Science.gov

Sample records for sampling interval effects

  1. Sampling Theory and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Using ESCI To Illustrate "Bouncing"; Confidence Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yunfei

    This paper discusses the impact of sampling error on the construction of confidence intervals around effect sizes. Sampling error affects the location and precision of confidence intervals. Meta-analytic resampling demonstrates that confidence intervals can haphazardly bounce around the true population parameter. Special software with graphical…

  2. Sample Size Calculations for Precise Interval Estimation of the Eta-Squared Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of variance is one of the most frequently used statistical analyses in the behavioral, educational, and social sciences, and special attention has been paid to the selection and use of an appropriate effect size measure of association in analysis of variance. This article presents the sample size procedures for precise interval estimation…

  3. Confidence intervals and sample size calculations for the weighted eta-squared effect sizes in one-way heteroscedastic ANOVA.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2013-03-01

    Effect size reporting and interpreting practices have been extensively recommended in academic journals when primary outcomes of all empirical studies have been analyzed. This article presents an alternative approach to constructing confidence intervals of the weighted eta-squared effect size within the context of one-way heteroscedastic ANOVA models. It is shown that the proposed interval procedure has advantages over an existing method in its theoretical justification, computational simplicity, and numerical performance. For design planning, the corresponding sample size procedures for precise interval estimation of the weighted eta-squared association measure are also delineated. Specifically, the developed formulas compute the necessary sample sizes with respect to the considerations of expected confidence interval width and tolerance probability of interval width within a designated value. Supplementary computer programs are provided to aid the implementation of the suggested techniques in practical applications of ANOVA designs when the assumption of homogeneous variances is not tenable.

  4. Accuracy in parameter estimation for targeted effects in structural equation modeling: sample size planning for narrow confidence intervals.

    PubMed

    Lai, Keke; Kelley, Ken

    2011-06-01

    In addition to evaluating a structural equation model (SEM) as a whole, often the model parameters are of interest and confidence intervals for those parameters are formed. Given a model with a good overall fit, it is entirely possible for the targeted effects of interest to have very wide confidence intervals, thus giving little information about the magnitude of the population targeted effects. With the goal of obtaining sufficiently narrow confidence intervals for the model parameters of interest, sample size planning methods for SEM are developed from the accuracy in parameter estimation approach. One method plans for the sample size so that the expected confidence interval width is sufficiently narrow. An extended procedure ensures that the obtained confidence interval will be no wider than desired, with some specified degree of assurance. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted that verified the effectiveness of the procedures in realistic situations. The methods developed have been implemented in the MBESS package in R so that they can be easily applied by researchers.

  5. Online Doppler Effect Elimination Based on Unequal Time Interval Sampling for Wayside Acoustic Bearing Fault Detecting System.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Kesai; Lu, Siliang; Zhang, Shangbin; Zhang, Haibin; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2015-08-27

    The railway occupies a fairly important position in transportation due to its high speed and strong transportation capability. As a consequence, it is a key issue to guarantee continuous running and transportation safety of trains. Meanwhile, time consumption of the diagnosis procedure is of extreme importance for the detecting system. However, most of the current adopted techniques in the wayside acoustic defective bearing detector system (ADBD) are offline strategies, which means that the signal is analyzed after the sampling process. This would result in unavoidable time latency. Besides, the acquired acoustic signal would be corrupted by the Doppler effect because of high relative speed between the train and the data acquisition system (DAS). Thus, it is difficult to effectively diagnose the bearing defects immediately. In this paper, a new strategy called online Doppler effect elimination (ODEE) is proposed to remove the Doppler distortion online by the introduced unequal interval sampling scheme. The steps of proposed strategy are as follows: The essential parameters are acquired in advance. Then, the introduced unequal time interval sampling strategy is used to restore the Doppler distortion signal, and the amplitude of the signal is demodulated as well. Thus, the restored Doppler-free signal is obtained online. The proposed ODEE method has been employed in simulation analysis. Ultimately, the ODEE method is implemented in the embedded system for fault diagnosis of the train bearing. The results are in good accordance with the bearing defects, which verifies the good performance of the proposed strategy.

  6. Online Doppler Effect Elimination Based on Unequal Time Interval Sampling for Wayside Acoustic Bearing Fault Detecting System

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Kesai; Lu, Siliang; Zhang, Shangbin; Zhang, Haibin; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2015-01-01

    The railway occupies a fairly important position in transportation due to its high speed and strong transportation capability. As a consequence, it is a key issue to guarantee continuous running and transportation safety of trains. Meanwhile, time consumption of the diagnosis procedure is of extreme importance for the detecting system. However, most of the current adopted techniques in the wayside acoustic defective bearing detector system (ADBD) are offline strategies, which means that the signal is analyzed after the sampling process. This would result in unavoidable time latency. Besides, the acquired acoustic signal would be corrupted by the Doppler effect because of high relative speed between the train and the data acquisition system (DAS). Thus, it is difficult to effectively diagnose the bearing defects immediately. In this paper, a new strategy called online Doppler effect elimination (ODEE) is proposed to remove the Doppler distortion online by the introduced unequal interval sampling scheme. The steps of proposed strategy are as follows: The essential parameters are acquired in advance. Then, the introduced unequal time interval sampling strategy is used to restore the Doppler distortion signal, and the amplitude of the signal is demodulated as well. Thus, the restored Doppler-free signal is obtained online. The proposed ODEE method has been employed in simulation analysis. Ultimately, the ODEE method is implemented in the embedded system for fault diagnosis of the train bearing. The results are in good accordance with the bearing defects, which verifies the good performance of the proposed strategy. PMID:26343657

  7. Influence of sampling interval on the effect of false coupling between oscillators with different natural oscillation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, S. N.; Smirnov, D. A.; Osipov, G. V.; Bezruchko, B. P.

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the coupling between oscillating systems by time series, the Granger causality assessment—an improved prognosis of the autoregression model—is widely used. It is known that wrong conclusions regarding the presence of bidirectional coupling can be obtained in the case of unidirectional coupled systems when the sampling interval is rather wide. However, it remains unclear under what conditions the effect of false coupling is significant, and thus criteria of significance to account for this effect in practice are absent. In this work, such conditions were studied and qualitatively formulated for an etalon system of coupled oscillators. In particular, it is shown that this effect is negligible in the case of insufficient data if a "fast" oscillator (with a smaller oscillation period and relaxation time) is driving a "slow" oscillator, while the effect is strong otherwise. If both periods are considerably larger than the sampling interval, the effect increases with relaxation time of the driving oscillator and decreases with increasing relaxation time of the driven one.

  8. Approximate Confidence Intervals for Standardized Effect Sizes in the Two-Independent and Two-Dependent Samples Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viechtbauer, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Standardized effect sizes and confidence intervals thereof are extremely useful devices for comparing results across different studies using scales with incommensurable units. However, exact confidence intervals for standardized effect sizes can usually be obtained only via iterative estimation procedures. The present article summarizes several…

  9. Accuracy in Parameter Estimation for Targeted Effects in Structural Equation Modeling: Sample Size Planning for Narrow Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Keke; Kelley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    In addition to evaluating a structural equation model (SEM) as a whole, often the model parameters are of interest and confidence intervals for those parameters are formed. Given a model with a good overall fit, it is entirely possible for the targeted effects of interest to have very wide confidence intervals, thus giving little information about…

  10. A Comparison of Momentary Time Sampling and Partial-Interval Recording for Assessment of Effects of Social Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radley, Keith C.; O'Handley, Roderick D.; Labrot, Zachary C.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment in social skills training often utilizes procedures such as partial-interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) to estimate changes in duration in social engagements due to intervention. Although previous research suggests PIR to be more inaccurate than MTS in estimating levels of behavior, treatment analysis decisions…

  11. Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

  12. Improved interval estimation of comparative treatment effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Krevelen, Ryne Christian

    Comparative experiments, in which subjects are randomized to one of two treatments, are performed often. There is no shortage of papers testing whether a treatment effect exists and providing confidence intervals for the magnitude of this effect. While it is well understood that the object and scope of inference for an experiment will depend on what assumptions are made, these entities are not always clearly presented. We have proposed one possible method, which is based on the ideas of Jerzy Neyman, that can be used for constructing confidence intervals in a comparative experiment. The resulting intervals, referred to as Neyman-type confidence intervals, can be applied in a wide range of cases. Special care is taken to note which assumptions are made and what object and scope of inference are being investigated. We have presented a notation that highlights which parts of a problem are being treated as random. This helps ensure the focus on the appropriate scope of inference. The Neyman-type confidence intervals are compared to possible alternatives in two different inference settings: one in which inference is made about the units in the sample and one in which inference is made about units in a fixed population. A third inference setting, one in which inference is made about a process distribution, is also discussed. It is stressed that certain assumptions underlying this third type of inference are unverifiable. When these assumptions are not met, the resulting confidence intervals may cover their intended target well below the desired rate. Through simulation, we demonstrate that the Neyman-type intervals have good coverage properties when inference is being made about a sample or a population. In some cases the alternative intervals are much wider than necessary on average. Therefore, we recommend that researchers consider using our Neyman-type confidence intervals when carrying out inference about a sample or a population as it may provide them with more

  13. Interval sampling methods and measurement error: a computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Oliver; Slaven, James; Taylor, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to provide a more thorough account of measurement error associated with interval sampling methods. A computer program simulated the application of momentary time sampling, partial-interval recording, and whole-interval recording methods on target events randomly distributed across an observation period. The simulation yielded measures of error for multiple combinations of observation period, interval duration, event duration, and cumulative event duration. The simulations were conducted up to 100 times to yield measures of error variability. Although the present simulation confirmed some previously reported characteristics of interval sampling methods, it also revealed many new findings that pertain to each method's inherent strengths and weaknesses. The analysis and resulting error tables can help guide the selection of the most appropriate sampling method for observation-based behavioral assessments.

  14. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading

  15. Small Sample Theory for Steady State Confidence Intervals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    confidence interval for the mean of a stationary sequence. As indicated in the literature, nonparametric confidence intervals in practice often have undesirable small-sample asymmetry and coverage characteristics. These phenomena are partially due to the fact that the third and fourth cumulants of the point estimator for the stationary mean, unlike those of the standard normal random variable, are not zero. We will apply Edgeworth and Cornish-Fisher expansions to obtain asymptotic expansions for the errors associated with confidence intervals. The analysis isolates various

  16. Relativistic rise measurements with very fine sampling intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.; Platner, E.D.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Kramer, M.A.; Teramoto, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The motivation of this work was to determine whether the technique of charged particle identification via the relativistic rise in the ionization loss can be significantly improved by virtue of very small sampling intervals. A fast-sampling ADC and a longitudinal drift geometry were used to provide a large number of samples from a single drift chamber gap, achieving sampling intervals roughly 10 times smaller than any previous study. A single layer drift chamber was used, and tracks of 1 meter length were simulated by combining together samples from many identified particles in this detector. These data were used to study the resolving power for particle identification as a function of sample size, averaging technique, and the number of discrimination levels (ADC bits) used for pulse height measurements.

  17. Estimation of the sampling interval error for LED measurement with a goniophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weiqiang; Liu, Hui; Liu, Jian

    2013-06-01

    Using a goniophotometer to implant a total luminous flux measurement, an error comes from the sampling interval, especially in the situation for LED measurement. In this work, we use computer calculations to estimate the effect of sampling interval on the measuring the total luminous flux for four typical kinds of LEDs, whose spatial distributions of luminous intensity is similar to those LEDs shown in CIE 127 paper. Four basic kinds of mathematical functions are selected to simulate the distribution curves. Axial symmetric type LED and non-axial symmetric type LED are both take amount of. We consider polar angle sampling interval of 0.5°, 1°, 2°, and 5° respectively in one rotation for axial symmetric type, and consider azimuth angle sampling interval of 18°, 15°, 12°, 10° and 5° respectively for non-axial symmetric type. We noted that the error is strongly related to spatial distribution. However, for common LED light sources the calculation results show that a usage of polar angle sampling interval of 2° and azimuth angle sampling interval of 15° is recommended. The systematic error of sampling interval for a goniophotometer can be controlled at the level of 0.3%. For high precise level, the usage of polar angle sampling interval of 1° and azimuth angle sampling interval of 10° should be used.

  18. Effect of initial seed and number of samples on simple-random and Latin-Hypercube Monte Carlo probabilities (confidence interval considerations)

    SciTech Connect

    ROMERO,VICENTE J.

    2000-05-04

    In order to devise an algorithm for autonomously terminating Monte Carlo sampling when sufficiently small and reliable confidence intervals (CI) are achieved on calculated probabilities, the behavior of CI estimators must be characterized. This knowledge is also required in comparing the accuracy of other probability estimation techniques to Monte Carlo results. Based on 100 trials in a hypothesis test, estimated 95% CI from classical approximate CI theory are empirically examined to determine if they behave as true 95% CI over spectrums of probabilities (population proportions) ranging from 0.001 to 0.99 in a test problem. Tests are conducted for population sizes of 500 and 10,000 samples where applicable. Significant differences between true and estimated 95% CI are found to occur at probabilities between 0.1 and 0.9, such that estimated 95% CI can be rejected as not being true 95% CI at less than a 40% chance of incorrect rejection. With regard to Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS), though no general theory has been verified for accurately estimating LHS CI, recent numerical experiments on the test problem have found LHS to be conservatively over an order of magnitude more efficient than SRS for similar sized CI on probabilities ranging between 0.25 and 0.75. The efficiency advantage of LHS vanishes, however, as the probability extremes of 0 and 1 are approached.

  19. Number of core samples: Mean concentrations and confidence intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, L.; Cromar, R.D.; Wilmarth, S.R.; Heasler, P.G.

    1995-01-24

    This document provides estimates of how well the mean concentration of analytes are known as a function of the number of core samples, composite samples, and replicate analyses. The estimates are based upon core composite data from nine recently sampled single-shell tanks. The results can be used when determining the number of core samples needed to ``characterize`` the waste from similar single-shell tanks. A standard way of expressing uncertainty in the estimate of a mean is with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The authors investigate how the width of a 95% CI on the mean concentration decreases as the number of observations increase. Specifically, the tables and figures show how the relative half-width (RHW) of a 95% CI decreases as the number of core samples increases. The RHW of a CI is a unit-less measure of uncertainty. The general conclusions are as follows: (1) the RHW decreases dramatically as the number of core samples is increased, the decrease is much smaller when the number of composited samples or the number of replicate analyses are increase; (2) if the mean concentration of an analyte needs to be estimated with a small RHW, then a large number of core samples is required. The estimated number of core samples given in the tables and figures were determined by specifying different sizes of the RHW. Four nominal sizes were examined: 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of the observed mean concentration. For a majority of analytes the number of core samples required to achieve an accuracy within 10% of the mean concentration is extremely large. In many cases, however, two or three core samples is sufficient to achieve a RHW of approximately 50 to 100%. Because many of the analytes in the data have small concentrations, this level of accuracy may be satisfactory for some applications.

  20. A Robust Confidence Interval for Samples of Five Observations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    A robust confidence interval using biweights for the case of five observations is proposed when the underlying distribution has somewhat heavier...probabilities, the intervals proposed are highly efficient, in terms of the expected length of the confidence interval . (Author)

  1. Detection of antibody responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis proteins in children with community-acquired pneumonia: effects of combining pneumococcal antigens, pre-existing antibody levels, sampling interval, age, and duration of illness.

    PubMed

    Borges, I C; Andrade, D C; Vilas-Boas, A-L; Fontoura, M-S H; Laitinen, H; Ekström, N; Adrian, P V; Meinke, A; Cardoso, M-R A; Barral, A; Ruuskanen, O; Käyhty, H; Nascimento-Carvalho, C M

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of combining different numbers of pneumococcal antigens, pre-existing antibody levels, sampling interval, age, and duration of illness on the detection of IgG responses against eight Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, three Haemophilus influenzae proteins, and five Moraxella catarrhalis proteins in 690 children aged <5 years with pneumonia. Serological tests were performed on acute and convalescent serum samples with a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. The median sampling interval was 19 days, the median age was 26.7 months, and the median duration of illness was 5 days. The rate of antibody responses was 15.4 % for at least one pneumococcal antigen, 5.8 % for H. influenzae, and 2.3 % for M. catarrhalis. The rate of antibody responses against each pneumococcal antigen varied from 3.5 to 7.1 %. By multivariate analysis, pre-existing antibody levels showed a negative association with the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae antigens; the sampling interval was positively associated with the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae antigens. A sampling interval of 3 weeks was the optimal cut-off for the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae proteins. Duration of illness was negatively associated with antibody responses against PspA. Age did not influence antibody responses against the investigated antigens. In conclusion, serological assays using combinations of different pneumococcal proteins detect a higher rate of antibody responses against S. pneumoniae compared to assays using a single pneumococcal protein. Pre-existing antibody levels and sampling interval influence the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae proteins. These factors should be considered when determining pneumonia etiology by serological methods in children.

  2. Sample Size for the "Z" Test and Its Confidence Interval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2012-01-01

    The statistical power of a significance test is closely related to the length of the confidence interval (i.e. estimate precision). In the case of a "Z" test, the length of the confidence interval can be expressed as a function of the statistical power. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  3. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  4. Sample Sizes for Confidence Intervals on the Increase in the Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Moulder, Bradley C.

    2001-01-01

    Studied sample sizes for confidence intervals on the increase in the squared multiple correlation coefficient using simulation. Discusses predictors and actual coverage probability and provides sample-size guidelines for probability coverage to be near the nominal confidence interval. (SLD)

  5. Nonparametric confidence intervals for the one- and two-sample problems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao Hua; Dinh, Phillip

    2005-04-01

    Confidence intervals for the mean of one sample and the difference in means of two independent samples based on the ordinary-t statistic suffer deficiencies when samples come from skewed families. In this article we evaluate several existing techniques and propose new methods to improve coverage accuracy. The methods examined include the ordinary-t, the bootstrap-t, the biased-corrected acceleration and three new intervals based on transformation of the t-statistic. Our study shows that our new transformation intervals and the bootstrap-t intervals give best coverage accuracy for a variety of skewed distributions, and that our new transformation intervals have shorter interval lengths.

  6. Interval Estimates of Multivariate Effect Sizes: Coverage and Interval Width Estimates under Variance Heterogeneity and Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Melinda R.; Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Ferron, John M.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods were used to examine techniques for constructing confidence intervals around multivariate effect sizes. Using interval inversion and bootstrapping methods, confidence intervals were constructed around the standard estimate of Mahalanobis distance (D[superscript 2]), two bias-adjusted estimates of D[superscript 2], and Huberty's…

  7. Introduction to Sample Size Choice for Confidence Intervals Based on "t" Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven; Loudermilk, Brandon; Simpson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Sample size can be chosen to achieve a specified width in a confidence interval. The probability of obtaining a narrow width given that the confidence interval includes the population parameter is defined as the power of the confidence interval, a concept unfamiliar to many practitioners. This article shows how to utilize the Statistical Analysis…

  8. Exact intervals and tests for median when one sample value possibly an outliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, G. J.; Walsh, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Available are independent observations (continuous data) that are believed to be a random sample. Desired are distribution-free confidence intervals and significance tests for the population median. However, there is the possibility that either the smallest or the largest observation is an outlier. Then, use of a procedure for rejection of an outlying observation might seem appropriate. Such a procedure would consider that two alternative situations are possible and would select one of them. Either (1) the n observations are truly a random sample, or (2) an outlier exists and its removal leaves a random sample of size n-1. For either situation, confidence intervals and tests are desired for the median of the population yielding the random sample. Unfortunately, satisfactory rejection procedures of a distribution-free nature do not seem to be available. Moreover, all rejection procedures impose undesirable conditional effects on the observations, and also, can select the wrong one of the two above situations. It is found that two-sided intervals and tests based on two symmetrically located order statistics (not the largest and smallest) of the n observations have this property.

  9. Number of Samples Needed to Obtain Desired Bayesion Confidence Intervals for a Proportion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    This thesis analyzes a Bayesian method for determining the number of samples that are needed to produce a desired confidence interval size for a...relating sample size and confidence interval size when a Beta prior distribution is employed. Tables and graphs are developed to assist an experimenter

  10. Effects of Peginesatide Injection on QTc Interval in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Czerniak, Richard; Kukulka, Michael; Wu, Jing Tao; Qiu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    A single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and positive-controlled, three-period crossover study was conducted to evaluate the effect of peginesatide injection on QT interval in healthy adults. Subjects received single doses of placebo, peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg intravenous, or moxifloxacin 400 mg during three treatment periods, separated by 14-day washout intervals. ECG recordings and blood samples for peginesatide and moxifloxacin plasma concentrations were collected prior to dosing and through 22 hours postdose. QT intervals were measured with a high resolution manual on-screen caliper method. The study endpoint was the mean difference between peginesatide and placebo in baseline-adjusted corrected QT interval (ddQTc). The maximum upper bound of the one-sided 95% CI was 2.2 milliseconds at 0.75 hours for Fridericia-corrected ddQTc (ddQTcF) and 2.2 milliseconds at 0.25 hours for individual corrected ddQTcI. The linear relationship between ddQTcF and peginesatide concentrations was essentially flat and not statistically significant [slope = 0.001, P = 0.126, 90% CI: (<−0.0005, 0.002)]. Using this model, the projected ddQTcF effect at the observed mean peak plasma concentration is estimated to be 0.9 milliseconds, 90% CI: (−2.0, 0.3 milliseconds). There were no peginesatide-related effects on heart rate, PR interval, or QRS interval. Thus, there is no anticipated cardiovascular effect of peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg in patients. PMID:26161294

  11. Effects of Peginesatide Injection on QTc Interval in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Richard; Kukulka, Michael; Wu, Jing Tao; Qiu, Ping

    2014-11-01

    A single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and positive-controlled, three-period crossover study was conducted to evaluate the effect of peginesatide injection on QT interval in healthy adults. Subjects received single doses of placebo, peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg intravenous, or moxifloxacin 400 mg during three treatment periods, separated by 14-day washout intervals. ECG recordings and blood samples for peginesatide and moxifloxacin plasma concentrations were collected prior to dosing and through 22 hours postdose. QT intervals were measured with a high resolution manual on-screen caliper method. The study endpoint was the mean difference between peginesatide and placebo in baseline-adjusted corrected QT interval (ddQTc). The maximum upper bound of the one-sided 95% CI was 2.2 milliseconds at 0.75 hours for Fridericia-corrected ddQTc (ddQTcF) and 2.2 milliseconds at 0.25 hours for individual corrected ddQTcI. The linear relationship between ddQTcF and peginesatide concentrations was essentially flat and not statistically significant [slope = 0.001, P = 0.126, 90% CI: (<-0.0005, 0.002)]. Using this model, the projected ddQTcF effect at the observed mean peak plasma concentration is estimated to be 0.9 milliseconds, 90% CI: (-2.0, 0.3 milliseconds). There were no peginesatide-related effects on heart rate, PR interval, or QRS interval. Thus, there is no anticipated cardiovascular effect of peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg in patients.

  12. The Effects of Nonnormal Distributions on Confidence Intervals around the Standardized Mean Difference: Bootstrap and Parametric Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken

    2005-01-01

    The standardized group mean difference, Cohen's "d", is among the most commonly used and intuitively appealing effect sizes for group comparisons. However, reporting this point estimate alone does not reflect the extent to which sampling error may have led to an obtained value. A confidence interval expresses the uncertainty that exists between…

  13. Sample size determination for the confidence interval of linear contrast in analysis of covariance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2013-03-11

    This article provides a way to determine sample size for the confidence interval of the linear contrast of treatment means in analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) without prior knowledge of the actual covariate means and covariate sum of squares, which are modeled as a t statistic. Using the t statistic, one can calculate the appropriate sample size to achieve the desired probability of obtaining a specified width in the confidence interval of the covariate-adjusted linear contrast.

  14. Delay-dependent resilient-robust stabilisation of uncertain networked control systems with variable sampling intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feisheng; Zhang, Huaguang; Liu, Zhenwei; Li, Ranran

    2014-03-01

    This work is concerned with the robust resilient control problem for uncertain networked control systems (NCSs) with variable sampling intervals, variant-induced delays and possible data dropouts, which is seldom considered in current literature. It is mainly based on the continuous time-varying-delay system approach. Followed by the nominal case, delay-dependent resilient robust stabilising conditions for the closed-loop NCS against controller gain variations are derived by employing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional which makes good use of the information of both lower and upper bounds on the varying input delay, and the upper bound on the variable sampling interval as well. A feasible solution of the obtained criterion formulated as linear matrix inequalities can be gotten. A tighter bounding technique is presented for acquiring the time derivative of the functional so as to utilise many more useful elements, meanwhile neither slack variable nor correlated augmented item is introduced to reduce overall computational burden. Two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Multiport well design for sampling of ground water at closely spaced vertical intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.

    1996-11-01

    Detailed vertical sampling is useful in aquifers where vertical mixing is limited and steep vertical gradients in chemical concentrations are expected. Samples can be collected at closely spaced vertical intervals from nested wells with short screened intervals. However, this approach may not be appropriate in all situations. An easy-to-construct and easy-to-install multiport sampling well to collect ground-water samples from closely spaced vertical intervals was developed and tested. The multiport sampling well was designed to sample ground water from surficial sand-and-gravel aquifers. The device consists of multiple stainless-steel tubes within a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) protective casing. The tubes protrude through the wall of the PVC casing at the desired sampling depths. A peristaltic pump is used to collect ground-water samples form the sampling ports. The difference in hydraulic head between any two sampling ports can be measured with a vacuum pump and a modified manometer. The usefulness and versatility of this multiport well design was demonstrated at an agricultural research site near Princeton, Minnesota where sampling ports were installed to a maximum depth of about 12 m below land surface. Trace experiments were conducted using potassium bromide to document the degree to which short-circuiting occurred between sampling ports. Samples were successfully collected for analysis of major cations and anions, nutrients, selected herbicides, isotopes, dissolved gases, and chlorofluorocarbon concentrations.

  16. Multiport well design for sampling of ground water at closely spaced vertical intervals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed vertical sampling is useful in aquifers where vertical mixing is limited and steep vertical gradients in chemical concentrations are expected. Samples can be collected at closely spaced vertical intervals from nested wells with short screened intervals. However, this approach may not be appropriate in all situations. An easy-to-construct and easy-to-install multiport sampling well to collect ground-water samples from closely spaced vertical intervals was developed and tested. The multiport sampling well was designed to sample ground water from surficial sand-and-gravel aquifers. The device consists of multiple stainless-steel tubes within a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) protective casing. The tubes protrude through the wall of the PVC casing at the desired sampling depths. A peristaltic pump is used to collect ground-water samples from the sampling ports. The difference in hydraulic head between any two sampling ports can be measured with a vacuum pump and a modified manometer. The usefulness and versatility of this multiport well design was demonstrated at an agricultural research site near Princeton, Minnesota where sampling ports were installed to a maximum depth of about 12 m below land surface. Tracer experiments were conducted using potassium bromide to document the degree to which short-circuiting occurred between sampling ports. Samples were successfully collected for analysis of major cations and anions, nutrients, selected herbicides, isotopes, dissolved gases, and chlorofluorcarbon concentrations.

  17. Sample size and the width of the confidence interval for mean difference.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2009-05-01

    The width of the confidence interval for mean difference can be viewed as a random variable. Overlooking its stochastic nature may lead to a serious underestimate of the sample size required to obtain an adequate probability of achieving the desired width for the confidence interval. The probability of achieving a certain width can either be an unconditional probability or a conditional probability given that the confidence interval includes the true parameter. We reconciled the difference between the unconditional and conditional probabilities by deriving the lower bound of the conditional probability. Additionally, we used the harmonic mean to determine unequal sample sizes for the confidence intervals for the two-mean comparison and multiple-mean comparisons.

  18. A new method for choosing sample size for confidence interval-based inferences.

    PubMed

    Jiroutek, Michael R; Muller, Keith E; Kupper, Lawrence L; Stewart, Paul W

    2003-09-01

    Scientists often need to test hypotheses and construct corresponding confidence intervals. In designing a study to test a particular null hypothesis, traditional methods lead to a sample size large enough to provide sufficient statistical power. In contrast, traditional methods based on constructing a confidence interval lead to a sample size likely to control the width of the interval. With either approach, a sample size so large as to waste resources or introduce ethical concerns is undesirable. This work was motivated by the concern that existing sample size methods often make it difficult for scientists to achieve their actual goals. We focus on situations which involve a fixed, unknown scalar parameter representing the true state of nature. The width of the confidence interval is defined as the difference between the (random) upper and lower bounds. An event width is said to occur if the observed confidence interval width is less than a fixed constant chosen a priori. An event validity is said to occur if the parameter of interest is contained between the observed upper and lower confidence interval bounds. An event rejection is said to occur if the confidence interval excludes the null value of the parameter. In our opinion, scientists often implicitly seek to have all three occur: width, validity, and rejection. New results illustrate that neglecting rejection or width (and less so validity) often provides a sample size with a low probability of the simultaneous occurrence of all three events. We recommend considering all three events simultaneously when choosing a criterion for determining a sample size. We provide new theoretical results for any scalar (mean) parameter in a general linear model with Gaussian errors and fixed predictors. Convenient computational forms are included, as well as numerical examples to illustrate our methods.

  19. Interval Estimation of Standardized Mean Differences in Paired-Samples Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    2015-01-01

    Paired-samples designs are used frequently in educational and behavioral research. In applications where the response variable is quantitative, researchers are encouraged to supplement the results of a paired-samples t-test with a confidence interval (CI) for a mean difference or a standardized mean difference. Six CIs for standardized mean…

  20. Sample Size for Confidence Interval of Covariate-Adjusted Mean Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a way to determine adequate sample size for the confidence interval of covariate-adjusted mean difference in randomized experiments. The standard error of adjusted mean difference depends on covariate variance and balance, which are two unknown quantities at the stage of planning sample size. If covariate observations are…

  1. The Naive Intuitive Statistician: A Naive Sampling Model of Intuitive Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juslin, Peter; Winman, Anders; Hansson, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    The perspective of the naive intuitive statistician is outlined and applied to explain overconfidence when people produce intuitive confidence intervals and why this format leads to more overconfidence than other formally equivalent formats. The naive sampling model implies that people accurately describe the sample information they have but are…

  2. The influence of sampling interval on the accuracy of trail impact assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Trail impact assessment and monitoring (IA&M) programs have been growing in importance and application in recreation resource management at protected areas. Census-based and sampling-based approaches have been developed in such programs, with systematic point sampling being the most common survey design. This paper examines the influence of sampling interval on the accuracy of estimates for selected trail impact problems. A complete census of four impact types on 70 trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park was utilized as the base data set for the analyses. The census data were resampled at increasing intervals to create a series of simulated point data sets. Estimates of frequency of occurrence and lineal extent for the four impact types were compared with the census data set. The responses of accuracy loss on lineal extent estimates to increasing sampling intervals varied across different impact types, while the responses on frequency of occurrence estimates were consistent, approximating an inverse asymptotic curve. These findings suggest that systematic point sampling may be an appropriate method for estimating the lineal extent but not the frequency of trail impacts. Sample intervals of less than 100 m appear to yield an excellent level of accuracy for the four impact types evaluated. Multiple regression analysis results suggest that appropriate sampling intervals are more likely to be determined by the type of impact in question rather than the length of trail. The census-based trail survey and the resampling-simulation method developed in this study can be a valuable first step in establishing long-term trail IA&M programs, in which an optimal sampling interval range with acceptable accuracy is determined before investing efforts in data collection.

  3. Confidence interval construction for proportion difference in small-sample paired studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, Man-Lai; Tang, Nian-Sheng; Chan, Ivan S F

    2005-12-15

    Paired dichotomous data may arise in clinical trials such as pre-/post-test comparison studies and equivalence trials. Reporting parameter estimates (e.g. odds ratio, rate difference and rate ratio) along with their associated confidence interval estimates becomes a necessity in many medical journals. Various asymptotic confidence interval estimators have long been developed for differences in correlated binary proportions. Nevertheless, the performance of these asymptotic methods may have poor coverage properties in small samples. In this article, we investigate several alternative confidence interval estimators for the difference between binomial proportions based on small-sample paired data. Specifically, we consider exact and approximate unconditional confidence intervals for rate difference via inverting a score test. The exact unconditional confidence interval guarantees the coverage probability, and it is recommended if strict control of coverage probability is required. However, the exact method tends to be overly conservative and computationally demanding. Our empirical results show that the approximate unconditional score confidence interval estimators based on inverting the score test demonstrate reasonably good coverage properties even in small-sample designs, and yet they are relatively easy to implement computationally. We illustrate the methods using real examples from a pain management study and a cancer study.

  4. Analysis of single ion channel data incorporating time-interval omission and sampling.

    PubMed

    The, Yu-Kai; Timmer, Jens

    2006-02-22

    Hidden Markov models are widely used to describe single channel currents from patch-clamp experiments. The inevitable anti-aliasing filter limits the time resolution of the measurements and therefore the standard hidden Markov model is not adequate anymore. The notion of time-interval omission has been introduced where brief events are not detected. The developed, exact solutions to this problem do not take into account that the measured intervals are limited by the sampling time. In this case the dead-time that specifies the minimal detectable interval length is not defined unambiguously. We show that a wrong choice of the dead-time leads to considerably biased estimates and present the appropriate equations to describe sampled data.

  5. Neyman-Pearson and Bayes interval estimates for sampling by attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.M.; Ryl, P.; Williams, J.W.

    1984-12-01

    This paper compares confidence intervals for single and multistage sampling schemes with Bayesian interval estimates obtained with a uniform prior distribution. Examples are presented in graphical form for sampling by attributes from an infinite population, or from a finite population with replacement. A general proof is given that the Neyman-Pearson confidence level associated with a confidence interval for the binomial parameter p will be no greater than the Bayesian confidence level calculated using a uniform prior distribution. A demonstration is provided for a fact published earlier, viz., that the Bayesian prior distribution can be selected so as to provide equality between one-sided Neyman-Pearson and Bayesian confidence bounds. Applications to EMP analysis are discussed in the final section.

  6. Eight interval estimators of a common rate ratio under stratified Poisson sampling.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong

    2004-04-30

    Under the assumption that the rate ratio (RR) is constant across strata, we consider eight interval estimators of RR under stratified Poisson sampling: the weighted least-squares (WLS) interval estimator with the logarithmic transformation, the interval estimator using the principle analogous to that of Fieller's Theorem, the interval estimators using Wald's statistic with and without the logarithmic transformation, the interval estimators using the Mantel-Haenszel statistic with and without the logarithmic transformation, the score test-based interval estimator, and the asymptotic likelihood ratio test-based interval estimator. We apply Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate and compare the performance of these estimators with respect to the coverage probability and the average length in a variety of situations. We find that the coverage probability of the commonly used WLS interval estimator tends to be smaller than the desired confidence level, especially when we have a large number of strata with a small expected total number of cases (ETNC) per stratum and the underlying RR is far away from 1 (i.e. RR18 or RR8). We further find that the two estimators with the logarithmic transformation, as well as the two test-based estimators can consistently perform well in a variety of situations. When RR1 with a given reasonable size of ETNC per stratum, we note that the interval estimators without the logarithmic transformation can be preferable to the corresponding ones with the logarithmic transformation in the situations considered here. However, when evaluating the non-coverage probability in the two tails, we find that the former tends to shift the left, while the latter is generally not subject to this concern. We also note that interval estimator using the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) statistic with the logarithmic transformation is likely less efficient than the two test-based interval estimators using the score and the likelihood ratio tests. Finally, we use the data taken

  7. Confidence Intervals for the Overall Effect Size in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Meca, Julio; Marin-Martinez, Fulgencio

    2008-01-01

    One of the main objectives in meta-analysis is to estimate the overall effect size by calculating a confidence interval (CI). The usual procedure consists of assuming a standard normal distribution and a sampling variance defined as the inverse of the sum of the estimated weights of the effect sizes. But this procedure does not take into account…

  8. Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Applying Bootstrap Resampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banjanovic, Erin S.; Osborne, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Confidence intervals for effect sizes (CIES) provide readers with an estimate of the strength of a reported statistic as well as the relative precision of the point estimate. These statistics offer more information and context than null hypothesis statistic testing. Although confidence intervals have been recommended by scholars for many years,…

  9. Reporting Confidence Intervals and Effect Sizes: Collecting the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Ozel, Z. Ebrar Yetkiner; Ozel, Serkan; Allen, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Confidence intervals (CIs) and effect sizes are essential to encourage meta-analytic thinking and to accumulate research findings. CIs provide a range of plausible values for population parameters with a degree of confidence that the parameter is in that particular interval. CIs also give information about how precise the estimates are. Comparison…

  10. The Use of One-Sample Prediction Intervals for Estimating CO2 Scrubber Canister Durations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    testing) that describe the characteristics of carbon dioxide absorbent canisters in closed - and semiclosed- circuit UBAs ( rebreathers ). The...CONCLUSIONS As described in engineering statistics texts, the use of one-sample prediction intervals is profitably applied to the testing of closed - circuit ...Duration Limits for Closed - Circuit Underwater Breathing Apparatus, NEDU TR 2-99, Navy Experimental Diving Unit, April 1999. 2. J. Clarke, K

  11. Binomial distribution sample confidence intervals estimation for positive and negative likelihood ratio medical key parameters.

    PubMed

    Bolboacă, Sorana; Jäntschi, Lorentz

    2005-01-01

    Likelihood Ratio medical key parameters calculated on categorical results from diagnostic tests are usually express accompanied with their confidence intervals, computed using the normal distribution approximation of binomial distribution. The approximation creates known anomalies,especially for limit cases. In order to improve the quality of estimation, four new methods (called here RPAC, RPAC0, RPAC1, and RPAC2) were developed and compared with the classical method (called here RPWald), using an exact probability calculation algorithm.Computer implementations of the methods use the PHP language. We defined and implemented the functions of the four new methods and the five criterions of confidence interval assessment. The experiments run for samples sizes which vary in 14 - 34 range, 90 - 100 range (0 < X < m, 0< Y < n), as well as for random numbers for samples sizes (4m, n interval for positive and negative likelihood ratios.

  12. Confidence intervals for effect parameters common in cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, T

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews approximate confidence intervals for some effect parameters common in cancer epidemiology. These methods have computational feasibility and give nearly nominal coverage rates. In the analysis of crude data, the simplest type of epidemiologic analysis, parameters of interest are the odds ratio in case-control studies and the rate ratio and difference in cohort studies. These parameters can estimate the instantaneous-incidence-rate ratio and difference that are the most meaningful effect measures in cancer epidemiology. Approximate confidence intervals for these parameters including the classical Cornfield's method are mainly based on efficient scores. When some confounding factors exist, stratified analysis and summary measures for effect parameters are needed. Since the Mantel-Haenszel estimators have been widely used by epidemiologists as summary measures, confidence intervals based on the Mantel-Haenszel estimators are described. The paper also discusses recent developments in these methods. PMID:2269246

  13. Finite sample pointwise confidence intervals for a survival distribution with right-censored data.

    PubMed

    Fay, Michael P; Brittain, Erica H

    2016-07-20

    We review and develop pointwise confidence intervals for a survival distribution with right-censored data for small samples, assuming only independence of censoring and survival. When there is no censoring, at each fixed time point, the problem reduces to making inferences about a binomial parameter. In this case, the recently developed beta product confidence procedure (BPCP) gives the standard exact central binomial confidence intervals of Clopper and Pearson. Additionally, the BPCP has been shown to be exact (gives guaranteed coverage at the nominal level) for progressive type II censoring and has been shown by simulation to be exact for general independent right censoring. In this paper, we modify the BPCP to create a 'mid-p' version, which reduces to the mid-p confidence interval for a binomial parameter when there is no censoring. We perform extensive simulations on both the standard and mid-p BPCP using a method of moments implementation that enforces monotonicity over time. All simulated scenarios suggest that the standard BPCP is exact. The mid-p BPCP, like other mid-p confidence intervals, has simulated coverage closer to the nominal level but may not be exact for all survival times, especially in very low censoring scenarios. In contrast, the two asymptotically-based approximations have lower than nominal coverage in many scenarios. This poor coverage is due to the extreme inflation of the lower error rates, although the upper limits are very conservative. Both the standard and the mid-p BPCP methods are available in our bpcp R package. Published 2016. This article is US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. The use of latin hypercube sampling for the efficient estimation of confidence intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Grabaskas, D.; Denning, R.; Aldemir, T.; Nakayama, M. K.

    2012-07-01

    Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) has long been used as a way of assuring adequate sampling of the tails of distributions in a Monte Carlo analysis and provided the framework for the uncertainty analysis performed in the NUREG-1150 risk assessment. However, this technique has not often been used in the performance of regulatory analyses due to the inability to establish confidence levels on the quantiles of the output distribution. Recent work has demonstrated a method that makes this possible. This method is compared to the procedure of crude Monte Carlo using order statistics, which is currently used to establish confidence levels. The results of several statistical examples demonstrate that the LHS confidence interval method can provide a more accurate and precise solution, but issues remain when applying the technique generally. (authors)

  15. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  16. Effects of prefeeding, intercomponent-interval food, and extinction on temporal discrimination and pacemaker rate.

    PubMed

    Ward, Ryan D; Odum, Amy L

    2006-02-28

    This experiment investigated the effects of nonpharmacological disruption on temporal discrimination. Pigeons responded on a multiple schedule composed of fixed interval, color-matching, and temporal-discrimination components. The effects of three different disruptors (prefeeding, intercomponent-interval food, and extinction) were assessed. All disruptors decreased response rates during the fixed interval. Prefeeding and intercomponent-interval food had unsystematic effects on response patterning during the fixed interval, whereas extinction increased the relative response rate in the initial portions of the fixed interval. Accuracy of color matching was decreased by prefeeding and was not systematically affected by intercomponent-interval food and extinction. In the temporal-discrimination component, all disruptors flattened the psychophysical functions relating proportion long responses to sample duration. This result indicates a general disruption of temporal discrimination. In addition, parameter estimates derived from the behavioral theory of timing indicated all disruptors decreased pacemaker rate, a result consistent with the predictions of the theory. These results highlight the similarities between disruption of temporal discrimination by pharmacological and nonpharmacological manipulations.

  17. Decision-aided sampling frequency offset compensation for reduced-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhuge, Qunbi; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Gao, Yuliang; Xu, Xian; Chagnon, Mathieu; Qiu, Meng; Hoang, Minh Thang; Zhang, Fangyuan; Li, Rui; Plant, David V

    2014-11-03

    We propose a decision-aided algorithm to compensate the sampling frequency offset (SFO) between the transmitter and receiver for reduced-guard-interval (RGI) coherent optical (CO) OFDM systems. In this paper, we first derive the cyclic prefix (CP) requirement for preventing OFDM symbols from SFO induced inter-symbol interference (ISI). Then we propose a new decision-aided SFO compensation (DA-SFOC) algorithm, which shows a high SFO tolerance and reduces the CP requirement. The performance of DA-SFOC is numerically investigated for various situations. Finally, the proposed algorithm is verified in a single channel 28 Gbaud polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RGI CO-OFDM experiment with QPSK, 8 QAM and 16 QAM modulation formats, respectively. Both numerical and experimental results show that the proposed DA-SFOC method is highly robust against the standard SFO in optical fiber transmission.

  18. Evaluation of data loggers, sampling intervals, and editing techniques for measuring the lying behavior of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ledgerwood, D N; Winckler, C; Tucker, C B

    2010-11-01

    Lying behavior in dairy cattle can provide insight into how cows interact with their environment. Although lying behavior is a useful indicator of cow comfort, it can be time consuming to measure. In response to these time constraints, using data loggers to automate behavioral recording has become increasingly common. We tested the accuracy of the Onset Pendant G data logger (Onset Computer Corporation, Bourne, MA) for measuring lying behavior in dairy cattle (n=24 cows; 12 in each of 2 experiments). Cows wore the logger on the lateral (experiment 1) or medial (experiment 2) side of the hind leg above the metatarsophalangeal joint. Loggers recorded behavior at 4 sampling intervals (6, 30, 60, and 300 s) for at least 1.5 d. Data were smoothed using 3 editing methods to examine the effects of short, potentially erroneous readings. For this purpose, Microsoft Excel macros (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) converted readings (i.e., lying events bordered by standing or vice versa) occurring singly or in consecutive runs of ≤2 or ≤6. Behavior was simultaneously recorded with digital video equipment. The logger accurately measured lying and standing. For example, predictability, sensitivity, and specificity were >99% using 30-s sampling and the single-event filter compared with continuously scored video recordings. The 6- and 30-s sampling intervals were comparable for all aspects of lying behavior when short events were filtered from the data set. Estimates of lying time generated from the 300-s interval unfiltered regimen were positively related (R(2) ≥ 0.99) to estimates of lying time from video, but this sampling regimen overestimated the number of lying bouts. This is likely because short standing and lying bouts were missed (12 and 34% of lying and standing bouts were <300 s in experiment 1 and 2, respectively). In summary, the data logger accurately measured all aspects of lying behavior when the sampling interval was ≤30 s and when short readings of lying and

  19. Contrasting effects of interference and of breaks in interval timing.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Rémi; Fortin, Claudette; Macar, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    When a break is introduced during an interval to be timed, the interval is perceived shorter as break location is delayed. This is interpreted as a result of attention sharing between timing and monitoring the source of the break signal. Similar effects and interpretations are found in another context involving interfering tasks. Such tasks are assumed to induce transient interruptions in timing, comparable to those obtained with breaks. Break and interference conditions were contrasted in a temporal reproduction procedure with identical stimuli. Both conditions induced temporal underestimation and similar location effects. Similar trends occurred in a control condition where no processing of the interfering signal was required. The data suggest that expectancy, intentional processing, and automatic attraction of attention shorten temporal estimates.

  20. Multivariate Effect Size Estimation: Confidence Interval Construction via Latent Variable Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2010-01-01

    A latent variable modeling method is outlined for constructing a confidence interval (CI) of a popular multivariate effect size measure. The procedure uses the conventional multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) setup and is applicable with large samples. The approach provides a population range of plausible values for the proportion of…

  1. Characterizing the Temporal Dynamics of Human Papillomavirus DNA Detectability Using Short-Interval Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su-Hsun; Cummings, Derek AT; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Gravitt, Patti E; Brotman, Rebecca M

    2013-01-01

    Background Variable detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA can result in misclassification of infection status, but the extent of misclassification has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods In 2005–2007, 33 women aged 22–53 self-collected vaginal swabs twice per week for 16 consecutive weeks. Each of the 955 swabs collected was tested for 37 HPV types/subtypes. Assuming that a woman’s underlying infection status did not change over the short study period, biases in prevalence estimates obtained from single versus multiple swabs were calculated. Using event history analysis methods, time to recurrent gain and loss of at least one HPV type was determined, separately. Baseline any- and high risk-HPV prevalence was 60.6% and 24.2%, respectively. Cumulative any- and high risk-HPV prevalence over the 16-week period was 84.8% and 60.6%, separately. Results Overall, there were 319 events of detection and 313 events of loss of detection. Median times to a recurrent detection and loss of detection was 11 and 7 days, respectively. Neither vaginal sex nor condom use during follow-up was associated with recurrent viral detection or loss of detection. Assuming the cumulative 16-week prevalence reflects the true prevalence of infection, the baseline any-HPV prevalence under-estimated infection status by 24.2%, with a bootstrapped mean of 20.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.9%, 29.6%). Conclusions These findings suggest that a substantial proportion of HPV-infected women are misclassified as being un-infected when using a single-time DNA measurement. Impact Short-term variation in detectable HPV DNA needs to be considered while interpreting the natural history of infections using single samples collected at long intervals. PMID:24130223

  2. Confidence Intervals Make a Difference: Effects of Showing Confidence Intervals on Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rink; Johnson, Addie; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of confidence intervals (CIs) as an addition or as an alternative to null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has been promoted as a means to make researchers more aware of the uncertainty that is inherent in statistical inference. Little is known, however, about whether presenting results via CIs affects how readers judge the…

  3. Nosewitness Identification: Effects of Lineup Size and Retention Interval

    PubMed Central

    Alho, Laura; Soares, Sandra C.; Costa, Liliana P.; Pinto, Elisa; Ferreira, Jacqueline H. T.; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Silva, Carlos F.; Olsson, Mats J.

    2016-01-01

    Although canine identification of body odor (BO) has been widely used as forensic evidence, the concept of nosewitness identification by human observers was only recently put to the test. The results indicated that BOs associated with male characters in authentic crime videos could later be identified in BO lineup tests well above chance. To further evaluate nosewitness memory, we assessed the effects of lineup size (Experiment 1) and retention interval (Experiment 2), using a forced-choice memory test. The results showed that nosewitness identification works for all lineup sizes (3, 5, and 8 BOs), but that larger lineups compromise identification performance in similarity to observations from eye- and earwitness studies. Also in line with previous eye- and earwitness studies, but in disagreement with some studies on odor memory, Experiment 2 showed significant forgetting between shorter retention intervals (15 min) and longer retention intervals (1-week) using lineups of five BOs. Altogether this study shows that identification of BO in a forensic setting is possible and has limits and characteristics in line with witness identification through other sensory modalities. PMID:27303317

  4. The effects of type of interval, sensory modality, base duration, and psychophysical task on the discrimination of brief time intervals.

    PubMed

    Rammsayer, Thomas H

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the influences of type of psychophysical task (two-alternative forced-choice [2AFC] and reminder tasks), type of interval (filled vs. empty), sensory modality (auditory vs. visual), and base duration (ranging from 100 through 1,000 ms) on performance on duration discrimination. All of these factors were systematically varied in an experiment comprising 192 participants. This approach allowed for obtaining information not only on the general (main) effect of each factor alone, but also on the functional interplay and mutual interactions of some or all of these factors combined. Temporal sensitivity was markedly higher for auditory than for visual intervals, as well as for the reminder relative to the 2AFC task. With regard to base duration, discrimination performance deteriorated with decreasing base durations for intervals below 400 ms, whereas longer intervals were not affected. No indication emerged that overall performance on duration discrimination was influenced by the type of interval, and only two significant interactions were apparent: Base Duration × Type of Interval and Base Duration × Sensory Modality. With filled intervals, the deteriorating effect of base duration was limited to very brief base durations, not exceeding 100 ms, whereas with empty intervals, temporal discriminability was also affected for the 200-ms base duration. Similarly, the performance decrement observed with visual relative to auditory intervals increased with decreasing base durations. These findings suggest that type of task, sensory modality, and base duration represent largely independent sources of variance for performance on duration discrimination that can be accounted for by distinct nontemporal mechanisms.

  5. Sample Size Planning for the Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient: Accuracy in Parameter Estimation via Narrow Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Methods of sample size planning are developed from the accuracy in parameter approach in the multiple regression context in order to obtain a sufficiently narrow confidence interval for the population squared multiple correlation coefficient when regressors are random. Approximate and exact methods are developed that provide necessary sample size…

  6. Quantitative investigation of resolution increase of free-flow electrophoresis via simple interval sample injection and separation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jing; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Huang, Xian-Qing; Xu, Yu-Quan

    2012-07-01

    Interval free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) has been used to suppress sample band broadening greatly hindering the development of free-flow electrophoresis (FFE). However, there has been still no quantitative study on the resolution increase of interval FFZE. Herein, we tried to make a comparison between bandwidths in interval FFZE and continuous one. A commercial dye with methyl green and crystal violet was well chosen to show the bandwidth. The comparative experiments were conducted under the same sample loading of the model dye (viz. 3.49, 1.75, 1.17, and 0.88 mg/h), the same running time (viz. 5, 10, 15, and 20 min), and the same flux ratio between sample and background buffer (= 10.64 × 10⁻³). Under the given conditions, the experiments demonstrated that (i) the band broadening was evidently caused by hydrodynamic factor in continuous mode, and (ii) the interval mode could clearly eliminate the hydrodynamic broadening existing in continuous mode, greatly increasing the resolution of dye separation. Finally, the interval FFZE was successfully used for the complete separation of two-model antibiotics (herein pyoluteorin and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid coexisting in fermentation broth of a new strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18), demonstrating the feasibility of interval FFZE mode for separation of biomolecules.

  7. Acute effects of coffee on QT interval in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The coronary endothelial function is recognized to have an important role in the physiology of the diastolic ventricular relaxation, a phase of the heart cycle that influences the electrocardiographic QT interval. Endothelial function is investigated in vivo by flow mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery and has proven to be a strong predictor of both coronary endothelial function and cardiovascular events. It has been reported that coffee acutely induces FMD changes. In particular, the brachial artery FMD seems to decrease after caffeinated coffee (CC) and to increase after decaffeinated coffee (DC) ingestion. Since the cardiovascular effects of coffee are still a debated matter, this study aimed at investigating with a randomized, double-blind crossover design, if the QT interval of adult healthy subjects (19 males and 21 females) changes in the hour following CC or DC ingestion. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the hour following the ingestion of CC; the heart rate significantly increased 30 minutes after CC ingestion. A significant increase of the QT duration was observed one hour after DC ingestion (398.9 ± 3.8 vs 405.3 ± 3.7 msec; P < 0.05), not after CC. The QT interval corrected for heart rate did not significantly change following CC or DC ingestion. In conclusion, despite CC and DC previously demonstrated to influence the FMD they do not seem to induce a significant unfavourable acute change of the left ventricular repolarization. Further investigations are required to elucidate the effects of coffee in subjects with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21288364

  8. Interval sampling of breath hydrogen (H2) as an index of lactose malabsorption in lactase-deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Welsh, J D; Payne, D L; Manion, C; Morrison, R D; Nichols, M A

    1981-08-01

    Interval sampling of breath hydrogen content was used in lactose malabsorbers: (1) to compare hydrogen responses following increasing oral doses of lactose in milk and aqueous solutions; (2) to determine the reproducibility of interval breath sampling, and (3) to compare carbohydrate malabsorption following ingestion of either regular milk or milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Significant differences in breath hydrogen responses due to increasing amounts of lactose in milk and aqueous solutions were observed. The individual breath hydrogen responses were reproducible using the same lactose dose on different days. There was no significant difference in breath hydrogen responses or symptoms following administration of either regular milk or milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Breath hydrogen sampling at intervals, as performed in these studies, provides a sensitive and reproducible index of lactose malabsorption.

  9. Sample Size Planning for the Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient: Accuracy in Parameter Estimation via Narrow Confidence Intervals.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Methods of sample size planning are developed from the accuracy in parameter approach in the multiple regression context in order to obtain a sufficiently narrow confidence interval for the population squared multiple correlation coefficient when regressors are random. Approximate and exact methods are developed that provide necessary sample size so that the expected width of the confidence interval will be sufficiently narrow. Modifications of these methods are then developed so that necessary sample size will lead to sufficiently narrow confidence intervals with no less than some desired degree of assurance. Computer routines have been developed and are included within the MBESS R package so that the methods discussed in the article can be implemented. The methods and computer routines are demonstrated using an empirical example linking innovation in the health services industry with previous innovation, personality factors, and group climate characteristics.

  10. Random Sampling with Interspike-Intervals of the Exponential Integrate and Fire Neuron: A Computational Interpretation of UP-States.

    PubMed

    Steimer, Andreas; Schindler, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Oscillations between high and low values of the membrane potential (UP and DOWN states respectively) are an ubiquitous feature of cortical neurons during slow wave sleep and anesthesia. Nevertheless, a surprisingly small number of quantitative studies have been conducted only that deal with this phenomenon's implications for computation. Here we present a novel theory that explains on a detailed mathematical level the computational benefits of UP states. The theory is based on random sampling by means of interspike intervals (ISIs) of the exponential integrate and fire (EIF) model neuron, such that each spike is considered a sample, whose analog value corresponds to the spike's preceding ISI. As we show, the EIF's exponential sodium current, that kicks in when balancing a noisy membrane potential around values close to the firing threshold, leads to a particularly simple, approximative relationship between the neuron's ISI distribution and input current. Approximation quality depends on the frequency spectrum of the current and is improved upon increasing the voltage baseline towards threshold. Thus, the conceptually simpler leaky integrate and fire neuron that is missing such an additional current boost performs consistently worse than the EIF and does not improve when voltage baseline is increased. For the EIF in contrast, the presented mechanism is particularly effective in the high-conductance regime, which is a hallmark feature of UP-states. Our theoretical results are confirmed by accompanying simulations, which were conducted for input currents of varying spectral composition. Moreover, we provide analytical estimations of the range of ISI distributions the EIF neuron can sample from at a given approximation level. Such samples may be considered by any algorithmic procedure that is based on random sampling, such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo or message-passing methods. Finally, we explain how spike-based random sampling relates to existing computational

  11. Variation of the Tully-Fisher relation as a function of the magnitude interval of a sample of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelas-Mayorga, A.; Sánchez, L. J.; Trujillo-Lara, M.; Nigoche-Netro, A.; Echevarría, J.; García, A. M.; Ramírez-Vélez, J.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we carry out a preliminary study of the dependence of the Tully-Fisher Relation (TFR) with the width and intensity level of the absolute magnitude interval of a limited sample of 2411 galaxies taken from Mathewson and Ford (Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 107:97, 1996). The galaxies in this sample do not differ significantly in morphological type, and are distributed over an ˜ 11-magnitude interval (-24.4 < I < -13.0). We take as directives the papers by Nigoche-Netro et al. (Astron. Astrophys. 491:731, 2008; Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 392:1060, 2009; Astron. Astrophys. 516:96, 2010) in which they study the dependence of the Kormendy (KR), the Fundamental Plane (FPR) and the Faber-Jackson Relations (FJR) with the magnitude interval within which the observed galaxies used to derive these relations are contained. We were able to characterise the behaviour of the TFR coefficients (α, β ) with respect to the width of the magnitude interval as well as with the brightness of the galaxies within this magnitude interval. We concluded that the TFR for this specific sample of galaxies depends on observational biases caused by arbitrary magnitude cuts, which in turn depend on the width and intensity of the chosen brightness levels.

  12. Optimal criteria and sampling interval to detect a V̇O2 plateau at V̇O2max in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Amara C; Ramos, Joyce S; Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S; Dalleck, Lance C

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the optimal criteria and sampling interval to detect a V̇O2 plateau at V̇O2max in patients with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-three participants with criteria-defined metabolic syndrome underwent a maximal graded exercise test. Four different sampling intervals and three different V̇O2 plateau criteria were analysed to determine the effect of each parameter on the incidence of V̇O2 plateau at V̇O2max. Seventeen tests were classified as maximal based on attainment of at least two out of three criteria. There was a significant (p < 0.05) effect of 15-breath (b) sampling interval on the incidence of V̇O2 plateau at V̇O2max across the ≤ 50 and ≤ 80 mL ∙ min(-1) conditions. Strength of association was established by the Cramer's V statistic (φc); (≤ 50 mL ∙ min(-1) [φc = 0.592, p < 0.05], ≤ 80 mL ∙ min(-1) [φc = 0.383, p < 0.05], ≤ 150 mL ∙ min(-1) [φc = 0.246, p > 0.05]). When conducting maximal stress tests on patients with metabolic syndrome, a 15-b sampling interval and ≤ 50 mL ∙ min(-1) criteria should be implemented to increase the likelihood of detecting V̇O2 plateau at V̇O2max.

  13. Short-Term Memory for Temporal Intervals: Contrasting Explanations of the Choose-Short Effect in Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2011-01-01

    To better understand short-term memory for temporal intervals, we re-examined the choose-short effect. In Experiment 1, to contrast the predictions of two models of this effect, the subjective shortening and the coding models, pigeons were exposed to a delayed matching-to-sample task with three sample durations (2, 6 and 18 s) and retention…

  14. An Introduction to Confidence Intervals for Both Statistical Estimates and Effect Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Mary Margaret

    This paper summarizes methods of estimating confidence intervals, including classical intervals and intervals for effect sizes. The recent American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Statistical Inference report suggested that confidence intervals should always be reported, and the fifth edition of the APA "Publication Manual"…

  15. Optical effects module and passive sample array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The Optical Effects Module (OEM) has the objective to monitor the effects of the deposition and adhesion of both molecular species and particles on optical surfaces in the Shuttle cargo bay environment. The OEM performs inflight measurements of the ultraviolet (253.7 nm) transmittance and diffuse reflectance of five optical samples at regular intervals throughout the orbital mission. Most of the obtained results indicates or implies the absence of a significant accumulation of contamination other than particulates on the samples. The contaminant species (or particulates) adhering to the samples of the Passive Sample Array (PSA) were identified by means of Auger and X-ray energy dispersive analyses. The elements silicon, chlorine, and phosphorus were discovered.

  16. An approach for calculating a confidence interval from a single aquatic sample for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Melissa M; Allan, Sarah E; Anderson, Kim A; Waters, Katrina M

    2012-12-01

    The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants in aquatic environments can entail logistical constraints that often limit a comprehensive statistical sampling plan, thus resulting in a restricted number of samples. The present study demonstrates an approach for using the results of a pilot study designed to estimate sampling variability, which in turn can be used as variance estimates for confidence intervals for future n = 1 PSD samples of the same aquatic system. Sets of three to five PSDs were deployed in the Portland Harbor Superfund site for three sampling periods over the course of two years. The PSD filters were extracted and, as a composite sample, analyzed for 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. The between-sample and within-sample variances were calculated to characterize sources of variability in the environment and sampling methodology. A method for calculating a statistically reliable and defensible confidence interval for the mean of a single aquatic passive sampler observation (i.e., n = 1) using an estimate of sample variance derived from a pilot study is presented. Coverage probabilities are explored over a range of variance values using a Monte Carlo simulation.

  17. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT: MEETING IN MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation, On-Line Tools for Proper Vertical Positioning of Sampling Intervals During Site Assessment, describes an approach to locating monitoring wells that is based on application of ground water models. The ideal use of both the model and site assessment funds is to ...

  18. Population Validity and Cross-Validity: Applications of Distribution Theory for Testing Hypotheses, Setting Confidence Intervals, and Determining Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection. (Contains 2 tables.)

  19. Effect of acute interval sprinting exercise on postprandial lipemia of sedentary young men

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Aaron; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Postprandial lipemia (PPL) contributesto the development of atherosclerosis. In females, repeated 8-second bouts of interval sprinting exercise reduced PPL, however, the effect of 8-second bouts of interval sprinting on PPL of overweight males is undetermined. Thus, the effect of 8-secondsof interval sprinting for 20 min, the night before ingestion of a high-fat meal (HFM), on plasma triacylglycerol(TG) levelswas examined. [Methods] Ten overweight males acted as participants (BMI = 26±3.0kg/m2, age 22 ± 2.5 years). A crossover design was employed withinterval sprinting and a noexercise condition separated by 7days. Participants consumed a milkshake (high-fat meal;HFM = 4170 kJ/993 Kcal) the morning after an overnight fast, followed by 4 hourly blood samples. Participants performedone bout of interval sprinting (8seconds sprinting at 110-115rpm, 12seconds active recovery at ~60rpm for 20 minutes) the evening before the consumption of the HFM. [Results] Postprandial TG was 22.5% lower in the interval sprinting compared to the noexercise condition when comparing the change in total area under the curve (ΔAUCT): ISE(7.15±1.90mmolL-1h-1) versus noexercise (9.22±3.44mmolL-1h-1), p=.014. The correlation between fasting TG levels in the noexercise condition and total reduction in AUCT between the conditions was significant (r=.87, p=.001). [Conclusion] One 20-min bout of interval sprinting,the night before consumption of a HFM,significantly attenuated the PPL response of sedentary males. PMID:27298807

  20. Profile likelihood-based confidence interval of the intraclass correlation for binary outcome data sampled from clusters.

    PubMed

    Saha, Krishna K

    2012-12-20

    The intraclass correlation in binary outcome data sampled from clusters is an important and versatile measure in many biological and biomedical investigations. Properties of the different estimators of the intraclass correlation based on the parametric, semi-parametric, and nonparametric approaches have been studied extensively, mainly in terms of bias and efficiency [see, for example, Ridout et al., Biometrics 1999, 55:137-148; Paul et al., Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation 2003, 73:507-523; and Lee, Statistical Modelling 2004, 4: 113-126], but little attention has been paid to extending these results to the problem of the confidence intervals. In this article, we generalize the results of the four point estimators by constructing asymptotic confidence intervals obtaining closed-form asymptotic and sandwich variance expressions of those four point estimators. It appears from simulation results that the asymptotic confidence intervals based on these four estimators have serious under-coverage. To remedy this, we introduce the Fisher's z-transformation approach on the intraclass correlation coefficient, the profile likelihood approach based on the beta-binomial model, and the hybrid profile variance approach based on the quadratic estimating equation for constructing the confidence intervals of the intraclass correlation for binary outcome data. As assessed by Monte Carlo simulations, these confidence interval approaches show significant improvement in the coverage probabilities. Moreover, the profile likelihood approach performs quite well by providing coverage levels close to nominal over a wide range of parameter combinations. We provide applications to biological data to illustrate the methods.

  1. Central tendency effects in time interval reproduction in autism

    PubMed Central

    Karaminis, Themelis; Cicchini, Guido Marco; Neil, Louise; Cappagli, Giulia; Aagten-Murphy, David; Burr, David; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Central tendency, the tendency of judgements of quantities (lengths, durations etc.) to gravitate towards their mean, is one of the most robust perceptual effects. A Bayesian account has recently suggested that central tendency reflects the integration of noisy sensory estimates with prior knowledge representations of a mean stimulus, serving to improve performance. The process is flexible, so prior knowledge is weighted more heavily when sensory estimates are imprecise, requiring more integration to reduce noise. In this study we measure central tendency in autism to evaluate a recent theoretical hypothesis suggesting that autistic perception relies less on prior knowledge representations than typical perception. If true, autistic children should show reduced central tendency than theoretically predicted from their temporal resolution. We tested autistic and age- and ability-matched typical children in two child-friendly tasks: (1) a time interval reproduction task, measuring central tendency in the temporal domain; and (2) a time discrimination task, assessing temporal resolution. Central tendency reduced with age in typical development, while temporal resolution improved. Autistic children performed far worse in temporal discrimination than the matched controls. Computational simulations suggested that central tendency was much less in autistic children than predicted by theoretical modelling, given their poor temporal resolution. PMID:27349722

  2. Pointwise confidence intervals for a survival distribution with small samples or heavy censoring.

    PubMed

    Fay, Michael P; Brittain, Erica H; Proschan, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    We propose a beta product confidence procedure (BPCP) that is a non-parametric confidence procedure for the survival curve at a fixed time for right-censored data assuming independent censoring. In such situations, the Kaplan-Meier estimator is typically used with an asymptotic confidence interval (CI) that can have coverage problems when the number of observed failures is not large, and/or when testing the latter parts of the curve where there are few remaining subjects at risk. The BPCP guarantees central coverage (i.e. ensures that both one-sided error rates are no more than half of the total nominal rate) when there is no censoring (in which case it reduces to the Clopper-Pearson interval) or when there is progressive type II censoring (i.e. when censoring only occurs immediately after failures on fixed proportions of the remaining individuals). For general independent censoring, simulations show that the BPCP maintains central coverage in many situations where competing methods can have very substantial error rate inflation for the lower limit. The BPCP gives asymptotically correct coverage and is asymptotically equivalent to the CI on the Kaplan-Meier estimator using Greenwood's variance. The BPCP may be inverted to create confidence procedures for a quantile of the underlying survival distribution. Because the BPCP is easy to implement, offers protection in settings when other methods fail, and essentially matches other methods when they succeed, it should be the method of choice.

  3. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Aerobic Capacity in Cardiac Patients: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin; Yan, Xianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (INTERVAL) and moderate-intensity continuous training (CONTINUOUS) on aerobic capacity in cardiac patients. Methods. A meta-analysis identified by searching the PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases from inception through December 2016 compared the effects of INTERVAL and CONTINUOUS among cardiac patients. Results. Twenty-one studies involving 736 participants with cardiac diseases were included. Compared with CONTINUOUS, INTERVAL was associated with greater improvement in peak VO2 (mean difference 1.76 mL/kg/min, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.46 mL/kg/min, p < 0.001) and VO2 at AT (mean difference 0.90 mL/kg/min, 95% confidence interval 0.0 to 1.72 mL/kg/min, p = 0.03). No significant difference between the INTERVAL and CONTINUOUS groups was observed in terms of peak heart rate, peak minute ventilation, VE/VCO2 slope and respiratory exchange ratio, body mass, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride or low- or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, flow-mediated dilation, or left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusions. This study showed that INTERVAL improves aerobic capacity more effectively than does CONTINUOUS in cardiac patients. Further studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our observations. PMID:28386556

  4. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training with Different Interval Durations on Physical Performance in Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Viaño-Santasmarinas, Jorge; Rey, Ezequiel; Carballeira, Sergio; Padrón-Cabo, Alexis

    2017-02-08

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 high-intensity interval training protocols (HIIT) with different interval durations (short (SI) vs long (LI)), based on peak running velocity in 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT) in handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (age: 22.7±3.9 years; height: 181.5±6.6 cm; body mass: 84.7±14.1 kg) were randomly assigned to SI (2 sets of 22 intervals of 10-s runs at 95%VIFT) or LI (5 sets of 3 min intervals at 85% VIFT) group. The intervention program had to be carried out 2 times a week over 6 weeks. Before and after training period, 10 m sprint, countermovement jump, repeated sprint ability (RSA) and 30- 15IFT were assessed. In the within-group analysis, significant improvements in VIFT were found in SI (8.18%) and LI (8.19%) from pre-test to post-test. Players in both SI and LI also showed significant enhancements in RSA average time (Effect Size (ES)= 0.72 and 0.38, respectively), total time (ES= 0.72 and 0.38, respectively), and percentage of decrement (ES= 1.08 and 0.77, respectively) from pre-test to post-test. Percentage changes in VIFT, for both groups combined, had a very large correlation with percentage changes in percentage of decrement of RSA (r= 0.857). In the between-groups, there were no differences between the training groups (SI and LI) in any variable (p>0.05). These results indicate that both HIIT protocols are effective for fitness development during pre-season period in handball players. However, SI should be considered as preferred HIIT method due to its higher specificity.

  5. The Acute Effects of Interval-Type Exercise on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Subjects: Importance of Interval Length. A Controlled, Counterbalanced, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Ida; Solomon, Thomas P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Interval-type exercise is effective for improving glycemic control, but the optimal approach is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the interval length on changes in postprandial glycemic control following a single exercise bout. Twelve subjects with type 2 diabetes completed a cross-over study with three 1-hour interventions performed in a non-randomized but counter-balanced order: 1) Interval walking consisting of repeated cycles of 3 min slow (aiming for 54% of Peak oxygen consumption rate [VO2peak]) and 3 min fast (aiming for 89% of VO2peak) walking (IW3); 2) Interval walking consisting of repeated cycles of 1 min slow and 1 min fast walking (IW1) and 3) No walking (CON). The exercise interventions were matched with regards to walking speed, and VO2 and heart rate was assessed throughout all interventions. A 4-hour liquid mixed meal tolerance test commenced 30 min after each intervention, with blood samples taken regularly. IW3 and IW1 resulted in comparable mean VO2 and heart rates. Overall mean postprandial blood glucose levels were lower after IW3 compared to CON (10.3±3.0 vs. 11.1±3.3 mmol/L; P < 0.05), with no significant differences between IW1 (10.5±2.8 mmol/L) and CON or IW3 and IW1 (P > 0.05 for both). Conversely blood glucose levels at specific time points during the MMTT differed significantly following both IW3 and IW1 as compared to CON. Our findings support the previously found blood glucose lowering effect of IW3 and suggest that reducing the interval length, while keeping the walking speed and time spend on fast and slow walking constant, does not result in additional improvements. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02257190 PMID:27695119

  6. A Further Assessment of Momentary Time-Sampling across Extended Interval Lengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvero, Alicia M.; Rappaport, Eva; Taylor, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study compared the estimation of momentary time-sampling (MTS) to actual safety performance of three ergonomic responses: back, shoulder, and feet. Actual safety performance was established for the five participants by measuring the target responses with a continuous procedure. MTS 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180, 195, 210, 240, and…

  7. Development of Exposure Point Concentrations with Incremental Sampling Data - Comparing Means and Confidence Intervals of Discrete, Composite, and Incremental Sampling Environmental Study Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Y..::: :.~.::::.~ .. :::.~ .. :::.~ .. :::.~ .. :::.;;.:::.;:;_ .. :::.Y..:::.;;;.:~.~ ""’ AMa Sampled 3Dm F Lino a. Pattern to coiJI!ct onl...for range characterization are shallow – typically 0 to 2.5 cm depth interval sampled. Depth may exceed 2.5 cm . • Typically, 30-100 increments are...r---------,----------T D •:sa.te Box Wheel ISBMil U V IS Bm~l MSMS IS RPuck U V IS RPuck 11.1SMS ’Sa mpfing a nd Analysis Group ’ E2S2, June 14-17

  8. Age effects in discrimination of intervals within rhythmic tone sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbons, Peter J.; Gordon-Salant, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study measured listener sensitivity to increments of a target inter-onset interval (IOI) embedded within tone sequences that featured different rhythmic patterns. The sequences consisted of six 50-ms 1000-Hz tone bursts separated by silent intervals that were adjusted to create different timing patterns. Control sequences were isochronous, with all tonal IOIs fixed at either 200 or 400 ms, while other patterns featured combinations of the two IOIs arranged to create different sequential tonal groupings. Duration difference limens in milliseconds for increments of a single sequence IOI were measured adaptively by adjusting the duration of an inter-tone silent interval. Specific target IOIs within sequences differed across discrimination conditions. Listeners included younger normal-hearing adults and groups of older adults with and without hearing loss. Discrimination performance measured for each of the older groups of listeners was observed to be equivalent, with each group exhibiting significantly poorer discrimination performance than the younger listeners in each sequence condition. Additionally, the specific influence of variable rhythmic grouping on temporal sensitivity was found to be greatest among older listeners. PMID:25618068

  9. Evaluation of Load Estimation Methods and Sampling Strategies by Confidence Intervals in Estimating Solute Flux from a Small Forested Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, A.; Tanakamaru, H.

    2008-12-01

    Total mass flux (load) from a catchment is a basic factor in evaluating chemical weathering or in TMDLs implementation. So far, many combinations of load estimation methods with sampling strategies were tested to obtain an unbiased flux estimate. To utilize such flux estimates in the political or scientific application, the information of uncertainty of flux estimates should also be provided. Giving the interval estimate of total flux may be a desirable solution to this situation. Total solute flux from a small, undisturbed forested catchment (12.8ha) during 10 months were calculated based on high-temporal resolution data and used in validation of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of flux estimates. Water quality data (sodium, potassium, and chloride concentration) were collected and measured every 15 minutes during 10 months in 2004 by the on-site monitoring system using FIP (flow injection potentiometry) method with ion-selective electrodes. Water quantity data (the flow rate data) were measured continuously by V-notch weir at the catchment outlet. Flux estimates and 95% CIs were calculated for three indices with 41 methods; sample average, flow- weighted average, the Beale ratio estimator, rating curve method with simple linear regression between flux and the flow rate, and nine regression models in the USGS Load Estimator (Loadest). Smearing estimates, MVUE estimates, and estimates by composite method were also evaluated concerning nine regression models in Load Estimator. Two sampling strategies were tested; periodical sampling (daily and weekly) and flow stratified sampling. After data were sorted in ascending order of the flow rate, five strata were configured so that each stratum contained same number of data in flow stratified sampling. The performance of these 95% CIs was evaluated by the rate of inclusion of true flux value within these CIs, which should be expected as 0.95. A simple bootstrap method was adopted to construct the CIs with 2,000 bootstrap

  10. Food and Insulin Effect on QT/QTC Interval of ECG

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-19

    Effects of Different Meals on the QT/QTc Interval; Insulin and Oral Hypoglycemic [Antidiabetic] Drugs Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use; C-Peptide Effects on the QT/QTc Interval; Moxifloxacin ECG Profile in Fed and Fasted State; Japanese vs. Caucasian TQT Comparison

  11. Color Tissue Doppler to Analyze Fetal Cardiac Time Intervals: Normal Values and Influence of Sample Gate Size.

    PubMed

    Willruth, A M; Steinhard, J; Enzensberger, C; Axt-Fliedner, R; Gembruch, U; Doelle, A; Dimitriou, I; Fimmers, R; Bahlmann, F

    2016-02-04

    Purpose: To assess the time intervals of the cardiac cycle in healthy fetuses in the second and third trimester using color tissue Doppler imaging (cTDI) and to evaluate the influence of different sizes of sample gates on time interval values. Materials and Methods: Time intervals were measured from the cTDI-derived Doppler waveform using a small and large region of interest (ROI) in healthy fetuses. Results: 40 fetuses were included. The median gestational age at examination was 26 + 1 (range: 20 + 5 - 34 + 5) weeks. The median frame rate was 116/s (100 - 161/s) and the median heart rate 143 (range: 125 - 158) beats per minute (bpm). Using small and large ROIs, the second trimester right ventricular (RV) mean isovolumetric contraction times (ICTs) were 39.8 and 41.4 ms (p = 0.17), the mean ejection times (ETs) were 170.2 and 164.6 ms (p < 0.001), the mean isovolumetric relaxation times (IRTs) were 52.8 and 55.3 ms (p = 0.08), respectively. The left ventricular (LV) mean ICTs were 36.2 and 39.4 ms (p = 0.05), the mean ETs were 167.4 and 164.5 ms (p = 0.013), the mean IRTs were 53.9 and 57.1 ms (p = 0.05), respectively. The third trimester RV mean ICTs were 50.7 and 50.4 ms (p = 0.75), the mean ETs were 172.3 and 181.4 ms (p = 0.49), the mean IRTs were 50.2 and 54.6 ms (p = 0.03); the LV mean ICTs were 45.1 and 46.2 ms (p = 0.35), the mean ETs were 175.2 vs. 172.9 ms (p = 0.29), the mean IRTs were 47.1 and 50.0 ms (p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusion: Isovolumetric time intervals can be analyzed precisely and relatively independent of ROI size. In the near future, automatic time interval measurement using ultrasound systems will be feasible and the analysis of fetal myocardial function can become part of the clinical routine.

  12. A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Confidence Intervals for Omega-Squared Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, W. Holmes; French, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    Effect size use has been increasing in the past decade in many research areas. Confidence intervals associated with effect sizes are encouraged to be reported. Prior work has investigated the performance of confidence interval estimation with Cohen's d. This study extends this line of work to the analysis of variance case with more than two…

  13. [Determining the postmortem interval of bone samples: a comparison of luminol chemiluminescence, Hexagon OBTI test, and Combur test].

    PubMed

    Ebach, Sarah C; Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2010-01-01

    In the experiment, 16 human bones with known postmortem interval (PMI) that had been buried in soil (0.2 to about 2000 years) were tested in a blind setup with two established methods for determining the PMI (UV fluorescence of the surface of a fresh cut and the luminol chemiluminescence) and with two methods applied for this purpose for the first time (Hexagon OBTI test and Combur test). The results underline the importance of the UV fluorescence and luminol tests in determining the PMI, especially with regard to the question whether the PMI is forensically relevant or not. The results for both new methods, the Combur test strips and the Hexagon OBTI test, which were originally developed for the detection of hemoglobin, were negative for all samples. It remains to be seen if the negative results for these two methods may be due to an inability of hemoglobin or its metabolites to dissolve in the Tris buffer solution used in the experiment.

  14. The effect of inter-set rest intervals on resistance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Henselmans, Menno; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2014-12-01

    Due to a scarcity of longitudinal trials directly measuring changes in muscle girth, previous recommendations for inter-set rest intervals in resistance training programs designed to stimulate muscular hypertrophy were primarily based on the post-exercise endocrinological response and other mechanisms theoretically related to muscle growth. New research regarding the effects of inter-set rest interval manipulation on resistance training-induced muscular hypertrophy is reviewed here to evaluate current practices and provide directions for future research. Of the studies measuring long-term muscle hypertrophy in groups employing different rest intervals, none have found superior muscle growth in the shorter compared with the longer rest interval group and one study has found the opposite. Rest intervals less than 1 minute can result in acute increases in serum growth hormone levels and these rest intervals also decrease the serum testosterone to cortisol ratio. Long-term adaptations may abate the post-exercise endocrinological response and the relationship between the transient change in hormonal production and chronic muscular hypertrophy is highly contentious and appears to be weak. The relationship between the rest interval-mediated effect on immune system response, muscle damage, metabolic stress, or energy production capacity and muscle hypertrophy is still ambiguous and largely theoretical. In conclusion, the literature does not support the hypothesis that training for muscle hypertrophy requires shorter rest intervals than training for strength development or that predetermined rest intervals are preferable to auto-regulated rest periods in this regard.

  15. Estimation of the Time Interval between the Administration of Heroin and the Sampling of Blood in Chronic Inhalers.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Nathalie; Hallet, Claude; Seidel, Laurence; Demaret, Isabelle; Luppens, David; Ansseau, Marc; Rozet, Eric; Albert, Adelin; Hubert, Philippe; Charlier, Corinne

    2015-05-01

    To develop a model for estimating the time delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users. Eleven patients, all heroin inhalers undergoing detoxification, were included in the study. Several plasma samples were collected during the detoxification procedure and analyzed for the heroin metabolites 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), morphine (MOR), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), according to a UHPLC/MSMS method. The general linear mixed model was applied to time-related concentrations and a pragmatic four-step delay estimation approach was proposed based on the simultaneous presence of metabolites in plasma. Validation of the model was carried out using the jackknife technique on the 11 patients, and on a group of 7 test patients. Quadratic equations were derived for all metabolites except 6AM. The interval delay estimation was 2-4 days when only M3G present in plasma, 1-2 days when M6G and M3G were both present, 0-1 day when MOR, M6G and M3G were present and <2 h for all metabolites present. The 'jackknife' correlation between declared and actual estimated delays was 0.90. The overall precision of the delay estimates was 8-9 h. The delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users can be satisfactorily predicted from plasma heroin metabolites.

  16. The Effect of Temporal Intervals of Reinforcement upon Deductive and Inductive Generalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Jack J.

    Using verbal material, this study explored the effect of the temporal interval of feedback as it interacted with two other variables: (1) method of presenting learning material (inductive or deductive), and (2) activity of the learner during the delay interval (activity relevant or irrelevant to the material). The major objective was to compare…

  17. Alternatives to P value: confidence interval and effect size

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The previous articles of the Statistical Round in the Korean Journal of Anesthesiology posed a strong enquiry on the issue of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). P values lie at the core of NHST and are used to classify all treatments into two groups: "has a significant effect" or "does not have a significant effect." NHST is frequently criticized for its misinterpretation of relationships and limitations in assessing practical importance. It has now provoked criticism for its limited use in merely separating treatments that "have a significant effect" from others that do not. Effect sizes and CIs expand the approach to statistical thinking. These attractive estimates facilitate authors and readers to discriminate between a multitude of treatment effects. Through this article, I have illustrated the concept and estimating principles of effect sizes and CIs. PMID:27924194

  18. Alternatives to P value: confidence interval and effect size.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Kyu

    2016-12-01

    The previous articles of the Statistical Round in the Korean Journal of Anesthesiology posed a strong enquiry on the issue of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). P values lie at the core of NHST and are used to classify all treatments into two groups: "has a significant effect" or "does not have a significant effect." NHST is frequently criticized for its misinterpretation of relationships and limitations in assessing practical importance. It has now provoked criticism for its limited use in merely separating treatments that "have a significant effect" from others that do not. Effect sizes and CIs expand the approach to statistical thinking. These attractive estimates facilitate authors and readers to discriminate between a multitude of treatment effects. Through this article, I have illustrated the concept and estimating principles of effect sizes and CIs.

  19. Assessing Mediational Models: Testing and Interval Estimation for Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Falk, Carl F.; Savalei, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models specifying indirect or mediated effects are common in the social sciences. An indirect effect exists when an independent variable's influence on the dependent variable is mediated through an intervening variable. Classic approaches to assessing such mediational hypotheses (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Sobel, 1982) have in recent years…

  20. Confidence Interval Estimation for Standardized Effect Sizes in Multilevel and Latent Growth Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Multilevel and latent growth models are frequently used interchangeably to examine differences between groups in trajectories of outcomes from controlled clinical trials. The unstandardized coefficient for the effect from group to slope (the treatment effect) from such models can be converted to a standardized mean difference (Cohen's d) between the treatment and control groups at end of study. This article addresses the confidence interval (CI) for this effect size. Method Two sets of equations for estimating the CI for the treatment effect size in multilevel models were derived and their usage was illustrated with data from the National Youth Study. Validity of the CIs was examined with a Monte Carlo simulation study that manipulated effect potency and sample size. Results The equivalence of the two new CI estimation methods was demonstrated and the Monte Carlo study found that bias in the CI for the effect size were not appreciably larger than bias in the CI for the widely used unstandardized coefficient. Conclusions Investigators reporting this increasingly popular effect size can estimate its CI with equations presented in this article. PMID:25181028

  1. Psycho-Physical Effects of Varied Rest Intervals Following Warm-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronchick, Joel; Burke, Edmund J.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the effects of rest intervals of varying lengths following a five minute warm-up revealed no significant differeence among them for perceived exertion, heart rate, and state anxiety. (MB)

  2. Effect of the rest interval duration between contractions on muscle fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the effect of rest interval, between successive contractions, on muscular fatigue. Methods Eighteen subjects performed elbow flexion and extension (30 repetitions) on an isokinetic dynamometer with 80º of range of motion. The flexion velocity was 120º/s, while for elbow extension we used 5 different velocities (30, 75, 120, 240, 360º/s), producing 5 different rest intervals (2.89, 1.28, 0.85, 0.57 and 0.54 s). Results We observed that when the rest interval was 2.89 s there was a reduction in fatigue. On the other hand, when the rest interval was 0.54 s the fatigue was increased. Conclusions When the resting time was lower (0.54 s) the decline of work in the flexor muscle group was higher compared with different rest interval duration. PMID:23181363

  3. Caffeine's effect on intermittent sprint cycling performance with different rest intervals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Lun; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Lin, Jung-Charng; Huang, Hsin-Wei

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine ingestion on the performance of an intermittent sprint cycling test (ISCT) with different rest intervals. Fourteen males with team sport experience consumed 6 mg kg(-1) of caffeine or a placebo 60 min prior to completing two sets of an ISCT with 4-min rest intervals. Each set consisted of 12 × 4-s sprints with 20- or 90-s active recovery intervals at 60-70 rpm. Blood lactate was collected at baseline and immediately following the completion of six sprints in each set. At 20-s recovery intervals, peak power and total work were not significantly different between conditions during the ISCT (P > 0.05); but caffeine reduced 6.31% effort for mean power in Sprint 10 of the later stage, as well as an increased fatigue index and elevated blood lactate levels during the ISCT (P < 0.05). At 90-s recovery intervals, peak power, mean power, and total work under caffeine conditions were significantly higher than under placebo conditions during the ISCT (P < 0.05), but no differences were apparent in fatigue index and blood lactate levels (P > 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine ingestion may be ergolytic, affecting performance and fatigue development in the later stage during a prolonged and intermittent sprint test with a short recovery interval. However, caffeine produces an ergogenic effect in the initial stage of an intermittent sprint performance with a longer recovery interval.

  4. The dose delivery effect of the different Beam ON interval in FFF SBRT: TrueBEAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawonwong, T.; Suriyapee, S.; Oonsiri, S.; Sanghangthum, T.; Oonsiri, P.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the dose delivery effect of the different Beam ON interval in Flattening Filter Free Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (FFF-SBRT). The three 10MV-FFF SBRT plans (2 half rotating Rapid Arc, 9 to10 Gray/Fraction) were selected and irradiated in three different intervals (100%, 50% and 25%) using the RPM gating system. The plan verification was performed by the ArcCHECK for gamma analysis and the ionization chamber for point dose measurement. The dose delivery time of each interval were observed. For gamma analysis (2%&2mm criteria), the average percent pass of all plans for 100%, 50% and 25% intervals were 86.1±3.3%, 86.0±3.0% and 86.1±3.3%, respectively. For point dose measurement, the average ratios of each interval to the treatment planning were 1.012±0.015, 1.011±0.014 and 1.011±0.013 for 100%, 50% and 25% interval, respectively. The average dose delivery time was increasing from 74.3±5.0 second for 100% interval to 154.3±12.6 and 347.9±20.3 second for 50% and 25% interval, respectively. The same quality of the dose delivery from different Beam ON intervals in FFF-SBRT by TrueBEAM was illustrated. While the 100% interval represents the breath-hold treatment technique, the differences for the free-breathing using RPM gating system can be treated confidently.

  5. Accuracy in Parameter Estimation for the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation: Sample Size Planning for Narrow Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken; Lai, Keke

    2011-01-01

    The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) is one of the most widely reported measures of misfit/fit in applications of structural equation modeling. When the RMSEA is of interest, so too should be the accompanying confidence interval. A narrow confidence interval reveals that the plausible parameter values are confined to a relatively…

  6. Approximate confidence intervals for moment-based estimators of the between-study variance in random effects meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dan; Bowden, Jack; Baker, Rose

    2015-12-01

    Moment-based estimators of the between-study variance are very popular when performing random effects meta-analyses. This type of estimation has many advantages including computational and conceptual simplicity. Furthermore, by using these estimators in large samples, valid meta-analyses can be performed without the assumption that the treatment effects follow a normal distribution. Recently proposed moment-based confidence intervals for the between-study variance are exact under the random effects model but are quite elaborate. Here, we present a much simpler method for calculating approximate confidence intervals of this type. This method uses variance-stabilising transformations as its basis and can be used for a very wide variety of moment-based estimators in both the random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression models.

  7. The Effect of Ratio and Interval Training on Pavlovian-Instrumental Transfer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wiltgen, Brian J.; Sinclair, Courtney; Lane, Chadrick; Barrows, Frank; Molina, Martín; Chabanon-Hicks, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    Conditional stimuli (CS) that are paired with reward can be used to motivate instrumental responses. This process is called Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT). A recent study in rats suggested that habitual responses are particularly sensitive to the motivational effects of reward cues. The current experiments examined this idea using ratio and interval training in mice. Two groups of animals were trained to lever press for food pellets that were delivered on random ratio or random interval schedules. Devaluation tests revealed that interval training led to habitual responding while ratio training produced goal-directed actions. The presentation of CSs paired with reward led to positive transfer in both groups, however, the size of this effect was much larger in mice that were trained on interval schedules. This result suggests that habitual responses are more sensitive to the motivational influence of reward cues than goal-directed actions. The implications for neurobiological models of motivation and drug seeking behaviors are discussed. PMID:23144742

  8. The effect of ratio and interval training on Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in mice.

    PubMed

    Wiltgen, Brian J; Sinclair, Courtney; Lane, Chadrick; Barrows, Frank; Molina, Martín; Chabanon-Hicks, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    Conditional stimuli (CS) that are paired with reward can be used to motivate instrumental responses. This process is called Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT). A recent study in rats suggested that habitual responses are particularly sensitive to the motivational effects of reward cues. The current experiments examined this idea using ratio and interval training in mice. Two groups of animals were trained to lever press for food pellets that were delivered on random ratio or random interval schedules. Devaluation tests revealed that interval training led to habitual responding while ratio training produced goal-directed actions. The presentation of CSs paired with reward led to positive transfer in both groups, however, the size of this effect was much larger in mice that were trained on interval schedules. This result suggests that habitual responses are more sensitive to the motivational influence of reward cues than goal-directed actions. The implications for neurobiological models of motivation and drug seeking behaviors are discussed.

  9. Confidence Intervals for Squared Semipartial Correlation Coefficients: The Effect of Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    The increase in the squared multiple correlation coefficient ([delta]R[superscript 2]) associated with a variable in a regression equation is a commonly used measure of importance in regression analysis. Algina, Keselman, and Penfield found that intervals based on asymptotic principles were typically very inaccurate, even though the sample size…

  10. Effects of sprint interval and continuous endurance training on serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hovanloo, Fariborz; Arefirad, Tahereh; Ahmadizad, Sajad

    2013-05-31

    Chronic and inflammatory diseases are major causes of mortality. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise have been confirmed, but the effect of different types of exercise on inflammatory markers is different. The aim of this study is comparing the effects of two types of sprint interval (SIT) and continuous endurance (CET) training on inflammatory markers. Sixteen students who had recreational activities participated in this study and were randomly assigned to one of the two protocols. The SIT protocol consisted of four to six 30-s "all-out" Wingate tests separated by 4 minutes of recovery and The CET protocol included 90-120 minutes of cycling at 65% Vo2max. The two protocols were performed 3 days per week and for two weeks. In each group, two blood samples were collected before and 2 days (24 and 48 hrs) after the training. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two training protocols on all measured parameters (p>0.05). The results of present study showed that the SIT and CET have identical effects on inflammatory markers.

  11. Baseline training history and effects of methamphetamine on performance of pigeons on an interval-bisection task.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert N; Ward, Ryan D; Odum, Amy L

    2010-05-01

    Length of baseline training influences how methamphetamine disrupts temporal performance under a peak interval schedule. Acute methamphetamine produces overestimation of time following relatively brief training, but following extended training, methamphetamine produces more general loss of stimulus control. The current study extends the study of training length on the effects of methamphetamine to an interval-bisection procedure. Six pigeons responded under a psychophysical choice procedure in which responses to one key color were correct after presentation of four shorter sample durations and responses to another key color were correct after presentation of four longer sample durations. One group of three pigeons received briefer baseline training (45 sessions), while another group received more extended training (223 sessions) prior to methamphetamine administration. There was no evidence of overestimation of time or generalized loss of stimulus control in either group. Sensitivity (precision of timing) was higher in the group with more extensive training and was disrupted by methamphetamine.

  12. Effects of cocaine on performance under fixed-interval schedules with a small tandem ratio requirement.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; Branch, Marc N

    2004-01-01

    Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to its effects on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules. Such effects have been observed to be greater when the ratio value is small, whereas less or no tolerance has been observed at large ratio values. Similar schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance, however, has not been observed with fixed-interval schedules arranging comparable interreinforcement intervals. This experiment examined the possibility that differences in rate and temporal patterning between the two types of schedule are responsible for the differences in observed patterns of tolerance. Five pigeons were trained to key peck on a three-component multiple (tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio) schedule. The interval values were 10, 30, and 120 s; the tandem ratio was held constant at five responses. Performance appeared more like that observed under fixed-ratio schedules than fixed-interval schedules. Effects of various doses of cocaine given weekly were then determined for each pigeon. A dose that reduced responding was administered prior to each session for 50 days. A reassessment of effects of the range of doses revealed tolerance. The degree of tolerance was similar across components of the multiple schedule. Next, the saline vehicle was administered prior to each session for 50 days to assess the persistence of tolerance. Tolerance diminished in all subjects. Overall, the results suggested that schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance does not depend on the temporal pattern of responding engendered by fixed-ratio schedules. PMID:15693524

  13. [Effect of pazufloxacin mesilate, a new quinolone antibacterial agent, for intravenous use on QT interval].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Morita, Yukie; Shiotani, Norio; Mizuo, Midori; Komae, Norihisa

    2004-08-01

    The potential for QT interval prolongation of pazufloxacin mesilate (PZFX mesilate), a new quinolone antibacterial agent for intravenous use, was investigated by in vitro and in vivo electrophysiology studies. Following results were obtained. In vitro electrophysiology study using guinea pig papillary muscles: PZFX mesilate (30-300 microM) had no effects on resting membrane potential (RMP), action potential amplitude (APA) and action potential duration (APD). Reference quinolones, sparfloxacin (3-30 microM) and moxifloxacin (10-100 microM), had no effects on RMP and APA, but significantly prolonged APD at more than 3 and 10 microM, respectively, while ciprofloxacin (10-100 microM) had no effect on each parameter. In vivo electrophysiology study using anesthetized dogs: PZFX mesilate had no effects on electrocardiograph parameter (PR interval, QRS interval, QT interval and QTc) after intravenous administration of 3-30 mg/kg. These results suggest that PZFX mesilate has low potential for QT interval prolongation.

  14. Effects of intensity and duration in aerobic high-intensity interval training in highly trained junior cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Sandbakk, Silvana B; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training is more effective than shorter intervals at a higher intensity in highly trained endurance athletes. The sample comprised of 12 male and 9 female, national-level, junior cross-country skiers (age, 17.5 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max): 67.4 ± 7.7 ml min kg), who performed 8-week baseline and 8-week intervention training periods on dry land. During the intervention period, a short-interval group (SIG, n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with short duration intervals (2- to 4-minute bouts, total duration of 15-20 minutes), a long-interval group (LIG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with long duration intervals (5- to 10-minute bouts, total duration of 40-45 minutes). The interval sessions were performed with the athletes' maximal sustainable intensity. A control group (CG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with low-intensity endurance training at 65-74% of maximal heart rate. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for time-trial performance on 12-km roller-ski skating and 7-km hill run. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT) were measured during treadmill running. After the intervention training period, the LIG-improved 12-km roller ski, 7-km hill run, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT by 6.8 ± 4.0%, 4.8 ± 2.6%, 3.7 ± 1.6%, and 5.8 ± 3.3%, respectively, from pre- to posttesting, and improved both performance tests and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT when compared with the SIG and the CG (all p < 0.05). The SIG improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max by 3.5 ± 3.2% from pre- to posttesting (p < 0.05), whereas the CG remained unchanged. As hypothesized, a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training improved endurance performance and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold more than shorter intervals at a higher

  15. Constraints on Infants' Musical Rhythm Perception: Effects of Interval Ratio Complexity and Enculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Erin E.; Soley, Gaye; Levine, Rachel S.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of culture-specific experience on musical rhythm perception are evident by 12 months of age, but the role of culture-general rhythm processing constraints during early infancy has not been explored. Using a habituation procedure with 5- and 7-month-old infants, we investigated effects of temporal interval ratio complexity on discrimination…

  16. Reliability, Validity, Effects Sizes, and Confidence Intervals in Multicultural Teaching and Learning Research and Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2012-01-01

    Like many journals within education, for "Multicultural Learning and Teaching," this writer found little written on measurement, effect sizes, and confidence intervals; therefore, the purpose of this article is to address these factors. The effect of not addressing these issues is that a basic foundation of science cannot be established…

  17. The effect of a brief sprint interval exercise on growth factors and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon; Seraev, Mariana; Zaldivar, Frank; Cooper, Dan M; Sagiv, Michael; Nemet, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Exercise training efficiency depends on the intensity, volume, duration, and frequency of training, as well as on the athlete's ability to tolerate it. Recent efforts to quantify the effects of aerobic exercise training on hormonal response have suggested that exercise leads to simultaneous changes of antagonistic mediators. The effects of anaerobic exercise on these mediators are not known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a brief sprint interval session on the balance between anabolic (growth hormone [GH]--> insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-I axis) and catabolic hormones (cortisol), and circulating inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6. Twelve healthy elite junior handball players (17-20 years) participated in the study. Exercise consisted of a 4 x 250-m run on a treadmill, at a constant intensity of 80% of the personal maximal speed. Each run was separated by 3 minutes of rest. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after each 250-m run, and 1 hour after the last run. Exercise led to significant increases in GH (0.3 +/- 0.2 to 5.1 +/- 2.2 ngxml, p < 0.05), IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 (4191 +/- 2.48 to 4875 +/- 301 ngxml, p < 0.05), IL-6 (1.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.1 +/- 0.3 pgxml, p < 0.002), testosterone, and testosterone/cortisol ratio, and to a significant decrease in IGFBP-1 levels. Levels of IL-6 remained elevated 1 hour after the end of exercise. Exercise had no significant effects on IGF-I and cortisol levels. Changes in the GH-IGF-I axis and testosterone/cortisol ratio after the brief sprint interval exercise suggested exercise-related anabolic adaptations. The increase in IL-6 may indicate its important role in muscle tissue repair after anaerobic exercise. Changes in the anabolic-catabolic hormonal balance and in inflammatory mediators can be used as an objective tool to gauge the training intensity of different types of anaerobic exercises and training periods.

  18. A Note on Confidence Intervals for Two-Group Latent Mean Effect Size Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jaehwa; Fan, Weihua; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2009-01-01

    This note suggests delta method implementations for deriving confidence intervals for a latent mean effect size measure for the case of 2 independent populations. A hypothetical kindergarten reading example using these implementations is provided, as is supporting LISREL syntax. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. Psycho-Physical Effects of Varied Rest Intervals Following Warm-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronchick, Joel; Burke, Edmund J.

    This study assessed the effects of varied rest intervals following a five-minute warm-up upon subsequent ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), and state anxiety during an exercise period. The subjects were 16 male college students. Each subject was tested under four experimental conditions following a five-minute warm-up on a…

  20. Effect Sizes and their Intervals: The Two-Level Repeated Measures Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2005-01-01

    Probability coverage for eight different confidence intervals (CIs) of measures of effect size (ES) in a two-level repeated measures design was investigated. The CIs and measures of ES differed with regard to whether they used least squares or robust estimates of central tendency and variability, whether the end critical points of the interval…

  1. Effect of preseason concurrent muscular strength and high-intensity interval training in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pui-lam; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Dellal, Alexandre; Wisloff, Ulrik

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the effect of concurrent muscular strength and high-intensity running interval training on professional soccer players' explosive performances and aerobic endurance. Thirty-nine players participated in the study, where both the experimental group (EG, n = 20) and control group (CG, n = 19) participated in 8 weeks of regular soccer training, with the EG receiving additional muscular strength and high-intensity interval training twice per week throughout. Muscular strength training consisted of 4 sets of 6RM (repetition maximum) of high-pull, jump squat, bench press, back half squat, and chin-up exercises. The high-intensity interval training consisted of 16 intervals each of 15-second sprints at 120% of individual maximal aerobic speed interspersed with 15 seconds of rest. EG significantly increased (p < or = 0.05) 1RM back half squat and bench press but showed no changes in body mass. Within-subject improvement was significantly higher (p < or = 0.01) in the EG compared with the CG for vertical jump height, 10-m and 30-m sprint times, distances covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and maximal aerobic speed test, and maximal aerobic speed. High-intensity interval running can be concurrently performed with high load muscular strength training to enhance soccer players' explosive performances and aerobic endurance.

  2. Bouts of responding on variable-interval schedules: effects of deprivation level.

    PubMed Central

    Shull, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    Rats obtained food pellets on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement by nose poking a lighted key. After training to establish baseline performance (with the mean variable interval set at either 60, 120, or 240 s), the rats were given free access to food during the hour just before their daily session. This satiation operation reduced the rate of key poking. Analysis of the interresponse time distributions (log survivor plots) indicated that key poking occurred in bouts. Prefeeding lengthened the pauses between bouts, shortened the length of bouts (less reliably), and had a relatively small decremental effect on the response rate within bouts. That deprivation level affects mainly between-bout pauses has been reported previously with fixed-ratio schedules. Thus, when the focus is on bouts, the performances maintained by variable-interval schedules and fixed-ratio schedules are similarly affected by deprivation. PMID:15239490

  3. The effects of soil environment on postmortem interval: a macroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaggers, Kimberley A; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    Burial environment, in particular soil moisture, has a significant impact on the type, rate, and extent of bone degradation, which ultimately affects estimations of the postmortem interval (PMI). The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of soil moisture on the color, weight, condition, and texture of bone as it relates to the PMI. Bone changes occurring over two different time intervals (2 and 5 months) were examined using 120 sus scrofa leg bones. During each time interval bones were buried in two soil environments, one of which was drier than the other. The bones in both environments lost weight over time but the net weight loss was greater for bones in the higher moisture environment. There was no change in color, texture, or overall condition, indicating that 150 days is not long enough for such alterations to occur, regardless of the moisture level of the burial environment.

  4. The effects of initial interval size on the efficacy of DRO schedules of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Repp, A C; Felce, D; Barton, L E

    1991-01-01

    The differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) is a behavior-reduction procedure that has been popular for several years. In classroom settings, it provides reinforcement when a student does not display inappropriate responding for a particular interval of time. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about how to use DRO effectively in applied settings. Most research has been conducted in laboratory settings; the purpose of the present study was to provide a replication of one of those studies. This study examined the effect of the size of the initial DRO interval on the disruptive behavior of students with moderate disabilities. In the first experiment, a group of six students was observed during baseline in two classes. Two different DRO values were then used. In one classroom, it was equal to the mean number of 10-second intervals between disruptions during baseline. In the other classroom, it was twice the mean number during baseline. In the final phase, behavior in both classrooms was put under the same DRO program. In the second experiment, the disruptive behavior of three students was studied in a different design in which both methods of determining the initial DRO value were compared. The results of both experiments showed that an initial DRO value equal to the mean number of intervals between responses in baseline was much more effective than a value twice that size in reducing disruptions.

  5. Estimation of intervention effect using paired interval-censored data with clumping below lower detection limit.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Lam, K F; Cowling, Benjamin J; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2015-01-30

    Outcome variables that are semicontinuous with clumping at zero are commonly seen in biomedical research. In addition, the outcome measurement is sometimes subject to interval censoring and a lower detection limit (LDL). This gives rise to interval-censored observations with clumping below the LDL. Level of antibody against influenza virus measured by the hemagglutination inhibition assay is an example. The interval censoring is due to the assay's technical procedure. The clumping below LDL is likely a result of the lack of prior exposure in some individuals such that they either have zero level of antibodies or do not have detectable level of antibodies. Given a pair of such measurements from the same subject at two time points, a binary 'fold-increase' endpoint can be defined according to the ratio of these two measurements, as it often is in vaccine clinical trials. The intervention effect or vaccine immunogenicity can be assessed by comparing the binary endpoint between groups of subjects given different vaccines or placebos. We introduce a two-part random effects model for modeling the paired interval-censored data with clumping below the LDL. Based on the estimated model parameters, we propose to use Monte Carlo approximation for estimation of the 'fold-increase' endpoint and the intervention effect. Bootstrapping is used for variance estimation. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation. We analyze antibody data from an influenza vaccine trial for illustration.

  6. Effects of temporal shapes of sound markers on the perception of interonset time intervals.

    PubMed

    Hasuo, Emi; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Osawa, Satoshi; Fujishima, Hiroyuki

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated how the temporal characteristics, particularly durations, of sounds affect the perceived duration of very short interonset time intervals (120-360 ms), which is important for rhythm perception in speech and music. In four experiments, the subjective duration of single time intervals marked by two sounds was measured utilizing the method of adjustment, while the markers' durations, amplitude difference (which accompanied the duration change), and sound energy distribution in time were varied. Lengthening the duration of the second marker in the range of 20-100 ms increased the subjective duration of the time interval in a stable manner. Lengthening the first marker tended to increase the subjective duration, but unstably; an opposite effect sometimes appeared for the shortest time interval of 120 ms. The effects of varying the amplitude and the sound energy distribution in time of either marker were very small in the present experimental conditions, thus proving the effects of marker durations per se.

  7. The effect of high intensity interval exercise on postprandial triacylglycerol and leukocyte activation--monitored for 48 h post exercise.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Brendan Morris; Pugh, Jamie; Pruneta-Deloche, Valerie; Moulin, Philippe; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Gray, Stuart Robert

    2013-01-01

    Postprandial phenomenon are thought to contribute to atherogenesis alongside activation of the immune system. A single bout of high intensity interval exercise attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), although the longevity and mechanisms underlying this observation are unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether this attenuation in postprandial TG remained 2 days after high intensity interval exercise, to monitor markers of leukocyte activation and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Eight young men each completed two three day trials. On day 1: subjects rested (Control) or performed 5 x 30 s maximal sprints (high intensity interval exercise). On day 2 and 3 subjects consumed high fat meals for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TG, glucose and TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL)-bound LPL-dependent TRL-TG hydrolysis (LTTH). Flow cytometry was used to evaluate granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b and CD36 expression. On day 2 after high intensity interval exercise TG area under the curve was lower (P<0.05) (7.46 ± 1.53 mmol/l/7h) compared to the control trial (9.47 ± 3 .04 mmol/l/7h) with no differences during day 3 of the trial. LTTH activity was higher (P<0.05) after high intensity interval exercise, at 2 hours of day 2, compared to control. Granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b expression increased with time over day 2 and 3 of the study (P<0.0001). Lymphocyte and monocyte CD36 expression decreased with time over day 2 and 3 (P<0.05). There were no differences between trials in CD11b and CD36 expression on any leukocytes. A single session of high intensity interval exercise attenuated postprandial TG on day 2 of the study, with this effect abolished by day 3.The reduction in postprandial TG was associated with an increase in LTTH. High intensity interval exercise had no effect on postprandial responses of CD11b or CD36.

  8. Effects of Short-Interval and Long-Interval Swimming Protocols on Performance, Aerobic Adaptations, and Technical Parameters: A Training Study.

    PubMed

    Dalamitros, Athanasios A; Zafeiridis, Andreas S; Toubekis, Argyris G; Tsalis, George A; Pelarigo, Jailton G; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spiridon

    2016-10-01

    Dalamitros, AA, Zafeiridis, AS, Toubekis, AG, Tsalis, GA, Pelarigo, JG, Manou, V, and Kellis, S. Effects of short-interval and long-interval swimming protocols on performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters: A training study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2871-2879, 2016-This study compared 2-interval swimming training programs of different work interval durations, matched for total distance and exercise intensity, on swimming performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters. Twenty-four former swimmers were equally divided to short-interval training group (INT50, 12-16 × 50 m with 15 seconds rest), long-interval training group (INT100, 6-8 × 100 m with 30 seconds rest), and a control group (CON). The 2 experimental groups followed the specified swimming training program for 8 weeks. Before and after training, swimming performance, technical parameters, and indices of aerobic adaptations were assessed. ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 improved swimming performance in 100 and 400-m tests and the maximal aerobic speed (p ≤ 0.05); the performance in the 50-m swim did not change. Posttraining V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values were higher compared with pretraining values in both training groups (p ≤ 0.05), whereas peak aerobic power output increased only in INT100 (p ≤ 0.05). The 1-minute heart rate and blood lactate recovery values decreased after training in both groups (p < 0.01). Stroke length increased in 100 and 400-m swimming tests after training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05); no changes were observed in stroke rate after training. Comparisons between groups on posttraining mean values, after adjusting for pretraining values, revealed no significant differences between ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 for all variables; however, all measures were improved vs. the respective values in the CON (p < 0.001-0.05). In conclusion, when matched for distance and exercise intensity, the short-interval (50 m) and long-interval (100 m) protocols confer analogous

  9. The effect of an aerobic interval training program on intermittent anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Gaiga, M C; Docherty, D

    1995-12-01

    The effects of a 9-week aerobic interval training program on anaerobic intermittent performance were investigated. Intermittent work consisted of four repeat 30-sec maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer (Wingate test) with 3-min recovery intervals. Thirteen men trained 3 days a week on the cycle ergometer, completing 3-min work-to-rest intervals and progressing from 5 to 10 reps. Relative and absolute values of aerobic power increased significantly for the training group (p < .05). No significant change was observed for the control group (n = 11). The training group demonstrated significant increases in the four anaerobic variables of short-term peak power (SPP), short-term anaerobic capacity (SAC), intermediate-term peak power (IPP), and total work (TW), and across the four 30-sec maximal repeats for anaerobic performance (T1-T4) (p < .05). Greater percentages of increase occurred for IPP and TW, especially during Repeats 3 and 4. The control group only demonstrated a significant increase in SPP for Repeat 3. These data suggest that the type of interval training program used in the study increased aerobic power and also enhanced performance in repeated high intensity, short duration work.

  10. Effects of signaling on temporal control of behavior in response-initiated fixed intervals.

    PubMed

    Fox, Adam E; Kyonka, Elizabeth G E

    2016-11-01

    Behavior and events distributed in time can serve as markers that signal delays to future events. The majority of timing research has focused on how behavior changes as the time to some event, usually food availability, decreases. The primary objective of the two experiments presented here was to assess how behavior changes as time passes between two time markers when the first time marker was manipulated but the second, food delivery, was held constant. Pigeons were exposed to fixed-interval, response-initiated fixed-interval, and signaled response-initiated fixed-interval 15- and 30-s schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, first-response latencies were systematically shorter in the signaled response-initiated schedules than response-initiated schedules, suggesting that the first response was a more effective time marker when it was signaled. In Experiment 2, responding in no-food (i.e. "peak") trials indicated that timing accuracy was equivalent in the three schedule types. Compared to fixed interval schedules, timing precision was reduced in the signaled response-initiated schedules and was lowest in response-initiated schedules. Results from Experiments 1 and 2 coupled with previous research suggest that the overall "informativeness" of a time marker relative to other events and behaviors in the environment may determine its efficacy.

  11. LED therapy or cryotherapy between exercise intervals in Wistar rats: anti-inflammatory and ergogenic effects.

    PubMed

    da Costa Santos, Vanessa Batista; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Milanez, Vinícius Flávio; Corrêa, Julio Cesar Molina; de Andrade Alves, Rubens Igor; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test, between two bouts of exercise, the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) therapy and cryotherapy regarding muscle damage, inflammation, and performance. Male Wistar rats were allocated in four groups: control, passive recovery (PR), cryotherapy (Cryo), and LED therapy. The animals were submitted to 45 min of swimming exercise followed by 25 min of recovery and then a second bout of either 45 min of exercise (muscle damage analysis) or time to exhaustion (performance). During the rest intervals, the rats were kept in passive rest (PR), submitted to cold water immersion (10 min, 10 °C) or LED therapy (940 nm, 4 J/cm(2)) of the gastrocnemius muscle. Blood samples were collected to analyze creatine kinase activity (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocyte counts. The soleus muscles were evaluated histologically. Time to exhaustion was recorded during the second bout of exercise. After a second bout of 45 min, the results demonstrated leukocytosis in the PR and Cryo groups. Neutrophil counts were increased in all test groups. CK levels were increased in the Cryo group. CRP was increased in PR animals. The PR group presented a high frequency of necrosis, but the LED group had fewer necrotic areas. Edema formation was prevented, and fewer areas of inflammatory cells were observed in the LED group. The time to exhaustion was greater in both the LED and Cryo groups, without differences in CK levels. CRP was decreased in LED animals. We conclude that LED therapy and cryotherapy can improve performance, although LED therapy is more efficient in preventing muscle damage and local and systemic inflammation.

  12. Effects of cocaine on fixed-interval responding reinforced by the opportunity to run.

    PubMed Central

    Belke, T W; Dunbar, M J

    2001-01-01

    Rate-dependent drug effects have been observed for operant responding maintained by food, water, heat, light onset, electrical brain stimulation, shock-stimulus termination, and shock presentation. The present study sought to determine if the effects of cocaine on lever pressing maintained by the opportunity to run could also be described as rate dependent. Seven male Wistar rats were trained to respond on levers for the opportunity to run in a wheel. The schedule of reinforcement was fixed-interval 60 s, and the reinforcing consequence was the opportunity to run for 60 s. On this schedule, overall rates of responding were low, usually below six presses per minute, and pauses frequently exceeded the 60-s interval. Despite these differences, an overall scalloped pattern of lever pressing was evident for each rat. Doses of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg cocaine were administered 10 min prior to a session. Only at the 16 mg/kg dose did the responding of the majority of rats change in a manner suggestive of a rate-dependent drug effect. Specifically, lower response rates at the beginning of the intervals increased and higher rates at the end of the intervals decreased, as indicated by the fact that slopes from the regression of drug rates on control rates decreased. These data provide tentative support for the generalization of rate-dependent effects to operant responding maintained by wheel running. Differences in the baseline performance maintained by wheel running compared to those for food and water point to the need for further experimentation before this effect can be firmly established. PMID:11256868

  13. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation with Effective Utilization of Polling Interval over WDM/TDM PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Cuiping; Gan, Chaoqin; Gao, Ziyue

    2014-12-01

    WDM/TDM (wavelength-division multiplexing/time-division multiplexing) PON (passive optical network) appears to be an attractive solution for the next generation optical access networks. Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) plays a crucial role in efficiently and fairly allocating the bandwidth among all users in WDM/TDM PON. In this paper, two dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes (DBA1 and DBA2) are proposed to eliminate the idle time of polling cycles (i.e. polling interval), improve bandwidth utilization and make full use of bandwidth resources. The two DBA schemes adjust the time slot of sending request information and make fair scheduling among users to achieve the effective utilization of polling interval in WDM/TDM PON. The simulation and theoretical analyses verify that the proposed schemes outperform the conventional DBA scheme. We also make comparisons between the two schemes in terms of bandwidth utilization and average packet delay to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme of DBA2.

  14. A method to compute multiplicity corrected confidence intervals for odds ratios and other relative effect estimates.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Nielsen, Susan Searles

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies commonly test multiple null hypotheses. In some situations it may be appropriate to account for multiplicity using statistical methodology rather than simply interpreting results with greater caution as the number of comparisons increases. Given the one-to-one relationship that exists between confidence intervals and hypothesis tests, we derive a method based upon the Hochberg step-up procedure to obtain multiplicity corrected confidence intervals (CI) for odds ratios (OR) and by analogy for other relative effect estimates. In contrast to previously published methods that explicitly assume knowledge of P values, this method only requires that relative effect estimates and corresponding CI be known for each comparison to obtain multiplicity corrected CI.

  15. Discrimination of time intervals presented in sequences: spatial effects with multiple auditory sources.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Simon; Plourde, Marilyn

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses two experiments on the discrimination of time intervals presented in sequences marked by brief auditory signals. Participants had to indicate whether the last interval in a series of three intervals marked by four auditory signals was shorter or longer than the previous intervals. Three base durations were under investigation: 75, 150, and 225 ms. In Experiment 1, sounds were presented through headphones, from a single-speaker in front of the participants or by four equally spaced speakers. In all three presentation modes, the highest different threshold was obtained in the lower base duration condition (75 ms), thus indicating an impairment of temporal processing when sounds are presented too rapidly. The results also indicate the presence, in each presentation mode, of a 'time-shrinking effect' (i.e., with the last interval being perceived as briefer than the preceding ones) at 75 ms, but not at 225 ms. Lastly, using different sound sources to mark time did not significantly impair discrimination. In Experiment 2, three signals were presented from the same source, and the last signal was presented at one of two locations, either close or far. The perceived duration was not influenced by the location of the fourth signal when the participant knew before each trial where the sounds would be delivered. However, when the participant was uncertain as to its location, more space between markers resulted in longer perceived duration, a finding that applies only at 150 and 225 ms. Moreover, the perceived duration was affected by the direction of the sequences (left-right vs. right-left).

  16. Scaling and memory effect in volatility return interval of the Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, T.; Guo, L.; Chen, G.

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the probability distribution of the volatility return intervals τ for the Chinese stock market. We rescale both the probability distribution Pq(τ) and the volatility return intervals τ as Pq(τ)=1/τbar f(τ/τbar ) to obtain a uniform scaling curve for different threshold value q. The scaling curve can be well fitted by the stretched exponential function f(x)∼e, which suggests memory exists in τ. To demonstrate the memory effect, we investigate the conditional probability distribution Pq(τ|τ0), the mean conditional interval <τ|τ0> and the cumulative probability distribution of the cluster size of τ. The results show clear clustering effect. We further investigate the persistence probability distribution P±(t) and find that P-(t) decays by a power law with the exponent far different from the value 0.5 for the random walk, which further confirms long memory exists in τ. The scaling and long memory effect of τ for the Chinese stock market are similar to those obtained from the United States and the Japanese financial markets.

  17. Effects of submaximal and supramaximal interval training on determinants of endurance performance in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Paquette, M; Le Blanc, O; Lucas, S J E; Thibault, G; Bailey, D M; Brassard, P

    2017-03-01

    We compared the effects of submaximal and supramaximal cycling interval training on determinants of exercise performance in moderately endurance-trained men. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ), peak power output (Ppeak ), and peak and mean anaerobic power were measured before and after 6 weeks (3 sessions/week) of submaximal (85% maximal aerobic power [MP], HIIT85 , n = 8) or supramaximal (115% MP, HIIT115 , n = 9) interval training to exhaustion in moderately endurance-trained men. High-intensity training volume was 47% lower in HIIT115 vs HIIT85 (304 ± 77 vs 571 ± 200 min; P < 0.01). Exercise training was generally associated with increased VO2max (HIIT85 : +3.3 ± 3.1 mL/kg/min; HIIT115 : +3.3 ± 3.6 ml/kg/min; Time effect P = 0.002; Group effect: P = 0.95), Ppeak (HIIT85 : +18 ± 9 W; HIIT115 : +16 ± 27 W; Time effect P = 0.045; Group effect: P = 0.49), and mean anaerobic power (HIIT85 : +0.42 ± 0.69 W/kg; HIIT115 : +0.55 ± 0.65 W/kg; Time effect P = 0.01; Group effect: P = 0.18). Six weeks of submaximal and supramaximal interval training performed to exhaustion seems to equally improve VO2max and anaerobic power in endurance-trained men, despite half the accumulated time spent at the target intensity.

  18. [Effect of olopatadine hydrochloride, a novel antiallergic agent, on the QT interval in dogs].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, K; Ikeda, J; Nito, M; Kosaka, N; Ichikawa, S; Kobayashi, H; Ohmori, K

    2001-06-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride (olopatadine), a novel antiallergic agent, is effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, eczema and dermatitis. It has been reported that terfenadine and astemizole cause side effects on the circulatory system such as QT prolongation followed by serious ventricular arrhythmias (torsades de pointes). To investigate the possibility of QT prolongation, we used both conscious normal dogs and hypokalemia-anesthetized dogs under two conditions: 1) olopatadine used alone and 2) olopatadine used in combination with itraconazole, the CYP3A4-inhibiting antifungal agent, in the present investigation. The group treated with terfenadine alone (30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the group treated with a combination of terfenadine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and itraconazole (100 mg/kg, p.o.) had a significantly prolonged QT interval. On the other hand, the group treated with olopatadine alone (30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the group treated with a combination of olopatadine (30 mg/kg, p.o.) and itraconazole (100 mg/kg, p.o.) did not show any significant changes in QT interval. Moreover, olopatadine (1 and 5 mg/kg, i.v.) did not influence the QT interval in hypokalemia-anesthetized dogs. These results suggest that there is very little possibility of QT prolongation as a result of clinically used olopatadine.

  19. Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society.

    PubMed

    Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G

    1999-01-01

    The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society.

  20. The effect of filtering and inter-digit interval on the recognition of dichotic digits.

    PubMed

    Carter, A S; Wilson, R H

    2000-01-01

    The new compact disc from the Department of Veterans Affairs, Tonal and Speech Materials for Auditory, Perceptual Assessment, Disc 2.0 (1998), contains two lists of randomly interleaved 1-, 2-, and 3-pair dichotic digits. Two experiments are reported, in which the effects of low-pass filtering and inter-digit interval on dichotic digit recognition were investigated in adult listeners with normal hearing and with mild-to-moderate cochlear hearing loss. Results demonstrated that in the filtered condition, as the low-pass cutoff was increased, there was an increase in recognition performance for 1-, 2-, and 3-pair dichotic digits. When compared to normative data for the materials, findings indicate that the interleaved 1-, 2-, and 3-pair dichotic digit materials were essentially resistant to the effects of hearing loss. There was no significant change in recognition performance as a function of inter-digit interval. The studied 625-ms range of inter-digit intervals studied produced consistent recognition performance with both groups of listeners.

  1. Modeling circadian and sleep-homeostatic effects on short-term interval timing

    PubMed Central

    Späti, Jakub; Aritake, Sayaka; Meyer, Andrea H.; Kitamura, Shingo; Hida, Akiko; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Mishima, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Short-term interval timing i.e., perception and action relating to durations in the seconds range, has been suggested to display time-of-day as well as wake dependent fluctuations due to circadian and sleep-homeostatic changes to the rate at which an underlying pacemaker emits pulses; pertinent human data being relatively sparse and lacking in consistency however, the phenomenon remains elusive and its mechanism poorly understood. To better characterize the putative circadian and sleep-homeostatic effects on interval timing and to assess the ability of a pacemaker-based mechanism to account for the data, we measured timing performance in eighteen young healthy male subjects across two epochs of sustained wakefulness of 38.67 h each, conducted prior to (under entrained conditions) and following (under free-running conditions) a 28 h sleep-wake schedule, using the methods of duration estimation and duration production on target intervals of 10 and 40 s. Our findings of opposing oscillatory time courses across both epochs of sustained wakefulness that combine with increasing and, respectively, decreasing, saturating exponential change for the tasks of estimation and production are consistent with the hypothesis that a pacemaker emitting pulses at a rate controlled by the circadian oscillator and increasing with time awake determines human short-term interval timing; the duration-specificity of this pattern is interpreted as reflecting challenges to maintaining stable attention to the task that progressively increase with stimulus magnitude and thereby moderate the effects of pacemaker-rate changes on overt behavior. PMID:25741253

  2. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18%) and PPO (+17, +24 and +14%) for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05) than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05) across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  3. A generalization of the Whittaker-Kotel'nikov-Shannon sampling theorem for continuous functions on a closed interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trynin, Alexandr Yu

    2009-12-01

    Classes of functions in the space of continuous functions f defined on the interval \\lbrack 0,\\pi \\rbrack and vanishing at its end-points are described for which there is pointwise and approximate uniform convergence of Lagrange-type operators \\displaystyle S_\\lambda(f,x)=\\sum_{k=0}^n\\frac{y(x,\\lambda)}{y'(x_{k,\\lambda})(x-x_{k,\\lambda})}f(x_{k,\\lambda}). These operators involve the solutions y(x,\\lambda) of the Cauchy problem for the equation \\displaystyle y''+(\\lambda-q_\\lambda(x))y=0 where q_\\lambda\\in V_{\\rho_\\lambda} \\lbrack 0,\\pi \\rbrack (here V_{\\rho_\\lambda} \\lbrack 0,\\pi \\rbrack is the ball of radius \\rho_\\lambda=o(\\sqrt\\lambda/\\ln\\lambda) in the space of functions of bounded variation vanishing at the origin, and y(x_{k,\\lambda})=0). Several modifications of this operator are proposed, which allow an arbitrary continuous function on \\lbrack 0,\\pi \\rbrack to be approximated uniformly. Bibliography: 40 titles.

  4. A generalization of the Whittaker-Kotel'nikov-Shannon sampling theorem for continuous functions on a closed interval

    SciTech Connect

    Trynin, Alexandr Yu

    2009-12-31

    Classes of functions in the space of continuous functions f defined on the interval [0,{pi}] and vanishing at its end-points are described for which there is pointwise and approximate uniform convergence of Lagrange-type operators S{sub {lambda}}(f,x)={sigma}{sub k=0}{sup n} (y(x,{lambda}))/(y'(x{sub k,{lambda}})(x-x{sub k,{lambda}})) f(x{sub k,{lambda}}). These operators involve the solutions y(x,{lambda}) of the Cauchy problem for the equation y''+({lambda}-q{sub {lambda}}(x))y=0 where q{sub {lambda}} element of V{sub {rho}{sub {lambda}}}[0,{pi}] (here V{sub {rho}{sub {lambda}}}[0,{pi}] is the ball of radius {rho}{sub {lambda}}=o({radical}{lambda}/ln {lambda}) in the space of functions of bounded variation vanishing at the origin, and y(x{sub k,{lambda}})=0). Several modifications of this operator are proposed, which allow an arbitrary continuous function on [0,{pi}] to be approximated uniformly. Bibliography: 40 titles.

  5. Effects of On-Demand Versus Fixed-Interval Schedules in the Treatment of Chronic Pain With Analgesic Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntzen, Dagfinn; Gotestam, K. Gunnar

    1987-01-01

    Compared the effects of fixed-interval and on-demand administration of analgesic medications in chronic pain patients. A fixed-interval analgesic schedule was found more effective than an on-demand schedule in reducing subjective pain and elevating mood. No differences were found between the two conditions on measures of physical activity.…

  6. Representing the Hyphen in Action-Effect Associations: Automatic Acquisition and Bidirectional Retrieval of Action-Effect Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dignath, David; Pfister, Roland; Eder, Andreas B.; Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether a temporal interval between an action and its sensory effect is integrated in the cognitive action structure in a bidirectional fashion. In 3 experiments, participants first experienced that actions produced specific acoustic effects (high and low tones) that occurred temporally delayed after their actions. In a following test…

  7. Modeling abundance effects in distance sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dawson, D.K.; Bates, S.

    2004-01-01

    Distance-sampling methods are commonly used in studies of animal populations to estimate population density. A common objective of such studies is to evaluate the relationship between abundance or density and covariates that describe animal habitat or other environmental influences. However, little attention has been focused on methods of modeling abundance covariate effects in conventional distance-sampling models. In this paper we propose a distance-sampling model that accommodates covariate effects on abundance. The model is based on specification of the distance-sampling likelihood at the level of the sample unit in terms of local abundance (for each sampling unit). This model is augmented with a Poisson regression model for local abundance that is parameterized in terms of available covariates. Maximum-likelihood estimation of detection and density parameters is based on the integrated likelihood, wherein local abundance is removed from the likelihood by integration. We provide an example using avian point-transect data of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) collected using a distance-sampling protocol and two measures of habitat structure (understory cover and basal area of overstory trees). The model yields a sensible description (positive effect of understory cover, negative effect on basal area) of the relationship between habitat and Ovenbird density that can be used to evaluate the effects of habitat management on Ovenbird populations.

  8. Effect of high-intensity interval exercise on basal triglyceride metabolism in non-obese men.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Elena; Magkos, Faidon; Kouka, Tonia; Bouchalaki, Eirini; Sklaveniti, Dimitra; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-08-01

    A single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise has been shown to produce the same or greater metabolic benefits as continuous endurance exercise with considerably less energy expenditure, but whether this applies to very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism is not known. We sought to examine the effect of a single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise on basal VLDL-triglyceride (TG) kinetics 14 and 48 h after exercise cessation to determine the acute and time-dependent effects of this type of exercise on VLDL-TG metabolism. Eight healthy sedentary men (age, 23.6 ± 6.1 years; body mass index, 23.1 ± 2.2 kg·m(-2), peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak), 36.3 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in three stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion studies: (i) 14 h and (ii) 48 h after a single bout of high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (60% and 90% of V̇O2peak in 4 min intervals for a total of 32 min; gross energy expenditure ∼500 kcal) and (iii) after an equivalent period of rest, in random order. Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was 20% lower at 14 h (P = 0.046) but not at 48 h (P = 1.000) after exercise compared with the resting trial. VLDL-TG plasma clearance rate increased by 21% at 14 h (P < 0.001) but not at 48 h (P = 0.299) after exercise compared with rest, whereas hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate was not different from rest at any time point after exercise. We conclude that high-intensity interval exercise reduces fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentrations in non-obese men the next day by augmenting VLDL-TG clearance, just like a single bout of continuous endurance exercise. This effect is short-lived and abolished by 48 h after exercise.

  9. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Trexler, Eric T.; Wingfield, Hailee; Blue, Malia N.M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids, and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; Weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg·m2) were randomly assigned to ten 1-minute high-intensity intervals (90%VO2peak, 1min recovery), or five 2-minute high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2peak, 1 min recovery), or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak power output, body composition, and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (p>0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in peak power output (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; p=0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 sec; p=0.001); non-significant increase in VO2peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml·kg−1·min−1; p=0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (∆−1.96 ± 0.99kg; p=0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing fat mass and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women. PMID:26934687

  10. Effect of sprint interval exercise on postexercise metabolism and blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Burns, Stephen F; Oo, Hnin Hnin; Tran, Anh Thanh Thuy

    2012-02-01

    The current study examined the effect of sprint interval exercise on postexercise oxygen consumption, respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), substrate oxidation, and blood pressure in adolescents. Participants were 10 normal-weight healthy youth (7 female), age 15-18 years. After overnight fasts, each participant undertook 2 trials in a random balanced order: (a) two 30-s bouts of sprint interval exercise on a cycle ergometer and (b) rested in the laboratory for an equivalent period. Time-matched measurements of oxygen consumption, RER, and blood pressure were made 90 min into recovery, and substrate oxidation were calculated over the time period. Total postexercise oxygen uptake was significantly higher in the exercise than control trial over the 90 min (mean [SD]: control 20.0 [6.0] L, exercise 24.8 [9.8] L; p=.030). After exercise, RER was elevated above control but then fell rapidly and was lower than control 30-60 min postexercise, and fat oxidation was significantly higher in the exercise than control trial 45-60 min postexercise. However, total fat oxidation did not differ between trials (control 4.5 [2.5] g, exercise 5.4 [2.7] g; p=.247). Post hoc tests revealed that systolic blood pressure was significantly lower than in control at 90 min postexercise (control 104 [10] mm Hg, exercise 99 [10] mm Hg; p<.05). These data indicate that acute sprint interval exercise leads to short-term increases in oxygen uptake and reduced blood pressure in youth. The authors suggest that health outcomes in response to sprint interval training be examined in children.

  11. Effects on QTc Interval of 2 Different Doses of Spinal Anesthesia in Inguinal Hernia Operations

    PubMed Central

    Hanbeyoglu, Onur; Urfalioglu, Aykut; Yazar, Fatih Mehmet; Ozcan, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrhythmia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, through examination of the effects on the QTc interval of different doses of hyperbaric bupivacaine, we investigated the relationship with arrhythmia. Material/Methods A total of 60 patients were separated into 2 groups: spinal block was applied with 10 mg bupivacaine to Group S1 and with 15 mg to Group S2. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) values were recorded before the spinal block and at 5 and 30 min after the block and at 60 min postoperatively. By recording the time of the spinal sensory block to reach T10 dermatome (Anaesth T) and the duration of the surgical procedure (Surg T.), the QTc intervals were calculated. Results The demographic data were similar in both groups. A statistically significant difference was determined between the S1 and S2 groups between the baseline and the 30 mins after spinal block QTc intervals (p=0.001). No statistically significant difference in HR values was determined between the groups at baseline, 5 min after spinal block, and 1 h after surgery (all p>0.05), but at 30 min after spinal block value there was a statistically significant difference (p=0.010). No statistically significant difference was determined in MAP values between the groups at baseline and 1 h after surgery (p>0.05). Conclusions The QTc interval lengthened in a dose-dependent manner after spinal anesthesia was applied with different doses of bupivacaine, but the doses used did not cause any severe arrhythmia. PMID:28285318

  12. Information Conversion, Effective Samples, and Parameter Size

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaodong; Pittman, Jennifer; Clarke, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    Consider the relative entropy between a posterior density for a parameter given a sample and a second posterior density for the same parameter, based on a different model and a different data set. Then the relative entropy can be minimized over the second sample to get a virtual sample that would make the second posterior as close as possible to the first in an informational sense. If the first posterior is based on a dependent dataset and the second posterior uses an independence model, the effective inferential power of the dependent sample is transferred into the independent sample by the optimization. Examples of this optimization are presented for models with nuisance parameters, finite mixture models, and models for correlated data. Our approach is also used to choose the effective parameter size in a Bayesian hierarchical model. PMID:19079764

  13. Novel Y-STR typing strategies reveal the genetic profile of the semen donor in extended interval post-coital cervicovaginal samples.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ashley; Ballantyne, Jack

    2003-09-09

    For a variety of reasons, some victims of sexual assault provide vaginal samples more than 24-36 h after the incident. In these cases, the ability to obtain an autosomal STR profile of the semen donor from the living victim diminishes rapidly as the post-coital interval is extended. We have used a number of carefully selected Y-STR loci in a variety of multiplex or monoplex formats to extend the post-coital interval from which a genetic profile of the semen donor can be obtained. The proposed Y-STR typing strategies enable the routine detection of the male donor Y-STR haplotype in cervicovaginal samples recovered up to 4 days post-coitus. We attribute our success to a number of factors that significantly improve the sensitivity and specificity of the analysis. Firstly, we utilize a subset of Y-STR loci that have been carefully selected for their superior performance under stressed conditions in both multiplex and monoplex formats. Specifically these loci function with low copy number templates in the presence of a vast excess of potentially confounding female DNA. Secondly, sperm and non-sperm DNA is co-extracted without a differential extraction process to prevent the unnecessary loss of the small number of structurally fragile sperm remaining in the cervicovaginal tract several days after intercourse. Thirdly, low copy number detection is facilitated by increasing the cycle number to 34-35 cycles and by the ability to input up to 450 ng of co-extracted sperm/non-sperm DNA into the PCR reaction without the appearance of confounding female artifacts. Lastly, the proper collection of post-coital cervicovaginal samples, instead of the lower or mid-vaginal tract samples often taken, is required for optimal recovery of sperm for analysis. In this report we demonstrate that our previously described 19 Y-STR loci systems (MPI and MPII) permit a reliable high resolution haplotype determination of the semen donor in cervicovaginal samples taken up to 48 h after intercourse

  14. Effect of sample inhomogeneity in KAr dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engels, J.C.; Ingamells, C.O.

    1970-01-01

    Error in K-Ar ages is often due more to deficiencies in the splitting process, whereby portions of the sample are taken for potassium and for argon determination, than to imprecision in the analytical methods. The effect of the grain size of a sample and of the composition of a contaminating mineral can be evaluated, and this provides a useful guide in attempts to minimize error. Rocks and minerals should be prepared for age determination with the effects of contaminants and grain size in mind. The magnitude of such effects can be much larger than intuitive estimates might indicate. ?? 1970.

  15. Quantification of the acute effect of a low dose of red wine by nonlinear measures of RR and QT interval series in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Platiša, Mirjana M; Gal, Vera; Nestorović, Zorica; Gojković-Bukarica, Ljiljana

    2014-10-01

    The measures of nonlinear properties of RR interval and QT interval time series are sensitive to physiologically- or pathologically-induced complexity/regularity changes, but were not used to estimate the effect of alcohol intake. We wanted to examine the potential of these measures to quantify the acute effect of a low dose of red wine in healthy subjects. In separate experiments, fourteen young volunteers drank 200ml of red wine and a control drink with equal concentration of ethanol. ECG in supine position was recorded 20min before and 60min after drink intake. RR interval and QT interval series were extracted from ECG and we calculated variability, scaling exponents (α1 and α2) and sample entropy (SampEn) for both series. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP) were measured every 10min. The immediate effect of both the drinks was equal: HR, BP and QT variability exhibited a sudden increase and then a decrease. However, the prolonged effect of wine and the control drink was different. Wine decreased both BP (p<0.05) and reduced complexity of RR and QT series (increased scaling exponents and decreased SampEn). The control drink prolonged QT and RR intervals (p<0.05). These results point out that the nonlinear properties of RR and QT interval series could be used to differentiate the effect of wine and ethanol. Changes in RR and QT interval series induced by a low dose of red wine are more detectable by methods that quantify the structure of the series than by methods that quantify their variability.

  16. Oral Contraceptive Use and the ECG: Evidence of an Adverse QT Effect on Corrected QT Interval

    PubMed Central

    Sedlak, Tara; Shufelt, Chrisandra; Iribarren, Carlos; Lyon, Liisa L; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2013-01-01

    Background A prolonged corrected QT (QTc) interval is a marker for an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. We evaluated the relationship between oral contraceptive (OC) use, type of OC, and QTc interval. Methods We identified 410,782 ECGs performed at Northern California Kaiser Permanente on female patients between 15–53 years from January, 1995 to June, 2008. QT was corrected for heart rate using log-linear regression. OC generation (first, second and third) was classified by increasing progestin androgenic potency, while the fourth generation was classified as anti-androgenic. Results Among 410,782 women, 8.4% were on OC. In multivariate analysis after correction for comorbidities, there was an independent shortening effect of OCs overall (slope = −0.5ms; SE = 0.12, p<0.0002). Users of first and second generation progestins had a significantly shorter QTc than non-users (p<0.0001), while users of fourth generation had a significantly longer QTc than non-users (slope = 3.6ms, SE = 0.35, p<0.0001). Conclusion Overall, OC use has a shortening effect on the QTc. Shorter QTc is seen with first and second generation OC while fourth generation OC use has a lengthening effect on the QTc. Careful examination of adverse event rates in fourth generation OC users is needed. PMID:23879279

  17. Design and Operation of a Borehole Straddle Packer for Ground-Water Sampling and Hydraulic Testing of Discrete Intervals at U.S. Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloway, Owen G.; Waddell, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    A borehole straddle packer was developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants, head, and hydraulic properties in open-borehole wells as part of an ongoing investigation of ground-water contamination at U.S. Air Force Plant 6 (AFP6) in Marietta, Georgia. To better understand contaminant fate and transport in a crystalline bedrock setting and to support remedial activities at AFP6, numerous wells have been constructed that include long open-hole intervals in the crystalline bedrock. These wells can include several discontinuities that produce water, which may contain contaminants. Because of the complexity of ground-water flow and contaminant movement in the crystalline bedrock, it is important to characterize the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics of discrete intervals in these wells. The straddle packer facilitates ground-water sampling and hydraulic testing of discrete intervals, and delivery of fluids including tracer suites and remedial agents into these discontinuities. The straddle packer consists of two inflatable packers, a dual-pump system, a pressure-sensing system, and an aqueous injection system. Tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of the pressure-sensing systems, and water samples were collected for analysis of volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations. Pressure-transducer readings matched computed water-column height, with a coefficient of determination of greater than 0.99. The straddle packer incorporates both an air-driven piston pump and a variable-frequency, electronic, submersible pump. Only slight differences were observed between VOC concentrations in samples collected using the two different types of sampling pumps during two sampling events in July and August 2005. A test conducted to assess the effect of stagnation on VOC concentrations in water trapped in the system's pump-tubing reel showed that concentrations were not affected. A comparison was conducted

  18. Establishment of reference intervals for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in dogs including an assessment of the effects of sex and anticoagulant use.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Eralp, Oya; Moritz, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Tissue factor (TF)- and kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG) have been performed in a small number of healthy dogs, but reference intervals have not been assessed in a larger number of dogs. The goal of the current study was to establish reference intervals and assess intra-assay repeatability for kaolin-activated TEG in dogs. Additionally, the impact of sex and the influence of anticoagulant (native blood vs. recalcified citrate anticoagulated blood) were evaluated. Thromboelastography analyses were performed in 56 healthy dogs including German Shepherd Dogs (n = 19), Beagles (n = 15), and others (n = 22). Median age was 2 years (range: 1-6 years) and sex was evenly distributed (31 males and 25 females). To establish reference intervals, citrated whole-blood samples were collected, and TEG was performed 1 hr after sampling. Five TEG variables (R = reaction time; K = clot formation time; alpha = angle alpha; MA = maximal amplitude; G-value reflecting clot stability) were evaluated, and reference intervals were defined as the mean +/- 1.96-fold standard deviation. Intra-assay repeatability was assessed by calculating the pooled variance estimate in duplicate measurements of 6 healthy dogs. The effect of anticoagulant was assessed in 17 specimens. Reference intervals were as follows: R = 1.8-8.6 min; angle alpha = 36.9-74.6 degrees; K = 1.3-5.7 min; MA = 42.9-67.9 mm, and G = 3.2-9.6 Kdyn/cm(2). Coefficients of variation for R, K, angle alpha, MA, and G were 7.6%, 17.7%, 7.4%, 2.9%, and 6.6%, respectively. There was no significant impact of sex or anticoagulant on results. Interindividual variation was higher in native samples than in citrated whole blood. A limitation of the current study was that most of the samples were obtained from Beagles and German Shepherd Dogs. This study provides useful reference intervals for kaolin-activated TEG.

  19. Sample design effects in landscape genetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fedy, Bradley C.; Landguth, Erin L.

    2012-01-01

    An important research gap in landscape genetics is the impact of different field sampling designs on the ability to detect the effects of landscape pattern on gene flow. We evaluated how five different sampling regimes (random, linear, systematic, cluster, and single study site) affected the probability of correctly identifying the generating landscape process of population structure. Sampling regimes were chosen to represent a suite of designs common in field studies. We used genetic data generated from a spatially-explicit, individual-based program and simulated gene flow in a continuous population across a landscape with gradual spatial changes in resistance to movement. Additionally, we evaluated the sampling regimes using realistic and obtainable number of loci (10 and 20), number of alleles per locus (5 and 10), number of individuals sampled (10-300), and generational time after the landscape was introduced (20 and 400). For a simulated continuously distributed species, we found that random, linear, and systematic sampling regimes performed well with high sample sizes (>200), levels of polymorphism (10 alleles per locus), and number of molecular markers (20). The cluster and single study site sampling regimes were not able to correctly identify the generating process under any conditions and thus, are not advisable strategies for scenarios similar to our simulations. Our research emphasizes the importance of sampling data at ecologically appropriate spatial and temporal scales and suggests careful consideration for sampling near landscape components that are likely to most influence the genetic structure of the species. In addition, simulating sampling designs a priori could help guide filed data collection efforts.

  20. BootES: an R package for bootstrap confidence intervals on effect sizes.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Kris N; Gerlanc, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Bootstrap Effect Sizes (bootES; Gerlanc & Kirby, 2012) is a free, open-source software package for R (R Development Core Team, 2012), which is a language and environment for statistical computing. BootES computes both unstandardized and standardized effect sizes (such as Cohen's d, Hedges's g, and Pearson's r) and makes easily available for the first time the computation of their bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs). In this article, we illustrate how to use bootES to find effect sizes for contrasts in between-subjects, within-subjects, and mixed factorial designs and to find bootstrap CIs for correlations and differences between correlations. An appendix gives a brief introduction to R that will allow readers to use bootES without having prior knowledge of R.

  1. Salient stimuli in advertising: the effect of contrast interval length and type on recall.

    PubMed

    Olsen, G Douglas

    2002-09-01

    Salient auditory stimuli (e.g., music or sound effects) are commonly used in advertising to elicit attention. However, issues related to the effectiveness of such stimuli are not well understood. This research examines the ability of a salient auditory stimulus, in the form of a contrast interval (CI), to enhance recall of message-related information. Researchers have argued that the effectiveness of the CI is a function of the temporal duration between the onset and offset of the change in the background stimulus and the nature of this stimulus. Three experiments investigate these propositions and indicate that recall is enhanced, providing the CI is 3 s or less. Information highlighted with silence is recalled better than information highlighted with music.

  2. The effect of different fermentation intervals on the quality characteristics of heat-treated and traditional sucuks.

    PubMed

    Ercoşkun, Hüdayi; Taği, Seref; Ertaş, Ahmet Hamdi

    2010-05-01

    Fermentation time has an influence on the quality characteristics of fermented meat products. The effect of heat treatment on physicochemical, sensory and microbiological properties of sucuk was determined during fermentation and after heat application, and the properties of heat-treated sucuk samples were compared with those of traditional sucuk. Optimum fermentation period was determined for sucuk samples with desirable characteristics. Heat-treated sucuks were fermented at different fermentation intervals (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days). Nine days of fermentation was included for traditional sucuks. All process parameters were applied under industrial conditions. Heat treatment increased the pH values, dry matter contents (protein, fat and salt), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of sucuks while decreasing the moisture content, free fatty acidity, and all bacterial counts (total viable and lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus/Micrococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) (P<0.05). Significant differences in the instrumental color properties of heat-treated and traditional sucuk were found (P<0.05). In terms of physicochemical, sensory and microbial properties, fermentation for three or more days before heat treatment resulted in sucuk samples with better acceptability, and produced sucuk samples with quality characteristics similar to those of traditional sucuks.

  3. Scale and Sampling Effects on Floristic Quality.

    PubMed

    Spyreas, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) is increasingly influential for making land management decisions, for directing conservation policy, and for research. But, the basic ecological properties and limitations of its metrics are ill defined and not well understood-especially those related to sample methods and scale. Nested plot data from a remnant tallgrass prairie sampled annually over a 12-year period, were used to investigate FQA properties associated with species detection rates, species misidentification rates, sample year, and sample grain/area. Plot size had no apparent effect on Mean C (an area's average Floristic Quality level), nor did species detection levels above 65% detection. Simulated species misidentifications only affected Mean C values at greater than 10% in large plots, when the replaced species were randomly drawn from the broader county-wide species pool. Finally, FQA values were stable over the 12-year study, meaning that there was no evidence that the metrics exhibit year effects. The FQA metric Mean C is demonstrated to be robust to varied sample methodologies related to sample intensity (plot size, species detection rate), as well as sample year. These results will make FQA measures even more appealing for informing land-use decisions, policy, and research for two reasons: 1) The sampling effort needed to generate accurate and consistent site assessments with FQA measures is shown to be far lower than what has previously been assumed, and 2) the stable properties and consistent performance of metrics with respect to sample methods will allow for a remarkable level of comparability of FQA values from different sites and datasets compared to other commonly used ecological metrics.

  4. Scale and Sampling Effects on Floristic Quality

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) is increasingly influential for making land management decisions, for directing conservation policy, and for research. But, the basic ecological properties and limitations of its metrics are ill defined and not well understood–especially those related to sample methods and scale. Nested plot data from a remnant tallgrass prairie sampled annually over a 12-year period, were used to investigate FQA properties associated with species detection rates, species misidentification rates, sample year, and sample grain/area. Plot size had no apparent effect on Mean C (an area’s average Floristic Quality level), nor did species detection levels above 65% detection. Simulated species misidentifications only affected Mean C values at greater than 10% in large plots, when the replaced species were randomly drawn from the broader county-wide species pool. Finally, FQA values were stable over the 12-year study, meaning that there was no evidence that the metrics exhibit year effects. The FQA metric Mean C is demonstrated to be robust to varied sample methodologies related to sample intensity (plot size, species detection rate), as well as sample year. These results will make FQA measures even more appealing for informing land-use decisions, policy, and research for two reasons: 1) The sampling effort needed to generate accurate and consistent site assessments with FQA measures is shown to be far lower than what has previously been assumed, and 2) the stable properties and consistent performance of metrics with respect to sample methods will allow for a remarkable level of comparability of FQA values from different sites and datasets compared to other commonly used ecological metrics. PMID:27489959

  5. The Effects of Interval Duration on Temporal Tracking and Alternation Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludvig, Elliot A.; Staddon, John E. R.

    2005-01-01

    On cyclic-interval reinforcement schedules, animals typically show a postreinforcement pause that is a function of the immediately preceding time interval ("temporal tracking"). Animals, however, do not track single-alternation schedules--when two different intervals are presented in strict alternation on successive trials. In this experiment,…

  6. The effect of filled and empty intervals on clock and memory processes in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Price, Elizabeth; Santi, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    According to the mixed memory model (Penney, Gibbon, & Meck, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 1770-1787, 2000), different clock rates for stimuli with different nontemporal properties must be stored within a single reference memory distribution in order to detect a difference between the clock rates of the different signals. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained in a between-subjects design to discriminate empty intervals (bound by two 1-s visual markers) and filled intervals (a continuous visual signal). The intervals were signaled by different visual stimuli, and they required responses to different sets of comparison stimuli. Empty intervals were judged as being longer than filled intervals. The difference between the point of subjective equality (PSE) for the empty intervals and the PSE for the filled intervals increased proportionally as the magnitudes of the anchor duration pairs were increased from 2 and 8 s to 4 and 16 s. In Experiment 2, the pigeons were trained to discriminate intervals signaled by the absence of houselight illumination (Group Empty) or the presence of houselight illumination (Group Filled). The psychophysical timing functions for these intervals were identical to each other. The results of Experiment 1 indicate that memory mixing is not necessary for detecting a timing difference between empty and filled intervals in pigeons. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that the nature of the stimuli that signal the empty and filled intervals impacts how pigeons judge the durations of empty and filled intervals.

  7. Effects of high-intensity interval training on the VO2 response during severe exercise.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Rob; Edge, Johann; Bishop, David

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effect of high-intensity interval training on the VO2 response during severe, constant-load exercise. Prior to, and following training, 10 females (V O2 peak 37.4+/-6.0 mL kg-1 min-1) performed a graded exercise test to determine VO2 peak and lactate threshold (LT) and a 6 min cycle test (CT) at the pre-training VO2 peak intensity. Training involved high-intensity intervals (2 min work, 1 min rest) performed 3x week for 8 weeks. Breath-by-breath data from 0 to 6 min during the CT were smoothed using 5s averages and fit to a bi-exponential model starting from 20s. Training resulted in significant improvements in VO2 max (2.34+/-0.37-2.78+/-0.30 L min-1), power at VO2 max (170+/-26-204+/-25 W) and power at LT (113+/-17-136+/-20 W) (p<0.05). Following training, the VO2 response showed a significant increase in the amplitude of the primary phase (A1) (1396+/-103-1695+/-100 mL min-1; p<0.05) and end-exercise VO2 (VO2 EE), with no difference (p>0.05) in the time constants of either phase or the amplitude of the slow component (318+/-67-380+/-48 mL; p=0.15). In conjunction, accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) (43.7+/-9.8-17.2+/-2.8 mL O2 eq kg-1) and anaerobic contribution to the CT (19.4+/-4.4-7.2+/-1.2%) were significantly reduced. In contrast to previous moderate-intensity research, a high-intensity interval training program increased A1 and VO2 EE for the same absolute exercise intensity, decreasing the AOD during a severe-intensity CT.

  8. [Application of the hexagon-OBTI test and the RSID blood test for the determination of the post-mortem interval of bone samples].

    PubMed

    Ebach, Sarah C; Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2011-01-01

    In this serial experiment, five human bones with known post-mortem intervals (PMI) in a soil environment from five different epochs (0.2 to approximately 2000 years) were tested in a blind setup with two established rapid tests for the identification of human blood traces (Hexagon-OBTI test and RSID blood test). Based on previous study results concerning the usability of the Luminol test for the first assessment of the PMI of osseous remains, the question arising was whether those test procedures, which are highly sensitive for the detection of human blood components, could also be used to narrow down the post-mortem interval. Five test series were conducted applying modified standard protocols of the manufactures. The aim was to find out whether with prior reaction steps or a prolonged time of incubation hemoglobin or its metabolites can be dissolved from the bone and positive test results can be achieved dependent on the PMI. Four test series yielded negative results for all bone samples and one test series a uniformly weak positive result. The results indicate that rapid tests based on the detection of blood are not suitable for the determination of the PMI of bone samples despite the modification of the standard protocols. Further thorough research is required to clarify the postmortem degradation of hemoglobin in bones.

  9. Effects of Rest Interval Length on Acute Battling Rope Exercise Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Smith, Charles R; Beller, Noah A; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Bush, Jill A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the acute metabolic responses to battling rope (BR) exercise using 2 different rest intervals. Twelve men and 10 women (age = 20.8 ± 1.3 years) performed a control protocol and 2 BR exercise protocols on separate days (48-72 hours) in random order while connected to a metabolic system. The BR protocol consisted of 8 sets of 30-second intervals (15 seconds of single-arm waves and 15 seconds of double-arm waves) using either a 1-minute (1RI) or 2-minute (2RI) rest interval length. A metronome was used to standardize repetition number/frequency for each exercise, that is, 15 waves for each arm for single-arm waves and 15 repetitions of double-arm waves. The mean oxygen consumption (VO2) values for the entire protocol were significantly higher during the 1RI than 2RI protocol, and values in men were 11.1% (1RI) and 13.5% (2RI) higher than women, respectively, and equated to 52.8 ± 5.5% (men) and 50.0 ± 11.2% (women) of VO2max during 1RI and 40.5 ± 4.5% (men) and 37.7 ± 11.0% (women) of VO2max during 2RI. Energy expenditure values were significantly higher during the 1RI than the 2RI protocol in men (11.93 ± 1.4 vs. 8.78 ± 1.4 kcal·min) and women (7.69 ± 1.3 vs. 5.04 ± 1.7 kcal·min) with values in men statistically higher than women. Blood lactate, mean protocol minute ventilation, and heart rate were significantly higher during the 1RI protocol than the 2RI protocol, and these data were significantly higher in men compared with women. These data demonstrate that BR exercise poses a significant cardiovascular and metabolic stimulus with the mean effects augmented with the use of a short rest interval.

  10. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Fleg, Jerome L.

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation. PMID:27635241

  11. Effect of Stochastic Modulation of Inter-Pulse Interval During Stimulated Isokinetic Leg Extension

    PubMed Central

    Aksöz, Efe Anil; Laubacher, Marco; Binder-Macleod, Stuart; Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Recumbent cycling exercise achieved by functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the paralyzed leg muscles is effective for cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal conditioning after spinal cord injury, but its full potential has not yet been realized. Mechanical power output and efficiency is very low and endurance is limited due to early onset of muscle fatigue. The aim of this work was to compare stochastic modulation of the inter-pulse interval (IPI) to constant-frequency stimulation during an isokinetic leg extension task similar to FES-cycling. Seven able-bodied subjects participated: both quadriceps muscles were stimulated (n = 14) with two activation patterns (P1-constant frequency, P2-stochastic IPI). There was significantly higher power output with P2 during the first 30 s (p = 0.0092), the last 30 s (p = 0.018) and overall (p = 0.0057), but there was no overall effect on fatiguability when stimulation frequency was randomly modulated. PMID:27990242

  12. Effectiveness of Moderate Intensity Interval Training as an Index of Autonomic Nervous Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takayoshi; Oi, Rie; Nishimura, Kazushi; Morita, Shuhei; Yaoi, Riyo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of moderate intensity interval training from the change of the autonomic nervous activity. Ten male volunteers aged 21-22 years were studied. After 10-minute rest in a seated position, the subjects were asked to perform the strength of moderate cycling exercise in ergometer. Cycling rate was done in 50 times/min. Load resistance of the ergometer was set to 2.0 kgm. Subjects paused the exercise when the heart rate becomes 120 beats/min. Subjects have resumed the exercise when the heart rate returns to the value at rest. This trial was repeated twice. The experiment was ended when the heart rate of the subjects has returned to resting level. When the heart rate during exercise is maintained to less than 120 beats/min, sympathetic nerve activity during exercise did not work actively compared to the baseline. Vagus nerve activity after exercise cessation exceeds the baseline. It is clarified that the exercise as well as activating the vagus nerve activity stimulates the total autonomic nervous activity. It has revealed that at the time of interval training at moderate load the vagus nerve activity can be carried out. PMID:27957342

  13. Effect of jumping interval training on neuromuscular and physiological parameters: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ache-Dias, Jonathan; Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Teixeira, Anderson S; Dal Pupo, Juliano; Moro, Antônio R P

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of 4 weeks of jumping interval training (JIT), included in endurance training, on neuromuscular and physiological parameters. Eighteen recreational runners, randomized in control and experimental groups, performed 40 min of running at 70% of velocity at peak oxygen uptake, for 3 times per week. Additionally, the experimental group performed the JIT twice per week, which consisted of 4 to 6 bouts of continuous vertical jumps (30 s) with 5-min intervals. Three days before and after the training period, the countermovement (CMJ) and continuous jump (CJ30), isokinetic and isometric evaluation of knee extensors/flexors, progressive maximal exercise, and submaximal constant-load exercise were performed. The JIT provoked improvement in neuromuscular performance, indicated by (i) increased jump height (4.7%; effect size (ES) = 0.99) and power output (≈ 3.7%; ES ≈ 0.82) of CMJ and rate of torque development of knee extensors in isometric contraction (29.5%; ES = 1.02); (ii) anaerobic power and capacity, represented by the mean of jump height (7.4%; ES = 0.8), and peak power output (PPO) (5.6%; ES = 0.73) of the first jumps of CJ30 and the mean of jump height (10.2%, ES = 1.04) and PPO (9.5%, ES = 1.1), considering all jumps of CJ30; and (iii) aerobic power and capacity, represented by peak oxygen uptake (9.1%, ES = 1.28), velocity at peak oxygen uptake (2.7%, ES = 1.11), and velocity corresponding to the onset of blood lactate accumulation (9.7%, ES = 1.23). These results suggest that the JIT included in traditional endurance training induces moderate to large effects on neuromuscular and physiological parameters.

  14. Effects of varied doses of psilocybin on time interval reproduction in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Wackermann, Jirí; Wittmann, Marc; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2008-04-11

    Action of a hallucinogenic substance, psilocybin, on internal time representation was investigated in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: Experiment 1 with 12 subjects and graded doses, and Experiment 2 with 9 subjects and a very low dose. The task consisted in repeated reproductions of time intervals in the range from 1.5 to 5s. The effects were assessed by parameter kappa of the 'dual klepsydra' model of internal time representation, fitted to individual response data and intra-individually normalized with respect to initial values. The estimates kappa were in the same order of magnitude as in earlier studies. In both experiments, kappa was significantly increased by psilocybin at 90 min from the drug intake, indicating a higher loss rate of the internal duration representation. These findings are tentatively linked to qualitative alterations of subjective time in altered states of consciousness.

  15. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS BETWEEN ANTAGONIST PAIRED SETS ON REPETITION PERFOMANCE AND MUSCLE ACTIVATION.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Maia, Marianna; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; Miranda, Humberto

    2014-03-11

    Recent evidence suggests that exercising the antagonist musculature acutely enhances subsequent performance for the agonist musculature. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets for exercises that involve antagonistic muscle groups; a technique referred to as antagonist paired sets (APS). Fifteen recreationally-trained men were tested for knee extension (KE) exercise performance, with or without prior knee flexion (KF) exercise for the antagonist musculature. The following protocols were performed in random order and with 10 repetition maximum (10RM) loads for the KF and KE exercises: 1) traditional protocol (TP) - one set of KE only to repetition failure; 2) paired sets with minimal allowable rest (PMR) - one set of KF followed immediately by a set of KE; 3) P30 - 30 seconds rest between paired sets of KF and KE; 4) P1 - 1-minute rest between paired sets; 5) P3 - 3-minutes rest between paired sets; and 6) P5 - 5-minutes rest between paired sets. The number of repetitions performed and EMG activity of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were recorded during the KE set in each protocol. It was demonstrated that significantly greater KE repetitions were completed during the PMR, P30 and P1 protocols versus the TP protocol. Significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the RF muscle during the KE exercise in the PMR and P30 versus the TP, P3 and P5, respectively. In addition, significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the VM muscle during the PMR versus all other protocols. The results of the current study indicate that no rest or relatively shorter rest intervals (30 sec and 1 min) between APS might be more effective to elicit greater agonist repetition enhancement and muscle activation.

  16. Effects of different rest intervals between antagonist paired sets on repetition performance and muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Maia, Marianna F; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Paz, Gabriel A; Miranda, Humberto

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that exercising the antagonist musculature acutely enhances subsequent performance for the agonist musculature. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets for exercises that involve antagonistic muscle groups, a technique referred to as antagonist paired sets (APS). Fifteen recreationally trained men were tested for knee extension (KE) exercise performance, with or without previous knee flexion (KF) exercise for the antagonist musculature. The following protocols were performed in random order with 10 repetition maximum loads for the KF and KE exercises: (a) traditional protocol (TP)-1 set of KE only to repetition failure; (b) paired sets with minimal allowable rest (PMR)-1 set of KF followed immediately by a set of KE; (c) P30-30-second rest between paired sets of KF and KE; (d) P1-1-minute rest between paired sets; (e) P3-3-minute rest between paired sets; and (f) P5-5-minute rest between paired sets. The number of repetitions performed and electromyographic (EMG) activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were recorded during the KE set in each protocol. It was demonstrated that significantly greater KE repetitions were completed during the PMR, P30, and P1 protocols vs. the TP protocol. Significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the RF muscle during the KE exercise in the PMR and P30 vs. the TP, P3, and P5, respectively. In addition, significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the VM muscle during the PMR vs. all other protocols. The results of this study indicate that no rest or relatively shorter rest intervals (30 seconds and 1 minute) between APS might be more effective to elicit greater agonist repetition enhancement and muscle activation.

  17. Interval Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... before trying any type of interval training. Recent studies suggest, however, that interval training can be used safely for short periods even in individuals with heart disease. Also keep the risk of overuse injury in mind. If you rush into a strenuous workout before ...

  18. Effect of oxatomide, an antiallergic agent, on QT interval in dogs.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, K; Ikeda, J; Nito, M; Kosaka, N; Ichikawa, S; Ohmori, K; Sakai, K

    2001-01-01

    Oxatomide (CAS 60607-34-3, KW-4354) is an effective antiallergic agent for allergic rhinitis, urticaria, pruritus cutaneous, and eczema/dermatitis, etc. Terfenadine (CAS 50679-08-8) and astemizole (CAS 68844-77-9), antiallergic agents, have been reported to induce QT prolongation leading to serious ventricular arrhythmia (torsades de pointes) as cardiovascular adverse effects. The present study was carried out to determine whether oxatomide and terfenadine have effects on QT interval as a single drug or in combination with itraconazole (CAS 84625-61-6), an antifungal agent with a CYP3A4 inhibitory effect, in conscious dogs. Terfenadine alone induced QT prolongation at the dose of 30 mg/kg p.o. When itraconazole was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg p.o. 1 h before terfenadine administration, terfenadine induced QT prolongation at the dose of 10 mg/kg p.o. On the other hand, oxatomide did not induce QT prolongation either as a single agent at the dose of 30 mg/kg p.o. or in combination with itraconazole at the dose of 10 mg/kg p.o. The results present no evidence that oxatomide has the potential to provoke ventricular arrhythmia.

  19. Effect of interstimulus interval on visual P300 in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L.; Kuroiwa, Y.; Kamitani, T.; Takahashi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Hasegawa, O.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Visual event related potentials (ERPs) were studied during an oddball paradigm, to testify whether cognitive slowing in Parkinson's disease exists and to investigate whether cognitive information processing can be influenced by different interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of an oddball task in patients with Parkinson's disease and normal subjects.
METHODS—ERPs and reaction time were measured in 38 non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease and 24 healthy elderly subjects. A visual oddball paradigm was employed to evoke ERPs, at three different interstimulus (ISI) intervals: ISI(S), 1600 ms; ISI(M), 3100 ms; and ISI(L), 5100 ms. The effect of ISIs on ERPs and reaction time was investigated.
RESULTS—Compared with the normal subjects, P300 latency at Cz and Pz was significantly delayed after rare target stimuli in patients with Parkinson's disease only at ISI(L). Reaction time was prolonged in patients at all the three ISIs, compared with the normal controls. There was also significantly delayed N200 and reduced P300 amplitude at Cz and/or Pz to rare non-target stimuli in patients at the three ISIs, compared with the normal controls. During rare target visual stimulation, P300 latency and reaction time in the patients with Parkinson's disease and reaction time in the normal subjects were gradually prolonged as the ISI increased.
CONCLUSION—Prolonged N200 latency to rare non-target stimuli might indicate that automatic cognitive processing was slowed in Parkinson's disease. Cognitive processing reflected by P300 latency to rare target stimuli was influenced by longer ISI in patients with Parkinson's disease.

 PMID:10486398

  20. Effects of Paradigm and Inter-Stimulus Interval on Age Differences in Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Rabbits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.; Seta, Susan E.; Roker, LaToya A.; Lehr, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine parameters affecting age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in a large sample of young and middle-aged rabbits. A total of 122 rabbits of mean ages of 4 or 26 mo were tested at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 600 or 750 msec in the delay or trace paradigms. Paradigm affected both age groups…

  1. Vestibular-dependent inter-stimulus interval effects on sound evoked potentials of central origin.

    PubMed

    Todd, N P M; Govender, S; Colebatch, J G

    2016-11-01

    Todd et al. (2014ab) have recently demonstrated the presence of vestibular-dependent contributions to auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) when passing through the vestibular threshold as determined by vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), including a particular deflection labeled as an N42/P52 prior to the long-latency AEPs N1 and P2. In this paper we report the results of an experiment to determine the effect of inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and regularity on potentials recorded above and below VEMP threshold. Five healthy, right-handed subjects were recruited and evoked potentials were recorded to binaurally presented sound stimulation, above and below vestibular threshold, at seven stimulus rates with ISIs of 212, 300, 424, 600, 848, 1200 and 1696 ms. The inner five intervals, i.e. 300, 424, 600, 848, 1200 ms, were presented twice in both regular and irregular conditions. ANOVA on the global field power (GFP) were conducted for each of four waves, N42, P52, N1 and P2 with factors of intensity, ISI and regularity. Both N42 and P52 waves showed significant ANOVA effects of intensity but no other main effects or interactions. In contrast both N1 and P2 showed additional effects of ISI, as well as intensity, and evidence of non-linear interactions between ISI and intensity. A source analysis was carried out consistent with prior work suggesting that when above vestibular threshold, in addition to bilateral superior temporal cortex, ocular, cerebellar and cingulate sources are recruited. Further statistical analysis of the source currents indicated that the origin of the interactions with intensity may be the ISI sensitivity of the vestibular-dependent sources. This in turn may reflect a specific vestibular preference for stimulus rates associated with locomotion, i.e. rates close to 2 Hz, or ISIs close to 500 ms, where saccular afferents show increased gain and the corresponding reflexes are most sensitive.

  2. Bouts of Responding on Variable-Interval Schedules: Effects of Deprivation Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Rats obtained food pellets on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement by nose poking a lighted key. After training to establish baseline performance (with the mean variable interval set at either 60, 120, or 240 s), the rats were given free access to food during the hour just before their daily session. This satiation operation reduced the…

  3. Confidence Intervals for the Probability of Superiority Effect Size Measure and the Area under a Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, John; Mullen, Tara

    2012-01-01

    It is good scientific practice to the report an appropriate estimate of effect size and a confidence interval (CI) to indicate the precision with which a population effect was estimated. For comparisons of 2 independent groups, a probability-based effect size estimator (A) that is equal to the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve…

  4. Reversing the Signaled Magnitude Effect in Delayed Matching to Sample: Delay-Specific Remembering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, K. Geoffrey; Brown, Glenn S.

    2011-01-01

    Pigeons performed a delayed matching-to-sample task in which large or small reinforcers for correct remembering were signaled during the retention interval. Accuracy was low when small reinforcers were signaled, and high when large reinforcers were signaled (the signaled magnitude effect). When the reinforcer-size cue was switched from small to…

  5. Atropine unmasks bed-rest effect - A spectral analysis of cardiac interbeat intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Goldwater, Danielle; Bhargava, Valmik

    1986-01-01

    Heart rate spectral data obtained for 10 male subjects between 35-49 years following orthostatic tolerance testing with lower body negative pressure prebed rest and after 7-10 days of bed rest, while on placebo and after intravenous atropine are analyzed. Comparison of the spectral atropine rms for subjects prebed rest and after bed rest reveal a decrease from 63 + or - 24 ms to 40 + or - 23 ms. It is observed that heart rate interval variability for subjects after bed rest and with atropine is reduced; the heart rate at bed rest with atropine is increased from 70.4 + or - 12.4 beats/min prebed rest to 83.7 + or - 18.9 beats/min; and the exercise tolerance time for subjects in the atropine prebed-rest phase (658 + or - 352 s) is higher than the bed-rest phase (505 + or - 252 s). It is noted that bed rest impairs the cardiovascular capacity to adaptively modulate physiological responses, atropine exposes bed-rest deconditioning effects, and spectral analysis is useful for studying the effects of bed-rest deconditioning on cardiac dynamics.

  6. Effects of high-intensity interval vs. continuous moderate exercise on intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Conte, M; Baldin, A D; Russo, M R R R; Storti, L R; Caldara, A A; Cozza, H F P; Ciolac, E G

    2014-09-01

    Our purpose was to compare the acute effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) vs. continuous moderate exercise (CME) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy subjects. Fifteen young men (age=22.1±6 years) underwent 30 min of HIT (2 min of walking at 50% of reserve heart rate (HR) alternated with 1 min of running at 80% of reserve HR) and CME sessions (30 min of jogging/running at 60% of reserve HR) in random order (2-5 days between sessions). IOP was measured before (baseline), immediately after (post--exercise), 5 min after (Rec5) and 10 min after (Rec10) each exercise session. IOP was reduced post-exercise and remained reduced at Rec5 during both HIT and CME session, with no significant difference between interventions (~16% between 23%). However, IOP remained reduced at Rec10 only after HIT intervention (~19%), whereas IOP at Rec10 returned to levels similar to the observed at baseline during CME intervention. In summary, both HIT and CME equally reduced IOP immediately and 5 min after exercise session. However, only HIT was able to remain IOP reduced 10 min after exercise. These results suggest that HIT may be more effective than CME for reducing IOP in young healthy men.

  7. Constraints on infants' musical rhythm perception: effects of interval ratio complexity and enculturation.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Erin E; Soley, Gaye; Levine, Rachel S

    2011-07-01

    Effects of culture-specific experience on musical rhythm perception are evident by 12 months of age, but the role of culture-general rhythm processing constraints during early infancy has not been explored. Using a habituation procedure with 5- and 7-month-old infants, we investigated effects of temporal interval ratio complexity on discrimination of standard from novel musical patterns containing 200-ms disruptions. Infants were tested in three ratio conditions: simple (2:1), which is typical in Western music, complex (3:2), which is typical in other musical cultures, and highly complex (7:4), which is relatively rare in music throughout the world. Unlike adults and older infants, whose accuracy was predicted by familiarity, younger infants were influenced by ratio complexity, as shown by their successful discrimination in the simple and complex conditions but not in the highly complex condition. The findings suggest that ratio complexity constrains rhythm perception even prior to the acquisition of culture-specific biases.

  8. The Effects of Interpregnancy Intervals and Previous Pregnancy Outcome on Fetal Loss in Rwanda (1996–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Habimana-Kabano, Ignace; Broekhuis, Annelet; Hooimeijer, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, a WHO consultation meeting on pregnancy intervals recommended a minimum interval of 6 months after a pregnancy disruption and an interval of two years after a live birth before attempting another pregnancy. Since then, studies have found contradictory evidence on the effect of shorter intervals after a pregnancy disruption. A binary regression analysis on 21532 last pregnancy outcomes from the 2000, 2005, and 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Surveys was done to assess the combined effects of the preceding pregnancy outcome and the interpregnancy intervals (IPIs) on fetal mortality in Rwanda. Risks of pregnancy loss are higher for primigravida and for mothers who lost the previous pregnancy and conceived again within 24 months. After a live birth, interpregnancy intervals less than two years do not increase the risk of a pregnancy loss. This study also confirms higher risks of fetal death when IPIs are beyond 5 years. An IPI of longer than 12 months after a fetal death is recommended in Rwanda. Particular attention needs to be directed to postpregnancy abortion care and family planning programs geared to spacing pregnancies should also include spacing after a fetal death. PMID:26613103

  9. The effect of footwear and footfall pattern on running stride interval long-range correlations and distributional variability.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Joel T; Amado, Avelino; Emmerik, Richard E A van; Hamill, Joseph; Buckley, Jonathan D; Tsiros, Margarita D; Thewlis, Dominic

    2016-02-01

    The presence of long-range correlations (self-similarity) in the stride-to-stride fluctuations in running stride interval has been used as an indicator of a healthy adaptable system. Changes to footfall patterns when running with minimalist shoes could cause a less adaptable running gait. The purpose of this study was to investigate stride interval variability and the degree of self-similarity of stride interval in runners wearing minimalist and conventional footwear. Twenty-six trained habitual rearfoot footfall runners, unaccustomed to running in minimalist footwear, performed 6-min sub-maximal treadmill running bouts at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes. Force sensitive resistors were placed in the shoes to quantify stride interval (time between successive foot contacts). Footfall position, stride interval mean and coefficient of variation (CV), were used to assess performance as a function of shoe type. Long-range correlations of stride interval were assessed using detrended fluctuation analysis (α). Mean stride interval was 1-1.3% shorter (P=0.02) and 27% of runners adopted a midfoot footfall (MFF) in the minimalist shoe. There was a significant shoe effect on α and shoe*speed*footfall interaction effect on CV (P<0.05). Runners that adopted a MFF in minimalist shoes, displayed reduced long-range correlations (P<0.05) and CV (P<0.06) in their running stride interval at the 15 km·h(-1) speed. The reduced variability and self-similarity observed for runners that changed to a MFF in the minimalist shoe may be suggestive of a system that is less flexible and more prone to injury.

  10. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training

    PubMed Central

    Sarir, Hadi; Emdadifard, Ghodsieh; Farhangfar, Homayoun; TaheriChadorneshin, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Scope: The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Materials and Methods: In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C), supplementation (S), HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S) groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40–54 m/min) and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day) was conducted for 6 weeks. Results: Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002). Also, serum TNF-α concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001) in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-α when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05). However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-α (P = 0.31) and IL-6 (P = 0.52) concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. Conclusion: HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate. PMID:26958053

  11. Effect of interstimulus interval on cortical proprioceptive responses to passive finger movements.

    PubMed

    Smeds, Eero; Piitulainen, Harri; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    Shortening of the interstimulus interval (ISI) generally leads to attenuation of cortical sensory responses. For proprioception, however, this ISI effect is still poorly known. Our aim was to characterize the ISI dependence of movement-evoked proprioceptive cortical responses and to find the optimum ISI for proprioceptive stimulation. We measured, from 15 healthy adults, magnetoencephalographic responses to passive flexion and extension movements of the right index finger. The movements were generated by a movement actuator at fixed ISIs of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 s, in separate blocks. The responses peaked at ~ 70 ms (extension) and ~ 90 ms (flexion) in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex. The strength of the cortical source increased with the ISI, plateauing at the 8-s ISI. Modeling the ISI dependence with an exponential saturation function revealed response lifetimes of 1.3 s (extension) and 2.2 s (flexion), implying that the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in a given measurement time is achieved with ISIs of 1.7 s and 2.8 s respectively. We conclude that ISIs of 1.5-3 s should be used to maximize SNR in recordings of proprioceptive cortical responses to passive finger movements. Our findings can benefit the assessment of proprioceptive afference in both clinical and research settings.

  12. Uncovering the effective interval of resolution parameter across multiple community optimization measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Cheng, Qing; Mao, He-Jin; Wang, Huanian; Chen, Junhua

    2017-03-01

    The study of community structure is a primary focus of network analysis, which has attracted a large amount of attention. In this paper, we focus on two famous functions, i.e., the Hamiltonian function H and the modularity density measure D, and intend to uncover the effective thresholds of their corresponding resolution parameter γ without resolution limit problem. Two widely used example networks are employed, including the ring network of lumps as well as the ad hoc network. In these two networks, we use discrete convex analysis to study the interval of resolution parameter of H and D that will not cause the misidentification. By comparison, we find that in both examples, for Hamiltonian function H, the larger the value of resolution parameter γ, the less resolution limit the network suffers; while for modularity density D, the less resolution limit the network suffers when we decrease the value of γ. Our framework is mathematically strict and efficient and can be applied in a lot of scientific fields.

  13. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT.

  14. Effects of irrigation intervals and organic manure on morphological traits, essential oil content and yield of oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Gerami, Farzad; Moghaddam, Parviz R; Ghorbani, Reza; Hassani, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation intervals and cattle manure levels on morphological traits, essential oil content and yield of oregano, an experiment was conducted at the experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Iran. The experimental design was split-plots, arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots including irrigation intervals (1, 2 and 3 weeks) and four levels of cattle manure at 0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1 were allocated to sub plots. Our results showed that increasing irrigation intervals reduced values of all morphological traits except for proportion of stems. Also, values for stems number, plant spread, stem diameter, leaf area, fresh and dry herb yield increased by increasing cattle manure levels. On the other hand, morphological traits not influenced by interaction of treatments except for plant spread and leaf area. The highest essential oil content (2.07%) and yield (66.62 kg ha-1) obtained in highest irrigation intervals and cattle manure levels. Whereas, 1 week irrigation interval without use of cattle manure produce lowest essential oil content (1.55%). For essential oil yield, the lowest value (46.37 kg ha-1) was found in 2 weeks irrigation interval with application of 20 t ha-1 cattle manure.

  15. The Effects of Intertrial Interval and Instructional Format on Skill Acquisition and Maintenance for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cariveau, Tom; Kodak, Tiffany; Campbell, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    We replicated and extended the study by Koegel, Dunlap, and Dyer (1980) by examining the effects of 3 intertrial-interval (ITI) durations on skill acquisition in 2 children with autism spectrum disorders. Specifically, we compared the effect of short (2 s), progressive (2 s to 20 s), and long (20 s) ITIs on participants' mastery of tacts or…

  16. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leighton; Tiller, Nicholas B; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (Mage=20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min(-1)) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (p<0.01, ηp(2)=0.38). There were significant differences in HR during initial recovery periods (p<0.05, ηp(2)=0.16), but no other music-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant.

  17. Finite-size effects on return interval distributions for weakest-link-scaling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios T.; Petrakis, Manolis P.; Kaniadakis, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The Weibull distribution is a commonly used model for the strength of brittle materials and earthquake return intervals. Deviations from Weibull scaling, however, have been observed in earthquake return intervals and the fracture strength of quasibrittle materials. We investigate weakest-link scaling in finite-size systems and deviations of empirical return interval distributions from the Weibull distribution function. Our analysis employs the ansatz that the survival probability function of a system with complex interactions among its units can be expressed as the product of the survival probability functions for an ensemble of representative volume elements (RVEs). We show that if the system comprises a finite number of RVEs, it obeys the κ-Weibull distribution. The upper tail of the κ-Weibull distribution declines as a power law in contrast with Weibull scaling. The hazard rate function of the κ-Weibull distribution decreases linearly after a waiting time τc∝n1/m, where m is the Weibull modulus and n is the system size in terms of representative volume elements. We conduct statistical analysis of experimental data and simulations which show that the κ Weibull provides competitive fits to the return interval distributions of seismic data and of avalanches in a fiber bundle model. In conclusion, using theoretical and statistical analysis of real and simulated data, we demonstrate that the κ-Weibull distribution is a useful model for extreme-event return intervals in finite-size systems.

  18. Effect of high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular function, VO2max, and muscular force.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Allen, Ryan P; Roberson, Daniel W; Jurancich, Matt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiovascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular force. Active, young (age and body fat = 25.3 ± 4.5 years and 14.3 ± 6.4%) men and women (N = 20) of a similar age, physical activity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) completed 6 sessions of HIIT consisting of repeated Wingate tests over a 2- to 3-week period. Subjects completed 4 Wingate tests on days 1 and 2, 5 on days 3 and 4, and 6 on days 5 and 6. A control group of 9 men and women (age and body fat = 22.8 ± 2.8 years and 15.2 ± 6.9%) completed all testing but did not perform HIIT. Changes in resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), VO2max, body composition, oxygen (O2) pulse, peak, mean, and minimum power output, fatigue index, and voluntary force production of the knee flexors and extensors were examined pretraining and posttraining. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements in VO2max, O2 pulse, and Wingate-derived power output with HIIT. The magnitude of improvement in VO2max was related to baseline VO2max (r = -0.44, p = 0.05) and fatigue index (r = 0.50, p < 0.05). No change (p > 0.05) in resting BP, HR, or force production was revealed. Data show that HIIT significantly enhanced VO2max and O2 pulse and power output in active men and women.

  19. Comparable Effects of Brief Resistance Exercise and Isotime Sprint Interval Exercise on Glucose Homeostasis in Men

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tomas K.; Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Xueying

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of a single bout of resistance exercise (RES) on glycemic homeostasis to isotime sprint interval exercise (SIE) using a within-subjects design. Nineteen nondiabetic males (age: 23.3 ± 0.7 yrs; height: 173.1 ± 1.2 cm; weight: 79.1 ± 4.8 kg; % fat: 22.5 ± 2.5%) were studied. RES involved nine exercises of 10 repetitions at 75% 1-RM using a 2 : 2 s tempo and was interspersed with a one-minute recovery; SIE involved four 30 s' all-out cycling effort interspersed with four minutes of active recovery. Plasma glucose and insulin in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test were assessed 12 h after exercise. In comparison to a no exercise control trial (CON), the area under curve (AUC) of plasma glucose was reduced with both RES and SIE (P < 0.05), while insulin AUC was only reduced with RES. Cederholm, Gutt, Matsuda, and HOMA indices were improved (P < 0.05) following RES compared to CON. Corresponding changes following SIE were only found in Cederholm and Gutt indices (P < 0.05). No difference was found in plasma variables and indices between RES and SIE (P > 0.05). Such findings suggest that the RES may represent a potential alternative to the SIE in the development of time-efficient lifestyle intervention strategies for improving diabetes risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:28349072

  20. Briefly delayed reinforcement effects on variable-ratio and yoked-interval schedule performance.

    PubMed

    Holtyn, August F; Lattal, Kennon A

    2013-09-01

    Most investigations of briefly delayed reinforcement have involved schedules that arrange a time-plus-response requirement. The present experiment examined whether briefly delaying reinforcement on schedules that have a ratio requirement differs from results with schedules that have a time-plus-response requirement. Four pigeons responded on a two-component multiple schedule. One component arranged a variable-ratio (VR) 50 and the other a variable-interval (VI) schedule in which the distribution of reinforcers was yoked to the preceding VR schedule. Across a series of conditions, delays were imposed in both schedules. These delays were brief (0.25- or 0.5-s) unsignaled delays and, as control conditions, a 5-s unsignaled delay and a 0.5-s delay signaled by a blackout of the chamber. In the yoked-VI component, the brief unsignaled delay increased response rates in six of nine opportunities and increased the proportion of short interresponse times (IRTs) (<0.4 s) in eight of nine opportunities. In the VR component, the brief unsignaled delay increased response rates and the proportion of short IRTs in only two of nine opportunities. For two of the three pigeons that were exposed to the 5-s unsignaled delay, response rates and the proportion of short IRTs decreased in both of the components. The 0.5-s signaled delay did not systematically change response rates nor did it change the distribution of short IRTs relative to the immediate reinforcement condition. The results replicate effects reported with time-based schedules and extend these observations by showing that changes commonly observed in VI performance with briefly delayed reinforcement are not characteristic of VR responding.

  1. Effective confidence interval estimation of fault-detection process of software reliability growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chih-Chiang; Yeh, Chun-Wu

    2016-09-01

    The quantitative evaluation of software reliability growth model is frequently accompanied by its confidence interval of fault detection. It provides helpful information to software developers and testers when undertaking software development and software quality control. However, the explanation of the variance estimation of software fault detection is not transparent in previous studies, and it influences the deduction of confidence interval about the mean value function that the current study addresses. Software engineers in such a case cannot evaluate the potential hazard based on the stochasticity of mean value function, and this might reduce the practicability of the estimation. Hence, stochastic differential equations are utilised for confidence interval estimation of the software fault-detection process. The proposed model is estimated and validated using real data-sets to show its flexibility.

  2. Effect of interpregnancy interval on risk of spontaneous preterm birth in Emirati women, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jasmi, Fatima; Al-Mansoor, Fatima; Alsheiba, Aisha; Carter, Anne O.; Carter, Thomas P.; Hossain, M. Moshaddeque

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a short interpregnancy interval is a risk factor for preterm birth in Emirati women, where there is a wide range of interpregnancy intervals and uniformity in potentially confounding factors. METHODS: A case-control design based on medical records was used. A case was defined as a healthy multiparous Emirati woman delivering a healthy singleton spontaneously before 37 weeks of gestation between 1997 and 2000, and a control was defined as the next eligible similar woman delivering after 37 weeks of gestation. Women were excluded if there was no information available about their most recent previous pregnancy or if it had resulted in a multiple or preterm birth. Data collected from charts and delivery room records were analysed using the STATA statistical package. All variables found to be valid, stable and significant by univariate analysis were included in multivariate logistic regression analysis. FINDINGS: There were 128 cases who met the eligibility criteria; 128 controls were selected. Short interpregnancy intervals were significantly associated with case status (P<0.05). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for the 1st, 2nd, and 4th quartiles of interpregnancy interval compared with the lowest-risk 3rd quartile were 8.2, 5.4, and 2.0 (95% confidence intervals: 3.5-19.2, 2.4-12.6, and 0.9- 4.5 respectively). CONCLUSION: A short interpregnancy interval is a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Emirati women. The magnitude of the risk and the risk gradient between exposure quartiles suggest that the risk factor is causal and that its modification would reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:12481208

  3. Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Compliance and Clinical Significance in the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odgaard, Eric C.; Fowler, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In 2005, the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" ("JCCP") became the first American Psychological Association (APA) journal to require statistical measures of clinical significance, plus effect sizes (ESs) and associated confidence intervals (CIs), for primary outcomes (La Greca, 2005). As this represents the single largest…

  4. The Effect of Speech Rate on Stuttering Frequency, Phonated Intervals, Speech Effort, and Speech Naturalness during Chorus Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Ingham, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of speech rate on phonated intervals (PIs), in order to test whether a reduction in the frequency of short PIs is an important part of the fluency-inducing mechanism of chorus reading. The influence of speech rate on stuttering frequency, speaker-judged speech effort, and listener-judged naturalness was also…

  5. The Effects of Short Interval Delay of Reinforcement Upon Human Discrimination Learning. IMRID Papers and Reports Vol. 4 No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kral, Paul A.; And Others

    Investigates the effect of delay of reinforcement upon human discrimination learning with particular emphasis on the form of the gradient within the first few seconds of delay. In previous studies subjects are usually required to make an instrumental response to a stimulus, this is followed by the delay interval, and finally, the reinforcement…

  6. Sequential Processing and the Matching-Stimulus Interval Effect in ERP Components: An Exploration of the Mechanism Using Multiple Regression

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Barry, Robert J.; Gonsalvez, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    In oddball tasks, increasing the time between stimuli within a particular condition (target-to-target interval, TTI; nontarget-to-nontarget interval, NNI) systematically enhances N1, P2, and P300 event-related potential (ERP) component amplitudes. This study examined the mechanism underpinning these effects in ERP components recorded from 28 adults who completed a conventional three-tone oddball task. Bivariate correlations, partial correlations and multiple regression explored component changes due to preceding ERP component amplitudes and intervals found within the stimulus series, rather than constraining the task with experimentally constructed intervals, which has been adequately explored in prior studies. Multiple regression showed that for targets, N1 and TTI predicted N2, TTI predicted P3a and P3b, and Processing Negativity (PN), P3b, and TTI predicted reaction time. For rare nontargets, P1 predicted N1, NNI predicted N2, and N1 predicted Slow Wave (SW). Findings show that the mechanism is operating on separate stages of stimulus-processing, suggestive of either increased activation within a number of stimulus-specific pathways, or very long component generator recovery cycles. These results demonstrate the extent to which matching-stimulus intervals influence ERP component amplitudes and behavior in a three-tone oddball task, and should be taken into account when designing similar studies. PMID:27445774

  7. Effects of repetition, interval between treatments and season on the results from laparoscopic ovum pick-up in goats.

    PubMed

    Pierson, J; Wang, B; Neveu, N; Sneek, L; Côté, F; Karatzas, C N; Baldassarre, H

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the follicular response and oocyte yield following repeated gonadotrophin stimulation and laparoscopic aspiration in goats and to assess the effects of the time interval between procedures and season. A total of 98 adult goats were subjected to laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) five consecutive times in a transgenic production programme. Oestrus was synchronised by means of intravaginal sponges inserted for 10 days coupled with 125 microg cloprostenol 36 h before sponge removal and LOPU, and follicular development was stimulated with 80 mg follicle stimulating hormone and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin administered 36 h before LOPU. No difference was detected in the response for LOPUs 1, 2, 3 and 4. Although a small decrease in response was detected at LOPU 5 (P < 0.05), the numbers of follicles aspirated and oocytes recovered were not different from those at LOPU 1 and LOPUs 1 and 4, respectively. With respect to time interval between LOPU and season, all intervals and seasons produced acceptable responses, with no difference in follicles aspirated and oocytes recovered between intervals and seasons. These results indicate that LOPU may be repeated up to five times in goats at different intervals and in different seasons with little or no important change in overall response.

  8. Effect of varying rest intervals between sets of assistance exercises on creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase responses.

    PubMed

    Machado, Marco; Koch, Alexander J; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Pereira, Luis S; Cardoso, M Isabel; Motta, Michela K S; Pereira, Rafael; Monteiro, André N

    2011-05-01

    To examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets on serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, 10 men (age = 25.6 ± 2.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 7.1 cm, and body mass = 75.9 ± 10.0 kg) participated in a randomized within-subject design that involved 4 resistance exercise sessions. Each session consisted of 4 sets of 10 repetitions with 10 repetition maximum loads for the chest press, pullover, biceps curl, triceps extension, leg extension, and prone leg curl. The sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises, specifically: 60, 90, 120, 180 seconds. Serum CK and LDH were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated 24-72 hours after each session, with no significant differences between rest intervals (p = 0.94 and p = 0.99, respectively). The mechanical stress imposed by the 4 resistance exercise sessions invoked similar damage to the muscle fibers independent of the rest interval between sets. These data indicate that the accumulated volume of work is the primary determinant of muscle damage in trained subjects who are accustomed to resistance exercise with short rest intervals.

  9. Effects of Length of Retention Interval on Proactive Interference in Short-Term Visual Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meudell, Peter R.

    1977-01-01

    These experiments show two things: (a) In visual memory, long-term interference on a current item from items previously stored only seems to occur when the current item's retention interval is relatively long, and (b) the visual code appears to decay rapidly, reaching asymptote within 3 seconds of input in the presence of an interpolated task.…

  10. The Effect of Different Musical Timbres on Students' Identification of Melodic Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Dallas E.

    For this study, five hypotheses were formulated stating that ability to identify melodic intervals during music dictation is not affected by (1) the differences in timbre, (2) the use of familiar or unfamiliar timbres (MAJOR), (3) formal ear training experience (FETE), or (4) playing/performing experience on an instrument (PPEM), and (5) that…

  11. Practice effects on the WAIS-III across 3- and 6-month intervals.

    PubMed

    Basso, Michael R; Carona, Francine D; Lowery, Natasha; Axelrod, Bradley N

    2002-02-01

    Fifty-one participants (age M = 24.6; education M = 14.4 years) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III) at baseline and at an interval of either 3 or 6 months later. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Organization Index (POI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI) scores improved significantly across time, whereas no significant change occurred on the Working Memory Index. Specifically, test scores increased approximately 3, 11, 6, 4, 8, and 7 points, respectively on the VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ, VCI, POI, and PSI for both groups. Notably, the degree of improvement was similar regardless of whether the inter-test interval was 3 or 6 months. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-III yields considerable increases in test scores. Reliable change indices indicated that large confidence intervals might be expected. As such, users of the WAIS-III should interpret reevaluations across these intervals cautiously.

  12. Confidence Intervals for an Effect Size Measure in Multiple Linear Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the squared multiple correlation coefficient ([Delta]R[squared]) associated with a variable in a regression equation is a commonly used measure of importance in regression analysis. The coverage probability that an asymptotic and percentile bootstrap confidence interval includes [Delta][rho][squared] was investigated. As expected,…

  13. On the Effective Construction of Compactly Supported Wavelets Satisfying Homogenous Boundary Conditions on the Interval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiavassa, G.; Liandrat, J.

    1996-01-01

    We construct compactly supported wavelet bases satisfying homogeneous boundary conditions on the interval (0,1). The maximum features of multiresolution analysis on the line are retained, including polynomial approximation and tree algorithms. The case of H(sub 0)(sup 1)(0, 1)is detailed, and numerical values, required for the implementation, are provided for the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions.

  14. Effect of regrowth interval and a microbial inoculant on the fermentation profile and dry matter recovery of guinea grass silages.

    PubMed

    Santos, E M; Pereira, O G; Garcia, R; Ferreira, C L L F; Oliveira, J S; Silva, T C

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify the microbial populations in guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cultivar Mombasa) harvested at different regrowth intervals (35, 45, 55, and 65 d). The chemical composition and fermentation profile of silages (after 60 d) with or without the addition of a microbial inoculant were also analyzed. Before ensiling, samples of the plants were used for the isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the epiphytic microbiota. A 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 regrowth intervals × with/without inoculant) was used in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. Based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics and the carbohydrate fermentation profile, Lactobacillus plantarum was found to be the predominant specie of LAB in guinea grass forage. Linear increases were detected in the dry matter (DM) content and concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, and DM recovery as well as linear reductions in the concentrations of crude protein and NH3-N with regrowth interval. Additionally, linear reductions for gas and effluent losses in silages were detected with increasing regrowth interval. These results demonstrate that guinea grass plants harvested after 55 d of regrowth contain a LAB population sufficiently large to ensure good fermentation and increase the DM recovery. The use of microbial inoculant further enhanced the fermentation of guinea grass at all stages of regrowth by improving the DM recovery.

  15. The effects of cognitive load during intertrial intervals on judgements of control: The role of working memory and contextual learning.

    PubMed

    Cavus, H A; Msetfi, Rachel M

    2016-11-01

    When there is no contingency between actions and outcomes, but outcomes occur frequently, people tend to judge that they have control over those outcomes, a phenomenon known as the outcome density (OD) effect. Recent studies show that the OD effect depends on the duration of the temporal interval between action-outcome conjunctions, with longer intervals inducing stronger effects. However, under some circumstances OD effect is reduced, for example when participants are mildly depressed. We reasoned that working memory (WM) plays an important role in learning of context; with reduced WM capacity to process contextual information during intertrial intervals (ITIs) during contingency learning might lead to reduced OD effects (limited capacity hypothesis). To test this, we used a novel dual-task procedure that increases the WM load during the ITIs of an operant (e.g., action-outcome) contingency learning task to impact contextual learning. We tested our hypotheses in groups of students with zero (Experiments 1, N=34), and positive contingencies (Experiment 2, N=34). The findings indicated that WM load during the ITIs reduced the OD effects compared to no load conditions (Experiment 1 and 2). In Experiment 2, we observed reduced OD effects on action judgements under high load in zero and positive contingencies. However, the participants' judgements were still sensitive to the difference between zero and positive contingencies. We discuss the implications of our findings for the effects of depression and context in contingency learning.

  16. Postmortem interval alters the water relaxation and diffusion properties of rat nervous tissue--implications for MRI studies of human autopsy samples.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Timothy M; Flint, Jeremy J; Thelwall, Peter E; Stanisz, Greg J; Mareci, Thomas H; Yachnis, Anthony T; Blackband, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    High-resolution imaging of human autopsy tissues may improve our understanding of in vivo MRI findings, but interpretation is complicated because samples are obtained by immersion fixation following a postmortem interval (PMI). This study tested the hypotheses that immersion fixation and PMI's from 0-24 h would alter the water relaxation and diffusion properties in rat cortical slice and spinal cord models of human nervous tissue. Diffusion data collected from rat cortical slices at multiple diffusion times (10-60 ms) and b-values (7-15,000 s/mm(2)) were analyzed using a two-compartment model with exchange. Rat spinal cords were characterized with standard diffusion tensor imaging (21 directions, b=1250 s/mm(2)). Switching from perfusion- to immersion-fixation at 0 h PMI altered most MRI properties of rat cortical slices and spinal cords, including a 22% decrease in fractional anisotropy (P<0.001). After 4 h PMI, cortical slice T(1) and T(2) increased 22% and 65% respectively (P<0.001), transmembrane water exchange decreased 23% (P<0.001) and intracellular proton fraction increased 25% (P=0.002). After 6 h PMI, spinal cord white matter fractional anisotropy had decreased 38% (P<0.001). MRI property changes were observed for PMIs up to 24 h. The MRI changes correlated with protease activity and histopathological signs of autolysis. Thus, immersion fixation and/or even short PMIs (4-6 h) altered the MRI properties of rat nervous tissue. This suggests comparisons between in vivo clinical MRI and MRI data from human autopsy tissues should be interpreted with caution.

  17. Effect of suckling restriction with nose plates and premature weaning on postpartum anestrous interval in primiparous cows under range conditions.

    PubMed

    Quintans, G; Vázquez, A I; Weigel, K A

    2009-11-01

    Suckling and nutrition are generally recognized as two major factors controlling the duration of the postpartum anovulatory period. In the present study, the effect of premature weaning and suckling restriction with nose plates (NPs) on cow and calf performance was evaluated. The study was conducted over 2 years; primiparous Hereford cows, weighing (mean+/-S.E.M.) 344+/-3.5kg and with 4.1+/-0.05 units of body condition score (BCS) (scale 1-8 [Vizcarra, J.A., Ibañez, W., Orcasberro, R., 1986. Repetibilidad y reproductibilidad de dos escalas para estimar la condición corporal de vacas Hereford. Investigaciones Agronómicas 7 (1), 45-47]) at calving, remained with their calves until 72.5+/-1.2 days postpartum (day 0). They were then assigned to one of three treatments: (i) calves with free access to their dams and ad libitum suckling (S, n=29); (ii) calves fitted with NPs for 14 days, but remained with their dams (NP, n=29), and (iii) calves that were weaned from their dams (W, n=28). All cows were anestrus at the time treatments commenced (day 0). All cows were blood sampled twice weekly from 1 week before the beginning of the experiment until the end of the mating period (day 74) for progesterone analysis. The mating period began on day 14. Cows in W treatment had ovulations earlier (P<0.05) than those in NP and S groups. Cows in the NP group had longer (P<0.05) intervals between the first progesterone increase and normal luteal phase than cows in the other two treatments groups (23.3+/-3.2 vs. 6.5+/-3.2 and 5.2+/-3.3 days for NP, S and W cows, respectively). Fifty per cent of the cows with NP had a short cycle (7 days) but there was a group of cows that had longer (P<0.05) intervals (66 days) between first progesterone increase and normal estrous activity. In the NP group, 8 of 29 cows had a short luteal phase and then a normal one; for 9 of these 29 cows progesterone concentrations remained low for 6 weeks from the beginning of the treatment; and for 12 of these

  18. The confidence-accuracy relationship for eyewitness identification decisions: Effects of exposure duration, retention interval, and divided attention.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Matthew A; Brewer, Neil; Weber, Nathan; Nagesh, Ambika

    2013-03-01

    Prior research points to a meaningful confidence-accuracy (CA) relationship for positive identification decisions. However, there are theoretical grounds for expecting that different aspects of the CA relationship (calibration, resolution, and over/underconfidence) might be undermined in some circumstances. This research investigated whether the CA relationship for eyewitness identification decisions is affected by three, forensically relevant variables: exposure duration, retention interval, and divided attention at encoding. In Study 1 (N = 986), a field experiment, we examined the effects of exposure duration (5 s vs. 90 s) and retention interval (immediate testing vs. a 1-week delay) on the CA relationship. In Study 2 (N = 502), we examined the effects of attention during encoding on the CA relationship by reanalyzing data from a laboratory experiment in which participants viewed a stimulus video under full or divided attention conditions and then attempted to identify two targets from separate lineups. Across both studies, all three manipulations affected identification accuracy. The central analyses concerned the CA relation for positive identification decisions. For the manipulations of exposure duration and retention interval, overconfidence was greater in the more difficult conditions (shorter exposure; delayed testing) than the easier conditions. Only the exposure duration manipulation influenced resolution (which was better for 5 s than 90 s), and only the retention interval manipulation affected calibration (which was better for immediate testing than delayed testing). In all experimental conditions, accuracy and diagnosticity increased with confidence, particularly at the upper end of the confidence scale. Implications for theory and forensic settings are discussed.

  19. Reproducibility of the systolic time intervals: effect of the temporal range of measurements.

    PubMed

    Kupari, M

    1983-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of conventionally measured systolic time intervals. To that end, three to eight serial measurements were performed on four different groups of healthy subjects (total number, 49) within dissimilar time periods: 1) within 3 h; 2) within 24 h; 3) within 1 to 2 weeks; and 4) within 14 to 18 months. Judged as the mean coefficients of variation, the variability of the systolic time intervals tended to be smallest in the 3 h measurements and largest in the 24 h measurements. The pooled variances of the serial measurements made within 24 h were in general significantly larger than the respective variances in the measurements made within 3 h. This was due to statistically significant diurnal decreases in left ventricular ejection time and total electromechanic systole in the 24 h study. Otherwise the reproducibility of the method was high. For instance, the mean coefficients of variation for ejection time and total electromechanic systole corrected for heart rate were only 1% and 1.2%, respectively, in serial measurements made at identical diurnal time points within 14 to 18 months. The pooled variances of the measurements made within the shortest and longest temporal ranges were not statistically different. It is concluded that measurement of the systolic time intervals is very applicable to intervention and follow-up studies provided the normal circadian rhythmicity of the phases of systole is adequately taken into account in the design of the study.

  20. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85–90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Results Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Conclusions Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated. PMID:26566220

  1. Acute and chronic effects of sprint interval exercise on postprandial lipemia in women at-risk for the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Freese, Eric C; Gist, Nicholas H; Acitelli, Rachelle M; McConnell, Whitni J; Beck, Catherine D; Hausman, Dorothy B; Murrow, Jonathan R; Cureton, Kirk J; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-04-01

    Individuals diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) exhibit elevated postprandial lipemia (PPL). The aims of this investigation were to determine 1) if an acute bout of sprint interval training (SIT) attenuates PPL; and 2) if the attenuation of PPL following 6 wk of SIT is magnified compared with a single session of SIT prior to training in women at-risk for MetS (n = 45; 30-65 yr). Women were randomized to SIT (n = 22) or a nonexercise control (n = 23; CON) for 6 wk. Postprandial responses to a high-fat meal challenge (HFMC) were assessed in the CON group before (B-HFMC) and after (Post-HFMC) without prior exercise and in the SIT group at baseline (B-HFMC) without prior exercise, after an acute bout of SIT (four 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min recovery) prior to (Pre-HFMC), and after the 6-wk intervention (Post-HFMC). Responses to the HFMC were assessed by collecting venous blood samples in the fasted state and at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postprandial. Compared with baseline, an acute bout of SIT before (Pre-HFMC) and after the 6-wk intervention (Post-HFMC) significantly attenuated fasted TG (P < 0.05; 16.6% and 12.3%, respectively) and postprandial area under the curve (13.1% and 9.7%, respectively; tAUC) TG responses. There was no difference in fasted or tAUC TG responses between Pre-HFMC and Post-HFMC. SIT is an effective mode of exercise to reduce fasted and postprandial TG concentrations in women at-risk for MetS. Six weeks of SIT does not magnify the attenuation of PPL in response to a single session of SIT.

  2. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2016-09-23

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P < 0.05) and REC (type I: 10.0 ± 2.7%, type IIA: 14.8 ± 4.3% type IIX: 20.8 ± 6.0%, P < 0.05). In contrast, RFD decreased and fascicle angle increased (P < 0.05) only after REC. Capillary density and estimated aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) only after REC. These results suggest that high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes.

  3. Radioactive sample effects on EDXRF spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, Christopher G

    2008-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a rapid, straightforward method to determine sample elemental composition. A spectrum can be collected in a few minutes or less, and elemental content can be determined easily if there is adequate energy resolution. Radioactive alpha emitters, however, emit X-rays during the alpha decay process that complicate spectral interpretation. This is particularly noticeable when using a portable instrument where the detector is located in close proximity to the instrument analysis window held against the sample. A portable EDXRF instrument was used to collect spectra from specimens containing plutonium-239 (a moderate alpha emitter) and americium-241 (a heavy alpha emitter). These specimens were then analyzed with a wavelength dispersive XRF (WDXRF) instrument to demonstrate the differences to which sample radiation-induced X-ray emission affects the detectors on these two types of XRF instruments.

  4. Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A control group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial.

  5. Effects of different male remating intervals on the reproductive success of Choristoneura rosaceana males and females.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Mireille; Delisle, Johanne; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2007-02-01

    The mass of the spermatophore transferred by a previously mated Choristoneura rosaceana male increases with time elapsed since the last mating but, even after 4 days, it never reaches the mass of the spermatophore of a virgin male. However, spermatophore mass is clearly not a good indicator of the male reproductive investment as the quantity of sperm in the second ejaculate of a previously mated male is the same as that of his first, if he is allowed a 2 (eupyrene sperm) to 3 day (apyrene sperm) recovery period. The interval between the first two matings had no influence on female fecundity or longevity but significantly affected fertility if the male had only 1 day to recover. The length of the post-copulatory refractory period was also shorter in females mated with previously mated males than in those mated with virgins, regardless of the male's remating interval. Furthermore, a significant variation in the eupyrene sperm content of the spermatophore transferred by virgin males had no influence on the length of the female refractory period. Globally, these results support the hypothesis that a factor, other than sperm numbers in the spermatheca, is responsible for maintaining the inhibition of pheromone production in this species.

  6. Effect of creatine supplementation during the last week of gestation on birth intervals, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality in pigs.

    PubMed

    Vallet, J L; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that creatine supplementation would reduce birth intervals, stillbirth rate, and preweaning survival in pigs because of its reported improvement of athletic performance in humans. In Exp. 1, gilts (n = 42) and first parity sows (n = 75) were mated at estrus. Beginning on d 110 of gestation, dams received either no treatment or 20 g creatine daily until farrowing. At farrowing in November 2008, pigs were monitored by video camera to determine individual piglet birth intervals. On d 1, piglets were weighed, euthanized, and the cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were collected from the largest and smallest piglets in each litter to measure myelin basic proteins, myelin cholesterol, glucocerebrosides, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin. Preweaning mortality of the remaining piglets was recorded, including whether a piglet had been overlayed by the dam. A second experiment was performed using gilts (n = 90), farrowing in July 2010, to test differential effects of creatine supplementation during hot, humid weather when dams typically have more difficulty farrowing. Once again, gilts were provided either no supplementation or 20 g creatine daily from d 110 to the day of farrowing. Gilts were video recorded during farrowing, piglets were weighed on d 1, and preweaning mortality (including overlays) was recorded. In Exp. 1, creatine supplementation had no effect on birth intervals or stillbirth rate. Creatine supplementation improved the amount of myelin lipids in brain regions of piglets, particularly the brain stem. Creatine supplementation also reduced overlays of low birth weight piglets from gilts but not second parity sows. Data from Exp. 2 were combined with gilt data from Exp. 1 to examine the effect of creatine, season, and their interaction. There were no effects of treatment or season on birth intervals, stillbirth rates, or overall preweaning mortality. Creatine treatment reduced the incidence of overlays in low

  7. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Prado, D M L; Rocco, E A; Silva, A G; Rocco, D F; Pacheco, M T; Silva, P F; Furlan, V

    2016-02-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a submaximal index incorporating cardiovascular, peripheral, and pulmonary factors that determine the ventilatory response to exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the OUES in patients with coronary artery disease. Thirty-five patients (59.3±1.8 years old; 28 men, 7 women) with coronary artery disease were randomly divided into two groups: continuous exercise training (n=18) and interval exercise training (n=17). All patients performed graded exercise tests with respiratory gas analysis before and 3 months after the exercise-training program to determine ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), respiratory compensation point, and peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2). The OUES was assessed based on data from the second minute of exercise until exhaustion by calculating the slope of the linear relation between oxygen uptake and the logarithm of total ventilation. After the interventions, both groups showed increased aerobic fitness (P<0.05). In addition, both the continuous exercise and interval exercise training groups demonstrated an increase in OUES (P<0.05). Significant associations were observed in both groups: 1) continuous exercise training (OUES and peak VO2 r=0.57; OUES and VO2 VAT r=0.57); 2) interval exercise training (OUES and peak VO2 r=0.80; OUES and VO2 VAT r=0.67). Continuous and interval exercise training resulted in a similar increase in OUES among patients with coronary artery disease. These findings suggest that improvements in OUES among CAD patients after aerobic exercise training may be dependent on peripheral and central mechanisms.

  8. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Prado, D.M.L.; Rocco, E.A.; Silva, A.G.; Rocco, D.F.; Pacheco, M.T.; Silva, P.F.; Furlan, V.

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a submaximal index incorporating cardiovascular, peripheral, and pulmonary factors that determine the ventilatory response to exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the OUES in patients with coronary artery disease. Thirty-five patients (59.3±1.8 years old; 28 men, 7 women) with coronary artery disease were randomly divided into two groups: continuous exercise training (n=18) and interval exercise training (n=17). All patients performed graded exercise tests with respiratory gas analysis before and 3 months after the exercise-training program to determine ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), respiratory compensation point, and peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2). The OUES was assessed based on data from the second minute of exercise until exhaustion by calculating the slope of the linear relation between oxygen uptake and the logarithm of total ventilation. After the interventions, both groups showed increased aerobic fitness (P<0.05). In addition, both the continuous exercise and interval exercise training groups demonstrated an increase in OUES (P<0.05). Significant associations were observed in both groups: 1) continuous exercise training (OUES and peak VO2 r=0.57; OUES and VO2 VAT r=0.57); 2) interval exercise training (OUES and peak VO2 r=0.80; OUES and VO2 VAT r=0.67). Continuous and interval exercise training resulted in a similar increase in OUES among patients with coronary artery disease. These findings suggest that improvements in OUES among CAD patients after aerobic exercise training may be dependent on peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:26871969

  9. [Effects of tilt test and beta-adrenergic stimulation on the QT interval in normal children and pediatric patients with unexplained syncope].

    PubMed

    Arnaiz, Pilar; Dumas, Eduardo; Heusser, Felipe; González, Rolando; Jalil, Jorge

    2004-02-01

    In normal children, any procedure that increases heart rate, such as the tilt test, may shorten the QT interval. The effect of the tilt test on QT interval in children with syncope remains unknown. We analyzed the response of RR and QT intervals during a tilt test in 3 groups of children: 28 healthy children (group 1), 26 with syncope of unknown etiology and negative tilt test results (group 2), and 17 with vasovagal syncope (group 3). During the tilt test, RR and QT intervals were significantly shortened in groups 1 and 2. In group 3, RR interval was lengthened during syncope whereas the QT interval remained constant. QT interval lengthening during the tilt test is not a characteristic finding in normal children or in children with vasovagal syncope.

  10. The effect of high-intensity aerobic interval training on postinfarction left ventricular remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Richard; Theologou, Thomas; Dellegrottaglie, Santo; Binukrishnan, Sukumaran; Wright, Jay; Whyte, Gregory; Ellison, Georgina

    2013-01-01

    This is the third in a series of case studies on an individual with normal coronaries who sustained an idiopathic acute myocardial infarction . Bilateral pulmonary emboli almost 2 years post-myocardial infarction (MI) revealed coagulopathy as the cause. The original MI resulted in 16% myocardial scar tissue. An increasing number of patients are surviving MI, hence the burden for healthcare often shifts to heart failure. Accumulating evidence suggests high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (AHIT) is efficacious in improving cardiac function in health and disease. However, its impact on MI scar has never been assessed. Accordingly, the 50-year-old subject of this case study undertook 60 weeks of regular AHIT. Successive cardiac MRI results demonstrate, for the first time, a decrease in MI scar with exercise and, alongside mounting evidence of high efficacy and low risk, suggests AHIT may be increasingly important in future prevention and reversing of disease and or amelioration of symptoms. PMID:23413285

  11. Low volume-high intensity interval exercise elicits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Alex J; Chen, Yu-Wen; Lip, Gregory Y H; Fisher, James P; Aldred, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare acute changes in oxidative stress and inflammation in response to steady state and low volume, high intensity interval exercise (LV-HIIE). Untrained healthy males (n = 10, mean ± s: age 22 ± 3 years; VO2MAX 42.7 ± 5.0 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) undertook three exercise bouts: a bout of LV-HIIE (10 × 1 min 90% VO2MAX intervals) and two energy-matched steady-state cycling bouts at a moderate (60% VO2MAX; 27 min, MOD) and high (80% VO2MAX; 20 min, HIGH) intensity on separate days. Markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and physiological stress were assessed before, at the end of exercise and 30 min post-exercise (post+30). At the end of all exercise bouts, significant changes in lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and protein carbonyls (PCs) (LOOH (nM): MOD +0.36; HIGH +3.09; LV-HIIE +5.51 and PC (nmol · mg(-1) protein): MOD -0.24; HIGH -0.11; LV-HIIE -0.37) were observed. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) increased post+30, relative to the end of all exercise bouts (TAC (µM): MOD +189; HIGH +135; LV-HIIE +102). Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 increased post+30 in HIGH and LV-HIIE only (P < 0.05). HIGH caused the greatest lymphocytosis, adrenaline and cardiovascular response (P < 0.05). At a reduced energy cost and physiological stress, LV-HIIE elicited similar cytokine and oxidative stress responses to HIGH.

  12. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    PubMed

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together.

  13. [Effects of variable-interval punishment on lever pressing maintained by variable-ratio reinforcement in the rat].

    PubMed

    Iida, Naritoshi; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2007-12-01

    The effects of reinforcement and punishment on response suppression under variable-ratio reinforcement and variable-interval punishment schedules were investigated. In the baseline period, lever pressing in rats was maintained by a variable-ratio food reinforcement schedule. In the punishment condition, responding was punished by a grid shock under a variable-interval schedule. Baseline and punishment conditions alternated, and were continued until the response stabilized. Three rats were given five or six punishment rates with a fixed reinforcement rate and another three rats were given four or five reinforcement rates with a fixed punishment rate. The results indicated that the responses were either completely suppressed or not suppressed at all. When the punishment rate increased or the reinforcement rate decreased, the response was suppressed completely. Whereas when the punishment rate decreased or the reinforcement rate increased, the responses were not suppressed. These results agree with the predictions of the molar theory.

  14. Practical advice on calculating confidence intervals for radioprotection effects and reducing animal numbers in radiation countermeasure experiments.

    PubMed

    Landes, Reid D; Lensing, Shelly Y; Kodell, Ralph L; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The dose of a substance that causes death in P% of a population is called an LDP, where LD stands for lethal dose. In radiation research, a common LDP of interest is the radiation dose that kills 50% of the population by a specified time, i.e., lethal dose 50 or LD50. When comparing LD50 between two populations, relative potency is the parameter of interest. In radiation research, this is commonly known as the dose reduction factor (DRF). Unfortunately, statistical inference on dose reduction factor is seldom reported. We illustrate how to calculate confidence intervals for dose reduction factor, which may then be used for statistical inference. Further, most dose reduction factor experiments use hundreds, rather than tens of animals. Through better dosing strategies and the use of a recently available sample size formula, we also show how animal numbers may be reduced while maintaining high statistical power. The illustrations center on realistic examples comparing LD50 values between a radiation countermeasure group and a radiation-only control. We also provide easy-to-use spreadsheets for sample size calculations and confidence interval calculations, as well as SAS® and R code for the latter.

  15. Practical Advice on Calculating Confidence Intervals for Radioprotection Effects and Reducing Animal Numbers in Radiation Countermeasure Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Landes, Reid D.; Lensing, Shelly Y.; Kodell, Ralph L.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The dose of a substance that causes death in P% of a population is called an LDP, where LD stands for lethal dose. In radiation research, a common LDP of interest is the radiation dose that kills 50% of the population by a specified time, i.e., lethal dose 50 or LD50. When comparing LD50 between two populations, relative potency is the parameter of interest. In radiation research, this is commonly known as the dose reduction factor (DRF). Unfortunately, statistical inference on dose reduction factor is seldom reported. We illustrate how to calculate confidence intervals for dose reduction factor, which may then be used for statistical inference. Further, most dose reduction factor experiments use hundreds, rather than tens of animals. Through better dosing strategies and the use of a recently available sample size formula, we also show how animal numbers may be reduced while maintaining high statistical power. The illustrations center on realistic examples comparing LD50 values between a radiation countermeasure group and a radiation-only control. We also provide easy-to-use spreadsheets for sample size calculations and confidence interval calculations, as well as SAS® and R code for the latter. PMID:24164553

  16. The effect of covariate mean differences on the standard error and confidence interval for the comparison of treatment means.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2011-05-01

    The use of covariates is commonly believed to reduce the unexplained error variance and the standard error for the comparison of treatment means, but the reduction in the standard error is neither guaranteed nor uniform over different sample sizes. The covariate mean differences between the treatment conditions can inflate the standard error of the covariate-adjusted mean difference and can actually produce a larger standard error for the adjusted mean difference than that for the unadjusted mean difference. When the covariate observations are conceived of as randomly varying from one study to another, the covariate mean differences can be related to a Hotelling's T(2) . Using this Hotelling's T(2) statistic, one can always find a minimum sample size to achieve a high probability of reducing the standard error and confidence interval width for the adjusted mean difference.

  17. Effects of inter-food interval on the variety effect in an instrumental food-seeking task. Clarifying the role of habituation.

    PubMed

    Thrailkill, Eric A; Epstein, Leonard H; Bouton, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Food variety increases consumption and the rate of instrumental behavior that is reinforced by food in humans and animals. The present experiment investigated the relationship between the variety effect and habituation to food by testing the role of the interval between successive food presentations on responding in an operant food-seeking task. Habituation to food was expected at short, but not long, interfood intervals. The effects of variety on food's long-term reinforcing value were also tested. Four groups of rats were trained to lever-press on different random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement to earn 45-mg food pellets. Half the rats in each group received an unpredictable mix of grain and sucrose pellets, while the other half consistently received sucrose pellets. Response rate began at a high rate and then decreased within each 30-min session for groups that received short inter-pellet intervals (i.e., RI-3 s and RI-6 s reinforcement schedules) but not in groups that received longer inter-pellet intervals (i.e., RI-12 s and RI-24 s). A variety effect in the form of higher responding in the mix group than the sucrose-only group was also only evident at the shorter intervals. Habituation and variety effects were also most evident with the short intervals when we controlled for the number of reinforcers earned, suggesting that they were not merely due to rapid satiation. The variety effect also appeared quickly when groups trained with longer inter-pellet intervals (RI-12 s and RI-24 s) were transitioned to shorter intervals (RI-3 s and RI-6 s). There was no effect of variety on resistance to extinction or on resistance to the response-suppressing effects of pre-session feeding. The results more clearly link this version of the variety effect to the short-term effect of variety on food habituation.

  18. Effects of oral cyclosporine on canine T-cell expression of IL-2 and IFN-gamma across a 12-h dosing interval

    PubMed Central

    FELLMAN, C. L.; ARCHER, T. M.; STOKES, J. V.; WILLS, R. W.; LUNSFORD, K. V.; MACKIN, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The duration of immunosuppressive effects following oral cyclosporine in dogs is unknown. This study used flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to evaluate the effects of high-dose oral cyclosporine across a 12-h dosing interval. Expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was compared before and after 8 days of cyclosporine at 10 mg/kg every 12 h in six healthy dogs. Samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, and 8 h postdosing for analysis of unactivated and activated T-cell and whole blood cytokine expression using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR, respectively, and at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h postdosing for measurement of cyclosporine concentrations. Flow cytometry and qRT-PCR both demonstrated significant marked reductions in IL-2 and IFN-γ levels at 0, 2, 4, and 8 h after dosing compared to pretreatment levels (P < 0.05) for activated samples, with less consistent effects observed for unactivated samples. Both flow cytometry and qRT-PCR are viable techniques for measuring cyclosporine pharmacodynamics in dogs, yielding comparable results with activated samples. Two hours postdrug administration is the preferred time for concurrent assessment of peak drug concentration and cytokine expression, and T-cell activation is needed for optimal results. PMID:26676223

  19. Effect of sampling frequency on estimates of cumulative nitrous oxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Timothy B

    2008-01-01

    It is generally recognized that soil N(2)O emissions can exhibit pronounced day-to-day variations; however, measurements of soil N(2)O flux with soil chambers typically are done only at discrete points in time. This study evaluated the impact of sampling frequency on the precision of cumulative N(2)O flux estimates calculated from field measurements. Automated chambers were deployed in a corn/soybean field and used to measure soil N(2)O fluxes every 6 h from 25 Feb. 2006 through 11 Oct. 2006. The chambers were located in two positions relative to the fertilizer bands-directly over a band or between fertilizer bands. Sampling frequency effects on cumulative N(2)O-N flux estimation were assessed using a jackknife technique where populations of N(2)O fluxes were constructed from the average daily fluxes measured in each chamber. These test populations were generated by selecting measured flux values at regular time intervals ranging from 1 to 21 d. It was observed that as sampling interval increased from 7 to 21 d, variances associated with cumulative flux estimates increased. At relatively frequent sampling intensities (i.e., once every 3 d) N(2)O-N flux estimates were within +/-10% of the expected value at both sampling positions. As the time interval between sampling was increased, the deviation in estimated cumulative N(2)O flux increased, such that sampling once every 21 d yielded estimates within +60% and -40% of the actual cumulative N(2)O flux. The variance of potential fluxes associated with the between-band positions was less than the over-band position, indicating that the underlying temporal variability impacts the efficacy of a given sampling protocol.

  20. Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos.

  1. Effect of Sampling Array Irregularity and Window Size on the Discrimination of Sampled Gratings

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David W.; Wang, Yizhong; Haggerty, Kevin M.; Thibos, Larry N.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of sampling irregularity and window size on orientation discrimination was investigated using discretely sampled gratings as stimuli. For regular sampling arrays, visual performance could be accounted for by a theoretical analysis of aliasing produced by undersampling. For irregular arrays produced by adding noise to the location of individual samples, the incidence of perceived orientation reversal declined and the spatial frequency range of flawless performance expanded well beyond the nominal Nyquist frequency. These results provide a psychophysical method to estimate the spatial density and the degree of irregularity in the neural sampling arrays that limit human visual resolution. PMID:19815023

  2. Effects of Continuous and Interval Training on Running Economy, Maximal Aerobic Speed and Gait Kinematics in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    González-Mohíno, Fernando; González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Fernández, Francisco A; Barragán Castellanos, Rubén; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on running economy (RE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and gait kinematics (step length [SL] and frequency, flight and contact time [CT]) in recreational athletes, with 2 different training methods, Interval and Continuous (CON). Eleven participants were randomly distributed in an interval training group (INT; n = 6) or CON training group (CON; n = 5). Interval training and CON performed 2 different training programs (95-110% and 70-75% of MAS, respectively), which consisted of 3 sessions per week during 6 weeks with the same external workload (%MAS × duration). An incremental test to exhaustion was performed to obtain V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, MAS, RE, and gait variables (high speed camera) before and after the training intervention. There was a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in RE at 60 and 90% of MAS by the CON group; without changes in gait. The INT group significantly increased MAS and higher stride length at 80, 90, and 100% of MAS and lower CT at 100% of MAS. As expected, training adaptations are highly specific to the overload applied with CON producing improvements in RE at lower percentage of MAS whereas INT produces improvements in MAS. The significantly increased stride length and decreased CT for the INT group are an important outcome of favorable changes in running gait.

  3. Effects of input methods on inter-key press intervals during continuous typing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huey-Wen; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Chang, Fu-Han

    2009-09-01

    Two popular input methods for Chinese typing, Microsoft New Phonetic and Boshiamy, were compared in terms of hand and finger loading, key-pressing speed and typing efficiency. Sixteen subjects typed an English and a Chinese text for 30 min each during two test sessions and all keystrokes and their inter-key press intervals were recorded by electronic activity monitoring software. Typing with Microsoft New Phonetic and with Boshiamy was found to have equal hand loadings, but typing with Microsoft New Phonetic was associated with a higher proportion of keystrokes at the number row. The subjects who used Boshiamy typed significantly more words per min than those who used Microsoft New Phonetic, though both groups had similar English typing speeds. The features of requiring fewer keystrokes to build a character and no need to choose matched words among homophones made Boshiamy a more efficient tool, but the risk of musculoskeletal disorders should be studied further. This study examined two input methods for typing Chinese and showed that typing with Boshiamy had a higher efficiency, including a higher proportion of key presses on the home row, required fewer key presses to build characters and resulted in a faster speed than with Microsoft New Phonetic. However, the potential risk of development of upper limb symptoms warrants further study.

  4. Pain and thermal sensation in the cold: the effect of interval versus continuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Muller, Matthew D; Muller, Sarah M; Ryan, Edward J; Bellar, David M; Kim, Chul-Ho; Glickman, Ellen L

    2011-06-01

    Military and factory work often involves exposure to cold temperatures. With prolonged exposure, individuals report feeling cold and develop pain in their hands, both of which might be alleviated by endogenous heat production via exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how interval (INT) and continuous (CONT) cycle ergometry alter thermal sensation, hand pain, mean finger temperature, and skin surface temperature gradient (forearm-finger) following immobility in moderate cold. Fourteen young men underwent two trials (each was three total hours in 5°C) consisting of a 90-min period of acute cold exposure (ACE), 30 min of exercise (INT or CONT), and a 60-min recovery period (REC). INT and CONT were isoenergetic, reflecting 50 ± 1% of each individual's VO(2) peak. All perceptual scales were significantly correlated during ACE (i.e., test-retest reliability). As expected, individuals felt colder and reported more hand pain during ACE, as compared to thermoneutral conditions. Relative to ACE, both INT and CONT increased mean finger temperature, which was associated with warmer thermal sensation and less hand pain. During REC in 5°C, individuals felt colder and reported more hand pain than during exercise. Although there were no perceptual differences between INT and CONT, moderate exercise in general can cause subjective feelings of warmth and less hand pain in people acutely exposed to moderate cold.

  5. Effect of different rest intervals, between sets, on muscle performance during leg press exercise, in trained older women.

    PubMed

    Filho, José C Jambassi; Gobbi, Lilian T B; Gurjão, André L D; Gonçalves, Raquel; Prado, Alexandre K G; Gobbi, Sebastião

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different rest intervals (RI) between sets on number of repetitions, sustainability of repetitions, and total volume during a leg press exercise. Seventeen resistance-trained older women (68.0 ± 5.9 years, 71. 2 ± 11.7 kg, 1.58 ± 0.07 m) participated in the study. All participants performed three sets to voluntary exhaustion, with loads that corresponded to 15 maximum repetitions, in two experimental sessions (that ranged from 48 to 72 hours apart). In each session, one of two RI (one-minute: RI-1 and three minute: RI-3) was tested, employing a randomized and counterbalanced design. For both RI, significant reductions (p < 0.05) were observed in the number of repetitions and sustainability of repetitions, from the first to the second and third sets. Differences (p < 0.05) between the RI also were observed in the two final sets. The total volume for the RI-3 session was statistically higher (29.4%, p < 0.05) as compared to the RI-1 session. The length of the RI between sets influenced the number of repetitions, sustainability of repetitions, and total volume. The longer RI should be used, therefore, when the goal of training is to increase the total volume. Key pointsThis study examined the influence of rest intervals, between sets, on muscle performance during leg press exercise, in trained older women.When multiple sets were performed to voluntary exhaustion, neither short and long rest interval (1 and 3 minutes, respectively) promoted the sustainability of repetitions in subsequent sets.A longer rest interval seems to be necessary for a higher number of repetitions in subsequent sets, and with increase in time of tension and total volume.

  6. The combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males

    PubMed Central

    Gahreman, Daniel E; Boutcher, Yati N; Bustamante, Sonia; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males. [Methods] Fourteen trained and 14 untrained males ingested one capsule containing either green tea or cellulose with breakfast, lunch, and dinner, 24 hours before two exercise sessions. A fourth capsule was consumed 90 minutes before exercise after overnight NPO (nil per os). Participants performed a 20-minute interval sprinting cycling protocol, consisting of repeated bouts of 8-seconds of sprint cycling (at 65% of maximum power output) and 12-seconds of recovery (at 25% of maximum power output), followed by 75 minutes of post-exercise recovery. [Results] Fat oxidation was significantly greater in the resting condition after green tea ingestion (p < 0.05) compared with the placebo. Fat oxidation was also significantly increased post-exercise in the green tea, compared with the placebo condition (p < 0.01). During and after exercise the plasma glycerol levels significantly increased in both groups after green tea consumption and were significantly higher in the untrained group compared with the trained group (p < 0.05). Compared with the placebo, the plasma epinephrine levels were significantly higher for both groups in the green tea condition during and after exercise, however, norepinephrine levels were only significantly greater, p < 0.05, during and after exercise in the untrained group. [Conclusion] Green tea significantly increased resting and post-exercise fat oxidation and also elevated plasma glycerol and epinephrine levels during and after interval sprinting. Glycerol and norepinephrine levels during interval sprinting were significantly higher in the untrained group compared with the trained group. PMID:27298806

  7. The effect of the interval-between-sessions on prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on cognitive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dedoncker, Josefien; Brunoni, Andre R; Baeken, Chris; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there has been wide interest in the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on cognitive functioning. However, many methodological questions remain unanswered. One of them is whether the time interval between active and sham-controlled stimulation sessions, i.e. the interval between sessions (IBS), influences DLPFC tDCS effects on cognitive functioning. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed of experimental studies published in PubMed, Science Direct, and other databases from the first data available to February 2016. Single session sham-controlled within-subject studies reporting the effects of tDCS of the DLPFC on cognitive functioning in healthy controls and neuropsychiatric patients were included. Cognitive tasks were categorized in tasks assessing memory, attention, and executive functioning. Evaluation of 188 trials showed that anodal vs. sham tDCS significantly decreased response times and increased accuracy, and specifically for the executive functioning tasks, in a sample of healthy participants and neuropsychiatric patients (although a slightly different pattern of improvement was found in analyses for both samples separately). The effects of cathodal vs. sham tDCS (45 trials), on the other hand, were not significant. IBS ranged from less than 1 h to up to 1 week (i.e. cathodal tDCS) or 2 weeks (i.e. anodal tDCS). This IBS length had no influence on the estimated effect size when performing a meta-regression of IBS on reaction time and accuracy outcomes in all three cognitive categories, both for anodal and cathodal stimulation. Practical recommendations and limitations of the study are further discussed.

  8. Using Ancillary Information to Reduce Sample Size in Discovery Sampling and the Effects of Measurement Error

    SciTech Connect

    Axelrod, M

    2005-08-18

    Discovery sampling is a tool used in a discovery auditing. The purpose of such an audit is to provide evidence that some (usually large) inventory of items complies with a defined set of criteria by inspecting (or measuring) a representative sample drawn from the inventory. If any of the items in the sample fail compliance (defective items), then the audit has discovered an impropriety, which often triggers some action. However finding defective items in a sample is an unusual event--auditors expect the inventory to be in compliance because they come to the audit with an ''innocent until proven guilty attitude''. As part of their work product, the auditors must provide a confidence statement about compliance level of the inventory. Clearly the more items they inspect, the greater their confidence, but more inspection means more cost. Audit costs can be purely economic, but in some cases, the cost is political because more inspection means more intrusion, which communicates an attitude of distrust. Thus, auditors have every incentive to minimize the number of items in the sample. Indeed, in some cases the sample size can be specifically limited by a prior agreement or an ongoing policy. Statements of confidence about the results of a discovery sample generally use the method of confidence intervals. After finding no defectives in the sample, the auditors provide a range of values that bracket the number of defective items that could credibly be in the inventory. They also state a level of confidence for the interval, usually 90% or 95%. For example, the auditors might say: ''We believe that this inventory of 1,000 items contains no more than 10 defectives with a confidence of 95%''. Frequently clients ask their auditors questions such as: How many items do you need to measure to be 95% confident that there are no more than 10 defectives in the entire inventory? Sometimes when the auditors answer with big numbers like ''300'', their clients balk. They balk because a

  9. A general method to determine sampling windows for nonlinear mixed effects models with an application to population pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Foo, Lee Kien; McGree, James; Duffull, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Optimal design methods have been proposed to determine the best sampling times when sparse blood sampling is required in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. However, the optimal blood sampling time points may not be feasible in clinical practice. Sampling windows, a time interval for blood sample collection, have been proposed to provide flexibility in blood sampling times while preserving efficient parameter estimation. Because of the complexity of the population pharmacokinetic models, which are generally nonlinear mixed effects models, there is no analytical solution available to determine sampling windows. We propose a method for determination of sampling windows based on MCMC sampling techniques. The proposed method attains a stationary distribution rapidly and provides time-sensitive windows around the optimal design points. The proposed method is applicable to determine sampling windows for any nonlinear mixed effects model although our work focuses on an application to population pharmacokinetic models.

  10. Alternative Confidence Interval Methods Used in the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Semra; Gülhan, Orekıcı Temel

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. It is necessary to decide whether the newly improved methods are better than the standard or reference test or not. To decide whether the new diagnostics test is better than the gold standard test/imperfect standard test, the differences of estimated sensitivity/specificity are calculated with the help of information obtained from samples. However, to generalize this value to the population, it should be given with the confidence intervals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the confidence interval methods developed for the differences between the two dependent sensitivity/specificity values on a clinical application. Materials and Methods. In this study, confidence interval methods like Asymptotic Intervals, Conditional Intervals, Unconditional Interval, Score Intervals, and Nonparametric Methods Based on Relative Effects Intervals are used. Besides, as clinical application, data used in diagnostics study by Dickel et al. (2010) has been taken as a sample. Results. The results belonging to the alternative confidence interval methods for Nickel Sulfate, Potassium Dichromate, and Lanolin Alcohol are given as a table. Conclusion. While preferring the confidence interval methods, the researchers have to consider whether the case to be compared is single ratio or dependent binary ratio differences, the correlation coefficient between the rates in two dependent ratios and the sample sizes.

  11. Nanoscale Surface Characterization of Aqueous Copper Corrosion: Effects of Immersion Interval and Orthophosphate Concentration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphology changes for copper surfaces exposed to different water parameters were investigated at the nanoscale with atomic force microscopy (AFM), as influenced by changes in pH and the levels of orthophosphate ions. Synthetic water samples were designed to mimic physiological c...

  12. Salivary cortisol concentration after high-intensity interval exercise: Time of day and chronotype effect.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Matteo; La Torre, Antonio; Saresella, Marina; Marventano, Ivana; Merati, Giampiero; Vitale, Jacopo Antonino

    2017-04-14

    Due to personal and working necessities, the time for exercise is often short, and scheduled early in the morning or late in the afternoon. Cortisol plays a central role in the physiological and behavioral response to a physical challenge and can be considered as an index of exercise stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the circadian phenotype classification on salivary cortisol concentration in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness-eveningness questionnaire, 12 M-types (N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg, weekly training volume 8 ± 1 hours) and 11 E-types (N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg, weekly training volume 7 ± 2 hours) were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of salivary cortisol secretion before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 15 min (+15 min), 30 min (+30 min), 45 min (+45 min) and 60 min (+60 min) after the completion of both morning (08.00 am) and evening (08.00 p.m.) high-intensity interval exercise. Two-way analysis of variance with Tuckey's multiple comparisons test showed significant increments over PRE-cortisol concentrations in POSTcondition both in the morning (4.88 ± 1.19 ng · mL(-1) vs 6.60 ± 1.86 ng · mL(-1), +26.1%, P < 0.0001, d > 0.8) and in the evening (1.56 ± 0.48 ng · mL(-1) vs 2.34 ± 0.37, +33.4%, P = 0.034, d > 0.6) exercise in all the 23 subject that performed the morning and the evening HIIE. In addition, during morning exercise, significant differences in cortisol concentration between M-types and E-types at POST (5.49 ± 0.98 ng · mL(-1) versus 8.44 ± 1.08 ng · mL(-1), +35%, P < 0.0001, d > 0.8), +15 min (4.52 ± 0.42 ng · mL(-1) versus 6.61 ± 0.62 ng · mL(-1), +31.6%, P < 0.0001, d > 0.8), +30 min (4.10 ± 1.44 ng · mL(-1) versus 6.21 ± 1.60 ng · mL(-1), +34.0%, P

  13. The effect of the interval from PGF treatment to ovulation on embryo recovery and pregnancy rate in the mare.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Mateu-Sánchez, S; Aguilar, J J; Nielsen, J M; Etcharren, V; Vettorazzi, M L; Newcombe, J R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the interval from induced luteolysis to ovulation on fertility of mares from two different farms. At farm 1, 215 mares were inseminated with frozen/thawed semen during 513 estrous cycles over seven consecutive breeding seasons. Estrus was induced with analogues of PGF2α in 179 cycles. At farm 2, 375 embryo flushings were performed in 65 donor mares inseminated with fresh semen; of which, 327 were performed following artificial insemination after PGF-induced luteolysis. In both farms, the intervals from PGF treatment to ovulation (ITO) data were divided into three interval groups: less than 6 days, 6 to 8 days, and greater than 8 days. A mixed regression model was created to determine the effect of different factors on the pregnancy rate (PR) and embryo recovery rate (ERR). Of all factors analyzed, the ITO was the only one that significantly influenced the PR and ERR (P < 0.05). In farm 1, the PR of mares with an ITO of less than 6 days, 6 to 8 days, and greater than 8 days was 26.6%, 39.4%, and 55.9%, respectively (P = 0.01). The PR for mares inseminated after spontaneous luteolysis (without PGF) was 42.5%. In farm 2, the ERR of donor mares for the same ITO groups was 55.0%, 62.6%, and 73.7%, respectively (P = 0.02). The ERR for mares flushed after a previous spontaneous estrus was 75.0%. In conclusion, the ITO had a significant effect on the PR and ERR in the mare. Fertility was reduced as the ITO became shorter.

  14. The Influence of Prior Handling on the Effective CS-US Interval in Long-Trace Taste-Aversion Conditioning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinderliter, Charles F.; Andrews, Amy; Misanin, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a taste, the conditioned stimulus (CS), is paired with an illness-inducing stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (US), to produce CS-US associations at very long (hours) intervals, a result that appears to violate the law of contiguity. The specific length of the maximum effective trace interval that has been…

  15. The effect of 4-week rehabilitation on heart rate variability and QTc interval in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Zupanic, Eva; Zivanovic, Ina; Kalisnik, Jurij Matija; Avbelj, Viktor; Lainscak, Mitja

    2014-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease negatively affects the autonomic nervous system and increases risks of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were used to compare parameters of heart rate variability and QTc interval in patients with COPD and healthy individuals. The effects of a 4-week program of rehabilitation in patients with COPD were also evaluated by comparing pre- and post-rehabilitation ECGs with age- and sex-matched control COPD patients not participating in the program. Heart rate, average NN, SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, TP, LF, HF, LF/HF, and QTc were analyzed. Rehabilitation effects were evaluated using the St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ), the 6-min walk test (6MWT), and the incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT). In comparison with the healthy individuals, the patients with COPD had higher heart rate (p < 0.05) and reduced average NN, SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, HF, LF, and TP (all p < 0.05) but similar QTc interval (p = 0.185). During rehabilitation, SDNN and TP (p < 0.05 for both) increased, as did the results for 6MWT, ISWT, and SGRQ (all p < 0.05). No significant change of QTc interval was observed within or between the two groups of patients with COPD. Change in SDNN correlated with a clinically relevant difference in SGRQ (r = 0.538, p = 0.021). It is concluded that patients with COPD demonstrate reduced parameters of heart rate variability and that these can be improved in a rehabilitation program, thus improving health-related quality of life.

  16. Effects of upper-body sprint-interval training on strength and endurance capacities in female cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Vandbakk, Kristine; Welde, Boye; Kruken, Andrea Hovstein; Baumgart, Julia; Ettema, Gertjan; Karlsen, Trine; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45-75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training. Before and after the intervention, the participants were tested for physiological and kinematical responses during submaximal and maximal diagonal and double poling treadmill roller skiing. Additionally, we measured maximal upper-body strength (1RM) and average power at 40% 1RM in a poling-specific strength exercise. SIG improved absolute VO2max in diagonal skiing more than CG (8% vs 2%, p<0.05), and showed a tendency towards higher body-mass normalized VO2max (7% vs 2%, p = 0.07). Both groups had an overall improvement in double poling peak oxygen uptake (10% vs 6% for SIG and CG) (both p<0.01), but no group-difference was observed. SIG improved 1RM strength more than CG (18% vs 10%, p<0.05), while there was a tendency for difference in average power at 40% 1RM (20% vs 14%, p = 0.06). Oxygen cost and kinematics (cycle length and rate) in double poling and diagonal remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that adding upper-body sprint-interval training is more effective than continuous endurance training in improving upper-body maximal strength and VO2max.

  17. Tolerance to Effects of Cocaine on Behavior under a Response-Initiated Fixed-Interval Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Matthew T.; Branch, Marc N.

    2008-01-01

    Tolerance to effects of cocaine can be modulated by schedules of reinforcement. With multiple ratio schedules, research has shown an inverse relationship between ratio requirement and amount of tolerance that resulted from daily administration of the drug. In contrast, tolerance to the effects of cocaine on behavior under multiple interval…

  18. Pigeons' Choices between Fixed-Interval and Random-Interval Schedules: Utility of Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the…

  19. How to learn effectively in medical school: test yourself, learn actively, and repeat in intervals.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Students in medical school often feel overwhelmed by the excessive amount of factual knowledge they are obliged to learn. Although a large body of research on effective learning methods is published, scientifically based learning strategies are not a standard part of the curriculum in medical school. Students are largely unaware of how to learn successfully and improve memory. This review outlines three fundamental methods that benefit learning: the testing effect, active recall, and spaced repetition. The review summarizes practical learning strategies to learn effectively and optimize long-term retention of factual knowledge.

  20. The effect of variable rest intervals and chronic ankle instability on triplanar ankle motion during performance of the Star Excursion Balance Test.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Ung; Blaise Williams, D S

    2017-04-01

    Inadequate rest intervals may contribute to impaired performance during functional tests. However, the effect of different rest intervals on performance of the SEBT in individuals with and without CAI is not known. Our purposes were to determine whether different rest intervals impact ankle kinematics during the SEBT and whether there differences between those two populations. 24 controls and 24 CAI completed 3 trials in 3 reach directions (anteromedial; AM, medial; M, posteromedial; PM). The order of rest intervals and reach distance were randomized and counterbalanced. Three visits were required to complete the 3 rest interval conditions (10, 20, 40s). Rest interval did not impact ankle kinematics between controls and CAI during the SEBT. Dorsiflexion (DF) (AM:partial η(2)=0.18; M:partial η(2)=0.23; PM:partial η(2)=0.23) for all directions and tibial internal rotation (TIR) excursions (AM:partial η(2)=0.20) for AM direction were greater in individuals with CAI regardless of rest interval length. Rest intervals ranging from 10 to 40s did not influence ankle kinematics. Differences exist in DF and TIR between controls and CAI during the SEBT. These findings suggest that clinicians can use any rest interval between 10 and 40s when administrating the SEBT. However, triplanar motion differs during a complex functional movement in controls compared to CAI.

  1. Precedence-effect thresholds for a population of untrained listeners as a function of stimulus intensity and interclick interval.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Kourosh; Antonio, Joseph V

    2003-07-01

    Data are reported from 127 untrained individuals under lag- and single-click conditions in a precedence-effect task. In experiment I, each subject completed ten runs in a two-interval forced-choice design under a lag-click condition and three runs under a single-click condition. The cue to be discriminated was an interaural time difference (ITD). Stimuli were 125-micros rectangular pulses and the interclick interval (ICI) was 2 ms. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups of approximately 30. Each group was tested at one stimulus intensity (43, 58, or 73 dB). Mean threshold within each group was greater than 500 micros for lag-click ITD conditions, although substantial intersubject variability and a clear effect of stimulus intensity on lag-click ITD thresholds were observed, with lower thresholds for higher intensities. In experiment II, the ICI was varied from 0.3 to 10 ms, and thresholds were obtained from groups of approximately 20 untrained subjects. Data were also collected from three highly experienced observers as a function of ICI. The best naive subject produced mean thresholds near, but not as low as those obtained from experienced subjects. Analysis of adaptive-track patterns revealed abrupt irregularities in threshold tracking, consistent with either losing the cue or listening to the wrong cue in an ambiguous stimulus.

  2. Proportion of the Litter Farrowed, Litter Size, and Progesterone and Estradiol Effects on Piglet Birth Intervals and Stillbirths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stillbirth in swine ranges from 2 to 9%, resulting in a significant loss of piglets. Previous studies clearly indicate a relationship between prolonged birth intervals and stillbirth, but factors influencing birth intervals are not fully known. To characterize birth intervals and stillbirth, farrowi...

  3. Effects of Improvements in Interval Timing on the Mathematics Achievement of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on mathematics achievement. A total of 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grades completed pre- and posttest measures of mathematics achievement from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Students in the experimental group participated in a 4-week intervention…

  4. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    PubMed

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  5. Digitally Available Interval-Specific Rock-Sample Data Compiled from Historical Records, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Wood

    2009-10-08

    Between 1951 and 1992, underground nuclear weapons testing was conducted at 828 sites on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples cannot be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  6. Digitally Available Interval-Specific Rock-Sample Data Compiled from Historical Records, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Wood

    2007-10-24

    Between 1951 and 1992, 828 underground tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples cannot be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  7. Digitally available interval-specific rock-sample data compiled from historical records, Nevada National Security Site and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, David B.

    2007-11-01

    Between 1951 and 1992, 828 underground tests were conducted on the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada National Security Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples can not be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  8. A simple, physiologically-based model of sea turtle remigration intervals and nesting population dynamics: Effects of temperature.

    PubMed

    Neeman, Noga; Spotila, James R; O'Connor, Michael P

    2015-09-07

    Variation in the yearly number of sea turtles nesting at rookeries can interfere with population estimates and obscure real population dynamics. Previous theoretical models suggested that this variation in nesting numbers may be driven by changes in resources at the foraging grounds. We developed a physiologically-based model that uses temperatures at foraging sites to predict foraging conditions, resource accumulation, remigration probabilities, and, ultimately, nesting numbers for a stable population of sea turtles. We used this model to explore several scenarios of temperature variation at the foraging grounds, including one-year perturbations and cyclical temperature oscillations. We found that thermally driven resource variation can indeed synchronize nesting in groups of turtles, creating cohorts, but that these cohorts tend to break down over 5-10 years unless regenerated by environmental conditions. Cohorts were broken down faster at lower temperatures. One-year perturbations of low temperature had a synchronizing effect on nesting the following year, while high temperature perturbations tended to delay nesting in a less synchronized way. Cyclical temperatures lead to cyclical responses both in nesting numbers and remigration intervals, with the amplitude and lag of the response depending on the duration of the cycle. Overall, model behavior is consistent with observations at nesting beaches. Future work should focus on refining the model to fit particular nesting populations and testing further whether or not it may be used to predict observed nesting numbers and remigration intervals.

  9. An effective approach for obtaining optimal sampling windows for population pharmacokinetic experiments.

    PubMed

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an effective approach for optimizing sampling windows for population pharmacokinetic experiments. Sampling windows has been proposed for population pharmacokinetic experiments that are conducted in late phase drug development programs where patients are enrolled in many centers and out-patient clinic settings. Collection of samples under this uncontrolled environment at fixed times may be problematic and can result in uninformative data. A sampling windows approach is more practicable, as it provides the opportunity to control when samples are collected by allowing some flexibility and yet provide satisfactory parameter estimation. This approach uses D-optimality to specify time intervals around fixed D-optimal time points that results in a specified level of efficiency. The sampling windows have different lengths and achieve two objectives: the joint sampling windows design attains a high specified efficiency level and also reflects the sensitivities of the plasma concentration-time profile to parameters. It is shown that optimal sampling windows obtained using this approach are very efficient for estimating population PK parameters and provide greater flexibility in terms of when samples are collected.

  10. Exploring effective sampling design for monitoring soil organic carbon in degraded Tibetan grasslands.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaofeng; Bao, Xiaoying; Wang, Shiping; Zhu, Xiaoxue; Luo, Caiyun; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wilkes, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    The effects of climate change and human activities on grassland degradation and soil carbon stocks have become a focus of both research and policy. However, lack of research on appropriate sampling design prevents accurate assessment of soil carbon stocks and stock changes at community and regional scales. Here, we conducted an intensive survey with 1196 sampling sites over an area of 190 km(2) of degraded alpine meadow. Compared to lightly degraded meadow, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in moderately, heavily and extremely degraded meadow were reduced by 11.0%, 13.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Our field survey sampling design was overly intensive to estimate SOC status with a tolerable uncertainty of 10%. Power analysis showed that the optimal sampling density to achieve the desired accuracy would be 2, 3, 5 and 7 sites per 10 km(2) for lightly, moderately, heavily and extremely degraded meadows, respectively. If a subsequent paired sampling design with the optimum sample size were performed, assuming stock change rates predicted by experimental and modeling results, we estimate that about 5-10 years would be necessary to detect expected trends in SOC in the top 20 cm soil layer. Our results highlight the utility of conducting preliminary surveys to estimate the appropriate sampling density and avoid wasting resources due to over-sampling, and to estimate the sampling interval required to detect an expected sequestration rate. Future studies will be needed to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns of SOC variability.

  11. Was it me? - Filling the interval between action and effects increases agency but not sensory attenuation.

    PubMed

    Weller, Lisa; Schwarz, Katharina A; Kunde, Wilfried; Pfister, Roland

    2017-02-01

    Sensory stimuli resulting from one's own actions are perceptually attenuated compared to identical but externally produced stimuli. This may enable the organism to discriminate between self-produced events and externally produced events, suggesting a strong link between sensory attenuation and a subjective sense of agency. To investigate this supposed link, we compared the influence of filled and unfilled action-effect delays on both, judgements of agency for self-produced sounds and attenuation of the event-related potential (ERP). In line with previous findings, judgments of agency differed between both delay conditions with higher ratings for filled than for unfilled delays. Sensory attenuation, however, was not influenced by filling the delay. These findings indicate a partial dissociation of the two phenomena.

  12. The effect of pulse interval statistics on the spectrum of radiation from lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of atmospheric radio noise originally appearing in the literature to describe the VLF structure of atmospherics is repeated here, keeping a term discarded in the previous work and extending the results to include all frequencies and some simple effects of amplitude variations. It is shown that at high frequencies, atmospheric radiation appears to be the result of incoherent sources, whereas at low frequencies the sferics appear to originate from coherent sources. These conclusions are valid with only weak restrictions, regardless of the actual statistical model assumed for the process. An implication of these results is that at high frequencies the magnitude of the spectrum of the received signal can be related to the spectrum of the source current, a means for the study of lightning current wave forms thus possibly being provided.

  13. Examination of the effect of dose-death interval on detection of meperidine exposure in decomposed skeletal tissues using microwave-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Watterson, James H; Desrosiers, Nathalie A

    2011-04-15

    The effect of dose-death interval and tissue distribution on the detection of meperidine in selected skeletal tissues was examined using a rapid microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) methodology. Rats (n=14) were dosed with 0 (n=2) or 30 mg/kg (n=12) meperidine (i.p.). Drug-positive rats were sacrificed with CO(2) after 20, 30, 90 and 150 min (n=3 per group). Heart blood was collected immediately after death. Tibiae were excised and frozen for further analysis. The remaining carcasses were allowed to decompose outside in secured cages to the point of complete skeletonization in a rural Northern Ontario location during the late summer months. Vertebrae and pelvi were collected for each animal. Tibial marrow was homogenized in 3 mL PB6 (phosphate buffer, 0.1M, pH 6). Fresh tibiae, and decomposed vertebrae and pelvi were cleaned in PB8.5 (phosphate buffer, 0.1M, pH 8.5) and sonicated to remove remaining soft tissue. Samples of dried, ground bone (0.5-1g) suspended in 2 mL PB6 were then irradiated in a domestic microwave oven (1100 W) at atmospheric pressure for 15 min. Samples of vertebral bone (1g) were also extracted by passive incubation in methanol (3 mL, 50°C, 72 h). All supernatants then underwent solid-phase extraction and analysis by GC/MS, using electron impact ionization in the Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode. Mean GC/MS responses for each tissue type were negatively correlated with dose-death interval, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.32 to -0.87. Analysis of variance showed dose-death interval to be a main effect (p<0.05) with respect to GC/MS response for blood, marrow, tibial epiphyses prepared by MAE, and vertebral bone prepared by passive extraction, but not for tibial diaphyses, pelvi or vertebrae prepared by MAE. Overall, MAE is advantageous as a rapid extraction tool for screening purposes in skeletal tissues, but assignment of significance to quantitative expressions of skeletal drug concentrations is complex and should be approached

  14. Sub-Nyquist artefacts and sampling moiré effects

    PubMed Central

    Amidror, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Sampling moiré effects are well known in signal processing. They occur when a continuous periodic signal g(x) is sampled using a sampling frequency fs that does not respect the Nyquist condition, and the signal-frequency f folds over and gives a new, false low frequency in the sampled signal. However, some visible beating artefacts may also occur in the sampled signal when g(x) is sampled using a sampling frequency fs which fully respects the Nyquist condition. We call these phenomena sub-Nyquist artefacts. Although these beating effects have already been reported in the literature, their detailed mathematical behaviour is not widely known. In this paper, we study the behaviour of these phenomena and compare it with analogous results from the moiré theory. We show that both sampling moirés and sub-Nyquist artefacts obey the same basic mathematical rules, in spite of the differences between them. This leads us to a unified approach that explains all of these phenomena and puts them under the same roof. In particular, it turns out that all of these phenomena occur when the signal-frequency f and the sampling frequency fs satisfy f≈(m/n)fs with integer m, n, where m/n is a reduced integer ratio; cases with n=1 correspond to true sampling moiré effects. PMID:26064621

  15. Effects of sample size and sampling frequency on studies of brown bear home ranges and habitat use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, Steve M.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    1999-01-01

    We equipped 9 brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, with collars containing both conventional very-high-frequency (VHF) transmitters and global positioning system (GPS) receivers programmed to determine an animal's position at 5.75-hr intervals. We calculated minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed and adaptive kernel home ranges for randomly-selected subsets of the GPS data to examine the effects of sample size on accuracy and precision of home range estimates. We also compared results obtained by weekly aerial radiotracking versus more frequent GPS locations to test for biases in conventional radiotracking data. Home ranges based on the MCP were 20-606 km2 (x = 201) for aerial radiotracking data (n = 12-16 locations/bear) and 116-1,505 km2 (x = 522) for the complete GPS data sets (n = 245-466 locations/bear). Fixed kernel home ranges were 34-955 km2 (x = 224) for radiotracking data and 16-130 km2 (x = 60) for the GPS data. Differences between means for radiotracking and GPS data were due primarily to the larger samples provided by the GPS data. Means did not differ between radiotracking data and equivalent-sized subsets of GPS data (P > 0.10). For the MCP, home range area increased and variability decreased asymptotically with number of locations. For the kernel models, both area and variability decreased with increasing sample size. Simulations suggested that the MCP and kernel models required >60 and >80 locations, respectively, for estimates to be both accurate (change in area <1%/additional location) and precise (CV < 50%). Although the radiotracking data appeared unbiased, except for the relationship between area and sample size, these data failed to indicate some areas that likely were important to bears. Our results suggest that the usefulness of conventional radiotracking data may be limited by potential biases and variability due to small samples. Investigators that use home range estimates in statistical tests should consider the

  16. Effects of upper-body sprint-interval training on strength and endurance capacities in female cross-country skiers

    PubMed Central

    Vandbakk, Kristine; Welde, Boye; Kruken, Andrea Hovstein; Baumgart, Julia; Ettema, Gertjan; Karlsen, Trine; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45–75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training. Before and after the intervention, the participants were tested for physiological and kinematical responses during submaximal and maximal diagonal and double poling treadmill roller skiing. Additionally, we measured maximal upper-body strength (1RM) and average power at 40% 1RM in a poling-specific strength exercise. SIG improved absolute VO2max in diagonal skiing more than CG (8% vs 2%, p<0.05), and showed a tendency towards higher body-mass normalized VO2max (7% vs 2%, p = 0.07). Both groups had an overall improvement in double poling peak oxygen uptake (10% vs 6% for SIG and CG) (both p<0.01), but no group-difference was observed. SIG improved 1RM strength more than CG (18% vs 10%, p<0.05), while there was a tendency for difference in average power at 40% 1RM (20% vs 14%, p = 0.06). Oxygen cost and kinematics (cycle length and rate) in double poling and diagonal remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that adding upper-body sprint-interval training is more effective than continuous endurance training in improving upper-body maximal strength and VO2max. PMID:28241030

  17. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling: The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    PubMed Central

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of the upper body, and how training contributes to improvements in performance capacity is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of HIIT and MICT on the physiological capacity and handcycling performance of able-bodied men in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Methods: Twenty four recreationally active men (22 ± 2 years; 1.84 ± 0.04 m; 79 ± 10 kg) were matched on incremental handcycling pre-test performance (peakPO) and then randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT, or a non-training control group (CON, 3 × n = 8). Participants in HIIT completed 14 interval training sessions, performing 4 × 4 min intervals at 85% heart rate reserve (%HRR), and seven continuous training sessions at 55 %HRR (every 2nd training session of the week). Participants in MICT performed 21 training sessions of 30 min at 55 %HRR. After the intervention, changes in peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) and peak power output (peakPO) were compared within and between HIIT, MICT and CON. Results: The average external training load per training session did not differ between MICT and HIIT (p = 0.713). Improvements after HIIT in peakVO2 (22.2 ± 8.1%) and peakPO (47.1 ± 20.7%) were significantly larger compared with MICT and CON (p < 0.001). Improvements after MICT in peakVO2 (10.7 ± 12.9%) and peakPO (32.2 ± 8.1%) were higher compared to CON (p < 0.001). Higher improvement after HIIT occurred despite training 22% less time than MICT. No significant changes were found in CON. Discussion: As in lower body endurance sports, HIIT proved to be very effective in improving the physiological and performance capacity of upper body exercise. Whilst physiological capacity in both training

  18. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling: The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of the upper body, and how training contributes to improvements in performance capacity is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of HIIT and MICT on the physiological capacity and handcycling performance of able-bodied men in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Methods: Twenty four recreationally active men (22 ± 2 years; 1.84 ± 0.04 m; 79 ± 10 kg) were matched on incremental handcycling pre-test performance (peakPO) and then randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT, or a non-training control group (CON, 3 × n = 8). Participants in HIIT completed 14 interval training sessions, performing 4 × 4 min intervals at 85% heart rate reserve (%HRR), and seven continuous training sessions at 55 %HRR (every 2nd training session of the week). Participants in MICT performed 21 training sessions of 30 min at 55 %HRR. After the intervention, changes in peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) and peak power output (peakPO) were compared within and between HIIT, MICT and CON. Results: The average external training load per training session did not differ between MICT and HIIT (p = 0.713). Improvements after HIIT in peakVO2 (22.2 ± 8.1%) and peakPO (47.1 ± 20.7%) were significantly larger compared with MICT and CON (p < 0.001). Improvements after MICT in peakVO2 (10.7 ± 12.9%) and peakPO (32.2 ± 8.1%) were higher compared to CON (p < 0.001). Higher improvement after HIIT occurred despite training 22% less time than MICT. No significant changes were found in CON. Discussion: As in lower body endurance sports, HIIT proved to be very effective in improving the physiological and performance capacity of upper body exercise. Whilst physiological capacity in both training

  19. Effect on tumour control of time interval between surgery and postoperative radiotherapy: an empirical approach using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Al-Dweri, Feras M O; Guirado, Damián; Lallena, Antonio M; Pedraza, Vicente

    2004-07-07

    In this work, a procedure, based on Monte Carlo techniques, to analyse the effect on the tumour control probability of the time interval between surgery and postoperative radiotherapy is presented. The approach includes the tumour growth as well as the survival of tumour cells undergoing fractionated radiotherapy. Both processes are described in terms of the binomial distribution. We have considered two different growth models, exponential and Gompertz, the parameters of which have been fixed to reproduce the clinical outcome corresponding to a retrospective study for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. In the cases analysed, we have not found significant differences between the results obtained for both growth models. The mean doubling times found for residual clonogens after surgery are less than 40 days. The rate of decrease in local control is around 0.09% per day of delay between surgery and radiotherapy and the corresponding time factor is about 0.11 Gy per day.

  20. Effect on tumour control of time interval between surgery and postoperative radiotherapy: an empirical approach using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dweri, Feras M. O.; Guirado, Damián; Lallena, Antonio M.; Pedraza, Vicente

    2004-07-01

    In this work, a procedure, based on Monte Carlo techniques, to analyse the effect on the tumour control probability of the time interval between surgery and postoperative radiotherapy is presented. The approach includes the tumour growth as well as the survival of tumour cells undergoing fractionated radiotherapy. Both processes are described in terms of the binomial distribution. We have considered two different growth models, exponential and Gompertz, the parameters of which have been fixed to reproduce the clinical outcome corresponding to a retrospective study for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. In the cases analysed, we have not found significant differences between the results obtained for both growth models. The mean doubling times found for residual clonogens after surgery are less than 40 days. The rate of decrease in local control is around 0.09% per day of delay between surgery and radiotherapy and the corresponding time factor is about 0.11 Gy per day.

  1. Sampling-time effects for persistence and survival in step structural fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, D B; Tao, C; Bondarchuk, O; Cullen, W G; Williams, E D; Constantin, M; Dasgupta, C; Das Sarma, S

    2005-02-01

    The effects of sampling rate and total measurement time have been determined for single-point measurements of step fluctuations within the context of first-passage properties. Time dependent scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to evaluate step fluctuations on Ag(111) films grown on mica as a function of temperature (300-410 K) , on screw dislocations on the facets of Pb crystallites at 320 K , and on Al-terminated Si(111) over the temperature range 770-970 K . Although the fundamental time constant for step fluctuations on Ag and Al/Si varies by orders of magnitude over the temperature ranges of measurement, no dependence of the persistence amplitude on temperature is observed. Instead, the persistence probability is found to scale directly with t/delta t where delta t is the time interval used for sampling. Survival probabilities show a more complex scaling dependence, which includes both the sampling interval and the total measurement time t(m) . Scaling with t/delta t occurs only when delta t/ t(m) is a constant. We show that this observation is equivalent to theoretical predictions that the survival probability will scale as delta t/ L(z) , where L is the effective length of a step. This implies that the survival probability for large systems, when measured with fixed values of t(m) or delta t , should also show little or no temperature dependence.

  2. Cardioprotective Effect of High Intensity Interval Training and Nitric Oxide Metabolites (NO2−, NO3−)

    PubMed Central

    FALLAHI, Aliasghar; GAEINI, Abbasali; SHEKARFROUSH, Shahnaz; KHOSHBATEN, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on nitric oxide metabolites (NO2−, NO3−) and myocardial infarct size after Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury in healthy male rats. Methods: A total of 44 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including HIIT (n=8), HIIT + IR protocol (n=14), control (n=8), and control + IR (n=14). Each training session of HIIT consisted of 1 hour of exercise in three stages: 6-minute running at 50–60% VO2max for warm-up; 7 intervals of 7-minute running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 minutes with an intensity of 80–100% VO2max and 3 minutes at 50–60% VO2max); and 5-minute running at 50–60% VO2max for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Nitric Oxide (NO) and its metabolites were measured by using Griess reaction test. Results: The results showed that eight weeks of exercise training exerted a significantly increasing effect on nitrite (8.55 μmol per liter, equivalent to 34.79%), nitrate (62.02 μmol per liter, equivalent to 149.48%), and NOx (66 μmol per liter, equivalent to 98.11%) in the HIIT group compared with the control group. The results showed myocardial infract size (IS) was significantly smaller (23.2%, P<0.001) in the exercise training group compared with the control group. Conclusion: Incremental changes in NO-NO3−, NO2− axis are one of mechanisms through which HIIT program can protect the heart from I/R injury and decrease myocardial infarction. PMID:26587502

  3. Electrostatic effects in asbestos sampling. I: Experimental measurements.

    PubMed

    Baron, P A; Deye, G J

    1990-02-01

    Electrostatic charge can cause errors during sampling of airborne asbestos fibers and other particles. The change in particle trajectories caused by charge effects during sampling can result in nonuniform deposits on the collecting filter surface and net loss of sample. The degree of these electrostatic effects depends on particle charge, sampler charge, sampler conductivity, and sampling flow rate and direction. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the dependence of sampling efficiency and sample uniformity on these variables. Humidity has been postulated as a primary determinant of particle charge during aerosol generation. Measurements of particle charge and concentration were made as a function of relative humidity with chrysotile fibers generated from a fluidized bed. A strong increase in charge and a decrease in concentration of fibers was noted as the relative humidity was decreased below 15%. The effects of conductive versus nonconductive samplers and sampling flow rate were measured as a function of particle and sampler charge levels. Nonconductive samplers can carry a large and variable charge distribution on their surfaces. This can result in a biased and highly variable particle deposit on the filter when sampling charged particles. Conductive cowls spread any acquired charge over the entire surface and produce a more symmetrical and less biased charged particle deposit. Increasing the sampling flow rate will improve sampling efficiency and decrease deposit variability because the charged particle has less time to interact with the field produced by the sampler. These results suggest that sampling problems caused by electrostatic charge interactions are most likely to occur under low humidity conditions of dust generation, that sampling should be done at as high a flow rate as possible to reduce these effects, and that analysts should select fields toward the center of the filter to minimize bias and variability.

  4. The Application of Exploratory Data Analysis Methods in Computing Screening Intervals for Selected Study Measures of Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-30

    intervals for MOE data. These screening intevals will be incorporated into the rule-based AI system under development. The AI system is being designed to cite...data values for selected MOE according to the study experience of senior analysts. The distribution of MOE output data may be considered to be bounded ...regarding the concept of screening intervals primarily surfaced the notion of confidence intervals for estimation o population parameters using

  5. Effects of spectrometer band pass, sampling, and signal-to-noise ratio on spectral identification using the Tetracorder algorithm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Chrien, T.H.; Gorelick, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of spectrometer band pass, sampling interval, and signal-to-noise ratio required for identification of pure minerals and plants were derived using reflectance spectra convolved to AVIRIS, HYDICE, MIVIS, VIMS, and other imaging spectrometers. For each spectral simulation, various levels of random noise were added to the reflectance spectra after convolution, and then each was analyzed with the Tetracorder spectra identification algorithm [Clark et al., 2003]. The outcome of each identification attempt was tabulated to provide an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio at which a given percentage of the noisy spectra were identified correctly. Results show that spectral identification is most sensitive to the signal-to-noise ratio at narrow sampling interval values but is more sensitive to the sampling interval itself at broad sampling interval values because of spectral aliasing, a condition when absorption features of different materials can resemble one another. The band pass is less critical to spectral identification than the sampling interval or signal-to-noise ratio because broadening the band pass does not induce spectral aliasing. These conclusions are empirically corroborated by analysis of mineral maps of AVIRIS data collected at Cuprite, Nevada, between 1990 and 1995, a period during which the sensor signal-to-noise ratio increased up to sixfold. There are values of spectrometer sampling and band pass beyond which spectral identification of materials will require an abrupt increase in sensor signal-to-noise ratio due to the effects of spectral aliasing. Factors that control this threshold are the uniqueness of a material's diagnostic absorptions in terms of shape and wavelength isolation, and the spectral diversity of the materials found in nature and in the spectral library used for comparison. Array spectrometers provide the best data for identification when they critically sample spectra. The sampling interval should not be broadened to

  6. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaocun; Flatland, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Background Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Methods Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV) of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia). Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Results Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature), while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice. Discussion Canine

  7. Performance of Random Effects Model Estimators under Complex Sampling Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Yue; Stokes, Lynne; Harris, Ian; Wang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we consider estimation of parameters of random effects models from samples collected via complex multistage designs. Incorporation of sampling weights is one way to reduce estimation bias due to unequal probabilities of selection. Several weighting methods have been proposed in the literature for estimating the parameters of…

  8. Effective sampling range for protein-based lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective sampling range is defined as the maximum distance from which an insect can reach an attractive source in a given period of time. Information on sampling range is valuable for determining appropriate coverage of traps for use in population delimitation, mass trapping control strategies, or...

  9. Effects of sprint interval training on VO2max and aerobic exercise performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sloth, M; Sloth, D; Overgaard, K; Dalgas, U

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several studies have examined whether low-volume sprint interval training (SIT) may improve aerobic and metabolic function. The objective of this study was to systematically review the existing literature regarding the aerobic and metabolic effects of SIT in healthy sedentary or recreationally active adults. A systematic literature search was performed (Bibliotek.dk, SPORTDiscus, Embase, PEDro, SveMed+, and Pubmed). Meta-analytical procedures were applied evaluating effects on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Nineteen unique studies [four randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine matched-controlled trials and six noncontrolled studies] were identified, evaluating SIT interventions lasting 2-8 weeks. Strong evidence support improvements of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT. A meta-analysis across 13 studies evaluating effects of SIT on VO2max showed a weighted mean effects size of g = 0.63 95% CI (0.39; 0.87) and VO2max increases of 4.2-13.4%. Solid evidence support peripheral adaptations known to increase the oxidative potential of the muscle following SIT, whereas evidence regarding central adaptations was limited and equivocal. Some evidence indicated changes in substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise as well as improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity following SIT. In conclusion, strong evidence support improvement of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT, which coincides with peripheral muscular adaptations. Future RCTs on long-term SIT and underlying mechanisms are warranted.

  10. Effect of different post-feeding intervals on the total time of development of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Mai, Madeleine; Amendt, Jens

    2012-09-10

    By estimating the age of the immature stages of flies developing on a corpse, forensic entomologists are able to establish the minimum post-mortem interval. Blowflies, which are the first and most important colonizers, usually leave the cadaver at the end of the last larval stage searching for a pupation site. This period of development is referred as the post-feeding or wandering stage. The characteristics of the ground where the corpse was placed might be of notable importance for the post-feeding dispersal time: For pupariation the larvae prefer an environment protected from light and predators and may have a longer dispersal time in order to reach an appropriate pupation site. Hence, the dispersal time can vary and may influence the total time of development which may lead to an erroneous calculation of the post-mortem interval. This study investigates the effect of various post-feeding time intervals on the development of the blowfly Lucilia sericata at a temperature of 25°C. As larvae reached the post-feeding stage a pupariation substrate was offered at 0 and after 12, 24 and 48h. Only the larvae with a dispersal time of 24h (total time of development 325.2h; median) and 48h (total time of development 347.7h; median) showed a significantly longer total development time compared to the control group (total time of development 318.4h; median). The mortality rate did not differ between groups; however the flies that emerged from the group with a dispersal of 48h were significantly smaller indicating increased energy consumption during dispersal. The results of this study indicate that a prolonged post-feeding stage could increase the total developmental time of L. sericata which should be taken into consideration when interpreting entomological findings. The need for a serious examination of current rearing practices in forensic entomology laboratories is indicated because reference data sets for the time of development are usually produced by offering the post

  11. Biological validation of feline serum cystatin C: The effect of breed, age and sex and establishment of a reference interval.

    PubMed

    Ghys, L F E; Paepe, D; Duchateau, L; Taffin, E R L; Marynissen, S; Delanghe, J; Daminet, S

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in cats, but the routine renal markers, serum creatinine (sCr) and urea, are not sensitive or specific enough to detect early CKD. Serum cystatin C (sCysC) has advantages over sCr, both in humans and dogs, and sCysC concentration is significantly higher in cats with CKD than in healthy cats. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age, sex and breed on feline sCysC and to establish a reference interval for feline sCysC. In total, 130 healthy cats aged 1-16 years were included. sCysC was determined using a validated particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay. sCr, urea, urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were also measured. No significant differences in sCysC concentration were observed among young, middle-aged and geriatric cats, female intact, female neutered cats, male intact and male neutered cats, or among purebred and domestic short-or longhaired cats. The 95% reference interval for feline sCysC was determined to be 0.58-1.95 mg/L. sCr was significantly higher in geriatric cats than young cats. Serum urea in geriatric cats was significantly higher than in middle-aged and young cats (P = 0.004 and P <0.001, respectively). SBP in geriatric cats was significantly higher than in both middle-aged and young cats (P = 0.004 and P = 0.040, respectively). Male neutered and female neutered cats had significantly higher serum urea concentrations than female intact cats (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006, respectively). Male intact cats had a significantly higher UPC than female intact and female neutered cats (P = 0.02 for each comparison). There were no significant differences among sex groups for USG. It is of concern that sCysC in the majority of cats with CKD in previous studies falls within the reference interval calculated in this study. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the diagnostic value of sCysC as a renal marker in

  12. Effect of sampling frequency on shoreline microbiology assessments.

    PubMed

    Leecaster, M K; Weisberg, S B

    2001-11-01

    More than 80,000 shoreline bacteriological samples are collected annually in southern California to protect beachgoer health, but sampling frequency varies from daily to monthly among sampling sites. To assess the effectiveness of various sampling frequencies, we used five years of data from 24 Los Angeles area sites that have been monitored daily to simulate five alternative sampling strategies: five weekdays, five days per week including a weekend day, three days per week, weekly, and monthly. For each of these sampling strategies, we included in the simulation the local custom of adaptive sampling, in which a site is resampled the following day if bacterial concentrations exceed the State of California's beach water quality standards. We found that sampling five times per week resulted in observing about 80% of the events in which State standards were exceeded. This frequency dropped to 55%, 25%, and 5% for three times per week, weekly, and monthly sampling, respectively. Adaptive sampling was ineffective because nearly 70% of the water quality exceedences were single-day events, even at the most frequently contaminated sites. This high frequency of single-day events is of concern because the public is typically notified about water quality conditions 24-48 h after samples are collected, meaning that most warnings are out-of-date when they are issued.

  13. Quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of subcellular GLUT4 distribution in human skeletal muscle: effects of endurance and sprint interval training.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Helen; Shaw, Christopher S; Worthington, Philip L; Shepherd, Sam O; Cocks, Matthew; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    2014-07-01

    Increases in insulin-mediated glucose uptake following endurance training (ET) and sprint interval training (SIT) have in part been attributed to concomitant increases in glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein content in skeletal muscle. This study used an immunofluorescence microscopy method to investigate changes in subcellular GLUT4 distribution and content following ET and SIT. Percutaneous muscle biopsy samples were taken from the m. vastus lateralis of 16 sedentary males in the overnight fasted state before and after 6 weeks of ET and SIT. An antibody was fully validated and used to show large (> 1 μm) and smaller (<1 μm) GLUT4-containing clusters. The large clusters likely represent trans-Golgi network stores and the smaller clusters endosomal stores and GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs). Density of GLUT4 clusters was higher at the fibre periphery especially in perinuclear regions. A less dense punctate distribution was seen in the rest of the muscle fibre. Total GLUT4 fluorescence intensity increased in type I and type II fibres following both ET and SIT. Large GLUT4 clusters increased in number and size in both type I and type II fibres, while the smaller clusters increased in size. The greatest increases in GLUT4 fluorescence intensity occurred within the 1 μm layer immediately adjacent to the PM. The increase in peripheral localisation and protein content of GLUT4 following ET and SIT is likely to contribute to the improvements in glucose homeostasis observed after both training modes.

  14. The Effect of Green Tea Ingestion and Interval Sprinting Exercise on the Body Composition of Overweight Males: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gahreman, Daniel; Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati; Freund, Judith; Boutcher, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of green tea ingestion and interval sprinting exercise on body and abdominal fat of overweight males was investigated. Participants were randomly assigned into control (C), green tea (GT), interval sprinting exercise (ISE), and green tea and ISE (GT + ISE) groups. The GT, GT + ISE, and C groups consumed three GT capsules daily. The ISE and GT + ISE groups completed 36 ISE sessions over 12 weeks. Forty eight overweight males with a mean BMI of 28.5 ± 0.92 kg/m2 and age of 26 ± 0.7 years acted as participants. There was a significant reduction in total and abdominal fat mass for the ISE and GT + ISE groups, p < 0.05, however, total and abdominal fat mass did not significantly change in the GT and C groups. There was a significant increase in total lean mass, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE and GT + ISE groups only. There was a significant increase in fat oxidation during submaximal aerobic exercise, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE, GT + ISE, and GT groups with no change for the C group. Following the 12-week intervention the ISE and GT + ISE groups, compared to C, recorded a significantly greater decrease in body and abdominal fat, and a significant increase in total lean mass. Ingestion of green tea by itself, however, did not result in a significant decrease in body or abdominal fat, but increased fat utilization during submaximal exercise. The combination of 12 weeks of GT ingestion and ISE did not result in greater total and abdominal fat reduction compared to 12 weeks of ISE alone. PMID:27548216

  15. The Effect of Green Tea Ingestion and Interval Sprinting Exercise on the Body Composition of Overweight Males: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Gahreman, Daniel; Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati; Freund, Judith; Boutcher, Stephen

    2016-08-19

    The combined effect of green tea ingestion and interval sprinting exercise on body and abdominal fat of overweight males was investigated. Participants were randomly assigned into control (C), green tea (GT), interval sprinting exercise (ISE), and green tea and ISE (GT + ISE) groups. The GT, GT + ISE, and C groups consumed three GT capsules daily. The ISE and GT + ISE groups completed 36 ISE sessions over 12 weeks. Forty eight overweight males with a mean BMI of 28.5 ± 0.92 kg/m² and age of 26 ± 0.7 years acted as participants. There was a significant reduction in total and abdominal fat mass for the ISE and GT + ISE groups, p < 0.05, however, total and abdominal fat mass did not significantly change in the GT and C groups. There was a significant increase in total lean mass, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE and GT + ISE groups only. There was a significant increase in fat oxidation during submaximal aerobic exercise, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE, GT + ISE, and GT groups with no change for the C group. Following the 12-week intervention the ISE and GT + ISE groups, compared to C, recorded a significantly greater decrease in body and abdominal fat, and a significant increase in total lean mass. Ingestion of green tea by itself, however, did not result in a significant decrease in body or abdominal fat, but increased fat utilization during submaximal exercise. The combination of 12 weeks of GT ingestion and ISE did not result in greater total and abdominal fat reduction compared to 12 weeks of ISE alone.

  16. The effect of parturition induction treatment on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and resumption of ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Šavc, Miha; Kenny, David A; Beltman, Marijke E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two parturition induction protocols with a nontreated control group, on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers. At Day 285 of gestation, 81 crossbred recipient beef heifers carrying purebred Simmental fetuses, were blocked by live-weight, body condition score, expected calving date and fetal sex, and assigned to one of three groups: (1) control (CON; no induction treatment, n = 29); (2) induction with corticosteroids (CORT; n = 27); or (3) induction with corticosteroids plus prostaglandin (CORT + PG; n = 25). Interval from induction to calving in hours and calving ease on a scale of 1 to 5 were recorded. Vaginal mucus samples were collected on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving (Day 0) by means of a Metricheck and scored on a scale of 0 to 3. Reproductive tract examinations were conducted on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving, and uterine cytology samples were obtained on Day 21. A positive cytologic sample was defined as greater than 18% neutrophils in the sample obtained via a cytobrush technique. Cows were considered to have resumed ovarian cyclicity if the presence of the CL was confirmed. Data were analyzed using the Mixed (normally distributed data) and Genmod (nonparametric data) procedures of SAS (v. 9.3). The interval from treatment to calving was longer (P < 0.0001) for CON (161.9 ± 15.12 hours) animals compared with CORT (39.7 ± 11.64 hours) or CORT + PG (32.6 ± 12.10 hours), which did not differ. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score. There was also no difference in incidence of retained placenta between the three groups. At Day 21 postpartum, cytology score tended to be higher for both induced groups (48%) compared with the control animals (24%), but this was not the case for vaginal mucus score (CON 52%, CORT 70%, and CORT + PG 52%). A higher proportion of CON had an involuted uterus by Day 21 postpartum (69

  17. Effects of sample homogenization on solid phase sediment toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Newman, J.W.; Tjeerdema, R.S.; Fairey, W.R.; Stephenson, M.D.; Puckett, H.M.; Taberski, K.M.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment toxicity is typically assessed using homogenized surficial sediment samples. It has been recognized that homogenization alters sediment integrity and may result in changes in chemical bioavailability through oxidation-reduction or other chemical processes. In this study, intact (unhomogenized) sediment cores were taken from a Van Veen grab sampler and tested concurrently with sediment homogenate from the same sample in order to investigate the effect of homogenization on toxicity. Two different solid-phase toxicity test protocols were used for these comparisons. Results of amphipod exposures to samples from San Francisco Bay indicated minimal difference between intact and homogenized samples. Mean amphipod survival in intact cores relative to homogenates was similar at two contaminated sites. Mean survival was 34 and 33% in intact and homogenized samples, respectively, at Castro Cove. Mean survival was 41% and 57%, respectively, in intact and homogenized samples from Islais Creek. Studies using the sea urchin development protocol, modified for testing at the sediment/water interface, indicated considerably more toxicity in intact samples relative to homogenized samples from San Diego Bay. Measures of metal flux into the overlying water demonstrated greater flux of metals from the intact samples. Zinc flux was five times greater, and copper flux was twice as great in some intact samples relative to homogenates. Future experiments will compare flux of metals and organic compounds in intact and homogenized sediments to further evaluate the efficacy of using intact cores for solid phase toxicity assessment.

  18. Approximate Confidence Intervals for Moment-Based Estimators of the Between-Study Variance in Random Effects Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Dan; Bowden, Jack; Baker, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Moment-based estimators of the between-study variance are very popular when performing random effects meta-analyses. This type of estimation has many advantages including computational and conceptual simplicity. Furthermore, by using these estimators in large samples, valid meta-analyses can be performed without the assumption that the treatment…

  19. Thorough QT study of the effect of intravenous amisulpride on QTc interval in Caucasian and Japanese healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ferber, Georg; Fox, Gabriel; Fernandes, Sara; Lorch, Ulrike; Camm, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Aim The D2/D3 antagonist amisulpride has shown promising efficacy against postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) at low doses. We investigated whether intravenous amisulpride has an effect on the QTc interval in a formal Thorough QT study (TQT). Methods This was a randomized, double‐blind, placebo and positive‐controlled, four‐way crossover study. Forty healthy Caucasian and Japanese subjects were included to receive a single administration of 5 mg and 40 mg of i.v. amisulpride or a single oral dose of moxifloxacin or placebo per period. Results The therapeutic dose of 5 mg amisulpride was associated with a slight, transient increase in mean ΔΔQTcF, from 2.0 ms prior to dosing to a peak of 5 ms (90% CI: 2.8, 7.1 ms) at 8 min, decreasing to 2.1 ms at 30 min after dosing. The supra‐therapeutic dose of 40 mg given at twice the infusion rate was associated with prolongation in ΔΔQTcF peaking at 23.4 ms (90% CI: 21.3, 25.5 ms) at the end of infusion (8 min), returning below 10 ms within 1.5 h. Assay sensitivity was confirmed; ΔΔQTcF had increased by 12.3 ms (90% CI 10.1, 14.6 ms) at 4 h post‐dose. The PK‐PD relationship revealed no differences between Caucasian and Japanese subjects (p‐value > 0.5). Conclusions Amisulpride has a plasma concentration‐dependent effect on the QTc interval. The proposed therapeutic dose for management of PONV does not lead to a prolongation of QTcF above the threshold of regulatory concern, while such effect could not be excluded for the supratherapeutic dose. PMID:27618796

  20. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623

  1. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Los Arcos, Asier; Vázquez, Juan Sebastián; Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment.

  2. Interval Recognition in Minimal Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatzkin, Merton

    1984-01-01

    Music majors were asked to identify interval when it was either preceded or followed by a tone moving in the same direction. Difficulties in interval recognition in context appear to be an effect not just of placement within the context or of tonality, but of particular combinations of these aspects. (RM)

  3. Trainable fusion rules. II. Small sample-size effects.

    PubMed

    Raudys, Sarunas

    2006-12-01

    Profound theoretical analysis is performed of small-sample properties of trainable fusion rules to determine in which situations neural network ensembles can improve or degrade classification results. We consider small sample effects, specific only to multiple classifiers system design in the two-category case of two important fusion rules: (1) linear weighted average (weighted voting), realized either by the standard Fisher classifier or by the single-layer perceptron, and (2) the non-linear Behavior-Knowledge-Space method. The small sample effects include: (i) training bias, i.e. learning sample size influence on generalization error of the base experts or of the fusion rule, (ii) optimistic biased outputs of the experts (self-boasting effect) and (iii) sample size impact on determining optimal complexity of the fusion rule. Correction terms developed to reduce the self-boasting effect are studied. It is shown that small learning sets increase classification error of the expert classifiers and damage correlation structure between their outputs. If the sizes of learning sets used to develop the expert classifiers are too small, non-trainable fusion rules can outperform more sophisticated trainable ones. A practical technique to fight sample size problems is a noise injection technique. The noise injection reduces the fusion rule's complexity and diminishes the expert's boasting bias.

  4. Cardiorespiratory Effects of One-Legged High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia and Hypoxia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Menz, Verena; Semsch, Mona; Mosbach, Florian; Burtscher, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A higher-than-average maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), is closely associated with decreased morbidity and mortality and improved quality of life and acts as a marker of cardiorespiratory fitness. Although there is no consensus about an optimal training method to enhance VO2max, nevertheless training of small muscle groups and repeated exposure to hypoxia seem to be promising approaches. Therefore, this study was aimed at gaining innovative insights into the effects of small muscle group training in normoxia and hypoxia. Thirteen healthy participants were randomly assigned to the hypoxic (HG, n = 7) or normoxic (NG, n = 6) training group. Both groups completed nine high-intensity interval training sessions in 3 wks. The NG performed the training in normoxia (FiO2: 0.21; ~ 600 m) and the HG in hypoxia (FiO2: 0.126; ~ 4500 m). Each session consisted of 4 x 4 min one-legged cycling at 90% of maximal heart rate separated by 4 min recovery periods. Before and after the intervention period, VO2max and peak power output (Wmax) and responses to submaximal cycling (100 and 150 watts) were assessed in a laboratory cycling test. Peak power output significantly improved within both groups (9.6 ± 4.8% and 12.6 ± 8.9% for HG and NG, respectively) with no significant interaction (p = 0.277). However, VO2max only significantly increased after training in hypoxia from 45.4 ± 10.1 to 50.0 ± 9.8 ml/min/kg (10.8 ± 6.0%; p = 0.002) with no significant interaction (p = 0.146). The maximal O2-pulse improved within the HG and demonstrated a significant interaction (p = 0.040). One-legged cycling training significantly improved VO2max and peak power output. Training under hypoxic conditions may generate greater effects on VO2max than a similar training in normoxia and is considered as a promising training method for improving cardiorespiratory fitness. Key points Nine sessions of one-legged high-intensity interval training significantly improved physical fitness. One-legged hypoxic

  5. Effect of sample stratification on dairy GWAS results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Artificial insemination and genetic selection are major factors contributing to population stratification in dairy cattle. In this study, we analyzed the effect of sample stratification and the effect of stratification correction on results of a dairy genome-wide association study (GWAS)....

  6. Local heterogeneity effects on small-sample worths

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    One of the parameters usually measured in a fast reactor critical assembly is the reactivity associated with inserting a small sample of a material into the core (sample worth). Local heterogeneities introduced by the worth measurement techniques can have a significant effect on the sample worth. Unfortunately, the capability is lacking to model some of the heterogeneity effects associated with the experimental technique traditionally used at ANL (the radial tube technique). It has been suggested that these effects could account for a large portion of what remains of the longstanding central worth discrepancy. The purpose of this paper is to describe a large body of experimental data - most of which has never been reported - that shows the effect of radial tube-related local heterogeneities.

  7. Assessing the matrix effects of hemolyzed samples in bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicola C; Bajaj, Navgeet; Fan, Juan; Wong, Ernest Y K

    2009-09-01

    Validation of LC-MS/MS assays includes an assessment of matrix effects. Hemolysis effect, a special type of matrix effect, can also have an impact on analyte quantitation. In situations where the hemolysis effect is marginal, this can be resolved simply by dilution of hemolyzed samples with plasma prior to analysis. However, in some cases, the impact can be so dramatic that analytes are completely immeasurable. In such situations, modification to the bioanalytical method will be required, including, but not limited to, adjusting the chromatographic conditions to separate interferences present in hemolyzed samples; additional sample clean-up techniques such as protein precipitation in combination with SPE or a change in extraction technique such as from SPE to a liquid-liquid extraction method. Here, we report examples from four bioanalytical methods, where the presence of hemolyzed blood in plasma was found to have an impact on analyte quantitation and a description of the solutions adopted to resolve this are provided.

  8. Intertrial-interval effects on sensitivity (A') and response bias (B") in a temporal discrimination by rats.

    PubMed Central

    Raslear, T G; Shurtleff, D; Simmons, L

    1992-01-01

    Killeen and Fetterman's (1988) behavioral theory of animal timing predicts that decreases in the rate of reinforcement should produce decreases in the sensitivity (A') of temporal discriminations and a decrease in miss and correct rejection rates (decrease in bias toward "long" responses). Eight rats were trained on a 10- versus 0.1-s temporal discrimination with an intertrial interval of 5 s and were subsequently tested on probe days on the same discrimination with intertrial intervals of 1, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 s. The rate of reinforcement declined for all animals as intertrial interval increased. Although sensitivity (A') decreased with increasing intertrial interval, all rats showed an increase in bias to make long responses. PMID:1447544

  9. Effects of interstimulus intervals on behavioral, heart rate, and event-related potential indices of infant engagement and sustained attention

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wanze; Richards, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Maximizing infant attention to stimulus presentation during an EEG or ERP experiment is important for making valid inferences about the neural correlates of infant cognition. The present study examined the effects of stimulus presentation interstimulus interval (ISI) on behavioral and physiological indices of infant attention including infants’ fixation to visual presentation, the amount of heart rate (HR) change during sustained attention, and ERP components. This study compared an ISI that is typically used in infant EEG/ERP studies (e.g., 1,500–2,000 ms) with two shorter durations (400–600 ms and 600–1,000 ms). Thirty-six infants were tested cross-sectionally at 3, 4.5, and 6 months. It was found that using the short (400–600 ms) and medium (600–1,000 ms) ISIs resulted in more visually fixated trials and reduced frequency of fixation disengagement per experimental block. We also found larger HR changes during sustained attention to both of the shorter ISIs compared with the long ISI, and larger ERP responses when using the medium ISI compared to using the short and long ISIs. These data suggest that utilizing an optimal ISI (e.g., 600– 1,000 ms), which increases the presentation complexity and provides sufficient time for information processing, can promote infant engagement and sustained attention during stimulus presentation. PMID:27159263

  10. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on People Living with Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Wormgoor, Shohn G; Dalleck, Lance C; Zinn, Caryn; Harris, Nigel K

    2017-03-30

    People with type 2 diabetes typically present with comorbidities, such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose, obesity and decreased fitness, all contributive to increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Determination of effective exercise modalities for the management of such complications is important. One such modality is high-intensity interval training (HIIT). To conduct the review, PubMed and EBSCOHost databases were searched through June 1, 2016, for all HIIT intervention studies conducted in people living with type 2 diabetes. Thereafter, the central characteristics of HIIT were analyzed to obtain a broader understanding of the cardiometabolic benefits achievable by HIIT. Fourteen studies were included for review, but the heterogeneity of the participants with type 2 diabetes, the training equipment and HIIT parameters, accompanied by variations in supervision, dietary advice and medications, prevented direct comparisons. However HIIT, regardless of the specific parameters employed, was a suitable option in pursuing improved glycemic control, body composition, aerobic fitness, blood pressure and lipidemia measures in individuals with type 2 diabetes. HIIT is a therapy with at least equivalent benefit to moderate-intensity continuous training; hence, HIIT should be considered when prescribing exercise interventions for people living with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Sprint interval training (SIT) is an effective method to maintain cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and glucose homeostasis in Scottish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martin, R; Baker, JS; Young, J; Sculthorpe, N; Grace, FM

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the physiological impact of a school based sprint interval training (SIT) intervention in replacement of standard physical education (SPE) class on cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) and glucose homeostasis during the semester following summer vacation. Participants (n=49) were randomly allocated to either intervention (SIT; n=26, aged 16.9 ± 0.3 yrs) or control group who underwent standard physical education (SPE; n=23, aged 16.8 ± 0.6 yrs). CRF (VO2max) and glucose homeostasis were obtained prior-to and following 7 weeks of SIT exercise. Significant group x time interaction was observed for CRF (P < 0.01) with non-significant trends for fasting insulin (P= 0.08), and HOMA-IR (P=0.06). CRF decreased (P < 0.01) in SPE such that POST intervention CRF was significantly lower (P< 0.05) in SPE. Fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.01), insulin (P< 0.01) and HOMA-IR (P< 0.01) increased significantly amongst SPE. The main finding of the present study is that 7-weeks of SIT exercise is an effective method of maintaining (but not improving) CRF and fasting insulin homeostasis amongst school-going adolescents. SIT exercise demonstrates potential as a time efficient physiological adjunct to standard PE class in order to maintain CRF during the school term. PMID:26681833

  12. Effects of practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV across 3- and 6-month intervals.

    PubMed

    Estevis, Eduardo; Basso, Michael R; Combs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54 participants (age M = 20.9; education M = 14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M = 111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6 points, respectively, and increases were similar regardless of whether the re-examination occurred over 3- or 6-month intervals. Reliable change indices (RCI) were computed using the simple difference and bivariate regression methods, providing estimated base rates of change across time. The regression method provided more accurate estimates of reliable change than did the simple difference between baseline and follow-up scores. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-IV results in significant score increments. These gains reflect practice effects instead of genuine intellectual changes, which may lead to errors in clinical judgment.

  13. High-intensity interval training on an aquatic treadmill in adults with osteoarthritis: effect on pain, balance, function, and mobility.

    PubMed

    Bressel, Eadric; Wing, Jessica E; Miller, Andrew I; Dolny, Dennis G

    2014-08-01

    Although aquatic exercise is considered a potentially effective treatment intervention for people with osteoarthritis (OA), previous research has focused primarily on calisthenics in a shallow pool with the inherent limitations on regulating exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficacy of a 6-week aquatic treadmill exercise program on measures of pain, balance, function, and mobility. Eighteen participants (age = 64.5 ± 10.2 years) with knee OA completed a non-exercise control period followed by a 6-week exercise period. Outcome measures included visual analog scales for pain, posturography for balance, sit-to-stand test for function, and a 10-m walk test for mobility. The exercise protocol included balance training and high-intensity interval training (HIT) in an aquatic treadmill using water jets to destabilize while standing and achieve high ratings of perceived exertion (14-19) while walking. In comparison with pretests, participants displayed reduced joint pain (pre = 50.3 ± 24.8 mm vs. post = 15.8 ± 10.6 mm), improved balance (equilibrium pre = 66.6 ± 11.0 vs. post = 73.5 ± 7.1), function (rising index pre = 0.49 ± 0.19% vs. post = 0.33 ± 0.11%), and mobility (walk pre = 8.6 ± 1.4 s vs. post = 7.8 ± 1.1 s) after participating in the exercise protocol (p = 0.03-0.001). The same benefits were not observed after the non-exercise control period. Adherence to the exercise protocol was exceptional and no participants reported adverse effects, suggesting that aquatic treadmill exercise that incorporates balance and HIT training was well tolerated by patients with OA and may be effective at managing symptoms of OA.

  14. Limited Effects of Endurance or Interval Training on Visceral Adipose Tissue and Systemic Inflammation in Sedentary Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Joshua H. F.; Collins, Blake E. G.; Adams, David R.; Robergs, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Limited data exists for the effects of sprint-interval training (SIT) and endurance training (ET) on total body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue, and plasma inflammation. Moreover, whether “active” or “passive” recovery in SIT provides a differential effect on these measures remains uncertain. Methods. Sedentary middle-aged men (n = 62; 49.5 ± 5.8 y; 29.7 ± 3.7 kg·m2) underwent abdominal computed tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, venepuncture, and exercise testing before and after the interventions, which included the following: 12 wks 3 d·wk−1 ET (n = 15; 50–60 min cycling; 80% HRmax), SIT (4–10 × 30 s sprint efforts) with passive (P-SIT; n = 15) or active recovery (A-SIT; n = 15); or nonexercise control condition (CON; n = 14). Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, whole-body and visceral fat mass, and plasma systemic inflammation were examined. Results. Compared to CON, significant increases in interpolated power output (P-SIT, P < 0.001; ET, P = 0.012; A-SIT, P = 0.041) and test duration (P-SIT, P = 0.001; ET, P = 0.012; A-SIT, P = 0.046) occurred after training. Final VO2 consumption was increased after P-SIT only (P < 0.001). Despite >90% exercise compliance, there was no change in whole-body or visceral fat mass or plasma inflammation (P > 0.05). Conclusion. In sedentary middle-aged men, SIT was a time-effective alternative to ET in facilitating conditioning responses yet was ineffective in altering body composition and plasma inflammation, and compared to passive recovery, evidenced diminished conditioning responses when employing active recovery. PMID:27777795

  15. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Simpson, Jeremy A; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P < 0.05), and promoted a 20% (P<0.05) increase in the left ventricular capillary/fibre ratio, an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein (P<0.05), and a decrease in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha protein content (P<0.05). In contrast, HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (P<0.05) and a 20% decrease in cross sectional area (P<0.05). HIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (P<0.05), in the absence of concomitant angiogenesis, strongly suggesting pathological cardiac remodeling. The current data support the longstanding belief in the effectiveness of ET in hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.

  16. High Intensity Interval and Endurance Training Have Opposing Effects on Markers of Heart Failure and Cardiac Remodeling in Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Tanya M.; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L.; Simpson, Jeremy A.; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P < 0.05), and promoted a 20% (P<0.05) increase in the left ventricular capillary/fibre ratio, an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein (P<0.05), and a decrease in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha protein content (P<0.05). In contrast, HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (P<0.05) and a 20% decrease in cross sectional area (P<0.05). HIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (P<0.05), in the absence of concomitant angiogenesis, strongly suggesting pathological cardiac remodeling. The current data support the longstanding belief in the effectiveness of ET in hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease. PMID:25803693

  17. Effect of Minimum Cell Sizes and Confidence Interval Sizes for Special Education Subgroups on School-Level AYP Determinations. Synthesis Report 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Mary Ann; Gong, Brian; Marion, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses three questions: First, considering the full group of students and the special education subgroup, what is the likely effect of minimum cell size and confidence interval size on school-level Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) determinations? Second, what effects do the changing minimum cell sizes have on inclusion of special…

  18. Estimating the effectiveness of further sampling in species inventories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keating, K.A.; Quinn, J.F.; Ivie, M.A.; Ivie, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    Estimators of the number of additional species expected in the next ??n samples offer a potentially important tool for improving cost-effectiveness of species inventories but are largely untested. We used Monte Carlo methods to compare 11 such estimators, across a range of community structures and sampling regimes, and validated our results, where possible, using empirical data from vascular plant and beetle inventories from Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. We found that B. Efron and R. Thisted's 1976 negative binomial estimator was most robust to differences in community structure and that it was among the most accurate estimators when sampling was from model communities with structures resembling the large, heterogeneous communities that are the likely targets of major inventory efforts. Other estimators may be preferred under specific conditions, however. For example, when sampling was from model communities with highly even species-abundance distributions, estimates based on the Michaelis-Menten model were most accurate; when sampling was from moderately even model communities with S=10 species or communities with highly uneven species-abundance distributions, estimates based on Gleason's (1922) species-area model were most accurate. We suggest that use of such methods in species inventories can help improve cost-effectiveness by providing an objective basis for redirecting sampling to more-productive sites, methods, or time periods as the expectation of detecting additional species becomes unacceptably low.

  19. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training on the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng Hsiu; Lee, Chin Pang; Hsu, Shih Chieh; Chang, Chia Ming; Chen, Ching Yen

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and for controlling blood sugar levels and hypertension. In addition, patient acceptance of HIIT may improve adherence to exercise programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of HIIT for improving the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia. Methods Twenty patients attending a psychiatric day care unit volunteered for an 8-week program of HIIT. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured weekly. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score was recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores were recorded every 2 weeks. Results Statistically significant changes occurred in the physical and mental parameters measured in the 18 patients who completed the study. Body weight, body mass index, resting heart rate, and pulse pressure decreased significantly. Mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly. Mental health scores improved, with the Negative Scale score decreasing from 31.17±5.95 to 27.78±3.57 (P<0.01) and the General Psychopathology Scale score from 14.28±2.16 to 13.00±1.72 (P<0.01). Positive Scale scores changed, but not significantly, from 12.28±2.27 to 12.33±2.00 (P=0.729). Scores on the BDI (from 19.56±15.28 to 15.89±14.33, P<0.001) and BAI (from 13.67±13.83 to 10.06±11.18, P=0.003) both improved significantly. Conclusion This study demonstrated that HIIT has positive effects on the physical and mental health of patients with chronic schizophrenia. PMID:26060400

  20. The Effect of CardioWaves Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure, Resting Heart Rate, and Mind-Body Wellness

    PubMed Central

    NIELSON, CAMILLA M.; LOCKHART, BARBARA D.; HAGER, RONALD L.; GEORGE, JAMES D.; EGGETT, DENNIS L.; STEFFEN, PATRICK R.; MITCHELL, ULRIKE H.; BAILEY, BRUCE W.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study to examine the effects of CardioWaves interval training (CWIT) and continuous training (CT) on resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness. Fifty-two normotensive (blood pressure <120/80 mmHg), pre-hypertensive (120–139/80–89 mmHg), and hypertensive (>140/90 mmHg) participants were randomly assigned and equally divided between the CWIT and CT groups. Both groups participated in the assigned exercise protocol 30 minutes per day, four days per week for eight weeks. Resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness were measured pre- and post-intervention. A total of 47 participants (15 females and 32 males) were included in the analysis. The CWIT group had a non-significant trend of reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) while the CT group had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.01) and total SBP (p = 0.01) and a non-significant decrease in DBP. With both groups combined, the female participants had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.002), asleep SBP (p = 0.01), total SBP (p = 0.003), awake DBP (p = 0.02), and total DBP (p = 0.05). The male participants had an increase in SBP and DBP with total DBP showing a statistically significant increase (p = 0.05). Neither group had a consistent change in resting heart rate. Both groups showed improved mind-body wellness. CWIT and CT reduced resting blood pressure, with CT having a greater effect. Resting heart rate did not change in either group. Additionally, both CWIT and CT improved mind-body wellness. PMID:27182421

  1. The Effect of CardioWaves Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure, Resting Heart Rate, and Mind-Body Wellness.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Camilla M; Lockhart, Barbara D; Hager, Ronald L; George, James D; Eggett, Dennis L; Steffen, Patrick R; Mitchell, Ulrike H; Bailey, Bruce W

    An experimental study to examine the effects of CardioWaves interval training (CWIT) and continuous training (CT) on resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness. Fifty-two normotensive (blood pressure <120/80 mmHg), pre-hypertensive (120-139/80-89 mmHg), and hypertensive (>140/90 mmHg) participants were randomly assigned and equally divided between the CWIT and CT groups. Both groups participated in the assigned exercise protocol 30 minutes per day, four days per week for eight weeks. Resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness were measured pre- and post-intervention. A total of 47 participants (15 females and 32 males) were included in the analysis. The CWIT group had a non-significant trend of reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) while the CT group had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.01) and total SBP (p = 0.01) and a non-significant decrease in DBP. With both groups combined, the female participants had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.002), asleep SBP (p = 0.01), total SBP (p = 0.003), awake DBP (p = 0.02), and total DBP (p = 0.05). The male participants had an increase in SBP and DBP with total DBP showing a statistically significant increase (p = 0.05). Neither group had a consistent change in resting heart rate. Both groups showed improved mind-body wellness. CWIT and CT reduced resting blood pressure, with CT having a greater effect. Resting heart rate did not change in either group. Additionally, both CWIT and CT improved mind-body wellness.

  2. Interval arithmetic in calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairbekova, Gaziza; Mazakov, Talgat; Djomartova, Sholpan; Nugmanova, Salima

    2016-10-01

    Interval arithmetic is the mathematical structure, which for real intervals defines operations analogous to ordinary arithmetic ones. This field of mathematics is also called interval analysis or interval calculations. The given math model is convenient for investigating various applied objects: the quantities, the approximate values of which are known; the quantities obtained during calculations, the values of which are not exact because of rounding errors; random quantities. As a whole, the idea of interval calculations is the use of intervals as basic data objects. In this paper, we considered the definition of interval mathematics, investigated its properties, proved a theorem, and showed the efficiency of the new interval arithmetic. Besides, we briefly reviewed the works devoted to interval analysis and observed basic tendencies of development of integral analysis and interval calculations.

  3. Determination of the effective sample thickness via radiative capture

    DOE PAGES

    Hurst, A. M.; Summers, N. C.; Szentmiklosi, L.; ...

    2015-09-14

    Our procedure for determining the effective thickness of non-uniform irregular-shaped samples via radiative capture is described. In this technique, partial γ-ray production cross sections of a compound nucleus produced in a neutron-capture reaction are measured using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis and compared to their corresponding standardized absolute values. For the low-energy transitions, the measured cross sections are lower than their standard values due to significant photoelectric absorption of the γ rays within the bulk-sample volume itself. Using standard theoretical techniques, the amount of γ-ray self absorption and neutron self shielding can then be calculated by iteratively varying the sample thicknessmore » until the observed cross sections converge with the known standards. The overall attenuation provides a measure of the effective sample thickness illuminated by the neutron beam. This procedure is illustrated through radiative neutron capture using powdered oxide samples comprising enriched 186W and 182W from which their tungsten-equivalent effective thicknesses are deduced to be 0.077(3) mm and 0.042(8) mm, respectively.« less

  4. Determination of the effective sample thickness via radiative capture

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, A. M.; Summers, N. C.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Firestone, R. B.; Basunia, M. S.; Escher, J. E.; Sleaford, B. W.

    2015-09-14

    Our procedure for determining the effective thickness of non-uniform irregular-shaped samples via radiative capture is described. In this technique, partial γ-ray production cross sections of a compound nucleus produced in a neutron-capture reaction are measured using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis and compared to their corresponding standardized absolute values. For the low-energy transitions, the measured cross sections are lower than their standard values due to significant photoelectric absorption of the γ rays within the bulk-sample volume itself. Using standard theoretical techniques, the amount of γ-ray self absorption and neutron self shielding can then be calculated by iteratively varying the sample thickness until the observed cross sections converge with the known standards. The overall attenuation provides a measure of the effective sample thickness illuminated by the neutron beam. This procedure is illustrated through radiative neutron capture using powdered oxide samples comprising enriched 186W and 182W from which their tungsten-equivalent effective thicknesses are deduced to be 0.077(3) mm and 0.042(8) mm, respectively.

  5. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Fenning, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    The current review clarifies the cardiometabolic health effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in adults. A systematic search (PubMed) examining HIIT and cardiometabolic health markers was completed on 15 October 2015. Sixty-five intervention studies were included for review and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Downs and Black score. Studies were classified by intervention duration and body mass index classification. Outcomes with at least 5 effect sizes were synthesised using a random-effects meta-analysis of the standardised mean difference (SMD) in cardiometabolic health markers (baseline to postintervention) using Review Manager 5.3. Short-term (ST) HIIT (<12 weeks) significantly improved maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max; SMD 0.74, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.12; p<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (DBP; SMD -0.52, 95% CI -0.89 to -0.16; p<0.01) and fasting glucose (SMD -0.35, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.09; p<0.01) in overweight/obese populations. Long-term (LT) HIIT (≥12 weeks) significantly improved waist circumference (SMD -0.20, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.01; p<0.05), % body fat (SMD -0.40, 95% CI -0.74 to -0.06; p<0.05), VO2 max (SMD 1.20, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.83; p<0.001), resting heart rate (SMD -0.33, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.09; p<0.01), systolic blood pressure (SMD -0.35, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.09; p<0.01) and DBP (SMD -0.38, 95% CI -0.65 to -0.10; p<0.01) in overweight/obese populations. HIIT demonstrated no effect on insulin, lipid profile, C reactive protein or interleukin 6 in overweight/obese populations. In normal weight populations, ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT significantly improved VO2 max, but no other significant effects were observed. Current evidence suggests that ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT can increase VO2 max and improve some cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese populations.

  6. Peer effects on obesity in a sample of European children.

    PubMed

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A; Bammann, Karin; Eiben, Gabriele; Kourides, Yiannis; Kovács, Éva; Lauria, Fabio; Konstabel, Kenn; Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M; Vyncke, Krishna; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzes peer effects on childhood obesity using data from the first two waves of the IDEFICS study, which applies several anthropometric and other measures of fatness to approximately 14,000 children aged two to nine participating in both waves in 16 regions of eight European countries. Peers are defined as same-sex children in the same school and age group. The results show that peer effects do exist in this European sample but that they differ among both regions and different fatness measures. Peer effects are larger in Spain, Italy, and Cyprus--the more collectivist regions in our sample--while waist circumference generally gives rise to larger peer effects than BMI. We also provide evidence that parental misperceptions of their own children's weight goes hand in hand with fatter peer groups, supporting the notion that in making such assessments, parents compare their children's weight with that of friends and schoolmates.

  7. Comparison of dechlorination rates for field DNAPL vs synthetic samples: effect of sample matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Sakulchaicharoen, N.; Herrera, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Nanometals have received significant attention in recent years due to their ability to rapidly destroy numerous priority source zone contaminants in controlled laboratory studies. This has led to great optimism surrounding nanometal particle injection for insitu remediation. Reported dechlorination rates vary widely among different investigators. These differences have been ascribed to differences in the iron types (granular, micro, or nano-sized iron), matrix solution chemistry and the morphology of the nZVI surface. Among these, the effects of solution chemistry on rates of reductive dechlorination of various chlorinated compounds have been investigated in several short-term laboratory studies. Variables investigated include the effect of anions or groundwater solutes such as SO4-2, Cl-, NO3-, pH, natural organic matters (NOM), surfactant, and humic acid on dechlorination reaction of various chlorinated compounds such as TCE, carbon tetrachloride (CT), and chloroform (CF). These studies have normally centered on the assessment of nZVI reactivity toward dechlorination of an isolated individual contaminant spiked into a ground water sample under ideal conditions, with limited work conducted using real field samples. In this work, the DNAPL used for the dechlorination study was obtained from a contaminatied site. This approach was selected to adequately simulate a condition where the nZVI suspension was in direct contact with DNAPL and to isolate the dechlorination activity shown by the nZVI from the groundwater matrix effects. An ideal system "synthetic DNAPL" composed of a mixture of chlorinated compounds mimicking the composition of the actual DNAPL was also dechlorinated to evaluate the DNAPL "matrix effect" on NZVI dechlorination activity. This approach allowed us to evaluate the effect of the presence of different types of organic compounds (volatile fatty acids and humic acids) found in the actual DNAPL on nZVI dechlorination activity. This presentation will

  8. The Effect of Asymmetrical Sample Training on Retention Functions for Hedonic Samples in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sabrina; Santi, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Rats were trained in a symbolic delayed matching-to-sample task to discriminate sample stimuli that consisted of the presence of food or the absence of food. Asymmetrical sample training was provided in which one group was initially trained with only the food sample and the other group was initially trained with only the no-food sample. In…

  9. The effect of high intensity interval training on cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Mostafa; Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Asgari, Ali Reza; Khoshbaten, Ali; Rajabi, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Sobhani, Vahid; Shakibaee, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine whether short term high intensity interval training (HIIT) could protect the heart against ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury; and if so, to evaluate how long the exercise-associated protection can be lasted. Sixty-three rats were randomly assigned into sedentary (n = 15), sham (n = 7), and exercise groups (n = 41). Rats in the exercise groups performed 5 consecutive days of HIIT on treadmill: 5 min warm up with 50 % VO2max, 6×2 min with 95-105 % VO2max (about 40 to 45 m/min), 5×2 min recovery with 65-75 % VO2max (about 28 to 32 m/min), and 3 min cool down with 50 % VO2max, all at 0 % grade. Animals exposed to an in vivo cardiac IR surgery, performed at days 1, 7, and 14 following the final exercise session. Ischemia-induced arrhythmias, myocardial infarct size (IS), plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities were measured in all animals. Compared to sedentary rats, exercised animals sustained less IR injury as evidenced by a lower size of infarction and lower levels of LDH and CK at day one and day 7 post exercise. In comparison of sedentary group, IS significantly decreased in EX-IR1 and EX-IR7 groups (50 and 35 %, respectively), but not in EX-IR14 group (19 %). The exercise-induced cardioprotection disappeared 14 days following exercise cessation. There were no significant changes in ischemia-induced arrhythmia between exercised and sedentary rats. The results clearly demonstrate that HIIT protects the heart against myocardial IR injury. This protective effect can be sustained for at least one week following the cessation of the training. PMID:26417361

  10. Increased Autoimmune Diabetes in pIgR-Deficient NOD Mice Is Due to a "Hitchhiking" Interval that Refines the Genetic Effect of Idd5.4

    PubMed Central

    Simpfendorfer, Kim R.; Strugnell, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Selective breeding to introduce a gene mutation from one mouse strain onto the genetic background of another strain invariably produces “hitchhiking” (i.e. flanking) genomic intervals, which may independently affect a disease trait of interest. To investigate a role for the polymeric Ig receptor in autoimmune diabetes, a congenic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain was generated that harbors a Pigr null allele derived from C57BL/6 (B6) mice. These pIgR-deficient NOD mice exhibited increased serum IgA along with an increased diabetes incidence. However, the Pigr null allele was encompassed by a relatively large “hitchhiking” genomic interval that was derived from B6 mice and overlaps Idd5.4, a susceptibility locus for autoimmune diabetes. Additional congenic NOD mouse strains, harboring smaller B6-derived intervals, confirmed Idd5.4 independently of the other three known susceptibility loci on chromosome 1, and further localized Idd5.4 to an interval proximal to Pigr. Moreover, these congenic NOD mice showed that B6 mice harbor a more diabetogenic allele than NOD mice for this locus. The smallest B6-derived interval encompassing the Pigr null allele may, however, confer a small degree of protection against diabetes, but this protection appears to be dependent on the absence of the diabetogenic B6 allele for Idd5.4. This study provides another example of the potential hidden effects of “hitchhiking" genomic intervals and how such intervals can be used to localize disease susceptibility loci. PMID:25835383

  11. Testing the Effect of Refrigerated Storage on Testate Amoeba Samples.

    PubMed

    Mazei, Yuri; Chernyshov, Viktor; Tsyganov, Andrey N; Payne, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Samples for analysis of testate amoebae and other protists frequently need to be stored for many months before microscopy. This storage commonly involves refrigeration, but we know that testate amoebae can live and reproduce in these conditions. This raises the question: do communities change during storage and how might this effect the data produced? We analysed Sphagnum samples over a 16-week period to address this question. Our results show no evidence for detectable change. This is a reassuring result supporting much current practice although we suggest that frozen storage or the addition of a fixative may be worthwhile precautions where feasible.

  12. The Effect of Geographical Scale of Sampling on DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Bergsten, Johannes; Bilton, David T.; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Elliott, Miranda; Monaghan, Michael T.; Balke, Michael; Hendrich, Lars; Geijer, Joja; Herrmann, Jan; Foster, Garth N.; Ribera, Ignacio; Nilsson, Anders N.; Barraclough, Timothy G.; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2012-01-01

    Eight years after DNA barcoding was formally proposed on a large scale, CO1 sequences are rapidly accumulating from around the world. While studies to date have mostly targeted local or regional species assemblages, the recent launch of the global iBOL project (International Barcode of Life), highlights the need to understand the effects of geographical scale on Barcoding's goals. Sampling has been central in the debate on DNA Barcoding, but the effect of the geographical scale of sampling has not yet been thoroughly and explicitly tested with empirical data. Here, we present a CO1 data set of aquatic predaceous diving beetles of the tribe Agabini, sampled throughout Europe, and use it to investigate how the geographic scale of sampling affects 1) the estimated intraspecific variation of species, 2) the genetic distance to the most closely related heterospecific, 3) the ratio of intraspecific and interspecific variation, 4) the frequency of taxonomically recognized species found to be monophyletic, and 5) query identification performance based on 6 different species assignment methods. Intraspecific variation was significantly correlated with the geographical scale of sampling (R-square = 0.7), and more than half of the species with 10 or more sampled individuals (N = 29) showed higher intraspecific variation than 1% sequence divergence. In contrast, the distance to the closest heterospecific showed a significant decrease with increasing geographical scale of sampling. The average genetic distance dropped from > 7% for samples within 1 km, to < 3.5% for samples up to > 6000 km apart. Over a third of the species were not monophyletic, and the proportion increased through locally, nationally, regionally, and continentally restricted subsets of the data. The success of identifying queries decreased with increasing spatial scale of sampling; liberal methods declined from 100% to around 90%, whereas strict methods dropped to below 50% at continental scales. The

  13. Confidence interval estimation for an empirical model quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, we address uncertainty analysis for a model, presented in a companion paper, quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance. To achieve this we present several methods for confidence interval estimation. Estimation ...

  14. Effects of trans-acting Genetic Modifiers on Meiotic Recombination Across the a1–sh2 Interval of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Schnable, Patrick S.

    2006-01-01

    Meiotic recombination rates are potentially affected by cis- and trans-acting factors, i.e., genotype-specific modifiers that do or do not reside in the recombining interval, respectively. Effects of trans modifiers on recombination across the ∼140-kb maize a1–sh2 interval of chromosome 3L were studied in the absence of polymorphic cis factors in three genetically diverse backgrounds into which a sequence-identical a1–sh2 interval had been introgressed. Genetic distances across a1–sh2 varied twofold among genetic backgrounds. Although the existence of regions exhibiting high and low rates of recombination (hot and cold spots, respectively) was conserved across backgrounds, the absolute rates of recombination in these sequence-identical regions differed significantly among backgrounds. In addition, an intergenic hot spot had a higher rate of recombination as compared to the genome average rate of recombination in one background and not in another. Recombination rates across two genetic intervals on chromosome 1 did not exhibit the same relationships among backgrounds as was observed in a1–sh2. This suggests that at least some detected trans-acting factors do not equally affect recombination across the genome. This study establishes that trans modifier(s) polymorphic among genetic backgrounds can increase and decrease recombination in both genic and intergenic regions over relatively small genetic and physical intervals. PMID:16816431

  15. Evaluate the Effect of Commercially Available Denture Cleansers on Surface Hardness and Roughness of Denture Liners at Various Time Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Hilal S.; Singh, Sumeet; Hari, Prasad A.; Amarnath, G. S.; Kundapur, Vinaya; Pasha, Naveed; Anand, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: Chemical cleansing by denture cleansers is first choice for denture plaque control. The most common problems while using denture cleansers are hardening, porosity, odor sorption, water sorption, solubility, and colour change, bacterial and fungal growth. Chemical cleansing procedures have been found to have an effect on the physical and mechanical properties of denture liners. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available denture cleansers on surface hardness and roughness of acrylic and silicon based denture liners at various time interval. Method: Two autopolymerising denture liners Kooliner (acrylic) and GC reline soft (silicon) were tested with two commercially available denture cleansers, polident and efferdent plus. Total of 120 specimens were prepared and all the specimens were divided into six groups based on the relining materials and denture cleansers used. Surface hardness and surface roughness was tested using Shore A durometer and profilometer respectively at the end of day 1, day 7, day 30 and day 90. All the specimens were stored in artificial saliva throughout the study. Cleanser solution was prepared daily by adding Polident and Efferdent plus denture cleanser tablet into 250ml of enough very warm (not hot) water. Acrylic and silicon liner groups were cleansed in a solution of denture cleanser and water for 15 minutes daily, rinsed with water and stored in artificial saliva at room temperature. The data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and independent t-test. Result: The acrylic soft lining showed gradual hardening and increase in surface roughness after immersion in denture cleanser and also with time. Acrylic liner material showed maximum hardness and roughness with Polident followed by Efferdent plus and water (control group). Silicone lining material showed a slight difference in hardness and roughness between the test group and control group. There was a slight increase in hardness in

  16. Effect of calving interval and parity on milk yield per feeding day in Danish commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, J O; Fadel, J G; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T; Gaillard, C; Kebreab, E

    2016-01-01

    The idea of managing cows for extended lactations rather than lactations of the traditional length of 1 yr primarily arose from observations of increasing problems with infertility and cows being dried off with high milk yields. However, it is vital for the success of extended lactation practices that cows are able to maintain milk yield per feeding day when the length of the calving interval (CInt) is increased. Milk yield per feeding day is defined as the cumulated lactation milk yield divided by the sum of days between 2 consecutive calvings. The main objective of this study was to investigate the milk production of cows managed for lactations of different lengths, and the primary aim was to investigate the relationship between CInt, parity, and milk yield. Five measurements of milk yield were used: energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield per feeding day, ECM yield per lactating day, cumulative ECM yield during the first 305 d of lactation, as well as ECM yield per day during early and late lactation. The analyses were based on a total of 1,379 completed lactations from cows calving between January 2007 and May 2013 in 4 Danish commercial dairy herds managed for extended lactation for several years. Herd-average CInt length ranged from 414 to 521 d. The herds had Holstein, Jersey, or crosses between Holstein, Jersey, and Red Danish cows with average milk yields ranging from 7,644 to 11,286 kg of ECM per cow per year. A significant effect of the CInt was noted on all 5 measurements of milk yield, and this effect interacted with parity for ECM per feeding day, ECM per lactating day and ECM per day during late lactation. The results showed that cows were at least able to produce equivalent ECM per feeding day with increasing CInt, and that first- and second-parity cows maintained ECM per lactating day. Cows with a CInt between 17 and 19 mo produced 476 kg of ECM more during the first 305 d compared with cows with a CInt of less than 13 mo. Furthermore, early

  17. Effects of within-Class Differences in Sample Responding on Acquired Sample Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urcuioli, Peter J.; Vasconcelos, Maarco

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether acquired sample equivalence in many-to-one matching was affected by variation in sample-response requirements. In each experiment, pigeons responded on either identical or different response schedules to the sample stimuli that occasioned the same reinforced comparison choice (i.e., to the within-class samples).…

  18. Effect of creatine supplementation during the last week of gestation on birth intervals, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that creatine supplementation would reduce birth intervals, stillbirth rate, and preweaning survival in pigs because of its reported improvement of athletic performance in humans. In Exp. 1, gilts (n = 42) and first parity sows (n = 75) were mated at estrus. Beginning on d 110 of ges...

  19. Effect of the revisit interval and temporal upscaling methods on the accuracy of remotely sensed evapotranspiration estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Joseph G.; Anderson, Martha C.; Kustas, William P.; Cammalleri, Carmelo

    2017-01-01

    Accurate spatially distributed estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ET) derived from remotely sensed data are critical to a broad range of practical and operational applications. However, due to lengthy return intervals and cloud cover, data acquisition is not continuous over time, particularly for satellite sensors operating at medium ( ˜ 100 m) or finer resolutions. To fill the data gaps between clear-sky data acquisitions, interpolation methods that take advantage of the relationship between ET and other environmental properties that can be continuously monitored are often used. This study sought to evaluate the accuracy of this approach, which is commonly referred to as temporal upscaling, as a function of satellite revisit interval. Using data collected at 20 Ameriflux sites distributed throughout the contiguous United States and representing four distinct land cover types (cropland, grassland, forest, and open-canopy) as a proxy for perfect retrievals on satellite overpass dates, this study assesses daily ET estimates derived using five different reference quantities (incident solar radiation, net radiation, available energy, reference ET, and equilibrium latent heat flux) and three different interpolation methods (linear, cubic spline, and Hermite spline). Not only did the analyses find that the temporal autocorrelation, i.e., persistence, of all of the reference quantities was short, it also found that those land cover types with the greatest ET exhibited the least persistence. This carries over to the error associated with both the various scaled quantities and flux estimates. In terms of both the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE), the errors increased rapidly with increasing return interval following a logarithmic relationship. Again, those land cover types with the greatest ET showed the largest errors. Moreover, using a threshold of 20 % relative error, this study indicates that a return interval of no more than 5 days is

  20. Storage Effects on Sample Integrity of Environmental Surface Sampling Specimens with Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Perry, K Allison; O'Connell, Heather A; Rose, Laura J; Noble-Wang, Judith A; Arduino, Matthew J

    The effect of packaging, shipping temperatures and storage times on recovery of Bacillus anthracis. Sterne spores from swabs was investigated. Macrofoam swabs were pre-moistened, inoculated with Bacillus anthracis spores, and packaged in primary containment or secondary containment before storage at -15°C, 5°C, 21°C, or 35°C for 0-7 days. Swabs were processed according to validated Centers for Disease Control/Laboratory Response Network culture protocols, and the percent recovery relative to a reference sample (T0) was determined for each variable. No differences were observed in recovery between swabs held at -15° and 5°C, (p ≥ 0.23). These two temperatures provided significantly better recovery than swabs held at 21°C or 35°C (all 7 days pooled, p ≤ 0.04). The percent recovery at 5°C was not significantly different if processed on days 1, 2 or 4, but was significantly lower on day 7 (day 2 vs. 7, 5°C, 10(2), p=0.03). Secondary containment provided significantly better percent recovery than primary containment, regardless of storage time (5°C data, p ≤ 0.008). The integrity of environmental swab samples containing Bacillus anthracis spores shipped in secondary containment was maintained when stored at -15°C or 5°C and processed within 4 days to yield the optimum percent recovery of spores.

  1. Differential Effects of Continuous and Interval Exercise Training on the Atherogenic Index of Plasma in the Non-Obese Young Male

    PubMed Central

    Ezeukwu, Antoninus O; Agwubike, Elias O; Uadia, Patrick O

    2015-01-01

    Background The process of atherogenicity is known to be influenced by exercise. However, appropriate exercise stimulus necessary to generate the response and adaptation in sedentary non-obese individuals has not yet been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of an 8-week continuous training and corresponding interval training on the atherogenic index of plasma in sedentary Nigerian males. Methods Overall, there were 54 male university students that participated in our study, which used a pretest- posttest control group design. Participants (18 males per group) were assigned into continuous, interval and control groups respectively. During the first two weeks, training was done 3 times weekly for 30 minutes each day, and was increased by 5 minutes every 2 weeks. Continuous training was done at 70-84% of heart rate reserve. Interval training was done at 70-84%/30-39% heart rate reserve in 1:2 minutes work/rest intervals, respectively. The control group did not participate in the training. Data collected were analysed using descriptive, paired t-test, analysis of covariance and Bonferroni post-hoc analysis. Results Young sedentary non-obese males were at high risk (atherogenic index of plasma > 0.24) of cardiovascular diseases/conditions. However, continuous training led to significant reductions (p = 0.002) in the atherogenic index of plasma. In contrast, non-significant increase (p = 0.084) followed interval training. After controlling for baseline values, only continuous training still had significant effects on atherogenic index of plasma when compared with other groups. Conclusions Continuous training of vigorous intensity is better than a corresponding interval training protocol as a natural anti-atherogenic method of reducing risk of cardiovascular event in sedentary non-obese males. PMID:27122890

  2. Effects of Mesh Size on Sieved Samples of Corophium volutator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crewe, Tara L.; Hamilton, Diana J.; Diamond, Antony W.

    2001-08-01

    Corophium volutator (Pallas), gammaridean amphipods found on intertidal mudflats, are frequently collected in mud samples sieved on mesh screens. However, mesh sizes used vary greatly among studies, raising the possibility that sampling methods bias results. The effect of using different mesh sizes on the resulting size-frequency distributions of Corophium was tested by collecting Corophium from mud samples with 0·5 and 0·25 mm sieves. More than 90% of Corophium less than 2 mm long passed through the larger sieve. A significantly smaller, but still substantial, proportion of 2-2·9 mm Corophium (30%) was also lost. Larger size classes were unaffected by mesh size. Mesh size significantly changed the observed size-frequency distribution of Corophium, and effects varied with sampling date. It is concluded that a 0·5 mm sieve is suitable for studies concentrating on adults, but to accurately estimate Corophium density and size-frequency distributions, a 0·25 mm sieve must be used.

  3. Power and sample size in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Laska, E M; Meisner, M; Siegel, C

    1999-01-01

    For resource allocation under a constrained budget, optimal decision rules for mutually exclusive programs require that the treatment with the highest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) below a willingness-to-pay (WTP) criterion be funded. This is equivalent to determining the treatment with the smallest net health cost. The designer of a cost-effectiveness study needs to select a sample size so that the power to reject the null hypothesis, the equality of the net health costs of two treatments, is high. A recently published formula derived under normal distribution theory overstates sample-size requirements. Using net health costs, the authors present simple methods for power analysis based on conventional normal and on nonparametric statistical theory.

  4. Sample Representativeness in the New Recruit Surveys: Seasonality Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    AD-A232 763 ’ Technical Report 917 Sample Representativeness in the New Recruit Surveys: Seasonality Effects Mary Sue Hay U.S. Army Research ...Institute December 1990 DTIC ELECTE - SMAR12 1991:11 United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Approved for public release...distribution is unlimited. 93. 3 O O75 U.S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency Under the

  5. Effect of 2 weeks of sprint interval training on health-related outcomes in sedentary overweight/obese men.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Laura J; Gill, Jason M R; Cathcart, Andrew J

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of very high intensity sprint interval training (SIT) on metabolic and vascular risk factors in overweight/obese sedentary men. Ten men (age, 32.1 ± 8.7 years; body mass index, 31.0 ± 3.7 kg m(-2)) participated. After baseline metabolic, anthropometric, and fitness measurements, participants completed a 2-week SIT intervention, comprising 6 sessions of 4 to 6 repeats of 30-second Wingate anaerobic sprints on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer, with 4.5-minute recovery between each repetition. Metabolic, anthropometric, and fitness assessments were repeated post-intervention. Both maximal oxygen uptake (2.98 ± 0.15 vs 3.23 ± 0.14 L min(-1), P = .013) and mean Wingate power (579 ± 24 vs 600 ± 19 W, P = .040) significantly increased after 2 weeks of SIT. Insulin sensitivity index (5.35 ± 0.72 vs 4.34 ± 0.72, P = .027) and resting fat oxidation rate in the fasted state (0.13 ± 0.01 vs 0.11 ± 0.01 g min(-1), P = .019) were significantly higher and systolic blood pressure (121 ± 3 vs 127 ± 3 mm Hg, P = .020) and resting carbohydrate oxidation in the fasted state (0.03 ± 0.01 vs 0.08 ± 0.02 g min(-1), P = .037) were significantly lower 24 hours post-intervention compared with baseline, but these changes were no longer significant 72 hours post-intervention. Significant decreases in waist (98.9 ± 3.1 vs 101.3 ± 2.7 cm, P = .004) and hip (109.8 ± 2.2 vs 110.9 ± 2.2 cm, P = .017) circumferences compared with baseline were also observed after the intervention. Thus, 2 weeks of SIT substantially improved a number of metabolic and vascular risk factors in overweight/obese sedentary men, highlighting the potential for this to provide an alternative exercise model for the improvement of vascular and metabolic health in this population.

  6. An effective method based on dynamic sampling for data assimilation in a global wave model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meng; Yin, Xunqiang; Yang, Yongzeng; Wu, Kejian

    2017-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) performs well because that the covariance of background error is varying along time. It provides a dynamic estimate of background error and represents the reasonable statistic characters of background error. However, high computational cost due to model ensemble in EnKF is employed. In this study, two methods referred as static and dynamic sampling methods are proposed to obtain a good performance and reduce the computation cost. Ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF) method is used in a global surface wave model to examine the performance of EnKF. The 24-h interval difference of simulated significant wave height (SWH) within 1 year is used to compose the static samples for ensemble errors, and these errors are used to construct the ensemble states at each time the observations are available. And then, the same method of updating the model states in the EAKF is applied for the ensemble states constructed by a static sampling method. The dynamic sampling method employs a similar method to construct the ensemble states, but the period of the simulated SWH is changing with time. Here, 7 days before and after the observation time is used as this period. To examine the performance of three schemes, EAKF, static, or dynamic sampling method, observations from satellite Jason-2 in 2014 are assimilated into a global wave model, and observations from satellite Saral are used for validation. The results indicate that the EAKF performs best, while the static sampling method is relatively worse. The dynamic sampling method improves an assimilation effect dramatically compared to the static sampling method, and its overall performance is closed to the EAKF. In low latitudes, the dynamic sampling method has a slight advantage over the EAKF. In the dynamic or static sampling methods, only one wave model is required to run and their computational cost is reduced sharply. According to the performance of these three methods, the dynamic sampling

  7. Effects of hydrophilic hydrocolloids on dough and bread performance of samples made from frozen doughs.

    PubMed

    Dodić, J; Pejin, D; Dodić, S; Popov, S; Mastilović, J; Popov-Raljić, J; Zivanovic, S

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hydrocolloids in dough (xanthan 0.02%, 0.06%, and 0.1%; kappa-carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose 0.2%, 0.6%, and 1.0%) and duration of frozen storage on the quality of finished bakery product. Doughs were prepared with different concentrations of gums, stored at -18 degrees C and analyzed after 0, 7, 14, and 30 d for fermentation activity of yeast and rising time of dough. At the end of each frozen storage interval, bread was prepared and characterized for specific volume, crumb firmness, and crumb structure. The addition of the gums had significant effects on dough performance and quality of the final product. Gums at all tested concentrations reduced fermentation activity of yeast and prolonged the rising time of dough, which was similar to the effects of frozen storage. However, specific volume of bread for the control sample significantly decreased on the 30th d of frozen storage. Addition of hydrocolloids resulted in higher specific volume of loaves compared to the specific volume of control sample loaves. With the increase of the duration of frozen storage the specific volume of bread decreases in all analyzed samples. This decrease is less in the samples with hydrocolloids compared to the decrease in the control sample. The addition of 0.1% xanthan accomplished the same or higher values for specific fermentation activity, specific volume, and penetrometric's number compared to the values accomplished by the addition of 1% carboxymethylcellulose and kappa-carrageenan, respectively.

  8. The effects of sampling frequency on the climate statistics of the ECMWF general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.J.; Gates, W.L.; Arpe, K.

    1992-09-01

    The effects of sampling frequency on the first- and second-moment statistics of selected EC model variables are investigated in a simulation of ``perpetual July`` with a diurnal cycle included and with surface and atmospheric fields saved at hourly intervals. The shortest characteristic time scales (as determined by the enfolding time of lagged autocorrelation functions) are those of ground heat fluxes and temperatures, precipitation and run-off, convective processes, cloud properties, and atmospheric vertical motion, while the longest time scales are exhibited by soil temperature and moisture, surface pressure, and atmospheric specific humidity, temperature and wind. The time scales of surface heat and momentum fluxes and of convective processes are substantially shorter over land than over the oceans.

  9. The effects of sampling frequency on the climate statistics of the ECMWF general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.J.; Gates, W.L. ); Arpe, K. )

    1992-09-01

    The effects of sampling frequency on the first- and second-moment statistics of selected EC model variables are investigated in a simulation of perpetual July'' with a diurnal cycle included and with surface and atmospheric fields saved at hourly intervals. The shortest characteristic time scales (as determined by the enfolding time of lagged autocorrelation functions) are those of ground heat fluxes and temperatures, precipitation and run-off, convective processes, cloud properties, and atmospheric vertical motion, while the longest time scales are exhibited by soil temperature and moisture, surface pressure, and atmospheric specific humidity, temperature and wind. The time scales of surface heat and momentum fluxes and of convective processes are substantially shorter over land than over the oceans.

  10. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Guilherme L; Crisp, Alex H; de Oliveira, Maria R M; da Silva, Carlos A; Silva, Jadson O; Duarte, Ana C G O; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats.

  11. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Guilherme L.; Crisp, Alex H.; de Oliveira, Maria R. M.; da Silva, Carlos A.; Silva, Jadson O.; Duarte, Ana C. G. O.; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  12. The effects of sampling frequency on the climate statistics of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.J.; Gates, W.L. ); Arpe, K. )

    1992-12-20

    The effects of sampling frequency on the first- and second-moment statistics of selected European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model variables are investigated in a simulation of perpetual July' with a diurnal cycle included and with surface and atmospheric fields saved at hourly intervals. The shortest characteristic time scales are those of ground heat fluxes and temperatures, precipitation and runoff, convective processes, cloud properties, and atmospheric vertical motion, while the longest time scales are exhibited by soil temperature and moisture, surface pressure, and atmospheric specific humidity, temperature, and wind. The time scales of surface heat and momentum fluxes and of convective processes are substantially shorter over land than over oceans. An appropriate sampling frequency for each model variable is obtained by comparing the estimates of first- and second-moment statistics determined at intervals ranging from 2 to 24 hours with the best' estimates obtained from hourly sampling. Relatively accurate estimation of first- and second-moment climate statistics can be achieved by sampling a model variable at intervals that usually are longer than the bandwidth of its time series but that often are shorter than its characteristic time scale. The superior estimates of first-moment statistics are accompanied by inferior estimates of the variance of the daily means due to the presence of systematic biases, but these probably can be avoided by defining a different measure of low-frequency variability. Estimates of the intradiurnal variance of accumulated precipitation and surface runoff also are strongly impacted by the length of the storage interval. In light of these results, several alternative strategies for storage of the EMWF model variables are recommended. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The effects of spatial sampling choices on MR temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Todd, Nick; Vyas, Urvi; de Bever, Josh; Payne, Allison; Parker, Dennis L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantify the effects that spatial sampling parameters have on the accuracy of magnetic resonance temperature measurements during high intensity focused ultrasound treatments. Spatial resolution and position of the sampling grid were considered using experimental and simulated data for two different types of high intensity focused ultrasound heating trajectories (a single point and a 4-mm circle) with maximum measured temperature and thermal dose volume as the metrics. It is demonstrated that measurement accuracy is related to the curvature of the temperature distribution, where regions with larger spatial second derivatives require higher resolution. The location of the sampling grid relative temperature distribution has a significant effect on the measured values. When imaging at 1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm(3) resolution, the measured values for maximum temperature and volume dosed to 240 cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM) or greater varied by 17% and 33%, respectively, for the single-point heating case, and by 5% and 18%, respectively, for the 4-mm circle heating case. Accurate measurement of the maximum temperature required imaging at 1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm(3) resolution for the single-point heating case and 2.0 × 2.0 × 5.0 mm(3) resolution for the 4-mm circle heating case.

  14. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Almenning, Ida; Rieber-Mohn, Astrid; Lundgren, Kari Margrethe; Shetelig Løvvik, Tone; Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Moholdt, Trine

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and Methods Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks. Results The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20), equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014). After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5) mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04). Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0) %, between-group difference (p = 0.08). Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4) pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04). There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group. Conclusions High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and

  15. Positive Effect of Large Birth Intervals on Early Childhood Hemoglobin Levels in Africa Is Limited to Girls: Cross-Sectional DHS Study

    PubMed Central

    Afeworki, Robel; Smits, Jeroen; Tolboom, Jules; van der Ven, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background Short birth intervals are independently associated with increased risk of adverse maternal, perinatal, infant and child outcomes. Anemia in children, which is highly prevalent in Africa, is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Birth spacing is advocated as a tool to reduce anemia in preschool African children, but the role of gender differences and contextual factors has been neglected. The present study aims to determine to what extent the length of preceding birth interval influences the hemoglobin levels of African preschool children in general, as well as for boys and girls separately, and which contextual factors thereby play a crucial role. Methods and Findings This cross-sectional study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 2003 and 2011 in 20 African countries. All preschool children aged 6–59 months with a valid hemoglobin measurement and a preceding birth interval of 7–72 months as well as their corresponding multigravida mothers aged 21–49 years were included in the study. Hemoglobin levels of children and mothers were measured in g/l, while birth intervals were calculated as months difference between consecutive births. Multivariate analyses were done to examine the relationship between length of preceding birth interval and child hemoglobin levels, adjusted for factors at the individual, household, community, district, and country level. A positive linear relationship was observed between birth interval and the 49,260 included children’s hemoglobin level, whereby age and sex of the child, hemoglobin level of the mother, household wealth, mother’s education and urbanization of place of residence also showed positive associations. In the interaction models, the effect of a month increase in birth interval is associated with an average increase of 0.025 g/l in hemoglobin level (P = 0.001) in girls, while for boys the effect was not significant. In addition, for girls, the effect

  16. Rapid aqueous sample extraction of volatile organic compounds: effect of sample matrix and analyte properties.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M J; Gress, M F; Borgerding, A J

    2001-10-31

    Studies have been done using a rapid aqueous sample extraction (RASE) system to characterize the effects of chemical properties on the time required for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the gas phase. These analyses include determinations of the effects that different analytes, and modifications to the matrix, have on extraction time. Experiments were performed to determine the distinct contributions of analyte removal from water and gas-phase transport to the duration of the extracted pulse of analytes. These measured durations were correlated with known values of Henry's law constants (K(H)), boiling points, relative volatilities from modified matrixes, and aqueous diffusion coefficients for cyclohexane, toluene, o-xylene, isopropylbenzene (IPB), and o-dichlorobenzene. Transport time, which was the most significant contributor to the overall duration, correlated well with analyte boiling point. Analyte removal from water correlated better with a modified relative volatility measurement than either K(H) or D(L). IPB extraction was studied in a number of modified matrixes. A 0.1% methanol in water matrix resulted in a 35% decrease in the extraction time of IPB relative to pure water. Extraction time decreased by 22% with the addition of 0.1% NaCl to the aqueous matrix. The addition of 0.01% sodium dodecyl sulfate to the matrix resulted in a 13% increase in the extraction time of IPB relative to water. The RASE system was directly interfaced to a cryofocussing high-speed gas chromatography system to analyze VOCs in wastewater at the low mug l(-1) level.

  17. Effects of sample size on KERNEL home range estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaman, D.E.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Kernohan, Brian J.; Brundige, Gary C.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Gitzen, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Kernel methods for estimating home range are being used increasingly in wildlife research, but the effect of sample size on their accuracy is not known. We used computer simulations of 10-200 points/home range and compared accuracy of home range estimates produced by fixed and adaptive kernels with the reference (REF) and least-squares cross-validation (LSCV) methods for determining the amount of smoothing. Simulated home ranges varied from simple to complex shapes created by mixing bivariate normal distributions. We used the size of the 95% home range area and the relative mean squared error of the surface fit to assess the accuracy of the kernel home range estimates. For both measures, the bias and variance approached an asymptote at about 50 observations/home range. The fixed kernel with smoothing selected by LSCV provided the least-biased estimates of the 95% home range area. All kernel methods produced similar surface fit for most simulations, but the fixed kernel with LSCV had the lowest frequency and magnitude of very poor estimates. We reviewed 101 papers published in The Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) between 1980 and 1997 that estimated animal home ranges. A minority of these papers used nonparametric utilization distribution (UD) estimators, and most did not adequately report sample sizes. We recommend that home range studies using kernel estimates use LSCV to determine the amount of smoothing, obtain a minimum of 30 observations per animal (but preferably a?Y50), and report sample sizes in published results.

  18. The effect of interburst intervals on measures of hippocampal LTP in the freely moving adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Fortin, D A; Bronzino, J D

    2001-08-01

    An important factor in the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) is the tetanization paradigm. This paper presents the changes associated with the induction and maintenance of hippocampal LTP in the freely moving adult male rat, subjected to three different tetanization paradigms. These results indicate that specific LTP measures including (1) synaptic activation, as measured by the slope of the dentate granule cell population excitatory postsynaptic potential, and (2) cellular response, as measured by the dentate population spike amplitude, evoked by single-pulse stimulation of the medial perforant pathway are dependent on the interburst interval of the bursting paradigm commonly used in LTP studies.

  19. COST-EFFECTIVE SAMPLING FOR SPATIALLY DISTRIBUTED PHENOMENA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various measures of sampling plan cost and loss are developed and analyzed as they relate to a variety of multidisciplinary sampling techniques. The sampling choices examined include methods from design-based sampling, model-based sampling, and geostatistics. Graphs and tables ar...

  20. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Pumpa, Kate L.; Arnolda, Leonard; Cooke, Julie; Yip, Desmond; Craft, Paul S.; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group (n = 8) or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group (n = 8) group for 36 sessions (12 weeks) of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT) group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate) and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT) group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate) on a stationary bike or treadmill. Results Significant improvements (time) were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05–0.61, p ≤ 0.05). An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43–4.63] ES 0.50, p ≤ 0.01) with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT); it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings. PMID:27781180

  1. Musical intervals in speech.

    PubMed

    Ross, Deborah; Choi, Jonathan; Purves, Dale

    2007-06-05

    Throughout history and across cultures, humans have created music using pitch intervals that divide octaves into the 12 tones of the chromatic scale. Why these specific intervals in music are preferred, however, is not known. In the present study, we analyzed a database of individually spoken English vowel phones to examine the hypothesis that musical intervals arise from the relationships of the formants in speech spectra that determine the perceptions of distinct vowels. Expressed as ratios, the frequency relationships of the first two formants in vowel phones represent all 12 intervals of the chromatic scale. Were the formants to fall outside the ranges found in the human voice, their relationships would generate either a less complete or a more dilute representation of these specific intervals. These results imply that human preference for the intervals of the chromatic scale arises from experience with the way speech formants modulate laryngeal harmonics to create different phonemes.

  2. Effect of off-frequency sampling in magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Curtis L; Chen, Danchin D; Olivero, William C; Sutton, Bradley P; Georgiadis, John G

    2012-02-01

    In magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), shear waves at a certain frequency are encoded through bipolar gradients that switch polarity at a controlled encoding frequency and are offset in time to capture wave propagation using a controlled sampling frequency. In brain MRE, there is a possibility that the mechanical actuation frequency is different from the vibration frequency, leading to a mismatch with encoding and sampling frequencies. This mismatch can occur in brain MRE from causes both extrinsic and intrinsic to the brain, such as scanner bed vibrations or active damping in the head. The purpose of this work was to investigate how frequency mismatch can affect MRE shear stiffness measurements. Experiments were performed on a dual-medium agarose gel phantom, and the results were compared with numerical simulations to quantify these effects. It is known that off-frequency encoding alone results in a scaling of wave amplitude, and it is shown here that off-frequency sampling can result in two main effects: (1) errors in the overall shear stiffness estimate of the material on the global scale and (2) local variations appearing as stiffer and softer structures in the material. For small differences in frequency, it was found that measured global stiffness of the brain could theoretically vary by up to 12.5% relative to actual stiffness with local variations of up to 3.7% of the mean stiffness. It was demonstrated that performing MRE experiments at a frequency other than that of tissue vibration can lead to artifacts in the MRE stiffness images, and this mismatch could explain some of the large-scale scatter of stiffness data or lack of repeatability reported in the brain MRE literature.

  3. Effect of sintering temperature and time intervals on morphological and hardness behaviour of Al-20 vol% Sn matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badarulzaman, N. A.; Karim, S. R.; Lajis, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    Aluminium (Al) alloys are widely used in various industries, such as automotive and aerospace. The production processes in these sectors create large amount of Al residues. In this paper, a new method of recycling Al chip is presented. Metal matrix composite (MMCs) of Al-20 vol% Sn was prepared by using solid state direct conversion method of recycled Al 6061 alloy. Constant pressure (10 ton) was used to implement the cold forging process. The differences of sintering temperature (200 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C and 350 °C) and time intervals (1h, 2h, 3h, 4h and 5h) were studied to obtain the optimum hardness, strength and surface integrity of Al-20 vol% Sn. The results showed that, hardness and strength of Al-20 vol% Sn was decreased by additional temperature and increase with time interval of sintering. Sintering temperature at 350 °C produces better morphology structure of Al-Sn composites.

  4. Cis-effects on Meiotic Recombination Across Distinct a1-sh2 Intervals in a Common Zea Genetic Background

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Schnable, Patrick S.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic distances across the a1-sh2 interval varied threefold in three near-isogenic stocks that carry structurally distinct teosinte A1 Sh2 haplotypes (from Z. mays spp. mexicana Chalco, Z. mays spp. parviglumis, and Z. luxurians) and a common maize a1::rdt sh2 haplotype. In each haplotype >85% of recombination events resolved in the proximal 10% of the ∼130-kb a1-sh2 interval. Even so, significant differences in the distributions of recombination breakpoints were observed across subintervals among haplotypes. Each of the three previously detected recombination hot spots was detected in at least one of the three teosinte haplotypes and two of these hot spots were not detected in at least one teosinte haplotype. Moreover, novel hot spots were detected in two teosinte haplotypes. Due to the near-isogenic nature of the three stocks, the observed variation in the distribution of recombination events is the consequence of cis-modifications. Although generally negatively correlated with rates of recombination per megabase, levels of sequence polymorphisms do not fully account for the nonrandom distribution of recombination breakpoints. This study also suggests that estimates of linkage disequilibrium must be interpreted with caution when considering whether a gene has been under selection. PMID:15937141

  5. Interactions among resource partitioning, sampling effect, and facilitation on the biodiversity effect: a modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Flombaum, Pedro; Sala, Osvaldo E; Rastetter, Edward B

    2014-02-01

    Resource partitioning, facilitation, and sampling effect are the three mechanisms behind the biodiversity effect, which is depicted usually as the effect of plant-species richness on aboveground net primary production. These mechanisms operate simultaneously but their relative importance and interactions are difficult to unravel experimentally. Thus, niche differentiation and facilitation have been lumped together and separated from the sampling effect. Here, we propose three hypotheses about interactions among the three mechanisms and test them using a simulation model. The model simulated water movement through soil and vegetation, and net primary production mimicking the Patagonian steppe. Using the model, we created grass and shrub monocultures and mixtures, controlled root overlap and grass water-use efficiency (WUE) to simulate gradients of biodiversity, resource partitioning and facilitation. The presence of shrubs facilitated grass growth by increasing its WUE and in turn increased the sampling effect, whereas root overlap (resource partitioning) had, on average, no effect on sampling effect. Interestingly, resource partitioning and facilitation interacted so the effect of facilitation on sampling effect decreased as resource partitioning increased. Sampling effect was enhanced by the difference between the two functional groups in their efficiency in using resources. Morphological and physiological differences make one group outperform the other; once these differences were established further differences did not enhance the sampling effect. In addition, grass WUE and root overlap positively influence the biodiversity effect but showed no interactions.

  6. Programming with Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

    Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

  7. Laser pyrolysis products: sampling procedures, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

    PubMed

    Stocker, B; Meier, T; Fliedner, T M; Plappert, U

    1998-01-30

    The use of lasers in medical applications has grown enormously in the last few years. Recent chemical analysis of the laser pyrolysis products revealed that aerosols generated by pyrolytic decomposition of tissue could be health hazards. Therefore we analysed the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of laser pyrolysis products from different types of porcine tissue. The tissues were irradiated with a surgical CO2 laser and the generated aerosols were sampled as particulate fractions as well as low and highly volatile fractions. Then human leukocytes were incubated with the pyrolysis products and subjected to the comet assay. The results of the comet assay indicated the pyrolysis products being inducers of DNA damage. The ability to induce genotoxic effects turned out to be strongly dependent on the type of tissue that had been irradiated during laser treatment. To check whether the pyrolysis products also have mutagenic properties the Salmonella mutagenicity assay was performed. The particulate aerosol fractions of skin, muscle tissue and liver tissue clearly proved to be mutagenic in TA98 in the presence of S9 mix. There was no mutagenic effect detectable without metabolic activation. In conclusion, our experiments showed that the laser pyrolysis products originating from porcine tissues induced very potent genotoxic as well as mutagenic effects and therefore they could be potential health hazards for humans.

  8. The effects of sampling frequency on the climate statistics of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Thomas J.; Gates, W. Lawrence; Arpe, Klaus

    1992-12-01

    The effects of sampling frequency on the first- and second-moment statistics of selected European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model variables are investigated in a simulation of "perpetual July" with a diurnal cycle included and with surface and atmospheric fields saved at hourly intervals. The shortest characteristic time scales (as determined by the e-folding time of lagged autocorrelation functions) are those of ground heat fluxes and temperatures, precipitation and runoff, convective processes, cloud properties, and atmospheric vertical motion, while the longest time scales are exhibited by soil temperature and moisture, surface pressure, and atmospheric specific humidity, temperature, and wind. The time scales of surface heat and momentum fluxes and of convective processes are substantially shorter over land than over oceans. An appropriate sampling frequency for each model variable is obtained by comparing the estimates of first- and second-moment statistics determined at intervals ranging from 2 to 24 hours with the "best" estimates obtained from hourly sampling. Relatively accurate estimation of first- and second-moment climate statistics (10% errors in means, 20% errors in variances) can be achieved by sampling a model variable at intervals that usually are longer than the bandwidth of its time series but that often are shorter than its characteristic time scale. For the surface variables, sampling at intervals that are nonintegral divisors of a 24-hour day yields relatively more accurate time-mean statistics because of a reduction in errors associated with aliasing of the diurnal cycle and higher-frequency harmonics. The superior estimates of first-moment statistics are accompanied by inferior estimates of the variance of the daily means due to the presence of systematic biases, but these probably can be avoided by defining a different measure of low-frequency variability. Estimates of the intradiurnal variance of accumulated

  9. Effects of sampling height and climatic conditions in aerobiological studies.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, P; Galán, C; Cariñanos, P; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the effect of sampling height on the measurement of airborne particles (pollen grains) common in the sampling area in the outskirts of the city of Córdoba, Spain. The effect of certain meteorological parameters on variations in concentration at different heights were also examined. The study was carried out throughout 1991 and 1992 using two Hirst samplers placed at two different heights (1.5 and 15 m) at the Faculty of Science at the University of Córdoba. The statistical results indicated that there were significant differences in the concentrations obtained at different heights, the values at 1.5 m being generally higher with the exception of pollen belonging to the Urticaceae family. The pollen counts of this type were greater at the higher elevation, probably due to the small size of the pollen, especially in the Urtica membranacea species, and to the convective phenomena in this climatic zone in spring, the season in which this species blooms. When these height comparison studies were conducted, the importance of the effect of placing the sampler in relation to a nearby building was also observed. Higher pollen concentrations were detected when the lower sampler was located on the leeward side. The meteorological parameters studied had some influence on the vertical dispersion of the pollen, although the percentage of variation according to height was very small, probably due to the short duration of the study. However, a certain relation between the differences in concentration per height and the degree of atmospheric stability was observed.

  10. On the Effects of Signaling Reinforcer Probability and Magnitude in Delayed Matching to Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Glenn S.; White, K. Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether postsample signals of reinforcer probability or magnitude affected the accuracy of delayed matching to sample in pigeons. On each trial, red or green choice responses that matched red or green stimuli seen shortly before a variable retention interval were reinforced with wheat access. In Experiment 1, the…

  11. Large sample randomization inference of causal effects in the presence of interference

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lan; Hudgens, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, increasing attention has focused on making causal inference when interference is possible. In the presence of interference, treatment may have several types of effects. In this paper, we consider inference about such effects when the population consists of groups of individuals where interference is possible within groups but not between groups. A two stage randomization design is assumed where in the first stage groups are randomized to different treatment allocation strategies and in the second stage individuals are randomized to treatment or control conditional on the strategy assigned to their group in the first stage. For this design, the asymptotic distributions of estimators of the causal effects are derived when either the number of individuals per group or the number of groups grows large. Under certain homogeneity assumptions, the asymptotic distributions provide justification for Wald-type confidence intervals (CIs) and tests. Empirical results demonstrate the Wald CIs have good coverage in finite samples and are narrower than CIs based on either the Chebyshev or Hoeffding inequalities provided the number of groups is not too small. The methods are illustrated by two examples which consider the effects of cholera vaccination and an intervention to encourage voting. PMID:24659836

  12. Contamination of toothbrush at different time intervals and effectiveness of various disinfecting solutions in reducing the contamination of toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Sogi, Suma H P; Subbareddy, V V; Kiran, Shashi N D

    2002-09-01

    The common devices used for oral hygiene measures are toothbrush, dentifrice and oral rinses. Present study was carried out to know the level of contamination of toothbrush after brushing and at the same time, to know the efficacy of various disinfecting solution in reducing their contamination. Thirty two children in the age group of 12-14, residing in Government Hostel were selected. They were divided into four groups of 8 each, and were supplied with toothbrushes. Toothbrushes were cultured to assess the contamination at different time intervals. Control group had shown the highest percentage of contamination. It was concluded that cleaning of the oral cavity is not the only procedure in maintaining the oral hygiene, the oral hygiene devices should also be kept clean.

  13. The Effect of Rest Interval Length on Repetition Consistency and Perceived Exertion During Near Maximal Loaded Bench Press Sets.

    PubMed

    Scudese, Estevão; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto; Senna, Gilmar; de Salles, Belmiro F; Miranda, Humberto

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different rest intervals between sets on repetition consistency and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during consecutive bench press sets with an absolute 3RM (3 repetition maximum) load. Sixteen trained men (23.75 ± 4.21 years; 74.63 ± 5.36 kg; 175 ± 4.64 cm; bench press relative strength: 1.44 ± 0.19 kg/kg of body mass) attended 4 randomly ordered sessions during which 5 consecutive sets of the bench press were performed with an absolute 3RM load and 1, 2, 3, or 5 minutes of rest interval between sets. The results indicated that significantly greater bench press repetitions were completed with 2, 3, and 5 minutes vs. 1-minute rest between sets (p ≤ 0.05); no significant differences were noted between the 2, 3, and 5 minutes rest conditions. For the 1-minute rest condition, performance reductions (relative to the first set) were observed commencing with the second set; whereas for the other conditions (2, 3, and 5 minutes rest), performance reductions were not evident until the third and fourth sets. The RPE values before each of the successive sets were significantly greater, commencing with the second set for the 1-minute vs. the 3 and 5 minutes rest conditions. Significant increases were also evident in RPE immediately after each set between the 1 and 5 minutes rest conditions from the second through fifth sets. These findings indicate that when utilizing an absolute 3RM load for the bench press, practitioners may prescribe a time-efficient minimum of 2 minutes rest between sets without significant impairments in repetition performance. However, lower perceived exertion levels may necessitate prescription of a minimum of 3 minutes rest between sets.

  14. THE EFFECT OF REST INTERVAL LENGTH ON REPETITION CONSISTENCY AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING NEAR MAXIMAL LOADED BENCH PRESS SETS.

    PubMed

    Scudese, Estevão; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto; Senna, Gilmar; Freitas de Salles, Belmiro; Miranda, Humberto

    2013-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to compare different rest intervals between sets on repetition consistency and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during consecutive bench press sets with an absolute 3RM load. Sixteen trained men (23.75 ± 4.21 years; 74.63 ± 5.36 kg; 175 ± 4.64 cm; bench press relative strength: 1.44 ± 0.19 kg/kg of body mass) attended four randomly ordered sessions during which five consecutive sets of the bench press were performed with an absolute 3RM load and 1, 2, 3, or 5 minutes of rest interval between sets. The results indicated that significantly greater bench press repetitions were completed with 2, 3 and 5 minutes versus 1 minute rest between sets (p ≤ 0.05); no significant differences were noted between the 2, 3 and 5 minute rest conditions. For the 1 minute rest condition, performance reductions (relative to the first set) were observed commencing with the second set; whereas for the other conditions (2, 3, and 5 minutes rest), performance reductions were not evident until the third and fourth sets. The RPE values prior to each of the successive sets were significantly greater, commencing with the second set for the 1 minute versus the 3 and 5 minute rest conditions. Significant increases were also evident in RPE immediately following each set between the 1 and 5 minute rest conditions from the second through fifth sets. These findings indicate that when utilizing an absolute 3RM load for the bench press, practitioners may prescribe a time-efficient minimum of 2 minutes rest between sets without significant impairments in repetition performance. However, lower perceived exertion levels may necessitate prescription of a minimum of 3 minutes rest between sets.

  15. Exploring the effect of drought extent and interval on the Florida snail kite: Interplay between spatial and temporal scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Bennetts, Robert E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    The paper aims at exploring the viability of the Florida snail kite population under various drought regimes in its wetland habitat. The population dynamics of snail kites are strongly linked with the hydrology of the system due to the dependence of this bird species on one exclusive prey species, the apple snail, which is negatively affected by a drying out of habitat. Based on empirical evidence, it has been hypothesised that the viability of the snail kite population critically depends not only on the time interval between droughts, but also on the spatial extent of these droughts. A system wide drought is likely to result in reduced reproduction and increased mortality, whereas the birds can respond to local droughts by moving to sites where conditions are still favourable. This paper explores the implications of this hypothesis by means of a spatially-explicit individual-based model. The specific aim of the model is to study in a factorial design the dynamics of the kite population in relation to two scale parameters, the temporal interval between droughts and the spatial correlation between droughts. In the model high drought frequencies led to reduced numbers of kites. Also, habitat degradation due to prolonged periods of inundation led to lower predicted numbers of kites. Another main result was that when the spatial correlation between droughts was low, the model showed little variability in the predicted numbers of kites. But when droughts occurred mostly on a system wide level, environmental stochasticity strongly increased the stochasticity in kite numbers and in the worst case the viability of the kite population was seriously threatened.

  16. Interval hypoxic training.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, L

    2001-01-01

    Interval hypoxic training (IHT) is a technique developed in the former Soviet Union, that consists of repeated exposures to 5-7 minutes of steady or progressive hypoxia, interrupted by equal periods of recovery. It has been proposed for training in sports, to acclimatize to high altitude, and to treat a variety of clinical conditions, spanning from coronary heart disease to Cesarean delivery. Some of these results may originate by the different effects of continuous vs. intermittent hypoxia (IH), which can be obtained by manipulating the repetition rate, the duration and the intensity of the hypoxic stimulus. The present article will attempt to examine some of the effects of IH, and, whenever possible, compare them to those of typical IHT. IH can modify oxygen transport and energy utilization, alter respiratory and blood pressure control mechanisms, induce permanent modifications in the cardiovascular system. IHT increases the hypoxic ventilatory response, increase red blood cell count and increase aerobic capacity. Some of these effects might be potentially beneficial in specific physiologic or pathologic conditions. At this stage, this technique appears interesting for its possible applications, but still largely to be explored for its mechanisms, potentials and limitations.

  17. Interval estimations in metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mana, G.; Palmisano, C.

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates interval estimation for a measurand that is known to be positive. Both the Neyman and Bayesian procedures are considered and the difference between the two, not always perceived, is discussed in detail. A solution is proposed to a paradox originated by the frequentist assessment of the long-run success rate of Bayesian intervals.

  18. Effect of sample preparation on charged impurities in graphene substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burson, K. M.; Dean, C. R.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Hone, J.; Kim, P.; Cullen, W. G.; Fuhrer, M. S.

    2013-03-01

    The mobility of graphene as fabricated on SiO2 has been found to vary widely depending on sample preparation conditions. Additionally, graphene mobility on SiO2 appears to be limited to ~20,000 cm2/Vs, likely due to charged impurities in the substrate. Here we present a study of the effect of fabrication procedures on substrate charged impurity density (nimp) utilizing ultrahigh-vacuum Kelvin probe force microscopy. We conclude that even minimal SEM exposure, as from e-beam lithography, induces an increased impurity density, while heating reduces the number of charges for sample substrates which already exhibit a higher impurity density. We measure both SiO2 and h-BN and find that all nimp values observed for SiO2 are higher than those observed for h-BN; this is consistent with the observed improvement in mobility for graphene devices fabricated on h-BN over those fabricated on SiO2 substrates. This work was supported by the US ONR MURI program, and the University of Maryland NSF-MRSEC under Grant No. DMR 05-20471.

  19. On effects of trawling, benthos and sampling design.

    PubMed

    Gray, John S; Dayton, Paul; Thrush, Simon; Kaiser, Michel J

    2006-08-01

    The evidence for the wider effects of fishing on the marine ecosystem demands that we incorporate these considerations into our management of human activities. The consequences of the direct physical disturbance of the seabed caused by towed bottom-fishing gear have been studied extensively with over 100 manipulations reported in the peer-reviewed literature. The outcome of these studies varies according to the gear used and the habitat in which it was deployed. This variability in the response of different benthic systems concurs with established theoretical models of the response of community metrics to disturbance. Despite this powerful evidence, a recent FAO report wrongly concludes that the variability in the reported responses to fishing disturbance mean that no firm conclusion as to the effects of fishing disturbance can be made. This thesis is further supported (incorrectly) by the supposition that current benthic sampling methodologies are inadequate to demonstrate the effects of fishing disturbance on benthic systems. The present article addresses these two erroneous conclusions which may confuse non-experts and in particular policy-makers.

  20. The effect of sodium fluoride on the stability of cyanide in postmortem blood samples from fire victims.

    PubMed

    McAllister, J L; Roby, R J; Levine, Barry; Purser, David

    2011-06-15

    Assigning a level of significance to cyanide concentrations found in the blood of fire victims is often hampered by the fact that cyanide is inherently unstable in cadavers and in stored blood samples. A few researchers have proposed that sodium fluoride can be used to minimize the instability of cyanide in blood samples; however, controlled studies have not been performed to support validation of this hypothesis. To test the sodium fluoride hypothesis, both treated and control blood samples from 14 autopsied fire victims were tested over a 25-30 day period. A 2% concentration of sodium fluoride was added to the blood samples at the start of testing and the samples were refrigerated between testing intervals. Cyanide concentrations in the treated and control samples were measured between 9 and 11 days post treatment and between 25 and 30 days post treatment. A statistically significant difference was not present between blood cyanide concentrations in treated and control samples between 9 and 11 days. During this time period, although there were small statistically significant increases in both treated and untreated samples the fluctuations were minor. Since the treated and control samples did not exhibit instability between 9 and 11 days, it is not surprising that the sodium fluoride appeared to have no effect. However, a statistically significant difference between blood cyanide concentrations in treated and control samples was observed between 25 and 30 days. Those samples treated with sodium fluoride showed a reduction in blood cyanide variability with virtually no overall change, over a 25-30 day period when compared to control samples, while unconditioned samples showed a significant, average increase of 35%. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that 2% sodium fluoride be added to blood samples obtained from fire victims to reduce cyanide instability due to bacteriological activity.

  1. Direct interval volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Weiskopf, Daniel; Carr, Hamish

    2010-01-01

    We extend direct volume rendering with a unified model for generalized isosurfaces, also called interval volumes, allowing a wider spectrum of visual classification. We generalize the concept of scale-invariant opacity—typical for isosurface rendering—to semi-transparent interval volumes. Scale-invariant rendering is independent of physical space dimensions and therefore directly facilitates the analysis of data characteristics. Our model represents sharp isosurfaces as limits of interval volumes and combines them with features of direct volume rendering. Our objective is accurate rendering, guaranteeing that all isosurfaces and interval volumes are visualized in a crack-free way with correct spatial ordering. We achieve simultaneous direct and interval volume rendering by extending preintegration and explicit peak finding with data-driven splitting of ray integration and hybrid computation in physical and data domains. Our algorithm is suitable for efficient parallel processing for interactive applications as demonstrated by our CUDA implementation.

  2. The effect of mare's age on multiple ovulation rate, embryo recovery, post-transfer pregnancy rate, and interovulatory interval in a commercial embryo transfer program in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marinone, A I; Losinno, L; Fumuso, E; Rodríguez, E M; Redolatti, C; Cantatore, S; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age is an important predisposing factor on the reduction of reproductive efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor's age on several reproductive parameters in a commercial equine embryo transfer program. Donors were classified into 3 age groups: Group 1=fillies (3 and 4 years old), Group 2=middle age mares (aged 5-10) and Group 3=old mares (aged 13-25). Embryo recovery, multiple ovulation and pregnancy rates and interovulatory intervals were compared amongst age groups. Group 1 (171/244, 70.1%) and Group 2 (774/1081, 71.6%) had a higher (P<0.005) embryo recovery rate than Group 3 (385/701, 54.9%). Groups 2 and 3 were 2.5 and 3.4 times more likely to have multiple ovulations than Group 1 (P<0.05), respectively. The effect of age group on pregnancy rate was not significant (P>0.05). The interovulatory intervals length was influenced by individual mare (P<0.001), age (P<0.04), Day of flushing (P=0.009) and by month (P<0.012). The overall mean interovulatory interval of Group 1 (16.4±0.17 days) and Group 2 (16.6±0.12 days) was not different (P>0.05), but was shorter than the one of Group 3 (17.4±0.15 days; P<0.04). The embryo recovery rate of flushings from Groups 1 and 2 was influenced by the length of the previous interovulatory interval (P=0.03).

  3. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P < 0.01). The findings of this study suggest that interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats.

  4. Effect of nitrogen fertilization rate and regrowth interval of grass herbage on methane emission of zero-grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Warner, D; Podesta, S C; Hatew, B; Klop, G; van Laar, H; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2015-05-01

    Dairy cattle farming in temperate regions often relies on grass herbage (GH)-based diets but the effect of several grass management options on enteric CH4 emission has not been fully investigated yet. We investigated the combined effect of N fertilization rate and length of regrowth period of GH (predominantly ryegrass) on CH4 emission from lactating dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 28 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received a basal diet of GH and compound feed [85:15; dry matter (DM) basis]. Treatments consisted of GH cut after 3 or 5 weeks of regrowth, after receiving either a low (20kg of N/ha) or a high (90kg of N/ha) fertilization rate after initial cut. Feed intake, digestibility, milk production and composition, N and energy balance, and CH4 emission were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after an adaptation to the diet for 12d. Cows were restricted-fed during measurements and mean DM intake was 15.0±0.16kg/d. Herbage crude protein content varied between 76 and 161g/kg of DM, and sugar content between 186 and 303g/kg of DM. Fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and feed digestibility increased with increased N fertilization rates and a shorter regrowth interval. Increasing the N fertilization rate increased daily CH4 emission per cow (+10%) and per unit of DM intake (+9%), tended to increase the fraction of gross energy intake emitted as CH4 (+7%), and (partly because of the low crude protein content for the low fertilized GH) only numerically reduced CH4 per unit of FPCM. The longer regrowth interval increased CH4 emission per unit of FPCM (+14%) compared with the shorter regrowth interval, but did not affect CH4 emission expressed in any other unit. With increasing N fertilization CH4 emission decreased per unit of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (-13%) but not per unit of digestible organic matter intake. There was no interaction of the effect of N fertilization rate and regrowth interval on CH4

  5. The Effects of Finite Sampling on State Assessment Sample Requirements. NAEP Validity Studies. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chromy, James R.

    This study addressed statistical techniques that might ameliorate some of the sampling problems currently facing states with small populations participating in State National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessments. The study explored how the application of finite population correction factors to the between-school component of…

  6. The Effects of Finite Sampling Corrections on State Assessment Sample Requirements. NAEP Validity Studies (NVS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chromy, James R.

    States participating in the National Assessment of Educational Progress State Assessment program (state NAEP) are required to sample at least 2,500 students from at least 100 schools per subject assessed. In this ideal situation, 25 students are assessed for a subject in each school selected for that subject. Two problems have arisen: some states…

  7. Study of the Effect of Temporal Sampling Frequency on DSCOVR Observations Using the GEOS-5 Nature Run Results. Part II; Cloud Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Yang, Yuekui

    2016-01-01

    This is the second part of a study on how temporal sampling frequency affects satellite retrievals in support of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission. Continuing from Part 1, which looked at Earth's radiation budget, this paper presents the effect of sampling frequency on DSCOVR-derived cloud fraction. The output from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Nature Run is used as the "truth". The effect of temporal resolution on potential DSCOVR observations is assessed by subsampling the full Nature Run data. A set of metrics, including uncertainty and absolute error in the subsampled time series, correlation between the original and the subsamples, and Fourier analysis have been used for this study. Results show that, for a given sampling frequency, the uncertainties in the annual mean cloud fraction of the sunlit half of the Earth are larger over land than over ocean. Analysis of correlation coefficients between the subsamples and the original time series demonstrates that even though sampling at certain longer time intervals may not increase the uncertainty in the mean, the subsampled time series is further and further away from the "truth" as the sampling interval becomes larger and larger. Fourier analysis shows that the simulated DSCOVR cloud fraction has underlying periodical features at certain time intervals, such as 8, 12, and 24 h. If the data is subsampled at these frequencies, the uncertainties in the mean cloud fraction are higher. These results provide helpful insights for the DSCOVR temporal sampling strategy.

  8. Unfolded partial least squares/residual bilinearization combined with the Successive Projections Algorithm for interval selection: enhanced excitation-emission fluorescence data modeling in the presence of the inner filter effect.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Adriano de Araújo; Schenone, Agustina V; Goicoechea, Héctor C; de Araújo, Mario Cesar U

    2015-07-01

    The use of the successive projections algorithm (SPA) for elimination of uninformative variables in interval selection, and unfold partial least squares regression (U-PLS) modeling of excitation-emission matrices (EEM), when under the inner filter effect (IFE) is reported for first time. Post-calibration residual bilinearization (RBL) was employed against events of unknown components in the test samples. The inner filter effect can originate changes in both the shape and intensity of analyte spectra, leading to trilinearity losses in both modes, and thus invalidating most multiway calibration methods. The algorithm presented in this paper was named iSPA-U-PLS/RBL. Both simulated and experimental data sets were used to compare the prediction capability during: (1) simulated EEM; and (2) quantitation of phenylephrine (PHE) in the presence of paracetamol (PAR) (or acetaminophen) in water samples. Test sets containing unexpected components were built in both systems [a single interference was taken into account in the simulated data set, while water samples were added with varying amounts of ibuprofen (IBU), and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA)]. The prediction results and figures of merit obtained with the new algorithm were compared with those obtained with U-PLS/RBL (without intervals selection), and with the well-known parallel factors analysis (PARAFAC). In all cases, U-PLS/RBL displayed better EEM handling capability in the presence of the inner filter effect compared with PARAFAC. In addition, iSPA-U-PLS/RBL improved the results obtained with the full U-PLS/RBL model, in this case demonstrating the potential of variable selection.

  9. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stinear, James W.; Kanekar, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT) has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1) in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors. PMID:27738524

  10. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Stinear, James W; Kanekar, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT) has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1) in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors.

  11. The effect of the introduction of a pigmented lesion clinic on the interval between referral by family practitioner and attendance at hospital.

    PubMed

    Osborne, J E; Bourke, J F; Holder, J; Colloby, P; Graham-Brown, R A

    1998-03-01

    The value of pigmented lesion clinics (PLCs) for the early detection and treatment of malignant melanoma has been questioned. We have examined the effect of the introduction of a PLC on the referral interval between patients with melanoma presenting to their general practitioner (GP) and their attendance at hospital. The case notes of all patients presenting with melanoma in Leicestershire between 1984 and 1994 were reviewed. There was a significant initial reduction in the mean referral interval following the introduction of the PLC from 27.9 days (SEM = 6.6) in 1984 to 11.3 (2.3) days in 1987 (P < 0.01). However, the referral interval gradually rose over the following 7 years to a mean of 20.4 (4.4) days in 1994, which was not significantly better than the 1985/86 level. The increase in the referral interval was due to a greater percentage of melanomas being referred to clinics other than the PLC. Only 48% of melanomas were referred to the PLC in 1994 compared with 70% in 1987. We also reviewed the referral letters for those patients presenting in 1991 and 1994, and decided, on the basis of the content of the letter, whether the GP had suspected the diagnosis of melanoma. More than 50% of the melanomas were correctly diagnosed by the GP, but only half of these were then appropriately referred to the PLC. We believe that PLCs are of value in the early diagnosis and treatment of melanoma, but only if they are appropriately utilized by GPs.

  12. The effect of the interval between dose applications on the observed specific-locus mutation rate in the mouse following fractionated treatments of spermatogonia with ethylnitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Favor, J; Neuhäuser-Klaus, A; Ehling, U H; Wulff, A; van Zeeland, A A

    1997-03-21

    Our earlier analyses have suggested an apparent threshold dose-response for ethylnitrosourea-induced specific-locus mutations in treated spermatogonia of the mouse to be due to a saturable repair process. In the current study a series of fractionated-treatment experiments was carried out in which male (102 x C3H)F1 mice were exposed to 4 x 10, 2 x 40. 4 x 20 or 4 x 40 mg ethylnitrosourea per kg body weight with 24 h between applications; 4 x 40 mg ethylnitrosourea per kg body weight with 72 h between dose applications; and 2 x 40, 4 x 20 and 4 x 40 mg ethylnitrosourea per kg body weight with 168 h between dose applications. For all experiments with 24-h intervals between dose applications, there was no effect due to dose fractionation on the observed mutation rates, indicating the time interval between dose applications to be shorter than the recovery time of the repair processes acting on ethylnitrosourea-induced DNA adducts. In contrast, a fractionation interval of 168 h was associated with a significant reduction in the observed mutation rate due to recovery of the repair process. However, although reduced, the observed mutation rates for fractionation intervals of 168 h were higher than the spontaneous specific-locus mutation rate. These observations contradict the expectation for a true threshold dose response. We interpret this discrepancy to be due to the differences in the predictions of a mathematical abstraction of experimental data and the complexities of the biological system being studied. Biologically plausible explanations of the discrepancy are presented.

  13. Effect of non-dipper and dipper blood pressure patterns on Tp-Te interval and Tp-Te/QT ratio in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karaagac, Kemal; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Yontar, Osman Can; Kuzeytemiz, Mustafa; Vatansever, Fahriye; Tutuncu, Ahmet; Ozluk, Ozlem Arican; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Demir, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood pressure (BP) rhythm on the values of Tp-Te interval and Tp-Te/QT ratio in patients with metabolic syndrome. Seventy patients with newly diagnosed hypertension who fulfilled the metabolic syndrome criteria according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP/ATP-III) were evaluated with 24-hour blood pressure holter monitoring. According to blood pressure rhythm, 35 patients with dipper blood pressure pattern and 35 patients with non-dipper blood pressure pattern were enrolled as two groups in our study. QT, corrected QT (QTc), Tp-Te interval and Tp-Te/QT ratio were measured from the 12-lead electrocardiogram. These parameters were compared between the groups. The nocturnal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in non-dipper patients than the dipper group. Baseline characteristics and QT, QTc intervals were similar in both groups. Tp-Te (91±12.24 vs 74±9.96; p < 0.001), Tp-Te/QT (0.24±0.027 vs 0.20±0.025; p < 0.001) and Tp-Te/QTc (0.22±0.023 vs 0.18±0.023; p < 0.001) were significantly increased in non-dipper group. These findings suggest that Tp-Te interval, Tp-Te/QT ratio end Tp-Te/QTc ratio were prominently increased in non-dipper hypertensive patients than dippers with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Effect of Moderate Versus High-Intensity Interval Exercise Training on Heart Rate Variability Parameters in Inactive Latin-American Adults: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; Téllez-T, Luis Andrés; Camelo-Prieto, Diana; Hernández-Quiñonez, Paula Andrea; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effect of moderate versus high-intensity interval exercise training on the HRV indices in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high-intensity interval training (HIT group). The MCT group performed aerobic training at an intensity of 55-75%, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at 60-80% of the maximum heart rate (HRmax) until the expenditure of 300 kcal. The HIT group ran on a treadmill for 4 minutes at 85-95% peak HRmax and had a recovery of 4 minutes at 65% peak HRmax until the expenditure of 300 kcal. Supine resting HRV indices (time domain: SDNN, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals; rMSSD, Root mean square successive difference of RR intervals and frequency domain: HFLn, high-frequency spectral power; LF, low-frequency spectral power and HF/LF ratio) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks thereafter. The SDNN changes were 3.4 (8.9) ms in the MCT group and 29.1 (7.6) ms in the HIT group (difference between groups 32.6 [95% CI, 24.9 to 40.4 (P = 0.01)]. The LF/HFLn ratio change 0.19 (0.03) ms in the MCT group and 0.13 (0.01) ms in the HIT group (P between groups = 0.016). No significant group differences were observed for the rMSSD, HF and LF parameters. In inactive adults, this study showed that a 12-week HIT training program could increase short-term HRV, mostly in vagally mediated indices such as SDNN and HF/LFLn ratio power.

  15. Evaluation of the Effects of Light Intensity and Time Interval After the Start of Scotophase on the Female Flight Propensity of Asian Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Keena, Melody

    2016-04-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one from Korea) were compared under all combinations of three light intensities (0.05, 0.10, and 0.40 lux) and during three time intervals after the start of scotophase. A total of 567 females were flight tested. Female flight propensity, time to initiate walking, fanning, and flying, and duration of fanning differed significantly among geographic populations. Females were less likely to voluntarily fly during the 0-1-h time interval after the start of scotophase than during the later time intervals (1-2 and 2-3 h), suggesting that the light intensity cue has to occur at the correct time after the expected start of scotophase for flight initiation. Light intensity did not significantly affect the proportion of females that voluntarily flew, but did impact the timing of the walking and fanning preflight behaviors. The interaction between light intensity and time interval after the start of scotophase had a significant effect on the proportion of females that fanned. The proportion of females with sustained flight capability varied among the populations evaluated. These results may aid in determining the risk of Asian gypsy moth dispersal, but further work is needed to assess other factors that play a role in flight propensity.

  16. The combined effects of sampling parameters on the sorbent tube sampling of phthalates in air

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Kyenghee

    2017-01-01

    The adsorption properties of various sorbent materials were investigated to assess the factors affecting biases in the sorbent tube (ST) sampling of airborne phthalates. The recovery of phthalates was assessed critically in relation to four key sampling parameters: (1) three types of sorbent materials (quartz wool (QW), glass wool (GW), and quartz wool plus Tenax TA (QWTN)), (2) the concentration level of phthalate standards, (3) purge flow rate, and (4) purge volume for analysis based on a ‘sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ST-TD-GC-MS)’ system. Among these parameters, the type of ST was the most influential in determining the recovery of phthalates. For a given ST type, the recovery of phthalates tends to improve with increases in the concentration level of standards. In case of QW and QWTN tubes, the breakthrough of phthalates was not observed up to the maximum purge volume (100 L) tested in this work; however, in case of GW, the recovery decreased drastically to 60% even at a purge volume of 1 L for low molecular weight phthalates. The results of our study demonstrate that accurate analysis of airborne phthalates can be achieved through proper control of key sampling parameters, particularly the choice of sorbent material. PMID:28361993

  17. Effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity on water-quality samples obtained from wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Gibs, Jacob

    1993-01-01

    Factors that affect the mass of chemical constituents entering a well include the distributions of flow rate and chemical concentrations along and near the screened or open section of the well. Assuming a layered porous medium (with each layer being characterized by a uniform hydraulic conductivity and chemical concentration), a knowledge of the flow from each layer along the screened zone and of the chemical concentrations in each layer enables the total mass entering the well to be determined. Analyses of hypothetical systems and a site at Galloway, NJ, provide insight into the temporal variation of water-quality data observed when withdrawing water from screened wells in heterogeneous ground-water systems.The analyses of hypothetical systems quantitatively indicate the cause-and-effect relations that cause temporal variability in water samples obtained from wells. Chemical constituents that have relatively uniform concentrations with depth may not show variations in concentrations in the water discharged from a well after the well is purged (evacuation of standing water in the well casing). However, chemical constituents that do not have uniform concentrations near the screened interval of the well may show variations in concentrations in the well discharge water after purging because of the physics of ground-water flow in the vicinity of the screen.Water-quality samples were obtained through time over a 30 minute period from a site at Galloway, NJ. The water samples were analyzed for aromatic hydrocarbons, and the data for benzene, toluene, and meta+para xylene were evaluated for temporal variations. Samples were taken from seven discrete zones, and the flow-weighted concentrations of benzene, toluene, and meta+para xylene all indicate an increase in concentration over time during pumping. These observed trends in time were reproduced numerically based on the estimated concentration distribution in the aquifer and the flow rates from each zone.The results of

  18. Sampling hazelnuts for aflatoxin: effect of sample size and accept/reject limit on reducing the risk of misclassifying lots.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Guner; Seyhan, Ferda; Yilmaz, Aysun; Whitaker, Thomas B; Slate, Andrew B; Giesbrecht, Francis G

    2007-01-01

    About 100 countries have established regulatory limits for aflatoxin in food and feeds. Because these limits vary widely among regulating countries, the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants began work in 2004 to harmonize aflatoxin limits and sampling plans for aflatoxin in almonds, pistachios, hazelnuts, and Brazil nuts. Studies were developed to measure the uncertainty and distribution among replicated sample aflatoxin test results taken from aflatoxin-contaminated treenut lots. The uncertainty and distribution information is used to develop a model that can evaluate the performance (risk of misclassifying lots) of aflatoxin sampling plan designs for treenuts. Once the performance of aflatoxin sampling plans can be predicted, they can be designed to reduce the risks of misclassifying lots traded in either the domestic or export markets. A method was developed to evaluate the performance of sampling plans designed to detect aflatoxin in hazelnuts lots. Twenty hazelnut lots with varying levels of contamination were sampled according to an experimental protocol where 16 test samples were taken from each lot. The observed aflatoxin distribution among the 16 aflatoxin sample test results was compared to lognormal, compound gamma, and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution was selected to model aflatoxin distribution among sample test results because it gave acceptable fits to observed distributions among sample test results taken from a wide range of lot concentrations. Using the negative binomial distribution, computer models were developed to calculate operating characteristic curves for specific aflatoxin sampling plan designs. The effect of sample size and accept/reject limits on the chances of rejecting good lots (sellers' risk) and accepting bad lots (buyers' risk) was demonstrated for various sampling plan designs.

  19. The effect of burst duration, interstimulus onset interval, and loudspeaker arrangement on auditory apparent motion in the free field.

    PubMed

    Strybel, T Z; Neale, W

    1994-12-01

    The illusion of auditory apparent motion (AAM) was examined in order to determine the burst durations and interstimulus onset intervals (ISOIs) at which AAM is heard when spatial information regarding source location was varied. In the first experiment AAM was examined in the free field under monaural and binaural listening conditions. AAM was heard at the same burst duration-ISOI combinations for both listening conditions, but the location of the lead source could be determined only under binaural listening. In the second experiment AAM was measured with two and three sound sources. The number of sources did not affect the burst duration-ISOI combinations that produced AAM, but did affect the determination of the location of the lead source. In the third experiment AAM was tested when the sources were located in the median plane. The sources were located either at 0 degrees and 180 degrees azimuth, or both at 0 degrees azimuth, one in the horizontal plane and one 20 degrees above. The location of the speakers did not affect the timing requirements for the perception of AAM, only the timing requirements for the detection of the lead source. In the fourth experiment, AAM was measured when the vertical separation between the sources was either 2.5 degrees or 20 degrees. AAM was heard at both separations, even though 2.5 degrees is less than the vertical MAA. In each of these experiments only burst duration and ISOI determined whether motion was heard. Localization cues were important only for the determination of the direction of motion.

  20. MRI derived brain atrophy in PSP and MSA-P. Determining sample size to detect treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Paviour, Dominic C; Price, Shona L; Lees, Andrew J; Fox, Nick C

    2007-04-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system (MSA) atrophy are associated with progressive brain atrophy. Serial MRI can be applied in order to measure this change in brain volume and to calculate atrophy rates. We evaluated MRI derived whole brain and regional atrophy rates as potential markers of progression in PSP and the Parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P). 17 patients with PSP, 9 with MSA-P and 18 healthy controls underwent two MRI brain scans. MRI scans were registered, and brain and regional atrophy rates (midbrain, pons, cerebellum, third and lateral ventricles) measured. Sample sizes required to detect the effect of a proposed disease-modifying treatment were estimated. The effect of scan interval on the variance of the atrophy rates and sample size was assessed. Based on the calculated yearly rates of atrophy, for a drug effect equivalent to a 30% reduction in atrophy, fewer PSP subjects are required in each treatment arm when using midbrain rather than whole brain atrophy rates (183 cf. 499). Fewer MSA-P subjects are required, using pontine/cerebellar, rather than whole brain atrophy rates (164/129 cf. 794). A reduction in the variance of measured atrophy rates was observed with a longer scan interval. Regional rather than whole brain atrophy rates calculated from volumetric serial MRI brain scans in PSP and MSA-P provide a more practical and powerful means of monitoring disease progression in clinical trials.

  1. Radiation and temperature effects on LDEF fiber optic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Hartmayer, R.; Bergman, L. A.

    1993-01-01

    Results obtained from the JPL Fiber Optics Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment since the June 1991 Experimenters' Workshop are addressed. Radiation darkening of laboratory control samples and the subsequent annealing was measured in the laboratory for the control samples. The long-time residual loss was compared to the LDEF flight samples and found to be in agreement. The results of laboratory temperature tests on the flight samples, extending over a period of about nine years, including the pre-flight and post-flight analysis periods, are described. The temperature response of the different cable samples varies widely, and appears in two samples to be affected by polymer aging. Conclusions to date are summarized.

  2. Effects of sample preparation on bacterial colonization of polymers.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Diana N; Stafford, Christopher M; Cheng, Yajun; Leigh, Stefan D; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Lin, Nancy J

    2010-02-16

    Characterization of materials developed for medical usage frequently includes studies in which the materials are inoculated with bacteria in order to assess bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. Observed differences in bacterial growth are typically considered to be due to the material or the incubation conditions. To our knowledge, the method used to prepare the materials has generally not been considered with regard to its influence on bacterial colonization. The objective of this study was to determine the effects that various preparation methods exert on bacterial colonization of polymer disks. Polymer disks of the same dimethacrylate composition were photopolymerized: (1) between untreated glass slides, (2) between polyester release film, (3) between glass slides treated with an alkyl silane, (4) between glass slides treated with a perfluorinated silane, or (5) with one free surface in an argon-purged chamber. Surface chemistry was quantified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, hydrophobicity was assessed by water contact angle, and topography was characterized using atomic force microscopy. The disks were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans for 4 h, fixed, and visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Differences among all groups were found with regard to surface chemistry, hydrophobicity, topography, and bacteria morphology, density, and coverage, indicating that the method of sample preparation strongly affects both the surface properties and the initial bacterial colonization. Polymerization on untreated slides was selected as the preferred method of preparation due to minimal material transfer to the polymer and consistent, reproducible bacterial colonization.

  3. Modeling the Orbital Sampling Effect of Extrasolar Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, René; Hippke, Michael; Jackson, Brian

    2016-04-01

    The orbital sampling effect (OSE) appears in phase-folded transit light curves of extrasolar planets with moons. Analytical OSE models have hitherto neglected stellar limb darkening and non-zero transit impact parameters and assumed that the moon is on a circular, co-planar orbit around the planet. Here, we present an analytical OSE model for eccentric moon orbits, which we implement in a numerical simulator with stellar limb darkening that allows for arbitrary transit impact parameters. We also describe and publicly release a fully numerical OSE simulator (PyOSE) that can model arbitrary inclinations of the transiting moon orbit. Both our analytical solution for the OSE and PyOSE can be used to search for exomoons in long-term stellar light curves such as those by Kepler and the upcoming PLATO mission. Our updated OSE model offers an independent method for the verification of possible future exomoon claims via transit timing variations and transit duration variations. Photometrically quiet K and M dwarf stars are particularly promising targets for an exomoon discovery using the OSE.

  4. Effect of gravity on the erosion of model samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Dobrovol'skaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.

    2015-07-01

    The article is devoted to the theoretical analysis and experimental investigation of the bottom and lateral erosion in shallow flows on slopes. The analysis of the ratio between the forces detaching and retaining a soil particle has showed that the erosion of the bed sidewall exceeds manifold the erosion of the bottom at the flow velocity close to the threshold value. When the flow velocity increases, the differences in the rate of erosion between the bottom and the sidewalls of the rill are leveled. The rate of sidewall erosion strongly depends on the slope of rill sides. The experimental studies of the effect of the sample surface inclination have completely confirmed the theoretical conclusions. It should be kept in mind that the lateral erosion under natural conditions is also limited by the laws of hydraulics. When the rill bed is widened due to the lateral erosion, the flow width increases and, hence, its velocity decreases to below the threshold value, which stops the erosion of the bed.

  5. EFFECT OF TRANSPORTING SALTSTONE SAMPLES PRIOR TO SET

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.

    2013-05-21

    The Saltstone Sampling and Analyses Plan provides a basis for the quantity (and configuration) of saltstone grout samples required for conducting a study directed towards correlation of the Performance Assessment (PA) related properties of field-emplaced samples and samples processed and cured in the laboratory. The testing described in the saltstone sampling and analyses plan will be addressed in phases. The initial testing (Phase I) includes collecting samples from the process room in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and transporting them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they will cure under a temperature profile that mimics the temperature in the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) and then be analyzed. SRNL has previously recommended that after the samples of fresh (uncured) saltstone are obtained from the SPF process room, they are allowed to set prior to transporting them to SRNL for curing. The concern was that if the samples are transported before they are set, the vibrations during transport may cause artificial delay of structure development which could result in preferential settling or segregation of the saltstone slurry. However, the results of this testing showed there was no clear distinction between the densities of the cylinder sections for any of the transportation scenarios tested (1 day, 1 hour, and 0 minutes set time prefer to transportation) . The bottom section of each cylinder was the densest for each transportation scenario, which indicates some settling in all the samples. Triplicate hydraulic conductivity measurements on samples from each set of time and transportation scenarios indicated that those samples transported immediately after pouring had the highest hydraulic conductivity. Conversely, samples that were allowed to sit for an hour before being transported had the lowest hydraulic conductivity. However, the hydraulic conductivities of all three samples fell within an acceptable range. Based on the cured property

  6. Effect of addition of lycopene to calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine as intracanal medicament on fracture resistance of radicular dentin at two different time intervals: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhana, Koppolu; Archanagupta, Kasamsetty; Suneelkumar, Chinni; Lavanya, Anumula; Deepthi, Mandava

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide (CH) reduces the fracture resistance of dentin. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the fracture resistance of radicular dentin on long-term use of CH, chlorhexidine (CHX) with lycopene (LP). Aim: To compare the fracture resistance of radicular dentin when intracanal medicaments such as CH, CHX with LP were used for 1-week and 1-month time interval. Settings and Design: Sixty single-rooted extracted human permanent premolars were collected, and complete instrumentation was done. Samples were divided into three groups based on intracanal medicament used. Materials and Methods: Group 1 - no medicament was placed (CON), group 2 - mixture of 1.5 g of CH and 1 ml of 2% CHX (CHCHX), group 3 - mixture of 1.5 g of CH, 1 ml of CHX and 1 ml of 5% LP solution (CHCHXLP). After storage period of each group for 1-week and 1-month, middle 8 mm root cylinder was sectioned and tested for fracture resistance. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed using paired t-test. Results: At 1-month time interval, there was a statistically significant difference in fracture resistance between CHCHX and CHCHXLP groups. Conclusion: Addition of LP has not decreased the fracture resistance of radicular dentin after 1-month. PMID:26069405

  7. Effect of a retention interval between pre-exposure and conditioning on latent inhibition in humans using a blink conditioning procedure.

    PubMed

    De la Casa Rivas, Luis Gonzalo; Traverso Arcos, Luis Miguel; Márquez Zamora, Raúl

    2010-11-01

    Latent inhibition, retarded learning after pre-exposure to the to-be-conditioned stimulus, was examined using a blink conditioned procedure in humans. Experiment 1 showed that the procedure is suited to inducing the latent inhibition effect. In Experiment 2, the introduction of a 3-minute interval between pre-exposure and conditioning phases attenuated latent inhibition. These results contribute to identify the mechanisms involved in pre-exposure and subsequent conditioning of a stimulus, which is particularly important if we bear in mind that latent inhibition has been used repeatedly as an instrument to analyze the course of attentional processes in normal and pathological populations.

  8. Strategy difficulty effects in young and older adults' episodic memory are modulated by inter-stimulus intervals and executive control processes.

    PubMed

    Burger, Lucile; Uittenhove, Kim; Lemaire, Patrick; Taconnat, Laurence

    2017-04-01

    Efficient execution of strategies is crucial to memory performance and to age-related differences in this performance. Relative strategy complexity influences memory performance and aging effects on memory. Here, we aimed to further our understanding of the effects of relative strategy complexity by looking at the role of cognitive control functions and the time-course of the effects of relative strategy complexity. Thus, we manipulated inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) and assessed executive functions. Results showed that (a) performance as a function of the relative strategy difficulty of the current and previous trial was modulated by ISI, (b) these effects were modulated by inhibition capacities, and (c) significant age differences were found in the way ISI modulates relative strategy difficulty. These findings have important implications for understanding the relationships between aging, executive control, and strategy execution in episodic memory.

  9. α-Adrenergic effects on low-frequency oscillations in blood pressure and R-R intervals during sympathetic activation.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Antti M; Frances, Maria F; Tiinanen, Suvi; Craen, Rosemary; Rachinsky, Maxim; Petrella, Robert J; Seppänen, Tapio; Huikuri, Heikki V; Tulppo, Mikko P; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2011-08-01

    The present study was designed to address the contribution of α-adrenergic modulation to the genesis of low-frequency (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) oscillations in R-R interval (RRi), blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during different sympathetic stimuli. Blood pressure and RRi were measured continuously in 12 healthy subjects during 5 min periods each of lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -40 mmHg), static handgrip exercise (HG; 20% of maximal force) and postexercise forearm circulatory occlusion (PECO) with and without α-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity was recorded in five subjects during LBNP and in six subjects during HG and PECO. Low-frequency powers and median frequencies of BP, RRi and MSNA were calculated from power spectra. Low-frequency power during LBNP was lower with phentolamine versus without for both BP and RRi oscillations (1.6 ± 0.6 versus 1.2 ± 0.7 ln mmHg(2), P = 0.049; and 6.9 ± 0.8 versus 5.4 ± 0.9 ln ms(2), P = 0.001, respectively). In contrast, the LBNP with phentolamine increased the power of high-frequency oscillations (0.15-0.4 Hz) in BP and MSNA (P < 0.01 for both), which was not observed during saline infusion. Phentolamine also blunted the increases in the LBNP-induced increase in frequency of LF oscillations in BP and RRi. Phentolamine decreased the LF power of RRi during HG (P = 0.015) but induced no other changes in LF powers or frequencies during HG. Phentolamine resulted in decreased frequency of LF oscillations in RRi (P = 0.004) during PECO, and a similar tendency was observed in BP and MSNA. The power of LF oscillation in MSNA did not change during any intervention. We conclude that α-adrenergic modulation contributes to LF oscillations in BP and RRi during baroreceptor unloading (LBNP) but not during static exercise. Also, α-adrenergic modulation partly explains the shift to a higher frequency of LF oscillations during baroreceptor unloading and muscle

  10. Effects of Data Sampling on Graphical Depictions of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Mary-Katherine; Bourret, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous data-collection methods were compared in the context of discrete-trial programming. Archival data sets were analyzed using trial sampling (1st 5 trials, 1st 3 trials, and 1st trial only) and session sampling (every other session, every 3rd session, and every 5th session). Results showed that trial sampling…

  11. Prediction of the confidence interval of quantitative trait Loci location.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Peter M; Goddard, Mike E

    2004-07-01

    In 1997, Darvasi and Soller presented empirical predictions of the confidence interval of quantitative trait loci (QTL) location for dense marker maps in experimental crosses. They showed from simulation results for backcross and F2 populations from inbred lines that the 95% confidence interval was a simple function of sample size and the effect of the QTL. In this study, we derive by theory simple equations that can be used to predict any confidence interval and show that for the 95% confidence interval, they are in good agreement with the empirical results given by Darvasi and Soller. A general form of the confidence interval is given that also applies to other population structures (e.g., collections of sib pairs). Furthermore, the expected shape of the likelihood-ratio-test around the true QTL location is derived, which is shown to be extremely leptokurtic. It is shown that this shape explains why confidence intervals from the Log of Odds (LOD) drop-off method and bootstrap results frequently differ for real data sets.

  12. The Effect of High-Intensity Interval Cycling Sprints Subsequent to Arm-Curl Exercise on Upper-Body Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Shou; Okuyama, Mizuki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    Kikuchi, N, Yoshida, S, Okuyama, M, and Nakazato, K. The effect of high-intensity interval cycling sprints subsequent to arm-curl exercise on upper-body muscle strength and hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2318-2323, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower limb sprint interval training (SIT) after arm resistance training (RT) influences training response of arm muscle strength and hypertrophy. Twenty men participated in this study. We divided subjects into RT group (n = 6) and concurrent training group (CT, n = 6). The RT program was designed to induce muscular hypertrophy (3 sets × 10 repetitions [reps] at 80% 1 repetition maximum [1RM] of arm-curl exercise) and was performed in an 8-week training schedule performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days. Subjects assigned to the CT group performed identical protocols as strength training and modified SIT (4 sets of 30-s maximal effort, separated in 4 m 30-s rest intervals) on the same day. Pretest and posttest maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and 1RM were measured. Significant increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max from pretest to posttest was observed in the CT group (p = 0.010, effect size [ES] = 1.84) but not in the RT group (p = 0.559, ES = 0.35). Significant increase in CSA from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.030, ES = 1.49) but not in the CT group (p = 0.110, ES = 1.01). Significant increase in 1RM from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.021, ES = 1.57) but not in the CT group (p = 0.065, ES = 1.19). In conclusion, our data indicate that concurrent lower limb SIT interferes with arm muscle hypertrophy and strength.

  13. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Coquart, JB; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p < 0.05) body mass (BM), BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF). Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p < 0.05, ES = 0.53 and ES = 0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p < 0.05) in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p = 0.021, ES = 0.67 and p = 0.011, ES = 0.73) and in RPE (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76 and p = 0.017, ES = 0.57) in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p < 0.001) and VO2max (p < 0.01) in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p < 0.01) in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity. PMID:27274107

  14. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Racil, G; Coquart, J B; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p < 0.05) body mass (BM), BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF). Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p < 0.05, ES = 0.53 and ES = 0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p < 0.05) in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p = 0.021, ES = 0.67 and p = 0.011, ES = 0.73) and in RPE (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76 and p = 0.017, ES = 0.57) in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p < 0.001) and VO2max (p < 0.01) in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p < 0.01) in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  15. Guide for Calculating and Interpreting Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals in Intellectual and Developmental Disability Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper includes a nontechnical description of methods for calculating effect sizes in intellectual and developmental disability studies. Different hypothetical studies are used to illustrate how null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and effect size findings can result in quite different outcomes and therefore conflicting results. Whereas…

  16. Doubly-Latent Models of School Contextual Effects: Integrating Multilevel and Structural Equation Approaches to Control Measurement and Sampling Error.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Herbert W; Lüdtke, Oliver; Robitzsch, Alexander; Trautwein, Ulrich; Asparouhov, Tihomir; Muthén, Bengt; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2009-11-30

    This article is a methodological-substantive synergy. Methodologically, we demonstrate latent-variable contextual models that integrate structural equation models (with multiple indicators) and multilevel models. These models simultaneously control for and unconfound measurement error due to sampling of items at the individual (L1) and group (L2) levels and sampling error due the sampling of persons in the aggregation of L1 characteristics to form L2 constructs. We consider a set of models that are latent or manifest in relation to sampling items (measurement error) and sampling of persons (sampling error) and discuss when different models might be most useful. We demonstrate the flexibility of these 4 core models by extending them to include random slopes, latent (single-level or cross-level) interactions, and latent quadratic effects. Substantively we use these models to test the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), showing that individual student levels of academic self-concept (L1-ASC) are positively associated with individual level achievement (L1-ACH) and negatively associated with school-average achievement (L2-ACH)-a finding with important policy implications for the way schools are structured. Extending tests of the BFLPE in new directions, we show that the nonlinear effects of the L1-ACH (a latent quadratic effect) and the interaction between gender and L1-ACH (an L1 × L1 latent interaction) are not significant. Although random-slope models show no significant school-to-school variation in relations between L1-ACH and L1-ASC, the negative effects of L2-ACH (the BFLPE) do vary somewhat with individual L1-ACH. We conclude with implications for diverse applications of the set of latent contextual models, including recommendations about their implementation, effect size estimates (and confidence intervals) appropriate to multilevel models, and directions for further research in contextual effect analysis.

  17. Liquid microjunction surface sampling probe fluid dynamics: computational and experimental analysis of coaxial intercapillary positioning effects on sample manipulation.

    PubMed

    Elnaggar, Mariam S; Barbier, Charlotte; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-07-01

    A coaxial geometry liquid microjunction surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP) enables direct extraction of analytes from surfaces for subsequent analysis by techniques like mass spectrometry. Solution dynamics at the probe-to-sample surface interface in the LMJ-SSP has been suspected to influence sampling efficiency and dispersion but has not been rigorously investigated. The effect on flow dynamics and analyte transport to the mass spectrometer caused by coaxial retraction of the inner and outer capillaries from each other and the surface during sampling with a LMJ-SSP was investigated using computational fluid dynamics and experimentation. A transparent LMJ-SSP was constructed to provide the means for visual observation of the dynamics of the surface sampling process. Visual observation, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, and experimental results revealed that inner capillary axial retraction from the flush position relative to the outer capillary transitioned the probe from a continuous sampling and injection mode through an intermediate regime to sample plug formation mode caused by eddy currents at the sampling end of the probe. The potential for analytical implementation of these newly discovered probe operational modes is discussed.

  18. Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe Fluid Dynamics: Computational and Experimental Analysis of Coaxial Intercapillary Positioning Effects on Sample Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElNaggar, Mariam S.; Barbier, Charlotte; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2011-07-01

    A coaxial geometry liquid microjunction surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP) enables direct extraction of analytes from surfaces for subsequent analysis by techniques like mass spectrometry. Solution dynamics at the probe-to-sample surface interface in the LMJ-SSP has been suspected to influence sampling efficiency and dispersion but has not been rigorously investigated. The effect on flow dynamics and analyte transport to the mass spectrometer caused by coaxial retraction of the inner and outer capillaries from each other and the surface during sampling with a LMJ-SSP was investigated using computational fluid dynamics and experimentation. A transparent LMJ-SSP was constructed to provide the means for visual observation of the dynamics of the surface sampling process. Visual observation, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, and experimental results revealed that inner capillary axial retraction from the flush position relative to the outer capillary transitioned the probe from a continuous sampling and injection mode through an intermediate regime to sample plug formation mode caused by eddy currents at the sampling end of the probe. The potential for analytical implementation of these newly discovered probe operational modes is discussed.

  19. Proximity effect thermometer for local temperature measurements on mesoscopic samples.

    SciTech Connect

    Aumentado, J.; Eom, J.; Chandrasekhar, V.; Baldo, P. M.; Rehn, L. E.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-11-29

    Using the strong temperature-dependent resistance of a normal metal wire in proximity to a superconductor, we have been able to measure the local temperature of electrons heated by flowing a direct-current (dc) in a metallic wire to within a few tens of millikelvin at low temperatures. By placing two such thermometers at different parts of a sample, we have been able to measure the temperature difference induced by a dc flowing in the samples. This technique may provide a flexible means of making quantitative thermal and thermoelectric measurements on mesoscopic metallic samples.

  20. Detecting spatial structures in throughfall data: the effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and variogram estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Beate; Zimmermann, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    In the last three decades, an increasing number of studies analyzed spatial patterns in throughfall to investigate the consequences of rainfall redistribution for biogeochemical and hydrological processes in forests. In the majority of cases, variograms were used to characterize the spatial properties of the throughfall data. The estimation of the variogram from sample data requires an appropriate sampling scheme: most importantly, a large sample and an appropriate layout of sampling locations that often has to serve both variogram estimation and geostatistical prediction. While some recommendations on these aspects exist, they focus on Gaussian data and high ratios of the variogram range to the extent of the study area. However, many hydrological data, and throughfall data in particular, do not follow a Gaussian distribution. In this study, we examined the effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and calculation methods on variogram estimation of throughfall data. For our investigation, we first generated non-Gaussian random fields based on throughfall data with heavy outliers. Subsequently, we sampled the fields with three extents (plots with edge lengths of 25 m, 50 m, and 100 m), four common sampling designs (two grid-based layouts, transect and random sampling), and five sample sizes (50, 100, 150, 200, 400). We then estimated the variogram parameters by method-of-moments and residual maximum likelihood. Our key findings are threefold. First, the choice of the extent has a substantial influence on the estimation of the variogram. A comparatively small ratio of the extent to the correlation length is beneficial for variogram estimation. Second, a combination of a minimum sample size of 150, a design that ensures the sampling of small distances and variogram estimation by residual maximum likelihood offers a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency. Third, studies relying on method-of-moments based variogram estimation may have to employ at least

  1. Detecting spatial structures in throughfall data: The effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and variogram estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Beate; Zimmermann, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    In the last decades, an increasing number of studies analyzed spatial patterns in throughfall by means of variograms. The estimation of the variogram from sample data requires an appropriate sampling scheme: most importantly, a large sample and a layout of sampling locations that often has to serve both variogram estimation and geostatistical prediction. While some recommendations on these aspects exist, they focus on Gaussian data and high ratios of the variogram range to the extent of the study area. However, many hydrological data, and throughfall data in particular, do not follow a Gaussian distribution. In this study, we examined the effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and calculation method on variogram estimation of throughfall data. For our investigation, we first generated non-Gaussian random fields based on throughfall data with large outliers. Subsequently, we sampled the fields with three extents (plots with edge lengths of 25 m, 50 m, and 100 m), four common sampling designs (two grid-based layouts, transect and random sampling) and five sample sizes (50, 100, 150, 200, 400). We then estimated the variogram parameters by method-of-moments (non-robust and robust estimators) and residual maximum likelihood. Our key findings are threefold. First, the choice of the extent has a substantial influence on the estimation of the variogram. A comparatively small ratio of the extent to the correlation length is beneficial for variogram estimation. Second, a combination of a minimum sample size of 150, a design that ensures the sampling of small distances and variogram estimation by residual maximum likelihood offers a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency. Third, studies relying on method-of-moments based variogram estimation may have to employ at least 200 sampling points for reliable variogram estimates. These suggested sample sizes exceed the number recommended by studies dealing with Gaussian data by up to 100 %. Given that most previous

  2. The effects of sample scheduling and sample numbers on estimates of the annual fluxes of suspended sediment in fluvial systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Clarke, Robin T.; Merten, Gustavo Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, there has been both continuing and growing interest in developing accurate estimates of the annual fluvial transport (fluxes and loads) of suspended sediment and sediment-associated chemical constituents. This study provides an evaluation of the effects of manual sample numbers (from 4 to 12 year−1) and sample scheduling (random-based, calendar-based and hydrology-based) on the precision, bias and accuracy of annual suspended sediment flux estimates. The evaluation is based on data from selected US Geological Survey daily suspended sediment stations in the USA and covers basins ranging in area from just over 900 km2 to nearly 2 million km2 and annual suspended sediment fluxes ranging from about 4 Kt year−1 to about 200 Mt year−1. The results appear to indicate that there is a scale effect for random-based and calendar-based sampling schemes, with larger sample numbers required as basin size decreases. All the sampling schemes evaluated display some level of positive (overestimates) or negative (underestimates) bias. The study further indicates that hydrology-based sampling schemes are likely to generate the most accurate annual suspended sediment flux estimates with the fewest number of samples, regardless of basin size. This type of scheme seems most appropriate when the determination of suspended sediment concentrations, sediment-associated chemical concentrations, annual suspended sediment and annual suspended sediment-associated chemical fluxes only represent a few of the parameters of interest in multidisciplinary, multiparameter monitoring programmes. The results are just as applicable to the calibration of autosamplers/suspended sediment surrogates currently used to measure/estimate suspended sediment concentrations and ultimately, annual suspended sediment fluxes, because manual samples are required to adjust the sample data/measurements generated by these techniques so that they provide depth-integrated and cross

  3. Effect of sampling on real ocular aberration measurements

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Lourdes; Marcos, Susana; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Burns, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    The minimum number of samples necessary to fully characterize the aberration pattern of the eye is a question under debate in the clinical as well as the scientific community. We performed repeated measurements of ocular aberrations in 12 healthy nonsurgical human eyes and in 3 artificial eyes, using different sampling patterns (hexagonal, circular, and rectangular with 19 to 177 samples, and 3 radial patterns with 49 sample coordinates corresponding to zeros of the Albrecht, Jacobi, and Legendre functions). For each measurement set we computed two different metrics based on the root-mean-square (RMS) of difference maps (RMS_Diff) and the proportional change in the wavefront (W%). These metrics are used to compare wavefront estimates as well as to summarize results across eyes. We used computer simulations to extend our results to “abnormal eyes” (keratoconic, post-LASIK, and post-radial keratotomy eyes). We found that the spatial distribution of the samples can be more important than the number of samples for both our measured as well as our simulated “abnormal” eyes. Experimentally, we did not find large differences across patterns except, as expected, for undersampled patterns. PMID:17767247

  4. Delayed matching to sample: Reinforcement has opposite effects on resistance to change in two related procedures

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A.; Shahan, Timothy A.; Odum, Amy L.; Ward, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Effects of reinforcement on delayed matching to sample (DMTS) have been studied in two within-subject procedures. In one, reinforcer magnitudes or probabilities vary from trial to trial and are signaled within trials (designated signaled DMTS trials). In the other, reinforcer probabilities are consistent for a series of trials produced by responding on variable-interval (VI) schedules within multiple-schedule components (designated multiple VI DMTS). In both procedures, forgetting functions in rich trials or components are higher than and roughly parallel to those in lean trials or components. However, during disruption, accuracy has been found to decrease more in rich than in lean signaled DMTS trials, and conversely, to decrease more in lean than in rich multiple VI DMTS components. The present study compared these procedures with two groups of pigeons. In baseline, forgetting functions in rich trials or components were higher than and roughly parallel to those in lean trials or components, and were similar between procedures. During disruption by prefeeding or extinction, accuracy decreased more in rich signaled DMTS trials, whereas accuracy decreased more in lean multiple VI DMTS components. These results replicate earlier studies and are predicted by a model of DMTS by Nevin, Davison, Odum, and Shahan (2007). PMID:22205622

  5. Effect of storage conditions on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen concentration on canine plasma samples

    PubMed Central

    Casella, Stefania; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The present study was to assess the effect of storage conditions on prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen concentration in blood samples of healthy dogs. Thirty-five dogs of various breeds were included in the study. Citrated blood samples were obtained and plasma was divided into four aliquots to assess selected clotting parameters by means of a coagulometer. The first aliquot was analysed within 1 h after collection, while the remaining 3 were stored at 8℃ for 4, 8 and 24 h, respectively. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance documented a significant decreasing effect on PT at 24 h compared to 8 h and on fibrinogen concentration after 8 and 24 h compared to sampling time and at 4 and 24 h compared to 8 h post sampling. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that only fibrinogen appears prone to significant decrease. In fact, aPTT is not substantially affected by refrigeration for at least 24 h post sampling and PT showed a statistical difference that does not necessary indicate biological significance as the results obtained were within reference intervals for the dog. PMID:20458152

  6. Effects of sampling conditions on DNA-based estimates of American black bear abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    DNA-based capture-mark-recapture techniques are commonly used to estimate American black bear (Ursus americanus) population abundance (N). Although the technique is well established, many questions remain regarding study design. In particular, relationships among N, capture probability of heterogeneity mixtures A and B (pA and pB, respectively, or p, collectively), the proportion of each mixture (π), number of capture occasions (k), and probability of obtaining reliable estimates of N are not fully understood. We investigated these relationships using 1) an empirical dataset of DNA samples for which true N was unknown and 2) simulated datasets with known properties that represented a broader array of sampling conditions. For the empirical data analysis, we used the full closed population with heterogeneity data type in Program MARK to estimate N for a black bear population in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. We systematically reduced the number of those samples used in the analysis to evaluate the effect that changes in capture probabilities may have on parameter estimates. Model-averaged N for females and males were 161 (95% CI = 114–272) and 100 (95% CI = 74–167), respectively (pooled N = 261, 95% CI = 192–419), and the average weekly p was 0.09 for females and 0.12 for males. When we reduced the number of samples of the empirical data, support for heterogeneity models decreased. For the simulation analysis, we generated capture data with individual heterogeneity covering a range of sampling conditions commonly encountered in DNA-based capture-mark-recapture studies and examined the relationships between those conditions and accuracy (i.e., probability of obtaining an estimated N that is within 20% of true N), coverage (i.e., probability that 95% confidence interval includes true N), and precision (i.e., probability of obtaining a coefficient of variation ≤20%) of estimates using logistic regression. The capture probability

  7. The effect of a 10-week high-intensity interval training and ginger consumption on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women

    PubMed Central

    Nayebifar, Shila; Afzalpour, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kazemi, Toba; Eivary, Seyed Hosein Abtahi; Mogharnasi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by doing regular physical exercises and using herbal supplements. The present study is aimed at assessing ginger supplement and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized, experimental, and controlled one in which thirty healthy overweight women aged 20–30 years were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely, ginger, ginger + HIIT, and placebo + HIIT. The training groups performed high-intensity interval exercises (i.e. 40-m maximal shuttle run) for ten consecutive weeks. The supplement groups daily took 3 g of ginger pills and the third group took placebo. Results: Paired t-test revealed a significant decrease in the density of type 1 monocytes chemo tactic protein (MCP-1) in HIIT + ginger (P = 0.026) and HIIT + placebo (P = 0.001) groups. Besides, maximum aerobic capacity in the two training groups significantly increased P = 0.002 and P = 0.000, respectively. In spite of this, analysis of variance showed no significant differences in three groups regarding the three indices such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (P = 0.093), MCP-1(P = 0.075), and serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) (P = 0.164). Conclusion: A 10-week intensive interval exercise, by itself or together with ginger supplement, improved MCP-1 and maximum oxygen consumption in overweight women, without any significant effect on soluble ICAM-1 and IL-10. These findings indicate the relative and efficient role of HIIT in overweight women without the necessity to combine with ginger as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplement. PMID:28255324

  8. Confidence interval based parameter estimation--a new SOCR applet and activity.

    PubMed

    Christou, Nicolas; Dinov, Ivo D

    2011-01-01

    Many scientific investigations depend on obtaining data-driven, accurate, robust and computationally-tractable parameter estimates. In the face of unavoidable intrinsic variability, there are different algorithmic approaches, prior assumptions and fundamental principles for computing point and interval estimates. Efficient and reliable parameter estimation is critical in making inference about observable experiments, summarizing process characteristics and prediction of experimental behaviors. In this manuscript, we demonstrate simulation, construction, validation and interpretation of confidence intervals, under various assumptions, using the interactive web-based tools provided by the Statistics Online Computational Resource (http://www.SOCR.ucla.edu). Specifically, we present confidence interval examples for population means, with known or unknown population standard deviation; population variance; population proportion (exact and approximate), as well as confidence intervals based on bootstrapping or the asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimates. Like all SOCR resources, these confidence interval resources may be openly accessed via an Internet-connected Java-enabled browser. The SOCR confidence interval applet enables the user to empirically explore and investigate the effects of the confidence-level, the sample-size and parameter of interest on the corresponding confidence interval. Two applications of the new interval estimation computational library are presented. The first one is a simulation of confidence interval estimating the US unemployment rate and the second application demonstrates the computations of point and interval estimates of hippocampal surface complexity for Alzheimers disease patients, mild cognitive impairment subjects and asymptomatic controls.

  9. Holding effects on coliform enumeration in drinking water samples.

    PubMed

    McDaniels, A E; Bordner, R H; Gartside, P S; Haines, J R; Brenner, K P; Rankin, C C

    1985-10-01

    Standard procedures for analyzing drinking water stress the need to adhere to the time and temperature conditions recommended for holding samples collected for microbiological testing. The National Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program requires compliance with these holding limits, but some investigators have reported difficulties in meeting them. Research was conducted by standard analytical methods to determine if changes occurred when samples were held at 5 and 22 degrees C and analyzed at 0, 24, 30, and 48 h. Samples were analyzed for coliforms by the membrane filter and fermentation-tube procedures and for heterotrophs by the pour plate method. A total of 17 treated water samples were collected from a large municipal distribution system from August to December 1981, and 12 samples were collected from January to May 1983. The samples were dosed with coliforms previously isolated from the water system, Enterobacter cloacae in 1981 and Citrobacter freundii in 1983. The coliform counts declined linearly over time, and the rates of decline were significant at both 5 and 22 degrees C. Within 24 h at 22 degrees C, levels of E. cloacae and C. freundii decreased by 47 and 26%, respectively, and at 5 degrees C, E. cloacae numbers declined by 23%. Results from these representative laboratory-grown coliforms reinforced those previously obtained with naturally occurring coliforms under the same experimental conditions. Significantly, some samples with initially unacceptable counts (greater than 4/100 ml) met the safe drinking water limits after storage at 24 h at 5 and 22 degrees C and would have been classified as satisfactory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Confidence Intervals for the Between-Study Variance in Random Effects Meta-Analysis Using Generalised Cochran Heterogeneity Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Statistical inference is problematic in the common situation in meta-analysis where the random effects model is fitted to just a handful of studies. In particular, the asymptotic theory of maximum likelihood provides a poor approximation, and Bayesian methods are sensitive to the prior specification. Hence, less efficient, but easily computed and…

  11. Seismicity and Deformation of Krafla Volcano, Iceland. Intervals of Low Seismicity Rate during Rapid Inflation Explained By the Kaiser Effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimisson, E. R.; Einarsson, P.; Sigmundsson, F.; Brandsdottir, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Krafla central volcano in NE-Iceland produced about 20 dike intrusions during a rifting episode 1975-1984. These intrusions were always preceded by inflation of the caldera. Once a dike started propagating rapid deflation was observed. The first deflation event began in December 1975 with a dike traveling laterally from the magma chamber. Leveling measurements revealed subsidence of 2 m close to the deflation center. In February 1976 a stage of inflation began and at the same time the seismicity rate in the caldera rose in good correlation with the inflation. A small intrusion started propagating in late September 1976 which was accompanied by maximum subsidence of about 14 cm. However in the next 3 inflation and deflation cycles the inflation periods were almost aseismic until the inflation level of previous cycle was exceeded. At that point a sharp increase in the caldera earthquake count was observed. This phenomenon was observed until late April 1977 when a fissure eruption occurred inside the caldera. By inverting leveling data from 87 stations for a Mogi source and regarding the volume change of the source as a measure of stress we suggest that this phenomenon can be explained by the Kaiser effect. The Kaiser effect is well known from rock mechanics where under cyclic loading and unloading rocks, and other materials, induce dramatic increase in acoustic emissions when the load exceeds that of previous cycles. Krafla demonstrated the same effect while the external stress field was not significantly changed during the aforementioned 3 inflation/deflation cycles. This condition was disturbed when eruption occurred inside the caldera. The state of stress in the vicinity of the magma chamber was changed and subsequent inflation periods were not accompanied by significant seismicity. These results indicate that the Kaiser effect is an important part of understanding the relationship between deformation and seismicity in active volcanoes. The importance of

  12. USE OF EXPERT RATINGS AS SAMPLING STRATA FOR A MORE COST-EFFECTIVE PROBABILITY SAMPLE OF A RARE POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Daniel; Perlman, Judith; Marshall, Grant N.; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    We consider situations in which externally observable characteristics allow experts to quickly categorize individual households as likely or unlikely to contain a member of a rare target population. This classification can form the basis of disproportionate stratified sampling such that households classified as “unlikely” are sampled at a lower rate than those classified as “likely,” thereby reducing screening costs. Design weights account for this approach and allow unbiased estimates for the target population. We demonstrate that with sensitivity and specificity of expert classification at least 70%, and ideally at least 80%, our approach can economically increase effective sample size for a rare population. We develop heuristics for implementing this approach and demonstrate that sensitivity drives design effects and screening costs whereas specificity only drives the latter. We demonstrate that the potential gains from this approach increase as the target population becomes rarer. We further show that for most applications, unlikely strata should be sampled at 1/6 to ½ the rate of likely strata. This approach was applied to a survey of Cambodian immigrants in which the 82% of households rated “unlikely” were sampled at ¼ the rate as “likely” households, reducing screening from 9.4 to 4.0 approaches per complete. Sensitivity and specificity were 86% and 91% respectively. Weighted estimation had a design effect of 1.26 so screening costs per effective sample size were reduced 47%. We also note that in this instance, expert classification appeared to be uncorrelated with survey outcomes of interest among eligibles. PMID:20936050

  13. The effects of the preferential 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on prepulse inhibition of startle in healthy human volunteers depend on interstimulus interval.

    PubMed

    Vollenweider, Franz X; Csomor, Philipp A; Knappe, Bernhard; Geyer, Mark A; Quednow, Boris B

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit impairments in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response. Hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists are used for animal models of schizophrenia because they mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia in humans and induce PPI deficits in animals. Nevertheless, one report indicates that the 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist psilocybin increases PPI in healthy humans. Hence, we investigated these inconsistent results by assessing the dose-dependent effects of psilocybin on PPI in healthy humans. Sixteen subjects each received placebo or 115, 215, and 315 microg/kg of psilocybin at 4-week intervals in a randomized and counterbalanced order. PPI at 30-, 60-, 120-, 240-, and 2000-ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs) was measured 90 and 165 min after drug intake, coinciding with the peak and post-peak effects of psilocybin. The effects of psilocybin on psychopathological core dimensions and sustained attention were assessed by the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (5D-ASC) and the Frankfurt Attention Inventory (FAIR). Psilocybin dose-dependently reduced PPI at short (30 ms), had no effect at medium (60 ms), and increased PPI at long (120-2000 ms) ISIs, without affecting startle reactivity or habituation. Psilocybin dose-dependently impaired sustained attention and increased all 5D-ASC scores with exception of Auditory Alterations. Moreover, psilocybin-induced impairments in sustained attention performance were positively correlated with reduced PPI at the 30 ms ISI and not with the concomitant increases in PPI observed at long ISIs. These results confirm the psilocybin-induced increase in PPI at long ISIs and reveal that psilocybin also produces a decrease in PPI at short ISIs that is correlated with impaired attention and consistent with deficient PPI in schizophrenia.

  14. Invertebrate bioassays with North Sea water samples. I. Structural effects on embryos and larvae of serpulids, oysters and sea urchins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöckner, K.; Rosenthal, H.; Willführ, J.

    1985-03-01

    Structural effects of bottom and surface water samples from two dumping grounds in the inner German Bight on the development of three meroplanktonic organisms (Pomatoceros triqueter: Polychaeta, Psammechinus miliaris: Echinodermata and Crassostrea gigas, Mollusca) were investigated. The titaniumdioxide dumping site was sampled immediately after dumping (within the visible waste trail 1 km behind the vessel), and 10 h after dumping. Samples were taken in the sewage sludge deposition area in the intervals between the usual dumping activities, regardless of the exact dumping schedule. The preserved bioassay test organisms were inspected microscopically to count percentages of “normal” larval hatch in test water samples, reference water samples and laboratory aged control water samples (5 to 10 replicates). The relative water quality at various dumping sites was expressed in terms of “net risk”-values (Woelke, 1972) compared to hatching rates observed in the controls. Larval development of P. triqueter was significantly suppressed (up to -22 % “net risk”) in trail water of the titanium dioxide dump site while the development of sea urchin larvae was still affected in the 10 h surface samples. Hatching of all test organisms in bottom-water samples from the centre of the sewage sludge dump site was affected to different degrees when compared to reference areas about 4 km north or 6 km northwest of the dumping area. The general usefulness of standardized bioassay procedures in pollution monitoring programmes is discussed. The results presented here call for further verification to minimize experimental background variability and to enlarge the catalogue of suitable effects criteria.

  15. A MORE COST-EFFECTIVE EMAP BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL SAMPLING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macrofaunal sampling protocols in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) are to collect 30 to 50 random benthic macrofauna [defined as animals retained on a 0.5 mm (East and Gulf Coasts, USA) or a 1.0 mm mesh siev...

  16. Cost Effective Mission Strategy for Lunar Sample Return Mission Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadar, G.; Shah, U. B.; Kothandhapani, A.; Singh, N. K.; Hegde, N. S.

    2016-11-01

    A novel lunar sample return mission from south pole region is proposed where, after ascent and Trans-Geo Injection, the return module attains an Earth orbit and is de-orbited using aero-braking. Also includes a lander and an orbiter with payload.

  17. On the Effect of Preferential Sampling in Spatial Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The choice of the sampling locations in a spatial network is often guided by practical demands. In particular, typically, locations are preferentially chosen to capture high values of a response, for example, air pollution levels in environmental monitoring. Then, model estimatio...

  18. POREWATER CHEMISTRY: EFFECTS OF SAMPLING, STORAGE, HANDLING, AND TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a general principle, it is nearly impossible to remove a porewater sample from sediment, use it in a toxicity testing vessel with test organisms, and prevent changes in the chemistry of the natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic constituents. The degree of change in t...

  19. Hydrodynamic effects in buccal cell DNA sample collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidun, C. K.; Sozer, A. C.

    2003-11-01

    Many different methods can be used for collection of biological samples from individuals for DNA profiling purposes. However, blood and buccal cells are the two most popular sources of DNA. In situations where large numbers of samples have to be collected, buccal cell collection methods are the preferred choice because of minimized health risks and ease of collection, transportation, and storage. The normal practice in buccal cell collection is to rub a cotton swab or a piece of paper through the inner check of the subject in order to release the cells and to attach and collect the cells on the cotton or paper fibers. The problem with the current forms of sample collection and storage is that in some cases up to 20% of the samples collected do not result in a DNA profile of adequate quality to be reported by the laboratory without repeated testing. In this study, we consider the mechanics of a small sheet of paper being rubbed on the surface of the inner check. The process is not too different from coating a paper substrate with highly deformable material. The shear field developed between the paper and the fluid adjacent to the cells are estimated based on the available data. The action of the cell release and the cell adherence to the surface will be outlined.

  20. Interval Timing in Children: Effects of Auditory and Visual Pacing Stimuli and Relationships with Reading and Attention Variables

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Emma E.; Talcott, Joel B.

    2012-01-01

    Motor timing tasks have been employed in studies of neurodevelopmental disorders such as developmental dyslexia and ADHD, where they provide an index of temporal processing ability. Investigations of these disorders have used different stimulus parameters within the motor timing tasks that are likely to affect performance measures. Here we assessed the effect of auditory and visual pacing stimuli on synchronised motor timing performance and its relationship with cognitive and behavioural predictors that are commonly used in the diagnosis of these highly prevalent developmental disorders. Twenty-one children (mean age 9.6 years) completed a finger tapping task in two stimulus conditions, together with additional psychometric measures. As anticipated, synchronisation to the beat (ISI 329 ms) was less accurate in the visually paced condition. Decomposition of timing variance indicated that this effect resulted from differences in the way that visual and auditory paced tasks are processed by central timekeeping and associated peripheral implementation systems. The ability to utilise an efficient processing strategy on the visual task correlated with both reading and sustained attention skills. Dissociations between these patterns of relationship across task modality suggest that not all timing tasks are equivalent. PMID:22900054

  1. Interval timing in children: effects of auditory and visual pacing stimuli and relationships with reading and attention variables.

    PubMed

    Birkett, Emma E; Talcott, Joel B

    2012-01-01

    Motor timing tasks have been employed in studies of neurodevelopmental disorders such as developmental dyslexia and ADHD, where they provide an index of temporal processing ability. Investigations of these disorders have used different stimulus parameters within the motor timing tasks that are likely to affect performance measures. Here we assessed the effect of auditory and visual pacing stimuli on synchronised motor timing performance and its relationship with cognitive and behavioural predictors that are commonly used in the diagnosis of these highly prevalent developmental disorders. Twenty-one children (mean age 9.6 years) completed a finger tapping task in two stimulus conditions, together with additional psychometric measures. As anticipated, synchronisation to the beat (ISI 329 ms) was less accurate in the visually paced condition. Decomposition of timing variance indicated that this effect resulted from differences in the way that visual and auditory paced tasks are processed by central timekeeping and associated peripheral implementation systems. The ability to utilise an efficient processing strategy on the visual task correlated with both reading and sustained attention skills. Dissociations between these patterns of relationship across task modality suggest that not all timing tasks are equivalent.

  2. Sampling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  3. Is moderate intensity exercise training combined with high intensity interval training more effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness than moderate intensity exercise training alone?

    PubMed

    Roxburgh, Brendon H; Nolan, Paul B; Weatherwax, Ryan M; Dalleck, Lance C

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs) at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery), CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R)) and a sedentary control group (n = 7). Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control) in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control) in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). It was 'unclear' if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains 'unclear' whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart. Key PointsBoth continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone and CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (CMIET + HIIT) elicit 'possibly beneficial' clinically meaningful improvements in cardiorespiratory

  4. Effects of chronic video game use on time perception: differences between sub- and multi-second intervals.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Thiago Strahler; Covre, Priscila; Reyes, Marcelo Bussotti; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2013-02-01

    Even though video game players frequently report losing track of time while playing, few studies have addressed whether there are long-lasting effects of such activity on time perception. We compared the performance of chronic and occasional video game players in sub- and multi-second time perception tasks. Temporal Discrimination and Temporal Bisection tasks, in the range of 100 to 1,000 milliseconds, and Time estimation and Time production tasks, in the range of 5 to 60 seconds, were used to assess sub- and multi-second time perceptions, respectively. Chronic video game players performed significantly better than occasional players on sub-second tasks, but no group difference was found for the multi-second tasks used. Sub- and multi-second time perceptions are associated to different underlying systems: automatic and cognitive controlled for sub- and multi-second tasks, respectively. We argue that video game use seems to induce more efficient implicit, rather than cognitive controlled, processing of time.

  5. An effective plasma membrane proteomics approach for small tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Katrien; Lombaert, Nathalie; Valkenborg, Dirk; Baggerman, Geert; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2015-01-01

    Advancing the quest for new drug targets demands the development of innovative plasma membrane proteome research strategies applicable to small, functionally defined tissue samples. Biotinylation of acute tissue slices and streptavidin pull-down followed by shotgun proteomics allowed the selective extraction and identification of >1,600 proteins of which >60% are associated with the plasma membrane, including (G-protein coupled) receptors, ion channels and transporters, and this from mm3-scale tissue. PMID:26047021

  6. Recent advances in sample preparation techniques for effective bioanalytical methods.

    PubMed

    Kole, Prashant Laxman; Venkatesh, Gantala; Kotecha, Jignesh; Sheshala, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent developments in bioanalysis sample preparation techniques and gives an update on basic principles, theory, applications and possibilities for automation, and a comparative discussion on the advantages and limitation of each technique. Conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), protein precipitation (PP) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques are now been considered as methods of the past. The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of novel sample preparation techniques in bioanalysis. Developments in SPE techniques such as selective sorbents and in the overall approach to SPE, such as hybrid SPE and molecularly imprinted polymer SPE, have been addressed. Considerable literature has been published in the area of solid-phase micro-extraction and its different versions, e.g. stir bar sorptive extraction, and their application in the development of selective and sensitive bioanalytical methods. Techniques such as dispersive solid-phase extraction, disposable pipette extraction and micro-extraction by packed sorbent offer a variety of extraction phases and provide unique advantages to bioanalytical methods. On-line SPE utilizing column-switching techniques is rapidly gaining acceptance in bioanalytical applications. PP sample preparation techniques such as PP filter plates/tubes offer many advantages like removal of phospholipids and proteins in plasma/serum. Newer approaches to conventional LLE techniques (salting-out LLE) are also covered in this review article.

  7. Moisture effect in prompt gamma measurements from soil samples.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Khiari, F Z; Liadi, F A; Khateeb-Ur-Rehman; Raashid, M A; Isab, A H

    2016-09-01

    The variation in intensity of 1.78MeV silicon, 6.13MeV oxygen, and 2.22MeV hydrogen prompt gamma rays from soil samples due to the addition of 5.1, 7.4, 9.7, 11.9 and 14.0wt% water was studied for 14MeV incident neutron beams utilizing a LaBr3:Ce gamma ray detector. The intensities of 1.78MeV and 6.13MeV gamma rays from silicon and oxygen, respectively, decreased with increasing sample moisture. The intensity of 2.22MeV hydrogen gamma rays increases with moisture. The decrease in intensity of silicon and oxygen gamma rays with moisture concentration indicates a loss of 14MeV neutron flux, while the increase in intensity of 2.22MeV gamma rays with moisture indicates an increase in thermal neutron flux due to increasing concentration of moisture. The experimental intensities of silicon, oxygen and hydrogen prompt gamma rays, measured as a function of moisture concentration in the soil samples, are in good agreement with the theoretical results obtained through Monte Carlo calculations.

  8. The effects of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract on muscle soreness, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine responses to acute anaerobic interval training: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscle soreness and decreased performance often follow a bout of high-intensity exercise. By reducing these effects, an athlete can train more frequently and increase long-term performance. The purpose of this study is to examine whether a high-potency, black tea extract (BTE) alters the delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), oxidative stress, inflammation, and cortisol (CORT) responses to high-intensity anaerobic exercise. Methods College-age males (N = 18) with 1+ yrs of weight training experience completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects consumed the BTE (1,760 mg BTE·d-1) or placebo (PLA) for 9 days. Each subject completed two testing sessions (T1 & T2), which occurred on day 7 of the intervention. T1 & T2 consisted of a 30 s Wingate Test plus eight 10 s intervals. Blood samples were obtained before, 0, 30 & 60 min following the interval sessions and were used to analyze the total to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), 8-isoprostane (8-iso), CORT, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion. DOMS was recorded at 24 & 48 h post-test using a visual analog scale while BTE or PLA continued to be administered. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Compared to PLA, BTE produced significantly higher average peak power (P = 0.013) and higher average mean power (P = 0.067) across nine WAnT intervals. BTE produced significantly lower DOMS compared to PLA at 24 h post test (P < 0.001) and 48 h post test (P < 0.001). Compared to PLA, BTE had a slightly higher GSH:GSSG ratio at baseline which became significantly higher at 30 and 60 min post test (P < 0.002). AUC analysis revealed BTE to elicit significantly lower GSSG secretion (P = 0.009), significantly higher GSH:GSSG ratio (P = 0.001), and lower CORT secretion (P = 0.078) than PLA. AUC analysis did not reveal a significant difference in total IL-6 response (P = 0.145) between conditions. Conclusions Consumption of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract led to improved recovery and a

  9. Effects of temporal laser profile on the emission spectra for underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Study by short-interval double pulses with different pulse durations

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Ayaka Matsumoto, Ayumu; Nishi, Naoya; Sakka, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Takashi; Ogata, Yukio H.; Fukami, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-14

    We investigate the effects of temporal laser profile on the emission spectra of laser ablation plasma in water. We use short-interval (76 ns) double pulses with different pulse durations of the composing two pulses for the irradiation of underwater target. Narrow atomic spectral lines in emission spectra are obtained by the irradiation, where the two pulses are wide enough to be merged into a single-pulse-like temporal profile, while deformed spectra are obtained when the two pulses are fully separated. The behavior of the atomic spectral lines for the different pulse durations is consistent with that of the temporal profiles of the optical emission intensities of the plasma. All these results suggest that continuous excitation of the plasma during the laser irradiation for ∼100 ns is a key to obtain narrow emission spectral lines.

  10. Effects of sample storage time, temperature and syringe type on blood gas tensions in samples with high oxygen partial pressures.

    PubMed Central

    Pretto, J. J.; Rochford, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although plastic arterial sampling syringes are now commonly used, the effects of sample storage time and temperature on blood gas tensions are poorly described for samples with a high oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) taken with these high density polypropylene syringes. METHODS--Two ml samples of tonometered whole blood (PaO2 86.7 kPa, PaCO2 4.27 kPa) were placed in glass syringes and in three brands of plastic blood gas syringes. The syringes were placed either at room temperature or in iced water and blood gas analysis was performed at baseline and after 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. RESULTS--In the first 10 minutes measured PaO2 in plastic syringes at room temperature fell by an average of 1.21 kPa/min; placing the sample on ice reduced the rate of PaO2 decline to 0.19 kPa/min. The rate of fall of PaO2 in glass at room temperature was 0.49 kPa/min. The changes in PaCO2 were less dramatic and at room temperature averaged increases of 0.47 kPa for plastic syringes and 0.71 kPa for glass syringes over the entire two hour period. These changes in gas tension for plastic syringes would lead to an overestimation of pulmonary shunt measured by the 100% oxygen technique of 0.6% for each minute left at room temperature before analysis. CONCLUSIONS--Glass syringes are superior to plastic syringes in preserving samples with a high PaO2, and prompt and adequate cooling of such samples is essential for accurate blood gas analysis. PMID:8016801

  11. Effect of Sampling Disturbance on Laboratory-Measured Soil Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    stages of the stroke /push, the piston holds soil inside the tube in place, since the sample cannot pull away from the piston without creating a vacuum...tionally, the piston serves to assist in the control of disturbance during removal. When the tube has been pushed to the bottom of its stroke , the 10...8217te .ezah and.. °.. . SAPLING 1968) .." piston locked i p :....i..ti ...n reai e E to th.ub ndt ..-.r ssmlyi rota..t....-....d tosprt.hesml.rmuneligsi

  12. Measurements of Shock Effects Recorded by Itokawa Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Martinez, James; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Chan, Queenie H-.S.

    2016-01-01

    We requested and have been approved for 5 Hayabusa samples in order definitively establish the degree of shock experienced by the regolith of asteroid Itokawa, and to devise a bridge between shock determinations by standard light optical petrography, crystal structures as determined by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), and degree of crystallinity as determined by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). As of the writing of this abstract we are awaiting the approved samples. We propose measurements of astromaterial crystal structures and regolith processes. The proposed research work will improve our understanding of how small, primitive solar system bodies formed and evolved, and improve understanding of the processes that determine the history and future of habitability of environments on other solar system bodies. The results of the proposed research will directly enrich the ongoing asteroid and comet exploration missions by NASA, JAXA and ESA, and broaden our understanding of the origin and evolution of small bodies in the early solar system, and elucidate the nature of asteroid and comet regolith.

  13. Measurements of Shock Effects Recorded by Hayabusa Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Martinez, James; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Chan, Queenie H-.S.

    2015-01-01

    We requested and have been approved for 5 Hayabusa samples in order definitively establish the degree of shock experienced by the regolith of asteroid Itokawa, and to devise a bridge between shock determinations by standard light optical petrography, crystal structures as determined by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), and degree of crystallinity as determined by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) [1,2]. As of the writing of this abstract we are awaiting the approved samples. We propose measurements of astromaterial crystal structures and regolith processes. The proposed research work will improve our understanding of how small, primitive solar system bodies formed and evolved, and improve understanding of the processes that determine the history and future of habitability of environments on other solar system bodies. The results of the proposed research will directly enrich the ongoing asteroid and comet exploration missions by NASA, JAXA and ESA, and broaden our understanding of the origin and evolution of small bodies in the early solar system, and elucidate the nature of asteroid and comet regolith.

  14. Mass spectrometer with electron source for reducing space charge effects in sample beam

    DOEpatents

    Houk, Robert S.; Praphairaksit, Narong

    2003-10-14

    A mass spectrometer includes an ion source which generates a beam including positive ions, a sampling interface which extracts a portion of the beam from the ion source to form a sample beam that travels along a path and has an excess of positive ions over at least part of the path, thereby causing space charge effects to occur in the sample beam due to the excess of positive ions in the sample beam, an electron source which adds electrons to the sample beam to reduce space charge repulsion between the positive ions in the sample beam, thereby reducing the space charge effects in the sample beam and producing a sample beam having reduced space charge effects, and a mass analyzer which analyzes the sample beam having reduced space charge effects.

  15. Reference intervals for serum creatine kinase in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mougios, Vassilis

    2007-01-01

    Background The serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK) is used widely as an index of skeletal muscle fibre damage in sport and exercise. Since athletes have higher CK values than non‐athletes, comparing the values of athletes to the normal values established in non‐athletes is pointless. The purpose of this study was to introduce reference intervals for CK in athletes. Method CK was assayed in serum samples from 483 male athletes and 245 female athletes, aged 7–44. Samples had been obtained throughout the training and competition period. For comparison, CK was also assayed in a smaller number of non‐athletes. Reference intervals (2.5th to 97.5th percentile) were calculated by the non‐parametric method. Results The reference intervals were 82–1083 U/L (37°C) in male and 47–513 U/L in female athletes. The upper reference limits were twice the limits reported for moderately active non‐athletes in the literature or calculated in the non‐athletes in this study. The upper limits were up to six times higher than the limits reported for inactive individuals in the literature. When reference intervals were calculated specifically in male football (soccer) players and swimmers, a threefold difference in the upper reference limit was found (1492 vs 523 U/L, respectively), probably resulting from the different training and competition demands of the two sports. Conclusion Sport training and competition have profound effects on the reference intervals for serum CK. Introducing sport‐specific reference intervals may help to avoid misinterpretation of high values and to optimise training. PMID:17526622

  16. The Relationship between Sample Sizes and Effect Sizes in Systematic Reviews in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert; Smith, Dewi

    2009-01-01

    Research in fields other than education has found that studies with small sample sizes tend to have larger effect sizes than those with large samples. This article examines the relationship between sample size and effect size in education. It analyzes data from 185 studies of elementary and secondary mathematics programs that met the standards of…

  17. Effects of the New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Benzofuroxane Derivative BF-5m on High Glucose Induced Prolongation of Cardiac QT Interval and Increase of Coronary Perfusion Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Di Filippo, C.; Ferraro, B.; Maisto, R.; Trotta, M. C.; Di Carluccio, N.; Sartini, S.; La Motta, C.; Ferraraccio, F.; Rossi, F.; D'Amico, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the new aldose reductase inhibitor benzofuroxane derivative 5(6)-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylmethoxy)benzofuroxane (BF-5m) on the prolongation of cardiac QT interval and increase of coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) in isolated, high glucose (33.3 mM D-glucose) perfused rat hearts. BF-5m was dissolved in the Krebs solution at a final concentration of 0.01 μM, 0.05 μM, and 0.1 μM. 33.3 mM D-glucose caused a prolongation of the QT interval and increase of CPP up to values of 190 ± 12 ms and 110 ± 8 mmHg with respect to the values of hearts perfused with standard Krebs solution (11.1 mM D-glucose). The QT prolongation was reduced by 10%, 32%, and 41%, respectively, for the concentration of BF-5m 0.01 μM, 0.05 μM, and 0.1 μM. Similarly, the CPP was reduced by 20% for BF-5m 0.05 μM and by 32% for BF-5m 0.1 μM. BF-5m also increased the expression levels of sirtuin 1, MnSOD, eNOS, and FOXO-1, into the heart. The beneficial actions of BF-5m were partly abolished by the pretreatment of the rats with the inhibitor of the sirtuin 1 activity EX527 (10 mg/kg/day/7 days i.p.) prior to perfusion of the hearts with high glucose + BF-5m (0.1 μM). Therefore, BF-5m supplies cardioprotection from the high glucose induced QT prolongation and increase of CPP. PMID:26839893

  18. Effect of Different Obturation Materials on Residual Antimicrobial Activity of 2% Chlorhexidine in Dentin at Different Time Intervals: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Dehghan, Somayyeh; Sharifian, Mohammad Reza; Bahador, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gutta percha/AH26 and Resilon/RealSeal SE on residual antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (CHX) in human root dentin and suggest the best filling material when CHX is used as final irrigant. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty-four single-rooted human teeth were selected for this study. Canals were instrumented to the apical size #35. Smear layer was removed using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA and then 108 teeth were irrigated with 2% CHX and randomly divided into three groups of gutta percha/AH26, Resilon/RealSeal SE and positive controls. Each group was divided into three subgroups for different time intervals (one, three and six weeks). Thirty-six teeth, as negative controls, were irrigated with saline and obturated with gutta percha/AH26 and Resilon/RealSeal SE. Dentin powder was prepared at the afore-mentioned intervals. After exposure to Enterococcus faecalis for 24 hours, colony forming units (CFUs) were counted and residual antimicrobial activity was calculated. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis test and one-way ANOVA. The significance level was set at P<0.05. Results: The antimicrobial activity of CHX gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner but it maintained over 95% of its antimicrobial activity after six weeks. Moreover, Resilon/RealSeal SE significantly decreased the antimicrobial activity of CHX in comparison with gutta-percha/AH26 (P<0.05). Conclusion: After a final irrigation with CHX, gutta-percha/AH26 is a better choice for root canal obturation. PMID:27252755

  19. Effects of short deprivation and re-exposure intervals on the ethanol drinking behavior of selectively bred high alcohol-consuming rats.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Schultz, Jonathon A; Peper, Caron L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

    2008-08-01

    Alcoholics generally display cycles of excessive ethanol intake, abstinence and relapse behavior. Using an animal model of relapse-like drinking, the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE), our laboratory has shown that repeated 2-week cycles of ethanol deprivation and re-exposure, following an initial 6-week access period, result in a robust ADE by alcohol-preferring (P) and high alcohol-drinking (HAD-1 and HAD-2) rats. These rat lines have been selectively bred to prefer a 10% ethanol solution over water. The present study examined whether P and HAD rats would display an ADE using much shorter ethanol deprivation and re-exposure intervals. Rats were given either continuous or periodic concurrent access to multiple concentrations (10%, 20%, and 30% [vol/vol]) of ethanol. The periodic protocol involved access to ethanol for 12 days followed by four cycles of 4 days of deprivation and 4 days of re-exposure to ethanol access. High-alcohol-drinking rats displayed a robust 24-h ADE upon first re-exposure (HAD-1: approximately 5 vs. 8g/kg/day; HAD-2: approximately 6 vs. 9g/kg/day, baseline vs. re-exposure), whereas P rats ( approximately 7 vs. 8g/kg/day) displayed a modest, nonsignificant, increase in 24-h intake. In a separate group of rats, ethanol intake and blood alcohol concentrations after the first hour of the fourth re-exposure cycle were HAD-1: 2.0g/kg and 97 mg%, HAD-2: 2.3g/kg and 73 mg%, and P: 1.2g/kg and 71 mg%; with all three lines displaying a robust first hour ADE. These findings suggest that (a) an ADE may be observed with short ethanol deprivation and re-exposure intervals in HAD rats, and (b) the genetic make-up of the P and HAD rats influences the expression of this ADE.

  20. Gyroid Optical Metamaterials: Calculating the Effective Permittivity of Multidomain Samples

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Gold gyroid optical metamaterials are known to possess a reduced plasma frequency and linear dichroism imparted by their intricate subwavelength single gyroid morphology. The anisotropic optical properties are, however, only evident when a large individual gyroid domain is investigated. Multidomain gyroid metamaterials, fabricated using a polyisoprene-b-polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock terpolymer and consisting of multiple small gyroid domains with random orientation and handedness, instead exhibit isotropic optical properties. Comparing three effective medium models, we here show that the specular reflectance spectra of such multidomain gyroid optical metamaterials can be accurately modeled over a broad range of incident angles by a Bruggeman effective medium consisting of a random wire array. This model accurately reproduces previously published results tracking the variation in normal incidence reflectance spectra of gold gyroid optical metamaterials as a function of host refractive index and volume fill fraction of gold. The effective permittivity derived from this theory confirms the change in sign of the real part of the permittivity in the visible spectral region (so, that gold gyroid metamaterials exhibit both dielectric and metallic behavior at optical wavelengths). That a Bruggeman effective medium can accurately model the experimental reflectance spectra implies that small multidomain gold gyroid optical metamaterials behave both qualitatively and quantitatively as an amorphous composite of gold and air (i.e., nanoporous gold) and that coherent electromagnetic contributions arising from the subwavelength gyroid symmetry are not dominant. PMID:27785456

  1. Assessing uncertainty in DNA evidence caused by sampling effects.

    PubMed

    Curran, J M; Buckleton, J S; Triggs, C M; Weir, B S

    2002-01-01

    Sampling error estimation in forensic DNA testimony was discussed. Is an estimate necessary and how should it be made? The authors find that all modern methods have areas of strength and weakness. The assessment of which is the 'best' is subjective and depends on the performance of the method, the type of problem (criminal work or paternity), the database size and availability of computing software and support. The authors preferred the highest posterior density approach for performance, however the other methods all have areas where their performance is adequate. For single-contributor stains normal approximation methods are suitable, also the bootstrap and the highest posterior density method. For multiple-contributor stains or other complex situations the match probability expressions become quite complex and it may not be possible to derive the necessary variance expressions. The highest posterior density or the bootstrap provide a better general method, with non-zero theta. The size-bias correction and the factor of 10 approaches may be considered acceptable by many forensic scientists as long as their limitations are understood.

  2. Application of Interval Analysis to Error Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    We give simple examples of ways in which interval arithmetic can be used to alert instabilities in computer algorithms , roundoff error accumulation, and even the effects of hardware inadequacies. This paper is primarily tutorial. (Author)

  3. Effect of poppy seed consummation on the positive results of opiates screening in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Jankovicová, Katarína; Ulbrich, Pavol; Fuknová, Mária

    2009-04-01

    Poppy seed is a popular substance of many traditional Slovak cakes. We can eat quite great amount of it, sometimes more than 50 g. Existing problem in interpreting the results of opiate urine analysis in case of drug abuse arises from the natural occurrence of opiate alkaloids in poppy seed. Interpretation of morphine presence in urine sample is in some cases a problem because morphine present in the urine sample may come from different "sources". The presence of additional, respectively, other opiate in urine sample is significant help when interpreting the presence of morphine. We used poppy seed bought in supermarket for our experiment. Presence of morphine and codeine was determined in poppy seed extracts, whereas the concentration of majority opiate-morphine was 0.9 mg/100 g (9 ppm). This poppy seed was used for two series of experiment-poppy seed consummation, where four persons consumed 100g of poppy seed in the first series and 50 g in the second series. Urine samples were taken in regular 1h intervals where first urine sample was given for testing 3 h after consummation. Concentrations of total opiates were determined in each urine sample by screening examination. Morphine concentrations were determined in selected urine samples using GC/MS with internal standard.

  4. Krypton and xenon in Apollo 14 samples - Fission and neutron capture effects in gas-rich samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozd, R.; Hohenberg, C.; Morgan, C.

    1975-01-01

    Gas-rich Apollo 14 breccias and trench soil are examined for fission xenon from the decay of the extinct isotopes Pu-244 and I-129, and some samples have been found to have an excess fission component which apparently was incorporated after decay elsewhere and was not produced by in situ decay. Two samples have excess Xe-129 resulting from the decay of I-129. The excess is correlated at low temperatures with excess Xe-128 resulting from neutron capture on I-127. This neutron capture effect is accompanied by related low-temperature excesses of Kr-80 and Kr-82 from neutron capture on the bromine isotopes. Surface correlated concentrations of iodine and bromine are calculated from the neutron capture excesses.

  5. Effective Use of SMSS: A Simple Strategy and Sample Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Hensinger, David

    1998-09-30

    The purpose of this document is to present a strategy for effectively using SMSS (Sea.leable Mass Storage System) and to distribute a simple implementation of this strategy. This work was done as a stopgap memure to ~lOW ~ ~~yst to USe the storage Power of SMSS in the absence of a more user friendly interface. The features and functionality discussed in this document represent a minimum set of capabilities to allow a useful archiving interface functionality. The implementation presented is the most basic possible and would benefit significantly from an organized support and documentation effort.

  6. The effect of sample storage on the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR) measure

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Ilaria; Manafikhi, Husseen; Altieri, Fabio; Zanza, Christian; Palmery, Maura

    2014-01-01

    Delays in processing are frequent because of problems associated with transporting the samples to the laboratory. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of sample storage on the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR). Differences between PLIR values of lymphocytes (PLIR-L), monocytes (PLIR-M) and granulocytes (PLIR-G) were observed in fresh samples. Sample storage affected the evaluation of PLIR. In particular, PLIR-L was lower in stored samples compared to fresh samples. In conclusion, our results suggest that fresh samples are recommended for assessing the PLIR. PMID:25290094

  7. Effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on glycaemic control and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Chavanelle, Vivien; Boisseau, Nathalie; Otero, Yolanda F; Combaret, Lydie; Dardevet, Dominique; Montaurier, Christophe; Delcros, Geoffrey; Peltier, Sébastien L; Sirvent, Pascal

    2017-03-16

    Physical activity is known as an effective strategy for prevention and treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. The aim of this work was to compare the effects of a traditional Moderate Intensity Continuous Training (MICT) with a High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in diabetic mice. Diabetic db/db male mice (N = 25) aged 6 weeks were subdivided into MICT, HIIT or control (CON) group. Animals in the training groups ran on a treadmill 5 days/week during 10 weeks. MICT group ran for 80 min (0° slope) at 50-60% of maximal speed (Vmax) reached during an incremental test. HIIT group ran thirteen times 4 minutes (20° slope) at 85-90% of Vmax separated by 2-min-rest periods. HIIT lowered fasting glycaemia and HbA1c compared with CON group (p < 0.05). In all mitochondrial function markers assessed, no differences were noted between the three groups except for total amount of electron transport chain proteins, slightly increased in the HIIT group vs CON. Western blot analysis revealed a significant increase of muscle Glut4 content (about 2 fold) and higher insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation ratios in HIIT group. HIIT seems to improve glucose metabolism more efficiently than MICT in diabetic mice by mechanisms independent of mitochondrial adaptations.

  8. Effects of High Intensity Interval versus Moderate Continuous Training on Markers of Ventilatory and Cardiac Efficiency in Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Gustavo G.; Oliveira, Ricardo B.; Farinatti, Paulo T. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. We tested the hypothesis that high intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate intensity continuous training (MIT) to improve newly emerged markers of cardiorespiratory fitness in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, as the relationship between ventilation and carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and oxygen pulse (O2P). Methods. Seventy-one patients with optimized treatment were randomly assigned into HIIT (n = 23, age = 56 ± 12 years), MIT (n = 24, age = 62 ± 12 years), or nonexercise control group (CG) (n = 24, age = 64 ± 12 years). MIT performed 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise at 70–75% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), and HIIT performed 30 min sessions split in 2 min alternate bouts at 60%/90% HRmax (3 times/week for 16 weeks). Results. No differences among groups (before versus after) were found for VE/VCO2 slope or OUES (P > 0.05). After training the O2P slope increased in HIIT (22%, P < 0.05) but not in MIT (2%, P > 0.05), while decreased in CG (−20%, P < 0.05) becoming lower versus HIIT (P = 0.03). Conclusion. HIIT was more effective than MIT for improving O2P slope in CHD patients, while VE/VCO2 slope and OUES were similarly improved by aerobic training regimens versus controls. PMID:25741531

  9. Sample Tube Sealing for Future Proposed Mars Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, P.; Aveline, D.; Bao, X.; Berisford, D.; Bhandari, P.; Budney, C.; Chen, F.; Cooper, M.; Chung, S.; Lewis, D.

    2013-01-01

    A key premise of a proposed Sample Caching Rover, a crucial element of the proposed Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign, is that the samples could be packaged and left on Mars for an extended period of time (at least five Mars years) without loss of scientific value (Fig. 1). The MEPAG E2E-iSAG (2011) concluded that the single most important factor in preserving the scientific integrity of the samples during the interval between their collection and their analysis is effective sealing of the samples.

  10. Fitness Effects of 10-Month Frequent Low-Volume Ball Game Training or Interval Running for 8–10-Year-Old School Children

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Claus Malta; Ørntoft, Christina; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Eva Wulff; Madsen, Mads; Manniche, Vibeke; Hansen, Lone; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the exercise intensity and fitness effects of frequent school-based low-volume high-intensity training for 10 months in 8–10-year-old children. 239 Danish 3rd-grade school children from four schools were cluster-randomised into a control group (CON, n = 116) or two training groups performing either 5 × 12 min/wk small-sided football plus other ball games (SSG, n = 62) or interval running (IR, n = 61). Whole-body DXA scans, flamingo balance, standing long-jump, 20 m sprint, and Yo-Yo IR1 children's tests (YYIR1C) were performed before and after the intervention. Mean running velocity was higher (p < 0.05) in SSG than in IR (0.88 ± 0.14 versus 0.63 ± 0.20 m/s), while more time (p < 0.05) was spent in the highest player load zone (>2; 5.6 ± 3.4 versus 3.7 ± 3.4%) and highest HR zone (>90% HRmax; 12.4 ± 8.9 versus 8.4 ± 8.0%) in IR compared to SSG. After 10 months, no significant between-group differences were observed for YYIR1C performance and HR after 2 min of YYIR1C (HRsubmax), but median-split analyses showed that HRsubmax was reduced (p < 0.05) in both training groups compared to CON for those with the lowest aerobic fitness (SSG versus CON: 3.2%  HRmax [95% CI: 0.8–5.5]; IR versus CON: 2.6%  HRmax [95% CI: 1.1–5.2]). After 10 months, IR had improved (p < 0.05) 20 m sprint performance (IR versus CON: 154 ms [95% CI: 61–241]). No between-group differences (p > 0.05) were observed for whole-body or leg aBMD, lean mass, postural balance, or jump length. In conclusion, frequent low-volume ball games and interval running can be conducted over a full school year with high intensity rate but has limited positive fitness effects in 8–10-year-old children. PMID:28303248

  11. Fitness Effects of 10-Month Frequent Low-Volume Ball Game Training or Interval Running for 8-10-Year-Old School Children.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Ørntoft, Christina; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Eva Wulff; Madsen, Mads; Manniche, Vibeke; Hansen, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the exercise intensity and fitness effects of frequent school-based low-volume high-intensity training for 10 months in 8-10-year-old children. 239 Danish 3rd-grade school children from four schools were cluster-randomised into a control group (CON, n = 116) or two training groups performing either 5 × 12 min/wk small-sided football plus other ball games (SSG, n = 62) or interval running (IR, n = 61). Whole-body DXA scans, flamingo balance, standing long-jump, 20 m sprint, and Yo-Yo IR1 children's tests (YYIR1C) were performed before and after the intervention. Mean running velocity was higher (p < 0.05) in SSG than in IR (0.88 ± 0.14 versus 0.63 ± 0.20 m/s), while more time (p < 0.05) was spent in the highest player load zone (>2; 5.6 ± 3.4 versus 3.7 ± 3.4%) and highest HR zone (>90% HRmax; 12.4 ± 8.9 versus 8.4 ± 8.0%) in IR compared to SSG. After 10 months, no significant between-group differences were observed for YYIR1C performance and HR after 2 min of YYIR1C (HRsubmax), but median-split analyses showed that HRsubmax was reduced (p < 0.05) in both training groups compared to CON for those with the lowest aerobic fitness (SSG versus CON: 3.2%  HRmax [95% CI: 0.8-5.5]; IR versus CON: 2.6%  HRmax [95% CI: 1.1-5.2]). After 10 months, IR had improved (p < 0.05) 20 m sprint performance (IR versus CON: 154 ms [95% CI: 61-241]). No between-group differences (p > 0.05) were observed for whole-body or leg aBMD, lean mass, postural balance, or jump length. In conclusion, frequent low-volume ball games and interval running can be conducted over a full school year with high intensity rate but has limited positive fitness effects in 8-10-year-old children.

  12. [Effect sizes, statistical power and sample sizes in "the Japanese Journal of Psychology"].

    PubMed

    Suzukawa, Yumi; Toyoda, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    This study analyzed the statistical power of research studies published in the "Japanese Journal of Psychology" in 2008 and 2009. Sample effect sizes and sample statistical powers were calculated for each statistical test and analyzed with respect to the analytical methods and the fields of the studies. The results show that in the fields like perception, cognition or learning, the effect sizes were relatively large, although the sample sizes were small. At the same time, because of the small sample sizes, some meaningful effects could not be detected. In the other fields, because of the large sample sizes, meaningless effects could be detected. This implies that researchers who could not get large enough effect sizes would use larger samples to obtain significant results.

  13. Estimating the effect of recurrent infectious diseases on nutritional status: sampling frequency, sample-size, and bias.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Genser, Bernd; Luby, Stephen P; Chalabi, Zaid

    2011-08-01

    There is an ongoing interest in studying the effect of common recurrent infections and conditions, such as diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and fever, on the nutritional status of children at risk of malnutrition. Epidemiological studies exploring this association need to measure infections with sufficient accuracy to minimize bias in the effect estimates. A versatile model of common recurrent infections was used for exploring how many repeated measurements of disease are required to maximize the power and logistical efficiency of studies investigating the effect of infectious diseases on malnutrition without compromising the validity of the estimates. Depending on the prevalence and distribution of disease within a population, 15-30 repeat measurements per child over one year should be sufficient to provide unbiased estimates of the association between infections and nutritional status. Less-frequent measurements lead to a bias in the effect size towards zero, especially if disease is rare. In contrast, recall error can lead to exaggerated effect sizes. Recall periods of three days or shorter may be preferable compared to longer recall periods. The results showed that accurate estimation of the association between recurrent infections and nutritional status required closer follow-up of study participants than studies using recurrent infections as an outcome measure. The findings of the study provide guidance for choosing an appropriate sampling strategy to explore this association.

  14. Study of the Effect of Temporal Sampling Frequency on DSCOVR Observations Using the GEOS-5 Nature Run Results (Part I): Earths Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Yang, Yuekui

    2016-01-01

    Satellites always sample the Earth-atmosphere system in a finite temporal resolution. This study investigates the effect of sampling frequency on the satellite-derived Earth radiation budget, with the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) as an example. The output from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5) Nature Run is used as the truth. The Nature Run is a high spatial and temporal resolution atmospheric simulation spanning a two-year period. The effect of temporal resolution on potential DSCOVR observations is assessed by sampling the full Nature Run data with 1-h to 24-h frequencies. The uncertainty associated with a given sampling frequency is measured by computing means over daily, monthly, seasonal and annual intervals and determining the spread across different possible starting points. The skill with which a particular sampling frequency captures the structure of the full time series is measured using correlations and normalized errors. Results show that higher sampling frequency gives more information and less uncertainty in the derived radiation budget. A sampling frequency coarser than every 4 h results in significant error. Correlations between true and sampled time series also decrease more rapidly for a sampling frequency less than 4 h.

  15. The Effect of Dose-Volume Parameters and Interfraction Interval on Cosmetic Outcome and Toxicity After 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Kara Lynne; Hepel, Jaroslaw T.; Hiatt, Jessica R.; Dipetrillo, Thomas A.; Price, Lori Lyn; Wazer, David E.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dose-volume parameters and the interfraction interval (IFI) as they relate to cosmetic outcome and normal tissue effects of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: Eighty patients were treated by the use of 3D-CRT to deliver APBI at our institutions from 2003-2010 in strict accordance with the specified dose-volume constraints outlined in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413 (NSABP-B39/RTOG 0413) protocol. The prescribed dose was 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions delivered twice daily. Patients underwent follow-up with assessment for recurrence, late toxicity, and overall cosmetic outcome. Tests for association between toxicity endpoints and dosimetric parameters were performed with the chi-square test. Univariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of interfraction interval (IFI) with these outcomes. Results: At a median follow-up time of 32 months, grade 2-4 and grade 3-4 subcutaneous fibrosis occurred in 31% and 7.5% of patients, respectively. Subcutaneous fibrosis improved in 5 patients (6%) with extended follow-up. Fat necrosis developed in 11% of women, and cosmetic outcome was fair/poor in 19%. The relative volume of breast tissue receiving 5%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100% (V5-V100) of the prescribed dose was associated with risk of subcutaneous fibrosis, and the volume receiving 50%, 80%, and 100% (V50-V100) was associated with fair/poor cosmesis. The mean IFI was 6.9 hours, and the minimum IFI was 6.2 hours. The mean and minimum IFI values were not significantly associated with late toxicity. Conclusions: The incidence of moderate to severe late toxicity, particularly subcutaneous fibrosis and fat necrosis and resulting fair/poor cosmesis, remains high with continued follow-up. These toxicity endpoints are associated with several dose-volume parameters. Minimum and mean IFI values were

  16. Effects of recipient oocyte age and interval from fusion to activation on development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nuclear transfer embryos derived from fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lu, F; Jiang, J; Li, N; Zhang, S; Sun, H; Luo, C; Wei, Y; Shi, D

    2011-09-15

    The objective was to investigate the effect of recipient oocyte age and the interval from activation to fusion on developmental competence of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Buffalo oocytes matured in vitro for 22 h were enucleated by micromanipulation under the spindle view system, and a fetal fibroblast (pretreated with 0.1 μg/mL aphidicolin for 24 h, followed by culture for 48 h in 0.5% fetal bovine serum) was introduced into the enucleated oocyte, followed by electrofusion. Both oocytes and NT embryos were activated by exposure to 5 μM ionomycin for 5 min, followed by culture in 2 mM 6-dimethyl-aminopurine for 3 h. When oocytes matured in vitro for 28, 29, 30, 31, or 32 h were activated, more oocytes matured in vitro for 30 h developed into blastocysts in comparison with oocytes matured in vitro for 32 h (31.3 vs 19.9%, P < 0.05). When electrofusion was induced 27 h after the onset of oocyte maturation, the cleavage rate (78.0%) was higher than that of electrofusion induced at 28 h (67.2%, P < 0.05), and the blastocyst yield (18.1%) was higher (P < 0.05) than that of electrofusion induced at 25 or 26 h (7.4 and 8.5%, respectively). A higher proportion of NT embryos activated at 3 h after electrofusion developed to the blastocyst stage (18.6%) in comparison with NT embryos activated at 1 h (6.0%), 2 h (8.3%), or 4 h (10.6%) after fusion (P < 0.05). No recipient was pregnant 60 d after transfer of blastocysts developed from NT embryos activated at 1 h (0/8), 2 h (0/10), or 4 h (0/9) after fusion. However, 3 of 16 recipients were pregnant following transfer of blastocysts developed from the NT embryos activated at 3 h after fusion, and two of these recipients maintained pregnancy to term. We concluded that the developmental potential of buffalo NT embryos was related to recipient oocyte age and the interval from fusion to activation.

  17. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%–90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects. PMID:26046575

  18. Intravenous infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide-27 and bombesin in rats reveals differential effects on meal size and intermeal interval length.

    PubMed

    Washington, Martha C; Salyer, Sarah; Aglan, Amnah H; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that the intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of gastrin-releasing peptide-27 (GRP-27) or bombesin (BN) (at 0.21, 0.41 and 1.03nmol/kg) reduces meal size (MS) and prolongs the intermeal interval (IMI). Here, we hypothesized that the intravenous (i.v.) administration of the same doses of GRP-27 and BN will be as effective as the i.p. administration in evoking these feeding responses. To test this hypothesis, we administered GRP-27 and BN i.v. and measured first MS (10% sucrose), IMI, satiety ratio (SR, IMI/MS) and second MS in overnight food-deprived but not water-deprived male Sprague Dawley rats. We found that (1) only GRP-27 reduced the first MS, (2) BN prolonged the IMI, (3) GRP-27 and BN increased the SR and (4) only BN reduced the size of the second meal. Contrary to our hypothesis, the i.v. administration of GRP-27 and BN affected the MS and IMI differently than did the i.p. administration. In conclusion, this pharmacological study suggests that the MS and IMI are regulated at different sites.

  19. Intravenous infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide-27 and bombesin in rats reveals differential effects on meal size and intermeal interval length

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Martha C.; Salyer, Sarah; Aglan, Amnah H.; Sayegh, Ayman I.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that the intraperitoneal (i.p) administration of gastrin-releasing peptide-27 (GRP-27) or bombesin (BN) (at 0.21, 0.41 and 1.03 nmol/kg) reduces meal size (MS) and prolongs the intermeal interval (IMI). Here, we hypothesized that the intravenous (i.v) administration of the same doses of GRP-27 and BN will be as effective as the i.p administration in evoking these feeding responses. To test this hypothesis, we administered GRP-27 and BN i.v and measured first MS (10% sucrose), IMI, satiety ratio (SR, IMI/MS) and second MS in overnight food-deprived but not water-deprived male Sprague Dawley rats. We found that (1) only GRP-27 reduced the first MS, (2) BN prolonged the IMI, (3) GRP-27 and BN increased the SR and (4) only BN reduced the size of the second meal. Contrary to our hypothesis, the i.v administration of GRP-27 and BN affected the MS and IMI differently than did the i.p administration. In conclusion, this pharmacological study suggests that the MS and IMI are regulated at different sites. PMID:24291388

  20. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-07-10

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%-90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects.

  1. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Exercise in High / Low Temperatures on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) in Trained Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarzadeh, Mohsen; Habibi, Abdolhamid; Shakeryan, Saeed; Nikbakht, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes airway narrowing that occurs in association with exercise. Exercise in hot and cold environments has been reported to increase exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in subjects with asthma. However, to our knowledge, the effect of hot and cold environment on pulmonary function and EIB in trained males has not been previously studied. The main goal of this research was to examine the influence of environmental temperature and high intensity interval exercise on pulmonary function in trained teenage males. Also, this study sought to assess the influence of exercise and environmental temperature on EIB. Materials and Methods Thirty trained subjects (mean age 16.56±0.89 yrs, all males) underwent high intensity interval exercise testing (22 minutes) by running on a treadmill in hot and cold environments under standardized conditions (10 °C and 45 °C with almost 50% relative humidity in random order in winter and summer). Lung function (flow volume loops) was measured before and 1, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after the exercise by digital spirometer. Data was analyzed using SPSS softwar