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Sample records for samples marine recreational

  1. Escherichia coli in marine water: Comparison of methods for the assessment of recreational bathing water samples.

    PubMed

    Lušić, Darija Vukić; Jozić, Slaven; Cenov, Arijana; Glad, Marin; Bulić, Marko; Lušić, Dražen

    2016-12-15

    Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) specifies two reference methods for Escherichia coli detection: ISO 9308-1 and 9308-3. The revised ISO 9308-1 is recommended only for waters with a low bacterial background flora. Considering the extended time needed for analysis and, generally, the lack of experience in using ISO 9308-3 in the Mediterranean, the suitability of ISO 9308-1 for the examination of E. coli in bathing water was evaluated. The present study was aimed at a comparison of data obtained by the reference method in seawater samples (110 beaches, N=477) with data received from six alternative methods. Results show that recently used TSA/TBA method may overestimate E. coli numbers in marine waters. The temperature modified ISO 9308-1 (44°C) did not significantly alter the results, but outperformed the antibiotic supplemented agar at reducing non-E. coli bacteria on the plates, allowing the use of the respective method for monitoring coastal water.

  2. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied.

  3. 78 FR 20296 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine... for revision of a current information collection. The title will be changed from ``Marine Recreational Information Program'' to ``Marine Recreational Information Program Fishing Effort Survey''....

  4. Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings Timothy J. Wade, Elizabeth A. Sams, Rich Haugland, Alfred P. Dufour The National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study was conducted to address aspects...

  5. 77 FR 14348 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine... information collection. Marine recreational anglers are surveyed to collect catch and effort data, fish biology data, and angler socioeconomic characteristics. These data are required to carry out provisions...

  6. 78 FR 6070 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine.... Abstract This request is for a new information collection. Marine recreational anglers are surveyed to collect catch and effort data, fish biology data, and angler socioeconomic characteristics. These data...

  7. 77 FR 73433 - Appointments to a Recreational Fisheries Working Group by the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Working Group by the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: Nominations are being solicited for appointment to a Recreational Fisheries Working Group of the... recreational fisheries issues; an operational knowledge of federal agencies and interactions with the...

  8. THE EMPACT BEACHES: A CASE STUDY IN RECREATIONAL WATER SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various chapters describe sample and experimental design, use of a geometric mean or an arithmetic mean, modeling and forecasting, and risk assessment in relation to monitoring recreational waters for fecal indicators. All of these aspects of monitoring are dependent on the spat...

  9. Presence of pathogens and indicator microbes at a non-point source subtropical recreational marine beach.

    PubMed

    Abdelzaher, Amir M; Wright, Mary E; Ortega, Cristina; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Miller, Gary; Elmir, Samir; Newman, Xihui; Shih, Peter; Bonilla, J Alfredo; Bonilla, Tonya D; Palmer, Carol J; Scott, Troy; Lukasik, Jerzy; Harwood, Valerie J; McQuaig, Shannon; Sinigalliano, Chris; Gidley, Maribeth; Plano, Lisa R W; Zhu, Xiaofang; Wang, John D; Fleming, Lora E

    2010-02-01

    Swimming in ocean water, including ocean water at beaches not impacted by known point sources of pollution, is an increasing health concern. This study was an initial evaluation of the presence of indicator microbes and pathogens and the association among the indicator microbes, pathogens, and environmental conditions at a subtropical, recreational marine beach in south Florida impacted by non-point sources of pollution. Twelve water and eight sand samples were collected during four sampling events at high or low tide under elevated or reduced solar insolation conditions. The analyses performed included analyses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens), human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers (human polyomaviruses [HPyVs] and Enterococcus faecium esp gene), and pathogens (Vibrio vulnificus, Staphylococcus aureus, enterovirus, norovirus, hepatitis A virus, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp.). The enterococcus concentrations in water and sand determined by quantitative PCR were greater than the concentrations determined by membrane filtration measurement. The FIB concentrations in water were below the recreational water quality standards for three of the four sampling events, when pathogens and MST markers were also generally undetectable. The FIB levels exceeded regulatory guidelines during one event, and this was accompanied by detection of HPyVs and pathogens, including detection of the autochthonous bacterium V. vulnificus in sand and water, detection of the allochthonous protozoans Giardia spp. in water, and detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in sand samples. The elevated microbial levels were detected at high tide and under low-solar-insolation conditions. Additional sampling should be conducted to further explore the relationships between tidal and solar insolation conditions and between indicator microbes and pathogens in subtropical recreational marine waters impacted

  10. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or…

  11. 78 FR 65971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  12. A Prospective Study of Marine Phytoplankton and Reported Illness Among Recreational Beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cynthia J.; Wade, Timothy J.; Sams, Elizabeth A.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Chapman, Andrew D.; Hilborn, Elizabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted. Objective: We evaluated the association between phytoplankton cell counts and subsequent illness among recreational beachgoers. Methods: We recruited beachgoers at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 2009. We conducted interviews at three time points to assess baseline health, water activities, and subsequent illness. Daily water samples were quantitatively assayed for phytoplankton cell count. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age and sex, were used to assess the association between exposure to three categories of phytoplankton concentration and subsequent illness. Results: During 26 study days, 15,726 individuals successfully completed all three interviews. Daily total phytoplankton cell counts ranged from 346 to 2,012 cells/mL (median, 712 cells/mL). The category with the highest (≥ 75th percentile) total phytoplankton cell count was associated with eye irritation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.66], rash (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.57), and earache (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.77). In phytoplankton group-specific analyses, the category with the highest Cyanobacteria counts was associated with respiratory illness (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.67), rash (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.66), eye irritation (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.62), and earache (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.93). Conclusions: We found associations between recreational exposure to marine phytoplankton and reports of eye irritation, respiratory illness, and rash. We also found that associations varied by phytoplankton group, with Cyanobacteria having the strongest and most consistent associations. Citation: Lin CJ, Wade TJ, Sams EA, Dufour AP, Chapman AD, Hilborn ED. 2016. A

  13. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We ...

  14. Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a subtropical recreational marine beach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of Staphylococcus aureus detected in marine environments have occurred since the early 1990’s. This investigation sought to isolate and characterize S. aureus from marine waters and sand at a subtropical recreational beach, with and without bathers present, in order to investigate possible s...

  15. 78 FR 77431 - Appointments to a Recreational Fisheries Working Group by the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Working Group by the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: Applications are being solicited for appointment to a Recreational Fisheries Working Group of the... interactions with the Fishery Management Councils and/or regional and state partners; and be able to...

  16. Unite research with what citizens do for fun: "recreational monitoring" of marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Stefano; Pensa, Francesco; Neri, Patrizia; Orlandi, Antonio; Gagliardi, Maria Scola; Velardi, Angela; Piccinetti, Corrado; Zaccanti, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    Institutes often lack funds and manpower to perform large-scale biodiversity monitoring. Citizens can be involved, contributing to the collection of data, thus decreasing costs. Underwater research requires specialist skills and SCUBA certification, and it can be difficult to involve volunteers. The aim of this study was to involve large numbers of recreational divers in marine biodiversity monitoring for increasing the environmental education of the public and collecting data on the status of marine biodiversity. Here we show that thousands of recreational divers can be enrolled in a short time. Using specially formulated questionnaires, nonspecialist volunteers reported the presence of 61 marine taxa encountered during recreational dives, performed as regular sport dives. Validation trials were carried out to assess the accuracy and consistency of volunteer-recorded data, and these were compared to reference data collected by an experienced researcher. In the majority of trials (76%) volunteers performed with an accuracy and consistency of 50-80%, comparable to the performance of conservation volunteer divers on precise transects in other projects. The recruitment of recreational divers involved the main diving and tour operators in Italy, a popular scientific magazine, and mass media. During the four-year study, 3825 divers completed 18757 questionnaires, corresponding to 13539 diving hours. The volunteer-sightings-based index showed that in the monitored area the biodiversity status did not change significantly within the project time scale, but there was a significant negative correlation with latitude, suggesting improved quality in the southernmost areas. This trend could be related to the presence of stressors in the northern areas and has been supported by investigations performed by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. The greatest limitation with using volunteers to collect data was the uneven spatial distribution of samples. The benefits were the

  17. Incorporating recreational users into marine protected area planning: a study of recreational boating in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gray, Darcy L; Canessa, Rosaline; Rollins, Rick; Keller, C Peter; Dearden, Philip

    2010-08-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) and zoning plans require an understanding of stakeholders if they are to be successful at achieving social and biological objectives. This study examines recreational boaters in a proposed MPA in British Columbia, Canada, using the recreation opportunity spectrum (ROS) and models of recreation conflict as a basis for investigation. Boaters (n = 543) visiting the region during the summer completed face-to-face surveys. Results show variability in boater setting preferences, supporting an ROS-based approach to MPA planning and zoning. While boaters as a whole placed the greatest importance on natural settings, sailboat operators expressed stronger preferences for natural and quiet settings relative to motorboats, and motorboat operators expressed stronger preferences for settings characterized by built facilities and extractive activities relative to sailboats. Several marine activities emerged as sources of perceived conflict for boaters, including personal watercraft, commercial whale watching vessels, and shellfish aquaculture. Our analysis indicates that while some of these may be addressed through zoning, others are better addressed through education and communication. Recommendations for both MPA management and future research are made.

  18. Incorporating Recreational Users into Marine Protected Area Planning: A Study of Recreational Boating in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Darcy L.; Canessa, Rosaline; Rollins, Rick; Keller, C. Peter; Dearden, Philip

    2010-08-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) and zoning plans require an understanding of stakeholders if they are to be successful at achieving social and biological objectives. This study examines recreational boaters in a proposed MPA in British Columbia, Canada, using the recreation opportunity spectrum (ROS) and models of recreation conflict as a basis for investigation. Boaters ( n = 543) visiting the region during the summer completed face-to-face surveys. Results show variability in boater setting preferences, supporting an ROS-based approach to MPA planning and zoning. While boaters as a whole placed the greatest importance on natural settings, sailboat operators expressed stronger preferences for natural and quiet settings relative to motorboats, and motorboat operators expressed stronger preferences for settings characterized by built facilities and extractive activities relative to sailboats. Several marine activities emerged as sources of perceived conflict for boaters, including personal watercraft, commercial whale watching vessels, and shellfish aquaculture. Our analysis indicates that while some of these may be addressed through zoning, others are better addressed through education and communication. Recommendations for both MPA management and future research are made.

  19. The impact of United States recreational fisheries on marine fish populations.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Felicia C; Figueira, Will F; Ueland, Jeffrey S; Crowder, Larry B

    2004-09-24

    We evaluated the commercial and recreational fishery landings over the past 22 years, first at the national level, then for populations of concern (those that are overfished or experiencing overfishing), and finally by region. Recreational landings in 2002 account for 4% of total marine fish landed in the United States. With large industrial fisheries excluded (e.g., menhaden and pollock), the recreational component rises to 10%. Among populations of concern, recreational landings in 2002 account for 23% of the total nationwide, rising to 38% in the South Atlantic and 64% in the Gulf of Mexico. Moreover, it affects many of the most-valued overfished species-including red drum, bocaccio, and red snapper-all of which are taken primarily in the recreational fishery.

  20. Marine recreation and public health microbiology: Quest for the ideal indicator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Rose, Joan B.

    2001-01-01

    Four-fifths of the population of the United States live in close proximity to the oceans or Great Lakes, and approximately 100 million Americans use the marine environment for recreation each year (Thurman 1994). Consequently, contamination of lakes, rivers, and coastal waters raises significant public health issues. Among the leading sources of chemical and biological contamination of these waters and associated beaches are sewer systems, septic tanks, stormwater runoff, industrial wastes, wastewater injection wells, cesspits, animal wastes, commercial and private boat wastes, and human recreation. In 1997, 649 beach closings or advisories were caused by sewage spills and overflows (NRDC 1998). In Florida alone, approximately 500 million gallons of sewage were released along the coast each year during the late 1980s (Neshyba 1987). Thus one of the primary concerns in public health is the risk that humans using the marine environment for recreational activities will encounter microbial pathogens.

  1. Marine recreation and public health microbiology: quest for the ideal indicator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Rose, Joan B.

    2001-01-01

    Four-fifths of the population of the United States live in close proximity to the oceans or Great Lakes, and approximately 100 million Americans use the marine environment for recreation each year (Thurman 1994). Consequently, contamination of lakes, rivers, and coastal waters raises significant public health issues. Among the leading sources of chemical and biological contamination of these waters and associated beaches are sewer systems, septic tanks, stormwater runoff, industrial wastes, wastewater injection wells, cesspits, animal wastes, commercial and private boat wastes, and human recreation. In 1997, 649 beach closings or advisories were caused by sewage spills and overflows (NRDC 1998). In Florida alone, approximately 500 million gallons of sewage were released along the coast each year during the late 1980s (Neshyba 1987). Thus one of the primary concerns in public health is the risk that humans using the marine environment for recreational activities will encounter microbial pathogens.

  2. 75 FR 21231 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... (MSA), (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) as amended, regarding conservation and management of fishery resources... telephone surveys and on-site intercept surveys with recreational anglers. Recent amendments to the MSA... requirements of the MSA, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service is developing pilot studies to...

  3. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management.

    PubMed

    Venturini, S; Massa, F; Castellano, M; Costa, S; Lavarello, I; Olivari, E; Povero, P

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters.

  4. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, S.; Massa, F.; Castellano, M.; Costa, S.; Lavarello, I.; Olivari, E.; Povero, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters.

  5. Relationships among bather density, levels of human waterborne pathogens, and fecal coliform counts in marine recreational beach water.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Sunderland, Deirdre; Awantang, Grace N; Mashinski, Yessika; Lucy, Frances E; Graczyk, Zofi; Chomicz, Lidia; Breysse, Patrick N

    2010-04-01

    During summer months, samples of marine beach water were tested weekly for human waterborne pathogens in association with high and low bather numbers during weekends and weekdays, respectively. The numbers of bathers on weekends were significantly higher than on weekdays (P < 0.001), and this was associated with a significant (P < 0.04) increase in water turbidity. The proportion of water samples containing Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi was significantly higher (P < 0.03) on weekends than on weekdays, and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with enterococci counts. The concentration of all three waterborne pathogens was significantly correlated with bather density (P < 0.01). The study demonstrated that: (a) human pathogens were present in beach water on days deemed acceptable for bathing according to fecal bacterial standards; (b) enterococci count was a good indicator for the presence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and microsporidian spores in recreational marine beach water; (c) water should be tested for enterococci during times when bather numbers are high; (d) re-suspension of bottom sediments by bathers caused elevated levels of enterococci and waterborne parasites, thus bathers themselves can create a non-point source for water contamination; and (e) exposure to recreational bathing waters can play a role in epidemiology of microsporidiosis. In order to protect public health, it is recommended to: (a) prevent diapered children from entering beach water; (b) introduce bather number limits to recreational areas; (c) advise people with gastroenteritis to avoid bathing; and (d) use showers prior to and after bathing.

  6. Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species.

    PubMed

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation.

  7. Third-party reimbursement of therapeutic recreation services within a national sample of United States hospitals.

    PubMed

    Teaff, J D; Van Hyning, T E

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of third-party reimbursement for therapeutic recreation services within three types of hospital classifications: Government, nonfederal (GNF); non-government, not-for-profit (NFP); and investor-owned (IO). A sample of 580 hospitals was drawn by the American Hospital Association through a randomly selected, proportionate sample from the universe of 5,799 GNF, NFP, and IO hospitals. Three hundred-twenty hospitals (55.2 percent) returned usable instruments. Based upon the analysis of 33 therapeutic recreation services approved for third-party reimbursement, it was found that: Significantly more therapeutic recreation directors who gave financing a higher priority tended to direct programs whose services were approved for third-party reimbursement; significantly more therapeutic recreation services were successful in their efforts to obtain third-party reimbursement even though they were denied approval in their initial efforts and approaches to obtain third-party reimbursement; and significantly more IO hospitals with therapeutic recreation services were approved for third-party reimbursement than either GNF or NFP therapeutic recreation services.

  8. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Exum, Natalie G; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J; Love, David C; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches - Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI - with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F(+) coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand-water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do

  9. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors

  10. Human viruses and viral indicators in marine water at two recreational beaches in Southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Gibbons, Christopher D; Griffith, John F; Yu, Qilu; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses may pose disease risks to bather health but occurrence of these viruses has been difficult to characterize at recreational beaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate water for human virus occurrence at two Southern California recreational beaches with a history of beach closures. Human enteric viruses (adenovirus and norovirus) and viral indicators (F+ and somatic coliphages) were measured in water samples over a 4-month period from Avalon Beach, Catalina Island (n = 324) and Doheny Beach, Orange County (n = 112). Human viruses were concentrated from 40 L samples and detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection frequencies at Doheny Beach were 25.5% (adenovirus) and 22.3% (norovirus), and at Avalon Beach were 9.3% (adenovirus) and 0.7% (norovirus). Positive associations between adenoviruses and fecal coliforms were observed at Doheny (p = 0.02) and Avalon (p = 0.01) Beaches. Human viruses were present at both beaches at higher frequencies than previously detected in the region, suggesting that the virus detection methods presented here may better measure potential health risks to bathers. These virus recovery, concentration, and molecular detection methods are advancing practices so that analysis of enteric viruses can become more effective and routine for recreational water quality monitoring.

  11. Recreational SCUBA divers' willingness to pay for marine biodiversity in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Schuhmann, Peter W; Casey, James F; Horrocks, Julia A; Oxenford, Hazel A

    2013-05-30

    The use of natural resources and the services they provide often do not have an explicit price and are therefore undervalued in decision-making, leading to environmental degradation. To 'monetize' the benefits from these services requires the use of non-market valuation techniques. Using a stated preference survey of recreational divers in Barbados conducted between 2007 and 2009, the economic value of marine biodiversity to recreational SCUBA divers in Barbados was estimated. In addition to a variety of demographic variables, divers were asked about their level of experience, expenditures related to travel and diving, and encounters with fish and sea turtles. Divers then completed a choice experiment, selecting between alternative dives with varying characteristics including price, crowding, fish diversity, encounters with sea turtles, and coral cover. Results indicate that divers in Barbados have a clear appreciation of reef quality variables. Willingness to pay for good coral cover, fish diversity and presence of sea turtles is significantly higher than prices paid for dives. In general, divers valued reef attributes similarly, although their appreciation of low density of divers at a site and high coral cover varied with prior diving experience. The results of this study demonstrate the economic value generated in Barbados by the recreational SCUBA diving industry and highlight the potential for substantial additional economic contributions with improvements to the quality of a variety of reef attributes. These results could inform management decisions regarding reef use and sea turtle conservation, and could aid in the development of informed 'win-win' policies aimed at maximizing returns from diving while reducing negative impacts often associated with tourism activities.

  12. The Novel Application of Non-Lethal Citizen Science Tissue Sampling in Recreational Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Samuel M.; Holmes, Bonnie J.; Pepperell, Julian G.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing fishing pressure and uncertainty surrounding recreational fishing catch and effort data promoted the development of alternative methods for conducting fisheries research. A pilot investigation was undertaken to engage the Australian game fishing community and promote the non-lethal collection of tissue samples from the black marlin Istiompax indica, a valuable recreational-only species in Australian waters, for the purpose of future genetic research. Recruitment of recreational anglers was achieved by publicizing the project in magazines, local newspapers, social media, blogs, websites and direct communication workshops at game fishing tournaments. The Game Fishing Association of Australia and the Queensland Game Fishing Association were also engaged to advertise the project and recruit participants with a focus on those anglers already involved in the tag-and-release of marlin. Participants of the program took small tissue samples using non-lethal methods which were stored for future genetic analysis. The program resulted in 165 samples from 49 participants across the known distribution of I. indica within Australian waters which was a sufficient number to facilitate a downstream population genetic analysis. The project demonstrated the potential for the development of citizen science sampling programs to collect tissue samples using non-lethal methods in order to achieve targeted research objects in recreationally caught species. PMID:26376487

  13. The Novel Application of Non-Lethal Citizen Science Tissue Sampling in Recreational Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Williams, Samuel M; Holmes, Bonnie J; Pepperell, Julian G

    2015-01-01

    Increasing fishing pressure and uncertainty surrounding recreational fishing catch and effort data promoted the development of alternative methods for conducting fisheries research. A pilot investigation was undertaken to engage the Australian game fishing community and promote the non-lethal collection of tissue samples from the black marlin Istiompax indica, a valuable recreational-only species in Australian waters, for the purpose of future genetic research. Recruitment of recreational anglers was achieved by publicizing the project in magazines, local newspapers, social media, blogs, websites and direct communication workshops at game fishing tournaments. The Game Fishing Association of Australia and the Queensland Game Fishing Association were also engaged to advertise the project and recruit participants with a focus on those anglers already involved in the tag-and-release of marlin. Participants of the program took small tissue samples using non-lethal methods which were stored for future genetic analysis. The program resulted in 165 samples from 49 participants across the known distribution of I. indica within Australian waters which was a sufficient number to facilitate a downstream population genetic analysis. The project demonstrated the potential for the development of citizen science sampling programs to collect tissue samples using non-lethal methods in order to achieve targeted research objects in recreationally caught species.

  14. Coliphages as indicators of gastrointestinal illness in recreational waters: a pooled analysis of six prospective marine beach cohorts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Coliphages have been proposed as potential indicators of fecal contamination of marine recreational waters because they may better predict the presence of viruses than fecal indicator bacteria. We estimated the association between the presence of coliphages and self-r...

  15. [Land and marine fauna constituting a threat for recreational divers in the tropics].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-09-01

    Due to intensively growing international tourism, increasing numbers of people leave for countries with hot climates, where various threats for human health and life exist. Besides climatic and sanitary conditions, a rich fauna, represented by predators and venomous animals, can be included. Based on available world literature and their own observations, the authors present the threats that a tourist can possibly encounter whilst relaxing on the beach or during recreational diving in tropical waters. When staying in water, a large threat is posed by marine fish of prey (sharks, barracuda, muraena), Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, anemones) and venomous animals (fish, sea snakes). On land, on the other hand, a threat can be posed by venomous arthropods (scorpions, spiders) and Hymenoptera insects. The study presents the most important representatives of fauna present in coastal areas frequently visited by diving enthusiasts. Also, clinical image and conduct in the case of body injures are discussed.

  16. The Social and Economic Significance of Recreation Activities in the Marine Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Robert B.

    Although the data obtained by an Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission in 1960 indicated that 44 percent of participants in outdoor recreation prefer water-based activities, the potential demand for recreation within the coastal zone is much greater than that study indicates, because the unfulfilled recreational demands of the urban…

  17. Rapidly measured indicators of recreational water quality and swimming-associated illness at marine beaches: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In the United States and elsewhere, recreational water quality is monitored for fecal indicator bacteria to help prevent swimming-associated illnesses. Standard methods to measure these bacteria take at least 24 hours to obtain results. Molecular approaches such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can estimate these bacteria faster, in under 3 hours. Previously, we demonstrated that measurements of the fecal indicator bacteria Enterococcus using qPCR were associated with gastrointestinal (GI) illness among swimmers at freshwater beaches. In this paper, we report on results from three marine beach sites. Methods We interviewed beach-goers and collected water samples at marine beaches affected by treated sewage discharges in Mississippi in 2005, and Rhode Island and Alabama in 2007. Ten to twelve days later, we obtained information about gastrointestinal, respiratory, eye, ear and skin symptoms by telephone. We tested water samples for fecal indicator organisms using qPCR and other methods. Results We enrolled 6,350 beach-goers. The occurrence of GI illness among swimmers was associated with a log10-increase in exposure to qPCR-determined estimates of fecal indicator organisms in the genus Enterococcus (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.1) and order Bacteroidales (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.9). Estimates of organisms related to Clostridium perfringens and a subgroup of organisms in the genus Bacteroides were also determined by qPCR in 2007, as was F+ coliphage, but relationships between these indicators and illness were not statistically significant. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of a relationship between gastrointestinal illness and estimates of fecal indicator organisms determined by qPCR at marine beaches. PMID:21040526

  18. Valuing Recreational Benefits of Coral Reefs: The Case of Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransom, Kevin P.; Mangi, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    A contingent valuation study was conducted with adult Kenyan citizens and foreign tourists to estimate the value of recreational benefits arising from coral reefs at Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve (MMNPR), and to assess the implications for local reef management. Citizen and foreign visitors to MMNPR were willing to pay an extra 2.2 (median = 1.6) and 8 (median = 6.7) per visit respectively, in addition to current park entrance fees, to support reef quality improvements. By aggregating visitors’ willingness to pay bids over the number of visitors to MMNPR in 2006-2007 the value of benefits was estimated at 346,733, which was more than twice the total annual operational expenditure of 152,383 for MMNPR. The findings indicate that annual revenues from citizen and foreign visitors may be increased by 60% to 261,932 through the implementation of proposed higher park fees of 3.10 for citizens and 15 for foreign visitors. However, any fee increase would serve to intensify concerns among citizens that only relatively affluent Kenyans can afford to visit MMNPR. Park managers need to demonstrate that the extra revenue would be used to fund the proposed conservation activities. This valuation study demonstrates that visitors are prepared to pay higher user fees for access to the marine protected area revealing considerable untapped resource to finance reef quality improvements.

  19. Recreational Diver Behavior and Contacts with Benthic Organisms in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Vinicius J; Luiz, Osmar J; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    In the last two decades, coral reefs have become popular among recreational divers, especially inside marine protected areas. However, the impact caused by divers on benthic organisms may be contributing to the degradation of coral reefs. We analyzed the behavior of 142 scuba divers in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil. We tested the effect of diver profile, reef type, use of additional equipment, timing, and group size on diver behavior and their contacts with benthic organisms. Eighty-eight percent of divers contacted benthic organism at least once, with an average of eight touches and one damage per dive. No significant differences in contacts were verified among gender, group size, or experience level. Artificial reef received a higher rate of contact than pinnacle and fringe reefs. Specialist photographers and sidemount users had the highest rates, while non-users of additional equipment and mini camera users had the lowest contact rates. The majority of contacts were incidental and the highest rates occurred in the beginning of a dive. Our findings highlight the need of management actions, such as the provision of pre-dive briefing including ecological aspects of corals and beginning dives over sand bottoms or places with low coral abundance. Gathering data on diver behavior provides managers with information that can be used for tourism management.

  20. Valuing recreational benefits of coral reefs: the case of Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Kevin P; Mangi, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    A contingent valuation study was conducted with adult Kenyan citizens and foreign tourists to estimate the value of recreational benefits arising from coral reefs at Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve (MMNPR), and to assess the implications for local reef management. Citizen and foreign visitors to MMNPR were willing to pay an extra $2.2 (median = $1.6) and $8 (median = $6.7) per visit respectively, in addition to current park entrance fees, to support reef quality improvements. By aggregating visitors' willingness to pay bids over the number of visitors to MMNPR in 2006-2007 the value of benefits was estimated at $346,733, which was more than twice the total annual operational expenditure of $152,383 for MMNPR. The findings indicate that annual revenues from citizen and foreign visitors may be increased by 60% to $261,932 through the implementation of proposed higher park fees of $3.10 for citizens and $15 for foreign visitors. However, any fee increase would serve to intensify concerns among citizens that only relatively affluent Kenyans can afford to visit MMNPR. Park managers need to demonstrate that the extra revenue would be used to fund the proposed conservation activities. This valuation study demonstrates that visitors are prepared to pay higher user fees for access to the marine protected area revealing considerable untapped resource to finance reef quality improvements.

  1. Recreational Diver Behavior and Contacts with Benthic Organisms in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Vinicius J.; Luiz, Osmar J.; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    In the last two decades, coral reefs have become popular among recreational divers, especially inside marine protected areas. However, the impact caused by divers on benthic organisms may be contributing to the degradation of coral reefs. We analyzed the behavior of 142 scuba divers in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil. We tested the effect of diver profile, reef type, use of additional equipment, timing, and group size on diver behavior and their contacts with benthic organisms. Eighty-eight percent of divers contacted benthic organism at least once, with an average of eight touches and one damage per dive. No significant differences in contacts were verified among gender, group size, or experience level. Artificial reef received a higher rate of contact than pinnacle and fringe reefs. Specialist photographers and sidemount users had the highest rates, while non-users of additional equipment and mini camera users had the lowest contact rates. The majority of contacts were incidental and the highest rates occurred in the beginning of a dive. Our findings highlight the need of management actions, such as the provision of pre-dive briefing including ecological aspects of corals and beginning dives over sand bottoms or places with low coral abundance. Gathering data on diver behavior provides managers with information that can be used for tourism management.

  2. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: estimation of bathing-associated disease risks.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Walter Q; Duarte, Diana C; Vásquez, Rosa C; Gurian, Patrick L

    2014-08-15

    Sewage is a major contributor to pollution problems involving human pathogens in tropical coastal areas. This study investigated the occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with sewage. The potential risks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection from recreational water exposure were estimated from the levels of viable (oo) cysts (DIC+, DAPI+, PI-) found in near-shore swimming areas using an exponential dose response model. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed in order to determine the probability distribution of risks. Microbial indicators of recreational water quality (enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) and genetic markers of sewage pollution (human-specific Bacteroidales marker [HF183] and Clostridium coccoides) were simultaneously evaluated in order to estimate the extent of water quality deterioration associated with human wastes. The study revealed the potential risk of parasite infections via primary contact with tropical marine waters contaminated with sewage; higher risk estimates for Giardia than for Cryptosporidium were found. Mean risks estimated by Monte Carlo were below the U.S. EPA upper bound on recreational risk of 0.036 for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis for both children and adults. However, 95th percentile estimates for giardiasis for children exceeded the 0.036 level. Environmental surveillance of microbial pathogens is crucial in order to control and eradicate the effects that increasing anthropogenic impacts have on marine ecosystems and human health.

  3. Reducing plastic contamination of the marine environment under MARPOL Annex V: A model for recreational harbors and ports

    SciTech Connect

    Mudar, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A case study was conducted during Summer, 1990, at the Nantucket Boat Basin, Massachusetts. The purpose of the study was to (1) determine the types and quantities of wastes generated by recreational boaters, particularly plastics and garbage regulated by MARPOL Annex V, (2) develop a model to assist recreational boating facilities to comply with the law and (3) reduce the impact of plastic contamination on the marine environment. An international law which came to force in December, 1988, MARPOL Annex V prohibits the disposal of plastics into the sea and stipulates ocean zones where garbage and other wastes may be disposed. A per capita rate of waste generation by recreational boaters was determined, which will enable recreational harbors and ports to estimate the waste management capacity necessary to meet the requirements of Annex V. In addition to determining the wastestream from the recreational boaters, boaters were surveyed to collect data about pertinent topics including awareness of MARPOL, waste types generated aboard vessels, waste management methods, and how marinas could assist boaters in meeting their waste management needs. As a result of the Boat Basin study, a planning model was developed to assist other recreational harbors and ports to meet the requirements of MARPOL Annex V. Major elements of the model include (1) information Transfer, (2) Waste Management Methods, and (3) the Role of Related Factors such as marina type, and waste characterization and quantification.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide measurements in recreational marine bathing waters in Southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Clark, Catherine D; De Bruyn, Warren J; Hirsch, Charlotte M; Jakubowski, Scott D

    2010-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was measured in the surf zone at 13 bathing beaches in Southern California, USA. Summer dry season concentrations averaged 122 +/- 38 nM with beaches with tide pools having lower levels (50-90 nM). No significant differences were observed for ebb waters at a salt marsh outlet vs. a beach (179 +/- 20 vs. 163 +/- 26 nM), and between ebb and flood tides at one site (171 +/- 24 vs. 146 +/- 42 nM). H(2)O(2) levels showed little annual variation. Diel cycling was followed over short (30 min; 24 h study) and long (d) time scales, with maximum afternoon concentration = 370 nM and estimated photochemical production rate of 44 nM h(-1). There was no correlation between the absorbance coefficient at 300 nm (used as a measure of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) levels) and H(2)O(2). H(2)O(2) concentrations measured in this study are likely sufficient to inhibit fecal indicator bacteria in marine recreational waters through indirect photoinactivation.

  5. Comparison of distance metrics for use within a marine recreational vessel reconnaissance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegler, Kevin H.; Coleman, David J.; Pelot, Ronald P.; Zhang, Yun

    2003-12-01

    Rescuing operators of small recreational vessels is a constant resource drain on the limited operating budget of the Canadian Coast Guard. As a result, a new and innovative application of small target surveillance techniques is being developed at the Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, UNB, Canada. This work is being done in support of the development of a strategic decision making tool based on risk modeling to be used to predict where in Canadian waters marine incidents are most likely to occur in support of best resource allocation. Previous research in the use of hyperspectral imaging for search and rescue, resulted in the development of fast, nonparametric "spatio-spectral" template subpixel object detection algorithm. The results of this work are being adapted and enhanced for use with the new, commercially available spaceborne high-resolution optical imagery. Investigations are being made regarding the utility of the Minkowski distance metrics for use in small target detection within a multispectral imagery environment. Further, research is being performed on the employment of the Mahalanobis distance metric to enhance the "spatio-spectral" template by exploiting the variance/covariance information surrounding a potential target. The detection results for the two target vessels were excellent using the Manhattan and Euclidean distance. The best results were had using the Manhattan distance metric with a 5x5 kernel with all 16 yachts detected, no false negatives, and six false positives.

  6. Comparison of distance metrics for use within a marine recreational vessel reconnaissance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegler, Kevin H.; Coleman, David J.; Pelot, Ronald P.; Zhang, Yun

    2004-01-01

    Rescuing operators of small recreational vessels is a constant resource drain on the limited operating budget of the Canadian Coast Guard. As a result, a new and innovative application of small target surveillance techniques is being developed at the Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, UNB, Canada. This work is being done in support of the development of a strategic decision making tool based on risk modeling to be used to predict where in Canadian waters marine incidents are most likely to occur in support of best resource allocation. Previous research in the use of hyperspectral imaging for search and rescue, resulted in the development of fast, nonparametric "spatio-spectral" template subpixel object detection algorithm. The results of this work are being adapted and enhanced for use with the new, commercially available spaceborne high-resolution optical imagery. Investigations are being made regarding the utility of the Minkowski distance metrics for use in small target detection within a multispectral imagery environment. Further, research is being performed on the employment of the Mahalanobis distance metric to enhance the "spatio-spectral" template by exploiting the variance/covariance information surrounding a potential target. The detection results for the two target vessels were excellent using the Manhattan and Euclidean distance. The best results were had using the Manhattan distance metric with a 5x5 kernel with all 16 yachts detected, no false negatives, and six false positives.

  7. The relationship between recreational gambling and substance abuse/dependence: Data from a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Timothy; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although recreational gambling is prevalent and co-occurs with substance abuse/dependence, few studies have investigated the relationship between the two. Methods Logistic regression analyses were performed on data from a nationally representative sample from the Gambling Impact and Behavior Study. Results Substance-abusing recreational gamblers, as compared to non-substance-abusing ones, differed in gambling motivations, began gambling at earlier ages, reported heavier gambling, and preferred and performed strategic forms of gambling. Conclusions As compared with non-substance-abusing gamblers, substance-abusing gamblers demonstrated different gambling profiles including heavier gambling. These findings suggest the need for additional research on whether and how substance use might promote gambling and vice-versa. PMID:19022590

  8. Implementation of a marine reserve has a rapid but short-lived effect on recreational angler use.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, Marie L; Fenichel, Eli P; Torre, Jorge; Gerber, Leah R

    2012-03-01

    Changes in human behavior are a precursor to measurable impacts of no-take marine reserves. We investigated changes in recreational fishing site selection in response to the 2005 announcement of enforcement in a marine reserve in the Gulf of California, Mexico. We used a novel data set of daily self-reported boating destinations from emergency rescue logbooks for a recreational angling community from 2000 to 2008. Because the reserve system has no experimental control, we modeled the data two ways to test for robustness to model specification. We tested for changes in human fishing behavior with regression and fit a fleet-level discrete choice model to project a. counterfactual scenario. The counterfactual is the statistically constructed ex post expectation of the human behavior we would have observed if the reserve never existed. We included month and year fixed effects in our models to account for seasonal and interannual fluctuations in fishing behavior and catch rates. We detected a decrease in reserve use compared to the counterfactual, indicating that the reserve rapidly experienced a decrease in visitation. However, the reserve's effect to reduce trips diminished with time. These results indicate that the reserve is unlikely to meet its ecological goals without institutional changes that enhance compliance. This illustrates the value of human use data to understanding the processes underlying marine reserve function. We suggest that managers should consider human use with the same frequency, rigor, and tools as they do fishery stocks. Marine reserves directly affect people, and understanding human behavioral responses to marine reserves is an important step in marine reserve management.

  9. Marine Recreational Uses of Green Bay: A Survey of Human Behavior and Attitude Patterns of High School Juniors and Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Robert B.; Johnsen, Per K.

    From a random sample of high school juniors and seniors in northeastern Wisconsin, this study obtained information concerning the subjects' participation in water recreation activities, their perceptions of water quality, and attitudinal data in related areas. The data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed by chi-square methods to check…

  10. Measurement of curium in marine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. L.; Livingston, H. D.

    1984-06-01

    Measurement of environmentally small but detectable amounts of curium requires reliable, accureate, and sensitive analytical methods. The radiochemical separation developed at Woods Hole is briefly reviewed with specific reference to radiochemical interferences in the alpha spectrometric measurement of curium nuclides and to the relative amounts of interferences expected in different oceanic regimes and sample types. Detection limits for 242 Cm and 244 Cm are ultimately limited by their presence in the 243Am used as curium yield monitor. Environmental standard reference materials are evaluated with regard to curium. The marine literature is reviewed and curium measurements are discussed in relation to their source of introduction to the environment. Sources include ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes and discharges from nuclear fuel reporcessing activities, In particular, the question of a detectable presence of 244Cm in global fallout from nuclear weapons testing is addressed and shown to be essentially negligible. Analyses of Scottish coastal sedimantes show traces of 242Cm and 244Cm activity which are believed to originate from transport from sources in the Irish Sea.

  11. Monitoring the marine environment using marine mammal tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Day, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Marine environments, both inshore and open ocean, receive numerous inputs of anthropogenic chemicals. Cetaceans provide a valuable resource for monitoring the low level contamination of marine environments with persistent organic contaminants. Comparative studies using inshore and offshore southern ocean cetaceans have revealed significant differences in the types of contamination in these two environments. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) deposited in the southern oceans are characterized by an abundance of lower chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are not present at significant concentrations in cetaceans from the open southern ocean. In contrast significant concentrations of PCDD/F congeners are detected in the blubber of the inshore living Hector`s dolphin. This species lives close to the shore and has a very small home range (approximately 30 km) for a cetacean. Analysis of tissue PCDD/F and PCB profiles from different populations and their food sources will be presented. The data are being used to determine if there are local variations in the contamination of the New Zealand inshore marine environment.

  12. QPCR Determined Fecal Indicator Bacterial Densities in Marine Waters from Two Recreational Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of real-time qPCR to determine fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) densities is currently being investigated by the U.S. EPA. The present recreational water quality guidelines, based on culturable FIB, prevent same day determinations of water quality whereas results from the ...

  13. 76 FR 28421 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine... collection instrument(s) and instructions should be directed to Rob Andrews, NOAA, National Marine Fisheries... INFORMATION: I. Abstract This request is for a revision of a current information collection....

  14. The Evaluation of a Public Document: The Case of FCC's Marine Radio Rules for Recreational Boaters. Document Design Project, Technical Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felker, Daniel B.; Rose, Andrew M.

    In a collaborative effort, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the Document Design Project conducted an evaluation of marine radio rules for recreational boaters that had been rewritten in plain English by FCC personnel. The revised rules were evaluated by 53 experienced boaters and 52 inexperienced boaters, who were given either the…

  15. Sediment Contaminants and Infauna Associated with Recreational Boating Structures in a Multi-Use Marine Park

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Vivian X. Y.; Dafforn, Katherine A.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Kelaher, Brendan P.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-use marine parks achieve conservation through spatial management of activities. Zoning of marine parks in New South Wales, Australia, includes high conservation areas and special purpose zones (SPZ) where maritime activities are concentrated. Although such measures geographically constrain anthropogenic impacts, we have limited understanding of potential ecological effects. We assessed sediment communities and contaminants adjacent to boating infrastructure (boat ramps, jetties and a marina) in a SPZ from the Clyde Estuary in Batemans Marine Park. Metal concentrations and fines content were elevated at boating structures compared to reference sites. Species richness was higher at sites with boating structures, where capitellid polychaetes and nematodes dominated the communities. Changes associated with boating structures were localised and did not extend beyond breakwalls or to reference sites outside the SPZ. The study highlights the benefits of appropriate zoning in a multi-use marine park and the potential to minimise stress on pristine areas through the application of spatial management. PMID:26086427

  16. Sediment Contaminants and Infauna Associated with Recreational Boating Structures in a Multi-Use Marine Park.

    PubMed

    Sim, Vivian X Y; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Kelaher, Brendan P; Johnston, Emma L

    2015-01-01

    Multi-use marine parks achieve conservation through spatial management of activities. Zoning of marine parks in New South Wales, Australia, includes high conservation areas and special purpose zones (SPZ) where maritime activities are concentrated. Although such measures geographically constrain anthropogenic impacts, we have limited understanding of potential ecological effects. We assessed sediment communities and contaminants adjacent to boating infrastructure (boat ramps, jetties and a marina) in a SPZ from the Clyde Estuary in Batemans Marine Park. Metal concentrations and fines content were elevated at boating structures compared to reference sites. Species richness was higher at sites with boating structures, where capitellid polychaetes and nematodes dominated the communities. Changes associated with boating structures were localised and did not extend beyond breakwalls or to reference sites outside the SPZ. The study highlights the benefits of appropriate zoning in a multi-use marine park and the potential to minimise stress on pristine areas through the application of spatial management.

  17. Associations between marine phytoplankton and symptoms of illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    While phytoplankton generally have crucial roles in marine ecosystems, a small subset can release toxins and produce harmful algal blooms (HABs). HABs can be a threat to human health as symptoms from exposure range from neurological impairment to gastrointestinal (GI), dermal, a...

  18. 77 FR 14506 - Marine Recreational Fisheries of the United States; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Marine... Workshop. SUMMARY: SEDAR and NOAA Fisheries Service will convene a workshop to consider calibration methods... best incorporate revised values into assessment and management systems. SEDAR and NOAA Fisheries...

  19. Washington State Recreational Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Perceptions, Knowledge, and Discussions in a Sample of Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B.; Ringle, Jay L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In November 20012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. Objective We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State’s recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Methods Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11th grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Results Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws. PMID:25671633

  20. Recreation of Marine Atmospheric Corrosion Condition on Weathering Steel in Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guchhait, S. K.; Dewan, S.; Saha, J. K.; Mitra, P. K.

    2014-04-01

    Salt spray test, autoclave corrosion test, SO2 salt spray test, and Relative humidity test are generally used to assess atmospheric corrosion in laboratories at accelerated rates. However, no test can absolutely simulate the service condition. One can get only approximate corrosion rates using the aforesaid tests which serve as an indicative of corrosion behavior of the material in a service condition. The present work is aimed at creating specific environmental condition in laboratory to get the corrosion test done in short duration to compare with on field exposure test which would otherwise take years to complete. In this work recreation of atmospheric environment of Digha was tried and it was simulated in such a manner that the results of laboratory test could be compared with long time field exposure at Digha. Weathering steel (WS) was taken for experimentations. Potentiostatic electrochemical tests route was adopted to simulate atmospheric condition of Digha. Laboratory test results compared well with 18 month field exposure data in terms of corrosion rate, SEM and Ramon Spectroscopy matching.

  1. Performance of barbed and barbless hooks in a marine recreational fishery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Hoffman, Elizabeth M.

    2002-01-01

    We used an angling study to examine catch per unit effort (CPUE), bait loss, and total landings by anglers fishing with natural bait on barbed and barbless hooks in a nearshore marine sport fishery located in the Gulf of Mexico near St. Petersburg, Florida. Anglers fished half the day with a barbed hook and half the day with a barbless hook. We also recorded anatomical hook placement, severity of injury or bleeding, and hook extraction times for each landed fish. Bait loss, CPUE, and mean length of catch did not differ between gears, but anglers landed 22% more fish with barbed hooks. Loss of hooked fish was significantly higher with barbless hooks, and efficiency appeared to vary among species. Mean unhooking times were significantly shorter with barbless hooks. Anatomical hook placement did not differ between gears and most fish were hooked in the jaws. Bleeding did not differ between gears because bleeding was influenced strongly by hook placement, but barbless hooks reduced unhooking injuries. In this fishery, barbless hooks probably did not reduce hooking mortality and conferred only slight benefits at the expense of reduced catches.

  2. Monitoring marine recreational water quality using multiple microbial indicators in an urban tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Fleming, Lora E; Elmir, Samir

    2004-07-01

    The microbial water quality at two beaches, Hobie Beach and Crandon Beach, in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA was measured using multiple microbial indicators for the purpose of evaluating correlations between microbes and for identifying possible sources of contamination. The indicator microbes chosen for this study (enterococci, Escherichia coli, fecal coliform, total coliform and C. perfringens) were evaluated through three different sampling efforts. These efforts included daily measurements at four locations during a wet season month and a dry season month, spatially intensive water sampling during low- and high-tide periods, and a sand sampling effort. Results indicated that concentrations did not vary in a consistent fashion between one indicator microbe and another. Daily water quality frequently exceeded guideline levels at Hobie Beach for all indicator microbes except for fecal coliform, which never exceeded the guideline. Except for total coliform, the concentrations of microbes did not change significantly between seasons in spite of the fact that the physical-chemical parameters (rainfall, temperature, pH, and salinity) changed significantly between the two monitoring periods. Spatially intense water sampling showed that the concentrations of microbes were significantly different with distance from the shoreline. The highest concentrations were observed at shoreline points and decreased at offshore points. Furthermore, the highest concentrations of indicator microbe concentrations were observed at high tide, when the wash zone area of the beach was submerged. Beach sands within the wash zone tested positive for all indicator microbes, thereby suggesting that this zone may serve as the source of indicator microbes. Ultimate sources of indicator microbes to this zone may include humans, animals, and possibly the survival and regrowth of indicator microbes due to the unique environmental conditions found within this zone. Overall, the results of this

  3. Physicochemical parameters aid microbial community? A case study from marine recreational beaches, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Sivanandham; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Emmanuel, Kunnampuram Varghese; Gokul, Murugaiah Santhosh; Muthukumar, Krishnan; Kim, Bong-Rae; James, Rathinam Arthur

    2014-03-01

    A total of 176 (water and sediment) samples from 22 stations belonging to four different (urban, semi-urban, rural, and holy places) human habitations of Tamil Nadu beaches were collected and analyzed for physiochemical and microbial parameters during 2008-2009. Bacterial counts were two- to tenfold higher in sediments than in water due to strong bacterial aggregations by dynamic flocculation and rich organic content. The elevated bacterial communities during the monsoon explain rainfalls and several other wastes from inlands. Coliform counts drastically increased at holy and urban places due to pilgrimage and other ritual activities. Higher values of the pollution index (PI) ratio (>1) reveals, human fecal pollutions affect the water quality. The averaged PI ratio shows a substantial higher microbial contamination in holy places than in urban areas and the order of decreasing PI ratios observed were: holy places > urban areas > semi-urban areas > rural areas. Correlation and factor analysis proves microbial communities were not related to physicochemical parameters. Principal component analysis indicates 55.32 % of the total variance resulted from human/animal fecal matters and sewage contaminants whereas 19.95 % were related to organic contents and waste materials from the rivers. More than 80 % of the samples showed a higher fecal coliform and Streptococci by crossing the World Health Organization's permissible limits.

  4. COMPARISON OF ENTEROCCOCUS DENSITIES DETERMINED BY CULTURE AND QPCR ANALYSES IN WATER SAMPLES FROM TWO RECREATION BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have demonstrated that cell densities of the bacterial genus Enterococcus in water samples are directly correlated with gastroenteritis illness rates in swimmers at both marine and fresh water beaches....

  5. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR...

  6. Rapidly measured indicators of recreational water quality andswimming-associated illness at marine beaches: a prospective cohort study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In the United States and elsewhere, recreational water is monitored for fecal indicator bacteria to prevent illness. Standard methods to measure fecal indicator bacteria take at least 24 hours to obtain results. Molecular approaches such as quantitative polymerase cha...

  7. Tetra- and tribromophenoxyanisoles in marine samples from Oceania.

    PubMed

    Melcher, Joachim; Olbrich, Daniel; Marsh, Göran; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Gaus, Caroline; Gaul, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2005-10-15

    Some methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs) are known halogenated natural products (HNPs) and are frequently detected in higher organisms of the marine environment. In this study we demonstrate that a prominent MeO-BDE, previously detected in marine mammals from Australia, is identical to 3,5-dibromo-2-(2',4'dibromo)phenoxyanisole (BC-3, 6-MeO-BDE 47). Up to 1.9 mg/ kg of 6-MeO-BDE 47 was present in cetaceans from Australia, 0.2-0.3 mg/kg in two crocodile eggs from Australia, but concentrations of 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower were found in shark liver oil from NewZealand and in marine mammals from Africa and the Antarctic. Concentrations of 6-MeO-BDE 47 in samples from Australia were in the same range as anthropogenic pollutants such as PCB 153 and p,p'-DDE. Along with 6-MeO-BDE 47 and the known HNP 4,6-dibromo-2-(2',4'-dibromo)phenoxyanisole (BC-2, 2'-MeO-BDE 68), several tribromophenoxyanisoles (MeO-triBDE) were present in tissue of Australian cetaceans. To determine their structure, abiotic debromination experiments were performed using 6-MeO-BDE 47 and 2'-MeO-BDE 68 and superreduced dicyanocobalamine. These experiments resulted in formation of eight MeO-triBDEs, all of which were detected in the cetacean samples. Five of these eight MeO-triBDEs could be identified based on two standard compounds as well as gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric features. It was also shown that the first eluting isomer (compound 1), 6-MeO-BDE 17 (compound 2), and 2-MeO-BDE 39 (compound 5) were the most prominent MeO-triBDEs in the Australian cetacean samples. The concentrations of the MeO-triBDEs in two cetacean samples were 0.20 and 0.36 mg/kg, respectively. Although the reductive debromination with dicyanocobalamine resulted in a different congener pattern than was found in the marine mammals, it could not be excluded that the tribromo

  8. Re-creating Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board guidelines for recreational and sports areas and their ancillary spaces. Examples of how the guidelines affect specific areas are highlighted, such as team seating areas, fitness centers, tennis courts, swimming pools, and locker rooms. (GR)

  9. Digital Curation of Marine Physical Samples at Ocean Networks Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkyns, R.; Tomlin, M. C.; Timmerman, R.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) has collected hundreds of geological, biological and fluid samples from the water column and seafloor during its maintenance expeditions. These samples have been collected by Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), divers, networked and autonomously deployed instruments, and rosettes. Subsequent measurements are used for scientific experiments, calibration of in-situ and remote sensors, monitoring of Marine Protected Areas, and environment characterization. Tracking the life cycles of these samples from collection to dissemination of results with all the pertinent documents (e.g., protocols, imagery, reports), metadata (e.g., location, identifiers, purpose, method) and data (e.g., measurements, taxonomic classification) is a challenge. The initial collection of samples is normally documented in SeaScribe (an ROV dive logging tool within ONC's Oceans 2.0 software) for which ONC has defined semantics and syntax. Next, samples are often sent to individual scientists and institutions (e.g., Royal BC Museum) for processing and storage, making acquisition of results and life cycle metadata difficult. Finally, this information needs to be retrieved and collated such that multiple user scenarios can be addressed. ONC aims to improve and extend its digital infrastructure for physical samples to support this complex array of samples, workflows and applications. However, in order to promote effective data discovery and exchange, interoperability and community standards must be an integral part of the design. Thus, integrating recommendations and outcomes of initiatives like the EarthCube iSamples working groups are essential. Use cases, existing tools, schemas and identifiers are reviewed, while remaining gaps and challenges are identified. The current status, selected approaches and possible future directions to enhance ONC's digital infrastructure for each sample type are presented.

  10. Directory of National Recreation Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Thirty national recreation organizations serving individuals with disabilities are listed, along with addresses and telephone numbers. Sample recreational activities covered include Boy Scouts and Girls Scouts, various wheelchair sports, skiing, golfing, and horticultural therapy. (JDD)

  11. Water Quality, Weather and Environmental Factors Associated with Fecal Indicator Organism Density in Beach Sand at Two Recreational Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers wit sand contact have important public health implicatons because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact act...

  12. Evaluation of the dry and wet weather recreational health risks in a semi-enclosed marine embayment in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Lim, Keah-Ying; Shao, Stella; Peng, Jian; Grant, Stanley B; Jiang, Sunny C

    2017-03-15

    For many coastal regions around the world, recreational beach water quality is assessed using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). However, the utility of FIB as indicators of recreational water illness (RWI) risk has been questioned, particularly in coastal settings with no obvious sources of human sewage. In this study we employed a source-apportionment quantitative microbial risk assessment (SA-QMRA) to assess RWI risk at a popular semi-enclosed recreational beach in Southern California (Baby Beach, City of Dana Point) with no obvious point sources of human sewage. Our SA-QMRA results suggest that, during dry weather, the median RWI risk at this beach is below the U.S. EPA recreational water quality criteria (RWQC) of 36 illness cases per 1000 bathers. During wet weather, the median RWI risk predicted by SA-QMRA depends on the assumed level of human waste associated with stormwater; the RWI risk is below the EPA RWQC illness risk benchmark 100% of the time provided that <2% of the FIB in stormwater are of human origin. However, these QMRA outcomes contrast strongly with the EPA RWQC for 30-day geometric mean of enterococci bacteria. Our results suggest that SA-QMRA is a useful framework for estimating robust RWI risk that takes into account local information about possible human and non-human sources of FIB.

  13. Effects of sodium azide on the abundance of prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christian; Kerros, Marie-Emmanuelle; Weinbauer, Markus G

    2012-01-01

    Flow cytometry is set to become the standard method for enumerating prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples. However, the samples need to be flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen directly after aldehyde fixation. Because liquid nitrogen may not always be available, we tested the potential of sodium azide as a preservative for prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples as a possible alternative. For that we conducted incubation experiments with untreated and sodium azide treated marine water samples at 4°C and room temperature. The data indicate that sodium azide cannot be used to maintain marine samples used for the enumeration of prokaryotes and viruses.

  14. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m−3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

  15. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K; Fileman, Elaine S; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S

    2014-03-31

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m(-3). The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

  16. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-03-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m-3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

  17. Marine litter abundance and distribution on beaches on the Isle of Rügen considering the influence of exposition, morphology and recreational activities.

    PubMed

    Hengstmann, Elena; Gräwe, Dennis; Tamminga, Matthias; Fischer, Elke Kerstin

    2017-02-15

    The abundance, weight and composition of marine debris were determined at the northwest coast of the Isle of Rügen in 2015. A total number of 1115 macrolitter items were registered, resulting in an abundance of 304±88.96 items per 100m of beach length and therefore being greater than the abundances found for other beaches at the Baltic Sea. Macrolitter items were predominantly composed of plastic, on average 83%. The four beaches under investigation have different exposition as well as touristic levels. The differing influence of wind and water currents as well as recreational activities on the macrolitter at these beaches was detectable. The distribution of items within a beach segment was analyzed by implementing D-GPS and drone aerial photography. The results of this analysis suggested that the identity of the substrate as well as the presence of vegetation are both major influencing factors in the macrolitter distribution.

  18. Recreation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, B.; Merklein, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    Recreational use and recreational facilities are common features at hydropower projects. In fact, the hydropower industry is a major supplier of recreational opportunities contributing to tourism and rural economic growth in many communities across the country, As demands for public recreation have grown, pressure on the hydropower industry to provide more public access and more facilities has increased. This paper looks at recent developments in the FERC licensing and compliance arenas with regard to planning for and monitoring recreation at hydropower facilities. The paper highlights the increased occurrence of recreation monitoring requirements in license articles and discusses methods for complying with such requirements. The paper also looks at how monitoring data can be used to avoid unnecessary developments and to better plan for future recreation use.

  19. Evaluation of Enterolert for enumeration of enterococci in recreational waters.

    PubMed Central

    Budnick, G E; Howard, R T; Mayo, D R

    1996-01-01

    Enterolert (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine), a semiautomated, most probable number method for enumeration of enterococci, was compared with the standard membrane filter method by parallel testing of 138 marine and freshwater recreational bathing water samples. No statistically significant difference and a strong linear correlation were found between methods. Culturing of 501 Enterolert test wells resulted in false-positive and false-negative rates of 5.1 and 0.4%, respectively. Less time for setup, incubation (24 versus 48 h), and reading of Enterolert permits more efficient monitoring of recreational bathing areas. PMID:8837446

  20. Recreational Fish-Finders—An Inexpensive Alternative to Scientific Echo-Sounders for Unravelling the Links between Marine Top Predators and Their Prey

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Alistair M.; Khoosal, Arjun; Murrell, Ben; Merkle, Dagmar; Lacerda, Miguel; Nyengera, Reason; Coetzee, Janet C.; Edwards, Loyd C.; Ryan, Peter G.; Rademan, Johan; van der Westhuizen, Jan J; Pichegru, Lorien

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating how mobile marine predators respond to their prey are limited due to the challenging nature of the environment. While marine top predators are increasingly easy to study thanks to developments in bio-logging technology, typically there is scant information on the distribution and abundance of their prey, largely due to the specialised nature of acquiring this information. We explore the potential of using single-beam recreational fish-finders (RFF) to quantify relative forage fish abundance and draw inferences of the prey distribution at a fine spatial scale. We compared fish school characteristics as inferred from the RFF with that of a calibrated scientific split-beam echo-sounder (SES) by simultaneously operating both systems from the same vessel in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Customized open-source software was developed to extract fish school information from the echo returns of the RFF. For schools insonified by both systems, there was close correspondence between estimates of mean school depth (R2 = 0.98) and school area (R2 = 0.70). Estimates of relative school density (mean volume backscattering strength; Sv) measured by the RFF were negatively biased through saturation of this system given its smaller dynamic range. A correction factor applied to the RFF-derived density estimates improved the comparability between the two systems. Relative abundance estimates using all schools from both systems were congruent at scales from 0.5 km to 18 km with a strong positive linear trend in model fit estimates with increasing scale. Although absolute estimates of fish abundance cannot be derived from these systems, they are effective at describing prey school characteristics and have good potential for mapping forage fish distribution and relative abundance. Using such relatively inexpensive systems could greatly enhance our understanding of predator-prey interactions. PMID:26600300

  1. Recreational Fish-Finders--An Inexpensive Alternative to Scientific Echo-Sounders for Unravelling the Links between Marine Top Predators and Their Prey.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Alistair M; Khoosal, Arjun; Murrell, Ben; Merkle, Dagmar; Lacerda, Miguel; Nyengera, Reason; Coetzee, Janet C; Edwards, Loyd C; Ryan, Peter G; Rademan, Johan; van der Westhuizen, Jan J; Pichegru, Lorien

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating how mobile marine predators respond to their prey are limited due to the challenging nature of the environment. While marine top predators are increasingly easy to study thanks to developments in bio-logging technology, typically there is scant information on the distribution and abundance of their prey, largely due to the specialised nature of acquiring this information. We explore the potential of using single-beam recreational fish-finders (RFF) to quantify relative forage fish abundance and draw inferences of the prey distribution at a fine spatial scale. We compared fish school characteristics as inferred from the RFF with that of a calibrated scientific split-beam echo-sounder (SES) by simultaneously operating both systems from the same vessel in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Customized open-source software was developed to extract fish school information from the echo returns of the RFF. For schools insonified by both systems, there was close correspondence between estimates of mean school depth (R2 = 0.98) and school area (R2 = 0.70). Estimates of relative school density (mean volume backscattering strength; Sv) measured by the RFF were negatively biased through saturation of this system given its smaller dynamic range. A correction factor applied to the RFF-derived density estimates improved the comparability between the two systems. Relative abundance estimates using all schools from both systems were congruent at scales from 0.5 km to 18 km with a strong positive linear trend in model fit estimates with increasing scale. Although absolute estimates of fish abundance cannot be derived from these systems, they are effective at describing prey school characteristics and have good potential for mapping forage fish distribution and relative abundance. Using such relatively inexpensive systems could greatly enhance our understanding of predator-prey interactions.

  2. Do recreational activities affect coastal biodiversity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2016-09-01

    Human activities are largely affecting coastal communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect coastal communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several sites were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in coastal communities, considering both factors ("diving" and "fishing"). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived sites. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of coastal resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.

  3. Therapeutic Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks and Recreation, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Graphic profiles of (1) the professional membership of the National Therapeutic Recreation Society, (2) state-level employment opportunities in the field, and (3) educational opportunities at U.S. colleges and universities. (MB)

  4. Recreational Fisheries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law and where practicable, improve the quantity, function, sustainable productivity, and distribution of U.S. aquatic resources for increased recreational fishing opportunities

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction of polyhalogenated pollutants from aquaculture and marine environmental samples: a review.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Diego; Carro-Díaz, Antonia María; Lorenzo-Ferreira, Rosa Antonia

    2008-05-01

    This article focuses on the state-of-the-art in sample preparation using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), to monitor the content of polyhalogenated pollutants in aquaculture and marine environmental samples. Marine sediments and biological applications, including several types of samples matrices (fish, shellfish, seaweed and fish feed) and analyte groups (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD)/Fs and organochlorinated pesticide (OCPs)) are discussed with respect to SFE use and optimisation of conditions. We also discuss the great analytical potential of SFE, the integration of the extraction and clean-up steps for rapid sample processing justifying its use for routine work. The most recent SFE applications to the determination of these pollutants in marine environmental (biota and sediment) samples, published in the last 15 years, are reviewed.

  6. Isolation strategies of marine-derived actinomycetes from sponge and sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Hameş-Kocabaş, E Esin; Uzel, Ataç

    2012-03-01

    During the last two decades, discoveries of new members of actinomycetes and novel metabolites from marine environments have drawn attention to such environments, such as sediment and sponge. For the successful isolation of actinomycetes from marine environments, many factors including the use of enrichment and pre-treatment techniques, and the selection of growth media and antibiotic supplements should be taken into account. High-throughput cultivation is an innovative technique that mimics nature, eliminates undesired, fast-growing bacteria and creates suitable conditions for rare, slow-growing actinomycetes. This review comprehensively evaluates the traditional and innovative techniques and strategies used for the isolation of actinomycetes from marine sponge and sediment samples.

  7. Isolation and partial characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from soil and marine samples.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Talat Yasmeen; Siddiqui, Khaizran; Ahmed, Rifat; Kazmi, Shahana U; Ahmed, Nuzhat

    2014-09-01

    In the present study the potential of indigenous bacterial isolates from soil rhizosphere and marine environment to promote plant growth was determined. Eight bacterial strains isolated from soil and marine samples were characterized for the phosphate solubilizing activity. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of phosphate solubilization is done. MIC of antibiotic and heavy metals were checked for these strains. Strains show a diverse pattern of antibiotic and heavy metals resistance.

  8. Recreation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Farmers Union, Jamestown. Dept. of Youth Activities.

    Suggestions for recreational activities are outlined in this manual. Instructions are given for games to play in small places, home or party games, paper and pencil games, children's singing games, and dances. Ideas for crafts and special parties are also included. (SW)

  9. Social Services: Recreation Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rones, Philip L.

    1976-01-01

    Description of recreation services for the elderly in two areas, community recreation and therapeutic recreation, includes employment information for the various levels: Recreation director, supervisor, leader, activity specialist, and aide. (JT)

  10. Marine stings.

    PubMed

    Gurry, D

    1992-01-01

    Our superb coastline attracts local tourists and overseas visitors seeking recreation. There is increasing contact with marine life. The unwary and unprepared holiday-maker can be at risk of serious injury from a number of common sea creatures.

  11. Recreation for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Alan G., Ed.; Seekins, Nancy, Ed.

    The manual is intended to provide guidelines for the planning and development of parks and recreation facilities which are accessbile to everyone. Separate chapters present guidelines for the following topics (sample subtopics in parentheses): general information (space relationships and wheelchair functions); general site conditions (soil…

  12. Nowcasting recreational water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith; Hou, Deyi; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in molecular techniques may soon provide new opportunities to provide more timely information on whether recreational beaches are free from fecal contamination. However, an alternative approach is the use of predictive models. This chapter presents a summary of these developing efforts. First, we describe documented physical, chemical, and biological factors that have been demonstrated by researchers to affect bacterial concentrations at beaches and thus represent logical parameters for inclusion in a model. Then, we illustrate how various types of models can be applied to predict water quality at freshwater and marine beaches.

  13. Sampling frequency of ciliated protozoan microfauna for seasonal distribution research in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2015-12-30

    Sampling frequency is important to obtain sufficient information for temporal research of microfauna. To determine an optimal strategy for exploring the seasonal variation in ciliated protozoa, a dataset from the Yellow Sea, northern China was studied. Samples were collected with 24 (biweekly), 12 (monthly), 8 (bimonthly per season) and 4 (seasonally) sampling events. Compared to the 24 samplings (100%), the 12-, 8- and 4-samplings recovered 94%, 94%, and 78% of the total species, respectively. To reveal the seasonal distribution, the 8-sampling regime may result in >75% information of the seasonal variance, while the traditional 4-sampling may only explain <65% of the total variance. With the increase of the sampling frequency, the biotic data showed stronger correlations with seasonal variables (e.g., temperature, salinity) in combination with nutrients. It is suggested that the 8-sampling events per year may be an optimal sampling strategy for ciliated protozoan seasonal research in marine ecosystems.

  14. Determination of adenosine triphosphate on marine particulates: synthesis of methods for use on OTEC samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.T.; Hartwig, E.O.

    1982-08-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indicator of living biomass in marine particulates. This report details the method used by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to analyze particulate ATP in samples taken from oligotrophic, tropical ocean waters. It represents a synthesis of previously published methods.

  15. Determination of Adenosine Triphosphate on Marine Particulates:Synthesis of Methods for Use on OTEC Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Anthony T.; Hartwig, Eric O.

    1982-08-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indicator of living biomass in marine particulates. This report details the method used by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to analyze particulate ATP in samples taken from oligotrophic, tropical ocean waters. It represents a synthesis of previously published methods.

  16. The distribution of uranium and thorium in samples taken from different polluted marine environment.

    PubMed

    Akyil, S; Yusof, A M

    2007-06-01

    Concentrations of uranium and thorium in seawater, sediment and some marine species taken from along the coastal areas of Malaysia were determined spectrophotometrically. The uranium and thorium concentrations in seawater were found to vary ranging from 1.80 to 4.1 and 0.14 to 0.88 microg/L, respectively. The concentration of uranium in sediment samples was reported to range from 3.00 to 6.60 microg/g while those of thorium were slightly lower ranging from 0.01 to 0.68 microg/g. The uptake of uranium and thorium in marine species was found to be rather low. Similar variations in total alpha activities in samples were also observed with the total alpha activities relatively lower than the beta activities in most samples.

  17. Molecular diversity and distribution of marine fungi across 130 European environmental samples

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Thomas A.; Leonard, Guy; Mahé, Frédéric; del Campo, Javier; Romac, Sarah; Jones, Meredith D. M.; Maguire, Finlay; Dunthorn, Micah; De Vargas, Colomban; Massana, Ramon; Chambouvet, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA and culture-based analyses have suggested that fungi are present in low diversity and in low abundance in many marine environments, especially in the upper water column. Here, we use a dual approach involving high-throughput diversity tag sequencing from both DNA and RNA templates and fluorescent cell counts to evaluate the diversity and relative abundance of fungi across marine samples taken from six European near-shore sites. We removed very rare fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) selecting only OTUs recovered from multiple samples for a detailed analysis. This approach identified a set of 71 fungal ‘OTU clusters' that account for 66% of all the sequences assigned to the Fungi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that this diversity includes a significant number of chytrid-like lineages that had not been previously described, indicating that the marine environment encompasses a number of zoosporic fungi that are new to taxonomic inventories. Using the sequence datasets, we identified cases where fungal OTUs were sampled across multiple geographical sites and between different sampling depths. This was especially clear in one relatively abundant and diverse phylogroup tentatively named Novel Chytrid-Like-Clade 1 (NCLC1). For comparison, a subset of the water column samples was also investigated using fluorescent microscopy to examine the abundance of eukaryotes with chitin cell walls. Comparisons of relative abundance of RNA-derived fungal tag sequences and chitin cell-wall counts demonstrate that fungi constitute a low fraction of the eukaryotic community in these water column samples. Taken together, these results demonstrate the phylogenetic position and environmental distribution of 71 lineages, improving our understanding of the diversity and abundance of fungi in marine environments. PMID:26582030

  18. Molecular diversity and distribution of marine fungi across 130 European environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Richards, Thomas A; Leonard, Guy; Mahé, Frédéric; Del Campo, Javier; Romac, Sarah; Jones, Meredith D M; Maguire, Finlay; Dunthorn, Micah; De Vargas, Colomban; Massana, Ramon; Chambouvet, Aurélie

    2015-11-22

    Environmental DNA and culture-based analyses have suggested that fungi are present in low diversity and in low abundance in many marine environments, especially in the upper water column. Here, we use a dual approach involving high-throughput diversity tag sequencing from both DNA and RNA templates and fluorescent cell counts to evaluate the diversity and relative abundance of fungi across marine samples taken from six European near-shore sites. We removed very rare fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) selecting only OTUs recovered from multiple samples for a detailed analysis. This approach identified a set of 71 fungal 'OTU clusters' that account for 66% of all the sequences assigned to the Fungi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that this diversity includes a significant number of chytrid-like lineages that had not been previously described, indicating that the marine environment encompasses a number of zoosporic fungi that are new to taxonomic inventories. Using the sequence datasets, we identified cases where fungal OTUs were sampled across multiple geographical sites and between different sampling depths. This was especially clear in one relatively abundant and diverse phylogroup tentatively named Novel Chytrid-Like-Clade 1 (NCLC1). For comparison, a subset of the water column samples was also investigated using fluorescent microscopy to examine the abundance of eukaryotes with chitin cell walls. Comparisons of relative abundance of RNA-derived fungal tag sequences and chitin cell-wall counts demonstrate that fungi constitute a low fraction of the eukaryotic community in these water column samples. Taken together, these results demonstrate the phylogenetic position and environmental distribution of 71 lineages, improving our understanding of the diversity and abundance of fungi in marine environments.

  19. Multi-Scale Sampling to Evaluate Assemblage Dynamics in an Oceanic Marine Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Andrew R.; Watson, William; McClatchie, Sam; Weber, Edward D.

    2012-01-01

    To resolve the capacity of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) to enhance fish productivity it is first necessary to understand how environmental conditions affect the distribution and abundance of fishes independent of potential reserve effects. Baseline fish production was examined from 2002–2004 through ichthyoplankton sampling in a large (10,878 km2) Southern Californian oceanic marine reserve, the Cowcod Conservation Area (CCA) that was established in 2001, and the Southern California Bight as a whole (238,000 km2 CalCOFI sampling domain). The CCA assemblage changed through time as the importance of oceanic-pelagic species decreased between 2002 (La Niña) and 2003 (El Niño) and then increased in 2004 (El Niño), while oceanic species and rockfishes displayed the opposite pattern. By contrast, the CalCOFI assemblage was relatively stable through time. Depth, temperature, and zooplankton explained more of the variability in assemblage structure at the CalCOFI scale than they did at the CCA scale. CalCOFI sampling revealed that oceanic species impinged upon the CCA between 2002 and 2003 in association with warmer offshore waters, thus explaining the increased influence of these species in the CCA during the El Nino years. Multi-scale, spatially explicit sampling and analysis was necessary to interpret assemblage dynamics in the CCA and likely will be needed to evaluate other focal oceanic marine reserves throughout the world. PMID:22448236

  20. Multi-scale sampling to evaluate assemblage dynamics in an oceanic marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew R; Watson, William; McClatchie, Sam; Weber, Edward D

    2012-01-01

    To resolve the capacity of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) to enhance fish productivity it is first necessary to understand how environmental conditions affect the distribution and abundance of fishes independent of potential reserve effects. Baseline fish production was examined from 2002-2004 through ichthyoplankton sampling in a large (10,878 km(2)) Southern Californian oceanic marine reserve, the Cowcod Conservation Area (CCA) that was established in 2001, and the Southern California Bight as a whole (238,000 km(2) CalCOFI sampling domain). The CCA assemblage changed through time as the importance of oceanic-pelagic species decreased between 2002 (La Niña) and 2003 (El Niño) and then increased in 2004 (El Niño), while oceanic species and rockfishes displayed the opposite pattern. By contrast, the CalCOFI assemblage was relatively stable through time. Depth, temperature, and zooplankton explained more of the variability in assemblage structure at the CalCOFI scale than they did at the CCA scale. CalCOFI sampling revealed that oceanic species impinged upon the CCA between 2002 and 2003 in association with warmer offshore waters, thus explaining the increased influence of these species in the CCA during the El Nino years. Multi-scale, spatially explicit sampling and analysis was necessary to interpret assemblage dynamics in the CCA and likely will be needed to evaluate other focal oceanic marine reserves throughout the world.

  1. Detection of a Diverse Marine Fish Fauna Using Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Møller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-01-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our

  2. Stereochemistry of amino acids in surface samples of a marine sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollock, G.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    In two surface samples of marine sediment, the percentages of d-alanine and d-aspartic acid are significantly higher than the other d-amino acids and are similar to the range found in soils. The percentage of d-glutamic acid is also higher than the other amino acids but less than d-alanine and d-aspartic acid. These d-amino acids may come mainly from bacteria. ?? 1978.

  3. Stereochemistry of amino acids in surface samples of a marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, G. E.; Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    In two surface samples of marine sediment, the percentages of D-alanine and D-aspartic acid are significantly higher than the other D-amino acids and are similar to the range found in soils. The percentage of D-glutamic acid is also higher than the other amino acids but less than D-alanine and D-aspartic acid. These D-amino acids may come mainly from bacteria.

  4. Toxicity testing of marine, terrestrial, solid, liquid, clear, and turbid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    A novel, patented toxicity testing procedure that compares the light generated by the naturally bioluminescent marine dinoflagellate alga, Pyrocystis lunula, in the presence of toxins, to light from a non-toxic control, is sensitive in parts per billion to all substances considered toxic to which it has been subjected: chemical warfare agents, metals, detergents, pesticides, herbicides, anticancer drugs, oil-well drilling fluids and produced waters, marine antifouling paints, and others. Preparation and testing time is less than eight hours. Variability is 10% or less. Solids and turbid or darkly colored samples can be tested without correction. Small sample substrates (10 to 50{mu}l) in the buffered 3ml test medium do not significantly affect pH or salinity, which permits testing of marine or terrestrial samples without special preparation. Also, the organism is insensitive to selected solvents for lipophyllic test substances. EC{sub 50} of sodium lauryl (dodecyl) sulphate is 3.7 ppm, and correlation with the Mysid LC{sub 50} EPA 30,000 ppm toxicity limit is 63% light inhibition.

  5. FAQ about Recreational Therapy/Therapeutic Recreation

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabling condition. What is the relationship between recreational therapy and therapeutic recreation? Therapeutic Recreation is the field ​​ ... How are RT/TR services different from other therapies? RT/TR embraces a definition of "health" which ...

  6. Incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Bacteriophages and Other Vibrio Bacteriophages in Marine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Baross, John A.; Liston, John; Morita, Richard Y.

    1978-01-01

    Vibrio bacteriophages were isolated by enrichment from 177 of 643 samples of marine molluscan shellfish, crustaceans, seawater, and sediments. The predominant bacteriophage types isolated were specific for some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A high frequency of phage isolations was also observed with strains of agar-digesting vibrios (21 of 56) and psychrophilic vibrios (14 of 72) that were originally isolated from non-shellfish growing areas. No bacteriophages were isolated against V. alginolyticus and only rarely for V. anguillarum even though these were the two most abundant species found in near-shore environments. No V. cholerae phages were isolated. It was also determined from quantitative studies on the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) obtained from two environments in Washington and Oregon that the titers of V. parahaemolyticus bacteriophages increased with increasing seasonal water temperatures and that this was proportional to the increase in numbers of mesophilic vibrios and not with the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus. Titers of V. parahaemolyticus bacteriophages occasionally exceeded 106 per g of oyster during the summer months. Specific V. parahaemolyticus bacteriophages were also isolated from market seafoods and other marine samples that originated in cold environments where no mesophilic vibrios are expected to be found. The possibility that V. parahaemolyticus bacteriophages originate from Vibrio spp. other than V. parahaemolyticus and the role of these bacteriophages in the ecology of marine vibrios are discussed. PMID:727781

  7. The Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples: Improving Sample Accessibility and Enabling Current and Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples is a community designed and maintained resource enabling researchers to locate and request sea floor and lakebed geologic samples archived by partner institutions. Conceived in the dawn of the digital age by representatives from U.S. academic and government marine core repositories and the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) at a 1977 meeting convened by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Index is based on core concepts of community oversight, common vocabularies, consistent metadata and a shared interface. Form and content of underlying vocabularies and metadata continue to evolve according to the needs of the community, as do supporting technologies and access methodologies. The Curators Consortium, now international in scope, meets at partner institutions biennially to share ideas and discuss best practices. NGDC serves the group by providing database access and maintenance, a list server, digitizing support and long-term archival of sample metadata, data and imagery. Over three decades, participating curators have performed the herculean task of creating and contributing metadata for over 195,000 sea floor and lakebed cores, grabs, and dredges archived in their collections. Some partners use the Index for primary web access to their collections while others use it to increase exposure of more in-depth institutional systems. The Index is currently a geospatially-enabled relational database, publicly accessible via Web Feature and Web Map Services, and text- and ArcGIS map-based web interfaces. To provide as much knowledge as possible about each sample, the Index includes curatorial contact information and links to related data, information and images; 1) at participating institutions, 2) in the NGDC archive, and 3) at sites such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR). Over 34,000 International GeoSample Numbers (IGSNs) linking to SESAR are

  8. A Sample-to-Sequence Protocol for Genus Targeted Transcriptomic Profiling: Application to Marine Synechococcus

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Frances D.; Millard, Andrew; Ostrowski, Martin; Dervish, Suat; Mazard, Sophie; Paulsen, Ian T.; Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Scanlan, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies using whole community metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches are revealing important new insights into the functional potential and activity of natural marine microbial communities. Here, we complement these approaches by describing a complete ocean sample-to-sequence protocol, specifically designed to target a single bacterial genus for purposes of both DNA and RNA profiling using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The importance of defining and understanding the effects of a sampling protocol are critical if we are to gain meaningful data from environmental surveys. Rigorous pipeline trials with a cultured isolate, Synechococcus sp. BL107 demonstrate that water filtration has a well-defined but limited impact on the transcriptomic profile of this organism, whilst sample storage and multiple rounds of cell sorting have almost no effect on the resulting RNA sequence profile. Attractively, the means to replicate the sampling strategy is within the budget and expertise of most researchers. PMID:27790194

  9. Rapid determination of (210)Pb and (210)Po in water and application to marine samples.

    PubMed

    Villa-Alfageme, M; Mas, J L; Hurtado-Bermudez, S; Masqué, P

    2016-11-01

    Measurement of radionuclides in marine samples, specifically radioactive pairs disequilibrium, has gained interest lately due to their ability to trace cutting edge biogeochemical processes. In this context, we developed a fast, direct method for determining (210)Pb and (210)Po water through the use of ultra low-level liquid scintillation counting and alpha-particle spectrometry respectively and through Eichrom Sr resins for the Po-Pb separation. For (210)Pb analysis, the method uses stable lead as a yield tracer measured by a robust ICP-MS technique, and (210)Po is determined through self-deposition using the conventional (209)Po yield tracer. The improvements of the method over other techniques are: a) the analysis can be completed within 6 days, simplifying other methods, b) very low limits of detection have been achieved -0.12 and 0.005mBqL(-1) for (210)Pb and (210)Po, respectively - and c) most of the method could be carried out in on-board analysis. We applied the method to different aqueous samples and specifically to marine samples. We determined (210)Pb and (210)Po in the dissolved fraction of Mediterranean Sea water and an estuary at the South-West of Spain. We found that it can be successfully employed to marine samples but we recommend to i) use a minimum of 20L water to measure the (210)Pb in the dissolved phase by LSC and lower volumes to measure total concentrations; ii) wait for (210)Pb and (210)Bi in secular equilibrium and measure the total spectrum to minimise the limit of detection and improve accuracy.

  10. Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baya, A.M.; Brayton, P.R.; Brown, V.L.; Grimes, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Colwell, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 ..mu..g of one of a set of chemical selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmic DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites.

  11. Sampling design for long-term regional trends in marine rocky intertidal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Gail V.; Shelley, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Probability-based designs reduce bias and allow inference of results to the pool of sites from which they were chosen. We developed and tested probability-based designs for monitoring marine rocky intertidal assemblages at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA), Alaska. A multilevel design was used that varied in scale and inference. The levels included aerial surveys, extensive sampling of 25 sites, and more intensive sampling of 6 sites. Aerial surveys of a subset of intertidal habitat indicated that the original target habitat of bedrock-dominated sites with slope ≤30° was rare. This unexpected finding illustrated one value of probability-based surveys and led to a shift in the target habitat type to include steeper, more mixed rocky habitat. Subsequently, we evaluated the statistical power of different sampling methods and sampling strategies to detect changes in the abundances of the predominant sessile intertidal taxa: barnacles Balanomorpha, the mussel Mytilus trossulus, and the rockweed Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens. There was greatest power to detect trends in Mytilus and lesser power for barnacles and Fucus. Because of its greater power, the extensive, coarse-grained sampling scheme was adopted in subsequent years over the intensive, fine-grained scheme. The sampling attributes that had the largest effects on power included sampling of “vertical” line transects (vs. horizontal line transects or quadrats) and increasing the number of sites. We also evaluated the power of several management-set parameters. Given equal sampling effort, sampling more sites fewer times had greater power. The information gained through intertidal monitoring is likely to be useful in assessing changes due to climate, including ocean acidification; invasive species; trampling effects; and oil spills.

  12. Sampling design for long-term regional trends in marine rocky intertidal communities.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Shelly, Alice

    2013-08-01

    Probability-based designs reduce bias and allow inference of results to the pool of sites from which they were chosen. We developed and tested probability-based designs for monitoring marine rocky intertidal assemblages at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA), Alaska. A multilevel design was used that varied in scale and inference. The levels included aerial surveys, extensive sampling of 25 sites, and more intensive sampling of 6 sites. Aerial surveys of a subset of intertidal habitat indicated that the original target habitat of bedrock-dominated sites with slope ≤30° was rare. This unexpected finding illustrated one value of probability-based surveys and led to a shift in the target habitat type to include steeper, more mixed rocky habitat. Subsequently, we evaluated the statistical power of different sampling methods and sampling strategies to detect changes in the abundances of the predominant sessile intertidal taxa: barnacles Balanomorpha, the mussel Mytilus trossulus, and the rockweed Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens. There was greatest power to detect trends in Mytilus and lesser power for barnacles and Fucus. Because of its greater power, the extensive, coarse-grained sampling scheme was adopted in subsequent years over the intensive, fine-grained scheme. The sampling attributes that had the largest effects on power included sampling of "vertical" line transects (vs. horizontal line transects or quadrats) and increasing the number of sites. We also evaluated the power of several management-set parameters. Given equal sampling effort, sampling more sites fewer times had greater power. The information gained through intertidal monitoring is likely to be useful in assessing changes due to climate, including ocean acidification; invasive species; trampling effects; and oil spills.

  13. Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project: Sample inventory and results of analyses of selected samples for organic compounds and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Schantz, M.M.; Koster, B.J.; Zeisler, R.

    1992-02-01

    In 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) was established as part of the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).The purpose of the AMMTAP was to establish a representative collection of Alaska marine mammal tissues for future contaminant analyses and documentation of long-term trends in environmental quality. Since 1987, specimens have been collected from 65 animals (seven species) from six different sites. The report contains the current sample inventory and the results of the analysis of selected samples for the measurement of inorganic and organic compounds.

  14. Statistical analyses to support guidelines for marine avian sampling. Final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinlan, Brian P.; Zipkin, Elise; O'Connell, Allan F.; Caldow, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Interest in development of offshore renewable energy facilities has led to a need for high-quality, statistically robust information on marine wildlife distributions. A practical approach is described to estimate the amount of sampling effort required to have sufficient statistical power to identify species-specific “hotspots” and “coldspots” of marine bird abundance and occurrence in an offshore environment divided into discrete spatial units (e.g., lease blocks), where “hotspots” and “coldspots” are defined relative to a reference (e.g., regional) mean abundance and/or occurrence probability for each species of interest. For example, a location with average abundance or occurrence that is three times larger the mean (3x effect size) could be defined as a “hotspot,” and a location that is three times smaller than the mean (1/3x effect size) as a “coldspot.” The choice of the effect size used to define hot and coldspots will generally depend on a combination of ecological and regulatory considerations. A method is also developed for testing the statistical significance of possible hotspots and coldspots. Both methods are illustrated with historical seabird survey data from the USGS Avian Compendium Database. Our approach consists of five main components: 1. A review of the primary scientific literature on statistical modeling of animal group size and avian count data to develop a candidate set of statistical distributions that have been used or may be useful to model seabird counts. 2. Statistical power curves for one-sample, one-tailed Monte Carlo significance tests of differences of observed small-sample means from a specified reference distribution. These curves show the power to detect "hotspots" or "coldspots" of occurrence and abundance at a range of effect sizes, given assumptions which we discuss. 3. A model selection procedure, based on maximum likelihood fits of models in the candidate set, to determine an appropriate statistical

  15. Predicting the offshore distribution and abundance of marine birds with a hierarchical community distance sampling model.

    PubMed

    Goyert, Holly F; Gardner, Beth; Sollmann, Rahel; Veit, Richard R; Gilbert, Andrew T; Connelly, Emily E; Williams, Kathryn A

    2016-09-01

    Proposed offshore wind energy development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf has brought attention to the need for baseline studies of the distribution and abundance of marine birds. We compiled line transect data from 15 shipboard surveys (June 2012-April 2014), along with associated remotely sensed habitat data, in the lower Mid-Atlantic Bight off the coast of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, USA. We implemented a recently developed hierarchical community distance sampling model to estimate the seasonal abundance of 40 observed marine bird species. Treating each season separately, we included six oceanographic parameters to estimate seabird abundance: three static (distance to shore, slope, sediment grain size) and three dynamic covariates (sea surface temperature [SST], salinity, primary productivity). We expected that avian bottom-feeders would respond primarily to static covariates that characterize seafloor variability, and that surface-feeders would respond more to dynamic covariates that quantify surface productivity. We compared the variation in species-specific and community-level responses to these habitat features, including for rare species, and we predicted species abundance across the study area. While several protected species used the study area in summer during their breeding season, estimated abundance and observed diversity were highest for nonbreeding species in winter. Distance to shore was the most common significant predictor of abundance, and thus useful in estimating the potential exposure of marine birds to offshore development. In many cases, our expectations based on feeding ecology were confirmed, such as in the first winter season, when bottom-feeders associated significantly with the three static covariates (distance to shore, slope, and sediment grain size), and surface-feeders associated significantly with two dynamic covariates (SST, primary productivity). However, other cases revealed significant relationships between

  16. Optimizing sample pretreatment for compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Lipp, J. S.; Meador, T. B.; Hinrichs, K.-U.

    2014-01-01

    Amino sugars are quantitatively significant constituents of soil and marine sediment, but their sources and turnover in environmental samples remain poorly understood. The stable carbon isotopic composition of amino sugars can provide information on the lifestyles of their source organisms and can be monitored during incubations with labeled substrates to estimate the turnover rates of microbial populations. However, until now, such investigation has been carried out only with soil samples, partly because of the much lower abundance of amino sugars in marine environments. We therefore optimized a procedure for compound-specific isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment employing gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The whole procedure consisted of hydrolysis, neutralization, enrichment, and derivatization of amino sugars. Except for the derivatization step, the protocol introduced negligible isotopic fractionation, and the minimum requirement of amino sugar for isotopic analysis was 20 ng, i.e. equivalent to ~ 8 ng of amino sugar carbon. Our results obtained from δ13C analysis of amino sugars in selected marine sediment samples showed that muramic acid had isotopic imprints from indigenous bacterial activities, whereas glucosamine and galactosamine were mainly derived from organic detritus. The analysis of stable carbon isotopic compositions of amino sugars opens a promising window for the investigation of microbial metabolisms in marine sediments and the deep marine biosphere.

  17. Single sample resolution of rare microbial dark matter in a marine invertebrate metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ian J.; Weyna, Theodore R.; Fong, Stephen S.; Lim-Fong, Grace E.; Kwan, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Direct, untargeted sequencing of environmental samples (metagenomics) and de novo genome assembly enable the study of uncultured and phylogenetically divergent organisms. However, separating individual genomes from a mixed community has often relied on the differential-coverage analysis of multiple, deeply sequenced samples. In the metagenomic investigation of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina, we uncovered seven bacterial genomes associated with a single B. neritina individual that appeared to be transient associates, two of which were unique to one individual and undetectable using certain “universal” 16S rRNA primers and probes. We recovered high quality genome assemblies for several rare instances of “microbial dark matter,” or phylogenetically divergent bacteria lacking genomes in reference databases, from a single tissue sample that was not subjected to any physical or chemical pre-treatment. One of these rare, divergent organisms has a small (593 kbp), poorly annotated genome with low GC content (20.9%) and a 16S rRNA gene with just 65% sequence similarity to the closest reference sequence. Our findings illustrate the importance of sampling strategy and de novo assembly of metagenomic reads to understand the extent and function of bacterial biodiversity. PMID:27681823

  18. Recreation Resource Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Recreation is any voluntary activity that is enjoyable and fun. Recreation refreshes, revitalizes and improves a person's quality of life. Consider some recreation activity you may have an interest in. Suppose you are interested in gardening but have never tried it. Let's take a look at how you can learn about it, do it, and in the process get…

  19. Adaptive Recreational Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Designed for teachers interested in therapeutic recreation, the document lists sources of adaptive recreational equipment and their homemade counterparts. Brief descriptions for ordering or constructing recreational equipment for the visually impaired, poorly coordinated, physically impaired, and mentally retarded are given. Specific adaptations…

  20. Education and Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Responsibility for meeting the needs and demands of the public for outdoor recreation has led the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to cooperate with educational institutions and others in order to assist in establishing education programs and activities and to encourage public use and benefits from outdoor recreation. To this end the Bureau conducts…

  1. Marine biodegradation of crude oil in temperate and Arctic water samples.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Johnsen, Anders R; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-12-30

    Despite increased interest in marine oil exploration in the Arctic, little is known about the fate of Arctic offshore oil pollution. Therefore, in the present study, we examine the oil degradation potential for an Arctic site (Disko Bay, Greenland) and discuss this in relation to a temperate site (North Sea, Denmark). Biodegradation was assessed following exposure to Oseberg Blend crude oil (100 mg L(-1)) in microcosms. Changes in oil hydrocarbon fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl-substituted PAHs, dibenzothiophenes, n-alkanes and alkyltoluenes were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the Disko Bay sample, the degradation order was n-alkanes>alkyltoluenes (para->meta->ortho-isomers)>PAHs and dibenzothiophenes, whereas, the degradation order in the North Sea samples was PAHs and dibenzothiophenes>alkyltoluenes>n-alkanes. These differences in degradation patterns significantly affect the environmental risk of oil spills and emphasise the need to consider the specific environmental conditions when conducting risk assessments of Arctic oil pollution.

  2. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in recreational versus non-recreational water sources.

    PubMed

    Loganthan, Sasdekumar; Yang, Rongchang; Bath, Andrew; Gordon, Cameron; Ryan, Una

    2012-08-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium, represents the major public health concern of water utilities in developed nations due to its small size, resistance to disinfection and ability to be shed in large numbers in faeces. In Australia, recreational access is not allowed on direct supply sources, however, in Western Australia, limited recreational access to drinking water catchments has been allowed, although only in the outer catchment. Recreational activities within 2 km of the drinking water body is prohibited. The present study compared the amount, prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium in recreational versus non-recreational water catchments in the south west of Western Australia (WA). Recreational water catchments, which allowed swimming and camping had a higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium and the majority of samples were the human-associated C. hominis. Non-recreational catchments had a lower prevalence and all the samples genotyped were C. parvum. Risk analysis identified increasing population as strongly correlated with an increase in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in recreational catchments. This suggests that recreational access to drinking water catchments is a serious public health risk and government policy limiting activities to the outer catchment should be supported.

  3. DNA barcoding and metabarcoding of standardized samples reveal patterns of marine benthic diversity.

    PubMed

    Leray, Matthieu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2015-02-17

    Documenting the diversity of marine life is challenging because many species are cryptic, small, and rare, and belong to poorly known groups. New sequencing technologies, especially when combined with standardized sampling, promise to make comprehensive biodiversity assessments and monitoring feasible on a large scale. We used this approach to characterize patterns of diversity on oyster reefs across a range of geographic scales comprising a temperate location [Virginia (VA)] and a subtropical location [Florida (FL)]. Eukaryotic organisms that colonized multilayered settlement surfaces (autonomous reef monitoring structures) over a 6-mo period were identified by cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcoding (>2-mm mobile organisms) and metabarcoding (sessile and smaller mobile organisms). In a total area of ∼ 15.64 m(2) and volume of ∼ 0.09 m(3), 2,179 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recorded from 983,056 sequences. However, only 10.9% could be matched to reference barcodes in public databases, with only 8.2% matching barcodes with both genus and species names. Taxonomic coverage was broad, particularly for animals (22 phyla recorded), but 35.6% of OTUs detected via metabarcoding could not be confidently assigned to a taxonomic group. The smallest size fraction (500 to 106 μm) was the most diverse (more than two-thirds of OTUs). There was little taxonomic overlap between VA and FL, and samples separated by ∼ 2 m were significantly more similar than samples separated by ∼ 100 m. Ground-truthing with independent assessments of taxonomic composition indicated that both presence-absence information and relative abundance information are captured by metabarcoding data, suggesting considerable potential for ecological studies and environmental monitoring.

  4. DNA barcoding and metabarcoding of standardized samples reveal patterns of marine benthic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Leray, Matthieu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Documenting the diversity of marine life is challenging because many species are cryptic, small, and rare, and belong to poorly known groups. New sequencing technologies, especially when combined with standardized sampling, promise to make comprehensive biodiversity assessments and monitoring feasible on a large scale. We used this approach to characterize patterns of diversity on oyster reefs across a range of geographic scales comprising a temperate location [Virginia (VA)] and a subtropical location [Florida (FL)]. Eukaryotic organisms that colonized multilayered settlement surfaces (autonomous reef monitoring structures) over a 6-mo period were identified by cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcoding (>2-mm mobile organisms) and metabarcoding (sessile and smaller mobile organisms). In a total area of ∼15.64 m2 and volume of ∼0.09 m3, 2,179 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recorded from 983,056 sequences. However, only 10.9% could be matched to reference barcodes in public databases, with only 8.2% matching barcodes with both genus and species names. Taxonomic coverage was broad, particularly for animals (22 phyla recorded), but 35.6% of OTUs detected via metabarcoding could not be confidently assigned to a taxonomic group. The smallest size fraction (500 to 106 μm) was the most diverse (more than two-thirds of OTUs). There was little taxonomic overlap between VA and FL, and samples separated by ∼2 m were significantly more similar than samples separated by ∼100 m. Ground-truthing with independent assessments of taxonomic composition indicated that both presence–absence information and relative abundance information are captured by metabarcoding data, suggesting considerable potential for ecological studies and environmental monitoring. PMID:25646458

  5. Enterococcus species diversity in fecal samples of wild marine species as determined by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Aline Weber; Blaese Amorim, Derek; Tavares, Maurício; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Franco, Ana Claudia; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2017-02-01

    Analyses using culture-independent molecular techniques have improved our understanding of microbial composition. The aim of this work was to identify and quantify enterococci in fecal samples of wild marine species using real-time quantitative PCR. Seven Enterococcus species were examined in fecal DNA of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis), green turtles (Chelonia mydas), Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), snowy-crowned tern (Sterna trudeaui), white-backed stilt (Himantopus melanurus), white-chinned petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis), red knot (Calidris canutus), and black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris). All Enterococcus species evaluated were detected in all fecal samples of wild marine species, with a concentration ranging between 10(6) and 10(12) copies/ng of total DNA. Differences in the enterococci distribution were observed. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus mundtii were most abundant in marine mammals. Enterococcus faecalis was frequent in green turtle, Magellanic penguin, snowy-crowned tern, red knot, and black-browed albatross. Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus gallinarum showed elevated occurrence in white-backed stilt, and Enterococcus faecium in white-chinned petrel. This study showed highest diversity of enterococci in feces of wild marine species than currently available data, and reinforced the use of culture-independent analysis to help us to enhance our understanding of enterococci in gastrointestinal tracts of wild marine species.

  6. Optimizing sample pretreatment for compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Lipp, J. S.; Meador, T. B.; Hinrichs, K.-U.

    2014-09-01

    Amino sugars are quantitatively significant constituents of soil and marine sediment, but their sources and turnover in environmental samples remain poorly understood. The stable carbon isotopic composition of amino sugars can provide information on the lifestyles of their source organisms and can be monitored during incubations with labeled substrates to estimate the turnover rates of microbial populations. However, until now, such investigation has been carried out only with soil samples, partly because of the much lower abundance of amino sugars in marine environments. We therefore optimized a procedure for compound-specific isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment, employing gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The whole procedure consisted of hydrolysis, neutralization, enrichment, and derivatization of amino sugars. Except for the derivatization step, the protocol introduced negligible isotopic fractionation, and the minimum requirement of amino sugar for isotopic analysis was 20 ng, i.e., equivalent to ~8 ng of amino sugar carbon. Compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars obtained from marine sediment extracts indicated that glucosamine and galactosamine were mainly derived from organic detritus, whereas muramic acid showed isotopic imprints from indigenous bacterial activities. The δ13C analysis of amino sugars provides a valuable addition to the biomarker-based characterization of microbial metabolism in the deep marine biosphere, which so far has been lipid oriented and biased towards the detection of archaeal signals.

  7. Partitioning of alcohol ethoxylates and polyethylene glycols in the marine environment: field samplings vs laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Traverso-Soto, Juan M; Brownawell, Bruce J; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays, alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs) constitute the most important group of non-ionic surfactants, used in a wide range of applications such as household cleaners and detergents. Significant amounts of these compounds and their degradation products (polyethylene glycols, PEGs, which are also used for many other applications) reach aquatic environments, and are eliminated from the water column by degradation and sorption processes. This work deals with the environmental distribution of AEOs and PEGs in the Long Island Sound Estuary, a setting impacted by sewage discharges from New York City (NYC). The distribution of target compounds in seawater was influenced by tides, consistent with salinity differences, and concentrations in suspended solid samples ranged from 1.5 to 20.5 μg/g. The more hydrophobic AEOs were mostly attached to the particulate matter whereas the more polar PEGs were predominant in the dissolved form. Later, the sorption of these chemicals was characterized in the laboratory. Experimental and environmental sorption coefficients for AEOs and PEGs showed average values from 3607 to 164,994 L/kg and from 74 to 32,862 L/kg, respectively. The sorption data were fitted to a Freundlich isotherm model with parameters n and log KF between 0.8-1.2 and 1.46-4.39 L/kg, respectively. AEO and PEG sorptions on marine sediment were also found to be mostly not affected by changes in salinity.

  8. Neutron activation analysis of stoney spherules from a marine sediment sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, H. T., Jr.; Englert, P.

    1984-01-01

    The identification of extraterrestrial material in samples collected at the surface of the Earth is discussed. Criteria were established for black magnetic spherules which involve the presence of: Fe, Ni, and Co in iron meteoritic ratios, wustite, and Fe-Ni metal while reliable criteria for stoney spherules are not well established. Neutron activation analysis was performed on eight stony spherules separated from the same marine sediment used by Millard and Finkelman. The 22 elements were determined by Compton suppression and triple coincidence gamma counting. It is found that Fe, Mg, Al, Ni, Cr, Co, Ir, and Sc are the best discriminators between chondritic and terrestrial compositions. Three of the spherules have compositions very close to chondrites and of these, two contain 0.5 and 0.25 ppm Ir. The other five spherules contain much less than chondritic concentrations of Ni but this element may be segregated and lost during ablation of the parent meteorite. One of these five low Ni spherules contains 2.9 ppm Ir while the other four contain less than 0.05 ppm Ir.

  9. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine samples by high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Obana, H.; Hori, S.; Kashimoto, T.

    1981-05-01

    It has been reported that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment, although their concentrations are quite low. Some PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene and 3-methycholanthrene, are carcinogenic to mammals after in vivo hydroxylation by mixed function oxidases. PAHs originate largely from smoke, soot, and exhaust gas produced by combustion and from petroleum oil spilled into the sea, so that the quantity of PAHs in the environment is broadly related to the level of contamination in a given region. Although PAHs have been determined by a TLC-fluorescence method, these methods suffer from complex pretreatment. On the other hand, the development of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has made it possible to analyze PAHs with good separation and high sensitivity and to simplify the pretreatment processes. In this study, ten PAHs in sediments, oyster, and wakame seaweed were determined by HPLC with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The contents and the patterns of PAHs found in sediments and marine samples may be used as an indicator of petroleum contamination in the sea.

  10. Outdoor Recreation Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubenville, Alan

    The complex problems facing the manager of an outdoor recreation area are outlined and discussed. Eighteen chapters cover the following primary concerns of the manager of such a facility: (1) an overview of the management process; (2) the basic outdoor recreation management model; (3) the problem-solving process; (4) involvement of the public in…

  11. Trends in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the rapid, dramatic changes taking place in therapeutic recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The article notes the impact of changes in managed care, examines programming trends in therapeutic recreation (adventure/outdoor education, competitive sports, handcycling, health enhancement activities, and…

  12. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  13. Recreation Leadership. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannier, Maryhelen

    This text is intended for use in college recreation courses. It presents leadership techniques and teaching methods for conducting successful recreation programs in community centers, schools, churches, industry, hospitals, prisons, and on playgrounds. Over 1,000 program ideas and ways to teach are suggested that cover a wide range of activities…

  14. Integrated Leisure and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart, Ed.; Rynders, John, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on integrated leisure and recreation for developmentally disabled persons and includes descriptions of innovative leisure/recreation programs which allow the realization of the concepts of normalization and least restrictive environment. Brief articles include the following titles and authors: "Challenging the…

  15. Therapeutic Recreation Practicum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneegas, Kay

    This manual provides information on the practicum program offered by Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) for students in its therapeutic recreation program. Sections I and II outline the rationale and goals for providing practical, on-the-job work experiences for therapeutic recreation students. Section III specifies MVCC's responsibilities…

  16. Determination of total mercury for marine environmental monitoring studies by solid sampling continuum source high resolution atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandjukov, Petko; Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The most critical step in almost all commonly used analytical procedures for Hg determination is the sample preparation due to its extreme volatility. One of the possible solutions of this problem is the application of methods for direct analysis of solid samples. The possibilities for solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) determination of total mercury in various marine environmental samples e.g. sediments and biota are object of the present study. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signal. A calibration technique based on the use of solid standard certified reference materials similar to the nature of the analyzed sample was developed and applied to various CRMs and real samples. This technique allows simple and reliable evaluation of the uncertainty of the result and the metrological characteristics of the method. A validation approach in line with the requirements of ISO 17025 standard and Eurachem guidelines was followed. With this in mind, selectivity, working range (0.06 to 25 ng for biota and 0.025 to 4 ng for sediment samples, expressed as total Hg) linearity (confirmed by Student's t-test), bias (1.6-4.3%), repeatability (4-9%), reproducibility (9-11%), and absolute limit of detection (0.025 ng for sediment, 0.096 ng for marine biota) were systematically assessed using solid CRMs. The relative expanded uncertainty was estimated at 15% for sediment sample and 8.5% for marine biota sample (k = 2). Demonstration of traceability of measurement results is also presented. The potential of the proposed analytical procedure, based on solid sampling HR CS AAS technique was demonstrated by direct analysis of sea sediments form the Caribbean region and various CRMs. Overall, the use of solid sampling HR CS AAS permits obtaining significant advantages for the determination of this complex analyte in marine samples, such as straightforward

  17. 78 FR 73820 - Publicly Managed Recreation Opportunities, Recreation Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AD09 Publicly Managed Recreation Opportunities, Recreation Fees AGENCY: Forest... final directive providing direction on recreation fees in chapter 30 of new Forest Service Handbook (FSH) 2309.13. This chapter enumerates the requirements for recreation fees charged by the Forest...

  18. Changes of the elemental distributions in marine diatoms as a reporter of sample preparation artefacts. A nuclear microscopy application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinho, R. M.; Cabrita, M. T.; Alves, L. C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2015-04-01

    Studies of the elemental composition of whole marine diatoms cells have high interest as they constitute a direct measurement of environmental changes, and allow anticipating consequences of anthropogenic alterations to organisms, ecosystems and global marine geochemical cycles. Nuclear microscopy is a powerful tool allowing direct measurement of whole cells giving qualitative imaging of distribution, and quantitative determination of intracellular concentration. Major obstacles to the analysis of marine microalgae are high medium salinity and the recurrent presence of extracellular exudates produced by algae to maintain colonies in natural media and in vitro. The objective of this paper was to optimize the methodology of sample preparation of marine unicellular algae for elemental analysis with nuclear microscopy, allowing further studies on cellular response to metals. Primary cultures of Coscinodiscus wailesii maintained in vitro were used to optimize protocols for elemental analysis with nuclear microscopy techniques. Adequate cell preparation procedures to isolate the cells from media components and exudates were established. The use of chemical agents proved to be inappropriate for elemental determination and for intracellular morphological analysis. The assessment of morphology and elemental partitioning in cell compartments obtained with nuclear microscopy techniques enabled to infer their function in natural environment and imbalances in exposure condition. Exposure to metal affected C. wailesii morphology and internal elemental distribution.

  19. Commercial Recreation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    The tourist industry is one of the healthiest and most promising career markets for graduates of recreation education programs. Considerations that should be weighed in selecting tourism education curricula are discussed. (PP)

  20. Optimization of microwave digestion for mercury determination in marine biological samples by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cardellicchio, Nicola; Di Leo, Antonella; Giandomenico, Santina; Santoro, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    Optimization of acid digestion method for mercury determination in marine biological samples (dolphin liver, fish and mussel tissues) using a closed vessel microwave sample preparation is presented. Five digestion procedures with different acid mixtures were investigated: the best results were obtained when the microwave-assisted digestion was based on sample dissolution with HNO3-H2SO4-K2Cr2O7 mixture. A comparison between microwave digestion and conventional reflux digestion shows there are considerable losses of mercury in the open digestion system. The microwave digestion method has been tested satisfactorily using two certified reference materials. Analytical results show a good agreement with certified values. The microwave digestion proved to be a reliable and rapid method for decomposition of biological samples in mercury determination.

  1. Arsenic speciation in marine product samples: comparison of extraction-HPLC method and digestion-cryogenic trap method.

    PubMed

    Geng, Wenhua; Komine, Rieko; Ohta, Toshiharu; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Ohki, Akira

    2009-07-15

    For the arsenic speciation in marine product samples, two types of pretreatment-analysis combination were compared. One is the combination of solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by a highly sensitive arsenic detection, while the other is the combination of alkaline digestion and cryogenic trap (CT) method followed by a highly sensitive arsenic detection. For six certified reference materials (CRMs) of marine animal samples, the concentrations of arsenobetaine (AsB) obtained from the extraction-HPLC method were very consistent with those of trimethylated arsenic species measured by the digestion-CT method. For four seaweed samples, the determination of three arsenosugars (Sugar-1, Sugar-2, and Sugar-3) was favorably carried out by the extraction-HPLC method. Those seaweed samples were also subjected to the digestion-CT method, and the amounts of dimethylated arsenic species measured by the method were approximately equal to the sum of the amounts of dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) and three arsenosugars (Sugar-1+Sugar-2+Sugar-3) obtained from the extraction-HPLC method.

  2. Arsenic species extraction of biological marine samples (Periwinkles, Littorina littorea) from a highly contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Whaley-Martin, K J; Koch, I; Reimer, K J

    2012-01-15

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the tissues of marine organisms and in uncontaminated environments it is dominantly present as the highly soluble and easily extractable non-toxic arsenical, arsenobetaine. However in contaminated environments, higher proportions of inorganic arsenic, which is much less soluble, are accumulated into the tissues of marine organisms, resulting in lower extraction efficiencies (defined as the percent extracted arsenic of the total arsenic). This study carried out a comparative analysis between three different two-step arsenic extraction methods based on Foster et al. [27] from highly contaminated tissue of the marine periwinkle, Littorina littorea. The first extraction step used 100% water, 1:1 methanol-water, or a 9:1 methanol-water as the extraction solvent and the second step consisted of a gently heated dilute nitric acid extraction. The optimized two step extraction method was 1:1 methanol-water extraction followed by a 2% HNO(3) extraction, based on maximum amounts of extracted species, including organoarsenic species.

  3. The Value of a Master's Degree to Recreation Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Camilla J.; Hill, Brian J.; Brinton, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the nature of the relationship between earning advanced degrees and career outcomes such as salary, job satisfaction, social capital, and human capital among professionals in the parks and recreation field. The sample (n = 196) was drawn from parks and recreation agencies located in the United States. Agencies, excluding…

  4. 77 FR 65136 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 black sea bass recreational harvest limit has been exceeded. No one may fish for or possess black sea bass in Federal waters for the remainder...

  5. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p < 0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality.

  6. Relationships Between Sand and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida’s beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  7. Recreation Handbook for State and Local Unit Recreation Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The recreation handbook provides broad guidelines and lists sources of information for state and local units of the National Association for Retarded Citizens (NARC) to develop recreational programs throughout the nation. Described are the importance of recreation for reasons such as developing good habits of physical fitness, survey results…

  8. What Recreation Research Says to the Recreation Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelegrino, Donald A., Ed.

    In the preface, the editor states that this publication was generated to identify, synthesize, publish, and disseminate specific research finding. It contains a collection of six essays, entitled Recreation Research: An Overview; What Research Tells the Recreation Practitioner About Administrative Behavior; Recreation and Behavior Modification;…

  9. A method for the determination of environmental contaminants in living marine mammals using microscale samples of blubber and blood.

    PubMed

    Newman, J W; Vedder, J M; Jarman, W M; Chang, R R

    1994-08-01

    As part of a study examining the possible effects of organochlorine compounds on juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), blubber and blood samples were taken from animals present on the Año Nuevo (California) rookery, and from animals admitted for rehabilitation at The Marine Mammal Center (Sausalito CA). Blubber samples were collected from immobilized seals. A pre-cleaned 6 mm K-medic biopsy punch was used to extract the blubber from a 1 cm incision near the hip, near the dorsal mid point. Blood samples were taken from the extradural vein; two mL of serum was analyzed for organochlorine compounds. Blubber samples (approximately 0.1g) were ground with Na2SO4 and extracted with 20 mL hexane:methylene chloride (1:1). Sera samples were extracted using commercially available disposable C18 columns. The extracts were separated on a micro-Florisil column, and analyzed by HRGC-ECD. Lipid determination in the serum was obtained by colorimetric analysis with 20 microliters samples. Results from the analysis of replicates and standard reference materials showed good recoveries, precision, and accuracy for both the blubber and blood methods.

  10. Validation of Ocean Color Satellite Data Products in Under Sampled Marine Areas. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, Ajit; Hood, Raleigh R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

    2001-01-01

    The planktonic marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., is broadly distributed throughout the oligotrophic marine tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Trichodesmium, which typically occurs in macroscopic bundles or colonies, is noteworthy for its ability to form large surface aggregations and to fix dinitrogen gas. The latter is important because primary production supported by N2 fixation can result in a net export of carbon from the surface waters to deep ocean and may therefore play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. However, information on the distribution and density of Trichodesmium from shipboard measurements through the oligotrophic oceans is very sparse. Such estimates are required to quantitatively estimate total global rates of N2 fixation. As a result current global rate estimates are highly uncertain. Thus in order to understand the broader biogeochemical importance of Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the oceans, we need better methods to estimate the global temporal and spatial variability of this organism. One approach that holds great promise is satellite remote sensing. Satellite ocean color sensors are ideal instruments for estimating global phytoplankton biomass, especially that due to episodic blooms, because they provide relatively high frequency synoptic information over large areas. Trichodesmium has a combination of specific ultrastructural and biochemical features that lend themselves to identification of this organism by remote sensing. Specifically, these features are high backscatter due to the presence of gas vesicles, and absorption and fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The resulting optical signature is relatively unique and should be detectable with satellite ocean color sensors such as the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS).

  11. Recreational Vehicle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Michael

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

  12. Recreative Arts Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray

    Emphasizing an interdisciplinary, experiential learning approach, this curriculum guide is designed for a one year recreative arts-outdoor education course for high school students in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The course objective is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary for fostering responsible behavior in an…

  13. Mental Recreation in Wonderland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendlebury, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The author argues that children's books are not, as commonly held, either didactic or entertaining and that successful juvenile literature teaches what Lewis Carroll, who wrote "Alice in Wonderland," termed "mental recreation." Pendlebury contends that learning and play, far from being opposites, can closely resemble one…

  14. Computer Perspectives in Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haderlie, Brian M., Ed.

    This publication describes applications and/or research involved with computer use for professionals in leisure, parks, and recreation. Papers presented are: (1) "Software in the Eighties: Information Exchange and Clearinghouse Applications" (Jeff A. Stuyt); (2) "Microcomputer Applications for the Manager of the Future" (Christine Z. Howe); (3)…

  15. Outdoor Recreation Space Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    With increased concern in recent years for the quality of our cultural and physical environment, there has been a corresponding increase in the need for information on standards used for planning playgrounds and parks, sports facilities, and outdoor areas for camping and hiking. Standards for various types of outdoor recreational facilities as…

  16. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  17. Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

  18. 75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation, Business/Commerce,...

  19. Trends in Selenium Utilization in Marine Microbial World Revealed through the Analysis of the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) Project

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is an important trace element that occurs in proteins in the form of selenocysteine (Sec) and in tRNAs in the form of selenouridine. Recent large-scale metagenomics projects provide an opportunity for understanding global trends in trace element utilization. Herein, we characterized the selenoproteome of the microbial marine community derived from the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) expedition. More than 3,600 selenoprotein gene sequences belonging to 58 protein families were detected, including sequences representing 7 newly identified selenoprotein families, such as homologs of ferredoxin–thioredoxin reductase and serine protease. In addition, a new eukaryotic selenoprotein family, thiol reductase GILT, was identified. Most GOS selenoprotein families originated from Cys-containing thiol oxidoreductases. In both Pacific and Atlantic microbial communities, SelW-like and SelD were the most widespread selenoproteins. Geographic location had little influence on Sec utilization as measured by selenoprotein variety and the number of selenoprotein genes detected; however, both higher temperature and marine (as opposed to freshwater and other aquatic) environment were associated with increased use of this amino acid. Selenoproteins were also detected with preference for either environment. We identified novel fusion forms of several selenoproteins that highlight redox activities of these proteins. Almost half of Cys-containing SelDs were fused with NADH dehydrogenase, whereas such SelD forms were rare in terrestrial organisms. The selenouridine utilization trait was also analyzed and showed an independent evolutionary relationship with Sec utilization. Overall, our study provides insights into global trends in microbial selenium utilization in marine environments. PMID:18551170

  20. Wipe sampling of amphetamine-type stimulants and recreational drugs on selected household surfaces with analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Madireddy, Sri Bharat; Bodeddula, Vanaja Reddy; Mansani, Sravan Kumar; Wells, Martha J M; Boles, Jeffrey O

    2013-06-15

    Sorption characteristics of eight drugs related to recreational and clandestine activity-amphetamine, cocaine, heroin, N-formyl amphetamine, N-formyl methamphetamine, methamphetamine, 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and pseudoephedrine-were evaluated on selected kitchen countertop surfaces. Methanol-dampened Whatman 40 filter paper wipes were used to collect samples from eleven surfaces including alkyd resin, ceramic tiles, glass, granite, laminate, limestone, marble, quartz compac, quartz real, soap stone, and stainless steel. The filter paper wipes were analyzed by a rapid three-minute UPLC-QTOF method, following ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.8-6.2) extraction. The average percentage recoveries after 15 h of exposure to the surface materials tested, was found to be highest for cocaine and MDMA and lowest for amphetamine and methamphetamine. Among the eleven countertop surfaces, overall recoveries for marble were observed to be the least, whereas soapstone, quartz compac and stainless steel were among the highest. Scanning electron microscopic images of the surfaces provided a unique view of surface irregularities that potentially influenced drug recovery. Aging, migration, solvent composition, and volatility were examined. The variation in recovery of drugs was attributed to four key factors: compound volatility, surface composition, surface-compound interaction, and solvent composition.

  1. [Composition of marine sediment samples in the Costa Rica intertidal zones using X-Ray fluorescence analysis].

    PubMed

    Salazar, Alfonso; Lizano, Omar G; Alfaro, Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Using an energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence analysis, simultaneous evaluation of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ge, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in 74 marine sediment samples from the Costa Rica intertidal zones was conducted. Samples were collected between June 1999 and December 2001, from Caribbean and Pacific beaches of Costa Rica. Calcium and iron showed the highest abundances and are indicators of the natural origin of the sediments. Calcium is associated with biogenic processes such as coral reefs near the sampling sites and iron indicates a terrigenous origin. In general, the beaches of the Caribbean and North Pacific regions showed the greatest concentration of calcium. This is indicative of the abundant reef structures near these beaches. The beaches of the Central and South Pacific show the greatest iron concentrations, indicating an important lithosphere contribution and/or little contribution of calcium carbonate due to the poor development of coralline structures near the sampling sites. Finally, the analyses did not show evidence of elements associated with anthropogenic pollution. Only a northern section of Puerto Viejo beach showed high concentrations of lead, zinc and titanium, perhaps associated with hydrothermal sources.

  2. New procedure for recovering extra- and intracellular DNA from marine sediment samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a ubiquitous biological compound in aquatic sediment and soil. Despite major methodological advances, analysis of DNA from sediment is still technically challenging, not just because of the co-elution of inhibitory substances, but also due to co-elution of extracellular DNA, which potentially leads to an overestimate of the actual diversity. Previous studies suggested that eDNA might play an important role in biogeochemical element cycling, horizontal gene transfer and stabilization of biofilm structures. Several protocols based on the precipitation of eDNA e.g. with CTAB and ethanol have already been published. However, using these methods we did not succeed in quantifying very low amounts of eDNA (e.g. <1μg eDNA/g dry wt) in marine sediment even when using DNA carriers like glycogen. Since the recovery of eDNA by precipitation strongly depends on its concentration, these previously published procedures are not adequate for deep biosphere sediment due to the low eDNA content. We have focused on the question whether eDNA could be a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for microbes in the subseafloor biosphere. Therefore we developed a new method for the (semi)-quantitative extraction of eDNA from sediment. The new extraction procedure is based on sequential washing of the sediment to remove simultaneously eDNA and microbial cells without lysing them. After separation of the cells by centrifugation, the eDNA was extracted from the supernatant and purified by adsorption onto a solid phase, followed by removal of the solids and subsequent elution of the pure eDNA. Intracellular DNA (iDNA) was extracted and purified from the cell pellet using a commercial DNA extraction kit. Additional to a very low detection limit and reproducible quantification, this new method allows separation and purification of both extracellular and intracellular DNA to an extent that inhibitors are removed and downstream applications like PCR can be performed. To

  3. Applicability of passive sampling to bioanalytical screening of bioaccumulative chemicals in marine wildlife.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ling; Gaus, Caroline; van Mourik, Louise; Escher, Beate I

    2013-07-16

    Quantification of bioaccumulative contaminants in biota is time and cost-intensive and the required extensive cleanup steps make it selective toward targeted chemical groups. Therefore tissue extracts prepared for chemical analysis are not amenable to assess the combined effects of unresolved complex mixtures. Passive equilibrium sampling with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has the potential for unbiased sampling of mixtures, and the PDMS extracts can be directly dosed into cell-based bioassays. The passive sampling approach was tested by exposing PDMS to lipid-rich tissue (dugong blubber; 85% lipid) spiked with a known mixture of hydrophobic contaminants (five congeners of tetra- to octachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins). The equilibrium was attained within 24 h. Lipid-PDMS partition coefficients (Klip-PDMS) ranged from 20 to 38, were independent of hydrophobicity, and within the range of those previously measured for organochlorine compounds. To test if passive sampling can be combined with bioanalysis without the need for chemical cleanup, spiked blubber-PDMS extracts were dosed into the CAFLUX bioassay, which specifically targets dioxin-like chemicals. Small quantities of lipids coextracted by the PDMS were found to affect the kinetics in the regularly applied 24-h bioassay; however, this effect was eliminated by a longer exposure period (72 h). The validated method was applied to 11 unspiked dugong blubber samples with known (native) dioxin concentrations. These results provide the first proof of concept for linking passive sampling of lipid-rich tissue with cell-based bioassays, and could be further extended to other lipid rich species and a wider range of bioanalytical end points.

  4. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  5. Sample Limited Characterization of a Novel Disulfide-Rich Venom Peptide Toxin from Terebrid Marine Snail Terebra variegata

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Prachi; Grigoryan, Alexandre; Bhuiyan, Mohammed H.; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Russell, Victoria; Quinoñez, Jose; Moy, Patrick; Chait, Brian T.; Poget, Sébastien F.; Holford, Mandë

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide-rich peptide toxins found in the secretions of venomous organisms such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, leeches, and marine snails are highly efficient and effective tools for novel therapeutic drug development. Venom peptide toxins have been used extensively to characterize ion channels in the nervous system and platelet aggregation in haemostatic systems. A significant hurdle in characterizing disulfide-rich peptide toxins from venomous animals is obtaining significant quantities needed for sequence and structural analyses. Presented here is a strategy for the structural characterization of venom peptide toxins from sample limited (4 ng) specimens via direct mass spectrometry sequencing, chemical synthesis and NMR structure elucidation. Using this integrated approach, venom peptide Tv1 from Terebra variegata was discovered. Tv1 displays a unique fold not witnessed in prior snail neuropeptides. The novel structural features found for Tv1 suggest that the terebrid pool of peptide toxins may target different neuronal agents with varying specificities compared to previously characterized snail neuropeptides. PMID:24713808

  6. As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb pressurized liquid extraction with acetic acid from marine sediment and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2006-12-01

    Rapid leaching procedures by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) have been developed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb leaching from environmental matrices (marine sediment and soil samples). The Pressurized Liquid Extraction is completed after 16 min. The released elements by acetic acid Pressurized Liquid Extraction have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The optimum multi-element leaching conditions when using 5.0 ml stainless steel extraction cells, were: acetic acid concentration 8.0 M, extraction temperature 100 °C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 5 min, flush solvent 60%, two extraction steps and 0.50 g of diatomaceous earth as dispersing agent (diatomaceous earth mass/sample mass ratio of 2). Results have showed that high acetic acid concentrations and high extraction temperatures increase the metal leaching efficiency. Limits of detection (between 0.12 and 0.5 μg g - 1 ) and repeatability of the over-all procedure (around 6.0%) were assessed. Finally, accuracy was studied by analyzing PACS-2 (marine sediment), GBW-07409 (soil), IRANT-12-1-07 (cambisol soil) and IRANT-12-1-08 (luvisol soil) certified reference materials (CRMs). These certified reference materials offer certified concentrations ranges between 2.9 and 26.2 μg g - 1 for As, from 0.068 to 2.85 μg g - 1 for Cd, between 26.4 and 90.7 μg g - 1 for Cr, from 9.3 to 40.0 μg g - 1 for Ni and between 16.3 and 183.0 μg g - 1 for Pb. Recoveries after analysis were between 95.7 and 105.1% for As, 96.2% for Cd, 95.2 and 100.6% for Cr, 95.7 and 103% for Ni and 94.2 and 105.5% for Pb.

  7. The Spatial Dimension: A New Reservoir and Recreational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecock, Richard D.

    1974-01-01

    An initial effort to estimate the nature and extent of a new reservoir's impact upon the recreational behavior of a sample population living in the surrounding area (Keystone Reservoir, Oklahoma) is described. (NQ)

  8. Detection and risk assessment of diarrheagenic E. coli in recreational beaches of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vanessa F V; Rivera, Irma N G; Lim, Keah-Ying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-08-15

    Marine beaches are important recreational and economic resources in Brazil, but the beaches' water quality is negatively impacted by the discharge of domestic sewage effluent. The occurrence of diarrheagenic Escherichiacoli among the E. coli isolated from three Brazilian marine beaches was investigated. Multiplex and single step PCR were used to screen 99 E. coli isolates for ten target toxin genes. Six toxin genes, stx1, eae, estp, esth, astA, and bfpA, were identified in 1% to 35% of the isolates. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of human exposure to diarrheagenic E. coli during marine recreation was carried out. The results indicated that the diarrheagenic E. coli risk is well below the U.S. EPA's recommended daily recreational risk benchmark. However, the overall recreational health risk due to all pathogens in the water could be much higher and exceeded the U.S. EPA's benchmark.

  9. Toxicological evaluation of sediment samples spiked with human pharmaceutical products: Energy status and neuroendocrine effects in marine polychaetes Hediste diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Maranho, L A; André, C; DelValls, T A; Gagné, F; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2015-08-01

    There is a lack of studies about the ecotoxicology of pharmaceutical products on marine environment. To predict possible adverse effects of pharmaceutical products on benthic biota, polychaetes Hediste diversicolor were exposed for 14-days to pharmaceutical-spiked sediments under laboratory conditions. Carbamazepine (CBZ), ibuprofen (IBP) and propranolol (PRO) at concentrations of 500ngg(-1), 50ngg(-1), 5ngg(-1), 0.5ngg(-1) and 0.05ngg(-1), fluoxetine (FX) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) at concentrations of 100ngg(-1), 10ngg(-1), 1ngg(-1), 0.1ngg(-1) and 0.01ngg(-1), including environmental concentrations (underlined), were spiked in marine sediment samples. After the exposure, cellular energy status (total lipids content - TLP; and mitochondrial electron transport activity - MET), metabolism of monoamines (monoamine oxidase activity - MAO) and inflammation properties (cyclooxygenase activity - COX) were observed in polychaetes. CBZ increased TLP content and MET activity, and decreased MAO activity in polychaetes. IBP did not interfere on the TLP level, but on the MET and MAO activities (environmental concentrations). FX did not cause changes in the energy status. Therefore, environmental concentration diminished MAO activity. EE2 did not affect the energy status, however, MAO activity was significantly lower in polychaetes exposed to environmental concentration. PRO increased TLP level in polychaetes, but not MET activity. MAO activity was significantly lower for polychaetes exposed to environmental concentration. Except FX, all pharmaceuticals showed anti-inflammatory properties confirmed by the decrease of COX activity. Pharmaceutical products affected H. diversicolor physiology and health. As a benthic top predator, adverse effects on sea-worms can potentially culminate in ecosystem perturbations.

  10. A procedure for separate recovery of extra- and intracellular DNA from a single marine sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Alawi, Mashal; Schneider, Beate; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a ubiquitous biological compound in aquatic sediment and soil. Previous studies suggested that eDNA plays an important role in biogeochemical element cycling, horizontal gene transfer and stabilization of biofilm structures. Previous methods for eDNA extraction were either not suitable for oligotrophic sediments or only allowed quantification but no genetic analyses. Our procedure is based on cell detachment and eDNA liberation from sediment particles by sequential washing with an alkaline sodium phosphate buffer followed by a separation of cells and eDNA. The separated eDNA is then bound onto silica particles and purified, whereas the intracellular DNA from the separated cells is extracted using a commercial kit. The method provides extra- and intracellular DNA of high purity that is suitable for downstream applications like PCR. Extracellular DNA was extracted from organic-rich shallow sediment of the Baltic Sea, glacially influenced sediment of the Barents Sea and from the oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre. The eDNA concentration in these samples varied from 23 to 626ngg(-1) wet weight sediment. A number of experiments were performed to verify each processing step. Although extraction efficiency is higher than other published methods, it is not fully quantitative.

  11. Comparison of Multi-Drug Resistant Environmental Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Recreational Beaches and High Touch Surfaces in Built Environments.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marilyn C; Soge, Olusegun O; No, David

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major cause of disease in the general population with no health care exposure or known classical risk factors for MRSA infections. The potential community reservoirs have not been well defined though certain strains such as ST398 and USA300 have been well studied in some settings. MRSA has been isolated from recreational beaches, high-touch surfaces in homes, universities, and other community environmental surfaces. However, in most cases the strains were not characterized to determine if they are related to community-acquired or hospital-acquired clinical strains. We compared 55 environmental MRSA from 805 samples including sand, fresh, and marine water samples from local marine and fresh water recreational beaches (n = 296), high touch surfaces on the University of Washington campus (n = 294), surfaces in UW undergraduate housing (n = 85), and the local community (n = 130). Eleven USA300, representing 20% of the isolates, were found on the UW campus surfaces, student housing surfaces, and on the community surfaces but not in the recreational beach samples from the Northwest USA. Similarly, the predominant animal ST133 was found in the recreational beach samples but not in the high touch surface samples. All USA300 isolates were multi-drug resistant carrying two to six different antibiotic resistance genes coding for kanamycin, macrolides and/or macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B, and tetracycline, with the majority (72%) carrying four to six different antibiotic resistance genes. A surprising 98% of the 55 MRSA isolates were resistant to other classes of antibiotics and most likely represent reservoirs for these genes in the environment.

  12. 36 CFR 2.23 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation fees. 2.23 Section... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.23 Recreation fees. (a) Recreation fees shall be established as... sites, facilities, equipment or services, or participating in group activities, recreation events,...

  13. 36 CFR 1002.23 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreation fees. 1002.23... RECREATION § 1002.23 Recreation fees. (a) Recreation fees shall be charged in the area administered by the Presidio Trust to the same extent that recreation fees have been established for the Golden Gate...

  14. 36 CFR 1002.23 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation fees. 1002.23... RECREATION § 1002.23 Recreation fees. (a) Recreation fees shall be charged in the area administered by the Presidio Trust to the same extent that recreation fees have been established for the Golden Gate...

  15. 36 CFR 2.23 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreation fees. 2.23 Section... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.23 Recreation fees. (a) Recreation fees shall be established as... sites, facilities, equipment or services, or participating in group activities, recreation events,...

  16. From Recreational Mathematics to Recreational Programming, and Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz Jimenez, B. C.; Ruiz Munoz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recreational Programming (RecPro) is the discipline that encourages the study of computer programming through ludic problems. Problems that are typically studied within this discipline are similar to those of Recreational Mathematics (RecMat), which sometimes leads to the confusion of these two disciplines. The objective for RecPro is to write…

  17. Characterization of mucilage aggregates in Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea: structure similarities between mucilage samples and the insoluble fractions of marine humic substance.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, M; Acquistucci, R; Di Noto, V; Pietrantonio, E; Amici, M; Cardarilli, D

    2001-08-01

    The appearance of gelatinous aggregates called mucilages causes serious damages to tourism and fishery industries of the Adriatic Sea. So, many studies have been planned and some of them are still in progress to clarify the origin and causes of the phenomenon. The scientific research has showed that mucilages are produced by several marine organisms when peculiar climatic and trophic conditions occur. Moreover, as far as the mucilage composition is concerned, although it is well known that polysaccharides give a high contribution, knowledge of the structural characteristics of mucilages and their relationship with the natural organic matter of the marine environment has not been clarified yet. In this paper a study on the characterization of the marine mucilage samples collected in the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas is described. The study was performed by spectroscopic (infrared and colorimetric) techniques, and elemental analysis. The results showed that mucilage samples have chemical and structural similarities with the insoluble fraction of the marine humic substance (humin). According to experimental evidences it is possible to establish the relationship between mucilages and the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the marine environment in order to identify the most likely pathways of mucilage formation.

  18. One-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of the Sexually Transmitted Disease/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Intervention Program in a Marine Corps Sample

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    programs, most of them have focused on civilian populations. There is a clear need to develop and evaluated sexually transmitted diseases ( STD )/HIV...known as the STD /HIV Intervention Program (SHIP) would have a sustained positive impact on the behavior of a sample of Marines. A 1-year follow-up

  19. Assessing the Value of Recreational Divers for Censusing Elasmobranchs

    PubMed Central

    Ward-Paige, Christine A.; Lotze, Heike K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Around the world, researchers are using the observations and experiences of citizens to describe patterns in animal populations. This data is often collected via ongoing sampling or by synthesizing past experiences. Since elasmobranchs are relatively rare, obtaining data for broad-scale trend analysis requires high sampling effort. Elasmobranchs are also relatively large and conspicuous and therefore it may be possible to enlist recreational divers to collect data on their occurrence and relative abundance from daily dive activities. For this, however, a good understanding of the value of data collected by recreational divers is essential. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we explore the value of recreational divers for censusing elasmobranchs using a diverse set of data sources. First, we use a simulation experiment to explore detection rates of the roving diver technique, used by recreational divers, across a range of fish densities and speeds. Next, using a field survey, we show that inexperienced recreational divers detect and count elasmobranchs as well as experienced recreational divers. Finally, we use semi-structured interviews of recreational dive instructors to demonstrate the value of their recollections in terms of effort and their descriptions of spatial and temporal distributions of sharks in Thailand. Conclusions/Significance Overall, this study provides initial ground-work for using recreational divers for monitoring elasmobranch populations. If used appropriately, citizen-collected data may provide additional information that can be used to complement more standardized surveys and to describe population trends across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Due to the non-extractive nature of this data, recreational divers may also provide important insight into the success of conservation initiatives, such as shark sanctuaries and no-take zones. PMID:22016771

  20. The Evolution of Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Bob; Skalko, Thomas K.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews elements that impact the delivery of therapeutic recreation services, emphasizing elements that are external to the discipline and influence practice and elements that are internal to the discipline and must be addressed if therapeutic recreation is to continue its evolution as a competitive health and human service discipline.…

  1. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  2. Pioneers in Leisure and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

    This book consists of brief biographies of people who have contributed to the field of leisure and recreation. The 26 pioneers chronicled span over two thousand years and cross many cultures. Some are theorists, others are practitioners, but all of them left their imprint on the leisure and recreation field. Arranged sequentially by dates, the…

  3. Leisure and Recreation Behavior Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Otto; And Others

    The Leisure and Recreation Behavior Evaluation (LRBE) measure is intended for use by direct care staff of mentally handicapped adults. The LRBE evaluates an individual's level of independence for a leisure or recreation behavior on a 4-point rating scale for 30 aspects divided into six major categories: (1) the activity, (2) preparation and…

  4. Recreational Services for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by Recreational Services for the Handicapped (Baltimore, Maryland) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer, client…

  5. Perceived Dangerousness of Recreational Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce, Terrence S.; Merrel, Judy C.

    1995-01-01

    In this study both college students and degreed nurses were asked to estimate the abuse potential and lethality of recreational drugs, both licit and illicit. Findings indicate that the illicit drugs under consideration were perceived as presenting the greatest danger to the user. Dangers attributed to the use of licit recreational drugs were…

  6. Bacillus toyonensis strain AEMREG6, a bacterium isolated from South African marine environment sediment samples produces a glycoprotein bioflocculant.

    PubMed

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-03-23

    A bioflocculant-producing bacteria, isolated from sediment samples of a marine environment in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa demonstrated a flocculating activity above 60% for kaolin clay suspension. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) nucleotide sequence of the isolate in the GenBank database showed 99% similarity to Bacillus toyonensis strain BCT-7112 and it was deposited in the GenBank as Bacillus toyonensis strain AEMREG6 with accession number KP406731. The bacteria produced a bioflocculant (REG-6) optimally in the presence of glucose and NH4NO3 as the sole carbon and nitrogen source, respectively, initial medium pH of 5 and Ca2+ as the cation of choice. Chemical analysis showed that purified REG-6 was a glycoprotein mainly composed of polysaccharide (77.8%) and protein (11.5%). It was thermally stable and had strong flocculating activity against kaolin suspension over a wide range of pH values (3-11) with a relatively low dosage requirement of 0.1 mg/mL in the presence of Mn2+. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amide groups preferred for flocculation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that bridging was the main flocculation mechanism of REG-6. The outstanding flocculating performance of REG-6 holds great potential to replace the hazardous chemical flocculants currently used in water treatment.

  7. A GC/ECNI-MS method for the identification of lipophilic anthropogenic and natural brominated compounds in marine samples.

    PubMed

    Vetter, W

    2001-10-15

    GC/ECNI-MS in both the full scan and selected ion monitoring modes was applied to study the patterns of brominated compounds in the blubber of marine mammals from a variety of locations. The adipose tissue of one polar bear was also studied. Occurrence of three major residues originating from the use of brominated flame-retardants (PBDE 47, 99, and 100) and several potential naturally occurring brominated compounds was studied in the samples. A series of three major natural brominated compounds (BC-1, BC-2, BC-3) recently identified in dolphins from Australia was included in this study. Two further brominated compounds, BC-10 and BC-11, were studied for the first time. ECNI-MS full scan spectra were obtained for BC-3 and BC-10. A natural mixed halogenated compound (MHC-1) and an unknown brominated compound (UBC-1) were investigated as well. Evidence for the natural production of these secondary metabolites and their bioaccumulation in higher organisms as well as analytical protocols for their detection in the environment are presented. Some of these naturally occurring compounds may be misinterpreted as anthropogenic brominated compounds. In ECNI-MS, brominated compounds are usually identified by the detection of the fragment ions m/z 79 ([79Br]-) and m/z 81 ([81Br]-). In this work, it is shown that monitoring of additional ion traces corresponding to [Br2]- (160 type), [HBr2]- (161 type), [BrCl]- (116 type), and [HBrCl]- (117 type) fragment ions allows distinguishing between different classes of brominated compounds. This technique was used to demonstrate that UBC-1 is neither a PBDE nor a PBB congener, whereas a second mixed halogenated compound (MHC-2) was identified as a result of the ECNI-MS response at m/z 114/116. Studies on blubber extracts of marine mammals from four continents resulted in the detection of significant differences in the global distribution of brominated compounds. Our results suggest that naturally occurring organobromines are more

  8. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack; Tim Francis; Peter Schultheiss; Philip E. Long; Barry M. Freifeld

    2005-04-01

    The primary activities accomplished during this quarter were continued efforts to develop plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the evolving operational planning for IODP Expedition 311, which will use the JOIDES Resolution to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, offshore Vancouver Island. IODP Expedition 311 has been designed to further constrain the models for the formation of marine gas hydrate in subduction zone accretionary prisms. The objectives include characterizing the deep origin of the methane, its upward transport, its incorporation in gas hydrate, and its subsequent loss to the seafloor. The main attention of this expedition is on the widespread seafloor-parallel layer of dispersed gas hydrate located just above the base of the predicted stability field. In a gas hydrate formation model, methane is carried upward through regional sediment or small-scale fracture permeability, driven by the tectonic consolidation of the accretionary prism. The upward moving methane is incorporated into the gas hydrate clathrate as it enters the methane hydrate stability zone. Also important is the focusing of a portion of the upward methane flux into localized plumes or channels to form concentrations of near-seafloor gas hydrate. The amount of gas hydrate in local concentrations near the seafloor is especially important for understanding the response of marine gas hydrate to climate change. The expedition includes coring and downhole measurements at five sites across the Northern Cascadia accretionary prism. The sites will track the history of methane in an accretionary prism from (1) its production by mainly microbiological processes over a thick sediment vertical extent, (2) its upward transport through regional or locally focused fluid flow, (3) its incorporation in the regional hydrate layer above the BSR or in local concentrations at or near the seafloor, (4) methane loss from the hydrate by upward diffusion, and (5) methane

  9. Intravascular haemolysis in the recreational runner.

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, R W

    1991-01-01

    Intravascular haemolysis has been found to result from prolonged endurance competition, rigorous military training and participation in impact sports. Haematological research involving the recreational runner is sparse. Recreational runners frequently vary their training to avoid monotony and improve endurance capacity. This study investigated the haematological effects of a typical day of increased distance training in 15 male recreational runners (62.4(3.1) ml kg-1 min-1 treadmill VO2max; 44.6(8.4) km per week training (means(s.d.)). Venous blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 1 day, 4 days, and 10 days after a 13-km training run (about twice the subjects' typical running distance) and analysed for changes in bilirubin, serum potassium, haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, haptoglobin, poikilocytosis and reticulocytosis. Urine samples were collected at the same times as the blood samples and analysed for urobilinogen. Significant (P less than 0.05) 1-day and 4-day decreases in mean haemoglobin, red blood cell count, and haptoglobin values, compared to before training venous blood values and significant (P less than 0.05) post-training increases in bilirubin, serum potassium, urobilinogen and poikilocytosis provided evidence for increased intravascular haemolysis. After 10 days the values for haematocrit, bilirubin, serum potassium, red blood cell count, urobilinogen and poikilocytosis were not significantly (P less than 0.05) different from pre-training values while haemoglobin remained significantly (P less than 0.05) lower, exhibiting a constant but not significant increase over the period from 1 to 10 days. The results indicate that mild intravascular 'footstrike' haemolysis can occur in the recreational runner when typical training distance is increased. This condition appears to be transient and benign. PMID:1810610

  10. Banking of environmental samples for short-term biochemical and chemical monitoring of organic contamination in coastal marine environments: the GICBEM experience (1986-1990). Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes, Marins.

    PubMed

    Garrigues, P; Narbonne, J F; Lafaurie, M; Ribera, D; Lemaire, P; Raoux, C; Michel, X; Salaun, J P; Monod, J L; Romeo, M

    1993-11-01

    The GICBEM (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes Marins) program consists of an evaluation of the ecosystem health status in the Mediterranean Sea mainly based on chemical and biochemical approaches. Specific chemical contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), heavy metals) in waters, sediments, and related biotransformation indicators in target organisms (mussels, fish) have been selected for a complete survey of the coastal waters. In order to provide an appropriate sampling program for standardization for each sampling cruise, various aspects have been studied: (a) parameters for the choice of the sample sites; (b) ways of collection the samples (waters, sediments, marine organisms); and (c) preparation of the samples for a short term storage on board ship and for further analyses in the ground laboratory. Methods of preparation and storage of the samples are described and could be used to initiate an environmental banking program including both possible retrospective analyses of chemical pollutants and biochemical indicators. Moreover, the correlation between chemicals (PAH) and biochemical (mixed function oxygenase activities) parameters has been studied and this demonstrates the capability of the enzyme activities as reliable pollution biomarkers.

  11. Acute Gastroenteritis and Recreational Water: Highest Burden ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    OBJECT I VES : To provide summary estimates of gastroenteritis risks and illness burden associated with recreational water exposure and determine whether children have higher risks and burden.METHODS: We combined individual participant data from 13 prospective cohorts at marine and freshwater beaches throughout the United States (n = 84 411). We measured incident outcomes within 10 days of exposure: diarrhea, gastrointestinal illness, missed daily activity (work, school, vacation), and medical visits. We estimated the relationship between outcomes and 2 exposures: body immersion swimming and Enterococcus spp. fecal indicator bacteria levels in the water. We also estimated the population-attributable risk associated with these exposures.RESULTS: Water exposure accounted for 21% of diarrhea episodes and 9% of missed daily activities but was unassociated with gastroenteritis leading to medical consultation. Children aged 0 to 4 and 5 to 10 years had the most water exposure, exhibited stronger associations between levels of water quality and illness, and accounted for the largest attributable illness burden.CONCLUSIONS: The higher gastroenteritis risk and associated burden in young children presents important new information to inform future recreational water quality guidelines designed to protect public health. Meta-analysis of 13 beach sites and nearly 90,000 subjects found that swimming at the beach increased diarrhea incidence and individuals who swam in water

  12. Therapeutic Recreation and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    1993-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation is a means of empowering individuals with disabilities through arts or sports. The field has developed differently in the United States and the United Kingdom; the former emphasizes professionalization and the latter the right to adult education. (SK)

  13. Recreational Reading for Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangieri, John N.; Isaacs, Carolyn W.

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography lists approximately 100 works (1974-82) of fiction, biography, poetry, fantasy/science fiction, picture books, and mystery/adventure for gifted elementary children's recreational reading. Citations include information on author, approximate grade level, and publisher. (CL)

  14. 18 CFR 801.10 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recreation. 801.10... POLICIES § 801.10 Recreation. (a) The use of surface water resources of the basin for recreation purposes... private agencies in the planning and development of water-related recreation and fish and...

  15. 78 FR 4120 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Recreation Resource Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to re-establish the Recreation Resource Advisory Committees... Recreation Resource Advisory Committees (Recreation RACs) pursuant to Section 4 of the Federal...

  16. 18 CFR 801.10 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recreation. 801.10... POLICIES § 801.10 Recreation. (a) The use of surface water resources of the basin for recreation purposes... private agencies in the planning and development of water-related recreation and fish and...

  17. A Youth Perspective on Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardin, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Arizona Outdoor Recreation Coordinating Commission and Arizona State Parks Board conducted a survey of students in grades 4-12 to gather information on their recreation needs and desires. Results provided recreation planners and providers with a profile of the young outdoor recreation customer to help them develop the most appropriate…

  18. 75 FR 77615 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council and Extension of Application Deadline AGENCY: Office of... Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Honolulu County (primary only), Research (alternate only), Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation, Business/ Commerce,...

  19. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in marine sediment samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) and direct solid sample analysis has been developed. The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows to eliminate the drying and pretreatment steps, however makes impossible the use of liquid standards for calibration. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study. Calibration technique based on the use of solid certified reference materials (marine sediments) similar to the nature of the analyzed sample and statistics of regression analysis were applied to the real sediment samples. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signals. The ISO-17025 requirements and Eurachem guidelines were followed in the validation of the proposed analytical procedure. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration, linearity, working range, trueness, repeatability reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for all investigated elements were assessed. Two different approaches for the estimation of measurement uncertainty were applied and obtained results compared. The major contributors to the combined uncertainty of the analyte mass fraction were found to be the homogeneity of the samples and the microbalance precision. The influence of sample particle sizes on the total combined uncertainty was also evaluated. Traceability to SI system of units of the obtained by the proposed analytical procedure results was demonstrated. Additionally, validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison of the obtained results with independent method e.g. ICP-MS with external calibration. The use of solid sampling HR CS AAS for the determination of trace elements in marine sediment matrix gives significant advantages

  20. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  1. Biscayne bay: A bibliography of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.K.

    1993-04-01

    The history of Miami and Biscayne Bay are intimately related. In addition to food, industry, transportation and recreation, the Bay provides a constant source of aesthetic satisfaction for those who live and work along its shores. Information on the marine environment of Biscayne Bay includes pollution, monitoring, conservation and protection, coastal and resource management, artificial reefs, fishery assessments, park and marina construction, estuarine dynamics, and sampling. This bibliographic database containing over 1,700 entries was compiled using PROCITE software, produced by Personal Bibliographic Software, Inc.

  2. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Frank; Schultheiss, Peter

    2005-12-31

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were the implementation of a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 using the R/V JOIDES Resolution and the deployment of all required equipment and personnel to provide the required services during this expedition. IODP Expedition 311 shipboard activities on the JOIDES Resolution began on August 28 and were concluded on October 28, 2005. New ODP Pressure Coring System (PCS) aluminum autoclave chambers were fabricated prior to the expedition. During the expedition, 16 PCS autoclaves containing pressure cores were X-rayed before and after depressurization using a modified Geotek MSCL-P (multi-sensor core logger-pressure) system. These PCS cores were density scanned using the MSCL-V (multi-sensor core logger-vertical) during depressurization to monitor gas evolution. The MSCL-V was set up in a 20-foot-long refrigerated container provided by Texas A&M University through the JOI contract with TAMRF. IODP Expedition 311 was the first time that PCS cores were examined before (using X-ray), during (using MSCL-V gamma density) and after (using X-ray) degassing to determine the actual volume and distribution of sediment and gas hydrate in the pressurized core, which will be important for more accurate determination of mass balances between sediment, gas, gas hydrate, and fluids in the samples collected. Geotek, Ltd was awarded a contract by JOI to provide equipment and personnel to perform pressure coring and related work on IODP Expedition 311 (Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates). Geotek, Ltd. provided an automated track for use with JOI's infrared camera systems. Four auxiliary monitors showed infrared core images in real time to aid hydrate identification and sampling. Images were collected from 185 cores during the expedition and processed to

  3. Recreational water–related illness

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the risk factors, management, and prevention of recreational water–related illness in family practice. Sources of information Original and review articles from January 1998 to February 2012 were identified using PubMed and the search terms water-related illness, recreational water illness, and swimmer illness. Main message There is a 3% to 8% risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) after swimming. The high-risk groups for AGI are children younger than 5 years, especially if they have not been vaccinated for rotavirus, and elderly and immunocompromised patients. Children are at higher risk because they swallow more water when swimming, stay in the water longer, and play in the shallow water and sand, which are more contaminated. Participants in sports with a lot of water contact like triathlon and kite surfing are also at high risk, and even activities involving partial water contact like boating and fishing carry a 40% to 50% increase in risk of AGI compared with nonwater recreational activities. Stool cultures should be done when a recreational water illness is suspected, and the clinical dehydration scale is a useful clinical tool for assessing the treatment needs of affected children. Conclusion Recreational water illness is the main attributable cause of AGI during swimming season. Recognition that swimming is a substantial source of illness can help prevent recurrent and secondary cases. Rotavirus vaccine is highly recommended for children who will swim frequently. PMID:23673583

  4. The influence of family's participation in recreational sports on its resilience and communication facilitation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min-Soo

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to define the influence of the motive and degree of family's participation in recreational sports on its resilience and communication facilitation. Of members of sports centers in Seoul and Gyeonggi areas, 202 people who participated in recreational sports together with their family members were sampled as the population. Input data were computerized for analysis, using PASW 22.0 and AMOS 18.0 programs. Data statistical processing methods of reliability analysis and structural equation modeling were used, and the results are outlined as follows. Motive for family's participation in recreational sports did not influence family resilience and communication facilitation. However, the degree of family's participation in recreational sports influenced family resilience and communication facilitation. Degree of family's participation in recreational sports did not directly influence communication facilitation, but boosted family resilience, further facilitating family communication. In other words, family resilience is an important parameter between recreational sports and communication facilitation.

  5. Determination of selenium in marine biological tissues by transverse heated electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal Zeeman background correction and automated ultrasonic slurry sampling.

    PubMed

    Méndez, H; Alava, F; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C

    2001-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and reliable method for determination of selenium in marine biological tissues by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sampling was developed. Slurries were prepared from fresh and frozen seafood samples that were previously homogenized, dried, and ground; particle sizes <100 microm were taken for analysis. A 3% (v/v) HNO3 solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 was used as slurry diluent. Slurries were mixed on an automated ultrasonic slurry sampler at 20% amplitude for 30 s just before an aliquot was injected into the furnace. The method was successfully validated against the following certified reference materials: NRCC CRM DORM-2 (Dogfish muscle); NRCC CRM TORT-2 (Lobster hepatopancreas); NRCC CRM DOLT-2 (Dogfish liver); and BCR CRM 278 (Mussel tissue), and was subsequently applied to determination of Se in 10 marine biological samples. The influences of the drying procedure (oven-, microwave-, and freeze-drying), matrix modifier amount, mass of solid material in cup, and pipetting sequence are discussed. The limit of determination of Se was 0.16 microg/g and the repeatability, estimated as between-batch precision, was in the range of 4-8%. Se contents in the samples ranged from 0.6 to 2.8 microg/g. The proposed method should be useful for fast assessment of the daily dietary intake of Se.

  6. Are fecal indicator bacteria appropriate measures of recreational water risks in the tropics: A cohort study of beach goers in Brazil?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulating recreational water exposure to pathogens within the tropics is a major public health and economic concern. Although numerous epidemiological studies estimating the risk to recreational marine water exposure have been oonducted since the 1950s, few studies have been don...

  7. Therapeutic Recreation: Recreation with Purpose for Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Aubrey H.

    The paper examines the role of therapeutic recreation with disabled children. The underlying philosophy of the field is interpreted and its development from beginnings in World War II is reviewed. Three specific levels of services within a comprehensive model are delineated: therapy (to improve functional behavior through assessment, planning,…

  8. Concentration of Beryllium (Be) and Depleted Uranium (DU) in Marine Fauna and Sediment Samples from Illeginni and Boggerik Islands at Kwajalein Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R; Lindman, T R

    2005-02-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) personnel have supported US Air Force (USAF) ballistic missile flight tests for about 15 years for Peacekeeper and Minuteman missiles launched at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). Associated re-entry vehicles (RV's) re-enter at Regan Test Site (RTS) at the US Army base at Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) where LLNL has supported scoring, recovery operations for RV materials, and environmental assessments. As part of ongoing USAF ballistic missile flight test programs, LLNL is participating in an updated EA being written for flights originating at VFAB. Marine fauna and sediments (beach-sand samples) were collected by US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and LLNL at Illeginni Island and Boggerik Island (serving as a control site) at Kwajalein Atoll. Data on the concentration of DU (hereafter, U) and Be in collected samples was requested by USFWS and NMFS to determine whether or not U and Be in RV's entering the Illeginni area are increasing U and Be concentrations in marine fauna and sediments. LLNL agreed to do the analyses for U and Be in support of the EA process and provide a report of the results. There is no statistically significant difference in the concentration of U and Be in six species of marine fauna from Illeginni and Boggerik Islands (p - 0.14 for U and p = 0.34 for Be). Thus, there is no evidence that there has been any increase in U and Be concentrations in marine fauna as a result of the missile flight test program. Concentration of U in beach sand at Illeginni is the same as soil and beach sand in the rest of the Marshall Islands and again reflects an insignificant impact from the flight test program. Beach sand from Illeginni has a mean concentration of Be higher than that from the control site, Boggeik Island. Seven of 21 samples from Ileginni had detectable Be. Four samples had a concentration of Be ranging from 4 to 7 ng g {sup -1} (4 to 7 parts per billion (ppb

  9. Iron mineralogy and bioaccessibility of dust generated from soils as determined by reflectance spectroscopy and magnetic and chemical properties--Nellis Dunes recreational area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Morman, Suzette A.; Moskowitz, Bruce; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Flagg, Cody; Till, Jessica; Yauk, Kimberly; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust exerts many important effects on the Earth system, such as atmospheric temperatures, marine productivity, and melting of snow and ice. Mineral dust also can have detrimental effects on human health through respiration of very small particles and the leaching of metals in various organs. These effects can be better understood through characterization of the physical and chemical properties of dust, including certain iron oxide minerals, for their extraordinary radiative properties and possible effects on lung inflammation. Studies of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area near Las Vegas, Nevada, focus on characteristics of radiative properties (capacity of dust to absorb solar radiation), iron oxide mineral type and size, chemistry, and bioaccessibility of metals in fluids that simulate human gastric, lung, and phagolysosomal fluids. In samples of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area with median grain sizes of 2.4, 3.1, and 4.3 micrometers, the ferric oxide minerals goethite and hematite, at least some of it nanosized, were identified. In one sample, in vitro bioaccessibility experiments revealed high bioaccessibility of arsenic in all three biofluids and higher leachate concentration and bioaccessibility for copper, uranium, and vanadium in the simulated lung fluid than in the phagolysosomal fluid. The combination of methods used here to characterize mineral dust at the Nellis Dunes recreation area can be applied to global dust and broad issues of public health.

  10. Comparison of Enterococcus density estimates in marine beach and bay samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction, membrane filtration and defined substrate testing.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, James A; Tran, Hiep V; Cosgrove, Elizabeth; Protonentis, John; Loftin, Virginia; Conklin, Carol S; Grant, Robert N

    2011-05-01

    Currently, densities of Enterococcus in marine bathing beach samples are performed using conventional methods which require 24 h to obtain results. Real-time PCR methods are available which can measure results in as little as 3 h. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a more rapid test method for the determination of bacterial contamination in marine bathing beaches to better protect human health. The geometric mean of Enterococcus densities using Enterolert® defined substrate testing and membrane filtration ranged from 5.2 to 150 MPN or CFU/100mL and corresponding qPCR results ranged from 6.6 to 1785 CCE/100 mL. The regression analysis of these results showed a positive correlation between qPCR and conventional tests with an overall correlation (r) of 0.71. qPCR was found to provide accurate and sensitive estimate of Enterococcus densities and has the potential to be used as a rapid test method for the quantification of Enterococcus in marine waters.

  11. Corporate Benefits of Employee Recreation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Craig

    1984-01-01

    Employee recreation programs have been shown to reduce absenteeism, increase performance and productivity, reduce stress levels, and increase job satisfaction. Studies that present positive results of employee recreation are discussed. (DF)

  12. Recreation Services for Students with Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, John A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Several collegiate recreational programs reflect the rights that handicapped students have for recreational activities suitable for their needs and abilities. Substantial efforts are being made to provide these disabled students with full access and equal opportunity on the campus. (CJ)

  13. 76 FR 55079 - Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... received recommendations from the National Boating Safety Advisory Council (NBSAC) regarding potential ways to improve the recreational boating accident reporting process. NBSAC recommended that the...

  14. Connecting Collegiate Recreation and Athletics to Leadership.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Cara W; Stenta, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    Collegiate recreation and intercollegiate athletics have an impact on individual, group, and community development of students who are participants, employees, and athletes and learn leadership within these environments. This chapter explores and applies leadership frameworks in recreation and athletics.

  15. Recreational Games for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Recreational games can be incorporated into physical education programs to encourage play and activity among students during their leisure time. Students can play their own games during recess, before or after school, during intramural programs, or in their neighborhood with family and friends. This article describes five such games namely:…

  16. Aquatic Recreation for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordellos, Harry C.

    The sixth in a series of booklets on physical education and recreation for the handicapped describes aquatic activities for blind persons. Written by a partially sighted athlete, the document discusses swimming pool characteristics and special pools for the visually impaired. Qualities of swimming instructors are reviewed, and suggestions for…

  17. Therapeutic Recreation Education: 1999 Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen C.; Ashton-Shaeffer, Candace; Autry, Cari E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the current status of therapeutic recreation education, documenting changes have that occurred over 30 years. Using data from surveys conducted every 10 years beginning in 1969, the study provides information on trends in programs, faculty, students, curriculum accreditation, and professional certification in programs in the United States…

  18. Therapeutic Recreation Majors' Work Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Elizabeth H.; Magafas, Anita

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the client age/disability work preference of 76 therapeutic recreation undergraduate students at 3 universities. Results indicate a preference to work with younger clients, disability groups, and physically impaired clients. Chronically ill clients were last in work preference. Students need exposure to the benefits of working with…

  19. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  20. Recreational Reading: 20 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Mangieri, John N.

    2002-01-01

    Determines elementary teachers' knowledge of: current children's literature; children's books in six literary genres; and activities to promote students' recreational reading. Replicates a 1981 study to determine the level of knowledge possessed by today's teachers concerning children's literature and methods of increasing students' reading for…

  1. Water Recreation and Illness Severity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: The health endpoint of prior studies of water recreation has been the occurrence gastrointestinal (GI) of illness. The use of this dichotomous health outcome fails to take into account the range of symptom severity among those with GI illness, as well as thos...

  2. Haptic Recreation of Elbow Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Damiano, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a haptic device capable of presenting standardized recreation of elbow spasticity. Using the haptic device, clinicians will be able to repeatedly practice the assessment of spasticity without requiring patient involvement, and these practice opportunities will help improve accuracy and reliability of the assessment itself. Haptic elbow spasticity simulator (HESS) was designed and prototyped according to mechanical requirements to recreate the feel of elbow spasticity. Based on the data collected from subjects with elbow spasticity, a mathematical model representing elbow spasticity is proposed. As an attempt to differentiate the feel of each score in Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), parameters of the model were obtained respectively for three different MAS scores 1, 1+, and 2. The implemented haptic recreation was evaluated by experienced clinicians who were asked to give MAS scores by manipulating the haptic device. The clinicians who participated in the study were blinded to each other’s scores and to the given models. They distinguished the three models and the MAS scores given to the recreated models matched 100% with the original MAS scores from the patients. PMID:22275660

  3. Heel Pain in Recreational Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzoli, Allan S.; Pollina, Frank S.

    1989-01-01

    Provides physicians with the signs, symptoms, and management of heel/sole pain in recreational runners (usually due to plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinitis, and calcaneal stress fractures). Remedies involve palliative treatment of symptoms, correction of underlying biomechanical problems, and flexibility exercises. (SM)

  4. Our New Challenge: Recreation for the Deaf-Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Steve A., Ed.

    Presented are 20 papers delivered at the 1975 Northwest Regional Conference on Recreation for the Deaf-Blind. Included are papers on the following topics (with sample papers in parentheses): national trends; interdisciplinary considerations ("Movement and Physical Activity: the Foundation for the Most Important R" by J. Stein); community…

  5. The Role of Sports in Kindergarten Teachers' Recreational Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the sports in the recreational habits of kindergarten teachers. The survey population comprises kindergarten teachers who are employed in the province of Gaziantep. The sample constitutes a total of 378 kindergarten teachers determined by circumstantial method. The survey developed by Tunçel was…

  6. Examining Participation of University Students in Recreational Entertainment Marketing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pala, Adem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine participation of university students in recreational entertainment marketing activities. The survey population consisted of university student in Marmara University Province of Istanbul. The sample constituted a total of 272 students (150 male and 122 female), determined by circumstantial method. The survey…

  7. 77 FR 24669 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Public Conference Call Regarding Recreational Yellowfin Tuna...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Species; Public Conference Call Regarding Recreational Yellowfin Tuna Fishery Data Collection AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... conference call that is open to the public will be held to discuss historical and future data collection...

  8. 78 FR 30779 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XC672 Snapper-Grouper Fishery of... Grouper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...) for the recreational sector of snowy grouper in the South Atlantic for the 2013 fishing year...

  9. 75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY31 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12...-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel 16 VHF-FM...

  10. 75 FR 54791 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY08 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 9..., and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel 16 VHF-FM and 2182...

  11. Acute Gastroenteritis and Recreational Water: Highest Burden Among Young US Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    OBJECT I VES : To provide summary estimates of gastroenteritis risks and illness burden associated with recreational water exposure and determine whether children have higher risks and burden.METHODS: We combined individual participant data from 13 prospective cohorts at marine a...

  12. 43 CFR 17.270 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operation of programs or activities involving recreation. (a) Accessibility in existing recreation facilities. In the case of existing recreation facilities, accessibility of programs or activities shall mean accessibility of programs or activities when viewed in their entirety as provided at § 17.217. When it is...

  13. Recreation for Autistic and Emotionally Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Margaret A.

    Over 200 questionnaire responses from parents of autistic children describing recreational activities that appealed to their children are reported. Recreation is defined as a means of skill development, an outlet for emotions, and an inspiration for living. Parents are encouraged to stimulate recreational interests by taking children along on…

  14. Recreation Vehicle Mechanic. Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ann; Embree, Rick

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a recreation vehicle mechanic, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as recreation vehicle technician and recreation vehicle service technician. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and…

  15. 24 CFR 1710.214 - Recreational facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recreational facilities. 1710.214... § 1710.214 Recreational facilities. (a) Submit a synopsis of the proposed plans and estimated cost of any proposed or partially constructed recreational facility disclosed in § 1710.114. This item should...

  16. 43 CFR 17.270 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreation. 17.270 Section 17.270 Public... OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.270 Recreation... operation of programs or activities involving recreation. (a) Accessibility in existing...

  17. 36 CFR 261.17 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation fees. 261.17 Section 261.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.17 Recreation fees. Failure to pay any recreation fee is...

  18. 36 CFR 294.1 - Recreation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreation areas. 294.1... Miscellaneous Provisions § 294.1 Recreation areas. Suitable areas of national forest land, other than wilderness or wild areas, which should be managed principally for recreation use may be given...

  19. 36 CFR 261.17 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreation fees. 261.17 Section 261.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.17 Recreation fees. Failure to pay any recreation fee is...

  20. 28 CFR 551.115 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation. 551.115 Section 551.115... Pretrial Inmates § 551.115 Recreation. (a) When consistent with institution security and good order... opportunities: (1) One hour daily of outside recreation, weather permitting; or (2) Two hours daily of...

  1. 28 CFR 551.115 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreation. 551.115 Section 551.115... Pretrial Inmates § 551.115 Recreation. (a) When consistent with institution security and good order... opportunities: (1) One hour daily of outside recreation, weather permitting; or (2) Two hours daily of...

  2. 43 CFR 17.270 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreation. 17.270 Section 17.270 Public... OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.270 Recreation... operation of programs or activities involving recreation. (a) Accessibility in existing...

  3. Keep Mental Health by Art Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Gongbin

    A distinct characteristic of the technology age is that people have more leisure time while the ways of recreation are getting more material and unified. Each step-up of technology has been fully used to produce more sensory attractive and lower unit-cost recreation products. In contrast, art recreation always means being highly devoted, creative,…

  4. 36 CFR 12.11 - Recreational activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreational activities. 12.11 Section 12.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL CEMETERY REGULATIONS § 12.11 Recreational activities. Engaging in a recreational...

  5. [Recreation for Youth with Deaf Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Theresa, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter special issue focuses on recreational programming for people with deaf blindness. The following individual articles are presented: "Strategies To Promote Community Integrated Recreation: Guidelines for Leisure Coaches" by Joann Enos (which lists seven such strategies); "Assessing Recreation and Leisure…

  6. Large Indoor Sports and Recreation Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidler, Todd

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of field houses, stadiums, arenas, and campus recreation centers. All are large indoor sports or recreation facilities. In general, stadiums and arenas are spectator facilities while field houses and campus recreation centers are primarily designed for activity. A college field house is a structure that…

  7. Molecular detection of native and invasive marine invertebrate larvae present in ballast and open water environmental samples collected in Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.B.J.; Hoy, M.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native marine species have been and continue to be introduced into Puget Sound via several vectors including ship's ballast water. Some non-native species become invasive and negatively impact native species or near shore habitats. We present a new methodology for the development and testing of taxon specific PCR primers designed to assess environmental samples of ocean water for the presence of native and non-native bivalves, crustaceans and algae. The intergenic spacer regions (IGS; ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for adult samples of each taxon studied. We used these data along with those available in Genbank to design taxon and group specific primers and tested their stringency against artificial populations of plasmid constructs containing the entire IGS region for each of the 25 taxa in our study, respectively. Taxon and group specific primer sets were then used to detect the presence or absence of native and non-native planktonic life-history stages (propagules) from environmental samples of ballast water and plankton tow net samples collected in Puget Sound. This methodology provides an inexpensive and efficient way to test the discriminatory ability of taxon specific oligonucleotides (PCR primers) before creating molecular probes or beacons for use in molecular ecological applications such as probe hybridizations or microarray analyses. This work addresses the current need to develop molecular tools capable of diagnosing the presence of planktonic life-history stages from non-native marine species (potential invaders) in ballast water and other environmental samples. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Empirical Evidence for Species-Specific Export of Fish Naïveté from a No-Take Marine Protected Area in a Coastal Recreational Hook and Line Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Alós, Josep; Puiggrós, Antoni; Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Palmer, Miquel; Rosselló, Rosario; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    No-take marine protected areas (MPAs) are assumed to enhance fisheries catch via the “spillover” effect, where biomass is exported to adjacent exploited areas. Recent studies in spearfishing fisheries suggest that the spillover of gear-naïve individuals from protected to unprotected sites increases catch rates outside the boundaries of MPAs. Whether this is a widespread phenomenon that also holds for other gear types and species is unknown. In this study, we tested if the distance to a Mediterranean MPA predicted the degree of vulnerability to hook and line in four small-bodied coastal fish species. With the assistance of underwater video recording, we investigated the interaction effect of the distance to the boundary of an MPA and species type relative to the latency time to ingest a natural bait, which was considered as a surrogate of fish naïveté or vulnerability to fishing. Vulnerability to angling increased (i.e., latency time decreased) within and near the boundary of an MPA for an intrinsically highly catchable species (Serranus scriba), while it remained constant for an intrinsically uncatchable control species (Chromis chromis). While all of the individuals of S. scriba observed within the MPA and surrounding areas were in essence captured by angling gear, only one fifth of individuals in the far locations were captured. This supports the potential for the spillover of gear-naïve and consequently more vulnerable fish from no-take MPAs. Two other species initially characterized as intermediately catchable (Coris julis and Diplodus annularis) also had a shorter latency time in the vicinity of an MPA, but for these two cases the trend was not statistically significant. Overall, our results suggest that an MPA-induced naïveté effect may not be universal and may be confined to only intrinsically highly catchable fish species. This fact emphasizes the importance of considering the behavioural dimension when predicting the outcomes of MPAs, otherwise

  9. Organic UV filter concentrations in marine mussels from French coastal regions.

    PubMed

    Bachelot, Morgane; Li, Zhi; Munaron, Dominique; Le Gall, Patrik; Casellas, Claude; Fenet, Hélène; Gomez, Elena

    2012-03-15

    The accumulation of EHMC, OCT and OD-PABA, three common UV filter compounds, was investigated in marine mussels. Wild Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis were sampled in ten sites along the French Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts from June to November. In mussel tissues, 100% of the samples had quantifiable EHMC concentrations ranging from 3 to 256ngg(-1) dry weight, while 55% of the samples had detectable OCT concentrations ranging from under 2 to 7 112ngg(-1) dry weight. These concentrations significantly increased with the rising air temperature in summer, the recreational pressure and the geomorphological structure of the sampling sites (its lack of openness to the wide). This is the first study to report bioaccumulation of UV filters in marine mussels, thus highlighting the need for further monitoring and assessment.

  10. 50 CFR 660.360 - Recreational fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... recreational fishing vessels to take and retain, possess, or land groundfish taken with recreational gear... land groundfish taken with recreational gear within the South Coast Recreational YRCA. A vessel fishing... recreational fishing vessels to take and retain, possess, or land groundfish taken with recreational...

  11. 50 CFR 660.360 - Recreational fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recreational fishing vessels to take and retain, possess, or land groundfish taken with recreational gear... land groundfish taken with recreational gear within the South Coast Recreational YRCA. A vessel fishing... recreational fishing vessels to take and retain, possess, or land groundfish taken with recreational...

  12. Psychometric investigation of the abbreviated concussion symptom inventory in a sample of U.S. Marines returning from combat.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Justin S; Pulos, Steven; Haran, F Jay; Tsao, Jack W; Alphonso, Aimee L

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric investigation of an 11-item symptom checklist, the Abbreviated Concussion Symptom Inventory (ACSI). The ACSI is a dichotomously scored list of postconcussive symptoms associated with mild traumatic brain injury. The ACSI was administered to Marines (N = 1,435) within the 1st month of their return from combat deployments to Afghanistan. Psychometric analyses based upon nonparametric item response theory supported scoring the ACSI via simple summation of symptom endorsements; doing so produced a total score with good reliability (α = .802). Total scores were also found to significantly differentiate between different levels of head injury complexity during deployment, F(3, 1,431) = 100.75, p < .001. The findings support the use of the ASCI in research settings requiring a psychometrically reliable measure of postconcussion symptoms.

  13. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack; Peter Schultheiss; Melanie Holland

    2005-01-01

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were that: (1) follow-up logging of pressure cores containing hydrate-bearing sediment; and (2) opening of some of these cores to establish ground-truth understanding. The follow-up measurements made on pressure cores in storage are part of a hydrate geriatric study related to ODP Leg 204. These activities are described in detail in Appendices A and B of this report. Work also continued on developing plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on evolving plans to schedule a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) using the R/V JOIDES Resolution.

  14. Comparison of sample preparation methods, validation of an UPLC-MS/MS procedure for the quantification of tetrodotoxin present in marine gastropods and analysis of pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Nzoughet, Judith Kouassi; Campbell, Katrina; Barnes, Paul; Cooper, Kevin M; Chevallier, Olivier P; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-02-15

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent marine neurotoxins reported. The global distribution of this toxin is spreading with the European Atlantic coastline now being affected. Climate change and increasing pollution have been suggested as underlying causes for this. In the present study, two different sample preparation techniques were used to extract TTX from Trumpet shells and pufferfish samples. Both extraction procedures (accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and a simple solvent extraction) were shown to provide good recoveries (80-92%). A UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the analysis of TTX and validated following the guidelines contained in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for chemical contaminant analysis. The performance of this procedure was demonstrated to be fit for purpose. This study is the first report on the use of ASE as a mean for TTX extraction, the use of UPLC-MS/MS for TTX analysis, and the validation of this method for TTX in gastropods.

  15. [Investigation of keratinophilic fungi in Laodicea's recreation workshop].

    PubMed

    Ergin, Cağri; Kaleli, Ilknur; Cevik, Ebru; Ovet, Habibe

    2008-07-01

    Recreation ateliers in which archeological remnants are operated to be restorated to their original forms, are closed places with high humidity rates. The hands and the nails of archeology workers contact directly with the keratinophilic fungi during recreation facilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and distribution of keratinophilic fungi in Laodikeia antique city's recreation atelier (Pamukkale region; Aegean part of Turkey). A total of 18 archeological remnant samples were collected from Laodikeia recreation atelier during the digging period of 2006. The samples were screened for the prevalence of keratinophilic fungi by hair baiting technique and the isolates were identified by conventional mycological methods. Of the samples 38.9% (7/18) were found positive and the distribution of keratinophilic fungi were as follows; Chrysosporium spp. (22.2%) (two of them were C. keratinophilum), Aphanoascus spp. (11.1%), Auxarthron spp. (5.5%) and Trichophyton rubrum (5.5%). It was concluded that the patient histories including living and working conditions, may be helpful to identify the keratinophilic fungi growing on cycloheximide containing mycologic media and archeology workers should be informed for the diseases caused by environmental keratinophilic fungi.

  16. Should Enteroviruses Be Monitored in Natural Recreational Waters?

    PubMed

    Šarmírová, Soňa; Nagyová, Viera; Štípalová, Darina; Drastichová, Iveta; Šimonyiová, Danka; Sirotná, Zuzana; Kissová, Renáta; Pastuchová, Katarína; Tirpáková, Jana; Kuba, Daniel; Klement, Cyril; Bopegamage, Shubhada

    2016-12-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) infections occur worldwide. Although, infections by these viruses are often asymptomatic and go unnoticed, they can be shed in stool for several weeks. The EVs re associated with sporadic outbreaks and a wide range of clinical symptoms, occasionally accompanied with fatal consequences. Presently in the Slovak Republic (SR) recreational waters are tested only for bacterial indicators. Our aim was to monitor EVs in recreational waters. Water samples were collected during the years 2012-2014 from different recreational natural lakes in Central and West regions of SR. The samples were concentrated by centrifugation using the two-phase separation method recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) used for EVs surveillance in the treated sewage waste water. Each of the two phases collected from the samples was analysed by polymerase chain reaction for detection of EVs and primary sequencing was done. Our study demonstrated presence of EVs in three localities consecutively for three years, indicating a probability of constant local source of faecal contamination. This is the first monitoring report on the occurrence of EVs in the natural recreational waters in SR.

  17. Pilot Inventory of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California, 1990-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Semenoff-Irving, M.; Howell, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey Golden Gate Field Station conducted a baseline inventory of terrestrial vertebrates within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties, California between 1990 and 1997. We established 456 permanent study plots in 6 major park habitats, including grassland, coastal scrub, riparian woodland, coastal wetland, broad-leaved evergreen forest, and needle-leaved evergreen forest. We tested multiple inventory methods, including live traps, track plate stations, and artificial cover boards, across all years and habitats. In most years, sampling occurred in 3?4 primary sampling sessions between July and September. In 1994, additional sampling occurred in February and May in conjunction with an assessment of Hantavirus exposure in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Overall, we detected 32 mammal, 14 reptile, and 6 amphibian species during 25,222 trap-nights of effort. The deer mouse?the most abundant species detected--accounted for 67% of total captures. We detected the Federal Endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) at one coastal wetland plot in 1992. This project represents the first phase in the development of a comprehensive terrestrial vertebrate inventory and monitoring program for GGNRA. This report summarizes data on relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, distribution across habitat types, and trap success for terrestrial vertebrates detected during this 7-year effort. It includes comprehensive descriptions of the inventory methods and sampling strategies employed during this survey and is intended to help guide the park in the implementation of future longterm ecological monitoring programs.

  18. Pilot Inventory of Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California, 1990-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Semenoff-Irving, Marcia; Howell, Judd A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey Golden Gate Field Station conducted a baseline inventory of terrestrial vertebrates within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties, California between 1990 and 1997. We established 456 permanent study plots in 6 major park habitats, including grassland, coastal scrub, riparian woodland, coastal wetland, broad-leaved evergreen forest, and needle-leaved evergreen forest. We tested multiple inventory methods, including live traps, track plate stations, and artificial cover boards, across all years and habitats. In most years, sampling occurred in 3-4 primary sampling sessions between July and September. In 1994, additional sampling occurred in February and May in conjunction with an assessment of Hantavirus exposure in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Overall, we detected 32 mammal, 14 reptile, and 6 amphibian species during 25,222 trap-nights of effort. The deer mouse-the most abundant species detected--accounted for 67% of total captures. We detected the Federal Endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) at one coastal wetland plot in 1992. This project represents the first phase in the development of a comprehensive terrestrial vertebrate inventory and monitoring program for GGNRA. This report summarizes data on relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, distribution across habitat types, and trap success for terrestrial vertebrates detected during this 7-year effort. It includes comprehensive descriptions of the inventory methods and sampling strategies employed during this survey and is intended to help guide the park in the implementation of future longterm ecological monitoring programs.

  19. Nephrotoxicity of recreational party drugs.

    PubMed

    Berney-Meyer, Linda; Putt, Tracey; Schollum, John; Walker, Robert

    2012-02-01

    N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) is the active ingredient in recreational 'party' pills with a stimulant, euphoric mechanism of action akin to that of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy). Many people (ab)use BZP-based party pills usually without any significant toxic effects. However, nephrotoxicity secondary to hyperthermia and rhabdomyolysis has been reported. Another serious renal-related side-effect is hyponatraemia with acute cerebral oedema. There is also evidence that these agents may have a specific toxic effect producing acute kidney injury. Thus, acute kidney injury either direct or secondary to the effects of BZP or MDMA need to be considered when any individual presents with symptoms of a recreational party drug overdose.

  20. Therapeutic and recreational methadone cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    Several classes of drugs have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and occurrence of arrhythmias potentially involved in sudden deaths in chronic users even at therapeutic doses. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to methadone use. 60 cases were included in the study in total and were divided into three groups (therapeutic methadone users: 20 cases, recreational methadone users: 20 cases, and sudden death group in subjects who had never taken methadone: 20 cases). Autopsies, histology, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Macroscopic and microscopic investigation results in therapeutic methadone users were similar to those observed in sudden, unexpected deaths in non-methadone users. In recreational methadone consumers, macroscopic and microscopic examination of the heart failed to provide results consistent with acute or chronic myocardial or coronary damage, thereby corroborating the hypothesis of death most likely following respiratory depression.

  1. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Philip M.; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors’ perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median—US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median—US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors’ non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  2. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors' perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median-US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median-US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors' non-use values to fund reef management.

  3. EAARL topography: Gateway National Recreation Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains Lidar-derived topography (bare earth) maps and GIS files for the Sandy Hook Unit within Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey. These Lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.

  4. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Rack

    2005-06-30

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were to refine budgets and operational plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the scheduling of a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) using the R/V JOIDES Resolution. The proposed statement of work for Phase 2 will include three primary tasks: (1) research management oversight, provided by JOI; (2) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of pressure coring and core logging systems, through a subcontract with Geotek Ltd., who will work with Fugro and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to accomplish some of the subtasks; and, (3) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of a refrigerated container van that will be used for degassing of the Pressure Core Sampler and density logging of these pressure cores, through a subcontract with the Texas A&M Research Foundation (TAMRF). More details about these tasks are provided in the following sections of this report. The appendices to this report contain a copy of the scientific prospectus for the upcoming IODP Expedition 311 (Cascadia Margin Hydrates), which provides details of operational and scientific planning for this expedition.

  5. Influence of DNA Extraction Method, 16S rRNA Targeted Hypervariable Regions, and Sample Origin on Microbial Diversity Detected by 454 Pyrosequencing in Marine Chemosynthetic Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Cruaud, Perrine; Vigneron, Adrien; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Céline; Ciron, Pierre Emmanuel; Godfroy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) opens up exciting possibilities for improving our knowledge of environmental microbial diversity, allowing rapid and cost-effective identification of both cultivated and uncultivated microorganisms. However, library preparation, sequencing, and analysis of the results can provide inaccurate representations of the studied community compositions. Therefore, all these steps need to be taken into account carefully. Here we evaluated the effects of DNA extraction methods, targeted 16S rRNA hypervariable regions, and sample origins on the diverse microbes detected by 454 pyrosequencing in marine cold seep and hydrothermal vent sediments. To assign the reads with enough taxonomic precision, we built a database with about 2,500 sequences from Archaea and Bacteria from deep-sea marine sediments, affiliated according to reference publications in the field. Thanks to statistical and diversity analyses as well as inference of operational taxonomic unit (OTU) networks, we show that (i) while DNA extraction methods do not seem to affect the results for some samples, they can lead to dramatic changes for others; and (ii) the choice of amplification and sequencing primers also considerably affects the microbial community detected in the samples. Thereby, very different proportions of pyrosequencing reads were obtained for some microbial lineages, such as the archaeal ANME-1, ANME-2c, and MBG-D and deltaproteobacterial subgroups. This work clearly indicates that the results from sequencing-based analyses, such as pyrosequencing, should be interpreted very carefully. Therefore, the combination of NGS with complementary approaches, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)/catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD)-FISH or quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), would be desirable to gain a more comprehensive picture of environmental microbial communities. PMID:24837380

  6. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational water in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Ehsan, Md Amimul; Casaert, Stijn; Levecke, Bruno; Van Rooy, Liesbet; Pelicaen, Joachim; Smis, Anne; De Backer, Joke; Vervaeke, Bart; De Smedt, Sandra; Schoonbaert, Filip; Lammens, Saskia; Warmoes, Thierry; Geurden, Thomas; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different recreational water bodies in Belgium and to estimate the infection risk associated with swimming and other recreational activities. Cryptosporidium oocysts and/or Giardia cysts were detected in three out of 37 swimming pools, seven out of 10 recreational lakes, two out of seven splash parks and four out of 16 water fountains. In the swimming pools no infection risk for Cryptosporidium could be calculated, since oocysts were only detected in filter backwash water. The risk of Giardia infection in the swimming pools varied from 1.13×10(-6) to 2.49×10(-6) per swim per person. In recreational lakes, the infection risk varied from 2.79×10(-5) to 5.74×10(-5) per swim per person for Cryptosporidium and from 7.04×10(-5) to 1.46×10(-4) for Giardia. For other outdoor water recreation activities the estimated infection risk was 5.71×10(-6) for Cryptosporidium and 1.47×10(-5) for Giardia. However, most positive samples in the recreational lakes belonged to species/genotypes that are either animal-specific or predominantly found in animals. No Cryptosporidium was found in splash parks and water fountains, but the presence of Giardia cysts suggests a risk for human infection. The infection risk of Giardia infection during a 3.5-minute visit to a splash park for children equalled 1.68×10(-4).

  7. Regional recreation demand and benefits model

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes a regional recreation demand and benefits model that is used to estimate recreation demand and value (consumers' surplus) of four activities at each of 195 sites in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana. The recreation activities considered are camping, fishing, swimming, and boating. The model is a generalization of the single-site travel-cost method of estimating a recreation demand curve to virtually an unlimited number of sites. The major components of the analysis include the theory of recreation benefits, a travel-cost recreation demand curve, and a gravity model of regional recreation travel flows. Existing recreation benefits are estimated for each site in the region and for each activity. Recreation benefits of improved water quality in degraded rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are estimated on a county basis for Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Although water quality is emphasized, the model has the capability of estimating demand and value for new or improved recreation sites at lakes, streams, or reservoirs.

  8. Application of passive sampling for measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants in the water column at three marine superfund sites.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Robert M; Lohmann, Rainer; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph P; Reitsma, Pamela; Perron, Monique M; Lefkovitz, Lisa; Cantwell, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is an effort under way to encourage remedial project managers at contaminated sites to use passive sampling to collect freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree ) of hydrophobic organic contaminants to improve site assessments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of passive sampling for measuring water column Cfree for several hydrophobic organic contaminants at 3 US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites. Sites investigated included New Bedford Harbor (New Bedford, MA, USA), Palos Verdes Shelf (Los Angeles, CA, USA), and Naval Station Newport (Newport, RI, USA); and the passive samplers evaluated were polyethylene, polydimethylsiloxane-coated solid-phase microextraction fibers, semipermeable membrane devices, and polyoxymethylene. In general, the different passive samplers demonstrated good agreement, with Cfree values varying by a factor of 2 to 3. Further, at New Bedford Harbor, where conventional water sample concentrations were also measured (i.e., grab samples), passive sampler-based Cfree values agreed within a factor of 2. These findings suggest that all of the samplers were experiencing and measuring similar Cfree during their respective deployments. Also, at New Bedford Harbor, a strong log-linear, correlative, and predictive relationship was found between polyethylene passive sampler accumulation and lipid-normalized blue mussel bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (r(2)  = 0.92, p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the utility of passive sampling for generating scientifically accurate water column Cfree values, which is critical for making informed environmental management decisions at contaminated sediment sites.

  9. Risks of Recreational Exposure to Waterborne Pathogens Among Persons With HIV/AIDS in Baltimore, Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Lemerman, Hanna B.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Moore, Richard D.; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence of recreational activities in the waterways of Baltimore, MD, and the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium among persons with HIV/AIDS. Methods. We studied patients at the Johns Hopkins Moore Outpatient AIDS Clinic. We conducted oral interviews with a convenience sample of 157 HIV/AIDS patients to ascertain the sites used for recreational water contact within Baltimore waters and assess risk behaviors. Results. Approximately 48% of respondents reported participating in recreational water activities (fishing, crabbing, boating, and swimming). Men and women were almost equally likely to engage in recreational water activities (53.3% versus 51.3%). Approximately 67% (105 of 157) ate their own catch or that of friends or family members, and a majority (61%, or 46 of 75) of respondents who reported recreational water contact reported consumption of their own catch. Conclusions. Baltimoreans with HIV/AIDS are engaging in recreational water activities in urban waters that may expose them to waterborne pathogens and recreational water illnesses. Susceptible persons, such as patients with HIV/AIDS, should be cautioned regarding potential microbial risks from recreational water contact with surface waters. PMID:19372505

  10. Screening for microplastic particles in plankton samples: How to integrate marine litter assessment into existing monitoring programs?

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, Elena

    2015-10-15

    Microplastics (MPs) are a newly recognized type of environmental pollution in aquatic systems; however no monitoring of these contaminants is conducted, mostly due to the lack of routine quantification. In the net samples collected with a 90-μm WP2 net, pelagic MP abundance was quantified by light microscopy and evaluated as a function of inshore-offshore gradient, depth, and season; the same samples were used for zooplankton analysis. The MP abundance was ∼10(2)-10(4)particlesm(-3), with no significant inshore-offshore gradient during summer but increasing offshore in winter. MP abundance in deeper layers was positively affected by zooplankton abundance in the upper layers and significantly lower during winter compared to summer. These findings indicate heterogeneity of MP distribution due to biotic and abiotic factors and suggest that samples collected for other purposes can be used for quantification of MPs in the Baltic Sea, thus facilitating integration of MP assessment into existing monitoring schemes.

  11. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and Power Prep™ clean-up.

    PubMed

    Helaleh, Murad I H; Al-Rashdan, Amal; Ibtisam, A

    2012-05-30

    An automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method followed by Power Prep™ clean-up was developed for organochlorinated pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis in environmental marine samples of fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp. OCPs and PCBs were simultaneously determined in a single chromatographic run using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI). About 5 g of each biological marine sample was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulphate and placed in the extraction cell of the PLE system. PLE is controlled by means of a PC using DMS 6000 software. Purification of the extract was accomplished using automated Power Prep™ clean-up with a pre-packed disposable silica column (6 g) supplied by Fluid Management Systems (FMS). All OCPs and PCBs were eluted from the silica column using two types of solvent: 80 mL of hexane and a 50 mL mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (1:1). A wide variety of fish and shellfish were collected from the fish market and analyzed using this method. The total PCB concentrations were 2.53, 0.25, 0.24, 0.24, 0.17 and 1.38 ng g(-1) (w/w) for fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp, respectively, and the corresponding total OCP concentrations were 30.47, 2.86, 0.92, 10.72, 5.13 and 18.39 ng g(-1) (w/w). Lipids were removed using an SX-3 Bio-Beads gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column. Analytical criteria such as recovery, reproducibility and repeatability were evaluated through a range of biological matrices.

  12. Physiological stress and post-release mortality of white marlin (Kajikia albida) caught in the United States recreational fishery

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, Lela S.; Latour, Robert J.; Brill, Richard W.; Graves, John E.

    2016-01-01

    White marlin, a highly migratory pelagic marine fish, support important commercial and recreational fisheries throughout their range in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. More than 10 000 individuals can be caught annually in the United States recreational fishery, of which the vast majority are captured on circle hooks and released alive. The probability of post-release mortality of white marlin released from circle hooks has been documented to be <0.02, but the associated physiological stress resulting from capture and handling techniques has not been characterized despite its importance for understanding the health of released fish. We examined the physiological response of 68 white marlin caught on circle hooks in the recreational fishery and followed the fate of 22 of these fish with pop-up satellite archival tags programmed to release after 30 days. Measures of plasma sodium, chloride, glucose and lactate concentrations taken from fish that were briefly and consistently (mean = 120 s, standard deviation = 40 s) removed from the water increased with angling time, but post-release mortality was inversely related to angling time. The probability of post-release mortality was predicted by elevated plasma potassium concentrations and was more than 10 times greater than has been previously reported for white marlin caught on circle hooks that were not removed from the water. This disparity in estimates of post-release mortality suggests that removal of fish from the water for physiological sampling greatly heightens stress, disrupts homeostasis and thus increases the probability of post-release mortality. Our results demonstrate that elevated concentrations of plasma potassium predict mortality in white marlin and that the probability of post-release mortality is highly dependent on post-capture handling procedures. PMID:27293745

  13. Proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs (University of Hawaii, Manoa Campus, January 13, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    This volume of the proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs contains 32 papers in eight categories: (1) coastal zone management; (2) marine resources; (3) aquaculture; (4) alternative marine energy sources; (5) ocean engineering; (6) recreational facilities; (7) marine biology; and (8) options. The papers are the…

  14. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between phytoplankton cell counts and subsequent illness among recreational beachgoers.METHODS:We recruited beachgoers at Boquer6n Beach, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 2009. We conducted interviews at three time points to assess baseline health, water activities, and subsequent illness. Daily water samples were quantitatively assayed for phytoplankton cell count. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age and sex, were used to assess the association between exposure to three categories of phytoplankton concentration and subsequent illness.RESULTS: During 26 study days, 15,726 individuals successfully completed all three interviews. Daily total phytoplankton cell counts ranged from 346 to 2,012 cells/ml (median, 712 cells/ml). The category with the highest (≥75th percentile) total phytoplankton cell count was associated with eye irritation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 1.01, 1.66], rash (OR = 1.27; 95% Cl: 1.02, 1.57), and earache (OR = 1.25; 95% Cl: 0.88, 1.77). In phytoplankton group-specific analyses, the category with the highest Cyanobacteria counts was associated with respiratory illness (OR = 1.37; 95% Cl: 1.12, 1

  15. A method of measurement of (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu in high U content marine sediments by sector field ICP-MS and its application to Fukushima sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    An accurate and precise analytical method is highly needed for the determination of Pu isotopes in marine sediments for the long-term marine environment monitoring that is being done since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The elimination of uranium from the sediment samples needs to be carefully checked. We established an analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS in this work. A uranium decontamination factor of 2 × 10(6) was achieved, and the U concentrations in the final sample solutions were typically below 4 pg mL(-1), thus no extra correction of (238)U interferences from the Pu spectra was needed. The method was suitable for the analysis of (241)Pu in marine sediments using large sample amounts (>10 g). We validated the method by measuring marine sediment reference materials and our results agreed well with the certified and the literature values. Surface sediments and one sediment core sample collected after the nuclear accident were analyzed. The characterization of (241)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the surface sediments and the vertical distribution of Pu isotopes showed that there was no detectable Pu contamination from the nuclear accident in the marine sediments collected 30 km off the plant site.

  16. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    PubMed

    Miller, Aubrey D; Vaske, Jerry J; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Roberts, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists (n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  17. Mathematical analysis of marine pipeline leakage monitoring system based on coherent OTDR with improved sensor length and sampling frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnev, A. B.; Zhirnov, A. A.; Stepanov, K. V.; Nesterov, E. T.; Shelestov, D. A.; Karasik, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    A system based on coherent optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) for subsea pipeline monitoring is described. The fiber sensor length is increased using erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) cascades. The sampling frequency is increased by dividing the fiber sensor into separate sensitive areas, with parallel scanning. The calculation of the erbium amplifier cascade spontaneous noise influence on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is carried out.

  18. Marine Curators Gather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Floyd W.

    1977-01-01

    Reports on a recent meeting of marine curators in which data dissemination, standardization of marine curating techniques and methods, responsibilities of curators, funding problems, and sampling equipment were the main areas of discussion. A listing of the major deep sea sample collections in the United States is also provided. (CP)

  19. Fuel used for off-highway recreation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Trumble, D.; Lu, A.

    1994-07-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation by transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund of individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types. This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile.

  20. Therapeutic recreation treats depression in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C D

    1999-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation can be an effective method to treat depression in elderly home care patients. Home care is the fastest growing component in the Medicare budget. The co-occurrence of physically limiting conditions and depression in the elderly is well documented. Untreated depression carries an enormous risk and cost. Therapeutic recreation is an ideal psychosocial treatment for use in the home care setting because of its effectiveness and versatility. Certified therapeutic recreation specialists use various interventions such as poetry, music, and exercise as part of a treatment team. In addition to effectively managing depression, therapeutic recreation can be beneficial in reducing the effects of many concurrent physical conditions.

  1. Performance appraisal system for therapeutic recreation.

    PubMed

    Conway, M

    1985-01-01

    Therapeutic Recreation professionals continually strive for effective performance standards for their clients. In addition to standards for clients, Therapeutic Recreation Specialists must also develop performance standards for themselves to meet the continual challenge of accountability in the 80's. This paper identifies the need to develop a performance appraisal system as well as the benefits. The elements of the standards include: specificity, observability, measurability, attainment and mutual determination. The paper also reviews the process of assignment of relative weights, categories of review and detailed standards for the Director of Therapeutic Recreation and Therapeutic Recreation Specialist at the Rehabilitation Institute of Detroit.

  2. The distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in marine surface samples of the eastern Indian Ocean in relation to environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessler, I.; Young, M.; Mohtadi, M.; Lückge, A.; Behling, H.

    2012-04-01

    The eastern Indian Ocean is characterised by a complex system of surface currents that move according to the monsoon-dominated wind regime and show a strong seasonality. The Indonesian Throughflow, which originates in the northwestern and tropical Pacific and passes through the Indonesian archipelago into the Indian Ocean, is the only low-latitude oceanic connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans and represents a key element in the global thermohaline circulation and hence the global climate system. In recent decades it has become increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanographic processes involved in climate variations. Assemblages of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) from marine surface samples provide insights into the relationship between the spatial distribution of dinocysts and modern local environmental conditions (e.g. sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, productivity). These information are of great value for the interpretation of past variations in surface water conditions. We present an extensive data-set of marine surface samples (n=116) from the Eastern Indian Ocean. The conducted Principal Component Analysis (PCA) illustrates the variation of species association between the sites and reveals a geographical affinity of the samples to the regions of (1) Western Indonesia, (2) Java, (3) the Indonesian Throughflow and (4) Western Australia including the Timor Sea. The results of the PCA further indicate the existence of two environmental gradients in the study area, a nutrient gradient increasing from Western Indonesia towards the Indonesian Throughflow region and a temperature gradient increasing from Western Australia towards Western Indonesia. The Redundancy Analysis indicates the presence of three dominating taxa in the sample set, namely Spiniferites spp., Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp., and reveals significant correlations of the three dominant taxa to specific environmental

  3. The Physiological Profile Of Male Competitive And Recreational Surfers.

    PubMed

    Furness, James; Hing, Wayne; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Newcomer, Sean; Schram, Ben; Climstein, Mike

    2016-08-31

    Surfing consists of both high and low intensity paddling of varying durations, utilizing both the aerobic and anaerobic systems. Surf specific physiological studies lack adequate group sample sizes and VO2peak values are yet to determine differences between competitive and recreational surfers. The purpose of this study was therefore to provide a comprehensive physiological profile of both recreational and competitive surfers. This multi-site study involved 62 male surfers, recreational (n = 47) and competitive (n = 15). Anthropometric measurements were conducted followed by DEXA, anaerobic testing and finally aerobic testing. VO2peak was significantly greater in competitive compared to recreational surfers (M = 40.71 ± 3.28 vs. 31.25 ± 6.31 ml/kg/min, p < .001). This was also paralleled for anaerobic power (M = 303.93 vs. 264.58 W) for competitive surfers. Arm span and lean total muscle mass was significantly (p ≤ .01) correlated with key performance variables (VO2peak and anaerobic power). No significant (p ≥ .05) correlations were revealed between season rank and each of the variables of interest (V02peak and anaerobic power). Key performance variables (VO2peak and anaerobic power) are significantly higher in competitive surfers indicating this is both an adaptation and requirement in this cohort. This battery of physiological tests could be used as a screening tool to identify an athlete's weaknesses or strengths. Coaches and clinicians could then select appropriate training regimes to address weaknesses.

  4. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Frank; Storms, Michael; Schroeder, Derryl; Dugan, Brandon; Schultheiss, Peter

    2002-12-31

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were (1) the preliminary postcruise evaluation of the tools and measurement systems that were used during ODP Leg 204 to study hydrate deposits on Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon from July through September 2002; and (2) the preliminary study of the hydrate-bearing core samples preserved in pressure vessels and in liquid nitrogen cryofreezers, which are now stored at the ODP Gulf Coast Repository in College Station, TX. During ODP Leg 204, several newly modified downhole tools were deployed to better characterize the subsurface lithologies and environments hosting microbial populations and gas hydrates. A preliminary review of the use of these tools is provided herein. The DVTP, DVTP-P, APC-methane, and APC-Temperature tools (ODP memory tools) were used extensively and successfully during ODP Leg 204 aboard the D/V JOIDES Resolution. These systems provided a strong operational capability for characterizing the in situ properties of methane hydrates in subsurface environments on Hydrate Ridge during ODP Leg 204. Pressure was also measured during a trial run of the Fugro piezoprobe, which operates on similar principles as the DVTP-P. The final report describing the deployments of the Fugro Piezoprobe is provided in Appendix A of this report. A preliminary analysis and comparison between the piezoprobe and DVTP-P tools is provided in Appendix B of this report. Finally, a series of additional holes were cored at the crest of Hydrate Ridge (Site 1249) specifically geared toward the rapid recovery and preservation of hydrate samples as part of a hydrate geriatric study partially funded by the Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, the preliminary results from gamma density non-invasive imaging of the cores preserved in pressure vessels are provided in Appendix C of this report. An initial visual inspection of the samples stored in liquid nitrogen is provided in Appendix D of this

  5. The Multi-Faceted World of Military Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgardner, Walter H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A collection of articles on recreation for military personnel discusses: (1) cooperation of military and civilian recreational programs; (2) recreation for personnel on sea duty; (3) recreation at Camp Casey (Korea); (4) Information, Tickets, and Tours (ITT) programs; (5) intramural programs; (6) careers in military recreation; and (7) Air Force…

  6. 43 CFR 2932.50 - Administration of Special Recreation Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.50 Administration of Special Recreation Permits....

  7. 78 FR 78810 - Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...The Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee (Recreation RAC) will meet in San Bernardino, California. The Recreation RAC is authorized under the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act (REA) (Pub. L. 108-447) and operates in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463). Additional information concerning the Recreation RAC can be found by visiting......

  8. 76 FR 10915 - Notice of Use Authorizations; Special Recreation Permits, Other Than on Developed Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Use Authorizations; Special Recreation Permits, Other Than on Developed Recreation Sites; Adjustment in Fees AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is adjusting certain special recreation permit fees...

  9. The History of Commercial Recreation and Its Role in the Provision of Family Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, E. Taylor

    Commercial recreation is the provision of facilities, equipment, and programs that satisfy public demand for activities during unobligated time and are profitable to the supplier. The term "commercial recreation" has been given a negative connotation in the field of recreation and leisure. This negative concept of commercial recreation…

  10. Application of pressurized fluid extraction technique in the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of sterols from marine sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Donghao; Dong, Meihua; Shim, Won Joon; Kannan, Narayanan

    2007-08-10

    In order to determine steroid compounds in GC/MS an analytical method using pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) was developed. While extracting in-house reference material (coastal sediment) typical recovery in PFE ranged from 80 to 120% (+/-2.5-14.5) and the average extraction yield in PFE in comparison to conventional soxhlet extraction was 115%. In particular, the PFE showed higher extraction efficiency for C29 and dien sterols. Optimizing parameters such as temperature and pressure is critical in achieving this efficiency. Sterols in the sediment were derivatized with silyl reagent BSTFA in acetone for the final determination. A short column florisil cleanup offered the best separation of the GC/MS sensitive derivatives from co-contaminants. Thirty-three coastal sediment samples were analyzed using PFE and Soxhlet extraction methods. The results on extraction efficiency, silyl derivatization kinetics and purification efficiency demonstrated that PFE is far superior in extracting sterols from sediment samples. It is simple, fast, efficient and amenable for automation.

  11. Comparison of Enterococcus qPCR analysis results from fresh and marine water samples on two real-time instruments - poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be recommending a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting Enterococcus spp. as an option for monitoring recreational beach water quality. A practical consideration for widespread implementation of this or ...

  12. Quantification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains in Marine and Freshwater Samples by the Most-Probable-Number Method ▿

    PubMed Central

    Levin-Edens, Emily; Meschke, John Scott; Roberts, Marilyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Recreational beach environments have been recently identified as a potential reservoir for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, accurate quantification methods are needed for the development of risk assessments. This novel most-probable-number approach for MRSA quantification offers improved sensitivity and specificity by combining broth enrichment with MRSA-specific chromogenic agar. PMID:21441335

  13. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  14. Use of solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-electron capture detection for the determination of energetic chemicals in marine samples.

    PubMed

    Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal

    2005-02-25

    Gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) is a highly explosive-sensitive analytical technique. However, its application to the analysis of sediment extracts is hampered by the presence of numerous endogenous interferences. In the present study, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used both as a purification technique for sediment extracts and as an extraction technique for water samples prior to analysis by GC-ECD. SPME/GC-ECD coupling was optimized and applied to the trace analysis of nine explosives including nitroaromatics and RDX in real seawater and marine sediment samples. Addition of a high concentration of salt (30%, w/v) in the aqueous medium and use of a carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB) coating led to optimal extraction efficiencies. Method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.05 to 0.81 microg/L in water and from 1 to 9 microg/kg in dry sediment. Except for RDX, spike recoveries in seawater were satisfactory (89-147%) when samples were fortified at 2 microg/L of each analyte. Spike recoveries from dry sediment fortified at 10 microg/kg of each analyte gave lower recoveries but these could also be due to degradation in the matrix. With a smaller volume of aqueous sample required compared to solid-phase extraction (SPE), SPME is an attractive method for the analysis of limited volumes of sediment pore-water. Moreover, the use of SPME eliminated interferences present in sediment extracts thus allowing the detection of the target analytes that were otherwise difficult to detect by direct injection.

  15. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack

    2006-09-20

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41329 between Joint Oceanographic Institutions and DOE-NETL was divided into two phases based on successive proposals and negotiated statements of work pertaining to activities to sample and characterize methane hydrates on ODP Leg 204 (Phase 1) and on IODP Expedition 311 (Phase 2). The Phase 1 Final Report was submitted to DOE-NETL in April 2004. This report is the Phase 2 Final Report to DOE-NETL. The primary objectives of Phase 2 were to sample and characterize methane hydrates using the systems and capabilities of the D/V JOIDES Resolution during IODP Expedition 311, to enable scientists the opportunity to establish the mass and distribution of naturally occurring gas and gas hydrate at all relevant spatial and temporal scales, and to contribute to the DOE methane hydrate research and development effort. The goal of the work was to provide expanded measurement capabilities on the JOIDES Resolution for a dedicated hydrate cruise to the Cascadia continental margin off Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (IODP Expedition 311) so that hydrate deposits in this region would be well characterized and technology development continued for hydrate research. IODP Expedition 311 shipboard activities on the JOIDES Resolution began on August 28 and were concluded on October 28, 2005. The statement of work for this project included three primary tasks: (1) research management oversight, provided by JOI; (2) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of pressure coring and core logging systems, through a subcontract with Geotek Ltd.; and, (3) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of a refrigerated container van that will be used for degassing of the Pressure Core Sampler and density logging of these pressure cores, through a subcontract with the Texas A&M Research Foundation (TAMRF). Additional small tasks that arose during the course of the research were included under these three primary tasks in consultation with the DOE

  16. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Frank; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Trehu, Anne; Storms, Michael; Schroeder, Derryl

    2002-09-30

    The primary accomplishment of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter was the deployment of tools and measurement systems on ODP Leg 204 to study hydrate deposits on Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon from July through September, 2002. During Leg 204, we cored and logged 9 sites on the Oregon continental margin to determine the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates in an accretionary ridge and adjacent slope basin, investigate the mechanisms that transport methane and other gases into the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), and obtain constraints on physical properties of hydrates in situ. A 3D seismic survey conducted in 2000 provided images of potential subsurface fluid conduits and indicated the position of the GHSZ throughout the survey region. After coring the first site, we acquired Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) data at all but one site to provide an overview of downhole physical properties. The LWD data confirmed the general position of key seismic stratigraphic horizons and yielded an initial estimate of hydrate concentration through the proxy of in situ electrical resistivity. These records proved to be of great value in planning subsequent coring. The second new hydrate proxy to be tested was infrared thermal imaging of cores on the catwalk as rapidly as possible after retrieval. The thermal images were used to identify hydrate samples and to map estimate the distribution and texture of hydrate within the cores. Geochemical analyses of interstitial waters and of headspace and void gases provide additional information on the distribution and concentration of hydrate within the stability zone, the origin and pathway of fluids into and through the GHSZ, and the rates at which the process of gas hydrate formation is occurring. Bio- and lithostratigraphic description of cores, measurement of physical properties, and in situ pressure core sampling and thermal measurements complement the data set, providing ground-truth tests of inferred

  17. Guidance For The Bioremediation Of Oil-Contaminated Wetlands, Marshes, And Marine Shorelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine shorelines are important public and ecological resources that serve as a home to a variety of wildlife and provide public recreation. Marine oil spills, particularly large scale spill accidents, have posed great threats and cause extensive damage to the marine coastal env...

  18. Competing Interests, Economics, and Marine Fisheries Management: An Educational Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, James T.; Berkson, Jim; Murphy, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Managing fish resources in the ocean, known as marine fisheries management, often involves disagreement among many groups of people: commercial fishers, recreational anglers, national and local conservationists, and several branches of government. While managing marine fisheries in federal waters, the federal government must rebuild marine fish…

  19. Physical Education and Recreation in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, M. L.; Van Vliet, M. L.

    Physical education and research programs, and recreational and athletic facilities, in Yugoslavia, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, England, and the U.S.S.R. are examined by two faculty members from the University of Alberta. This publication is an abridgement of their report on European approaches to physical education and recreation, giving their…

  20. Adventure Recreation: Coming Soon to Your Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Marta; Schlatter, Barbara E.; Hurd, Amy R.

    2007-01-01

    Adventure recreation activities like mountain biking, bouldering, and kayaking used to require considerable travel to unique locations. This is changing, however, as the new trend emerges in the United State of providing adventure recreation experiences in cities and towns, such as New York City and Golden, Colorado. This article highlights…

  1. The Therapeutic Recreation Professional: Microcomputer Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation professionals can work with computer specialists to develop uses for microcomputers with special populations. Computers can help sensory-impaired individuals, physically disabled, the aged, and special education students. Computer professionals benefit from receiving feedback from therapeutic recreation professionals on…

  2. Designing Therapeutic Recreation Programs in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Marcia Jean; And Others

    This publication is designed to assist in the development of therapeutic recreation services in the community and may also be used in the preparation of procedural manuals or risk management plans. Therapeutic recreation is defined as the process of assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation, applied through a helping relationship to…

  3. EXETRA Perspectives: Concepts in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L.; Edginton, Christopher R.

    Fifteen papers address issues in therapeutic recreation for disabled persons from the perspectives of practitioners, educators, and students. The following papers are presented. "Therapeutic Recreation Service: The Past and Challenging Present" (H. Sessoms); "Therapeutic Recreatiion in an Era of Limits: A Crisis...A Challenge... An Opportunity"…

  4. Therapeutic Recreation and the Right to Leisure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvester, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Right to leisure is considered an appropriate moral mission for therapeutic recreation. The paper explores the right to leisure for individuals with disabilities, discussing a variety of documents and discourses. It notes the relevance and several implications of the right to leisure for therapeutic recreation in health care. (SM)

  5. Ethics Audit of a Therapeutic Recreation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Nancy; Hinton, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance awareness of the presence of ethics education within the allied health discipline of therapeutic recreation. To achieve this end, a curriculum audit was conducted in a therapeutic recreation course to determine the existence of ethics education within the course. Included topics, methods of delivery, and…

  6. 32 CFR 552.166 - Recreational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recreational use. 552.166 Section 552.166 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND... Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.166 Recreational use. (a) Fort Lewis: (1) Individuals...

  7. 32 CFR 552.166 - Recreational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Recreational use. 552.166 Section 552.166 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND... Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.166 Recreational use. (a) Fort Lewis: (1) Individuals...

  8. 32 CFR 552.166 - Recreational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recreational use. 552.166 Section 552.166 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND... Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.166 Recreational use. (a) Fort Lewis: (1) Individuals...

  9. Nassau County Department of Recreation and Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by the Nassau County Department of Recreation and Parks (East Meadow, New York) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer,…

  10. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  11. Private Outdoor Recreation Enterprises in Rural Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hugh A.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to determine to what extent recreation enterprises in rural Appalachia can help meet the growing urban demands for outdoor recreation and provide profitable use of rural resources and employment for rural people. The analysis, drawn from a 1966 nationwide survey, included 35 campgrounds, 18 fishing areas, 14 vacation farms,…

  12. Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senda-Cook, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

  13. Annual in Therapeutic Recreation. Volume One, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Michael E., Ed.; Card, Jaclyn A., Ed.

    This publication contains the following articles: (1) "A Pilot Study of the Relationship between Co-Dependency and Recreation Using Women with Histories of Domestic Violence" (Pamela E. Foti and Lori S. Gelvin); (2) "Discretionary Time Use and the Chronically Mentally Ill" (Thomas K. Skalko); (3) "Therapeutic Recreation and Family Therapy: A Needs…

  14. 36 CFR 294.1 - Recreation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation areas. 294.1 Section 294.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Miscellaneous Provisions § 294.1 Recreation areas. Suitable areas of national forest land, other than...

  15. 36 CFR 294.1 - Recreation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recreation areas. 294.1 Section 294.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Miscellaneous Provisions § 294.1 Recreation areas. Suitable areas of national forest land, other than...

  16. Los Angeles County Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by the Los Angeles County Parks and Recreation Rehabilitation Unit (California) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer,…

  17. Intelligence and Past Use of Recreational Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmoth, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    One motivation for trying recreational drugs is the desire for novel experiences. More intelligent people tend to value novelty more highly and may therefore be more likely to have tried recreational drugs. Using data from a national survey, it is shown that intelligence tends to be positively related to the probabilities of having tried alcohol,…

  18. Toward Effective Science Delivery among Recreation Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Arielle; Schneider, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Effective science delivery to practitioners can improve recreation experiences and environmental educational outcomes. This project explored U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service recreation personnel's research-based information sources, constraints to access and use of research, and opinions about how to improve science delivery to…

  19. Guidelines for Recreation and Park Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Joseph J.; Storey, Edward H.

    In this publication, written for use in guiding community recreation and park systems, the following topics are discussed: why parks and recreational facilities should be developed, the need for governmental participation, and park-system development. Additionally, neighborhood parks, playlots, community parks, city-wide parks, regional parks and…

  20. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  1. King County Division of Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by the King County Division of Parks and Recreation (Seattle, Washington) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer, client…

  2. 50 CFR 36.31 - Recreational activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Other Refuge Uses § 36.31 Recreational activities. (a) Public recreational activities within the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges are... to apply to the applicable refuge lands in Alaska National Wildlife Refuges. (b) Surface...

  3. 50 CFR 36.31 - Recreational activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Other Refuge Uses § 36.31 Recreational activities. (a) Public recreational activities within the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges are... to apply to the applicable refuge lands in Alaska National Wildlife Refuges. (b) Surface...

  4. 50 CFR 36.31 - Recreational activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Other Refuge Uses § 36.31 Recreational activities. (a) Public recreational activities within the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges are... to apply to the applicable refuge lands in Alaska National Wildlife Refuges. (b) Surface...

  5. 50 CFR 36.31 - Recreational activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Other Refuge Uses § 36.31 Recreational activities. (a) Public recreational activities within the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges are... to apply to the applicable refuge lands in Alaska National Wildlife Refuges. (b) Surface...

  6. 50 CFR 36.31 - Recreational activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Other Refuge Uses § 36.31 Recreational activities. (a) Public recreational activities within the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges are... to apply to the applicable refuge lands in Alaska National Wildlife Refuges. (b) Surface...

  7. 78 FR 49253 - Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Forest Service Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committe will meet in Sacramento, California. The Committee is authorized under the Federal Lands Recreation...

  8. 76 FR 4281 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees Charter Reestablishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Forest Service Recreation Resource Advisory Committees Charter Reestablishment AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to reestablish the Recreation Resource Advisory Committees. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture intends to reestablish the charter for 5 Forest Service Recreation...

  9. 78 FR 29321 - Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Forest Service Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Rocky Mountain Region, Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory... National Forest. Proposals, updates, and other information can be found on the Colorado Recreation...

  10. 76 FR 27002 - Information Collection; National Recreation Program Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; National Recreation Program Administration AGENCY: Forest Service... new information collection, National Recreation Program Administration. DATES: Comments must be... INFORMATION: Title: National Recreation Program Administration. OMB Number: 0596-New. Expiration Date...

  11. Marine litter on Mediterranean shores: Analysis of composition, spatial distribution and sources in north-western Adriatic beaches.

    PubMed

    Munari, Cristina; Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto; Mistri, Michele

    2016-03-01

    Marine litter is one descriptor in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This study provides the first account of an MSFD indicator (Trends in the amount of litter deposited on coastlines) for the north-western Adriatic. Five beaches were sampled in 2015. Plastic dominated in terms of abundance, followed by paper and other groups. The average density was 0.2 litter items m(-2), but at one beach it raised to 0.57 items m(-2). The major categories were cigarette butts, unrecognizable plastic pieces, bottle caps, and others. The majority of marine litter came from land-based sources: shoreline and recreational activities, smoke-related activities and dumping. Sea-based sources contributed for less. The abundance and distribution of litter seemed to be particularly influenced by beach users, reflecting inadequate disposal practices. The solution to these problems involves implementation and enforcement of local educational and management policies.

  12. Development of the Molybdenum Isotopic System for Paleoenvironmental Studies: Evaluation of the MC-ICP-MS Standard-Sample Bracketing Technique for Analyses of Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, A. D.; Pietruszka, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    though the recovery of Mo is nearly complete (99.5%). This matrix effect disappears when the sample is run using "wet" plasma mode (as opposed to using a desolvation system, which affords superior precision). We are currently attempting to solve this problem, which appears to result from the partial breakdown of the resin during column chemistry. Once successful, we will evaluate the precision and accuracy of our final technique using analyses of a range of marine sediments that might typically be used for paleoenvironmental studies.

  13. Fuel Used for Off-Highway Recreation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation be transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund to individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types. This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile. Two factors governed the development of this estimation procedure. First, individual state shares of the total Trust Funds need to be developed using a uniform approach. Second, data needed for the estimation procedure should be publicly available and easily obtainable so that estimates for all subsequent years can be generated easily. Estimates were developed based on existing data sources. Adjustment factors were developed to take into account different vehicular off-highway recreational usage among states.

  14. 43 CFR 2932.20 - Special Recreation Permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized...

  15. 43 CFR 2932.30 - Fees for Special Recreation Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups,...

  16. Recreational injuries among older Americans, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, L; Stevens, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the epidemiology of non-fatal recreational injuries among older adults treated in United States emergency departments including national estimates of the number of injuries, types of recreational activities, and diagnoses. Methods: Injury data were provided by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP), a nationally representative subsample of 66 out of 100 NEISS hospitals. Potential cases were identified using the NEISS-AIP definition of a sport and recreation injury. The authors then reviewed the two line narrative to identify injuries related to participation in a sport or recreational activity among men and women more than 64 years old. Results: In 2001, an estimated 62 164 (95% confidence interval 35 570 to 88 758) persons ≥65 years old were treated in emergency departments for injuries sustained while participating in sport or recreational activities. The overall injury rate was 177.3/100 000 population with higher rates for men (242.5/100 000) than for women (151.3/100 000). Exercising caused 30% of injuries among women and bicycling caused 17% of injuries among men. Twenty seven percent of all treated injuries were fractures and women (34%) were more likely than men (21%) to suffer fractures. Conclusions: Recreational activities were a frequent cause of injuries among older adults. Fractures were common. Many of these injuries are potentially preventable. As more persons engage in recreational activities, applying known injury prevention strategies will help to reduce the incidence of these injuries. PMID:15178667

  17. 77 FR 16212 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National... vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Recreational...

  18. Effect of recreational diving on Patagonian rocky reefs.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Gonzalo; Márquez, Federico; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Mendez, María M; Bigatti, Gregorio

    2015-03-01

    Tourism has grown considerably in the last decades, promoting activities such as recreational SCUBA diving that may affect marine benthic communities. In Puerto Madryn, Patagonia Argentina, sub-aquatic tourism areas (STA) receive about 7,000 divers per year. Diving is concentrated on a few small rocky reefs and 50% of the dives occur in summer. In this work, we evaluated the effect of recreational diving activities on benthic communities and determined whether diving causes a press (long-term) or a pulse (short-term) response. We quantified the percentage cover of benthic organisms and compared benthic assemblage structure and composition between two sites with contrasting usage by divers, 'highly disturbed' and 'moderately disturbed' sites, and two 'control' sites with similar physical characteristics but no diving activity, twice before and after the diving peak in summer. We found differences in benthic assemblage structure (identity and relative abundance of taxa) and composition (identity only) among diving sites and controls. These differences were consistent before and after the peak of diving in summer, suggesting that recreational diving may produce a press impact on overall benthic assemblage structure and composition in these STA. At the moderately disturbed site, however, covers of specific taxa, such as some key habitat-forming or highly abundant species, usually differed from those in controls only immediately after summer, after which they begun to resemble controls, suggesting a pulse impact. Thus, STA in Golfo Nuevo seem to respond differently to disturbances of diving depending on the usage of the sites. This information is necessary to develop sound management strategies in order to preserve local biodiversity.

  19. Willingness to pay for non angler recreation at the lower Snake River reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKean, J.R.; Johnson, D.; Taylor, R.G.; Johnson, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    This study applied the travel cost method to estimate demand for non angler recreation at the impounded Snake River in eastern Washington. Net value per person per recreation trip is estimated for the full non angler sample and separately for camping, boating, water-skiing, and swimming/picnicking. Certain recreation activities would be reduced or eliminated and new activities would be added if the dams were breached to protect endangered salmon and steelhead. The effect of breaching on non angling benefits was found by subtracting our benefits estimate from the projected non angling benefits with breaching. Major issues in demand model specification and definition of the price variables are discussed. The estimation method selected was truncated negative binomial regression with adjustment for self selection bias. Copyright 2005 National Recreation and Park Association.

  20. Effects of Changed Aircraft Noise Exposure on the Use of Outdoor Recreational Areas

    PubMed Central

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines behavioural responses to changes in aircraft noise exposure in local outdoor recreational areas near airports. Results from a panel study conducted in conjunction with the relocation of Norway’s main airport in 1998 are presented. One recreational area was studied at each airport site. The samples (n = 1,264/1,370) were telephone interviewed about their use of the area before and after the change. Results indicate that changed aircraft noise exposure may influence individual choices to use local outdoor recreational areas, suggesting that careful considerations are needed in the planning of air routes over local outdoor recreational areas. However, considerable stability in use, and also fluctuations in use unrelated to the changes in noise conditions were found. Future studies of noise impacts should examine a broader set of coping mechanisms, like intra- and temporal displacement. Also, the role of place attachment, and the substitutability of local areas should be studied. PMID:21139867

  1. Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on the use of outdoor recreational areas.

    PubMed

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines behavioural responses to changes in aircraft noise exposure in local outdoor recreational areas near airports. Results from a panel study conducted in conjunction with the relocation of Norway's main airport in 1998 are presented. One recreational area was studied at each airport site. The samples (n = 1,264/1,370) were telephone interviewed about their use of the area before and after the change. Results indicate that changed aircraft noise exposure may influence individual choices to use local outdoor recreational areas, suggesting that careful considerations are needed in the planning of air routes over local outdoor recreational areas. However, considerable stability in use, and also fluctuations in use unrelated to the changes in noise conditions were found. Future studies of noise impacts should examine a broader set of coping mechanisms, like intra- and temporal displacement. Also, the role of place attachment, and the substitutability of local areas should be studied.

  2. A virtue analysis of recreational marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Ezra; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2016-05-01

    Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to the well-being of the user, we conclude that it is a vicious activity, an instance of the vice of intoxication, and as such would be morally illicit.

  3. Patterns of Walkability, Transit, and Recreation Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Marc A.; Todd, Michael; Kurka, Jonathan; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features for physical activity (PA) are understudied. This study explored whether patterns of GIS-derived BE features explained objective and self-reported PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI. Methods Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N=2,199, aged 20–65 years, 48.2% female, 26% ethnic minority) were sampled in 2001–2005 from Seattle/King County, WA and Baltimore, MD/Washington, DC regions. Their addresses were geocoded to compute net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit, and public park and private recreation facility densities using a 1-km network buffer. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these variables. Multilevel regression models compared profiles on accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2013–2014. Results Seattle region LPAs yielded four profiles, including low walkable/transit/recreation (L-L-L), mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M), moderately high walkability/transit/recreation (MH-MH-MH), and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-H-H). All measures were higher in the H-H-H than the L-L-L profile (difference of 17.1 minutes/day for MVPA, 146.5 minutes/week for walking for transportation, 58.2 minutes/week for leisure-time PA, and 2.2 BMI points; all p<0.05). Baltimore region LPAs yielded four profiles, including L-L-L, M-M-M, high land use mix, transit, and recreation (HLU-HT-HRA), and high intersection density, high retail floor area ratio (HID-HRFAR). HLU-HT-HRA and L-L-L differed by 12.3 MVPA minutes/day; HID-HRFAR and L-L-L differed by 157.4 minutes/week for walking for transportation (all p<0.05). Conclusions Patterns of environmental features explain greater differences in adults’ PA than the four-component walkability index. PMID:26232902

  4. National Economic Development Procedures Manual - Recreation. Volume 1. Recreation Use and Benefit Estimation Techniques,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    payments made for other goods and services (e.g., food , lodging, transportation or equipment) associated with the recreational activity. These... consumption of goods and services that provide them with utility or satisfaction. It is assumed that consumers make purchases in markets based on...recreational values. Econ. Rpt. 53. Institute for Food and Agricultural Science. University of Florida. Gibson, J.G. 1975. Problems of measuring recreation

  5. Outdoors America: recreational opportunites on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    What comes to your mind when you think of outdoor recreation? Boating? Camping? Hiking or backpacking? Horse-back riding? Hunting or fishing? Chances are, if you can name an outdoor activity, you can do it on public lands.

  6. Quality analysis in therapeutic recreation curricula.

    PubMed

    Mobily, K E

    1983-01-01

    Within the last several years therapeutic recreation has witnessed an increasing concern over the quality of professional preparation programs. Unfortunately, few efforts have really focused on improving the depth of preparation although the scope of preparation is fairly well documented by accreditation criteria. Quality analysis elucidates curricula by considering: (1) the depth of competence desired, (2) the barriers to acquiring said knowledge and (3) who is responsible for disseminating the knowledge to students. Furthermore, quality analysis relative to therapeutic recreation curricula currently requires consideration of material from other disciplines and therapeutic recreation's unique perspective on traditional areas of learning. A competency cluster including knowledge related to anatomy, physiology, disabilities and limitations imposed by the disabling conditions and medical terminology was used as an example of quality analysis. Quality analysis revealed that the aforesaid competency cluster is not presently being transmitted adequately to students and that therapeutic recreation educators' need to assume more responsibility for disseminating knowledge related to the competencies discussed.

  7. Wheelchair Design Changes: New Opportunities for Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Changes in wheelchair design (such as larger tires and lighter overall weight) make it possible for disabled persons to exercise more mobility and control and participate in a greater variety of recreational activities. (CL)

  8. Greening the Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Golden Gate National Recreation Area was recognized a 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award for making significant strides to reduce its carbon footprint with the goal of becoming a carbon neutral park.

  9. 77 FR 36250 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Recreation, Local Environmental, State Tourism, Local Government, and Tribal. The public is invited to submit...: a. A State tourism official to represent the State; b. A person who represents affected...

  10. Supporting Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Phyllis; Fullerton, Ann

    2004-01-01

    This book was developed to assist recreation service providers, as well as families, to understand strategies for supporting individuals with ASD in community and school recreation programs. The ideas have many practical uses in generic and specialized recreation programs. A variety of audiences, including teachers, recreation service providers,…

  11. Expanding Horizons in Commercial Recreation for Disabled People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, John A.

    Based on a presentation given at the 1974 National Conference on Commercial Recreation for Disabled People, the paper examines the role of commercial recreation in the lives of the handicapped. Examples of commercial recreation enterprises are listed for equipment, goods and products; recreation centers, services, and schools; entertainment;…

  12. 36 CFR 71.11 - Collection of Federal recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recreation fees. 71.11 Section 71.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.11 Collection of Federal recreation fees. The bureaus of the Department of the Interior administering outdoor recreation programs shall provide for the collection...

  13. 36 CFR 71.11 - Collection of Federal recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recreation fees. 71.11 Section 71.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.11 Collection of Federal recreation fees. The bureaus of the Department of the Interior administering outdoor recreation programs shall provide for the collection...

  14. 36 CFR 71.2 - Types of Federal recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Types of Federal recreation... INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.2 Types of Federal recreation fees. There shall be three types of Federal recreation fees: (a) Entrance fees, charged either on an annual or single-visit basis, for admission to...

  15. 43 CFR 2933.10 - Obtaining Recreation Use Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining Recreation Use Permits. 2933.10... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.10 Obtaining Recreation Use Permits....

  16. 43 CFR 3101.6 - Recreation and public purposes lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreation and public purposes lands. 3101... Leases § 3101.6 Recreation and public purposes lands. Under the Recreation and Public Purposes Act, as amended (43 U.S.C. 869 et seq.), all lands within Recreation and Public Purposes leases and patents...

  17. 36 CFR 71.2 - Types of Federal recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of Federal recreation... INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.2 Types of Federal recreation fees. There shall be three types of Federal recreation fees: (a) Entrance fees, charged either on an annual or single-visit basis, for admission to...

  18. 43 CFR 2933.20 - Fees for Recreation Use Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fees for Recreation Use Permits. 2933.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.20 Fees for Recreation Use Permits....

  19. Recreation and Sport Planning and Design. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Jim

    This book offers guidelines for planning and designing cost-effective community recreation and sports facilities and open spaces in Australia. Seven chapters include: (1) "Benefits of Recreation and Sport" (e.g., quality of life, and diversity of recreation and sport); (2) "Provision of Recreation and Sport Open Spaces" (e.g.,…

  20. 40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water-related recreation. 230.52... Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation... disposal of dredged or fill material may adversely modify or destroy water use for recreation by...

  1. 40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water-related recreation. 230.52... Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation... disposal of dredged or fill material may adversely modify or destroy water use for recreation by...

  2. 40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water-related recreation. 230.52... Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation... disposal of dredged or fill material may adversely modify or destroy water use for recreation by...

  3. 40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Water-related recreation. 230.52... Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation... disposal of dredged or fill material may adversely modify or destroy water use for recreation by...

  4. Facility Focus: Athletic and Recreation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents three examples showing how bigger is better in the design of athletic and recreation buildings. The benefits of a new 225,000 square foot university recreation and athletic center or explored as are the expansion of a 25-year-old, 3,500-seat gymnasium to a 10,000-seat, multipurpose arena; and the features of a multi-level 153,000 square…

  5. Bacillus mesophilus sp. nov., an alginate-degrading bacterium isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Xia; Liu, Guo-Hong; Liu, Bo; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, endospore-forming bacterium, designated SA4(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern at Wendeng, Shandong Province, PR China. Cells were observed to be rod shaped, alginase positive, catalase positive and motile. The strain was found to grow at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 °C (optimum 35 °C), and pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) with 0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl concentration (optimum NaCl 3.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SA4(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus and exhibits 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.6, 96.5, 96.3 and 96.2 % with Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719(T), Bacillus acidicola 105-2(T), Bacillus shackletonii LMG 18435(T) and Bacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 420(T), respectively. The menaquinone was identified as MK-7 and the major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids detected were anteiso-C15:0 (22.3 %), iso-C15:0 (22.6 %), iso-C16:0 (14.8 %) and iso-C14:0 (14.7 %). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties clearly indicated that isolate SA4(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus mesophius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA4(T) (=DSM 101000(T)=CCTCC AB 2015209(T)).

  6. Epidemiological study of foot and ankle injuries in recreational sports

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Alexandre de Paiva; Lara, Luiz Carlos Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This is a retrospective study showing the incidence, type and extent of injuries occurring in the foot and/or ankle as a result of recreational sports practice. METHODS: We treated 131 patients, of which 123 were male and 8 female, with a history of trauma and pain in the foot and/or ankle after the practicing recreational sports. The average age of the male patients was 24.53 years. The evaluation was done through a research protocol, which contained the variables age, sex, diagnosis, and type of recreational sport. RESULTS: The sports were classified according to the American Medical Association, which divides them into contact and non-contact sports. 82.4% of the sample practiced contact sports, while 17.6% practiced sports classified as non-contact. CONCLUSIONS: The sprained ankle was the most frequent type of injury, especially those of grade I and II. Soccer was the sport responsible for the highest incidence of injuries and among its various forms the indoor soccer presented the highest frequency of injuries (35%). In the non-contact sports, the highest incidence was found in running. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453628

  7. Historical Patterns and Drivers of Spatial Changes in Recreational Fishing Activity in Puget Sound, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Beaudreau, Anne H.; Whitney, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are the primary users of many coastal fish stocks; yet, spatial and temporal patterns of recreational and subsistence fishing in coastal marine ecosystems are poorly documented. Knowledge about the spatial distribution of fishing activities can inform place-based management that balances species conservation with opportunities for recreation and subsistence. We used a participatory mapping approach to document changes in spatial fishing patterns of 80 boat-based recreational anglers from 1950 to 2010 in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Hand-drawn fishing areas for salmon, rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs were digitized and analyzed in a Geographic Information System. We found that recreational fishing has spanned the majority of Puget Sound since the 1950s, with the heaviest use limited to small areas of central and northern Puget Sound. People are still fishing in the same places they were decades ago, with relatively little change in specific locations despite widespread declines in salmon and bottomfish populations during the second half of the 20th century. While the location of core fishing areas remained consistent, the size of those areas and intensity of use changed over time. The size of fishing areas increased through the 2000s for salmon but declined after the 1970s and 1980s for rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs. Our results suggest that the spatial extent of recreational bottomfishing increased after the 1960s, when the availability of motorized vessels and advanced fish-finding technologies allowed anglers to expand their scope beyond localized angling from piers and boathouses. Respondents offered a wide range of reasons for shifts in fishing areas over time, reflecting substantial individual variation in motivations and behaviors. Changes in fishing areas were most commonly attributed to changes in residence and declines in target species and least tied to fishery regulations, despite the implementation of at least 25 marine

  8. Detection of microsporidia in drinking water, wastewater and recreational rivers.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Fernando; Castro Hermida, José Antonio; Fenoy, Soledad; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; del Aguila, Carmen

    2011-10-15

    Diarrhea is the main health problem caused by human-related microsporidia, and waterborne transmission is one of the main risk factors for intestinal diseases. Recent studies suggest the involvement of water in the epidemiology of human microsporidiosis. However, studies related to the presence of microsporidia in different types of waters from countries where human microsporidiosis has been described are still scarce. Thirty-eight water samples from 8 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), 8 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and 6 recreational river areas (RRAs) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been analyzed. One hundred liters of water from DWTPs and 50 L of water from WWTPs and RRAs were filtered to recover parasites, using the IDEXX Filta-Max® system. Microsporidian spores were identified by Weber's stain and positive samples were analyzed by PCR, using specific primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and Encephalitozoon hellem. Microsporidia spores were identified by staining protocols in eight samples (21.0%): 2 from DWTPs, 5 from WWTPs, and 1 from an RRA. In the RRA sample, the microsporidia were identified as E. intestinalis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human-pathogenic microsporidia in water samples from DWTPs, WWTPs and RRAs in Spain. These observations add further evidence to support that new and appropriate control and regulations for drinking, wastewater, and recreational waters should be established to avoid health risks from this pathogen.

  9. 75 FR 5759 - Notice of New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII, Pub. L...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Forest Service Notice of New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII... Recreation Fee Sites. SUMMARY: The Soda Springs Ranger District of the Caribou-Targhee National Forest is... appreciate and enjoy the availability of developed recreation campground and picnicking facilities....

  10. GCOOS Web Applications for Recreational Boaters and Fishermen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobara, S.; Howard, M. K.; Simoniello, C.; Jochens, A. E.; Gulf Of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (Gcoos-Ra)

    2010-12-01

    Spatial and temporal information on the ecology of marine species and encompassing oceanographic environment is vital to the development of effective strategies for marine resource management and biodiversity conservation. Assembling data and generating products is a time-consuming and often laborious part of the workflow required of fisheries specialists, resource managers, marine scientists and other stakeholder groups for effective fishery management and marine spatial planning. Workflow costs for all groups can be significantly reduced through the use of interoperable networked data systems. The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) is one of 11 RAs comprising the non-Federal part of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). The RAs serve the region’s needs for data and information: by working with data providers to offer their data in standardized ways following IOOS guidance, by gathering stakeholders’ needs and requirements, and by producing basic products or facilitating product-generation by others to meet those needs. The GCOOS Data Portal aggregates regional near real-time data and serves these data through standardized service interfaces suitable for automated machine access or in formats suitable for human consumption. The related Products Portal generates products in graphical displays for humans and in standard formats for importing into common software packages. Web map applications are created using ArcGIS server RESTful service, publicly available Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) layers, and Web Coverage Service (WCS). Use of standardize interfaces allows us to construct seamless workflows that carry data from sensors through to products in an automated fashion. As a demonstration of the power of interoperable standards-based systems we have developed tailored product web pages for recreational boaters and fishermen. This is a part of an ongoing project to provide an

  11. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  12. Dynamic catch trends in the history of recreational spearfishing in Australia.

    PubMed

    Young, Matthew A L; Foale, Simon; Bellwood, David R

    2015-06-01

    The sustained decline in marine fisheries worldwide underscores the need to understand and monitor fisheries trends and fisher behavior. Recreational fisheries are unique in that they are not subject to the typical drivers that influence commercial and artisanal fisheries (e.g., markets or food security). Nevertheless, although exposed to a different set of drivers (i.e., interest or relaxation), recreational fisheries can contribute to fishery declines. Recreational fisheries are also difficult to assess due to an absence of past monitoring and traditional fisheries data. Therefore, we utilized a nontraditional data source (a chronology of spearfishing publications) to document historical trends in recreational spearfishing in Australia between 1952 and 2009. We extracted data on reported fish captures, advertising, and spearfisher commentary and used regression models and ordination analyses to assess historical change. The proportion of coastal fish captures reported declined approximately 80%, whereas the proportion of coral reef and pelagic fish reports increased 1750% and 560%, respectively. Catch composition shifted markedly from coastal temperate or subtropical fishes during the 1950s to 1970s to coral reef and pelagic species in the 1990s to 2000s. Advertising data and commentary by spearfishers indicated that pelagic fish species became desired targets. The mean weight of trophy coral reef fishes also declined significantly over the study period (from approximately 30-8 kg). Recreational fishing presents a highly dynamic social-ecological interface and a challenge for management. Our results emphasize the need for regulatory agencies to work closely with recreational fishing bodies to observe fisher behavior, detect shifts in target species or fishing intensity, and adapt regulatory measures.

  13. Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore's coastal marine environment.

    PubMed

    Ng, K L; Obbard, J P

    2006-07-01

    Microplastics have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to act as vectors for the transfer and exposure of persistent organic pollutants to marine organisms. This study documents, for the first time, the presence and abundance of microplastics (>1.6 microm) in Singapore's coastal environment. An optimized sampling protocol for the collection and analysis of microplastics was developed, and beach sediments and seawater (surface microlayer and subsurface layer) samples were collected from nine different locations around the coastline. Low density microplastics were separated from sediments by flotation and polymer types were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Synthetic polymer microplastics identified in beach sediments included polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Microplastics were detected in samples from four out of seven beach environments, with the greatest quantity found in sediments from two popular beaches in the eastern part of Singapore. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene microplastics were also found in the surface microlayer (50-60 microm) and subsurface layer (1m) of coastal waters. The presence of microplastics in sediments and seawater is likely due to on-going waste disposal practices from industries and recreational activities, and discharge from shipping.

  14. Assessment of ultrasound-assisted extraction as sample pre-treatment for the measurement of lead isotope ratios in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costas-Rodríguez, M.; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was evaluated as a sample preparation procedure for lead isotope ratio measurements in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 20 mg of marine biological tissue and 1 mL of acid extractant were sonicated for 3 min at 60% ultrasound amplitude. Matrix separation was performed in the supernatant using a chromatographic exchange resin (Sr-Spec™). Total elimination of organic matter was achieved during the separation step. Microwave-assisted digestion and dry-ashing were used for comparative purposes. No significant differences were found in lead isotope ratios at 95% of confidence level. UAE emerges as an advantageous alternative to classical methods for sample preparation owing to its simplicity and rapidity ( i.e. operation steps were reduced), low reagent consumption and low contamination risks.

  15. Delhi Recreation-Education Project Report. Volume Three, Curriculum: Educational Program in Outdoor Recreation Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Henry G., Jr.; And Others

    A survey of colleges offering 2-year programs in some phase of recreation was undertaken to determine what should be the major thrust of the recreation-education program for SUNY Agricultural and Technical College in Delhi, New York. In planning the curriculum, it was recommended that there be a flexible educational program which would allow a…

  16. Social-Psychological Factors Influencing Recreation Demand: Evidence from Two Recreational Rivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jordan W.; Moore, Roger L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of estimating demand for recreation areas involve making inferences about individuals' preferences. Frequently, the assumption is made that recreationists' cost of traveling to a site is a reliable measure of the value they place on that resource and the recreation opportunities it provides. This assumption may ignore other…

  17. 36 CFR 71.10 - Special recreation permits and special recreation permit fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities, recreation events, and the use of motorized recreation vehicles. In any instance where such a... existing resource management programs and objectives; (3) The necessary clean-up and restoration is made... the service area of the management unit at which the fee is charged; (5) The economic...

  18. Detection and molecular characterization of Giardia isolated from recreational lake water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yvonne A L; Ramasame, Sharmila D; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff W; Smith, Huw V

    2009-12-01

    Nine 50-l surface water samples from a Malaysian recreational lake were examined microscopically using an immunomagnetisable separation-immunofluorescent method. No Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected, but 77.8% of samples contained low numbers of Giardia cysts (range, 0.17-1.1 cysts/l), which were genetically characterised by SSU rRNA gene sequencing. Genotype analyses indicated the presence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage A suggesting potential risk to public health. The present study represents the first contribution to our knowledge of G. duodenalis assemblages in Malaysian recreational water.

  19. Biological effects and subsequent economic effects and losses from marine pollution and degradations in marine environments: Implications from the literature.

    PubMed

    Ofiara, Douglas D; Seneca, Joseph J

    2006-08-01

    This paper serves as the missing piece in a more fuller understanding about economic losses from marine pollution, and demonstrates what losses have been estimated in the literature. Biological effects from marine pollution are linked with resulting economic effects and losses. The merging of these two areas is usually absent in studies of marine pollution losses. The literature has examined several effects due to marine pollution: damages due to harvest closures-restrictions, damages from consumption of unsafe seafood, damages due to decreased recreational activity, and damages related to waterfront real estate adjacent to contaminated water. Overall, marine pollution can and has resulted in sizable economic effects and losses. On the basis of the literature there is adequate justification for public policy actions to curb marine pollution, require inspection of seafood for toxic substances, and preserve marine water quality and sensitive marine environments.

  20. Transcriptome of the dead: characterisation of immune genes and marker development from necropsy samples in a free-ranging marine mammal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcriptomes are powerful resources, providing a window on the expressed portion of the genome that can be generated rapidly and at low cost for virtually any organism. However, because many genes have tissue-specific expression patterns, developing a complete transcriptome usually requires a 'discovery pool' of individuals to be sacrificed in order to harvest mRNA from as many different types of tissue as possible. This hinders transcriptome development in large, charismatic and endangered species, many of which stand the most to gain from such approaches. To circumvent this problem in a model pinniped species, we 454 sequenced cDNA from testis, heart, spleen, intestine, kidney and lung tissues obtained from nine adult male Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) that died of natural causes at Bird Island, South Georgia. Results After applying stringent quality control criteria based on length and annotation, we obtained 12,397 contigs which, in combination with 454 data previously obtained from skin, gave a total of 23,096 unique contigs. Homology was found to 77.0% of dog (Canis lupus familiaris) transcripts, suggesting that the combined assembly represents a substantial proportion of this species' transcriptome. Moreover, only 0.5% of transcripts revealed sequence similarity to bacteria, implying minimal contamination, and the percentage of transcripts involved in cell death was low at 2.6%. Transcripts with immune-related annotations were almost five-fold enriched relative to skin and represented 13.2% of all spleen-specific contigs. By reference to the dog, we also identified transcripts revealing homology to five class I, ten class II and three class III genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex and derived the putative genomic distribution of 17,121 contigs, 2,119 in silico mined microsatellites and 9,382 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Conclusions Our findings suggest that transcriptome development based on samples collected post

  1. Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly demonstrate that adults and

  2. Coupling a high-temperature catalytic oxidation total organic carbon analyzer to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to measure natural-abundance delta13C-dissolved organic carbon in marine and freshwater samples.

    PubMed

    Panetta, Robert J; Ibrahim, Mina; Gélinas, Yves

    2008-07-01

    The stable isotope composition of dissolved organic carbon (delta(13)C-DOC) provides powerful information toward understanding carbon sources and cycling, but analytical limitations have precluded its routine measurement in natural samples. Recent interfacing of wet oxidation-based dissolved organic carbon analyzers and isotope ratio mass spectrometers has simplified the measurement of delta(13)C-DOC in freshwaters, but the analysis of salty estuarine/marine samples still proves difficult. Here we describe the coupling of the more widespread high-temperature catalytic oxidation-based total organic carbon analyzer to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HTC-IRMS) through cryogenic trapping of analyte gases exiting the HTC analyzer for routine analysis of delta(13)C-DOC in aquatic and marine samples. Targeted elimination of major sources of background CO2 originating from the HTC analyzer allows for the routine measurement of samples over the natural range of DOC concentrations (from 40 microM to over 2000 microM), and salinities (<0.1-36 g/kg). Because consensus reference natural samples for delta(13)C-DOC do not exist, method validation was carried out with water-soluble stable isotope standards as well as previously measured natural samples (IAEA sucrose, Suwannee River Fulvic Acids, Deep Sargasso Sea consensus reference material, and St. Lawrence River water) and result in excellent delta(13)C-DOC accuracy (+/-0.2 per thousand) and precision (+/-0.3 per thousand).

  3. A trophic cascade triggers collapse of a salt-marsh ecosystem with intensive recreational fishing.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Bertness, Mark D; Coverdale, Tyler C; Herrmann, Nicholas C; Angelini, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Overexploitation of predators has been linked to the collapse of a growing number of shallow-water marine ecosystems. However, salt-marsh ecosystems are often viewed and managed as systems controlled by physical processes, despite recent evidence for herbivore-driven die-off of marsh vegetation. Here we use field observations, experiments, and historical records at 14 sites to examine whether the recently reported die-off of northwestern Atlantic salt marshes is associated with the cascading effects of predator dynamics and intensive recreational fishing activity. We found that the localized depletion of top predators at sites accessible to recreational anglers has triggered the proliferation of herbivorous crabs, which in turn results in runaway consumption of marsh vegetation. This suggests that overfishing may be a general mechanism underlying the consumer-driven die-off of salt marshes spreading throughout the western Atlantic. Our findings support the emerging realization that consumers play a dominant role in regulating marine plant communities and can lead to ecosystem collapse when their impacts are amplified by human activities, including recreational fishing.

  4. Detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from recreational beach using the mecA gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Aisya; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    Water samples were collected in triplicates from three different locations choosen from the recreational beach of Teluk Kemang, Port Dickson as sampling station including main area of recreation activity for the public. Bacteria were isolated from the water and cultured. Out of 286 presumptive Staphylococcus aureus enumerated by using culture method, only 4 (1.4 %) confirmed as Meticillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on PCR detection of mecA gene. Interestingly, all of MRSA detections were found at the main area of recreational activity. Our results suggested that public beaches may be reservoir for transmission of MRSA to beach visitors and PCR using the mecA gene is the fastest way to detect this pathogenic bacteria.

  5. Hydration for recreational sport and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2012-11-01

    This review presents recommendations for fluid needs and hydration assessment for recreational activity. Fluid needs are based on sweat losses, dependent on intensity and duration of the activity, and will vary among individuals. Prolonged aerobic activity is adversely influenced by dehydration, and heat exposure will magnify this effect. Fluid needs predicted for running 5-42 km at recreational paces show that fluid losses are <2% body mass; thus, aggressive fluid replacement may not be necessary. Competitive paces result in greater fluid losses and greater fluid needs. Fluid needs for recreational activity may be low; however, carbohydrate consumption (sport drinks, gels, bars) can benefit high-intensity (≤ 1 h) and less-intense, long-duration activity (≥ 1 h). Spot measures of urine color or urine-specific gravity to assess hydration status have limitations. First morning urine concentration and body mass with gross thirst perception can be simple ways to assess hydration status.

  6. Solar energy for a community recreation center

    SciTech Connect

    Libman, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A 58,000 ft/sup 2/ recreation center in Shenandoah, Georgia is described. Rooftop solar collectors and reflectors serve as a basis for the active solar heating and cooling systems. The recreation center clearly demonstrates the technical feasibility of solar application in a recreation setting; economically, however, results are shown to be mixed. Although effective in the heating mode, solar cooling is considered as questionable in terms of a reasonable payoff period. A computer model predicts a payoff period of 11 years based on 1977 energy prices. The design and construction costs of the solar heating and cooling system ($726,000) was 90% financed by ERDA. A hockey-size ice rink and a gymnasium plus locker rooms and meeting rooms comprised the major part of the floor space. Problems encountered and operation of the facility are described. (MJJ)

  7. Microbial source tracking markers at three inland recreational lakes in Ohio, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    During the 2011 recreational season, samples were collected for E. coli and microbial source tracking (MST) marker concentrations to begin to understand potential sources of fecal contamination at three inland recreational lakes in Ohio - Buckeye, Atwood, and Tappan Lakes. The results from 32 regular samples, 4 field blanks, and 7 field replicates collected at 5 sites are presented in this report. At the three lakes, the ruminant-associated marker was found most often (57-73 percent of samples) but at estimated quantities, followed by the dog-associated marker (30-43 percent of samples). The human-associated marker was found in 14 and 50 percent of samples from Atwood and Tappan Lakes, respectively, but was not found in any samples from the two Buckeye Lake sites. The gull-associated marker was detected in only two samples, both from Tappan Lake.

  8. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  9. Can visitor regulations enhance recreational experiences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Jeffrey E.; McCool, Stephen F.

    1988-01-01

    Regulations at recreation sites have been described as anathema to recreation itself. Many recent authors have suggested that managers use more “light-handed” techniques, such as information and education, before attempting regulatory and intrusive actions. This study of visitors to Glacier National Park in Montana, USA, during the fall bald eagle migration season demonstrates that, under certain conditions, recreationists will view regulations as a way to enhance the opportunity rather than detract from it. The results reinforce previous suggestions in the literature that managers carefully examine the objectives and consequences of regulations prior to their use.

  10. Marine and Other Aquatic Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Surg Capt. Jandhyala; Deo, Surg Cdr. Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. “Suit squeeze” due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d’orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions. PMID:28216728

  11. Marine and Other Aquatic Dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Surg Capt Jandhyala; Deo, Surg Cdr Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. "Suit squeeze" due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  12. Motivations for Recreating on Farmlands, Private Forests, and State or National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor, Sandra; Barbieri, Carla; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja; Aguilar, Francisco X.; Smith, Jordan W.

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the importance of different motivations to visit three types of recreational settings—farms, private forests, and state or national parks. Data were collected via a mail-back questionnaire administered to a stratified random sample of households in Missouri (USA). Descriptive and inferential statistics reveal both similarities and discontinuities in motivations for visiting farms, private forests, and state or national parks for recreation. Being with family, viewing natural scenery, and enjoying the smells and sounds of nature were all highly important motivations for visiting the three types of settings. However, all 15 motivations examined were perceived to be significantly more important for visits to state or national parks than to farms or private forests. Findings suggest that individuals are more strongly motivated to recreate at state and national parks relative to farmlands or forests. Post hoc paired t tests comparing motivations between both agricultural settings (farms and private forests) revealed significant differences in eight different recreational motivations. Individuals tended to place more importance on the ability to use equipment and test their skills when considering recreating on private forests. Conversely, social motivations (e.g., doing something with the family) were more important when individuals were considering recreating on farmland. Collectively, the findings suggest individuals expect distinctly different outcomes from their visits to farmlands, private forests, or state or national parks. Consequently, all three types of recreational settings have competitive advantages that their managers could capitalize on when making decisions about how to attract new visitors or produce the most desirable experiences for current recreationists.

  13. Motivations for recreating on farmlands, private forests, and state or national parks.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor, Sandra; Barbieri, Carla; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja; Aguilar, Francisco X; Smith, Jordan W

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the importance of different motivations to visit three types of recreational settings--farms, private forests, and state or national parks. Data were collected via a mail-back questionnaire administered to a stratified random sample of households in Missouri (USA). Descriptive and inferential statistics reveal both similarities and discontinuities in motivations for visiting farms, private forests, and state or national parks for recreation. Being with family, viewing natural scenery, and enjoying the smells and sounds of nature were all highly important motivations for visiting the three types of settings. However, all 15 motivations examined were perceived to be significantly more important for visits to state or national parks than to farms or private forests. Findings suggest that individuals are more strongly motivated to recreate at state and national parks relative to farmlands or forests. Post hoc paired t tests comparing motivations between both agricultural settings (farms and private forests) revealed significant differences in eight different recreational motivations. Individuals tended to place more importance on the ability to use equipment and test their skills when considering recreating on private forests. Conversely, social motivations (e.g., doing something with the family) were more important when individuals were considering recreating on farmland. Collectively, the findings suggest individuals expect distinctly different outcomes from their visits to farmlands, private forests, or state or national parks. Consequently, all three types of recreational settings have competitive advantages that their managers could capitalize on when making decisions about how to attract new visitors or produce the most desirable experiences for current recreationists.

  14. 50 CFR 80.23 - Allocation of funds between marine and freshwater fishery projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... freshwater fishery projects. 80.23 Section 80.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... RESTORATION ACTS § 80.23 Allocation of funds between marine and freshwater fishery projects. (a) Each coastal... for marine fisheries and projects having recreational benefits for freshwater fisheries. (1)...

  15. Today's Youth in Tomorrow's Sea. Another Title in the Series "Marine Careers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Harold L.

    A discussion of many career possibilities related to the sea is presented. The false impressions many people have about the sea and about marine careers are dispelled. Among the career areas examined are offshore industry careers such as oil and gas drilling, careers in fishing, in seafaring, marine recreation, oceanography, aquaculture,…

  16. 76 FR 68429 - Availability of Seats for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Research; Chamber of Commerce/Tourism/Recreation... management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected by the sanctuary... in the management of the sanctuary. Serving in a volunteer capacity, the advisory council's 15...

  17. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  18. Survey of Alaskan subsistence fish, marine mammal, and invertebrate samples collected 1989-91 for exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Volume 1. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Brown, D.W.; Hom, T.; Burrows, D.G.; Sloan, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs). Vertebrates can readily biotransform ACs to metabolites that are concentrated in bile for excretion. This process greatly limits the accumulation of ACs in tissues such as edible flesh. Thus, for fish and marine mammals, bile was first analyzed for the presence of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) as an indication of exposure to petroleum.

  19. Multiculturalism in Therapeutic Recreation: Terminology Clarification and Practical Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Kathleen; Dattilo, John

    1997-01-01

    Provides information to therapeutic recreation professionals on multicultural issues and provides guidelines on language usage. Suggests that professionals follow American Psychological Association guidelines in writing and indicates ways to implement more culturally sensitive therapeutic recreation practices. (SM)

  20. 1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL REGISTRY BOOTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  1. Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Recreation and Leisure Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Emilyn

    1988-01-01

    This article outlines the process of systematic entrepreneurial innovation as a tool for recreation industry managers seeking increased productivity. Eight sources of innovation, with recreation related examples, are described. A guide to implementing the process is included. (IAH)

  2. Deployment and Psychological Correlates of Suicide-Related Ideation and Behaviors for a sample of U.S. Airmen and Marines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-03

    mental health diagnoses, mental health visits, and the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Hyman, Ireland, Frost, & Cottrell, 2001...through yet another long - term training program. Also, of course, Max and Milo, my guardian angels and best friends. 4 Abstract OBJECTIVE...from two branches of the military – the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) – have been selected to serve as cases for the research

  3. 24 CFR 1710.114 - Recreational facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recreational facilities. 1710.114 Section 1710.114 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  4. 24 CFR 1710.214 - Recreational facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recreational facilities. 1710.214 Section 1710.214 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  5. Star Trek as Recreational Reading for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Mecedes

    A study investigated the appropriateness of the "Star Trek" book series for use as recreational reading material for elementary school children. The 12 books were adapted from the television series by James Blish. Appropriateness was determined by evaluating the quality and the readability levels of the books. Quality was ascertained by examining…

  6. RURAL RECREATION, NEW OPPORTUNITIES ON PRIVATE LAND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    ABOUT 90 PERCENT OF ALL AMERICANS PARTICIPATED IN SOME FORM OF OUTDOOR RECREATION IN THE SUMMER OF 1960, AND THE TOTAL NUMBER IS EXPECTED TO INCREASE THREEFOLD BY THE TURN OF THE CENTURY. A LIST OF THE MOST POPULAR OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES INCLUDES DRIVING, WALKING, GAMES, SWIMMING, SIGHTSEEING, BICYCLING, FISHING, HIKING, BOATING, AND PICNICING.…

  7. Grassroots Involvement in Recreation for Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Nancy L.; And Others

    Through efforts of concerned, knowledgeable, and culturally aware individuals, recreational programs which may help the special needs of Native Americans can be designed and implemented. Knowledge of tribal similarities and differences, cultural values, diverse life-styles, tribal beliefs, socioeconomic status, and leisure pursuits is paramount in…

  8. Arts, Recreation & Children in Arkansas, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shobo, Yetunde A.

    This special Kids Count report examines the well-being of Arkansas' children, focusing on opportunities for children for arts education, physical education, and recreation; the report also links statistics on education and aesthetics with students' reading scores. The statistical portrait is based on 23 indicators of child well-being in six…

  9. Rescuing Reality: Viewer interpretation of Television Recreations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, David B.; Dobkin, Bethami A.

    While contemporary communication perspectives often make a distinction between reality and the televised presentation of reality, viewers may find this distinction difficult to maintain. Television is imbued with perceived objectivity. The use of recreations in popular television programming requires a reconceptualization of how viewers perceive…

  10. Recreation for the Incarcerated: Treatment or Privilege?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; O'Morrow, Gerald

    1981-01-01

    With the shift in correctional philosophy from punishment to rehabilitation, juvenile correction facilities are aimed toward providing a specialized program for confined youth. The primary goal is to reintegrate the youthful offender with society through a rehabilitation program involving therapeutic recreation. (JN)

  11. Aquatic Therapy. Making Waves in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation professionals often use aquatic therapy to improve physiological and psychological functioning, and they have reported improvements for people with many different types of disabilities. The paper discusses aquatic therapy methods, water as a therapeutic environment, professional training and development, and lifestyle…

  12. Annual in Therapeutic Recreation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Michael E., Ed.; Card, Jaclyn A., Ed.

    This volume focuses on therapeutic recreation, as a subject of inquiry and as a treatment tool. The 11 articles include original field based research, program development initiatives, issue and theory of practice papers, and original tutorials in assessment and research. The article titles are: "The Role of Leisure Education with Family…

  13. Case Study Research in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Bryan P.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the rationale for and implications of case study research in therapeutic recreation, examining: what can be learned from studying a single case; issues of validity and reliability; ethical conduct of research; and the practice of case study research (case protocol, case selection, collecting data, analyzing and interpreting data, and…

  14. Outdoor Recreation in Two European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaires completed by older adults in Luxembourg (N=138) and in France (N=100) revealed a high extent of participation in outdoor recreation (a demonstrated predictor of successful aging) in the two countries. Identified similarities and differences in socioeconomic characteristics, attitudes, and environmental factors associated with…

  15. Guidelines for Recreation and Athletic Field Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crookham, Joe P.

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines for planning the lighting facilities for recreational and other athletic fields are presented (a softball field is used for an example). Guidelines are given for determining (1) lighting needs and levels of uniformity; (2) lamp choice; (3) structural requirements; (4) operating and maintenance costs; and (5) financing options. (PP)

  16. 32 CFR 552.166 - Recreational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.166 Recreational use. (a) Fort Lewis: (1) Individuals or... directly to the I Corps Public Affairs Office (PAO). (b) Yakima Training Center: Access to the...

  17. 32 CFR 552.166 - Recreational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.166 Recreational use. (a) Fort Lewis: (1) Individuals or... directly to the I Corps Public Affairs Office (PAO). (b) Yakima Training Center: Access to the...

  18. Effects of Recreational Drugs on Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Millis, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The literature relating to the effects of recreational drugs on physical work and endurance is reviewed. Interactions between muscular coordination and cognitive function make it difficult to formulate overall conclusions about the effect of these drugs on physical performance. PMID:3546707

  19. Special Recreation--Bridge to Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, John A.

    The document points out the merits of scouting as a recreational program for the handicapped, and considers the YMCA's (Young Men's Christian Association's) Project MAY (Mainstreaming Activities for Youth) and the Boy Scouts of America's (BSA) Scouting for the Handicapped program. Dimensions of scouting seen as beneficial for the handicapped…

  20. Re-Creating Pablo Picasso's "Guernica"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daseler, Jack C.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the teachers at the author's school completed a group project with their eighth-graders in which they recreated a mural version of the famous painting by Pablo Picasso, "Guernica." This activity was aimed at: (1) studying the rise of Fascism in Spain and Germany during the Spanish Civil War prior to World War II; (2) learning…

  1. Recreational Gun Use by California Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    Most research on adolescents and firearms focuses on urban populations, handguns, and homicide. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of recreational gun use (RGU)--for hunting or target shooting--among 5,801 community-residing 12- to 17-year-old Californians. Data are from the first statewide California Health Interview Survey (CHIS),…

  2. Improving Recreational Reading Habits of Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krug, Marline; Fordonski, Patricia

    A study investigated the effectiveness of a program for improving the recreational reading habits of elementary students through the use of cross-age tutoring in critical reading strategies. The targeted population consisted of a kindergarten and a fourth-grade class in the growing upper-middle-class community of Geneva, Illinois, located…

  3. Women's Recreational Surfing: A Patronising Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Rebecca; McCuaig, Louise; Phillips, Murray G.

    2015-01-01

    Research analysing the operation of power within sport and physical activity has exposed the marginalisation and exclusion of women's sport in explicit and institutionalised ways. However, for women in recreational and alternative physical activities like surfing, sporting experiences lie outside institutionalised structures, thus requiring…

  4. Infusing JUST Design in Campus Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staeger-Wilson, Katheryne; Sampson, Douglas H.

    2012-01-01

    This practice brief highlights the collaborative work among a disability resource professional, a university architect, and students with disabilities to create a campus recreation center with universal design features. This partnership serves to illustrate that building to minimum compliance standards does not necessarily remove barriers to…

  5. Androgyny and Recreation Participation for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.; And Others

    This study analyzed the personality traits (masculine, feminine, androgynous, and undifferentiated sex role characteristics) of female students, staff, and faculty at a medium-sized university to determine how personality traits were associated with participation in recreational activities. A questionnaire consisting of items related to the Bem…

  6. Outdoor Recreation. Curriculum Materials for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElwee, Robert; And Others

    This curriculum guide for agricultural education contains nine chapters on outdoor recreation. Each is written by a different author (professors at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) and follows a similar format: Objectives, list of references, list of teaching materials, notes on teacher preparation, content for presentation,…

  7. Research on Texas Water and Recreation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station.

    The need for research pertaining to the best use of water and recreation resources in Texas is emphasized in these four papers presented at the 1968 Experiment Station Conference, College Station, Texas. "Parameters of Water Resources in Texas" identifies and elaborates upon the important elements presently constituting the water…

  8. 36 CFR 1002.23 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 1002.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND... Presidio Trust to the same extent that recreation fees have been established for the Golden Gate National... conditions of a permit issued in accordance with this section is prohibited and may result in the...

  9. Recreation Research Publications. Bibliography 1961-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echelberger, Herbert E., Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography identifies, by author and subject matter, recreational research publications, by Forest Service scientists, that have been published from 1961 through 1982. Publications are classified under six major topic areas: (1) management of areas and facilities (including such topics as wilderness/backcountry resources and use of…

  10. Guides to Outdoor Recreation Areas and Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Listed are guides, maps, and directories to recreation areas and facilities in the United States. The guides are categorized as national, regional, or state. Relevant guides are cross-referenced for camping, canoeing, fishing, hiking, and hunting. Prices and sources of supply are indicated. (EB)

  11. Realia in the Recreation Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marcia K.

    1983-01-01

    Students of recreation education at the State University College (Cortland, New York) attend a two-week outdoor education practicum held in the Adirondacks. Students study canoeing, crafts, and ecology; practice leadership and teamwork; and take part in a five-day canoeing/hiking trip. (PP)

  12. Dopaminergic System Dysfunction in Recreational Dexamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Schrantee, Anouk; Václavů, Lena; Heijtel, Dennis F R; Caan, Matthan W A; Gsell, Willy; Lucassen, Paul J; Nederveen, Aart J; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    Dexamphetamine (dAMPH) is a stimulant drug that is widely used recreationally as well as for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although animal studies have shown neurotoxic effects of dAMPH on the dopaminergic system, little is known about such effects on the human brain. Here, we studied the dopaminergic system at multiple physiological levels in recreational dAMPH users and age, gender, and IQ-matched dAMPH-naïve healthy controls. We assessed baseline D2/3 receptor availability, in addition to changes in dopamine (DA) release using single-photon emission computed tomography and DA functionality using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging, following a dAMPH challenge. Also, the subjective responses to the challenge were determined. dAMPH users displayed significantly lower striatal DA D2/3 receptor binding compared with healthy controls. In dAMPH users, we further observed a blunted DA release and DA functionality to an acute dAMPH challenge, as well as a blunted subjective response. Finally, the lower D2/3 availability, the more pleasant the dAMPH administration was experienced by control subjects, but not by dAMPH users. Thus, in agreement with preclinical studies, we show that the recreational use of dAMPH in human subjects is associated with dopaminergic system dysfunction. These findings warrant further (longitudinal) investigations and call for caution when using this drug recreationally and for ADHD. PMID:25394786

  13. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600.513 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513...

  14. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600.513 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513...

  15. Third party reimbursement: is therapeutic recreation too late?

    PubMed

    Reitter, M S

    1984-01-01

    The Social Security Amendments of 1983 have brought added concerns about the feasibility of securing third-party reimbursement for therapeutic recreation services. Retrospective, cost-based reimbursement is compared with prospective payment systems, and potential impacts on therapeutic recreation services are explored. Present status of third-party reimbursement for therapeutic recreation is outlined, and suggestions are offered for therapeutic recreation managers to utilize in responding to the changing health care industry.

  16. Are the defined substrate-based methods adequate to determine the microbiological quality of natural recreational waters?

    PubMed

    Valente, Marta Sofia; Pedro, Paulo; Alonso, M Carmen; Borrego, Juan J; Dionísio, Lídia

    2010-03-01

    Monitoring the microbiological quality of water used for recreational activities is very important to human public health. Although the sanitary quality of recreational marine waters could be evaluated by standard methods, they are time-consuming and need confirmation. For these reasons, faster and more sensitive methods, such as the defined substrate-based technology, have been developed. In the present work, we have compared the standard method of membrane filtration using Tergitol-TTC agar for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, and Slanetz and Bartley agar for enterococci, and the IDEXX defined substrate technology for these faecal pollution indicators to determine the microbiological quality of natural recreational waters. ISO 17994:2004 standard was used to compare these methods. The IDEXX for total coliforms and E. coli, Colilert, showed higher values than those obtained by the standard method. Enterolert test, for the enumeration of enterococci, showed lower values when compared with the standard method. It may be concluded that more studies to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the rapid tests are required in order to apply them for routine monitoring of marine and freshwater recreational bathing areas. The main advantages of these methods are that they are more specific, feasible and simpler than the standard methodology.

  17. 76 FR 63600 - Notice of Meeting of the Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee; Federal Lands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Recreation Resource Advisory Committee; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act AGENCY: Rocky Mountain Region, Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Meeting of the Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee (RRAC) will meet by telephone conference...

  18. Discovery of novel metabolites from marine actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kin S

    2006-06-01

    Recent findings from culture-dependent and culture-independent methods have demonstrated that indigenous marine actinomycetes exist in the oceans and are widely distributed in different marine ecosystems. There is tremendous diversity and novelty among the marine actinomycetes present in marine environments. Progress has been made to isolate novel actinomycetes from samples collected at different marine environments and habitats. These marine actinomycetes produce different types of new secondary metabolites. Many of these metabolites possess biological activities and have the potential to be developed as therapeutic agents. Marine actinomycetes are a prolific but underexploited source for the discovery of novel secondary metabolites.

  19. Fear Perceptions in Public Parks: Interactions of Environmental Concealment, the Presence of People Recreating, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Lisa J.; Ellis, Gary D.; Ruddell, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the effect of concealment (environmental cues), presence or absence of people recreating (social cues), and gender on individuals' fear of crime in a community park setting. Using a 7-point single-item indicator, 732 participants from two samples (540 park visitors and 192 college students) rated their estimates of fear of…

  20. A critical evaluation of a flow cytometer used for detecting enterococci in recreational waters.

    PubMed

    King, Dawn N; Brenner, Kristen P; Rodgers, Mark R

    2007-06-01

    The current U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved method for enterococci (Method 1600) in recreational water is a membrane filter (MF) method that takes 24 hours to obtain results. If the recreational water is not in compliance with the standard, the risk of exposure to enteric pathogens may occur before the water is identified as hazardous. Because flow cytometry combined with specific fluorescent antibodies has the potential to be used as a rapid detection method for microorganisms, this technology was evaluated as a rapid, same-day method to detect enterococci in bathing beach waters. The flow cytometer chosen for this study was a laser microbial detection system designed to detect labeled antibodies. A comparison of MF counts with flow cytometry counts of enterococci in phosphate buffer and sterile-filtered recreational water showed good agreement between the two methods. However, when flow cytometry was used, the counts were several orders of magnitude higher than the MF counts with no correlation to Enterococcus spike concentrations. The unspiked sample controls frequently had higher counts than the samples spiked with enterococci. Particles within the spiked water samples were probably counted as target cells by the flow cytometer because of autofluorescence or non-specific adsorption of antibody and carryover to subsequent samples. For these reasons, this technology may not be suitable for enterococci detection in recreational waters. Improvements in research and instrument design that will eliminate high background and carryover may make this a viable technology in the

  1. Recreational Exposure to Low Concentrations of Microcystins During an Algal Bloom in a Small Lake

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Lorraine C.; Carmichael, Wayne; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Williams, Christopher; Irvin, Mitch; Zhou, Yue; Johnson, Trisha B.; Nierenberg, Kate; Hill, Vincent R.; Kieszak, Stephanie M.; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2008-01-01

    We measured microcystins in blood from people at risk for swallowing water or inhaling spray while swimming, water skiing, jet skiing, or boating during an algal bloom. We monitored water samples from a small lake as a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom developed. We recruited 97 people planning recreational activities in that lake and seven others who volunteered to recreate in a nearby bloom-free lake. We conducted our field study within a week of finding a 10-μg/L microcystin concentration. We analyzed water, air, and human blood samples for water quality, potential human pathogens, algal taxonomy, and microcystin concentrations. We interviewed study participants for demographic and current health symptom information. Water samples were assayed for potential respiratory viruses (adenoviruses and enteroviruses), but none were detected. We did find low concentrations of Escherichia coli, indicating fecal contamination. We found low levels of microcystins (2 μg/L to 5 μg/L) in the water and (<0.1 ng/m3) in the aerosol samples. Blood levels of microcystins for all participants were below the limit of detection (0.147μg/L). Given this low exposure level, study participants reported no symptom increases following recreational exposure to microcystins. This is the first study to report that water-based recreational activities can expose people to very low concentrations of aerosol-borne microcystins; we recently conducted another field study to assess exposures to higher concentrations of these algal toxins. PMID:18728733

  2. Determinants of Intensity of Participation in Leisure and Recreational Activities by Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palisano, Robert J.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Orlin, Margo; Oeffinger, Donna; Polansky, Marcy; Maggs, Jill; Bagley, Anita; Gorton, George

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To test a model of child, family, and service determinants of intensity of participation in leisure and recreational activities by children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Participants were 288 children with CP, age range 6 to 12 years (mean 9y 8mo, SD 2y), and their parents from seven children's hospitals. The sample comprised 166 (57.6%)…

  3. 36 CFR 327.23 - Recreation use fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specialized sites, facilities, equipment or services related to outdoor recreation furnished at Federal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation use fees. 327.23... § 327.23 Recreation use fees. (a) In accordance with the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of...

  4. 36 CFR 327.23 - Recreation use fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specialized sites, facilities, equipment or services related to outdoor recreation furnished at Federal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recreation use fees. 327.23... § 327.23 Recreation use fees. (a) In accordance with the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of...

  5. 36 CFR 327.23 - Recreation use fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specialized sites, facilities, equipment or services related to outdoor recreation furnished at Federal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recreation use fees. 327.23... § 327.23 Recreation use fees. (a) In accordance with the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of...

  6. 36 CFR 327.23 - Recreation use fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specialized sites, facilities, equipment or services related to outdoor recreation furnished at Federal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreation use fees. 327.23... § 327.23 Recreation use fees. (a) In accordance with the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of...

  7. 36 CFR 327.23 - Recreation use fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specialized sites, facilities, equipment or services related to outdoor recreation furnished at Federal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Recreation use fees. 327.23... § 327.23 Recreation use fees. (a) In accordance with the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of...

  8. Rights of the Disabled to Participate in Recreational Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Freeman, Gina; Gambino, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    The article discusses federal legislation and legal information on rights of physically disabled people to participate in recreational sports. The impact of recreational sports participation for these individuals is discussed, recommending college campuses act as arenas for integrative and adapted sport programing. Goals for recreational sports…

  9. RECREATION PROBLEMS OF RURAL YOUTH IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PRENDERGAST, JOSEPH

    RURAL YOUTH WHO ARE MOVING TO URBAN AREAS ARE NOT PREPARED TO PARTICIPATE IN URBAN TYPES OF RECREATION PROGRAMS. THE RECREATION SKILLS OF THOSE WHO HAVE LEFT THE FARM BUT ARE STILL IN RURAL SETTINGS DO NOT MATCH THE URBAN OPPORTUNITIES REACHING OUT TO THEM. THOSE STILL ON THE FARMS ARE GETTING RECREATION IDEAS THROUGH MASS MEDIA WITHOUT FINDING…

  10. Medical and recreational marijuana: commentary and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial shifts in cultural attitudes towards marijuana for medical and recreational use. Potential problems with the approval, production, dispensation, route of administration, and negative health effects of medical and recreational marijuana are reviewed. Medical marijuana should be subject to the same rigorous approval process as other medications prescribed by physicians. Legalizing recreational marijuana may have negative public health effects.

  11. 20 CFR 638.515 - Recreation/avocational program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recreation/avocational program. 638.515... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.515 Recreation/avocational program. The center operator shall develop a recreation/avocational program in accordance...

  12. 43 CFR 8365.2 - Developed recreation sites and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Developed recreation sites and areas. 8365... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2 Developed recreation sites and areas. The rules governing conduct and use of a...

  13. Diffusion of Innovation: A Roadmap for Inclusive Community Recreation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; Miller, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive community recreation is an optimal environment for the development of recreation and sports skills and social relationships between people with and without disabilities. Although we know much about best practices for inclusion, little systemic change in recreation agencies has transpired. Diffusion of Innovation Theory is proposed as a…

  14. 36 CFR 261.16 - Developed recreation sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Developed recreation sites... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.16 Developed recreation sites. The following are prohibited: (a) Occupying any portion of the site for other than recreation purposes. (b) Building, attending,...

  15. 20 CFR 638.515 - Recreation/avocational program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recreation/avocational program. 638.515... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.515 Recreation/avocational program. The center operator shall develop a recreation/avocational program in accordance...

  16. 50 CFR 648.127 - Scup recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scup recreational fishing season. 648.127... Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.127 Scup recreational fishing season. Fishermen and vessels that are... possession limit specified in § 648.128(a). The recreational fishing season may be adjusted pursuant to...

  17. 50 CFR 648.127 - Scup recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scup recreational fishing season. 648.127... Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.127 Scup recreational fishing season. Fishermen and vessels that are... possession limit specified in § 648.128(a). The recreational fishing season may be adjusted pursuant to...

  18. 50 CFR 648.127 - Scup recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scup recreational fishing season. 648.127... Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.127 Scup recreational fishing season. Fishermen and vessels that are... possession limit specified in § 648.128(a). The recreational fishing season may be adjusted pursuant to...

  19. Organisation of Recreation for the Blind in the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulicheva, N.

    The booklet contains a brief description of recreation under the auspices of the All-Russia Society for the Blind in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and a number of photographs illustrating recreational activities. It is noted that approximately 24,000 blind persons participate in recreational activities located in club rooms near their…

  20. Therapeutic Recreation in the Community: An Inclusive Approach. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Marcia Jean; LeConey, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The second edition of Therapeutic Recreation in the Community: An Inclusive Approach reflects the changing and evolving nature of recreation and health care services. A number of social, economic, and political directives and technological advancements have fostered recreation in the community for all individuals. Due in part to a rising awareness…

  1. The Future of Outdoor Recreation. What the Trends Tell Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Gina

    1986-01-01

    The author looked at trend data presented at the 1985 National Outdoor Recreation Trends Symposium and synthesized the results to offer insights into the future of outdoor recreation. Discussed are social, activity, private sector recreational, economic, tourism, and policy trends. (MT)

  2. Serving the Homeless through Recreation Programs. Research Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunstler, Robin

    1993-01-01

    Literature review examines problems faced by homeless adults and children and discusses how recreation programs can serve them. The recreation and leisure profession can offer to the healthy child development through play and recreation, physical fitness, stress management, socialization, opportunities to learn goal-setting, self-esteem building,…

  3. The Citizen Survey Process in Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Craig; Gray, Howard

    This document describes the citizen survey process as it relates to study of the parks and recreation field. A community parks and recreation survey consists of identifying the interests, desires, priorities and awareness factors of citizens regarding parks and recreation programs, resources, and facilities as well as the nature and frequency of…

  4. Recreational Participation of Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia; Kehayia, Eva; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The recreation of children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) is not well understood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the recreational engagement of children with HFA and their typically developing peers. Children with HFA (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) were similar on key characteristics that may impact recreation except…

  5. 40 CFR 230.51 - Recreational and commercial fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.51 Recreational and commercial fisheries. (a) Recreational and commercial fisheries consist of harvestable fish, crustaceans, shellfish, and other aquatic... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreational and commercial...

  6. Identifying the Computer Competency Levels of Recreation Department Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorba, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    Computer-based and web-based applications are as major instructional tools to increase undergraduates' motivation at school. In the recreation field usage of, computer and the internet based recreational applications has become more prevalent in order to present visual and interactive entertainment activities. Recreation department undergraduates…

  7. Application of the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum for Outdoor Recreation Planning on Army Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 1963-A construction eUie 1tteAm engineering th amTechnical ReportN12 research Management of Training Area Evrnet...and its current use in outdoor recreation planning and management . The ROS provides a framework for resources inventory, specification of...recreational opportuni- ties, resource capability and suitability analysis, selection of managment objectives and practices, and impact assessment. The ROS

  8. Odour emission characteristics of 22 recreational rivers in Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yu; Ruan, Xiaohong; Wang, Xinguang; Ma, Qian; Lu, Xiaoming

    2014-10-01

    The odour emission characteristics of 22 recreational rivers in Nanjing were investigated and analysed. Eight odorous compounds (ammonia (NH₃), hydrogen sulphide (H₂S), sulphur dioxide (SO₂), carbon disulphide (CS₂), nitrobenzene (C₆H₅NO₂), aniline (C₆H₅NH₂), dimethylamine (C₂H₇N), and formaldehyde (HCHO)) were measured in odour emission samples collected using a custom-made emission flux hood chamber. The results showed that all odorants were detected in all monitoring rivers. NH₃ was the main odorant, with emission rates ranging from 4.86 to 15.13 μg/min m(2). The total odour emission rate of the Nan River, at 1 427.07 OU/s, was the highest of the all investigated rivers. H₂S, NH₃ and nitrobenzene were three key odour emission contributors according to their contributions to the total odour emission. A correlation analysis of the pollutants showed there was a significant positive correlation between the emission rate of NH₃ and the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH₄ (+)-N) and total nitrogen (TN). The H₂S and SO₂ emission rates had a significant positive correlation with sulphides (S(2-)) and available sulphur (AS) in the water and sediment. The content of TN, NH₄(+)-N, S(2-) and AS in the water and sediment affected the concentration of H₂S, SO₂ and NH₃ in the emission gases. NH₄(+)-N, S(2-) and AS are suggested as the key odour control indexes for reducing odours emitted from these recreational rivers. The study provides useful information for effective pollution control, especially for odour emission control for the recreational rivers of the city. It also provides a demonstrate example to show how to monitor and assess a contaminated river when odour emission and its control need to be focused on.

  9. Sustaining health promotion programs within sport and recreation organisations.

    PubMed

    Casey, Meghan M; Payne, Warren R; Eime, Rochelle M; Brown, Sue J

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of the sport and recreation sector as a setting for health promotion is a new strategy implemented by health policy makers and strategic planners. Strategies to promote and sustain health promotion activities are important considering the risk that programs may cease after initial funding ends. This study explored the factors affecting the sustainability of a sport- and recreation-based health promotion program. A stratified sampling method was used to select four of the nine Regional Sports Assemblies (RSAs) that delivered a state-wide health promotion program funded by the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation in Australia. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with four Executive Officers (EOs) and focus group discussions with their Boards of Management. A sustainability checklist with pre-specified dimensions (e.g. organisational setting, broader community environment, and program design and implementation) guided data collection and analysis. The results showed that the organisational setting and the broader community environment supported program institutionalisation; whilst the design and implementation of the program worked against institutionalisation. The capacity of the organisations to generate new funds for the program was limited; the relationship between the central funding organisation and the Boards of Management was weak; and the program did not support the retention of staff. The engagement of sport and recreation organisations has potential to facilitate health promotion and public health. To enhance organisational capacity and achieve program sustainability, it is important that organisational processes, structures, and resources that support long-term health promotion practice are effectively and efficiently planned and managed.

  10. Managing for recreational experience opportunities: the case of hikers in protected areas in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Farías Torbidoni, Estela Inés

    2011-03-01

    Planning and management for recreational activities in protected areas involves an understanding of many complex factors. Segmentation of recreation demand and of the main physical or sporting activities can contribute to the design of more efficient management strategies, which may help to maintain or significantly enhance satisfaction with the recreation experience, and this in turn could improve the interest in and appreciation of the natural environment. The current study examined the motivations of hikers in three small Natura 2000 protected areas. It establishes a typology or categorization as a contribution to better management based on a survey conducted through on-site personal interviews with a representative sample of 569 hikers. Through an analysis of the principal intervening components by means of cluster analysis, we identified three groups of hikers based on three motivational dimensions: (1) nature-minded hikers, (2) sporting hikers and (3) general-purpose hikers. The most striking results were the significant differences among group variables related to visit behaviour (frequency and duration of visits and number of people per group), previous knowledge (protection status of the areas) and recreational frequentation (trail categories and protected areas visited). A positive correlation between the degree of sympathy for nature and the degree of satisfaction with the recreational experience (including positive evaluation of the public facilities, signposting and services offered) was also observed. The results are discussed in terms of their applicability and implications in hiking management in protected natural areas such as those of Natura 2000.

  11. Managing for Recreational Experience Opportunities: The Case of Hikers in Protected Areas in Catalonia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías Torbidoni, Estela Inés

    2011-03-01

    Planning and management for recreational activities in protected areas involves an understanding of many complex factors. Segmentation of recreation demand and of the main physical or sporting activities can contribute to the design of more efficient management strategies, which may help to maintain or significantly enhance satisfaction with the recreation experience, and this in turn could improve the interest in and appreciation of the natural environment. The current study examined the motivations of hikers in three small Natura 2000 protected areas. It establishes a typology or categorization as a contribution to better management based on a survey conducted through on-site personal interviews with a representative sample of 569 hikers. Through an analysis of the principal intervening components by means of cluster analysis, we identified three groups of hikers based on three motivational dimensions: (1) nature-minded hikers, (2) sporting hikers and (3) general-purpose hikers. The most striking results were the significant differences among group variables related to visit behaviour (frequency and duration of visits and number of people per group), previous knowledge (protection status of the areas) and recreational frequentation (trail categories and protected areas visited). A positive correlation between the degree of sympathy for nature and the degree of satisfaction with the recreational experience (including positive evaluation of the public facilities, signposting and services offered) was also observed. The results are discussed in terms of their applicability and implications in hiking management in protected natural areas such as those of Natura 2000.

  12. Survey of non-charter boat recreational fishing in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted by the U.S. Virgin Islands Division of Fish and Wildlife from July- September 1986 to evaluate the efficacy of telephone surveys as a sampling technique for obtaining reliable fisheries data, and to collect fisheries data for the recreational non-charter boat fishery around the Virgin Islands. Results suggest that telephone surveys by themselves may provide biased data on recreational fishing in the Virgin Islands. Additional methods, such as mail surveys and limited creel surveys could be used to supplement the fisheries data gathered through telephone surveys. The results of this survey indicate that during the mid 1980s 10.8% of the residents of the Virgin Islands ( similar to 10,800) fished recreationally (i.e., non-charter boat anglers). These anglers made modest demands of the resources (effort: 19,200 manhours/yr;

  13. Gambling motivation and passion: a comparison study of recreational and pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Back, Ki-Joon; Lee, Choong-Ki; Stinchfield, Randy

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the structural relationship among gambling motivation, gambling passion, and behavioral intentions to gamble between recreational and pathological gamblers. Specifically, this study aimed to shed light on the different ways in which gambling motivation and affective attitude are associated with recreational and pathological gamblers. Using a purposive sampling method, 400 subjects were selected for and participated in this study during their visits to a casino. Study results echoed the notion of distinctive and separate gambling motivations and passions between recreational and pathological gamblers. Also, results identified specific areas to which casino operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling.

  14. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  15. Gas phase acid, ammonia and aerosol ionic and trace element concentrations at Cape Verde during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) 2007 intensive sampling period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, R.; Pszenny, A. A. P.; Keene, W. C.; Crete, E.; Deegan, B.; Long, M. S.; Maben, J. R.; Young, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    We report mixing ratios of soluble reactive trace gases sampled with mist chambers and the chemical composition of bulk aerosol and volatile inorganic bromine (Brg) sampled with filter packs during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) field campaign at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on São Vicente island in the tropical North Atlantic in May and June 2007. The gas-phase data include HCl, HNO3, HONO, HCOOH, CH3COOH, NH3, and volatile reactive chlorine other than HCl (Cl*). Aerosol samples were analyzed by neutron activation (Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, and Br) and ion chromatography (SO42-, Cl-, Br-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+). Content and quality of the data, which are available under doi:10.5281/zenodo.6956, are presented and discussed.

  16. Gas phase acid, ammonia and aerosol ionic and trace element concentrations at Cape Verde during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) 2007 intensive sampling period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, R.; Pszenny, A. A. P.; Keene, W. C.; Crete, E.; Deegan, B.; Long, M. S.; Maben, J. R.; Young, A. H.

    2013-07-01

    We report mixing ratios of soluble reactive trace gases sampled with mist chambers and the chemical composition of bulk aerosol and volatile inorganic bromine (Brg) sampled with filter packs during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) field campaign at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on São Vicente island in the tropical North Atlantic in May and June 2007. The gas-phase data include HCl, HNO3, HONO, HCOOH, CH3COOH, NH3, and volatile reactive chlorine other than HCl (Cl*). Aerosol samples were analyzed by neutron activation (Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, and Br) and ion chromatography (SO42-, Cl-, Br-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+). Content and quality of the data, which are available under doi:10.5281/zenodo.6956, are presented and discussed.

  17. Water Quality Conditions Associated with Cattle Grazing and Recreation on National Forest Lands

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Leslie M.; Kromschroeder, Lea; Atwill, Edward R.; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Tate, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial concern that microbial and nutrient pollution by cattle on public lands degrades water quality, threatening human and ecological health. Given the importance of clean water on multiple-use landscapes, additional research is required to document and examine potential water quality issues across common resource use activities. During the 2011 grazing-recreation season, we conducted a cross sectional survey of water quality conditions associated with cattle grazing and/or recreation on 12 public lands grazing allotments in California. Our specific study objectives were to 1) quantify fecal indicator bacteria (FIB; fecal coliform and E. coli), total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations in surface waters; 2) compare results to a) water quality regulatory benchmarks, b) recommended maximum nutrient concentrations, and c) estimates of nutrient background concentrations; and 3) examine relationships between water quality, environmental conditions, cattle grazing, and recreation. Nutrient concentrations observed throughout the grazing-recreation season were at least one order of magnitude below levels of ecological concern, and were similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimates for background water quality conditions in the region. The relative percentage of FIB regulatory benchmark exceedances widely varied under individual regional and national water quality standards. Relative to USEPA’s national E. coli FIB benchmarks–the most contemporary and relevant standards for this study–over 90% of the 743 samples collected were below recommended criteria values. FIB concentrations were significantly greater when stream flow was low or stagnant, water was turbid, and when cattle were actively observed at sampling. Recreation sites had the lowest mean FIB, total nitrogen, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations, and there were no significant differences in FIB and

  18. 75 FR 26711 - Notice of New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII, Pub. L...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... No: 2010-11040] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII, Pub. L. 108-447) AGENCY: National Forests in Mississippi, USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of New Recreation Fee Site. SUMMARY: Bethel Motorcycle and...

  19. 75 FR 26714 - Notice of Proposed New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... No: 2010-11042] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of Proposed New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII, Pub. L. 108-447) AGENCY: National Forests in Mississippi, USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of Proposed New Recreation Fee Site. SUMMARY: Rattlesnake...

  20. Rapidithrix thailandica gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine gliding bacterium isolated from samples collected from the Andaman sea, along the southern coastline of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisukchayakul, Pornpoj; Suwanachart, Chatrudee; Sangnoi, Yutthapong; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit; Hosoya, Shoichi; Yokota, Akira; Arunpairojana, Vullapa

    2007-10-01

    The taxonomic positions of three strains of marine gliding bacteria, TISTR 1736, TISTR 1741 and TISTR 1750(T), isolated from the southern coastline of Thailand were evaluated by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three isolates formed a distinct lineage within the family 'Flammeovirgaceae', phylum Bacteroidetes, and were related to the genus Flexithrix. The DNA G+C contents of the isolates were in the range 40-43 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were 16 : 1omega5c (cis-5-hexadecenoic acid) and 15 : 0 (pentadecanoic acid). The major hydroxyl fatty acids were 3-OH 17 : 0 (3-hydroxyheptadecanoic acid), 3-OH 15 : 0 (3-hydroxypentadecanoic acid) and 3-OH 16 : 0 (3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid). On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, these marine bacteria are considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Rapidithrix thailandica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Rapidithrix thailandica is TISTR 1750(T) (=IAM 15448(T)).

  1. MDMA, cortisol, and heightened stress in recreational ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Andrew C; Montgomery, Cathy; Wetherell, Mark A; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-09-01

    Stress develops when an organism requires additional metabolic resources to cope with demanding situations. This review will debate how recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can increase some aspects of acute and chronic stress in humans. Laboratory studies on the acute effects of MDMA on cortisol release and neurohormone levels in drug-free regular ecstasy/MDMA users have been reviewed, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic changes in anxiety, stress, and cognitive coping is debated. In the laboratory, acute ecstasy/MDMA use can increase cortisol levels by 100-200%, whereas ecstasy/MDMA-using dance clubbers experience an 800% increase in cortisol levels, because of the combined effects of the stimulant drug and dancing. Three-month hair samples of abstinent users revealed cortisol levels 400% higher than those in controls. Chronic users show heightened cortisol release in stressful environments and deficits in complex neurocognitive tasks. Event-related evoked response potential studies show altered patterns of brain activation, suggestive of increased mental effort, during basic information processing. Chronic mood deficits include more daily stress and higher depression in susceptible individuals. We conclude that ecstasy/MDMA increases cortisol levels acutely and subchronically and that changes in the HPA axis may explain why recreational ecstasy/MDMA users show various aspects of neuropsychobiological stress.

  2. Prevalence and clinical impact of recreational drug consumption in people living with HIV on treatment: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zurita, Beatriz; Velasco, Cesar; Feliu, Anna; Gutierrez, Mar; Masip, Montserrat; Mangues, M Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Drug interactions, poor adherence to medication and high-risk sexual behaviour may occur in individuals with HIV using recreational drugs. Thus, we aimed to assess the prevalence of recreational drugs use and to explore its clinical impact in HIV patients on treatment. Methods Observational, cross sectional, study conducted in a 700 bed university hospital, Barcelona, Spain. A total of 208 adults living with HIV on treatment were included. A questionnaire was administered by clinical pharmacists, including evaluation of sociodemographic variables, past 12-month drug consumption, adherence to antiretrovirals (Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire) and high-risk sexual behaviour (condomless sex/multiple partners). Additional data were obtained from clinical records. Recreational drug-antiretroviral interactions were checked in reference databases. Prevalence was calculated for 5% precision and 95% CI. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regressions were performed to identify associations between recreational drug use and adherence problems, and between recreational drug use and high-risk sexual behaviour. Results From the overall sample, 92 participants (44.2%) consumed recreational drugs over the past 1 year. Of these, 44 (48.8%) had used different types of recreational drugs in this period. We detected 11 recreational substances, including sildenafil and nitrites. The most consumed drugs were: cannabis (68.5%), cocaine (45.5%), nitrites (31.5%), sildenafil (28.3) and ecstasy (19.6%). Relevant interactions occurred in 46 (50%) of the individuals consuming drugs. Recreational drug consumption was found to be related to adherence problems with antiretrovirals (OR: 2.51 (95% CI 1.32 to 4.77) p=0.005) and high-risk sexual behaviour (OR: 2.81 (95% CI 1.47 to 5.39) p=0.002). Conclusions Recreational drugs are frequently used by HIV patients on treatment. Classical drugs and new substances consumed in sexual context are usual. Recreational drug

  3. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15−60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency (“rarely, sometimes, or always”). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically “rare” were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49–1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance (“sometimes”) were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62–1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be

  4. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-03-19

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)-an intermediate state between health and illness--refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although- SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work-life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15-60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency ("rarely, sometimes, or always"). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically "rare" were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance ("sometimes") were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62-1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be accurate behavioral

  5. Lightning injuries in sports and recreation.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Eric M; Howard, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    The powers of lightning have been worshiped and feared by all known human cultures. While the chance of being struck by lightning is statistically very low, that risk becomes much greater in those who frequently work or play outdoors. Over the past 2 yr, there have been nearly 50 lightning-related deaths reported within the United States, with a majority of them associated with outdoor recreational activities. Recent publications primarily have been case studies, review articles, and a discussion of a sixth method of injury. The challenge in reducing lightning-related injuries in organized sports has been addressed well by both the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the National Collegiate Athletic Association in their guidelines on lightning safety. Challenges remain in educating the general population involved in recreational outdoor activities that do not fall under the guidelines of organized sports.

  6. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  7. Effect of Reservoir Operations on Recreational Fisheries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Corps recreatiun program is an important Dart of the U.S. Travel and Tourism industry, the second largest service industry in the country. The Corps...project at least once each year. The Corps hosts over 30% of the recreation/ tourism occuning on Federal lands on just 2% of the nation’s Federal land...a.na)1 t rAim agencies. and the research community is increasing significantly. An interagency reservation system, invclvement in the tourism industry

  8. West Harbor, Ohio Recreational Navigation Improvement. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    natural sand beach at Gem Beach, and a length of shoreline which is essentially stable but which periodically ex- periences slight fluctuations in...dually to form an essentially flat plateau of land in the shoreward -11- direction. However, a few hundred feet to the east the beach rises from the...Harbor, which has remained essentially in its natural state in spite of the recreational and residential development of East and West Harbors, has been

  9. Economic valuation for the conservation of marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, N J; Austen, M C; Mangi, S C; Townsend, M

    2008-03-01

    Policy makers are increasingly recognising the role of environmental valuation to guide and support the management and conservation of biodiversity. This paper presents a goods and services approach to determine the economic value of marine biodiversity in the UK, with the aim of clarifying the role of valuation in the management of marine biodiversity. The goods and services resulting from UK marine biodiversity are detailed, and 8 of the 13 services are valued in monetary terms. It is found that a decline in UK marine biodiversity could result in a varying, and at present unpredictable, change in the provision of goods and services, including reduced resilience and resistance to change, declining marine environmental health, reduced fisheries potential, and loss of recreational opportunities. The results suggest that this approach can facilitate biodiversity management by enabling the optimal allocation of limited management resources and through raising awareness of the importance of marine biodiversity.

  10. A survey of recreational sun exposure of residents of San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Newman, W G; Agro, A D; Woodruff, S I; Mayer, J A

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer in San Diego is one of the highest in the nation. Research has documented that excessive unprotected exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over time significantly increases a person's risk for developing various types of skin cancer. Our study investigated the amount of sun exposure and the practice of sun protection among San Diegans and examined factors thought to be associated with these behaviors. In April 1994, a random sample of 864 San Diego residents was surveyed by telephone. Because most survey questions specifically asked about sun exposure and sun protection when tanning versus recreating, the analyses were presented separately for recreators (i.e., those who spent time in the sun during the hours of 8:00 am and 6:00 pm for recreation last summer; n = 786) and tanners (i.e., those who spent at least 10% of their time in the sun to get a tan last summer; n = 464), a subset of recreators. Study results indicated that on average, 27% of the tanners' time in the sun last summer was spent getting a tan, and tanners reported using sunscreen about 50% of the time on both their face and body. In terms of sun protection while recreating, survey respondents reported using sunscreen on their face approximately 40% of the time compared to approximately 30% of the time on their body. Correlates of sun exposure and sun protection for both tanners and recreators included demographic characteristics, susceptibility factors, attitudes, and knowledge. The findings from this study support the need for education on skin cancer prevention. The practical implications of these findings are discussed in terms of appropriate community skin cancer prevention interventions. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): skin cancer, sunlight, behavior.

  11. National priorities in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.M.; Leschine, T.M.; Landy, R.B.

    1988-02-01

    The National Ocean Pollution Program Office (NOPPO) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is required by the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (PL 95-273) to make recommendations on the federal program in marine pollution research, development, and monitoring, and promote interagency cooperation in these areas. The first step in evaluating the Federal effort in ocean pollution research is to identify the marine pollution needs and problems that are facing the nation. To broaden the knowledge base used in identifying and prioritizing these issues, NOPPO has consulted pollution experts outside as well as within the Federal Government using the Priorities Worksheet for National Marine Pollution Problems and Needs. The worksheet was mailed out in January 1987 to over 250 participants representing the following sectors of the ocean community: the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Federal Government, conservation groups, sport and commercial fisheries, offshore petroleum and mining interests, the ports and recreation industries, state and regional governments, and researchers in the marine pollution field. The list of participants was developed with the assistance of a steering committee.

  12. Rapidly measured indicators of recreational water quality are predictive of swimming-associated gastrointestinal illness.

    PubMed

    Wade, Timothy J; Calderon, Rebecca L; Sams, Elizabeth; Beach, Michael; Brenner, Kristen P; Williams, Ann H; Dufour, Alfred P

    2006-01-01

    Standard methods to measure recreational water quality require at least 24 hr to obtain results, making it impossible to assess the quality of water within a single day. Methods to measure recreational water quality in recreational water quality. We conducted a prospective study of beachgoers at two Great Lakes beaches to examine the association between recreational water quality, obtained using rapid methods, and gastrointestinal (GI) illness after swimming. Beachgoers were asked about swimming and other beach activities and 10-12 days later were asked about the occurrence of GI symptoms. We tested water samples for Enterococcus and Bacteroides species using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. We observed significant trends between increased GI illness and Enterococcus at the Lake Michigan beach and a positive trend for Enterococcus at the Lake Erie beach. The association remained significant for Enterococcus when the two beaches were combined. We observed a positive trend for Bacteroides at the Lake Erie beach, but no trend was observed at the Lake Michigan beach. Enterococcus samples collected at 0800 hr were predictive of GI illness that day. The association between Enterococcus and illness strengthened as time spent swimming in the water increased. This is the first study to show that water quality measured by rapid methods can predict swimming-associated health effects.

  13. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  14. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  15. The Effects of Winter Recreation on Alpine and Subalpine Fauna: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Chloe F.; Wood, Jeff T.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2013-01-01

    The ski industry is often perceived as having a negative impact on sensitive alpine and subalpine communities. However, empirical evidence of such impacts is lacking. We reviewed the available literature from the last 35 years to quantify the reported effects of winter recreation on faunal communities. Overall, using one-sample binomial tests (‘sign tests’) we found that the effects of all types of winter recreation-related disturbances (i.e. ski runs, resort infrastructure and winter tourism) were more likely to be negative or have no effect, than be positive for wildlife. More specifically, in Europe, where the majority of the available research was conducted, the impacts of winter recreation were most often negative for fauna. In terms of specific taxa, birds and to a lesser extent mammals and arthropods, responded negatively to disturbance. Results from our meta-analysis confirmed the results from our binomial tests. Richness, abundance and diversity of fauna were lower in areas affected by winter recreation when compared with undisturbed areas. For most regions and taxa, however, empirical evidence remains too limited to identify clear impacts of winter recreation. We therefore conclude that the majority of ski resorts are operating in the absence of knowledge needed to inform effective strategies for biodiversity conservation and ecologically-sound management. Thus, there is an urgent need for more empirical research to be conducted throughout this increasingly threatened ecological community, especially given the indication from the available literature that fauna often respond negatively to winter recreation. PMID:23691190

  16. The effects of winter recreation on alpine and subalpine fauna: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chloe F; Wood, Jeff T; Lindenmayer, David B

    2013-01-01

    The ski industry is often perceived as having a negative impact on sensitive alpine and subalpine communities. However, empirical evidence of such impacts is lacking. We reviewed the available literature from the last 35 years to quantify the reported effects of winter recreation on faunal communities. Overall, using one-sample binomial tests ('sign tests') we found that the effects of all types of winter recreation-related disturbances (i.e. ski runs, resort infrastructure and winter tourism) were more likely to be negative or have no effect, than be positive for wildlife. More specifically, in Europe, where the majority of the available research was conducted, the impacts of winter recreation were most often negative for fauna. In terms of specific taxa, birds and to a lesser extent mammals and arthropods, responded negatively to disturbance. Results from our meta-analysis confirmed the results from our binomial tests. Richness, abundance and diversity of fauna were lower in areas affected by winter recreation when compared with undisturbed areas. For most regions and taxa, however, empirical evidence remains too limited to identify clear impacts of winter recreation. We therefore conclude that the majority of ski resorts are operating in the absence of knowledge needed to inform effective strategies for biodiversity conservation and ecologically-sound management. Thus, there is an urgent need for more empirical research to be conducted throughout this increasingly threatened ecological community, especially given the indication from the available literature that fauna often respond negatively to winter recreation.

  17. Recreational use of erectile dysfunction medications in undergraduate men in the United States: characteristics and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Harte, Christopher B; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-06-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that erectile dysfunction medications (EDMs) have become increasingly used as a sexual enhancement aid among men without a medical indication. Recreational EDM use has been associated with increased sexual risk behaviors, an increased risk for STIs, including incident HIV infection, and high rates of concomitant illicit drug use. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and associated risk factors for recreational EDM use among young, healthy, undergraduate men. A cross-sectional sample of 1,944 men were recruited from 497 undergraduate institutions within the Unites States between January 2006 and May 2007. The survey assessed patterns of EDM use, as well as demographic, substance use, and sexual behavior characteristics. Four percent of participants had recreationally used an EDM at some point in their lives, with 1.4% reporting current use. The majority of recreational EDM users reported mixing EDMs with illicit drugs and particularly during risky sexual behaviors. Recreational EDM use was independently associated with increased age, gay, or bisexual sexual orientation, drug abuse, lifetime number of sex partners, and lifetime number of "one-night stands." Recreational EDM users also reported a 2.5-fold rate of erectile difficulties compared to nonusers. Overall, recreational use of EDMs was associated with sexual risk behaviors and substance abuse; however, a relatively small proportion of undergraduates reported using EDMs. Results also suggest that a sizable portion of recreational EDM users are heterosexual men, and that use does not solely occur within the environments of venues that cater to men having sex with men.

  18. Recreational Use of Erectile Dysfunction Medications in Undergraduate Men in the United States: Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that erectile dysfunction medications (EDMs) have become increasingly used as a sexual enhancement aid among men without a medical indication. Recreational EDM use has been associated with increased sexual risk behaviors, an increased risk for STIs, including incident HIV infection, and high rates of concomitant illicit drug use. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and associated risk factors for recreational EDM use among young, healthy, undergraduate men. A cross-sectional sample of 1,944 men were recruited from 497 undergraduate institutions within the Unites States between January 2006 and May 2007. The survey assessed patterns of EDM use, as well as demographic, substance use, and sexual behavior characteristics. Four percent of participants had recreationally used an EDM at some point in their lives, with 1.4% reporting current use. The majority of recreational EDM users reported mixing EDMs with illicit drugs and particularly during risky sexual behaviors. Recreational EDM use was independently associated with increased age, gay, or bisexual sexual orientation, drug abuse, lifetime number of sex partners, and lifetime number of “one-night stands.” Recreational EDM users also reported a 2.5-fold rate of erectile difficulties compared to nonusers. Overall, recreational use of EDMs was associated with sexual risk behaviors and substance abuse; however, a relatively small proportion of undergraduates reported using EDMs. Results also suggest that a sizable portion of recreational EDM users are heterosexual men, and that use does not solely occur within the environments of venues that cater to men having sex with men. PMID:20358273

  19. Marination performance of broiler breast fillets.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vacuum-tumble marination is commonly used to enhance the quality of whole or portioned boneless breast fillets. The relationship between the marination performance of whole fillets and fillet sub-samples is not well understood. The objective of this study was to compare marination performance of fre...

  20. Rapid determination of scopolamine in evidence of recreational and predatory use.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Mai, Thanh Duc; López, María López; Bartolomé, Carmen; Hauser, Peter C; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, scopolamine has become a drug of common use for recreational and predatory purposes and several ways of administration have been devised. A method for the rapid analysis of suspicious samples was developed, using a portable capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. The method allows the separation of scopolamine from atropine which has a similar structure and is present along with scopolamine in some samples. The method was demonstrated to be useful for the fast analysis of several types of evidential items which have recently been reported to have been abused with fatal consequences or employed for criminal purposes. An infusion of Datura stramonium L., in which scopolamine and atropine naturally coexist, was analyzed for being frequently consumed for recreational purposes. A spiked moisturizing cream and six spiked alcoholic beverages were also analyzed. In spite of the complexity of the specimens, the sample pre-treatment methods developed were simple and fast.