining Error in Planktic Foraminiferal Proxy Records

Lowery, C.; Fraass, A. J.

2016-02-01

Paleoceanographic research is a vital tool to extend modern observational datasets and to study the impact of climate events for which there is no modern analog. Foraminifera are one of the most widely used tools for this type of work, both as paleoecological indicators and as carriers for geochemical proxies. However, the use of microfossils as proxies for paleoceanographic conditions brings about a unique set of problems. This is primarily due to the fact that groups of individual foraminifera, which usually live about a month, are used to infer average conditions for time periods ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of years. Because of this, adequate sample size is very important for generating statistically robust datasets, particularly for stable isotopes. In the early days of stable isotope geochemistry, instrumental limitations required hundreds of individual foraminiferal tests to return a value. This had the fortunate side-effect of smoothing any seasonal to decadal changes within the planktic foram population. With the advent of more sensitive mass spectrometers, smaller sample sizes have now become standard. While this has many advantages, the use of smaller numbers of individuals to generate a data point has lessened the amount of time averaging in the isotopic analysis and decreased precision in paleoceanographic datasets. With fewer individuals per sample, the differences between individual specimens will result in larger variation, and therefore error, and less precise values for each sample. Unfortunately, most (the authors included) do not make a habit of reporting the error associated with their sample size. We have created an open-source model in R to quantify the effect of sample sizes under various realistic and highly modifiable parameters (calcification depth, diagenesis in a subset of the population, improper identification, vital effects, mass, etc.). For example, a sample in which only 1 in 10 specimens is diagenetically altered can

11. In Situ Sampling of Relative Dust Devil Particle Loads and Their Vertical Grain Size Distributions.

PubMed

Raack, Jan; Reiss, Dennis; Balme, Matthew R; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Ori, Gian Gabriele

2017-04-19

During a field campaign in the Sahara Desert in southern Morocco, spring 2012, we sampled the vertical grain size distribution of two active dust devils that exhibited different dimensions and intensities. With these in situ samples of grains in the vortices, it was possible to derive detailed vertical grain size distributions and measurements of the lifted relative particle load. Measurements of the two dust devils show that the majority of all lifted particles were only lifted within the first meter (∼46.5% and ∼61% of all particles; ∼76.5 wt % and ∼89 wt % of the relative particle load). Furthermore, ∼69% and ∼82% of all lifted sand grains occurred in the first meter of the dust devils, indicating the occurrence of "sand skirts." Both sampled dust devils were relatively small (∼15 m and ∼4-5 m in diameter) compared to dust devils in surrounding regions; nevertheless, measurements show that ∼58.5% to 73.5% of all lifted particles were small enough to go into suspension (<31 μm, depending on the used grain size classification). This relatively high amount represents only ∼0.05 to 0.15 wt % of the lifted particle load. Larger dust devils probably entrain larger amounts of fine-grained material into the atmosphere, which can have an influence on the climate. Furthermore, our results indicate that the composition of the surface, on which the dust devils evolved, also had an influence on the particle load composition of the dust devil vortices. The internal particle load structure of both sampled dust devils was comparable related to their vertical grain size distribution and relative particle load, although both dust devils differed in their dimensions and intensities. A general trend of decreasing grain sizes with height was also detected. Key Words: Mars-Dust devils-Planetary science-Desert soils-Atmosphere-Grain sizes. Astrobiology 17, xxx-xxx.

12. An Analytic Solution to the Computation of Power and Sample Size for Genetic Association Studies under a Pleiotropic Mode of Inheritance.

PubMed

Gordon, Derek; Londono, Douglas; Patel, Payal; Kim, Wonkuk; Finch, Stephen J; Heiman, Gary A

2016-01-01

Our motivation here is to calculate the power of 3 statistical tests used when there are genetic traits that operate under a pleiotropic mode of inheritance and when qualitative phenotypes are defined by use of thresholds for the multiple quantitative phenotypes. Specifically, we formulate a multivariate function that provides the probability that an individual has a vector of specific quantitative trait values conditional on having a risk locus genotype, and we apply thresholds to define qualitative phenotypes (affected, unaffected) and compute penetrances and conditional genotype frequencies based on the multivariate function. We extend the analytic power and minimum-sample-size-necessary (MSSN) formulas for 2 categorical data-based tests (genotype, linear trend test [LTT]) of genetic association to the pleiotropic model. We further compare the MSSN of the genotype test and the LTT with that of a multivariate ANOVA (Pillai). We approximate the MSSN for statistics by linear models using a factorial design and ANOVA. With ANOVA decomposition, we determine which factors most significantly change the power/MSSN for all statistics. Finally, we determine which test statistics have the smallest MSSN. In this work, MSSN calculations are for 2 traits (bivariate distributions) only (for illustrative purposes). We note that the calculations may be extended to address any number of traits. Our key findings are that the genotype test usually has lower MSSN requirements than the LTT. More inclusive thresholds (top/bottom 25% vs. top/bottom 10%) have higher sample size requirements. The Pillai test has a much larger MSSN than both the genotype test and the LTT, as a result of sample selection. With these formulas, researchers can specify how many subjects they must collect to localize genes for pleiotropic phenotypes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

13. Sub-sampling genetic data to estimate black bear population size: A case study

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tredick, C.A.; Vaughan, M.R.; Stauffer, D.F.; Simek, S.L.; Eason, T.

2007-01-01

Costs for genetic analysis of hair samples collected for individual identification of bears average approximately US\$50 [2004] per sample. This can easily exceed budgetary allowances for large-scale studies or studies of high-density bear populations. We used 2 genetic datasets from 2 areas in the southeastern United States to explore how reducing costs of analysis by sub-sampling affected precision and accuracy of resulting population estimates. We used several sub-sampling scenarios to create subsets of the full datasets and compared summary statistics, population estimates, and precision of estimates generated from these subsets to estimates generated from the complete datasets. Our results suggested that bias and precision of estimates improved as the proportion of total samples used increased, and heterogeneity models (e.g., Mh[CHAO]) were more robust to reduced sample sizes than other models (e.g., behavior models). We recommend that only high-quality samples (>5 hair follicles) be used when budgets are constrained, and efforts should be made to maximize capture and recapture rates in the field.

14. Estimating the Effective Sample Size of Tree Topologies from Bayesian Phylogenetic Analyses

PubMed Central

Lanfear, Robert; Hua, Xia; Warren, Dan L.

2016-01-01

Bayesian phylogenetic analyses estimate posterior distributions of phylogenetic tree topologies and other parameters using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. Before making inferences from these distributions, it is important to assess their adequacy. To this end, the effective sample size (ESS) estimates how many truly independent samples of a given parameter the output of the MCMC represents. The ESS of a parameter is frequently much lower than the number of samples taken from the MCMC because sequential samples from the chain can be non-independent due to autocorrelation. Typically, phylogeneticists use a rule of thumb that the ESS of all parameters should be greater than 200. However, we have no method to calculate an ESS of tree topology samples, despite the fact that the tree topology is often the parameter of primary interest and is almost always central to the estimation of other parameters. That is, we lack a method to determine whether we have adequately sampled one of the most important parameters in our analyses. In this study, we address this problem by developing methods to estimate the ESS for tree topologies. We combine these methods with two new diagnostic plots for assessing posterior samples of tree topologies, and compare their performance on simulated and empirical data sets. Combined, the methods we present provide new ways to assess the mixing and convergence of phylogenetic tree topologies in Bayesian MCMC analyses. PMID:27435794

15. Improved variance estimation of classification performance via reduction of bias caused by small sample size.

PubMed

Wickenberg-Bolin, Ulrika; Göransson, Hanna; Fryknäs, Mårten; Gustafsson, Mats G; Isaksson, Anders

2006-03-13

Supervised learning for classification of cancer employs a set of design examples to learn how to discriminate between tumors. In practice it is crucial to confirm that the classifier is robust with good generalization performance to new examples, or at least that it performs better than random guessing. A suggested alternative is to obtain a confidence interval of the error rate using repeated design and test sets selected from available examples. However, it is known that even in the ideal situation of repeated designs and tests with completely novel samples in each cycle, a small test set size leads to a large bias in the estimate of the true variance between design sets. Therefore different methods for small sample performance estimation such as a recently proposed procedure called Repeated Random Sampling (RSS) is also expected to result in heavily biased estimates, which in turn translates into biased confidence intervals. Here we explore such biases and develop a refined algorithm called Repeated Independent Design and Test (RIDT). Our simulations reveal that repeated designs and tests based on resampling in a fixed bag of samples yield a biased variance estimate. We also demonstrate that it is possible to obtain an improved variance estimate by means of a procedure that explicitly models how this bias depends on the number of samples used for testing. For the special case of repeated designs and tests using new samples for each design and test, we present an exact analytical expression for how the expected value of the bias decreases with the size of the test set. We show that via modeling and subsequent reduction of the small sample bias, it is possible to obtain an improved estimate of the variance of classifier performance between design sets. However, the uncertainty of the variance estimate is large in the simulations performed indicating that the method in its present form cannot be directly applied to small data sets.

16. [Self-assessment of BMI data : verification of the practicability of a correction formula on a sample of 11- to 13-year-old girls].

PubMed

Wick, K; Hölling, H; Schlack, R; Bormann, B; Brix, C; Sowa, M; Strauss, B; Berger, U

2011-06-01

The decision to measure or to ask about data concerning height and weight in order to calculate body mass index (BMI) has an influence on the economy and validity of the measurements. Although self-reported information is less expensive, this information may possibly have a bias on the determined prevalences of different weight groups. Using representative data from the KiGGS study with a comparison of directly measured and self-reported BMI data, Kurth and Ellert (2010) developed two correction formulas for prevalences resulting from self-reported information. The aim of the study was to examine the practicability of the proposed correction formulas on our own data concerning self-reported BMI data of 11- to 13-year-old girls (n=1,271) and to assess the plausibility of the corrected measurements. As a result, the prevalences of our own data changed in the expected direction both for underweight and for overweight. Both formulas were found to be practicable, the consideration of the subjective weight status (formula 2) resulted in a greater change in prevalences compared to the first correction formula.

17. A two-stage Monte Carlo approach to the expression of uncertainty with finite sample sizes.

SciTech Connect

Crowder, Stephen Vernon; Moyer, Robert D.

2005-05-01

Proposed supplement I to the GUM outlines a 'propagation of distributions' approach to deriving the distribution of a measurand for any non-linear function and for any set of random inputs. The supplement's proposed Monte Carlo approach assumes that the distributions of the random inputs are known exactly. This implies that the sample sizes are effectively infinite. In this case, the mean of the measurand can be determined precisely using a large number of Monte Carlo simulations. In practice, however, the distributions of the inputs will rarely be known exactly, but must be estimated using possibly small samples. If these approximatedmore » distributions are treated as exact, the uncertainty in estimating the mean is not properly taken into account. In this paper, we propose a two-stage Monte Carlo procedure that explicitly takes into account the finite sample sizes used to estimate parameters of the input distributions. We will illustrate the approach with a case study involving the efficiency of a thermistor mount power sensor. The performance of the proposed approach will be compared to the standard GUM approach for finite samples using simple non-linear measurement equations. We will investigate performance in terms of coverage probabilities of derived confidence intervals.« less

18. What is an adequate sample size? Operationalising data saturation for theory-based interview studies.

PubMed

Francis, Jill J; Johnston, Marie; Robertson, Clare; Glidewell, Liz; Entwistle, Vikki; Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

2010-12-01

In interview studies, sample size is often justified by interviewing participants until reaching 'data saturation'. However, there is no agreed method of establishing this. We propose principles for deciding saturation in theory-based interview studies (where conceptual categories are pre-established by existing theory). First, specify a minimum sample size for initial analysis (initial analysis sample). Second, specify how many more interviews will be conducted without new ideas emerging (stopping criterion). We demonstrate these principles in two studies, based on the theory of planned behaviour, designed to identify three belief categories (Behavioural, Normative and Control), using an initial analysis sample of 10 and stopping criterion of 3. Study 1 (retrospective analysis of existing data) identified 84 shared beliefs of 14 general medical practitioners about managing patients with sore throat without prescribing antibiotics. The criterion for saturation was achieved for Normative beliefs but not for other beliefs or studywise saturation. In Study 2 (prospective analysis), 17 relatives of people with Paget's disease of the bone reported 44 shared beliefs about taking genetic testing. Studywise data saturation was achieved at interview 17. We propose specification of these principles for reporting data saturation in theory-based interview studies. The principles may be adaptable for other types of studies.

19. Using a Divided Bar Apparatus to Measure Thermal Conductivity of Samples of Odd Sizes and Shapes

Crowell, J. "; Gosnold, W. D.

2012-12-01

Standard procedure for measuring thermal conductivity using a divided bar apparatus requires a sample that has the same surface dimensions as the heat sink/source surface in the divided bar. Heat flow is assumed to be constant throughout the column and thermal conductivity (K) is determined by measuring temperatures (T) across the sample and across standard layers and using the basic relationship Ksample=(Kstandard*(ΔT1+ΔT2)/2)/(ΔTsample). Sometimes samples are not large enough or of correct proportions to match the surface of the heat sink/source, however using the equations presented here the thermal conductivity of these samples can still be measured with a divided bar. Measurements were done on the UND Geothermal Laboratories stationary divided bar apparatus (SDB). This SDB has been designed to mimic many in-situ conditions, with a temperature range of -20C to 150C and a pressure range of 0 to 10,000 psi for samples with parallel surfaces and 0 to 3000 psi for samples with non-parallel surfaces. The heat sink/source surfaces are copper disks and have a surface area of 1,772 mm2 (2.74 in2). Layers of polycarbonate 6 mm thick with the same surface area as the copper disks are located in the heat sink and in the heat source as standards. For this study, all samples were prepared from a single piece of 4 inch limestone core. Thermal conductivities were measured for each sample as it was cut successively smaller. The above equation was adjusted to include the thicknesses (Th) of the samples and the standards and the surface areas (A) of the heat sink/source and of the sample Ksample=(Kstandard*Astandard*Thsample*(ΔT1+ΔT3))/(ΔTsample*Asample*2*Thstandard). Measuring the thermal conductivity of samples of multiple sizes, shapes, and thicknesses gave consistent values for samples with surfaces as small as 50% of the heat sink/source surface, regardless of the shape of the sample. Measuring samples with surfaces smaller than 50% of the heat sink/source surface

20. Clinical and MRI activity as determinants of sample size for pediatric multiple sclerosis trials

PubMed Central

Verhey, Leonard H.; Signori, Alessio; Arnold, Douglas L.; Bar-Or, Amit; Sadovnick, A. Dessa; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Banwell, Brenda

2013-01-01

Objective: To estimate sample sizes for pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) trials using new T2 lesion count, annualized relapse rate (ARR), and time to first relapse (TTFR) endpoints. Methods: Poisson and negative binomial models were fit to new T2 lesion and relapse count data, and negative binomial time-to-event and exponential models were fit to TTFR data of 42 children with MS enrolled in a national prospective cohort study. Simulations were performed by resampling from the best-fitting model of new T2 lesion count, number of relapses, or TTFR, under various assumptions of the effect size, trial duration, and model parameters. Results: Assuming a 50% reduction in new T2 lesions over 6 months, 90 patients/arm are required, whereas 165 patients/arm are required for a 40% treatment effect. Sample sizes for 2-year trials using relapse-related endpoints are lower than that for 1-year trials. For 2-year trials and a conservative assumption of overdispersion (ϑ), sample sizes range from 70 patients/arm (using ARR) to 105 patients/arm (TTFR) for a 50% reduction in relapses, and 230 patients/arm (ARR) to 365 patients/arm (TTFR) for a 30% relapse reduction. Assuming a less conservative ϑ, 2-year trials using ARR require 45 patients/arm (60 patients/arm for TTFR) for a 50% reduction in relapses and 145 patients/arm (200 patients/arm for TTFR) for a 30% reduction. Conclusion: Six-month phase II trials using new T2 lesion count as an endpoint are feasible in the pediatric MS population; however, trials powered on ARR or TTFR will need to be 2 years in duration and will require multicentered collaboration. PMID:23966255

1. Measurement of the jet mass in highly boosted [Formula: see text] events from pp collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text].

PubMed

2017-01-01

The first measurement of the jet mass [Formula: see text] of top quark jets produced in [Formula: see text] events from pp collisions at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] is reported for the jet with the largest transverse momentum [Formula: see text] in highly boosted hadronic top quark decays. The data sample, collected with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the lepton+jets channel in which the products of the semileptonic decay [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is an electron or muon, are used to select [Formula: see text] events with large Lorentz boosts. The products of the fully hadronic decay [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] are reconstructed using a single Cambridge-Aachen jet with distance parameter [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. The [Formula: see text] cross section as a function of [Formula: see text] is unfolded at the particle level and is used to test the modelling of highly boosted top quark production. The peak position of the [Formula: see text] distribution is sensitive to the top quark mass [Formula: see text], and the data are used to extract a value of [Formula: see text] to assess this sensitivity.

2. Sample size calculations for randomized clinical trials published in anesthesiology journals: a comparison of 2010 versus 2016.

PubMed

Chow, Jeffrey T Y; Turkstra, Timothy P; Yim, Edmund; Jones, Philip M

2018-06-01

Although every randomized clinical trial (RCT) needs participants, determining the ideal number of participants that balances limited resources and the ability to detect a real effect is difficult. Focussing on two-arm, parallel group, superiority RCTs published in six general anesthesiology journals, the objective of this study was to compare the quality of sample size calculations for RCTs published in 2010 vs 2016. Each RCT's full text was searched for the presence of a sample size calculation, and the assumptions made by the investigators were compared with the actual values observed in the results. Analyses were only performed for sample size calculations that were amenable to replication, defined as using a clearly identified outcome that was continuous or binary in a standard sample size calculation procedure. The percentage of RCTs reporting all sample size calculation assumptions increased from 51% in 2010 to 84% in 2016. The difference between the values observed in the study and the expected values used for the sample size calculation for most RCTs was usually > 10% of the expected value, with negligible improvement from 2010 to 2016. While the reporting of sample size calculations improved from 2010 to 2016, the expected values in these sample size calculations often assumed effect sizes larger than those actually observed in the study. Since overly optimistic assumptions may systematically lead to underpowered RCTs, improvements in how to calculate and report sample sizes in anesthesiology research are needed.

3. Measurement of quarkonium production at forward rapidity in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text]TeV.

PubMed

The inclusive production cross sections at forward rapidity of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text](1S) and [Formula: see text](2S) are measured in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.35 pb[Formula: see text]. Quarkonia are reconstructed in the dimuon-decay channel and the signal yields are evaluated by fitting the [Formula: see text] invariant mass distributions. The differential production cross sections are measured as a function of the transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text], over the ranges [Formula: see text] GeV/c for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] GeV/c for all other resonances and for [Formula: see text]. The measured cross sections integrated over [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and assuming unpolarized quarkonia, are: [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]b, [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]b, [Formula: see text] nb and [Formula: see text] nb, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second one is systematic. The results are compared to measurements performed by other LHC experiments and to theoretical models.

4. A novel approach for small sample size family-based association studies: sequential tests.

PubMed

Ilk, Ozlem; Rajabli, Farid; Dungul, Dilay Ciglidag; Ozdag, Hilal; Ilk, Hakki Gokhan

2011-08-01

In this paper, we propose a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) to overcome the problem of limited samples in studies related to complex genetic diseases. The results of this novel approach are compared with the ones obtained from the traditional transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on simulated data. Although TDT classifies single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to only two groups (SNPs associated with the disease and the others), SPRT has the flexibility of assigning SNPs to a third group, that is, those for which we do not have enough evidence and should keep sampling. It is shown that SPRT results in smaller ratios of false positives and negatives, as well as better accuracy and sensitivity values for classifying SNPs when compared with TDT. By using SPRT, data with small sample size become usable for an accurate association analysis.

5. Forest inventory using multistage sampling with probability proportional to size. [Brazil

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Hernandezfilho, P.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Deassis, O. R.; Demedeiros, J. S.

1984-01-01

A multistage sampling technique, with probability proportional to size, for forest volume inventory using remote sensing data is developed and evaluated. The study area is located in the Southeastern Brazil. The LANDSAT 4 digital data of the study area are used in the first stage for automatic classification of reforested areas. Four classes of pine and eucalypt with different tree volumes are classified utilizing a maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Color infrared aerial photographs are utilized in the second stage of sampling. In the third state (ground level) the time volume of each class is determined. The total time volume of each class is expanded through a statistical procedure taking into account all the three stages of sampling. This procedure results in an accurate time volume estimate with a smaller number of aerial photographs and reduced time in field work.

6. Analysis of small sample size studies using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method.

PubMed

Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Alvarado, Luis A

2017-06-30

Experimental studies in biomedical research frequently pose analytical problems related to small sample size. In such studies, there are conflicting findings regarding the choice of parametric and nonparametric analysis, especially with non-normal data. In such instances, some methodologists questioned the validity of parametric tests and suggested nonparametric tests. In contrast, other methodologists found nonparametric tests to be too conservative and less powerful and thus preferred using parametric tests. Some researchers have recommended using a bootstrap test; however, this method also has small sample size limitation. We used a pooled method in nonparametric bootstrap test that may overcome the problem related with small samples in hypothesis testing. The present study compared nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method corresponding to parametric, nonparametric, and permutation tests through extensive simulations under various conditions and using real data examples. The nonparametric pooled bootstrap t-test provided equal or greater power for comparing two means as compared with unpaired t-test, Welch t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and permutation test while maintaining type I error probability for any conditions except for Cauchy and extreme variable lognormal distributions. In such cases, we suggest using an exact Wilcoxon rank sum test. Nonparametric bootstrap paired t-test also provided better performance than other alternatives. Nonparametric bootstrap test provided benefit over exact Kruskal-Wallis test. We suggest using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method for comparing paired or unpaired means and for validating the one way analysis of variance test results for non-normal data in small sample size studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

7. Evaluation of Sampling Recommendations From the Influenza Virologic Surveillance Right Size Roadmap for Idaho

PubMed Central

2017-01-01

Background The Right Size Roadmap was developed by the Association of Public Health Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to improve influenza virologic surveillance efficiency. Guidelines were provided to state health departments regarding representativeness and statistical estimates of specimen numbers needed for seasonal influenza situational awareness, rare or novel influenza virus detection, and rare or novel influenza virus investigation. Objective The aim of this study was to compare Roadmap sampling recommendations with Idaho’s influenza virologic surveillance to determine implementation feasibility. Methods We calculated the proportion of medically attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) from Idaho’s influenza-like illness surveillance among outpatients during October 2008 to May 2014, applied data to Roadmap-provided sample size calculators, and compared calculations with actual numbers of specimens tested for influenza by the Idaho Bureau of Laboratories (IBL). We assessed representativeness among patients’ tested specimens to census estimates by age, sex, and health district residence. Results Among outpatients surveilled, Idaho’s mean annual proportion of MA-ILI was 2.30% (20,834/905,818) during a 5-year period. Thus, according to Roadmap recommendations, Idaho needs to collect 128 specimens from MA-ILI patients/week for situational awareness, 1496 influenza-positive specimens/week for detection of a rare or novel influenza virus at 0.2% prevalence, and after detection, 478 specimens/week to confirm true prevalence is ≤2% of influenza-positive samples. The mean number of respiratory specimens Idaho tested for influenza/week, excluding the 2009-2010 influenza season, ranged from 6 to 24. Various influenza virus types and subtypes were collected and specimen submission sources were representative in terms of geographic distribution, patient age range and sex, and disease severity. Conclusions Insufficient numbers of

8. Measurement of the double-differential inclusive jet cross section in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text].

PubMed

2016-01-01

A measurement of the double-differential inclusive jet cross section as a function of jet transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and absolute jet rapidity [Formula: see text] is presented. The analysis is based on proton-proton collisions collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 13[Formula: see text]. The data samples correspond to integrated luminosities of 71 and 44[Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-[Formula: see text] clustering algorithm for two jet sizes, R , of 0.7 and 0.4, in a phase space region covering jet [Formula: see text] up to 2[Formula: see text] and jet rapidity up to [Formula: see text] = 4.7. Predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order precision, complemented with electroweak and nonperturbative corrections, are used to compute the absolute scale and the shape of the inclusive jet cross section. The cross section difference in R , when going to a smaller jet size of 0.4, is best described by Monte Carlo event generators with next-to-leading order predictions matched to parton showering, hadronisation, and multiparton interactions. In the phase space accessible with the new data, this measurement provides a first indication that jet physics is as well understood at [Formula: see text] as at smaller centre-of-mass energies.

9. Assessing differences in macrofaunal assemblages as a factor of sieve mesh size, distance between samples, and time of sampling.

PubMed

Hemery, Lenaïg G; Politano, Kristin K; Henkel, Sarah K

2017-08-01

With increasing cascading effects of climate change on the marine environment, as well as pollution and anthropogenic utilization of the seafloor, there is increasing interest in tracking changes to benthic communities. Macrofaunal surveys are traditionally conducted as part of pre-incident environmental assessment studies and post-incident monitoring studies when there is a potential impact to the seafloor. These surveys usually characterize the structure and/or spatiotemporal distribution of macrofaunal assemblages collected with sediment cores; however, many different sampling protocols have been used. An assessment of the comparability of past and current survey methods was in need to facilitate future surveys and comparisons. This was the aim of the present study, conducted off the Oregon coast in waters 25-35 m deep. Our results show that the use of a sieve with a 1.0-mm mesh size gives results for community structure comparable to results obtained from a 0.5-mm mesh size, which allows reliable comparisons of recent and past spatiotemporal surveys of macroinfauna. In addition to our primary objective of comparing methods, we also found interacting effects of seasons and depths of collection. Seasonal differences (summer and fall) were seen in infaunal assemblages in the wave-induced sediment motion zone but not deeper. Thus, studies where wave-induced sediment motion can structure the benthic communities, especially during the winter months, should consider this effect when making temporal comparisons. In addition, some macrofauna taxa-like polychaetes and amphipods show high interannual variabilities, so spatiotemporal studies should make sure to cover several years before drawing any conclusions.

10. Statistical characterization of a large geochemical database and effect of sample size

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zhang, C.; Manheim, F.T.; Hinde, J.; Grossman, J.N.

2005-01-01

smaller numbers of data points showed that few elements passed standard statistical tests for normality or log-normality until sample size decreased to a few hundred data points. Large sample size enhances the power of statistical tests, and leads to rejection of most statistical hypotheses for real data sets. For large sample sizes (e.g., n > 1000), graphical methods such as histogram, stem-and-leaf, and probability plots are recommended for rough judgement of probability distribution if needed. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

11. Performance of the Cockcroft-Gault, MDRD, and New CKD-EPI Formulas in Relation to GFR, Age, and Body Size

PubMed Central

Grootendorst, Diana Carina; Verduijn, Marion; Elliott, Elise Grace; Dekker, Friedo Wilhelm; Krediet, Raymond Theodorus

2010-01-01

Background and objectives: We compared the estimations of Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations to a gold standard GFR measurement using 125I-iothalamate, within strata of GFR, gender, age, body weight, and body mass index (BMI). Design, setting, participants, & measurements: For people who previously underwent a GFR measurement, bias, precision, and accuracies between measured and estimated kidney functions were calculated within strata of the variables. The relation between the absolute bias and the variables was tested with linear regression analysis. Results: Overall (n = 271, 44% male, mean measured GFR 72.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2 [SD 30.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2]), mean bias was smallest for MDRD (P < 0.01). CKD-EPI had highest accuracy (P < 0.01 compared with Cockcroft-Gault), which did not differ from MDRD (P = 0.14). The absolute bias of all formulas was related to age. For MDRD and CKD-EPI, absolute bias was also related to the GFR; for Cockcroft-Gault, it was related to body weight and BMI as well. In all extreme subgroups, MDRD and CKD-EPI provided highest accuracies. Conclusions: The absolute bias of all formulas is influenced by age; CKD-EPI and MDRD are also influenced by GFR. Cockcroft-Gault is additionally influenced by body weight and BMI. In general, CKD-EPI gives the best estimation of GFR, although its accuracy is close to that of the MDRD. PMID:20299365

12. On the Structure of Cortical Microcircuits Inferred from Small Sample Sizes.

PubMed

Vegué, Marina; Perin, Rodrigo; Roxin, Alex

2017-08-30

The structure in cortical microcircuits deviates from what would be expected in a purely random network, which has been seen as evidence of clustering. To address this issue, we sought to reproduce the nonrandom features of cortical circuits by considering several distinct classes of network topology, including clustered networks, networks with distance-dependent connectivity, and those with broad degree distributions. To our surprise, we found that all of these qualitatively distinct topologies could account equally well for all reported nonrandom features despite being easily distinguishable from one another at the network level. This apparent paradox was a consequence of estimating network properties given only small sample sizes. In other words, networks that differ markedly in their global structure can look quite similar locally. This makes inferring network structure from small sample sizes, a necessity given the technical difficulty inherent in simultaneous intracellular recordings, problematic. We found that a network statistic called the sample degree correlation (SDC) overcomes this difficulty. The SDC depends only on parameters that can be estimated reliably given small sample sizes and is an accurate fingerprint of every topological family. We applied the SDC criterion to data from rat visual and somatosensory cortex and discovered that the connectivity was not consistent with any of these main topological classes. However, we were able to fit the experimental data with a more general network class, of which all previous topologies were special cases. The resulting network topology could be interpreted as a combination of physical spatial dependence and nonspatial, hierarchical clustering. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The connectivity of cortical microcircuits exhibits features that are inconsistent with a simple random network. Here, we show that several classes of network models can account for this nonrandom structure despite qualitative differences in

13. Effect size measures in a two-independent-samples case with nonnormal and nonhomogeneous data.

PubMed

Li, Johnson Ching-Hong

2016-12-01

In psychological science, the "new statistics" refer to the new statistical practices that focus on effect size (ES) evaluation instead of conventional null-hypothesis significance testing (Cumming, Psychological Science, 25, 7-29, 2014). In a two-independent-samples scenario, Cohen's (1988) standardized mean difference (d) is the most popular ES, but its accuracy relies on two assumptions: normality and homogeneity of variances. Five other ESs-the unscaled robust d (d r * ; Hogarty & Kromrey, 2001), scaled robust d (d r ; Algina, Keselman, & Penfield, Psychological Methods, 10, 317-328, 2005), point-biserial correlation (r pb ; McGrath & Meyer, Psychological Methods, 11, 386-401, 2006), common-language ES (CL; Cliff, Psychological Bulletin, 114, 494-509, 1993), and nonparametric estimator for CL (A w ; Ruscio, Psychological Methods, 13, 19-30, 2008)-may be robust to violations of these assumptions, but no study has systematically evaluated their performance. Thus, in this simulation study the performance of these six ESs was examined across five factors: data distribution, sample, base rate, variance ratio, and sample size. The results showed that A w and d r were generally robust to these violations, and A w slightly outperformed d r . Implications for the use of A w and d r in real-world research are discussed.

14. Evaluation of sampling frequency, window size and sensor position for classification of sheep behaviour.

PubMed

Walton, Emily; Casey, Christy; Mitsch, Jurgen; Vázquez-Diosdado, Jorge A; Yan, Juan; Dottorini, Tania; Ellis, Keith A; Winterlich, Anthony; Kaler, Jasmeet

2018-02-01

Automated behavioural classification and identification through sensors has the potential to improve health and welfare of the animals. Position of a sensor, sampling frequency and window size of segmented signal data has a major impact on classification accuracy in activity recognition and energy needs for the sensor, yet, there are no studies in precision livestock farming that have evaluated the effect of all these factors simultaneously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of position (ear and collar), sampling frequency (8, 16 and 32 Hz) of a triaxial accelerometer and gyroscope sensor and window size (3, 5 and 7 s) on the classification of important behaviours in sheep such as lying, standing and walking. Behaviours were classified using a random forest approach with 44 feature characteristics. The best performance for walking, standing and lying classification in sheep (accuracy 95%, F -score 91%-97%) was obtained using combination of 32 Hz, 7 s and 32 Hz, 5 s for both ear and collar sensors, although, results obtained with 16 Hz and 7 s window were comparable with accuracy of 91%-93% and F -score 88%-95%. Energy efficiency was best at a 7 s window. This suggests that sampling at 16 Hz with 7 s window will offer benefits in a real-time behavioural monitoring system for sheep due to reduced energy needs.

15. Evaluation of sampling frequency, window size and sensor position for classification of sheep behaviour

PubMed Central

Walton, Emily; Casey, Christy; Mitsch, Jurgen; Vázquez-Diosdado, Jorge A.; Yan, Juan; Dottorini, Tania; Ellis, Keith A.; Winterlich, Anthony

2018-01-01

Automated behavioural classification and identification through sensors has the potential to improve health and welfare of the animals. Position of a sensor, sampling frequency and window size of segmented signal data has a major impact on classification accuracy in activity recognition and energy needs for the sensor, yet, there are no studies in precision livestock farming that have evaluated the effect of all these factors simultaneously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of position (ear and collar), sampling frequency (8, 16 and 32 Hz) of a triaxial accelerometer and gyroscope sensor and window size (3, 5 and 7 s) on the classification of important behaviours in sheep such as lying, standing and walking. Behaviours were classified using a random forest approach with 44 feature characteristics. The best performance for walking, standing and lying classification in sheep (accuracy 95%, F-score 91%–97%) was obtained using combination of 32 Hz, 7 s and 32 Hz, 5 s for both ear and collar sensors, although, results obtained with 16 Hz and 7 s window were comparable with accuracy of 91%–93% and F-score 88%–95%. Energy efficiency was best at a 7 s window. This suggests that sampling at 16 Hz with 7 s window will offer benefits in a real-time behavioural monitoring system for sheep due to reduced energy needs. PMID:29515862

16. Power/Sample Size Calculations for Assessing Correlates of Risk in Clinical Efficacy Trials

PubMed Central

Gilbert, Peter B.; Janes, Holly E.; Huang, Yunda

2016-01-01

In a randomized controlled clinical trial that assesses treatment efficacy, a common objective is to assess the association of a measured biomarker response endpoint with the primary study endpoint in the active treatment group, using a case-cohort, case-control, or two-phase sampling design. Methods for power and sample size calculations for such biomarker association analyses typically do not account for the level of treatment efficacy, precluding interpretation of the biomarker association results in terms of biomarker effect modification of treatment efficacy, with detriment that the power calculations may tacitly and inadvertently assume that the treatment harms some study participants. We develop power and sample size methods accounting for this issue, and the methods also account for inter-individual variability of the biomarker that is not biologically relevant (e.g., due to technical measurement error). We focus on a binary study endpoint and on a biomarker subject to measurement error that is normally distributed or categorical with two or three levels. We illustrate the methods with preventive HIV vaccine efficacy trials, and include an R package implementing the methods. PMID:27037797

17. Got power? A systematic review of sample size adequacy in health professions education research.

PubMed

Cook, David A; Hatala, Rose

2015-03-01

Many education research studies employ small samples, which in turn lowers statistical power. We re-analyzed the results of a meta-analysis of simulation-based education to determine study power across a range of effect sizes, and the smallest effect that could be plausibly excluded. We systematically searched multiple databases through May 2011, and included all studies evaluating simulation-based education for health professionals in comparison with no intervention or another simulation intervention. Reviewers working in duplicate abstracted information to calculate standardized mean differences (SMD's). We included 897 original research studies. Among the 627 no-intervention-comparison studies the median sample size was 25. Only two studies (0.3%) had ≥80% power to detect a small difference (SMD > 0.2 standard deviations) and 136 (22%) had power to detect a large difference (SMD > 0.8). 110 no-intervention-comparison studies failed to find a statistically significant difference, but none excluded a small difference and only 47 (43%) excluded a large difference. Among 297 studies comparing alternate simulation approaches the median sample size was 30. Only one study (0.3%) had ≥80% power to detect a small difference and 79 (27%) had power to detect a large difference. Of the 128 studies that did not detect a statistically significant effect, 4 (3%) excluded a small difference and 91 (71%) excluded a large difference. In conclusion, most education research studies are powered only to detect effects of large magnitude. For most studies that do not reach statistical significance, the possibility of large and important differences still exists.

18. Power and sample-size estimation for microbiome studies using pairwise distances and PERMANOVA.

PubMed

Kelly, Brendan J; Gross, Robert; Bittinger, Kyle; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Lewis, James D; Collman, Ronald G; Bushman, Frederic D; Li, Hongzhe

2015-08-01

The variation in community composition between microbiome samples, termed beta diversity, can be measured by pairwise distance based on either presence-absence or quantitative species abundance data. PERMANOVA, a permutation-based extension of multivariate analysis of variance to a matrix of pairwise distances, partitions within-group and between-group distances to permit assessment of the effect of an exposure or intervention (grouping factor) upon the sampled microbiome. Within-group distance and exposure/intervention effect size must be accurately modeled to estimate statistical power for a microbiome study that will be analyzed with pairwise distances and PERMANOVA. We present a framework for PERMANOVA power estimation tailored to marker-gene microbiome studies that will be analyzed by pairwise distances, which includes: (i) a novel method for distance matrix simulation that permits modeling of within-group pairwise distances according to pre-specified population parameters; (ii) a method to incorporate effects of different sizes within the simulated distance matrix; (iii) a simulation-based method for estimating PERMANOVA power from simulated distance matrices; and (iv) an R statistical software package that implements the above. Matrices of pairwise distances can be efficiently simulated to satisfy the triangle inequality and incorporate group-level effects, which are quantified by the adjusted coefficient of determination, omega-squared (ω2). From simulated distance matrices, available PERMANOVA power or necessary sample size can be estimated for a planned microbiome study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

19. Power and sample-size estimation for microbiome studies using pairwise distances and PERMANOVA

PubMed Central

Kelly, Brendan J.; Gross, Robert; Bittinger, Kyle; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Lewis, James D.; Collman, Ronald G.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Li, Hongzhe

2015-01-01

Motivation: The variation in community composition between microbiome samples, termed beta diversity, can be measured by pairwise distance based on either presence–absence or quantitative species abundance data. PERMANOVA, a permutation-based extension of multivariate analysis of variance to a matrix of pairwise distances, partitions within-group and between-group distances to permit assessment of the effect of an exposure or intervention (grouping factor) upon the sampled microbiome. Within-group distance and exposure/intervention effect size must be accurately modeled to estimate statistical power for a microbiome study that will be analyzed with pairwise distances and PERMANOVA. Results: We present a framework for PERMANOVA power estimation tailored to marker-gene microbiome studies that will be analyzed by pairwise distances, which includes: (i) a novel method for distance matrix simulation that permits modeling of within-group pairwise distances according to pre-specified population parameters; (ii) a method to incorporate effects of different sizes within the simulated distance matrix; (iii) a simulation-based method for estimating PERMANOVA power from simulated distance matrices; and (iv) an R statistical software package that implements the above. Matrices of pairwise distances can be efficiently simulated to satisfy the triangle inequality and incorporate group-level effects, which are quantified by the adjusted coefficient of determination, omega-squared (ω2). From simulated distance matrices, available PERMANOVA power or necessary sample size can be estimated for a planned microbiome study. Availability and implementation: http://github.com/brendankelly/micropower. Contact: brendank@mail.med.upenn.edu or hongzhe@upenn.edu PMID:25819674

20. An In Situ Method for Sizing Insoluble Residues in Precipitation and Other Aqueous Samples

PubMed Central

Axson, Jessica L.; Creamean, Jessie M.; Bondy, Amy L.; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Warner, Katy Y.; Ault, Andrew P.

2015-01-01

Particles are frequently incorporated into clouds or precipitation, influencing climate by acting as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, taking up coatings during cloud processing, and removing species through wet deposition. Many of these particles, particularly ice nuclei, can remain suspended within cloud droplets/crystals as insoluble residues. While previous studies have measured the soluble or bulk mass of species within clouds and precipitation, no studies to date have determined the number concentration and size distribution of insoluble residues in precipitation or cloud water using in situ methods. Herein, for the first time we demonstrate that Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is a powerful in situ method for determining the total number concentration, number size distribution, and surface area distribution of insoluble residues in precipitation, both of rain and melted snow. The method uses 500 μL or less of liquid sample and does not require sample modification. Number concentrations for the insoluble residues in aqueous precipitation samples ranged from 2.0–3.0(±0.3)×108 particles cm−3, while surface area ranged from 1.8(±0.7)–3.2(±1.0)×107 μm2 cm−3. Number size distributions peaked between 133–150 nm, with both single and multi-modal character, while surface area distributions peaked between 173–270 nm. Comparison with electron microscopy of particles up to 10 μm show that, by number, > 97% residues are <1 μm in diameter, the upper limit of the NTA. The range of concentration and distribution properties indicates that insoluble residue properties vary with ambient aerosol concentrations, cloud microphysics, and meteorological dynamics. NTA has great potential for studying the role that insoluble residues play in critical atmospheric processes. PMID:25705069

1. Sample size planning for composite reliability coefficients: accuracy in parameter estimation via narrow confidence intervals.

PubMed

Terry, Leann; Kelley, Ken

2012-11-01

Composite measures play an important role in psychology and related disciplines. Composite measures almost always have error. Correspondingly, it is important to understand the reliability of the scores from any particular composite measure. However, the point estimates of the reliability of composite measures are fallible and thus all such point estimates should be accompanied by a confidence interval. When confidence intervals are wide, there is much uncertainty in the population value of the reliability coefficient. Given the importance of reporting confidence intervals for estimates of reliability, coupled with the undesirability of wide confidence intervals, we develop methods that allow researchers to plan sample size in order to obtain narrow confidence intervals for population reliability coefficients. We first discuss composite reliability coefficients and then provide a discussion on confidence interval formation for the corresponding population value. Using the accuracy in parameter estimation approach, we develop two methods to obtain accurate estimates of reliability by planning sample size. The first method provides a way to plan sample size so that the expected confidence interval width for the population reliability coefficient is sufficiently narrow. The second method ensures that the confidence interval width will be sufficiently narrow with some desired degree of assurance (e.g., 99% assurance that the 95% confidence interval for the population reliability coefficient will be less than W units wide). The effectiveness of our methods was verified with Monte Carlo simulation studies. We demonstrate how to easily implement the methods with easy-to-use and freely available software. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

2. Particulate sizing and emission indices for a jet engine exhaust sampled at cruise

Hagen, D.; Whitefield, P.; Paladino, J.; Trueblood, M.; Lilenfeld, H.

Particle size and emission indices measurements for jet engines, primarily the Rolls Royce RB211 engines on a NASA 757 aircraft are reported. These data were used to estimate the fraction of fuel sulfur that was converted to particulates. These measurements were made in-situ with the sampling aircraft several kilometers behind the source. Some complimentary ground measurements on the same source aircraft and engines are also reported. Significant differences are seen between the ground observations and the in-situ observations, indicating that plume processes are changing the aerosol's characteristics.

3. Self-navigation of a scanning tunneling microscope tip toward a micron-sized graphene sample.

PubMed

Li, Guohong; Luican, Adina; Andrei, Eva Y

2011-07-01

We demonstrate a simple capacitance-based method to quickly and efficiently locate micron-sized conductive samples, such as graphene flakes, on insulating substrates in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). By using edge recognition, the method is designed to locate and to identify small features when the STM tip is far above the surface, allowing for crash-free search and navigation. The method can be implemented in any STM environment, even at low temperatures and in strong magnetic field, with minimal or no hardware modifications.

4. Sample size re-estimation and other midcourse adjustments with sequential parallel comparison design.

PubMed

Silverman, Rachel K; Ivanova, Anastasia

2017-01-01

Sequential parallel comparison design (SPCD) was proposed to reduce placebo response in a randomized trial with placebo comparator. Subjects are randomized between placebo and drug in stage 1 of the trial, and then, placebo non-responders are re-randomized in stage 2. Efficacy analysis includes all data from stage 1 and all placebo non-responding subjects from stage 2. This article investigates the possibility to re-estimate the sample size and adjust the design parameters, allocation proportion to placebo in stage 1 of SPCD, and weight of stage 1 data in the overall efficacy test statistic during an interim analysis.

5. Elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter sampled in Göteborg, Sweden

Wagner, Annemarie; Boman, Johan; Gatari, Michael J.

2008-12-01

The aim of the study was to investigate the mass distribution of trace elements in aerosol samples collected in the urban area of Göteborg, Sweden, with special focus on the impact of different air masses and anthropogenic activities. Three measurement campaigns were conducted during December 2006 and January 2007. A PIXE cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter in 9 size fractions ranging from 16 to 0.06 µm aerodynamic diameter. Polished quartz carriers were chosen as collection substrates for the subsequent direct analysis by TXRF. To investigate the sources of the analyzed air masses, backward trajectories were calculated. Our results showed that diurnal sampling was sufficient to investigate the mass distribution for Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Sr and Zn, whereas a 5-day sampling period resulted in additional information on mass distribution for Cr and S. Unimodal mass distributions were found in the study area for the elements Ca, Cl, Fe and Zn, whereas the distributions for Br, Cu, Cr, K, Ni and S were bimodal, indicating high temperature processes as source of the submicron particle components. The measurement period including the New Year firework activities showed both an extensive increase in concentrations as well as a shift to the submicron range for K and Sr, elements that are typically found in fireworks. Further research is required to validate the quantification of trace elements directly collected on sample carriers.

6. Strategies for informed sample size reduction in adaptive controlled clinical trials

Arandjelović, Ognjen

2017-12-01

Clinical trial adaptation refers to any adjustment of the trial protocol after the onset of the trial. The main goal is to make the process of introducing new medical interventions to patients more efficient. The principal challenge, which is an outstanding research problem, is to be found in the question of how adaptation should be performed so as to minimize the chance of distorting the outcome of the trial. In this paper, we propose a novel method for achieving this. Unlike most of the previously published work, our approach focuses on trial adaptation by sample size adjustment, i.e. by reducing the number of trial participants in a statistically informed manner. Our key idea is to select the sample subset for removal in a manner which minimizes the associated loss of information. We formalize this notion and describe three algorithms which approach the problem in different ways, respectively, using (i) repeated random draws, (ii) a genetic algorithm, and (iii) what we term pair-wise sample compatibilities. Experiments on simulated data demonstrate the effectiveness of all three approaches, with a consistently superior performance exhibited by the pair-wise sample compatibilities-based method.

7. Multiple sensitive estimation and optimal sample size allocation in the item sum technique.

PubMed

Perri, Pier Francesco; Rueda García, María Del Mar; Cobo Rodríguez, Beatriz

2018-01-01

For surveys of sensitive issues in life sciences, statistical procedures can be used to reduce nonresponse and social desirability response bias. Both of these phenomena provoke nonsampling errors that are difficult to deal with and can seriously flaw the validity of the analyses. The item sum technique (IST) is a very recent indirect questioning method derived from the item count technique that seeks to procure more reliable responses on quantitative items than direct questioning while preserving respondents' anonymity. This article addresses two important questions concerning the IST: (i) its implementation when two or more sensitive variables are investigated and efficient estimates of their unknown population means are required; (ii) the determination of the optimal sample size to achieve minimum variance estimates. These aspects are of great relevance for survey practitioners engaged in sensitive research and, to the best of our knowledge, were not studied so far. In this article, theoretical results for multiple estimation and optimal allocation are obtained under a generic sampling design and then particularized to simple random sampling and stratified sampling designs. Theoretical considerations are integrated with a number of simulation studies based on data from two real surveys and conducted to ascertain the efficiency gain derived from optimal allocation in different situations. One of the surveys concerns cannabis consumption among university students. Our findings highlight some methodological advances that can be obtained in life sciences IST surveys when optimal allocation is achieved. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

8. Ethics and Animal Numbers: Informal Analyses, Uncertain Sample Sizes, Inefficient Replications, and Type I Errors

PubMed Central

2011-01-01

To obtain approval for the use vertebrate animals in research, an investigator must assure an ethics committee that the proposed number of animals is the minimum necessary to achieve a scientific goal. How does an investigator make that assurance? A power analysis is most accurate when the outcome is known before the study, which it rarely is. A ‘pilot study’ is appropriate only when the number of animals used is a tiny fraction of the numbers that will be invested in the main study because the data for the pilot animals cannot legitimately be used again in the main study without increasing the rate of type I errors (false discovery). Traditional significance testing requires the investigator to determine the final sample size before any data are collected and then to delay analysis of any of the data until all of the data are final. An investigator often learns at that point either that the sample size was larger than necessary or too small to achieve significance. Subjects cannot be added at this point in the study without increasing type I errors. In addition, journal reviewers may require more replications in quantitative studies than are truly necessary. Sequential stopping rules used with traditional significance tests allow incremental accumulation of data on a biomedical research problem so that significance, replicability, and use of a minimal number of animals can be assured without increasing type I errors. PMID:21838970

9. Multilevel factorial experiments for developing behavioral interventions: power, sample size, and resource considerations.

PubMed

Dziak, John J; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Collins, Linda M

2012-06-01

Factorial experimental designs have many potential advantages for behavioral scientists. For example, such designs may be useful in building more potent interventions by helping investigators to screen several candidate intervention components simultaneously and to decide which are likely to offer greater benefit before evaluating the intervention as a whole. However, sample size and power considerations may challenge investigators attempting to apply such designs, especially when the population of interest is multilevel (e.g., when students are nested within schools, or when employees are nested within organizations). In this article, we examine the feasibility of factorial experimental designs with multiple factors in a multilevel, clustered setting (i.e., of multilevel, multifactor experiments). We conduct Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate how design elements-such as the number of clusters, the number of lower-level units, and the intraclass correlation-affect power. Our results suggest that multilevel, multifactor experiments are feasible for factor-screening purposes because of the economical properties of complete and fractional factorial experimental designs. We also discuss resources for sample size planning and power estimation for multilevel factorial experiments. These results are discussed from a resource management perspective, in which the goal is to choose a design that maximizes the scientific benefit using the resources available for an investigation. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

10. Multilevel Factorial Experiments for Developing Behavioral Interventions: Power, Sample Size, and Resource Considerations†

PubMed Central

Dziak, John J.; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Collins, Linda M.

2012-01-01

Factorial experimental designs have many potential advantages for behavioral scientists. For example, such designs may be useful in building more potent interventions, by helping investigators to screen several candidate intervention components simultaneously and decide which are likely to offer greater benefit before evaluating the intervention as a whole. However, sample size and power considerations may challenge investigators attempting to apply such designs, especially when the population of interest is multilevel (e.g., when students are nested within schools, or employees within organizations). In this article we examine the feasibility of factorial experimental designs with multiple factors in a multilevel, clustered setting (i.e., of multilevel multifactor experiments). We conduct Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate how design elements such as the number of clusters, the number of lower-level units, and the intraclass correlation affect power. Our results suggest that multilevel, multifactor experiments are feasible for factor-screening purposes, because of the economical properties of complete and fractional factorial experimental designs. We also discuss resources for sample size planning and power estimation for multilevel factorial experiments. These results are discussed from a resource management perspective, in which the goal is to choose a design that maximizes the scientific benefit using the resources available for an investigation. PMID:22309956

11. DRME: Count-based differential RNA methylation analysis at small sample size scenario.

PubMed

Liu, Lian; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Gao, Fan; Zhang, Yixin; Huang, Yufei; Chen, Runsheng; Meng, Jia

2016-04-15

Differential methylation, which concerns difference in the degree of epigenetic regulation via methylation between two conditions, has been formulated as a beta or beta-binomial distribution to address the within-group biological variability in sequencing data. However, a beta or beta-binomial model is usually difficult to infer at small sample size scenario with discrete reads count in sequencing data. On the other hand, as an emerging research field, RNA methylation has drawn more and more attention recently, and the differential analysis of RNA methylation is significantly different from that of DNA methylation due to the impact of transcriptional regulation. We developed DRME to better address the differential RNA methylation problem. The proposed model can effectively describe within-group biological variability at small sample size scenario and handles the impact of transcriptional regulation on RNA methylation. We tested the newly developed DRME algorithm on simulated and 4 MeRIP-Seq case-control studies and compared it with Fisher's exact test. It is in principle widely applicable to several other RNA-related data types as well, including RNA Bisulfite sequencing and PAR-CLIP. The code together with an MeRIP-Seq dataset is available online (https://github.com/lzcyzm/DRME) for evaluation and reproduction of the figures shown in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

12. Sample Size Calculations for Micro-randomized Trials in mHealth

PubMed Central

Liao, Peng; Klasnja, Predrag; Tewari, Ambuj; Murphy, Susan A.

2015-01-01

The use and development of mobile interventions are experiencing rapid growth. In “just-in-time” mobile interventions, treatments are provided via a mobile device and they are intended to help an individual make healthy decisions “in the moment,” and thus have a proximal, near future impact. Currently the development of mobile interventions is proceeding at a much faster pace than that of associated data science methods. A first step toward developing data-based methods is to provide an experimental design for testing the proximal effects of these just-in-time treatments. In this paper, we propose a “micro-randomized” trial design for this purpose. In a micro-randomized trial, treatments are sequentially randomized throughout the conduct of the study, with the result that each participant may be randomized at the 100s or 1000s of occasions at which a treatment might be provided. Further, we develop a test statistic for assessing the proximal effect of a treatment as well as an associated sample size calculator. We conduct simulation evaluations of the sample size calculator in various settings. Rules of thumb that might be used in designing a micro-randomized trial are discussed. This work is motivated by our collaboration on the HeartSteps mobile application designed to increase physical activity. PMID:26707831

13. Sample size determination for GEE analyses of stepped wedge cluster randomized trials.

PubMed

Li, Fan; Turner, Elizabeth L; Preisser, John S

2018-06-19

In stepped wedge cluster randomized trials, intact clusters of individuals switch from control to intervention from a randomly assigned period onwards. Such trials are becoming increasingly popular in health services research. When a closed cohort is recruited from each cluster for longitudinal follow-up, proper sample size calculation should account for three distinct types of intraclass correlations: the within-period, the inter-period, and the within-individual correlations. Setting the latter two correlation parameters to be equal accommodates cross-sectional designs. We propose sample size procedures for continuous and binary responses within the framework of generalized estimating equations that employ a block exchangeable within-cluster correlation structure defined from the distinct correlation types. For continuous responses, we show that the intraclass correlations affect power only through two eigenvalues of the correlation matrix. We demonstrate that analytical power agrees well with simulated power for as few as eight clusters, when data are analyzed using bias-corrected estimating equations for the correlation parameters concurrently with a bias-corrected sandwich variance estimator. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.

14. Evaluation of Sampling Recommendations From the Influenza Virologic Surveillance Right Size Roadmap for Idaho.

PubMed

Rosenthal, Mariana; Anderson, Katey; Tengelsen, Leslie; Carter, Kris; Hahn, Christine; Ball, Christopher

2017-08-24

The Right Size Roadmap was developed by the Association of Public Health Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to improve influenza virologic surveillance efficiency. Guidelines were provided to state health departments regarding representativeness and statistical estimates of specimen numbers needed for seasonal influenza situational awareness, rare or novel influenza virus detection, and rare or novel influenza virus investigation. The aim of this study was to compare Roadmap sampling recommendations with Idaho's influenza virologic surveillance to determine implementation feasibility. We calculated the proportion of medically attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) from Idaho's influenza-like illness surveillance among outpatients during October 2008 to May 2014, applied data to Roadmap-provided sample size calculators, and compared calculations with actual numbers of specimens tested for influenza by the Idaho Bureau of Laboratories (IBL). We assessed representativeness among patients' tested specimens to census estimates by age, sex, and health district residence. Among outpatients surveilled, Idaho's mean annual proportion of MA-ILI was 2.30% (20,834/905,818) during a 5-year period. Thus, according to Roadmap recommendations, Idaho needs to collect 128 specimens from MA-ILI patients/week for situational awareness, 1496 influenza-positive specimens/week for detection of a rare or novel influenza virus at 0.2% prevalence, and after detection, 478 specimens/week to confirm true prevalence is ≤2% of influenza-positive samples. The mean number of respiratory specimens Idaho tested for influenza/week, excluding the 2009-2010 influenza season, ranged from 6 to 24. Various influenza virus types and subtypes were collected and specimen submission sources were representative in terms of geographic distribution, patient age range and sex, and disease severity. Insufficient numbers of respiratory specimens are submitted to IBL for influenza

15. Determining Sample Size with a Given Range of Mean Effects in One-Way Heteroscedastic Analysis of Variance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shieh, Gwowen; Jan, Show-Li

2013-01-01

The authors examined 2 approaches for determining the required sample size of Welch's test for detecting equality of means when the greatest difference between any 2 group means is given. It is shown that the actual power obtained with the sample size of the suggested approach is consistently at least as great as the nominal power. However, the…

16. Allocating Sample Sizes to Reduce Budget for Fixed-Effect 2×2 Heterogeneous Analysis of Variance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Luh, Wei-Ming; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

2016-01-01

This article discusses the sample size requirements for the interaction, row, and column effects, respectively, by forming a linear contrast for a 2×2 factorial design for fixed-effects heterogeneous analysis of variance. The proposed method uses the Welch t test and its corresponding degrees of freedom to calculate the final sample size in a…

17. Review of Sample Size for Structural Equation Models in Second Language Testing and Learning Research: A Monte Carlo Approach

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In'nami, Yo; Koizumi, Rie

2013-01-01

The importance of sample size, although widely discussed in the literature on structural equation modeling (SEM), has not been widely recognized among applied SEM researchers. To narrow this gap, we focus on second language testing and learning studies and examine the following: (a) Is the sample size sufficient in terms of precision and power of…

18. On Two-Stage Multiple Comparison Procedures When There Are Unequal Sample Sizes in the First Stage.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilcox, Rand R.

1984-01-01

Two stage multiple-comparison procedures give an exact solution to problems of power and Type I errors, but require equal sample sizes in the first stage. This paper suggests a method of evaluating the experimentwise Type I error probability when the first stage has unequal sample sizes. (Author/BW)

19. Size exclusion chromatography for analyses of fibroin in silk: optimization of sampling and separation conditions

Pawcenis, Dominika; Koperska, Monika A.; Milczarek, Jakub M.; Łojewski, Tomasz; Łojewska, Joanna

2014-02-01

A direct goal of this paper was to improve the methods of sample preparation and separation for analyses of fibroin polypeptide with the use of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The motivation for the study arises from our interest in natural polymers included in historic textile and paper artifacts, and is a logical response to the urgent need for developing rationale-based methods for materials conservation. The first step is to develop a reliable analytical tool which would give insight into fibroin structure and its changes caused by both natural and artificial ageing. To investigate the influence of preparation conditions, two sets of artificially aged samples were prepared (with and without NaCl in sample solution) and measured by the means of SEC with multi angle laser light scattering detector. It was shown that dialysis of fibroin dissolved in LiBr solution allows removal of the salt which destroys stacks chromatographic columns and prevents reproducible analyses. Salt rich (NaCl) water solutions of fibroin improved the quality of chromatograms.

20. Quantification of errors in ordinal outcome scales using shannon entropy: effect on sample size calculations.

PubMed

Mandava, Pitchaiah; Krumpelman, Chase S; Shah, Jharna N; White, Donna L; Kent, Thomas A

2013-01-01

Clinical trial outcomes often involve an ordinal scale of subjective functional assessments but the optimal way to quantify results is not clear. In stroke, the most commonly used scale, the modified Rankin Score (mRS), a range of scores ("Shift") is proposed as superior to dichotomization because of greater information transfer. The influence of known uncertainties in mRS assessment has not been quantified. We hypothesized that errors caused by uncertainties could be quantified by applying information theory. Using Shannon's model, we quantified errors of the "Shift" compared to dichotomized outcomes using published distributions of mRS uncertainties and applied this model to clinical trials. We identified 35 randomized stroke trials that met inclusion criteria. Each trial's mRS distribution was multiplied with the noise distribution from published mRS inter-rater variability to generate an error percentage for "shift" and dichotomized cut-points. For the SAINT I neuroprotectant trial, considered positive by "shift" mRS while the larger follow-up SAINT II trial was negative, we recalculated sample size required if classification uncertainty was taken into account. Considering the full mRS range, error rate was 26.1%±5.31 (Mean±SD). Error rates were lower for all dichotomizations tested using cut-points (e.g. mRS 1; 6.8%±2.89; overall p<0.001). Taking errors into account, SAINT I would have required 24% more subjects than were randomized. We show when uncertainty in assessments is considered, the lowest error rates are with dichotomization. While using the full range of mRS is conceptually appealing, a gain of information is counter-balanced by a decrease in reliability. The resultant errors need to be considered since sample size may otherwise be underestimated. In principle, we have outlined an approach to error estimation for any condition in which there are uncertainties in outcome assessment. We provide the user with programs to calculate and incorporate

1. What about N? A methodological study of sample-size reporting in focus group studies.

PubMed

Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire

2011-03-11

Focus group studies are increasingly published in health related journals, but we know little about how researchers use this method, particularly how they determine the number of focus groups to conduct. The methodological literature commonly advises researchers to follow principles of data saturation, although practical advise on how to do this is lacking. Our objectives were firstly, to describe the current status of sample size in focus group studies reported in health journals. Secondly, to assess whether and how researchers explain the number of focus groups they carry out. We searched PubMed for studies that had used focus groups and that had been published in open access journals during 2008, and extracted data on the number of focus groups and on any explanation authors gave for this number. We also did a qualitative assessment of the papers with regard to how number of groups was explained and discussed. We identified 220 papers published in 117 journals. In these papers insufficient reporting of sample sizes was common. The number of focus groups conducted varied greatly (mean 8.4, median 5, range 1 to 96). Thirty seven (17%) studies attempted to explain the number of groups. Six studies referred to rules of thumb in the literature, three stated that they were unable to organize more groups for practical reasons, while 28 studies stated that they had reached a point of saturation. Among those stating that they had reached a point of saturation, several appeared not to have followed principles from grounded theory where data collection and analysis is an iterative process until saturation is reached. Studies with high numbers of focus groups did not offer explanations for number of groups. Too much data as a study weakness was not an issue discussed in any of the reviewed papers. Based on these findings we suggest that journals adopt more stringent requirements for focus group method reporting. The often poor and inconsistent reporting seen in these

2. The quality of the reported sample size calculations in randomized controlled trials indexed in PubMed.

PubMed

Lee, Paul H; Tse, Andy C Y

2017-05-01

There are limited data on the quality of reporting of information essential for replication of the calculation as well as the accuracy of the sample size calculation. We examine the current quality of reporting of the sample size calculation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed and to examine the variation in reporting across study design, study characteristics, and journal impact factor. We also reviewed the targeted sample size reported in trial registries. We reviewed and analyzed all RCTs published in December 2014 with journals indexed in PubMed. The 2014 Impact Factors for the journals were used as proxies for their quality. Of the 451 analyzed papers, 58.1% reported an a priori sample size calculation. Nearly all papers provided the level of significance (97.7%) and desired power (96.6%), and most of the papers reported the minimum clinically important effect size (73.3%). The median (inter-quartile range) of the percentage difference of the reported and calculated sample size calculation was 0.0% (IQR -4.6%;3.0%). The accuracy of the reported sample size was better for studies published in journals that endorsed the CONSORT statement and journals with an impact factor. A total of 98 papers had provided targeted sample size on trial registries and about two-third of these papers (n=62) reported sample size calculation, but only 25 (40.3%) had no discrepancy with the reported number in the trial registries. The reporting of the sample size calculation in RCTs published in PubMed-indexed journals and trial registries were poor. The CONSORT statement should be more widely endorsed. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

3. Realistic weight perception and body size assessment in a racially diverse community sample of dieters.

PubMed

Cachelin, F M; Striegel-Moore, R H; Elder, K A

1998-01-01

Recently, a shift in obesity treatment away from emphasizing ideal weight loss goals to establishing realistic weight loss goals has been proposed; yet, what constitutes "realistic" weight loss for different populations is not clear. This study examined notions of realistic shape and weight as well as body size assessment in a large community-based sample of African-American, Asian, Hispanic, and white men and women. Participants were 1893 survey respondents who were all dieters and primarily overweight. Groups were compared on various variables of body image assessment using silhouette ratings. No significant race differences were found in silhouette ratings, nor in perceptions of realistic shape or reasonable weight loss. Realistic shape and weight ratings by both women and men were smaller than current shape and weight but larger than ideal shape and weight ratings. Compared with male dieters, female dieters considered greater weight loss to be realistic. Implications of the findings for the treatment of obesity are discussed.

4. A Model Based Approach to Sample Size Estimation in Recent Onset Type 1 Diabetes

PubMed Central

Bundy, Brian; Krischer, Jeffrey P.

2016-01-01

The area under the curve C-peptide following a 2-hour mixed meal tolerance test from 481 individuals enrolled on 5 prior TrialNet studies of recent onset type 1 diabetes from baseline to 12 months after enrollment were modelled to produce estimates of its rate of loss and variance. Age at diagnosis and baseline C-peptide were found to be significant predictors and adjusting for these in an ANCOVA resulted in estimates with lower variance. Using these results as planning parameters for new studies results in a nearly 50% reduction in the target sample size. The modelling also produces an expected C-peptide that can be used in Observed vs. Expected calculations to estimate the presumption of benefit in ongoing trials. PMID:26991448

5. A model-based approach to sample size estimation in recent onset type 1 diabetes.

PubMed

Bundy, Brian N; Krischer, Jeffrey P

2016-11-01

The area under the curve C-peptide following a 2-h mixed meal tolerance test from 498 individuals enrolled on five prior TrialNet studies of recent onset type 1 diabetes from baseline to 12 months after enrolment were modelled to produce estimates of its rate of loss and variance. Age at diagnosis and baseline C-peptide were found to be significant predictors, and adjusting for these in an ANCOVA resulted in estimates with lower variance. Using these results as planning parameters for new studies results in a nearly 50% reduction in the target sample size. The modelling also produces an expected C-peptide that can be used in observed versus expected calculations to estimate the presumption of benefit in ongoing trials. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

6. Bayesian assurance and sample size determination in the process validation life-cycle.

PubMed

Faya, Paul; Seaman, John W; Stamey, James D

2017-01-01

Validation of pharmaceutical manufacturing processes is a regulatory requirement and plays a key role in the assurance of drug quality, safety, and efficacy. The FDA guidance on process validation recommends a life-cycle approach which involves process design, qualification, and verification. The European Medicines Agency makes similar recommendations. The main purpose of process validation is to establish scientific evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering a quality product. A major challenge faced by manufacturers is the determination of the number of batches to be used for the qualification stage. In this article, we present a Bayesian assurance and sample size determination approach where prior process knowledge and data are used to determine the number of batches. An example is presented in which potency uniformity data is evaluated using a process capability metric. By using the posterior predictive distribution, we simulate qualification data and make a decision on the number of batches required for a desired level of assurance.

7. Dental arch dimensions, form and tooth size ratio among a Saudi sample.

PubMed

Omar, Haidi; Alhajrasi, Manar; Felemban, Nayef; Hassan, Ali

2018-01-01

To determine the dental arch dimensions and arch forms in a sample of Saudi orthodontic patients, to investigate the prevalence of Bolton anterior and overall tooth size discrepancies, and to compare the effect of gender on the measured parameters. Methods: This study is a biometric analysis of dental casts of 149 young adults recruited from different orthodontic centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The dental arch dimensions were measured. The measured parameters were arch length, arch width, Bolton's ratio, and arch form. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 22.0 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA); this cross-sectional study was conducted between April 2015 and May 2016. Results: Dental arch measurements, including inter-canine and inter-molar distance, were found to be significantly greater in males than females (p less than 0.05). The most prevalent dental arch forms were narrow tapered (50.3%) and narrow ovoid (34.2%), respectively. The prevalence of tooth size discrepancy in all cases was 43.6% for anterior ratio and 24.8% for overall ratio. The mean Bolton's anterior ratio in all malocclusion classes was 79.81%, whereas the mean Bolton's overall ratio was 92.21%. There was no significant difference between males and females regarding Bolton's ratio. Conclusion: The most prevalent arch form was narrow tapered, followed by narrow ovoid. Males generally had larger dental arch measurements than females, and the prevalence of tooth size discrepancy was more in Bolton's anterior teeth ratio than in overall ratio.

8. Dental arch dimensions, form and tooth size ratio among a Saudi sample

PubMed Central

Omar, Haidi; Alhajrasi, Manar; Felemban, Nayef; Hassan, Ali

2018-01-01

Objectives: To determine the dental arch dimensions and arch forms in a sample of Saudi orthodontic patients, to investigate the prevalence of Bolton anterior and overall tooth size discrepancies, and to compare the effect of gender on the measured parameters. Methods: This study is a biometric analysis of dental casts of 149 young adults recruited from different orthodontic centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The dental arch dimensions were measured. The measured parameters were arch length, arch width, Bolton’s ratio, and arch form. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 22.0 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA); this cross-sectional study was conducted between April 2015 and May 2016. Results: Dental arch measurements, including inter-canine and inter-molar distance, were found to be significantly greater in males than females (p<0.05). The most prevalent dental arch forms were narrow tapered (50.3%) and narrow ovoid (34.2%), respectively. The prevalence of tooth size discrepancy in all cases was 43.6% for anterior ratio and 24.8% for overall ratio. The mean Bolton’s anterior ratio in all malocclusion classes was 79.81%, whereas the mean Bolton’s overall ratio was 92.21%. There was no significant difference between males and females regarding Bolton’s ratio. Conclusion: The most prevalent arch form was narrow tapered, followed by narrow ovoid. Males generally had larger dental arch measurements than females, and the prevalence of tooth size discrepancy was more in Bolton’s anterior teeth ratio than in overall ratio. PMID:29332114

9. Influences of sampling size and pattern on the uncertainty of correlation estimation between soil water content and its influencing factors

Lai, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qing; Zhou, Zhiwen; Liao, Kaihua

2017-12-01

In this study, seven random combination sampling strategies were applied to investigate the uncertainties in estimating the hillslope mean soil water content (SWC) and correlation coefficients between the SWC and soil/terrain properties on a tea + bamboo hillslope. One of the sampling strategies is the global random sampling and the other six are the stratified random sampling on the top, middle, toe, top + mid, top + toe and mid + toe slope positions. When each sampling strategy was applied, sample sizes were gradually reduced and each sampling size contained 3000 replicates. Under each sampling size of each sampling strategy, the relative errors (REs) and coefficients of variation (CVs) of the estimated hillslope mean SWC and correlation coefficients between the SWC and soil/terrain properties were calculated to quantify the accuracy and uncertainty. The results showed that the uncertainty of the estimations decreased as the sampling size increasing. However, larger sample sizes were required to reduce the uncertainty in correlation coefficient estimation than in hillslope mean SWC estimation. Under global random sampling, 12 randomly sampled sites on this hillslope were adequate to estimate the hillslope mean SWC with RE and CV ≤10%. However, at least 72 randomly sampled sites were needed to ensure the estimated correlation coefficients with REs and CVs ≤10%. Comparing with all sampling strategies, reducing sampling sites on the middle slope had the least influence on the estimation of hillslope mean SWC and correlation coefficients. Under this strategy, 60 sites (10 on the middle slope and 50 on the top and toe slopes) were enough to ensure the estimated correlation coefficients with REs and CVs ≤10%. This suggested that when designing the SWC sampling, the proportion of sites on the middle slope can be reduced to 16.7% of the total number of sites. Findings of this study will be useful for the optimal SWC sampling design.

10. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: Effect of sample size and bias on confidence interval coverage.

PubMed

Obuchowski, Nancy A; Bullen, Jennifer

2017-01-01

Introduction Quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) are being increasingly used in medical practice and clinical trials. An essential first step in the adoption of a quantitative imaging biomarker is the characterization of its technical performance, i.e. precision and bias, through one or more performance studies. Then, given the technical performance, a confidence interval for a new patient's true biomarker value can be constructed. Estimating bias and precision can be problematic because rarely are both estimated in the same study, precision studies are usually quite small, and bias cannot be measured when there is no reference standard. Methods A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to assess factors affecting nominal coverage of confidence intervals for a new patient's quantitative imaging biomarker measurement and for change in the quantitative imaging biomarker over time. Factors considered include sample size for estimating bias and precision, effect of fixed and non-proportional bias, clustered data, and absence of a reference standard. Results Technical performance studies of a quantitative imaging biomarker should include at least 35 test-retest subjects to estimate precision and 65 cases to estimate bias. Confidence intervals for a new patient's quantitative imaging biomarker measurement constructed under the no-bias assumption provide nominal coverage as long as the fixed bias is <12%. For confidence intervals of the true change over time, linearity must hold and the slope of the regression of the measurements vs. true values should be between 0.95 and 1.05. The regression slope can be assessed adequately as long as fixed multiples of the measurand can be generated. Even small non-proportional bias greatly reduces confidence interval coverage. Multiple lesions in the same subject can be treated as independent when estimating precision. Conclusion Technical performance studies of quantitative imaging biomarkers require moderate sample sizes in

11. Multicategory nets of single-layer perceptrons: complexity and sample-size issues.

PubMed

Raudys, Sarunas; Kybartas, Rimantas; Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras

2010-05-01

The standard cost function of multicategory single-layer perceptrons (SLPs) does not minimize the classification error rate. In order to reduce classification error, it is necessary to: 1) refuse the traditional cost function, 2) obtain near to optimal pairwise linear classifiers by specially organized SLP training and optimal stopping, and 3) fuse their decisions properly. To obtain better classification in unbalanced training set situations, we introduce the unbalance correcting term. It was found that fusion based on the Kulback-Leibler (K-L) distance and the Wu-Lin-Weng (WLW) method result in approximately the same performance in situations where sample sizes are relatively small. The explanation for this observation is by theoretically known verity that an excessive minimization of inexact criteria becomes harmful at times. Comprehensive comparative investigations of six real-world pattern recognition (PR) problems demonstrated that employment of SLP-based pairwise classifiers is comparable and as often as not outperforming the linear support vector (SV) classifiers in moderate dimensional situations. The colored noise injection used to design pseudovalidation sets proves to be a powerful tool for facilitating finite sample problems in moderate-dimensional PR tasks.

12. A laser-deposition approach to compositional-spread discovery of materials on conventional sample sizes

Christen, Hans M.; Ohkubo, Isao; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Jellison, Gerald E., Jr.; Puretzky, Alex A.; Geohegan, David B.; Lowndes, Douglas H.

2005-01-01

Parallel (multi-sample) approaches, such as discrete combinatorial synthesis or continuous compositional-spread (CCS), can significantly increase the rate of materials discovery and process optimization. Here we review our generalized CCS method, based on pulsed-laser deposition, in which the synchronization between laser firing and substrate translation (behind a fixed slit aperture) yields the desired variations of composition and thickness. In situ alloying makes this approach applicable to the non-equilibrium synthesis of metastable phases. Deposition on a heater plate with a controlled spatial temperature variation can additionally be used for growth-temperature-dependence studies. Composition and temperature variations are controlled on length scales large enough to yield sample sizes sufficient for conventional characterization techniques (such as temperature-dependent measurements of resistivity or magnetic properties). This technique has been applied to various experimental studies, and we present here the results for the growth of electro-optic materials (SrxBa1-xNb2O6) and magnetic perovskites (Sr1-xCaxRuO3), and discuss the application to the understanding and optimization of catalysts used in the synthesis of dense forests of carbon nanotubes.

13. Split-plot microarray experiments: issues of design, power and sample size.

PubMed

Tsai, Pi-Wen; Lee, Mei-Ling Ting

2005-01-01

This article focuses on microarray experiments with two or more factors in which treatment combinations of the factors corresponding to the samples paired together onto arrays are not completely random. A main effect of one (or more) factor(s) is confounded with arrays (the experimental blocks). This is called a split-plot microarray experiment. We utilise an analysis of variance (ANOVA) model to assess differentially expressed genes for between-array and within-array comparisons that are generic under a split-plot microarray experiment. Instead of standard t- or F-test statistics that rely on mean square errors of the ANOVA model, we use a robust method, referred to as 'a pooled percentile estimator', to identify genes that are differentially expressed across different treatment conditions. We illustrate the design and analysis of split-plot microarray experiments based on a case application described by Jin et al. A brief discussion of power and sample size for split-plot microarray experiments is also presented.

14. Separation and enrichment of trace ractopamine in biological samples by uniformly-sized molecularly imprinted polymers

PubMed Central

Li, Ya; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Meng; Jiao, Yuan-Yuan; Du, Wei; Yu, Chong; Liu, Jing; Chang, Chun; Lu, Jian

2012-01-01

In order to prepare a high capacity packing material for solid-phase extraction with specific recognition ability of trace ractopamine in biological samples, uniformly-sized, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared by a multi-step swelling and polymerization method using methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, and toluene as a porogen respectively. Scanning electron microscope and specific surface area were employed to identify the characteristics of MIPs. Ultraviolet spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scatchard analysis and kinetic study were performed to interpret the specific recognition ability and the binding process of MIPs. The results showed that, compared with other reports, MIPs synthetized in this study showed high adsorption capacity besides specific recognition ability. The adsorption capacity of MIPs was 0.063 mmol/g at 1 mmol/L ractopamine concentration with the distribution coefficient 1.70. The resulting MIPs could be used as solid-phase extraction materials for separation and enrichment of trace ractopamine in biological samples. PMID:29403774

15. ENHANCEMENT OF LEARNING ON SAMPLE SIZE CALCULATION WITH A SMARTPHONE APPLICATION: A CLUSTER-RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

PubMed

Ngamjarus, Chetta; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; McNeil, Edward; Holling, Heinz

2017-01-01

Sample size determination usually is taught based on theory and is difficult to understand. Using a smartphone application to teach sample size calculation ought to be more attractive to students than using lectures only. This study compared levels of understanding of sample size calculations for research studies between participants attending a lecture only versus lecture combined with using a smartphone application to calculate sample sizes, to explore factors affecting level of post-test score after training sample size calculation, and to investigate participants’ attitude toward a sample size application. A cluster-randomized controlled trial involving a number of health institutes in Thailand was carried out from October 2014 to March 2015. A total of 673 professional participants were enrolled and randomly allocated to one of two groups, namely, 341 participants in 10 workshops to control group and 332 participants in 9 workshops to intervention group. Lectures on sample size calculation were given in the control group, while lectures using a smartphone application were supplied to the test group. Participants in the intervention group had better learning of sample size calculation (2.7 points out of maximnum 10 points, 95% CI: 24 - 2.9) than the participants in the control group (1.6 points, 95% CI: 1.4 - 1.8). Participants doing research projects had a higher post-test score than those who did not have a plan to conduct research projects (0.9 point, 95% CI: 0.5 - 1.4). The majority of the participants had a positive attitude towards the use of smartphone application for learning sample size calculation.

16. 27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... which that ingredient is used, or unless the formula for the ingredient is contained in one of the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The manufacturer...

17. 27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... which that ingredient is used, or unless the formula for the ingredient is contained in one of the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The manufacturer...

18. 27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... which that ingredient is used, or unless the formula for the ingredient is contained in one of the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The manufacturer...

19. 27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... which that ingredient is used, or unless the formula for the ingredient is contained in one of the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The manufacturer...

20. 27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... which that ingredient is used, or unless the formula for the ingredient is contained in one of the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The manufacturer...

1. Minimizing the Maximum Expected Sample Size in Two-Stage Phase II Clinical Trials with Continuous Outcomes

PubMed Central

Wason, James M. S.; Mander, Adrian P.

2012-01-01

Two-stage designs are commonly used for Phase II trials. Optimal two-stage designs have the lowest expected sample size for a specific treatment effect, for example, the null value, but can perform poorly if the true treatment effect differs. Here we introduce a design for continuous treatment responses that minimizes the maximum expected sample size across all possible treatment effects. The proposed design performs well for a wider range of treatment effects and so is useful for Phase II trials. We compare the design to a previously used optimal design and show it has superior expected sample size properties. PMID:22651118

2. Size-exclusion chromatography-based enrichment of extracellular vesicles from urine samples

PubMed Central

Lozano-Ramos, Inés; Bancu, Ioana; Oliveira-Tercero, Anna; Armengol, María Pilar; Menezes-Neto, Armando; Del Portillo, Hernando A.; Lauzurica-Valdemoros, Ricardo; Borràs, Francesc E.

2015-01-01

Renal biopsy is the gold-standard procedure to diagnose most of renal pathologies. However, this invasive method is of limited repeatability and often describes an irreversible renal damage. Urine is an easily accessible fluid and urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) may be ideal to describe new biomarkers associated with renal pathologies. Several methods to enrich EVs have been described. Most of them contain a mixture of proteins, lipoproteins and cell debris that may be masking relevant biomarkers. Here, we evaluated size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) as a suitable method to isolate urinary EVs. Following a conventional centrifugation to eliminate cell debris and apoptotic bodies, urine samples were concentrated using ultrafiltration and loaded on a SEC column. Collected fractions were analysed by protein content and flow cytometry to determine the presence of tetraspanin markers (CD63 and CD9). The highest tetraspanin content was routinely detected in fractions well before the bulk of proteins eluted. These tetraspanin-peak fractions were analysed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis revealing the presence of EVs. When analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tetraspanin-peak fractions from urine concentrated samples contained multiple bands but the main urine proteins (such as Tamm–Horsfall protein) were absent. Furthermore, a preliminary proteomic study of these fractions revealed the presence of EV-related proteins, suggesting their enrichment in concentrated samples. In addition, RNA profiling also showed the presence of vesicular small RNA species. To summarize, our results demonstrated that concentrated urine followed by SEC is a suitable option to isolate EVs with low presence of soluble contaminants. This methodology could permit more accurate analyses of EV-related biomarkers when further characterized by -omics technologies compared with other approaches. PMID:26025625

3. Large sample area and size are needed for forest soil seed bank studies to ensure low discrepancy with standing vegetation.

PubMed

Shen, You-xin; Liu, Wei-li; Li, Yu-hui; Guan, Hui-lin

2014-01-01

A large number of small-sized samples invariably shows that woody species are absent from forest soil seed banks, leading to a large discrepancy with the seedling bank on the forest floor. We ask: 1) Does this conventional sampling strategy limit the detection of seeds of woody species? 2) Are large sample areas and sample sizes needed for higher recovery of seeds of woody species? We collected 100 samples that were 10 cm (length) × 10 cm (width) × 10 cm (depth), referred to as larger number of small-sized samples (LNSS) in a 1 ha forest plot, and placed them to germinate in a greenhouse, and collected 30 samples that were 1 m × 1 m × 10 cm, referred to as small number of large-sized samples (SNLS) and placed them (10 each) in a nearby secondary forest, shrub land and grass land. Only 15.7% of woody plant species of the forest stand were detected by the 100 LNSS, contrasting with 22.9%, 37.3% and 20.5% woody plant species being detected by SNLS in the secondary forest, shrub land and grassland, respectively. The increased number of species vs. sampled areas confirmed power-law relationships for forest stand, the LNSS and SNLS at all three recipient sites. Our results, although based on one forest, indicate that conventional LNSS did not yield a high percentage of detection for woody species, but SNLS strategy yielded a higher percentage of detection for woody species in the seed bank if samples were exposed to a better field germination environment. A 4 m2 minimum sample area derived from power equations is larger than the sampled area in most studies in the literature. Increased sample size also is needed to obtain an increased sample area if the number of samples is to remain relatively low.

4. The effect of machine learning regression algorithms and sample size on individualized behavioral prediction with functional connectivity features.

PubMed

Cui, Zaixu; Gong, Gaolang

2018-06-02

Individualized behavioral/cognitive prediction using machine learning (ML) regression approaches is becoming increasingly applied. The specific ML regression algorithm and sample size are two key factors that non-trivially influence prediction accuracies. However, the effects of the ML regression algorithm and sample size on individualized behavioral/cognitive prediction performance have not been comprehensively assessed. To address this issue, the present study included six commonly used ML regression algorithms: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression, ridge regression, elastic-net regression, linear support vector regression (LSVR), and relevance vector regression (RVR), to perform specific behavioral/cognitive predictions based on different sample sizes. Specifically, the publicly available resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) dataset from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) was used, and whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) or rsFC strength (rsFCS) were extracted as prediction features. Twenty-five sample sizes (ranged from 20 to 700) were studied by sub-sampling from the entire HCP cohort. The analyses showed that rsFC-based LASSO regression performed remarkably worse than the other algorithms, and rsFCS-based OLS regression performed markedly worse than the other algorithms. Regardless of the algorithm and feature type, both the prediction accuracy and its stability exponentially increased with increasing sample size. The specific patterns of the observed algorithm and sample size effects were well replicated in the prediction using re-testing fMRI data, data processed by different imaging preprocessing schemes, and different behavioral/cognitive scores, thus indicating excellent robustness/generalization of the effects. The current findings provide critical insight into how the selected ML regression algorithm and sample size influence individualized predictions of

5. Does increasing the size of bi-weekly samples of records influence results when using the Global Trigger Tool? An observational study of retrospective record reviews of two different sample sizes.

PubMed

Mevik, Kjersti; Griffin, Frances A; Hansen, Tonje E; Deilkås, Ellen T; Vonen, Barthold

2016-04-25

To investigate the impact of increasing sample of records reviewed bi-weekly with the Global Trigger Tool method to identify adverse events in hospitalised patients. Retrospective observational study. A Norwegian 524-bed general hospital trust. 1920 medical records selected from 1 January to 31 December 2010. Rate, type and severity of adverse events identified in two different samples sizes of records selected as 10 and 70 records, bi-weekly. In the large sample, 1.45 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.97) times more adverse events per 1000 patient days (39.3 adverse events/1000 patient days) were identified than in the small sample (27.2 adverse events/1000 patient days). Hospital-acquired infections were the most common category of adverse events in both the samples, and the distributions of the other categories of adverse events did not differ significantly between the samples. The distribution of severity level of adverse events did not differ between the samples. The findings suggest that while the distribution of categories and severity are not dependent on the sample size, the rate of adverse events is. Further studies are needed to conclude if the optimal sample size may need to be adjusted based on the hospital size in order to detect a more accurate rate of adverse events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

6. Sample size considerations for studies of intervention efficacy in the occupational setting.

PubMed

Lazovich, Deann; Murray, David M; Brosseau, Lisa M; Parker, David L; Milton, F Thomas; Dugan, Siobhan K

2002-03-01

Due to a shared environment and similarities among workers within a worksite, the strongest analytical design to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to reduce occupational health or safety hazards is to randomly assign worksites, not workers, to the intervention and comparison conditions. Statistical methods are well described for estimating the sample size when the unit of assignment is a group but these methods have not been applied in the evaluation of occupational health and safety interventions. We review and apply the statistical methods for group-randomized trials in planning a study to evaluate the effectiveness of technical/behavioral interventions to reduce wood dust levels among small woodworking businesses. We conducted a pilot study in five small woodworking businesses to estimate variance components between and within worksites and between and within workers. In each worksite, 8 h time-weighted dust concentrations were obtained for each production employee on between two and five occasions. With these data, we estimated the parameters necessary to calculate the percent change in dust concentrations that we could detect (alpha = 0.05, power = 80%) for a range of worksites per condition, workers per worksite and repeat measurements per worker. The mean wood dust concentration across woodworking businesses was 4.53 mg/m3. The measure of similarity among workers within a woodworking business was large (intraclass correlation = 0.5086). Repeated measurements within a worker were weakly correlated (r = 0.1927) while repeated measurements within a worksite were strongly correlated (r = 0.8925). The dominant factor in the sample size calculation was the number of worksites per condition, with the number of workers per worksite playing a lesser role. We also observed that increasing the number of repeat measurements per person had little benefit given the low within-worker correlation in our data. We found that 30 worksites per condition and 10 workers

7. A general approach for sample size calculation for the three-arm 'gold standard' non-inferiority design.

PubMed

Stucke, Kathrin; Kieser, Meinhard

2012-12-10

In the three-arm 'gold standard' non-inferiority design, an experimental treatment, an active reference, and a placebo are compared. This design is becoming increasingly popular, and it is, whenever feasible, recommended for use by regulatory guidelines. We provide a general method to calculate the required sample size for clinical trials performed in this design. As special cases, the situations of continuous, binary, and Poisson distributed outcomes are explored. Taking into account the correlation structure of the involved test statistics, the proposed approach leads to considerable savings in sample size as compared with application of ad hoc methods for all three scale levels. Furthermore, optimal sample size allocation ratios are determined that result in markedly smaller total sample sizes as compared with equal assignment. As optimal allocation makes the active treatment groups larger than the placebo group, implementation of the proposed approach is also desirable from an ethical viewpoint. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

8. Sample size considerations using mathematical models: an example with Chlamydia trachomatis infection and its sequelae pelvic inflammatory disease.

PubMed

Herzog, Sereina A; Low, Nicola; Berghold, Andrea

2015-06-19

The success of an intervention to prevent the complications of an infection is influenced by the natural history of the infection. Assumptions about the temporal relationship between infection and the development of sequelae can affect the predicted effect size of an intervention and the sample size calculation. This study investigates how a mathematical model can be used to inform sample size calculations for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) using the example of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). We used a compartmental model to imitate the structure of a published RCT. We considered three different processes for the timing of PID development, in relation to the initial C. trachomatis infection: immediate, constant throughout, or at the end of the infectious period. For each process we assumed that, of all women infected, the same fraction would develop PID in the absence of an intervention. We examined two sets of assumptions used to calculate the sample size in a published RCT that investigated the effect of chlamydia screening on PID incidence. We also investigated the influence of the natural history parameters of chlamydia on the required sample size. The assumed event rates and effect sizes used for the sample size calculation implicitly determined the temporal relationship between chlamydia infection and PID in the model. Even small changes in the assumed PID incidence and relative risk (RR) led to considerable differences in the hypothesised mechanism of PID development. The RR and the sample size needed per group also depend on the natural history parameters of chlamydia. Mathematical modelling helps to understand the temporal relationship between an infection and its sequelae and can show how uncertainties about natural history parameters affect sample size calculations when planning a RCT.

9. Higher Education Funding Formulas.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

1999-01-01

One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

10. The Texas Formula System.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Steen, Ralph W.; And Others

Explained and illustrated is the formula funding system used for colleges and universities in Texas. This system is considerably more complicated than the formulas used in other states. Data for institutions in the state system for fiscal 1978 are presented; actual appropriations are used rather than requests, and formula-produced amounts are…

11. Statistical grand rounds: a review of analysis and sample size calculation considerations for Wilcoxon tests.

PubMed

Divine, George; Norton, H James; Hunt, Ronald; Dienemann, Jacqueline

2013-09-01

When a study uses an ordinal outcome measure with unknown differences in the anchors and a small range such as 4 or 7, use of the Wilcoxon rank sum test or the Wilcoxon signed rank test may be most appropriate. However, because nonparametric methods are at best indirect functions of standard measures of location such as means or medians, the choice of the most appropriate summary measure can be difficult. The issues underlying use of these tests are discussed. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney odds directly reflects the quantity that the rank sum procedure actually tests, and thus it can be a superior summary measure. Unlike the means and medians, its value will have a one-to-one correspondence with the Wilcoxon rank sum test result. The companion article appearing in this issue of Anesthesia & Analgesia ("Aromatherapy as Treatment for Postoperative Nausea: A Randomized Trial") illustrates these issues and provides an example of a situation for which the medians imply no difference between 2 groups, even though the groups are, in fact, quite different. The trial cited also provides an example of a single sample that has a median of zero, yet there is a substantial shift for much of the nonzero data, and the Wilcoxon signed rank test is quite significant. These examples highlight the potential discordance between medians and Wilcoxon test results. Along with the issues surrounding the choice of a summary measure, there are considerations for the computation of sample size and power, confidence intervals, and multiple comparison adjustment. In addition, despite the increased robustness of the Wilcoxon procedures relative to parametric tests, some circumstances in which the Wilcoxon tests may perform poorly are noted, along with alternative versions of the procedures that correct for such limitations.

12. How to save money on infant formula

MedlinePlus

... from now, and those coupons will save you money. Sign up for newsletters, special programs, and deals on formula company websites. They often send out coupons and free samples. Ask your pediatrician for samples. Consider generic ...

13. Family Configuration and Achievement: Effects of Birth Order and Family Size in a Sample of Brothers.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Olneck, Michael R.; Bills, David B.

1979-01-01

Birth order effects in brothers were found to derive from difference in family size. Effects for family size were found even with socioeconomic background controlled. Nor were family size effects explained by parental ability. The importance of unmeasured preferences or economic resources that vary across families was suggested. (Author/RD)

14. An approach for sample size determination of average bioequivalence based on interval estimation.

PubMed

Chiang, Chieh; Hsiao, Chin-Fu

2017-03-30

In 1992, the US Food and Drug Administration declared that two drugs demonstrate average bioequivalence (ABE) if the log-transformed mean difference of pharmacokinetic responses lies in (-0.223, 0.223). The most widely used approach for assessing ABE is the two one-sided tests procedure. More specifically, ABE is concluded when a 100(1 - 2α) % confidence interval for mean difference falls within (-0.223, 0.223). As known, bioequivalent studies are usually conducted by crossover design. However, in the case that the half-life of a drug is long, a parallel design for the bioequivalent study may be preferred. In this study, a two-sided interval estimation - such as Satterthwaite's, Cochran-Cox's, or Howe's approximations - is used for assessing parallel ABE. We show that the asymptotic joint distribution of the lower and upper confidence limits is bivariate normal, and thus the sample size can be calculated based on the asymptotic power so that the confidence interval falls within (-0.223, 0.223). Simulation studies also show that the proposed method achieves sufficient empirical power. A real example is provided to illustrate the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

15. The Use of a Binary Composite Endpoint and Sample Size Requirement: Influence of Endpoints Overlap.

PubMed

Marsal, Josep-Ramon; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Bertran, Sandra; Ribera, Aida; Permanyer-Miralda, Gaietà; García-Dorado, David; Gómez, Guadalupe

2017-05-01

Although composite endpoints (CE) are common in clinical trials, the impact of the relationship between the components of a binary CE on the sample size requirement (SSR) has not been addressed. We performed a computational study considering 2 treatments and a CE with 2 components: the relevant endpoint (RE) and the additional endpoint (AE). We assessed the strength of the components' interrelation by the degree of relative overlap between them, which was stratified into 5 groups. Within each stratum, SSR was computed for multiple scenarios by varying the events proportion and the effect of the therapy. A lower SSR using CE was defined as the best scenario for using the CE. In 25 of 66 scenarios the degree of relative overlap determined the benefit of using CE instead of the RE. Adding an AE with greater effect than the RE leads to lower SSR using the CE regardless of the AE proportion and the relative overlap. The influence of overlapping decreases when the effect on RE increases. Adding an AE with lower effect than the RE constitutes the most uncertain situation. In summary, the interrelationship between CE components, assessed by the relative overlap, can help to define the SSR in specific situations and it should be considered for SSR computation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

16. Optimum strata boundaries and sample sizes in health surveys using auxiliary variables

PubMed Central

2018-01-01

Using convenient stratification criteria such as geographical regions or other natural conditions like age, gender, etc., is not beneficial in order to maximize the precision of the estimates of variables of interest. Thus, one has to look for an efficient stratification design to divide the whole population into homogeneous strata that achieves higher precision in the estimation. In this paper, a procedure for determining Optimum Stratum Boundaries (OSB) and Optimum Sample Sizes (OSS) for each stratum of a variable of interest in health surveys is developed. The determination of OSB and OSS based on the study variable is not feasible in practice since the study variable is not available prior to the survey. Since many variables in health surveys are generally skewed, the proposed technique considers the readily-available auxiliary variables to determine the OSB and OSS. This stratification problem is formulated into a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP) that seeks minimization of the variance of the estimated population parameter under Neyman allocation. It is then solved for the OSB by using a dynamic programming (DP) technique. A numerical example with a real data set of a population, aiming to estimate the Haemoglobin content in women in a national Iron Deficiency Anaemia survey, is presented to illustrate the procedure developed in this paper. Upon comparisons with other methods available in literature, results reveal that the proposed approach yields a substantial gain in efficiency over the other methods. A simulation study also reveals similar results. PMID:29621265

17. Optimum strata boundaries and sample sizes in health surveys using auxiliary variables.

PubMed

Reddy, Karuna Garan; Khan, Mohammad G M; Khan, Sabiha

2018-01-01

Using convenient stratification criteria such as geographical regions or other natural conditions like age, gender, etc., is not beneficial in order to maximize the precision of the estimates of variables of interest. Thus, one has to look for an efficient stratification design to divide the whole population into homogeneous strata that achieves higher precision in the estimation. In this paper, a procedure for determining Optimum Stratum Boundaries (OSB) and Optimum Sample Sizes (OSS) for each stratum of a variable of interest in health surveys is developed. The determination of OSB and OSS based on the study variable is not feasible in practice since the study variable is not available prior to the survey. Since many variables in health surveys are generally skewed, the proposed technique considers the readily-available auxiliary variables to determine the OSB and OSS. This stratification problem is formulated into a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP) that seeks minimization of the variance of the estimated population parameter under Neyman allocation. It is then solved for the OSB by using a dynamic programming (DP) technique. A numerical example with a real data set of a population, aiming to estimate the Haemoglobin content in women in a national Iron Deficiency Anaemia survey, is presented to illustrate the procedure developed in this paper. Upon comparisons with other methods available in literature, results reveal that the proposed approach yields a substantial gain in efficiency over the other methods. A simulation study also reveals similar results.

18. Sampling design and required sample size for evaluating contamination levels of 137Cs in Japanese fir needles in a mixed deciduous forest stand in Fukushima, Japan.

PubMed

2017-05-01

We estimated the sample size (the number of samples) required to evaluate the concentration of radiocesium ( 137 Cs) in Japanese fir (Abies firma Sieb. & Zucc.), 5 years after the outbreak of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We investigated the spatial structure of the contamination levels in this species growing in a mixed deciduous broadleaf and evergreen coniferous forest stand. We sampled 40 saplings with a tree height of 150 cm-250 cm in a Fukushima forest community. The results showed that: (1) there was no correlation between the 137 Cs concentration in needles and soil, and (2) the difference in the spatial distribution pattern of 137 Cs concentration between needles and soil suggest that the contribution of root uptake to 137 Cs in new needles of this species may be minor in the 5 years after the radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. The concentration of 137 Cs in needles showed a strong positive spatial autocorrelation in the distance class from 0 to 2.5 m, suggesting that the statistical analysis of data should consider spatial autocorrelation in the case of an assessment of the radioactive contamination of forest trees. According to our sample size analysis, a sample size of seven trees was required to determine the mean contamination level within an error in the means of no more than 10%. This required sample size may be feasible for most sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

19. Characterization of Raman Scattering in Solid Samples with Different Particle Sizes and Elucidation on the Trends of Particle Size-Dependent Intensity Variations in Relation to Changes in the Sizes of Laser Illumination and Detection Area.

PubMed

Duy, Pham K; Chun, Seulah; Chung, Hoeil

2017-11-21

We have systematically characterized Raman scatterings in solid samples with different particle sizes and investigated subsequent trends of particle size-induced intensity variations. For this purpose, both lactose powders and pellets composed of five different particle sizes were prepared. Uniquely in this study, three spectral acquisition schemes with different sizes of laser illuminations and detection windows were employed for the evaluation, since it was expected that the experimental configuration would be another factor potentially influencing the intensity of the lactose peak, along with the particle size itself. In both samples, the distribution of Raman photons became broader with the increase in particle size, as the mean free path of laser photons, the average photon travel distance between consecutive scattering locations, became longer under this situation. When the particle size was the same, the Raman photon distribution was narrower in the pellets since the individual particles were more densely packed in a given volume (the shorter mean free path). When the size of the detection window was small, the number of photons reaching the detector decreased as the photon distribution was larger. Meanwhile, a large-window detector was able to collect the widely distributed Raman photons more effectively; therefore, the trends of intensity change with the variation in particle size were dissimilar depending on the employed spectral acquisition schemes. Overall, the Monte Carlo simulation was effective at probing the photon distribution inside the samples and helped to support the experimental observations.

20. Effects of growth rate, size, and light availability on tree survival across life stages: a demographic analysis accounting for missing values and small sample sizes.

PubMed

Moustakas, Aristides; Evans, Matthew R

2015-02-28

Plant survival is a key factor in forest dynamics and survival probabilities often vary across life stages. Studies specifically aimed at assessing tree survival are unusual and so data initially designed for other purposes often need to be used; such data are more likely to contain errors than data collected for this specific purpose. We investigate the survival rates of ten tree species in a dataset designed to monitor growth rates. As some individuals were not included in the census at some time points we use capture-mark-recapture methods both to allow us to account for missing individuals, and to estimate relocation probabilities. Growth rates, size, and light availability were included as covariates in the model predicting survival rates. The study demonstrates that tree mortality is best described as constant between years and size-dependent at early life stages and size independent at later life stages for most species of UK hardwood. We have demonstrated that even with a twenty-year dataset it is possible to discern variability both between individuals and between species. Our work illustrates the potential utility of the method applied here for calculating plant population dynamics parameters in time replicated datasets with small sample sizes and missing individuals without any loss of sample size, and including explanatory covariates.

1. Size Matters: Assessing Optimum Soil Sample Size for Fungal and Bacterial Community Structure Analyses Using High Throughput Sequencing of rRNA Gene Amplicons

SciTech Connect

Penton, C. Ryan; Gupta, Vadakattu V. S. R.; Yu, Julian

We examined the effect of different soil sample sizes obtained from an agricultural field, under a single cropping system uniform in soil properties and aboveground crop responses, on bacterial and fungal community structure and microbial diversity indices. DNA extracted from soil sample sizes of 0.25, 1, 5, and 10 g using MoBIO kits and from 10 and 100 g sizes using a bead-beating method (SARDI) were used as templates for high-throughput sequencing of 16S and 28S rRNA gene amplicons for bacteria and fungi, respectively, on the Illumina MiSeq and Roche 454 platforms. Sample size significantly affected overall bacterial and fungalmore » community structure, replicate dispersion and the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) retrieved. Richness, evenness and diversity were also significantly affected. The largest diversity estimates were always associated with the 10 g MoBIO extractions with a corresponding reduction in replicate dispersion. For the fungal data, smaller MoBIO extractions identified more unclassified Eukaryota incertae sedis and unclassified glomeromycota while the SARDI method retrieved more abundant OTUs containing unclassified Pleosporales and the fungal genera Alternaria and Cercophora. Overall, these findings indicate that a 10 g soil DNA extraction is most suitable for both soil bacterial and fungal communities for retrieving optimal diversity while still capturing rarer taxa in concert with decreasing replicate variation.« less

2. Size Matters: Assessing Optimum Soil Sample Size for Fungal and Bacterial Community Structure Analyses Using High Throughput Sequencing of rRNA Gene Amplicons

DOE PAGES

Penton, C. Ryan; Gupta, Vadakattu V. S. R.; Yu, Julian; ...

2016-06-02

We examined the effect of different soil sample sizes obtained from an agricultural field, under a single cropping system uniform in soil properties and aboveground crop responses, on bacterial and fungal community structure and microbial diversity indices. DNA extracted from soil sample sizes of 0.25, 1, 5, and 10 g using MoBIO kits and from 10 and 100 g sizes using a bead-beating method (SARDI) were used as templates for high-throughput sequencing of 16S and 28S rRNA gene amplicons for bacteria and fungi, respectively, on the Illumina MiSeq and Roche 454 platforms. Sample size significantly affected overall bacterial and fungalmore » community structure, replicate dispersion and the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) retrieved. Richness, evenness and diversity were also significantly affected. The largest diversity estimates were always associated with the 10 g MoBIO extractions with a corresponding reduction in replicate dispersion. For the fungal data, smaller MoBIO extractions identified more unclassified Eukaryota incertae sedis and unclassified glomeromycota while the SARDI method retrieved more abundant OTUs containing unclassified Pleosporales and the fungal genera Alternaria and Cercophora. Overall, these findings indicate that a 10 g soil DNA extraction is most suitable for both soil bacterial and fungal communities for retrieving optimal diversity while still capturing rarer taxa in concert with decreasing replicate variation.« less

3. Size Matters: Assessing Optimum Soil Sample Size for Fungal and Bacterial Community Structure Analyses Using High Throughput Sequencing of rRNA Gene Amplicons

PubMed Central

Penton, C. Ryan; Gupta, Vadakattu V. S. R.; Yu, Julian; Tiedje, James M.

2016-01-01

We examined the effect of different soil sample sizes obtained from an agricultural field, under a single cropping system uniform in soil properties and aboveground crop responses, on bacterial and fungal community structure and microbial diversity indices. DNA extracted from soil sample sizes of 0.25, 1, 5, and 10 g using MoBIO kits and from 10 and 100 g sizes using a bead-beating method (SARDI) were used as templates for high-throughput sequencing of 16S and 28S rRNA gene amplicons for bacteria and fungi, respectively, on the Illumina MiSeq and Roche 454 platforms. Sample size significantly affected overall bacterial and fungal community structure, replicate dispersion and the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) retrieved. Richness, evenness and diversity were also significantly affected. The largest diversity estimates were always associated with the 10 g MoBIO extractions with a corresponding reduction in replicate dispersion. For the fungal data, smaller MoBIO extractions identified more unclassified Eukaryota incertae sedis and unclassified glomeromycota while the SARDI method retrieved more abundant OTUs containing unclassified Pleosporales and the fungal genera Alternaria and Cercophora. Overall, these findings indicate that a 10 g soil DNA extraction is most suitable for both soil bacterial and fungal communities for retrieving optimal diversity while still capturing rarer taxa in concert with decreasing replicate variation. PMID:27313569

4. Differences in soluble organic carbon chemistry in pore waters sampled from different pore size domains

DOE PAGES

Bailey, Vanessa L.; Smith, A. P.; Tfaily, Malak; ...

2017-01-11

Spatial isolation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in different sized pores may be a mechanism by which otherwise labile carbon (C) could be protected in soils. When soil water content increases, the hydrologic connectivity of soil pores also increases, allowing greater transport of SOC and other resources from protected locations, to microbially colonized locations more favorable to decomposition. The heterogeneous distribution of specialized decomposers, C, and other resources throughout the soil indicates that the metabolism or persistence of soil C compounds is highly dependent on short-distance transport processes. The objective of this research was to characterize the complexity of Cmore » in pore waters held at weak and strong water tensions (effectively soil solution held behind coarse- and fine-pore throats, respectively) and evaluate the microbial decomposability of these pore waters. We saturated intact soil cores and extracted pore waters with increasing suction pressures to sequentially sample pore waters from increasingly fine pore domains. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry of the SOC was used to profile the major biochemical classes (i.e., lipids, proteins, lignin, carbohydrates, and condensed aromatics) of compounds present in the pore waters; some of these samples were then used as substrates for growth of Cellvibrio japonicus (DSMZ 16018), Streptomyces cellulosae (ATCC ® 25439™), and Trichoderma reseei (QM6a) in 7 day incubations. The soluble C in finer pores was more complex than the soluble C in coarser pores, and the incubations revealed that the more complex C in these fine pores is not recalcitrant. The decomposition of this complex C led to greater losses of C through respiration than the simpler C from coarser pore waters. Our research suggests that soils that experience repeated cycles of drying and wetting may be accompanied by repeated cycles of increased CO 2 fluxes that are driven by i) the transport of C from protected pools

5. Differences in soluble organic carbon chemistry in pore waters sampled from different pore size domains

SciTech Connect

Bailey, Vanessa L.; Smith, A. P.; Tfaily, Malak

Spatial isolation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in different sized pores may be a mechanism by which otherwise labile carbon (C) could be protected in soils. When soil water content increases, the hydrologic connectivity of soil pores also increases, allowing greater transport of SOC and other resources from protected locations, to microbially colonized locations more favorable to decomposition. The heterogeneous distribution of specialized decomposers, C, and other resources throughout the soil indicates that the metabolism or persistence of soil C compounds is highly dependent on short-distance transport processes. The objective of this research was to characterize the complexity of Cmore » in pore waters held at weak and strong water tensions (effectively soil solution held behind coarse- and fine-pore throats, respectively) and evaluate the microbial decomposability of these pore waters. We saturated intact soil cores and extracted pore waters with increasing suction pressures to sequentially sample pore waters from increasingly fine pore domains. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry of the SOC was used to profile the major biochemical classes (i.e., lipids, proteins, lignin, carbohydrates, and condensed aromatics) of compounds present in the pore waters; some of these samples were then used as substrates for growth of Cellvibrio japonicus (DSMZ 16018), Streptomyces cellulosae (ATCC ® 25439™), and Trichoderma reseei (QM6a) in 7 day incubations. The soluble C in finer pores was more complex than the soluble C in coarser pores, and the incubations revealed that the more complex C in these fine pores is not recalcitrant. The decomposition of this complex C led to greater losses of C through respiration than the simpler C from coarser pore waters. Our research suggests that soils that experience repeated cycles of drying and wetting may be accompanied by repeated cycles of increased CO 2 fluxes that are driven by i) the transport of C from protected pools

6. Critical analysis of consecutive unilateral cleft lip repairs: determining ideal sample size.

PubMed

Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B

2013-03-01

Objective : Cleft surgeons often show 10 consecutive lip repairs to reduce presentation bias, however the validity remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the number of consecutive cases that represent average outcomes. Secondary objectives are to determine if outcomes correlate with cleft severity and to calculate interrater reliability. Design : Consecutive preoperative and 2-year postoperative photographs of the unilateral cleft lip-nose complex were randomized and evaluated by cleft surgeons. Parametric analysis was performed according to chronologic, consecutive order. The mean standard deviation over all raters enabled calculation of expected 95% confidence intervals around a mean tested for various sample sizes. Setting : Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association in 2009. Patients, Participants : Ten senior cleft surgeons evaluated 39 consecutive lip repairs. Main Outcome Measures : Preoperative severity and postoperative outcomes were evaluated using descriptive and quantitative scales. Results : Intraclass correlation coefficients for cleft severity and postoperative evaluations were 0.65 and 0.21, respectively. Outcomes did not correlate with cleft severity (P  =  .28). Calculations for 10 consecutive cases demonstrated wide 95% confidence intervals, spanning two points on both postoperative grading scales. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals narrowed within one qualitative grade (±0.30) and one point (±0.50) on the 10-point scale for 27 consecutive cases. Conclusions : Larger numbers of consecutive cases (n > 27) are increasingly representative of average results, but less practical in presentation format. Ten consecutive cases lack statistical support. Cleft surgeons showed low interrater reliability for postoperative assessments, which may reflect personal bias when evaluating another surgeon's results.

7. Formulaic Language in Alzheimer’s Disease

PubMed Central

Bridges, Kelly Ann; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

2013-01-01

Background Studies of productive language in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have focused on formal testing of syntax and semantics but have directed less attention to naturalistic discourse and formulaic language. Clinical observations suggest that individuals with AD retain the ability to produce formulaic language long after other cognitive abilities have deteriorated. Aims This study quantifies production of formulaic expressions in the spontaneous speech of individuals with AD. Persons with early- and late-onset forms of the disease were compared. Methods & Procedures Conversational language samples of individuals with early- (n = 5) and late-onset (n = 6) AD and healthy controls (n = 5) were analyzed to determine whether formulaic language, as measured by the number of words in formulaic expressions, differs between groups. Outcomes & Results Results indicate that individuals with AD, regardless of age of onset, used significantly more formulaic expressions than healthy controls. The early- and late-onset AD groups did not differ on formulaic language measures. Conclusions These findings contribute to a dual process model of cerebral function, which proposes differing processing principles for formulaic and novel expressions. In this model, subcortical areas, which remain intact into late in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, play an important role in the production of formulaic language. Applications to clinical practice include identifying preserved formulaic language and providing informed counseling to patient and family. PMID:24187417

8. Development and validation of a solid-phase extraction method coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the determination of fluoroquinolone residues in powdered infant formulae. Application to the analysis of samples from the Spanish and Latin American market.

PubMed

Rodriguez, E; Moreno-Bondi, M C; Marazuela, M D

2008-10-31

This paper describes a new method for the effective extraction, clean-up and chromatographic analysis of residues of four fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin and sarafloxacin) in powdered infant formulae and follow-on preparations. Samples were reconstituted following the manufacturer's recommendations and treated with trichloroacetic acid in methanol 10% (w/v) for deproteinization. Two solid-phase extraction cartridges have been evaluated for sample clean-up and preconcentration, Strata Screen A and Strata X and the later provided the best recoveries for all the analytes tested. Chromatographic analysis has been carried out using a polar endcapped column (AQUA C(18)) and fluorescence detection, with lomefloxacin (LOME) as internal standard. Method validation has been performed according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria, in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, specificity, decision limit (CC(alpha)) and detection capability (CC(beta)). Typical recoveries ranged between 70 and 110% at levels below and above the maximum residue limits of the target analytes in bovine milk, with an excellent intralab reproducibility (RSDs<7%). Matrix effects did not significantly affect method accuracy, as evidenced by analyzing different brands of milk. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 100 samples of infant and follow-on formulae of the Spanish and Latin American market, using LC-MS/MS as confirmatory technique.

9. Systematic review finds major deficiencies in sample size methodology and reporting for stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials

PubMed Central

Martin, James; Taljaard, Monica; Girling, Alan; Hemming, Karla

2016-01-01

Background Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRT) are increasingly being used in health policy and services research, but unless they are conducted and reported to the highest methodological standards, they are unlikely to be useful to decision-makers. Sample size calculations for these designs require allowance for clustering, time effects and repeated measures. Methods We carried out a methodological review of SW-CRTs up to October 2014. We assessed adherence to reporting each of the 9 sample size calculation items recommended in the 2012 extension of the CONSORT statement to cluster trials. Results We identified 32 completed trials and 28 independent protocols published between 1987 and 2014. Of these, 45 (75%) reported a sample size calculation, with a median of 5.0 (IQR 2.5–6.0) of the 9 CONSORT items reported. Of those that reported a sample size calculation, the majority, 33 (73%), allowed for clustering, but just 15 (33%) allowed for time effects. There was a small increase in the proportions reporting a sample size calculation (from 64% before to 84% after publication of the CONSORT extension, p=0.07). The type of design (cohort or cross-sectional) was not reported clearly in the majority of studies, but cohort designs seemed to be most prevalent. Sample size calculations in cohort designs were particularly poor with only 3 out of 24 (13%) of these studies allowing for repeated measures. Discussion The quality of reporting of sample size items in stepped-wedge trials is suboptimal. There is an urgent need for dissemination of the appropriate guidelines for reporting and methodological development to match the proliferation of the use of this design in practice. Time effects and repeated measures should be considered in all SW-CRT power calculations, and there should be clarity in reporting trials as cohort or cross-sectional designs. PMID:26846897

10. On sample size of the kruskal-wallis test with application to a mouse peritoneal cavity study.

PubMed

Fan, Chunpeng; Zhang, Donghui; Zhang, Cun-Hui

2011-03-01

As the nonparametric generalization of the one-way analysis of variance model, the Kruskal-Wallis test applies when the goal is to test the difference between multiple samples and the underlying population distributions are nonnormal or unknown. Although the Kruskal-Wallis test has been widely used for data analysis, power and sample size methods for this test have been investigated to a much lesser extent. This article proposes new power and sample size calculation methods for the Kruskal-Wallis test based on the pilot study in either a completely nonparametric model or a semiparametric location model. No assumption is made on the shape of the underlying population distributions. Simulation results show that, in terms of sample size calculation for the Kruskal-Wallis test, the proposed methods are more reliable and preferable to some more traditional methods. A mouse peritoneal cavity study is used to demonstrate the application of the methods. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

11. Maximum type I error rate inflation from sample size reassessment when investigators are blind to treatment labels.

PubMed

Żebrowska, Magdalena; Posch, Martin; Magirr, Dominic

2016-05-30

Consider a parallel group trial for the comparison of an experimental treatment to a control, where the second-stage sample size may depend on the blinded primary endpoint data as well as on additional blinded data from a secondary endpoint. For the setting of normally distributed endpoints, we demonstrate that this may lead to an inflation of the t