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Sample records for sanfeliu jos ruiz-shulcloper

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Ethnoreligious Conflict in Jos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obilom, Rose E.; Thacher, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2001, ethnoreligious rioting occurred in Jos, Nigeria. Using a multistage cluster sampling technique, 290 respondents were recruited in Jos 7 to 9 months after the riots. Data were collected regarding demographics, exposure to traumatic events, and psychological symptoms. Resting pulse and blood pressure were recorded. A total of 145…

  2. [José Goyanes. Surgeon and humanist].

    PubMed

    Die-Goyanes, Alfredo; Die-Trill, Javier

    2008-01-01

    José Goyanes was a renowned Spanish surgeon. A short biographical summary of his life is presented, with the posts he occupied and the awards he received. He was a world pioneer in vascular surgery where he made outstanding contributions to this speciality, many of them pioneering and some of his publications were before those of Alexis Carrel, Nobel prize-winner in Medicine. He was also an authority on oncology and an expert in the majority of surgical techniques in use in his era. He was a writer, historian, essayist and notable traveller which earned him the name of "Universal Man". He has not been fully recognised as a man of science. PMID:18208742

  3. Perfil de José Hernández

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cuando el astronauta de la NASA José Hernández, hijo de un trabajador rural inmigrante, se enteró de que el primer astronauta hispano, Franklin Chang-Díaz, había sido seleccionado para viajar al es...

  4. Profile of José Hernández

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Astronaut José Hernández, son of a migrant farm worker, knew he could one day fly in space when learned that the first Hispanic-American Astronaut Franklin Chang-Díaz had been chosen to travel...

  5. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion.

  6. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion. PMID:20064638

  7. A Targeted Survey for Scrapie in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwankiti, O O; Ikeh, E I; Arowolo, O A; Nwankiti, A J; Odugbo, M O; Seuberlich, T

    2013-01-01

    Scrapie, a disease of sheep and goats with a progressive course and fatal outcome, has not been identified in Nigeria. Anecdotal scrapie reports by livestock workers abound. Livestock diseases like scrapie form huddles in livestock economics of countries. For 8 months we surveyed for scrapie targeting emergency/casualty slaughter sheep and goats in Jos, Nigeria. We clinically examined 510 sheep and 608 goats of local breeds, aged from 12 months to 5 years. In total 31 (5.10%) goats and no sheep were clinically suspicious for scrapie. Caudal brainstem tissues of suspect animals collected postmortem were analyzed for the disease specific form of the prion protein, PrP(Sc), using Bio-Rad's TeSeE ELISA rapid test kit. No sample was positive for scrapie. Fluorescent antibody test for rabies and H&E staining on samples were carried out for differential diagnosis. These showed no pathological lesions indicative for neurological disease. While our findings do not exclude the presence of scrapie in Jos, we demonstrate that targeted sampling of small ruminants for neuroinfectious disease is feasible in developing countries, pointing to the possibility of implementing such a monitoring scheme in Nigeria to prevent economic losses in small ruminant livestock as scrapie caveats from endemic countries have shown. PMID:26464913

  8. A Targeted Survey for Scrapie in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nwankiti, O. O.; Ikeh, E. I.; Arowolo, O. A.; Nwankiti, A. J.; Odugbo, M. O.; Seuberlich, T.

    2013-01-01

    Scrapie, a disease of sheep and goats with a progressive course and fatal outcome, has not been identified in Nigeria. Anecdotal scrapie reports by livestock workers abound. Livestock diseases like scrapie form huddles in livestock economics of countries. For 8 months we surveyed for scrapie targeting emergency/casualty slaughter sheep and goats in Jos, Nigeria. We clinically examined 510 sheep and 608 goats of local breeds, aged from 12 months to 5 years. In total 31 (5.10%) goats and no sheep were clinically suspicious for scrapie. Caudal brainstem tissues of suspect animals collected postmortem were analyzed for the disease specific form of the prion protein, PrPSc, using Bio-Rad's TeSeE ELISA rapid test kit. No sample was positive for scrapie. Fluorescent antibody test for rabies and H&E staining on samples were carried out for differential diagnosis. These showed no pathological lesions indicative for neurological disease. While our findings do not exclude the presence of scrapie in Jos, we demonstrate that targeted sampling of small ruminants for neuroinfectious disease is feasible in developing countries, pointing to the possibility of implementing such a monitoring scheme in Nigeria to prevent economic losses in small ruminant livestock as scrapie caveats from endemic countries have shown. PMID:26464913

  9. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Emmanuel Olorundare; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.; Sule, Augustine Z.; Ugwu, Benjamin T.; Misauno, Michael A.; Ismaila, Bashiru O.; Peter, Solomon D.; Adejumo, Adeyinka A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7%) males and 20 (18.3%) females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years). The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%), colon 48 (44%), and liver 41 (37.6%). Forty-four (40.4%) patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%), musculoskeletal 12 (11%), and the head in 9 (8.3%). The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%), explosives 12 (11%), stab injuries 11 (10.1%), and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%). The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8) with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1%) and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%). Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems. PMID:26957819

  10. Use of Portfolio Assessment Technique in Teaching Map Sketching and Location in Secondary School Geography in Jos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugodulunwa, Christiana; Wakjissa, Sayita

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of portfolio assessment technique in teaching map sketching and location in geography in Jos, Nigeria. It adopted a quasi-experimental design. Two schools were selected using a table of random numbers from a population of 51 schools in Jos South and assigned to each of experimental and control group. The…

  11. Syntactically Non-Integrated Finnish "Jos" "If"-Conditional Clauses as Directives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laury, Ritva

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the use of independent "jos" "if"-clauses as directives (requests, proposals, and suggestions) in Finnish everyday conversation. It shows that clause types which are traditionally considered subordinate can be used without any main clauses and, thus, do not project further talk to follow in the same turn. Other participants…

  12. The eLearning Fellowship Program at the University of Jos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewumi, S. E.; Dooga, J.; Dakas, D. C. J.; Yakmut, D. I.; Mafwil, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the eLearning Fellowship Program at the University of Jos (UNIJOS), first introduced in October 2008 through a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and recently adopted by the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa (PHEA) Educational Technology Initiative (ETI). The fellowship is a one-year program aimed at…

  13. In the land of giants: the legacy of José Dantas de Souza Leite.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Lima, Plínio M; Germiniani, Francisco M B; Boguszewski, César L

    2015-07-01

    The authors describe the extraordinary contribution to science made by José Dantas de Souza Leite, who graduated from the Bahia School of Medicine and trained in Prof. Charcot's Neurology Service under the supervision of Charcot's most able pupil, Dr. Pierre Marie. Souza Leite presented his doctoral thesis on acromegaly, in Paris in 1890, and in the following year both him and Pierre Marie published a book on the subject, "Essays on Acromegaly". This exceptional work established Souza Leite internationally as an important researcher, and the first Brazilian physician to contribute to the development of neuroendocrinology in an innovative way.

  14. The first Brazilian neuropsychiatrist, José Martins da Cruz Jobim, tuberculous meningitis and mental disease.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota; Engelhardt, Eliasz; Chimelli, Leila

    2013-03-01

    The intersection between infectious diseases, poverty and mental disease was an important subject to the Brazilian Neuropsychiatry in the early 19th century. José Martins da Cruz Jobim (1802-1878) was engaged in a hygienist approach based on symptomatological and anatomopathological studies. He wrote "Insânia loquaz" (Loquacious insanity), 1831, the first written text about mental illness in Brazil, founded on clinical and pathological data, compatible with tuberculous meningitis. Thus, Jobim deserves the title of the first neuropsychiatrist in Brazil. The authors critically studied the clinical history and the autopsy findings of his cases, and the main health policies at the time.

  15. In the land of giants: the legacy of José Dantas de Souza Leite.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Lima, Plínio M; Germiniani, Francisco M B; Boguszewski, César L

    2015-07-01

    The authors describe the extraordinary contribution to science made by José Dantas de Souza Leite, who graduated from the Bahia School of Medicine and trained in Prof. Charcot's Neurology Service under the supervision of Charcot's most able pupil, Dr. Pierre Marie. Souza Leite presented his doctoral thesis on acromegaly, in Paris in 1890, and in the following year both him and Pierre Marie published a book on the subject, "Essays on Acromegaly". This exceptional work established Souza Leite internationally as an important researcher, and the first Brazilian physician to contribute to the development of neuroendocrinology in an innovative way. PMID:26200060

  16. Insect galls from Serra de São José (Tiradentes, MG, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Fernandes, G W

    2004-08-01

    One hundred thirty-seven morphotypes of insect galls were found on 73 plant species (47 genera and 30 families) in Serra de São José, in Tiradentes, MG, Brazil. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Melastomataceae were the plant families that supported most of the galls (49.6% of the total). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (66.4% and 25.5%, respectively). Galls were induced by Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha), Hymenoptera, and Thysanoptera. The majority of them (73.7%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). Besides the gall inducers, other insects found associated with the galls were parasitoids (Hymenoptera), inquilines (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera), and predators (Diptera).

  17. In memoriam: Prof. Dr. José Roberto Giglio and his contributions to toxinology.

    PubMed

    Soares, Andreimar M

    2014-10-01

    Prof. Dr. José R. Giglio (1934–2014) made a highly significant contribution to the field of Toxinology. During 48 years devoted to research and teaching Prof Giglio published more than 160 articles, with more than 4400 citations, in international journals, trained a vast amount of graduate and undergraduate students, and developed an international network of collaborators. Throughout these years, he worked with dedication and deep commitment to science, leaving an immortalized legacy. During his professional career he contributed mostly in the isolation, and biochemical and functional characterization of various protein toxins derived from animal venoms such as snakes, scorpions and spiders, in addition to his studies searching for alternative therapies for poisoning. Even after his departure, his presence and influence remains among his former students and in the outstanding legacy of his scientific contributions.

  18. Vectors of the 1969 yellow fever epidemic on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lee, V H; Moore, D L

    1972-01-01

    Entomological investigations of the possible mosquito vectors of the yellow fever epidemic on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, were carried out between 27 October and 15 November 1969.Of the 5 species of Aedes (Stegomyia) collected, Ae. luteocephalus was the most abundant in human-bait captures. Ae. aegypti, Ae. africanus, and Ae. vittatus were collected in low numbers. The aegypti larval index in the areas investigated was very low and the species was not considered to be the primary vector in the epidemic. Ae. simpsoni larvae were abundant, but no adults were collected on human bait.Six isolates of 5 different arboviruses were obtained: yellow fever from damaged Stegomyia sp.; dengue 2 from damaged specimens, probably all Ae. luteocephalus; Zika (2 isolates) from Ae. luteocephalus; Bwamba from Anopheles funestus; and a Nyando-group virus from An. gambiae.

  19. The representation of the female body in the multimedia works of Regina José Galindo.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Jane; Bowskill, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The female body is central to the performance art, poetry and blog site interventions of Guatemalan Regina José Galindo. While Galindo is best known for her performance work, this article compares the hereto overlooked, distinctive and often shocking representations of the female body across her multimedia outputs. We first consider the ways in which, in all three media, Galindo presents an ‘excessive’, carnivalised, grotesque and abject female body. Second, we analyse representations of the female body that has been subjected to violence at a private and public level. In so doing, we show how Galindo not only contests hegemonic visions of gender and (national) identity but also challenges the viewer/reader to engage with, rather than look away from, the violence to which women are subjected in patriarchal society.

  20. The use of town refuse ash in urban agriculture around Jos, Nigeria: health and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, M W

    2006-01-15

    This paper reports on a study that examines the health and environmental risks of using town refuse ash in urban vegetable production in Jos, Nigeria, in terms of heavy metal accumulation in the food chain. Soil and crop samples, collected from five study farms, and samples of the river water used for irrigation, were analysed for seven heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. On the basis of the field data the paper discusses: (1) the potential soil deficiencies and toxicities; (2) the probable links between soil heavy metal levels and fertilisation practices; (3) the heavy metal concentrations in crop tissue in relation to crop growth and human health. The findings suggest that soil concentrations of the seven metals fall within 'typical' soil levels, and that there should not be any problems of either toxicities or deficiencies for crop growth. There was evidence of slight accumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd on some of the farms with a history of town refuse ash use. However, in all farms lettuce crops contained very large concentrations of Fe, and Pb concentrations that were 20 to 40 times higher than the WHO/FAO maximum recommended level in leafy vegetables for human consumption. The Cd content of carrot tissue was 10 times higher than the WHO/FAO recommended limit. The relatively small number of soil and crop samples precluded any formal attempt at correlating the concentrations of heavy metals found in the vegetable crops with the farm levels. Nevertheless, the data suggested that these were not linked. The paper goes on to consider various potential sources of the metals found in the crops, including irrigation water, town refuse ash and air-borne dust, and discusses additional health and environmental risks pertaining to the use of town refuse ash. Undoubtedly, the heavy Pb and Cd contamination of certain crops indicates the urgent need for future studies to ascertain the precise source of these metals, and although the practice of using town refuse ash does

  1. Mineralogy and thermal properties of kaolin from the San José (Oruro, Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martínez, Salvador; Amando Penedo, Lucio; Elvys Trujillo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    The San José mine, Oruro, Bolivia is known for provided a broad diversity of minerals. The San José Sn deposit is a Sn-Ag deposit composed of veins hosted in a complex of Miocene domes from monzonitic to dioritic composition within rhyolitic volcanic rocks hosted in Tertiary sedimentary rocks. Advanced argillitic alteration. is widespread in the surroundings of the deposit. Kaolinitization reach industrial importance and the kaolinitized rock is exploited, however it was not already been characterised. In this study we present a preliminary mineralogical and thermal characterization to determine the industrial applications of these kaolinitic materials. A sampling of the kaolinitized rocks in outcrops from the mining area was undertaken. The chemical composition of major and trace elements was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Mineralogy was obtained by powder diffraction X-ray (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Quantitative determination of phases was obtained by the Rietveld refinement method using the Fullprof software. Thermal properties were determined by differential thermal analysis-thermo gravimetry (DTA -TG) and dilatometry. Mineral phases determined are mainly quartz (54-55 wt. %), kaolinite (7-8 wt. %), K-feldspar (8-19 wt. %), muscovite (16-17 wt. %), plagioclase up to 3 wt. %, alunite up to 8 wt% and gypsum up to 4 wt%. DTA -TG show a first endothermic event related to the dehydration of gypsum, with a loss weight of 0.4 wt%. An endothermic peak corresponding to the loss of the OH- groups of kaolinite occurs about 520 °C and an exothermic, at 980 °C, due to the crystallization of the mullite phase. The endothermic peak is attributed to the transformation of kaolinite in metakaolinite: Al2Si2O5 (OH)4  Al2Si2O7 + 2H2O and the dehydroxilation of alunite; the loss weight associated with this event is 2.9-3.2 wt%. The exothermic peak is caused by the formation of mullite: 3Al2Si2O7  Al6Si2O13 + 4SiO2. Another loss weight, of 3wt%, is

  2. Occurrence of tick-transmitted pathogens in dogs in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, transmitted by Haemaphysalis elliptica in South Africa, has also been reported from Nigeria. Although H. leachi (sensu lato) is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, published literature on the occurrence of canine babesiosis is meagre. It has been postulated that the genotype of Babesia rossi Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen 1 (BrEMA1) may be linked to virulence of the specific isolate. The primary objective of this study was to detect and characterise tick-borne pathogens in dogs presented to a veterinary hospital using molecular techniques. In B. rossi-positive specimens, we aimed to determine whether the BrEMA1 gene occurred and to compare genotypes with those found in other isolates. Lastly, we wished to identify the tick species that were recovered from the sampled dogs. Methods Blood specimens (n = 100) were collected during January to March 2010 from domestic dogs presented at an animal hospital in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. They were screened for the presence of Babesia/Theileria and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genomic DNA using PCR and Reverse Line Blot (RLB) assays. Positive B. rossi specimens were tested for the presence of the BrEMA1gene using an RT-PCR. In addition, ticks were collected from dogs found to be infested during sampling. Results On RLB, 72 (72%) of the specimens were positive for one or more haemoparasites. Of the positive specimens, 38 (53%) were infected with B. rossi; 9 (13%) with Theileria sp. (sable); 5 (7%) with either Ehrlichia canis or Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne, respectively; 3 (4%) with Theileria equi; and 1 (1%) with B. vogeli and E. ruminantium, respectively. Co-infections were detected in 13 (18%) of the specimens. Results of RT-PCR screening for the BrEMA1 gene were negative. A total of 146 ticks belonging to 8 species were collected and identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus 107 (73%), Haemaphysalis leachi (sensu stricto) 27 (18%), R. turanicus 3 (2%), and Amblyomma variegatum, H

  3. Modifications to ESSEA Curriculum at San José State University: Adapting to Teachers' Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, P.; Metzger, E. P.; Sedlock, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    San José State University's Geology Department and Program in Science Education piloted their ESSEA program in spring 2003. The initial offering, the High School Course, drew teachers from California and New York. Formative feedback and summative evaluations from participants suggested that the curriculum could be modified to serve its target audience more effectively. Dialog with other ESSEA P.I.s confirmed that many of these suggestions were aligned to the needs of teachers in other states. In summer 2003 SJSU's ESSEA team revised the High School Course in response to these discussions. The revised course contains three 4-week cycles (instead of four 3-week cycles), a slight decrease in group activities and increase in individual assignments, and required readings on "Netiquette." This revised curriculum was shared with four other ESSEA institutions before the start of classes in fall 2003. Future plans include the substitution of one of the existing 4-week cycles with another that focuses on the cosmosphere, and how the Earth spheres may affect and/or respond to more distant influences. Doing so would further benefit teachers by allowing the ESSEA course to satisfy subject matter competency in the geosciences, a requirement of the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing and counterpart authorities in other states.

  4. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Maduka, C. V.; Igbokwe, I. O.; Atsanda, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = −0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with deep litter system. In conclusion, the chicken production system requires increased drive for excellent biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak. PMID:27200208

  5. Intermittent noninvasive ventilation at San José Hospital in Chile: report of a German donation.

    PubMed

    Arellano Maric, M P; Roldán Toledo, R; Huttmann, S E; Storre, J H; Windisch, W

    2015-03-01

    Home mechanical ventilation is currently expanding in Chile, but its application along the country is hindered by financial and geographical reasons. In 2006 the San José Hospital in Santiago de Chile developed a non-invasive ventilation (NIV) center as a strategy to overcome the limitations of ventilator availability from public resources. Since then, this center provides intermittent diurnal sessions of NIV to patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. In 2013, a collaboratory work between the Chilean doctors, the German Interdisciplinary Society of Home Mechanical Ventilation (DIGAB = Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Gesellschaft für Außerklinische Beatmung) and the German non-invasive (NIV) home care provider "Heinen und Löwenstein" organized a donation of 100 second-hand ventilators (BiPAP Synchrony; Respironics, USA) including masks and tubing systems, which were provided by Heinen und Löwenstein. The ventilator devices arrived in Santiago in January 2014. Since then, the following initiatives have been launched: 1) the establishment of a domiciliary mechanical ventilation program independent of governmental founding, 2) NIV setting-titration, 3) renewal of ventilators at the hospital's intermittent NIV unit. Future goals are the establishment of a rehabilitation unit with concomitant NIV therapy and a clinical research program. Therefore, the German donation of ventilators and equipment has a reported impact on the development of NIV in Chile. PMID:25629262

  6. Numerical solving of equations in the work of José Mariano Vallejo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco Castelao, José-Miguel; Pérez-Fern; ández, F. Javier; Suárez Alemán, Carlos-Oswaldo

    2007-09-01

    The progress of Mathematics during the nineteenth century was characterised both by an enormous acquisition of new knowledge and by the attempts to introduce rigour in reasoning patterns and mathematical writing. Cauchy's presentation of Mathematical Analysis was not immediately accepted, and many writers, though aware of that new style, did not use it in their own mathematical production. This paper is devoted to an episode of this sort that took place in Spain during the first half of the century: It deals with the presentation of a method for numerically solving algebraic equations by José Mariano Vallejo, a late Spanish follower of the Enlightenment ideas, politician, writer, and mathematician who published it in the fourth (1840) edition of his book Compendio de Mathemáticas Puras y Mistas, claiming to have discovered it on his own. Vallejo's main achievement was to write down the whole procedure in a very careful way taking into account the different types of roots, although he paid little attention to questions such as convergence checks and the fulfilment of the hypotheses of Rolle's Theorem. For sure this lack of mathematical care prevented Vallejo to occupy a place among the forerunners of Computational Algebra.

  7. A Tribute to José María (“Chema”) Cantú

    PubMed Central

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B.; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Llerena, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    José María (“Chema”) Cantú (1938–2007), born in Mexico, was a pioneering, loved and respected leader in medical and human genetics and bioethics in Latin America. He graduated as a physician in Mexico and then trained in medical and human genetics in France and the United States. He was instrumental in developing a first-rate research, training and genetic services program in medical and human genetics in Guadalajara, in northwestern Mexico. He acted forcefully at national, regional and international levels to promote scientific development through collaboration and education in science and humanities, while he simultaneously strived for justice, peace, love and human rights. He attained some of the highest honors a scientist and humanist could aspire to as well as the recognition of the communities he served. Hundreds of disciples throughout Latin America and the world have been inspired by his vision of a better world through the conjunction of science, respect for humankind, ethics and love. PMID:24764766

  8. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Maduka, C V; Igbokwe, I O; Atsanda, N N

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = -0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with deep litter system. In conclusion, the chicken production system requires increased drive for excellent biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak. PMID:27200208

  9. Exposure to high background radiation level in the tin mining area of Jos Plateau, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ademola, J A

    2008-03-01

    The present work deals with the radioactivity of samples of tin tailings collected from a mining site in Jos, Nigeria. The activity concentrations of the samples were measured using a gamma-ray spectrometer with a hyper-pure germanium detector. In situ dose rates at the site were also measured using a precalibrated survey meter. Potassium-40 was not detected in any of the studied samples. The activity concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th ranged from 17.1 x 10(2) to 16.6 x 10(3) Bq kg(-1) and from 52.9 x 10(2) to 47.5 x 10(3) Bq kg(-1), with mean values of 72.2 x 10(2) and 16.8 x 10(3) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rates were between 4.0 and 36.3 microGy h(-1), with a mean value of 13.5 microGy h(-1), which is much higher than the world average of 0.06 microGy h(-1) for soil. The calculated effective dose rates varied between 2.8 and 25.4 microSv h(-1), with a mean value of 9.4 microSv h(-1), whereas the effective dose rates obtained for the in situ measurement varied between 6.0 and 28.0 microSv h(-1). The annual gonadal dose equivalent was calculated as 92.4 mSv. This is much higher than the world average dose equivalent rate to individuals from soil (0.30 mSv y(-1)). PMID:18309198

  10. José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Reverón, Rafael Romero

    2014-03-01

    José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy.

  11. Observed disparity on schistosome infection rates in field Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss) between two areas of the Jos Metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akufongwe, P F; Dondji, B; Okwuosa, V N; Dakul, D A; Ntonifor, H N

    1995-03-01

    Two regions of the Jos Metropolis in Plateau State, Nigeria, with contrasting topographic features and harbouring many snails infested water bodies were surveyed for the presence of cercariae shedding Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss) for a period of 12 months. A significantly marked (P < 0.01) fluctuation in infection rates in field B. pfeifferi was observed between the two areas. The factors contributing to the disparity in shedding capacities are linked to human behavioural pattern, and the drying up of water bodies. Their importance with respect to the control of intestinal schistosomiasis in the region are discussed. PMID:9137649

  12. José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Reverón, Rafael Romero

    2014-03-01

    José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy. PMID:23650143

  13. Neurology at Escola Paulista de Medicina (1933-1995). From Fausto Guerner to José Geraldo Camargo Lima.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai; Neves, Afonso Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) was founded in 1933 and the first Professor of Neurology was Fausto Guerner, who could not effectively assume the teaching activities due to his premature death in 1938. Professor Guerner had had his neurological training at Paris. Professor Longo was his successor. Longo was one of the founders of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria the foremost journal of neurosciences in Latin American. Longo died in 1967 and Professor Paulo Pupo succeeded him. Pupo introduced electroencephalography in Brazil. After his death in 1970, Professor Dante Giorgi succeeded him until 1974. Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima took over the position after Giorgi's death. He created the Neurological Emergency unit, initiated the Post-Graduation in Neurology and divided the Discipline in specialized units. During the 1980's and until his retirement in 1995, EPM had become one of most important centers of Brazil training neurologists and researchers in neurological sciences.

  14. Chemical properties of urban waste ash produced by open burning on the Jos Plateau: implications for agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, M W; Alexander, M J

    2004-02-01

    Urban centres produce most of the world's waste and between a third and a half goes uncollected. The answer to the problem of waste disposal lies partly in agriculture, as waste can be extremely nutrient-rich. In the last decade there has been a tremendous increase in the developing world in total city area under informal food production and there are many examples of waste recycling onto the urban or peri-urban plots. Farmers on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, have developed a successful soil fertility management strategy based on the combination of inorganic fertilisers, manure and urban waste ash. This study sought to provide some preliminary data on urban waste ash produced by open burning and used in farming in a developing country. Ash samples were collected from different locations around Jos and tested for C, N, pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. It was found that ash is an effective liming material (because of the high pH, and high Ca, Mg and K contents), and has the potential to contribute significant quantities of micro-nutrients such as Mn, Zn and Cu. Ash, however, is far from being a homogenous material and its variability means that its fertilising potential will vary between batches and that, even if mean and median levels are low, there is the risk of the formation of localised areas of soil with excessive heavy metal contents (this is particularly the case with Pb). Further research is required to determine the plant-availability of these elements in the ash and to assess the wider environmental and health implications of uncontrolled, open burning of waste as a means of producing ash for agricultural purposes.

  15. Parasitic castration of Buccinanops cochlidium (Gastropoda: Nassariidae) caused by a lepocreadiid digenean in San José Gulf, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Averbuj, A; Cremonte, F

    2010-12-01

    Parasitic castration of Buccinanops cochlidium from San José Gulf, Argentina, caused by a lepocreadiid digenean, is reported for the first time. Rediae and ophtalmotrichocercous cercariae probably belonging to Opechona sp. were identified in the gonad and digestive gland. Opechona sp. has been reported previously parasitizing B. monilifer from a northern locality in the Argentine Sea. Overall prevalence of infection was 15.5%; it varied seasonally, rising during the warm months after the host oviposition period. Cercariae were expelled at the same time as the hatching of snail embryos (during the higher water temperature period). Rediae affected male and female snails equally, but prevalence increases along with host size. The parasite causes the complete castration of the host. Parasitized adult snails showed a reduction of penis size in comparison with healthy males. It remains to be confirmed whether the peak of cercariae emission coincides with the presence of jellyfishes and scombrid or other fishes in the area, which could act as second intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively.

  16. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Dolz, G.; Solórzano-Morales, Á.; Angelova, L.; Tien, C.; Fonseca, L.; Bonilla, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons. PMID:26623327

  17. Parasitic castration of Buccinanops cochlidium (Gastropoda: Nassariidae) caused by a lepocreadiid digenean in San José Gulf, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Averbuj, A; Cremonte, F

    2010-12-01

    Parasitic castration of Buccinanops cochlidium from San José Gulf, Argentina, caused by a lepocreadiid digenean, is reported for the first time. Rediae and ophtalmotrichocercous cercariae probably belonging to Opechona sp. were identified in the gonad and digestive gland. Opechona sp. has been reported previously parasitizing B. monilifer from a northern locality in the Argentine Sea. Overall prevalence of infection was 15.5%; it varied seasonally, rising during the warm months after the host oviposition period. Cercariae were expelled at the same time as the hatching of snail embryos (during the higher water temperature period). Rediae affected male and female snails equally, but prevalence increases along with host size. The parasite causes the complete castration of the host. Parasitized adult snails showed a reduction of penis size in comparison with healthy males. It remains to be confirmed whether the peak of cercariae emission coincides with the presence of jellyfishes and scombrid or other fishes in the area, which could act as second intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively. PMID:20137105

  18. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dolz, G; Solórzano-Morales, Á; Angelova, L; Tien, C; Fonseca, L; Bonilla, M C

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  19. Predictors of impaired renal function among HIV infected patients commencing highly active antiretroviral therapy in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Agbaji, Oche O.; Onu, Adamu; Agaba, Patricia E.; Muazu, Muhammad A.; Falang, Kakjing D.; Idoko, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Kidney disease is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection even in the era of antiretroviral therapy, with kidney function being abnormal in up to 30% of HIV-infected patients. We determined the predictors of impaired renal function in HIV-infected adults initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study among HIV-1 infected patients attending the antiretroviral clinic at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), between November 2005 and November 2007. Data were analysed for age, gender, weight, WHO clinical stage, CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA viral load, HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody status. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Statistical analysis was done using Epi Info 3.5.1. Results: Data for 491 (294 females and 197 males) eligible patients were abstracted. The mean age of this population was 38.8±8.87 years. One hundred and seventeen patients (23.8%; 95% CI, 20.2-27.9%) had a reduced eGFR (defined as <60 mL/min), with more females than males (28.6% vs. 16.8%; P=0.02) having reduced eGFR. Age and female sex were found to have significant associations with reduced eGFR. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.07 (95% CI, 1.04, 1.10) and 1.96 (95% CI, 1.23, 3.12) for age and female sex, respectively. Conclusions: Older age and female sex are independently associated with a higher likelihood of having lower eGFRs at initiation of HAART among our study population. We recommend assessment of renal function of HIV-infected patients prior to initiation of HAART to guide the choice and dosing of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:22083208

  20. ESSEA as an Enhancement to K-12 Earth Systems Science Efforts at San José State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, P.; Metzger, E. P.; Sedlock, R. L.

    2002-12-01

    San José State University's Geology Department has implemented and maintained a two-fold approach to teacher education efforts. Both pre-service and in-service populations have been participants in a wide variety of content-area enrichment, training, and professional development endeavors. Spearheading these initiatives is the Bay Area Earth Science Institute (BAESI); organized in 1990, this program has served more than 1,000 teachers in weekend- and summer-workshops, and field trips. It sustains a network of Bay Area teachers via its Website (http://www.baesi.org), newsletter, and allows teachers to borrow classroom-pertinent materials through the Earth Science Resource Center. The Department has developed a course offering in Earth Systems Science (Geology 103), which targets pre-service teachers within SJSU's multiple-subject credential program. The curriculum satisfies California subject matter competency requirements in the geosciences, and infuses pedagogy into the syllabus. Course activities are intended for pre-service and in-service teachers' adaptation in their own classrooms. The course has been enhanced by two SJSU-NASA collaborations (Project ALERT and the Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum), which have facilitated incorporation of NASA data, imagery, and curricular materials. SJSU's M.A. in Natural Science, a combined effort of the Departments of Geology, Biology, and Program in Science Education, is designed to meet the multi-disciplinary needs of single-subject credential science teachers by providing a flexible, individually-tailored curriculum that combines science course work with a science education project. Several BAESI teachers have extended their Earth science knowledge and teaching skills through such projects as field guides to local sites of geological interest; lab-based modules for teaching about earthquakes, rocks and minerals, water quality, and weather; and interactive online materials for students and teachers of science. In

  1. Air pollution in a tropical city: the relationship between wind direction and lichen bio-indicators in San José, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Erich Neurohr; Monge-Nájera, Julián; González Lutz, María Isabel

    2011-06-01

    Lichens are good bio-indicators of air pollution, but in most tropical countries there are few studies on the subject; however, in the city of San José, Costa Rica, the relationship between air pollution and lichens has been studied for decades. In this article we evaluate the hypothesis that air pollution is lower where the wind enters the urban area (Northeast) and higher where it exits San José (Southwest). We identified the urban parks with a minimum area of approximately 5,000 m2 and randomly selected a sample of 40 parks located along the passage of wind through the city. To measure lichen coverage, we applied a previously validated 10 x 20 cm template with 50 random points to five trees per park (1.5m above ground, to the side with most lichens). Our results (years 2008 and 2009) fully agree with the generally accepted view that lichens reflect air pollution carried by circulating air masses. The practical implication is that the air enters the city relatively clean by the semi-rural and economically middle class area of Coronado, and leaves through the developed neighborhoods of Escazú and Santa Ana with a significant amount of pollutants. In the dry season, the live lichen coverage of this tropical city was lower than in the May to December rainy season, a pattern that contrasts with temperate habitats; but regardless of the season, pollution follows the pattern of wind movement through the city. PMID:21717859

  2. [Embryology and "official science": the contribution of the anatomical school of José Escolar to embryology during the first Francoism (1939-1959)].

    PubMed

    Velasco Morgado, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the contribution of the anatomical school of José Escolar (1913-1998) to embryology during the first two decades of the Francoist dictatorship. Special attention is paid to the process by which the Spanish group, with the support of the new Superior National Research Council, made contact with the German morphology being developed by Hugo Spatz (1888-1979) at the Max Planck-Institut für Hirnforschung. Our study reveals the numerous influences that finally led to the anatomy and embryology of Escolar. In Spain, we found a direct influence of the Gegenbaurian morphology of Gumersindo Sánchez Guisande (1894-1976) and the neuroanatomy of Juan José Barcia Goyanes (1901-2003), full of references to studies by Braus. International contacts of the "Escolarian group", first with North America and then with Germany, created a homogeneous group with a single anatomy (functional and ontophylogenetic) but with so many research interests that subspecialisations had to be developed. An important embryological work resulted from an intense relationship with the German anatomical community during the 1950s. Escolar worked in this field on the development of the amygdala and allocortex, Fernando Reinoso studied the embryology of the diencephalon and Smith Victor Agreda, along with the German scientist Rudolf Diepen, made some important discoveries on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary system. PMID:26012340

  3. Air pollution in a tropical city: the relationship between wind direction and lichen bio-indicators in San José, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Erich Neurohr; Monge-Nájera, Julián; González Lutz, María Isabel

    2011-06-01

    Lichens are good bio-indicators of air pollution, but in most tropical countries there are few studies on the subject; however, in the city of San José, Costa Rica, the relationship between air pollution and lichens has been studied for decades. In this article we evaluate the hypothesis that air pollution is lower where the wind enters the urban area (Northeast) and higher where it exits San José (Southwest). We identified the urban parks with a minimum area of approximately 5,000 m2 and randomly selected a sample of 40 parks located along the passage of wind through the city. To measure lichen coverage, we applied a previously validated 10 x 20 cm template with 50 random points to five trees per park (1.5m above ground, to the side with most lichens). Our results (years 2008 and 2009) fully agree with the generally accepted view that lichens reflect air pollution carried by circulating air masses. The practical implication is that the air enters the city relatively clean by the semi-rural and economically middle class area of Coronado, and leaves through the developed neighborhoods of Escazú and Santa Ana with a significant amount of pollutants. In the dry season, the live lichen coverage of this tropical city was lower than in the May to December rainy season, a pattern that contrasts with temperate habitats; but regardless of the season, pollution follows the pattern of wind movement through the city.

  4. Identification and dating of indigenous water storage reservoirs along the Rio San José at Laguna Pueblo, western New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huckleberry, Gary; Ferguson, T.J.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Banet, Chris; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    An investigation into indigenous water storage on the Rio San José in western New Mexico was conducted in support of efforts by the Pueblo of Laguna to adjudicate their water rights. Here we focus on stratigraphy and geochronology of two Native American-constructed reservoirs. One reservoir located near the community of Casa Blanca was formed by a ∼600 m (2000 feet) long stone masonry dam that impounded ∼1.6 × 106 m3 (∼1300 acre-feet) of stored water. Four optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages obtained on reservoir deposits indicate that the dam was constructed prior to AD 1825. The other reservoir is located adjacent to Old Laguna Pueblo and contains only a small remnant of its former earthen dam. The depth and distribution of reservoir deposits and a photogrammetric analyses of relict shorelines indicate a storage capacity of ∼6.5 × 106 m3 (∼5300 ac-ft). OSL ages from above and below the base of the reservoir indicate that the reservoir was constructed sometime after AD 1370 but before AD 1750. The results of our investigation are consistent with Laguna oral history and Spanish accounts demonstrating indigenous construction of significant water-storage reservoirs on the Rio San José prior to the late nineteenth century.

  5. New Research on Securing Educational Equity & Excellence for English Language Learners in Texas Secondary Schools. IDRA José A. Cárdenas School Finance Fellows Program 2015 Symposium Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercultural Development Research Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    English language learners make up the fastest growing segment of the student population, but they are one of the lowest academically performing groups of students, and the achievement gap widens as students progress through school. Dr. Oscar Jimenez-Castellanos, IDRA's inaugural José A. Cárdenas School Finance Fellow, presented his research…

  6. [Joséphine Schouteden-Wéry on the Belgian coast: a biologist involved in field work and collection building].

    PubMed

    Heizer, Alda; Cerqueira, Aline Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    This text presents the findings and other aspects about the fieldwork of biologist Joséphine Schouteden-Wéry on the coast of Belgium. The information is taken from an article published in 1911 in Recueil de L'Institut Botanique Léo Errera, a periodical of the University of Brussels. Schouteden-Wéry replied to the Royal Society for Medical and Natural Sciences of Brussels (Société Royale des Sciences Médicales et Naturelles de Bruxelles) about the geological, climatic, hydrological and other factors that regulate the geographical distribution of species. She took part in study trips to the Congo, a Belgian colony in Africa, and was a leading member of the Union of Colonial Women (L'Union des Femmes Coloniales). PMID:25338040

  7. A Cuban NGO perspective on disabilities: José Blanch MD MPH, National Association of Blind Persons. Interview by Gail Reed.

    PubMed

    Blanch, José

    2011-01-01

    Dual specialties in epidemiology and labor medicine, as well as an advanced degree in public health, gave Dr José Blanch expertise on disabilities in Cuba from a population health perspective. However, when he began losing his sight due to a diabetic retinopathy while serving in Africa, he also began a difficult journey that would transform his life and career, giving him new personal and professional perspectives on disability and the potential of disabled persons. Active for the past several years in the National Association of Blind Persons (ANCI, its Spanish acronym), in 2010 Dr Blanch was elected President of the non-governmental organization. He spoke with MEDICC Review about ANCI's role and challenges in the context of Cuba today. PMID:21273954

  8. The Arcane of Cinchona and the New Granada Expedition: the multi-dimensional mind of José Celestino Mutis (1732-1808).

    PubMed

    Herranz, Jaime Pascual

    2014-08-01

    José Celestino Mutis y Bosio was a Spanish physician, naturalist, astronomer, priest, theologian and mathematician, and one of the icons of the Enlightment Age both in Spain and the American Continent. As the Viceroy's personal doctor, he travelled to the territory of New Granada in what is now Colombia. Mutis was the creator and first leader of the Royal Botanic Expedition of New Granada to study South American wildlife, discovering thousands of new species. He also launched several Public Health measures in the Santa Fe area, helping to introduce a vaccination campaign. Mutis was the first person to introduce Newtonian physics in the Spanish America and he established the first Observatory in the New World which is still in use. He was deeply admired and recognized as a prominent scientist by great personalities of his time including Carl von Linée and Alexander von Humboldt. PMID:24585628

  9. The Arcane of Cinchona and the New Granada Expedition: the multi-dimensional mind of José Celestino Mutis (1732-1808).

    PubMed

    Herranz, Jaime Pascual

    2014-08-01

    José Celestino Mutis y Bosio was a Spanish physician, naturalist, astronomer, priest, theologian and mathematician, and one of the icons of the Enlightment Age both in Spain and the American Continent. As the Viceroy's personal doctor, he travelled to the territory of New Granada in what is now Colombia. Mutis was the creator and first leader of the Royal Botanic Expedition of New Granada to study South American wildlife, discovering thousands of new species. He also launched several Public Health measures in the Santa Fe area, helping to introduce a vaccination campaign. Mutis was the first person to introduce Newtonian physics in the Spanish America and he established the first Observatory in the New World which is still in use. He was deeply admired and recognized as a prominent scientist by great personalities of his time including Carl von Linée and Alexander von Humboldt.

  10. ²²²Rn, ²²⁶Ra and hydrochemistry in the Bauru Aquifer System, São José do Rio Preto (SP), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, T O; Bonotto, D M

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the (222)Rn and (226)Ra activity concentration was measured in groundwater samples collected from the Bauru Aquifer System, São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. The site has been selected for a detailed radiometric survey due to the large number of tubular wells drilled in the aquifer there, which provide water for ~70% of the local population. Despite the importance of groundwater for the local water-supply system, there is a lack of both (222)Rn and (226)Ra data in the municipality. Establishment of these data is relevant to assure that the water quality from a radiological point of view, is not health threat. São José do Rio Preto city is geologically situated in Bauru Group that is located within the Paraná sedimentary basin. The monitoring program involved the collection of 50 groundwater samples from deep tubular wells during three field campaigns held from 17th to 19th January 2011, from 2nd to 3rd August 2011 and in 30th November 2011. Temperature and pH readings were realized in the field, whereas (222)Rn and (226)Ra analysis were performed at the laboratory using the Alpha Guard-Aquakit analytical protocol, which allowed us to obtain (222)Rn activity concentration ranging from 0.69 to 14.95 Bq/L. These data indicate that the abundances of (222)Rn and (226)Ra in the groundwater system of Bauru Group is below the WHO guideline limit of 100 Bq/L. Chemical analysis has been also realized for major cations and anions in order to better understand the water features in the municipality.

  11. Geology of the epithermal Ag-Au Huevos Verdes vein system and San José district, Deseado massif, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Andreas; Gutierrez, Ronald; Nelson, Eric P.; Layer, Paul W.

    2012-03-01

    The San José district is located in the northwest part of the Deseado massif and hosts a number of epithermal Ag-Au quartz veins of intermediate sulfidation style, including the Huevos Verdes vein system. Veins are hosted by andesitic rocks of the Bajo Pobre Formation and locally by rhyodacitic pyroclastic rocks of the Chon Aike Formation. New 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the age of host rocks and mineralization define Late Jurassic ages of 151.3 ± 0.7 Ma to 144.7 ± 0.1 Ma for volcanic rocks of the Bajo Pobre Formation and of 147.6 ± 1.1 Ma for the Chon Aike Formation. Illite ages of the Huevos Verdes vein system of 140.8 ± 0.2 and 140.5 ± 0.3 Ma are 4 m.y. younger than the volcanic host rock unit. These age dates are among the youngest reported for Jurassic volcanism in the Deseado massif and correlate well with the regional context of magmatic and hydrothermal activity. The Huevos Verdes vein system has a strike length of 2,000 m, with several ore shoots along strike. The vein consists of a pre-ore stage and three main ore stages. Early barren quartz and chalcedony are followed by a mottled quartz stage of coarse saccharoidal quartz with irregular streaks and discontinuous bands of sulfide-rich material. The banded quartz-sulfide stage consists of sulfide-rich bands alternating with bands of quartz and bands of chlorite ± illite. Late-stage sulfide-rich veinlets are associated with kaolinite gangue. Ore minerals are argentite and electrum, together with pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, minor bornite, covellite, and ruby silver. Wall rock alteration is characterized by narrow (< 3 m) halos of illite and illite/smectite next to veins, grading outward into propylitic alteration. Gangue minerals are dominantly massive quartz intergrown with minor to accessory adularia. Epidote, illite, illite/smectite, and, preferentially at deeper levels, Fe-chlorite gangue indicate near-neutral pH hydrothermal fluids at temperatures of >220°C. Kaolinite occurring with

  12. Nodule de Sœur Marie-Josèphe révélateur de carcinomes digestif et ovarien: à propos de 4 cas

    PubMed Central

    Touré, Papa Souleymane; Tall, Cheikh Tidiane; Dioussé, Pauline; Berthé, Adama; Diop, Madoky Maguatte; Sarr, Mamadou Moustapha; Diop, Balla; Léye, Yakham Mohamed; Diop, Bernard Marcel; Ka, Mamadou Mourtalla

    2015-01-01

    Le nodule de Sœur Marie-Josèphe est une métastase ombilicale d'une tumeur le plus souvent intra-abdominale. C'est un signe clinique rare dont l'incidence est de 1-3% de toutes les néoplasies abdomino-pelviennes, avec un pronostic péjoratif du fait de son retard diagnostique. Nous rapportons quatre observations d'une métastase cutanée ombilicale révélatrice d'un adénocarcinome dont deux pancréatiques, un gastrique et un d'origine ovarienne. Le but de notre travail est de montrer à travers ces quatre cas cliniques, l'intérêt de l'imagerie (tomodensitométrie, échographie) et de la biopsie dans la démarche diagnostique. A travers ces quatre observations nous insistons aussi sur les difficultés diagnostiques et thérapeutiques que pose cette tumeur dans nos pays à ressources limitées. PMID:26958132

  13. Direct identification of early synthetic dyes: FT-Raman study of the illustrated broadside prints of José Gaudalupe Posada (1852-1913)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, F.; Mauck, K.; Chefitz, M.; Freeman, R.

    2010-09-01

    Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy was used for the non-invasive, direct identification of colorants used to dye historical printed papers, overcoming obstacles such as low concentration of the dye, faded colors and fluorescence interference of the aged paper substrate. Based on a newly created FT-Raman reference database of 20 widely used dyes in the 19th century paper industry, the detectability of these dyes on aged biomaterials was determined by studying dyed paper samples from contemporary dye manuals, and identifying diagnostic peaks detectable on those substrates. Lastly, the method was applied to analyze the colorants used to dye the papers of a group of prints illustrated by the influential Mexico City artist José Guadalupe Posada, active 1876-1913. Unambiguous identification of the synthetic organic colorants Malachite Green (a triarylmethane dye), Orange II and Metanil Yellow (two acid monoazo dyes), Cotton Scarlet (an acid diazo dye), Phloxine (a xanthene dye) and Victoria Blue (a triarylmethane dye) in several of Posada’s prints challenged previous art-historical assumptions that these artworks were colored with natural dyes. The acquired knowledge has important conservation implications given that aniline dyes are sensitive to light and to aqueous treatments otherwise commonly carried out on works of art on paper.

  14. Use of a Geographic Information System and lichens to map air pollution in a tropical city: San José, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Erich Neurohr; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Méndez-Estrada, Victor Hugo

    2013-06-01

    There are no studies of air pollution bio-indicators based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Costa Rica. In this study we present the results of a project that analyzed tree trunk lichens as bioindicators of air pollution in 40 urban parks located along the passage of wind through the city of San Jose in 2008 and 2009. The data were processed with GIS and are presented in an easy to understand color coded isoline map. Our results are consistent with the generally accepted view that lichens respond to the movement of air masses, decreasing their cover in the polluted areas. Furthermore, lichen cover matched the concentration of atmospheric nitrogen oxides from a previous study of the same area. Our maps should be incorporated to urban regulatory plans for the city of San José to zone the location of schools, hospitals and other facilities in need of clean air and to inexpensively assess the risk for breast cancer and respiratory diseases in several neighborhoods throughout the city.

  15. Analysis of the Astronomical Concepts Presented by Teachers of Science, Physics, and Mathematics of São José dos Campos / SP Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Gonzaga, Edson; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work is to conduct a survey of alternative conceptions about the basic concepts of Astronomy from schoolteachers in the City of São José dos Campos. This study covers the the state-run education system and complies with legal documents related to the curriculum of educational systems, such as the Curriculum of São Paulo State and the Parameters of the National Curriculum (PCN). Alternative conceptions, mentioned in Langhi (2009) as very important, were used, because it is believed that if a student can learn these concepts before the methodological intervention, it is possible to prepare contextualized presentations for teachers, and consequently students, to compare what they already know with the new information they obtain in the sessions at the digital mobile planetarium (DMP) of the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul. Afterwards, they may discuss in a forum, in the form of debate, seeking to draw conclusions relevant to the topic, and transmitting the same to students in Basic Education (EB). This is a case study with a quantitative survey and a qualitative analysis of data on astronomical concepts collected through two questionnaires, one before and one after the intervention, respecting the implementation period of the study,- here called methodological intervention of content presentations at the mobile planetarium - and on respective discussions.

  16. Isolation and identification of zoonotic species of genus arcobacter from chicken viscera obtained from retail distributors of the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Edgar García; Jaramillo, Heriberto Fernández; Ulate, Carolina Chaves; Echandi, María Laura Arias

    2013-05-01

    Arcobacter is a genus of growing importance worldwide; some of its species are considered emerging enteropathogens and potential zoonotic agents. In Costa Rica, as well as in other countries, its isolation has been reported, so the objective of this project was to evaluate and identify the presence of Arcobacter in chicken viscera sold in the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica, as well as to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns associated with it. One hundred fifty samples of chicken viscera including heart, liver, and other gastrointestinal organs were purchased from 15 supermarkets and 15 local retailers. De Boer and Houf broths were used as enrichment media; isolation was done with Arcobacter-selective medium and with membrane filtration with blood agar. Typical colonies were identified with genus-specific PCR, and species identification was made with multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline was done with the Epsilometer test. The isolation frequency of Arcobacter genus obtained in this study was of 17.3%. A total of 33 isolates were obtained from the poultry samples, and according to the multiplex PCR methodology, 22 (66.7%) isolates were identified as Arcobacter butzleri, 8 (24.2%) as Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and 1 (3.1%) as Arcobacter skirrowii. Two strains were not identified. No statistical significant difference was found when the source of samples was compared. Resistance toward chloramphenicol was 68.75%, followed by ampicillin (43.75%) and ciprofloxacin (18.75%); all strains were susceptible to tetracycline.

  17. Vitellogenesis and changes in lipid and protein content of oocytes of Trophon geversianus (Neogastropoda: Muricidae) in Golfo San José (Chubut, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Barra, Paula; Giménez, Juliana; Knack de Almeida, Henrique; Arrighetti, Florencia

    2014-03-01

    The reproductive cycle of Trophon geversianus (Pallas 1774) population from Golfo San José (Chubut, Argentina, 42°33'S, 64°33'W) was studied using histochemical methods and digital image analysis. For such purpose, ovary samples were taken monthly between July 2006 and August 2007 and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Sudan black B (to identify lipids) or Schiff's ninhydrin (to identify proteins). Four different gametogenic stages were described: oogonias, previtellogenic oocytes, early vitellogenic oocytes, and late vitellogenic oocytes. Two spawning events were registered; one between September and October 2006, and a second one between February and March 2007. Oocyte quality was determined by the changes in lipid and protein composition during gametogenesis. Through digital image analysis, a lipid and a protein indexes (LI and PI) were calculated. Significant differences were observed in LI over month sampled, contrarily to what PI showed. A significant and positive correlation was found between lipid and protein content and oocytes areas, indicating that these nutrients accumulate during the entire vitellogenesis. Also, when dividing the oocytes into two size groups, analysis indicates a positive correlation between LI and oocyte area for smaller area oocytes. This demonstrates that while proteins accumulate linearly throughout vitellogenesis process, lipids accumulate in two steps: first at a growing rate, secondly at constant rate. This information is essential to determine the nutritional requirements of brood stock individuals at hatcheries in this potential fishery resource that inhabits patagonian waters.

  18. An early work [1910-1913] in Biological Psychology by pioneer psychiatrist, criminologist and philosopher José Ingenieros, M.D. (1877-1925) of Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2006-04-01

    One of the earliest recorded works in Biological Psychology was published in 1910 by Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros (1877-1925), Professor of Experimental Psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires. Ingenieros, a multifaceted personality and prolific author and educator famous for his lapidary aphorisms, has been considered a 'luminary' for generations. Trained as a physician, he was the first scientist to establish a comprehensive psychological system in Latin America. His long list of publications includes more than 300 titles generally divided in two periods: studies in mental pathology and criminology (1897-1908) and studies in philosophy, psychology and sociology (1908-1925). His works were never made particularly available to English-speaking audiences, despite the fact that certain of his books are still best-sellers in the Spanish-speaking world. We present an overview of Ingenieros' life and work, and a detailed account of his profoundly interesting work Principios de Psicología Biológica, in which he analyzes the development, evolution and social context of mental functions. We also provide an English translation of the Introduction contributed by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) to the 1922 German edition of the work, pertinent to the energetic principles Ingenieros used and the study of Psychology as a natural science. It is a hope, 80 years after Ingenieros' parting, to bibliographically resurrect this champion of reason, who, until now, has not been given his due placement in the international psychological and biomedical literature.

  19. Techniques of remote sensing applied to the environmental analysis of part of an aquifer located in the São José dos Campos Region sp, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Mariana Affonseca; Dos Anjos, Célio Eustáquio

    2003-05-01

    The anthropogenic activity on the surface can modify and introduce new mechanisms of recharging the groundwater system, modifying the tax, the frequency and the quality of recharge of underground waters. The understanding of these mechanisms and the correct evaluation of such modifications are fundamental in determining the vulnerability of groundwater contamination. The groundwater flow of the South Paraíba Compartment, in the region of São José dos Campos, São Paulo, is directly related to structural features of the Taubaté Basin and, therefore, the analysis of its behaviour enhances the understanding of tectonic structure. The methodology adopted for this work consists in pre-processing and processing of the satellite images, visual interpretation of HSI products, field work and data integration. The derivation of the main structural features was based on visual analysis of the texture elements of drainage, and the relief in sedimentary and crystalline rocks. Statistical analysis of the feature densities and the metric-geometric relations between the analysed elements have been conducted. The crystalline rocks, on which the sediments were laying, conditions and controls the structural arrangement of sedimentary formations. The formation of the South Paraíba Grabén is associated with Cenozoic distensive movement which reactivated old features of crust weakness and generated previous cycles with normal characteristics. The environmental analysis is based on the integration of the existing methodology to characterise vulnerability of an universal pollutant and density fracture zone. The digital integration was processed using GIS (Geographic Information System) to delineate five defined vulnerability classes. The hydrogeological settings were analysed in each thematic map and, using fuzzy logic, an index for each different vulnerability class was compiled. Evidence maps could be combined in a series of steps using map algebra.

  20. [José Juan Verocay, "el patólogo de Praga" (on occasion of the 100th anniversary of his habilitation in Prague)].

    PubMed

    Čech, P

    2012-04-01

    José Juan Verocay was born on June 16, 1876 in Paysandú, Uruguay to Italian immigrants; in 1887 they sent him to Cortina d'Ampezzo to learn languages first; he then graduated from the high school in Trento (1897) and from the German Medical Faculty in Prague (1904) where he, a disciple of Hanns Chiari, became the 1st demonstrator (1902), 3rd (1904) to 1st assistant (1905), and volunteer (from 1908) at the Department of Pathological Anatomy. He repeatedly substituted the professors Chiari (until 1906), Kretz (1907-1910), and Ghon (from 1910) during their absence. Anomalies and neoplasms prevailed among his research subjects. In the paper "Zur Kenntnis der »Neurofibrome«" (1910) he introduced the term "neurinoma" for a tumor with characteristic structures later named "Verocay bodies". On the basis of the paper he was habilitated for pathological anatomy as private docent at the German Medical Faculty in Prague (1911). During World War I he served for the Austro-Hungarian army at military hospitals in Chrudim (Bohemia) and Vienna. After the war he returned to Uruguay to work as a general practitioner in his native region (1919-1921), thereafter in Montevideo as head of pathological laboratories at the military hospital (1921-1925), at the Dental School (1925-1927), and at the Medical Faculty Department of Neurology (from March 19, 1927). As early as on May 3, 1927, however, he had to retire due to rapid worsening of his pulmonary tuberculosis. The renowned scientist remained a stranger in his own country ("el patólogo de Praga"); he never gained professorship except for a symbolic proclamation by devoted students on August 24, 1927, two days before he left for Europe to undergo treatment. On December 26, 1927 he died in Dubí (a spa near Teplice in Bohemia, Czechoslovakia, now Czech Republic).

  1. Foraminiferal biofacies in the San José Calcareous Silt Member (Manzanilla Formation, Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene) in the Manzanilla Bay area, north-east Trinidad, and their environmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brent

    2013-10-01

    The Miocene-Pliocene Manzanilla Formation of northern Trinidad marks the arrival of the east-west flowing Orinoco River. Foraminifera were examined quantitatively in samples obtained at ˜5 m intervals from the lowest member of the formation, the San José Calcareous Silt Member, where exposed at eastern Manzanilla Bay and Point Noir. Recovery of Globorotalia merotumida indicates an age within the Globorotalia acostaensis Zone through Globorotalia margaritae evoluta Subzone, (N16-N19). Values of the information function (H) and the percentage of the total assemblage as planktonic foraminifera (%P), both traditionally used as palaeodepth indicators, were uncorrelated. The low values of H are indicative of freshwater influence. Cluster analysis revealed two major biofacies dominated by Pseudononion atlanticum and Hanzawaia carstensi respectively, for which similar values of mean H and mean %P suggest similar, inner to middle neritic palaeodepths, the P. atlanticum Biofacies indicating times of hypoxia. Entrained within these were rarer samples from a biofacies indicative of shallowing and increased freshwater input (Ammonia parkinsonia gr. Biofacies). An Amphistegina gibbosa Biofacies marked an interval in which water because sufficiently clear to support foraminifera symbiotic with algae, while a sample containing only Haplophragmoides wilberti was indicative of intertidal conditions. Some samples containing reddened foraminifera showed that deposition occasionally became very slow, but these were not limited to any one biofacies. The range of palaeodepths in which the San José Calcareous Silt Member was deposited is far less than in the underlying Brasso Formation, indicating that tectonic induction of transgressive-regressive cycles was slighter during San José times.

  2. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th, and 40K in different food crops from a high background radiation area in Bitsichi, Jos Plateau, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jibiri, N N; Farai, I P; Alausa, S K

    2007-03-01

    One of the three goals of the United Nations for sustainable food security is to ensure that all people have access to sufficient, nutritionally adequate, and safe food. Decades of tin mining in the Bitsichi area of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, have left a legacy of polluted water supplies, impoverished agricultural land, and soil containing abnormally high levels of naturally occurring radioactive elements. In order to ascertain the radiological food safety of the population, different crops that constitute the major food nutritive requirements were collected directly across farmlands in the area. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Th, and (40)K were determined in the food and soil samples using gamma-ray spectrometry. Additionally, in situ gamma dose rate measurements were performed on the farms using a pre-calibrated survey meter. The corresponding activity concentrations in the food crops ranged from below detection limit (BDL) to 684.5 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, from BDL to 83.5 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, and from BDL to 89.8 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Th. Activity concentrations of these radionuclides were found to be lower in cereals than in tubers and vegetables. As for the soil samples, activity concentrations of these radionuclides varied from BDL to 166.4 Bq kg(-1), from 10.9 to 470.6 Bq kg(-1), and from 122.7 to 2,189.5 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, (226)Ra, and (228)Th, respectively. Average external gamma dose rates were found to vary across the farms from 0.50 +/- 0.01 to 1.47 +/- 0.04 microSv h(-1). Due to past mining activities, the soil radioactivity in the area has been modified and the concentration level of the investigated natural radionuclides in the food crops has also been enhanced. However, the values obtained suggest that the dose from intake of these radionuclides by the food crops is low and that harmful health effects are not expected. PMID:17211656

  3. The Temporal Relationship Between Alkaline and Tholeiitic Magmatism in the Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province: ID-TIMS U-Pb Ages of the José Fernandes Gabbro and Dykes of the Ponta Grossa Arch, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, V. V.; Heaman, L. M.; Shaulis, B.; Janasi, V. A.; Faleiros, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Ponta Grossa Arch (PGA) region in S-SE Brazil hosts prominent NW-oriented lineaments with hundreds of tholeiitic dykes of the Ponta Grossa Dyke Swarm (PGDS) and also alkaline intrusions concentrated between the Guapiara and São Jerônimo-Curiúva lineaments. Many of these intrusions lack more robust geochronological data; the alkaline intrusions appear to be both coeval with (e.g. Jacupiranga, Juquiá with ~130 Ma) and much younger than (e.g. Tunas, Cananéia with ~85 Ma) the adjacent Paraná basaltic lavas. We present in this work the first ID-TIMS U-Pb baddeleyite-zircon ages for diabase dykes of the Guapiara Lineament and for an alkaline intrusion (José Fernandes Gabbro) in order to determine more precisely the space-time relation between alkaline and tholeiitic magmatism in the PGA. The dated diabase dykes show high TiO2 (up to 4.5 wt%) and variable Sr (405-890 ppm). Baddeleyite-zircon concordia ages are 130.3 ± 0.5 Ma (all uncertainties reported at 2σ) and 131.3 ± 0.7 Ma, within the range of previously reported step-heating 40Ar/39Ar ages (133.1 ± 0.5 to 130.8 ± 0.4 Ma), confirming a good coherency between crystallization and cooling ages. Three distinct samples of the José Fernandes Gabbro were investigated (melagabbro, banded gabbro and quartz monzogabbro). Preliminary baddeleyite U-Pb ages obtained for a crust-contaminated quartz monzogabbro (52-56% SiO2; ~4% K2O; δ18O= +6.7 to +7.5‰; eNd(T)= -10) yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U data of 133.56 ± 0.31 Ma as the age for the intrusion. The age is about 2 m.y. older than the U-Pb ages obtained for the diabase dykes of the PGA. FAPESP proc. 2012/06082-6; CNPq 202043/2014-2

  4. Monitoring Communication with Patients: Analyzing Judgments of Satisfaction (JOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner-Menghin, Michaela; de Bruin, Anique; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Medical students struggle to put into practice communication skills learned in medical school. In order to improve our instructional designs, better insight into the cause of this lack of transfer is foundational. We therefore explored students' cognitions by soliciting self-evaluations of their history-taking skills, coined "judgments of…

  5. Malaria vectors in San José del Guaviare, Orinoquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Irene P; Conn, Jan E; Brochero, Helena

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200-0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human-vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

  6. [Microbiological quality of street sold fruits in San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Monge, R; Arias, M L; Antillón, F; Utzinger, D

    1995-06-01

    The sanitary quality of street sold fruits was analyzed during the period from march 1990 thru march 1993 in San Jose, Costa Rica. It looked for the presence of Salmonella spp. Shigella spp., Escherichia coli as well as fecal coliforms in natural refreshments, fruit salads and the fruits most frecuently expended on streets, either in slices as the pineapple (Ananas comosus), papaya (Carica papaya), non-ripe mangoe (Mangifera indica) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) and those that can be eaten without peeling, like nances (Byrsonima crassifolia) and jocotes (Spondias purpurea). 25 samples of each fruit, 50 natural refreshments and 50 fruit salads were processed according to rinse solution method, and the bacteriological determination was based in the methodology described by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. In the same way, it was used the Most Probable Number for 5 tubes described in the Standar Methods of Water and Wastewater in orden to analyze 15 samples of ready to use water by the fruit hawker. The nutritional value was studied according to the food composition tables for Costa Rica, Latin America and USA. The results show that more than 30% of fruit samples, 70% of natural refreshments and 96% of fruit salad presented fecal coliforms. Same time, all of them present important contamination indexes with E. coli. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were not isolated. The water analysis revelead that 53% contained fecal coliforms, probably due to the lack of hygiene in the utensils used to collect water. The nutritional evaluation shows that fruit portions (except watermelon) satisfy more than 100% of the diary recommendation of vitamin C (60 mg) and 4-7% of the recommended ingestion of dietetic fiber (30g).

  7. Idealism and romantic patriotism for science - an interview with José Francisco David-Ferreira.

    PubMed

    David-Ferreira, José Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Jose Francisco David-Ferreira is one of the most influential Professors of Cell and Developmental Biology in Portugal. David-Ferreira pioneered the use of electron microscopy in cell biology and experimental embryology. He also paved the way for successive generations of biologists who cross-fertilized the national scientific community. As we discuss briefly below, David-Ferreira is above all a Pedagogue and an Institution builder. PMID:19247950

  8. Analytical characterization of academic nude paintings by José Veloso Salgado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardeira, A. M.; Longelin, S.; Costa, S.; Candeias, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Manso, M.

    2016-01-01

    This case study illustrates the analytical characterization of 12 academic nude paintings by Veloso Salgado, made between 1883 and 1893. The study was done with in situ methods (infrared reflectography and EDXRF) and benchtop equipment (Raman and FTIR microscopes and SEM-EDS). Infrared reflectography revealed underdrawings, painting style, execution method and retouched/restored areas. Analytical techniques allowed the identification of gypsum, lead white, barium white, zinc white, yellow ochre, chrome yellow, zinc yellow, vermilion, synthetic ultramarine blue, cerulean blue, Prussian blue, viridian, green earth, Paris green, red ochre, raw umber and lamp black. These results provide valuable information on Salgado's palette and his artistic production technique and allow the distinction between palettes used in Lisbon and Paris and consequently, technical interchanges between both Academies. Finally, this study intends to start a systematic analytical study of the Faculty of Fine Arts' collection, allowing the characterization of many other authors and their influences for the development of painting methodology in this Academy.

  9. [José Lima Pedreira de Freitas and the redefinition and control of Chagas disease].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2016-08-01

    A brief overview of the evolution of knowledge about Chagas disease since its discovery by Carlos Chagas in 1909 until the mid-1940s is presented. The trajectory of physician Pedreira de Freitas and his growing involvement in research in the area led to his contributions to laboratory diagnosis - which lent consistency and security to epidemiological surveys of Chagas disease - and the redefinition of the scale of the disease in Brazil and the Americas with its terrible social and economic impact. His proposal for the disease prevention model - based on selective purging in the application of insecticide - was adopted nationally and internationally and made it possible to bring the disease under control in Brazil and other countries. He devoted himself with equal intensity to enhancing the teaching of medical practices in the community and was a pioneer in the implementation of preventive medicine in medical education in Brazil. PMID:27557035

  10. Changelings: transformative perceptions of San José's street children, 1965-1981.

    PubMed

    Aldebot-Green, Scarlett

    2011-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1981, Costa Ricans changed their perceptions of which characteristics they thought defined appropriate urban childhoods. By 1981, the model of a modern, urban Costa Rican child was that of a child who attended school, did not work on the streets, and played in specifically designated places. Children who did not fit this mold began, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, to be viewed as dangerous to society and as evidencing social pathology. Whereas children who worked on the streets during the 1960s were considered part of the urban landscape, and their childhoods, though difficult, were not perceived as deviant, these same children, two decades later, were viewed as marginal and problematic. To trace this change, this article focuses on the changing perceptions about children on the streets that writers for and public contributors to La Nación, one of the preeminent Costa Rican newspapers, show during the sixteen-year period under analysis. PMID:21966712

  11. Malaria vectors in San José del Guaviare, Orinoquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Irene P; Conn, Jan E; Brochero, Helena

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200-0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human-vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance.

  12. The Need for Hearing Conservation in Our (Jos Municipality) Public Schools. Brief Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boison, Kwame Bessa

    1986-01-01

    Audiometric screening tests administered to students ages 5-21 in five Nigerian schools (N=2315) revealed hearing problems in 13.5% of the student population. Among findings was a high incidence of acute suppurative otitis media. Related recommendations include twice-yearly audiometric screening for children perceived to be at risk. (JW)

  13. Analytical characterization of academic nude paintings by José Veloso Salgado.

    PubMed

    Cardeira, A M; Longelin, S; Costa, S; Candeias, A; Carvalho, M L; Manso, M

    2016-01-15

    This case study illustrates the analytical characterization of 12 academic nude paintings by Veloso Salgado, made between 1883 and 1893. The study was done with in situ methods (infrared reflectography and EDXRF) and benchtop equipment (Raman and FTIR microscopes and SEM-EDS). Infrared reflectography revealed underdrawings, painting style, execution method and retouched/restored areas. Analytical techniques allowed the identification of gypsum, lead white, barium white, zinc white, yellow ochre, chrome yellow, zinc yellow, vermilion, synthetic ultramarine blue, cerulean blue, Prussian blue, viridian, green earth, Paris green, red ochre, raw umber and lamp black. These results provide valuable information on Salgado's palette and his artistic production technique and allow the distinction between palettes used in Lisbon and Paris and consequently, technical interchanges between both Academies. Finally, this study intends to start a systematic analytical study of the Faculty of Fine Arts' collection, allowing the characterization of many other authors and their influences for the development of painting methodology in this Academy.

  14. You Can't Stop the Rain: José Betancourt, MD, Cuban Civil Defense.

    PubMed

    Reed, Gail

    2008-07-01

    The year 2005 was a watershed for disaster management worldwide and also in Cuba. Representatives of every continent met in Japan, hammering out the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015), an international blueprint for risk reduction strategies and a guide for developing national platforms. In Cuba, a spate of devastating hurricanes the year before led to a reassessment of how the country was managing disasters, and to the 2005 comprehensive overhaul of national, provincial, and municipal disaster planning.

  15. Analytical characterization of academic nude paintings by José Veloso Salgado.

    PubMed

    Cardeira, A M; Longelin, S; Costa, S; Candeias, A; Carvalho, M L; Manso, M

    2016-01-15

    This case study illustrates the analytical characterization of 12 academic nude paintings by Veloso Salgado, made between 1883 and 1893. The study was done with in situ methods (infrared reflectography and EDXRF) and benchtop equipment (Raman and FTIR microscopes and SEM-EDS). Infrared reflectography revealed underdrawings, painting style, execution method and retouched/restored areas. Analytical techniques allowed the identification of gypsum, lead white, barium white, zinc white, yellow ochre, chrome yellow, zinc yellow, vermilion, synthetic ultramarine blue, cerulean blue, Prussian blue, viridian, green earth, Paris green, red ochre, raw umber and lamp black. These results provide valuable information on Salgado's palette and his artistic production technique and allow the distinction between palettes used in Lisbon and Paris and consequently, technical interchanges between both Academies. Finally, this study intends to start a systematic analytical study of the Faculty of Fine Arts' collection, allowing the characterization of many other authors and their influences for the development of painting methodology in this Academy. PMID:26344483

  16. The Global Issue of Vision Loss and What We Can Do About It: José Rizal Medal 2015.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Hugh R

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of blindness increases rapidly with increasing age. Globally, there are some 32 million people who are blind and 191 million with poor vision. The leading cause of blindness worldwide is cataract, whereas uncorrected refractive error causes most poor vision. The rates of blindness from diabetes and macular degeneration are rapidly increasing, and age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Three quarters of this blindness can be prevented or treated, and although the absolute number of blind people increased slightly between 1990 and 2010, very importantly, the prevalence of blindness has been halved as eye care programs and particularly cataract services have developed. We know how to deliver better eye care, and it works! However, with only 205,000 ophthalmologists worldwide, there is much work to do. The International Council of Ophthalmology has a major focus on education and team building to improve the quality and availability of eye care around the world. Its programs include curricula for all levels, examinations, fellowships, teaching of teachers, continuing professional development, and of course, the World Ophthalmology Congresses. We must work together in partnership to eliminate avoidable blindness worldwide.

  17. Clinical applications of optical coherence tomography in the posterior pole: the 2011 José Manuel Espino Lecture - Part I

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo, J Fernando; Lasave, Andres F; Arias, Juan D; Serrano, Martin A; Arevalo, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is now a standard of care in ophthalmology and is considered essential for the diagnosis and monitoring of many retinal diseases. One of the major advances obtained with OCT was the understanding of the pathophysiology of macular holes. Non-full-thickness macular holes have been revisited because high-resolution OCT images can detect a lamellar macular defect that is not always visible clinically, and surgery has been advocated by some authors. OCT can be valuable in determining the need for and/or timing of surgical intervention on epiretinal membranes or vitreomacular traction syndrome. In addition, we can use this technology as a predictive factor in the prognosis and follow-up of the most common posterior pole pathologies. PMID:24235810

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in a Large Adult Cohort in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Samson E.; Oche, Agbaji O.; Kang'ombe, Arthur R.; Okopi, Joseph A.; Idoko, John A.; Cuevas, Luis E.; Gill, Geoffrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, data from regions with a high burden of HIV/AIDS are limited. We determined the prevalence of T2DM at the time of presentation to a large HIV clinic in Nigeria, as well as the incidence of diabetes 12 months following ART initiation. Methods. Data from patients enrolled for ART from 2011 to 2013 was analyzed, including 2632 patients on enrollment and 2452 reevaluated after 12 months of ART commencement. The presence of diabetes, and demographic, clinical, and biochemical data were retrieved from standardized databases. CD4+, HIV RNA load, and hepatitis C virus status were noted. Bivariate and logistic regressions were used to identify risk factors for T2DM. Results. Baseline T2DM prevalence was 2.3% (95% confidence interval, 1.8%–2.9%); age, but not body mass index (BMI), was a risk factor for diabetes. After 12 months of ART, an additional 5.3% had developed T2DM. Newly developed diabetes was not associated with age, but was associated with BMI. There were no significant associations between prevalent or incident diabetes and CD4+, viral load, or type of ART. Conclusions. Diabetes is not uncommon in HIV-infected individuals at the time of presentation to HIV services. Patients initiating ART have a high risk of developing diabetes in the first year of ART. Excessive weight gain should be avoided, as incident diabetes was associated with a BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2. PMID:27307508

  19. A Fatal Urban Case of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Presenting an Eschar in San José, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Argüello, Ana Patricia; Hun, Laya; Rivera, Patricia; Taylor, Lizeth

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the first urban human case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, in Costa Rica. An 8-year-old female who died at the National Children's Hospital 4 days after her admission, and an important and significant observation was the presence of an “eschar” (tache noire), which is typical in some rickettsial infections but not frequent in Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases. PMID:22855769

  20. Multi-analytical characterisation of D'Aprés Cormon by José Veloso Salgado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardeira, A. M.; Longelin, S.; Costa, S.; Candeias, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Manso, M.

    2014-07-01

    This case study reveals the analytical characterisation carried out on ‘D'Aprés Cormon' (1891) by Veloso Salgado, a copy of ‘Caïn' (1880) by Fernando Cormon, belonging nowadays to Musée d'Orsay. Infrared Reflectography made in situ revealed underdrawing grid that was used to transpose the original painting to a smaller scale, pictorial style, execution method and retouched/restored areas. In situ EDXRF analysis together with Raman microscopy allowed the identification of gypsum, lead white, titanium white, yellow ochre, vermilion, ultramarine and lamp black. These results provide valuable information about the Salgado's palette and his production technique.

  1. Historical performance of particulate settleable in a municipality located in the ceramic cluster of Castellón (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, P.; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Soriano, A.; Pallarés, S.; Vicente, A. B.

    2010-05-01

    Air pollution can be defined as: "the introduction into the atmosphere by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy with have effects deleterious of such a nature that endangers human health, causing damage to biological resources and to ecosystems, which impair material goods and to harm or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment". One of the main pollutants in air is the particulate matter. This material particulate includes settleable, particles larger than 10 μm that remain airborne for relatively short periods of time. For what its effects are most pronounced in the vicinity of the emitting sources. The study area is located in the city of Alcora. This population is located in the region eastern of the province of Castellon (Spain). The municipality of Alcora has a high industrial density, highlighting framed companies in chemical industry and non-metallic mineral products. The area has a high traffic density due to the proximity of population to various roads. These two factors point peaks rise high concentration of atmospheric particulate pollutants. The purpose of this paper is conducting a retrospective view of the evolution of settleable particulate concentrations. Settleable particulate samples were collected with a sensor BRITISH STANDARD PS particles during the period between January 2000 and December 2005. REFERENCES Gómez E.T.; Sanfeliu T.; Rius J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Evolution, sources and distribution of mineral particles and amorphous phase of atmospheric aerosol in an industrial and Mediterranean coastal area" Water, air and Soil Pollution 167:311-330. Sanfeliu T.; Gómez E.T.; Hernánde D.;Martín J.D.; Ovejero M.; Jordán M.M. (2002). "Avaluation of the particulate atmospheric aerosol in the urban area on Castellón, Spain". Protecction and conservation of the cultural heritage of the Mediterranean cities. Eds. Galán and Zezza Ed. Swets&Zeitlinger, Lisse pp:61-64. Sanfeliu T.; Jordán M.M.; Gómez E

  2. Evolution of Northeastern Mexico during the early Mesozoic: potential areas for research and exploration José Rafael Barboza-Gudiño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza-Gudiño, R.

    2013-05-01

    The lower Mesozoic succession of central and northeastern Mexico was deposited in a late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic remnant basin, formed at the westernmost culmination of the Ouachita-Marathon geosuture, after closure of the Rheic Ocean. Triassic fluvial deposits of El Alamar Formation (El Alamar River) are distributed in Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon as remnants of a continental succession deposited close to the western margin of equatorial Pangea, such fluvial systems flowed to the ocean, located to the west and contributed to construction of the so-called Potosí submarine fan (Zacatecas Formation). Petrographic, geochemical, and detrital zircon geochronology studies indicate that both, marine and continental Triassic successions, come from a continental block and partially from a recycled orogen, showing grenvillian (900-1300 Ma) and Pan-African (500-700 Ma) zircon age populations, typical for peri-gondwanan blocks, in addition to zircons from the Permo-Triassic East Mexico arc (240-280 Ma). The absence of detrital zircons from the southwestern North American craton, represent a strong argument against left lateral displacement of Mexico to the southwest during the Jurassic up to their actual position, as proposed by the Mojave-Sonora megashear hypothesis. Towards the end of the Triassic or in earliest Jurassic time, began the subduction along the western margin of Pangea, which causes deformation of the Late Triassic Zacatecas Formation and subsequent magmatism in the continental Jurassic arc known as "Nazas Arc ", whose remnants are now exposed in central- to northeastern Mexico. Wide distributed in northern Mexico occurred also deposition of a red bed succession, overlying or partially interstratified with the Early to Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks of the Nazas Formation. To the west and southwest, such redbeds change transitionally to marine and marginal sedimentary facies which record sedimentation at the ancient paleo-pacific margin of Mexico (La Boca and Huayacocotla formations). The Middle to Upper Jurassic La Joya Formation overlies unconformable all continental and marine-marginal successions and older rocks, and records the transgressive basal deposits of the Gulf series, changing upsection to the evaporites and limestone of the Oxfordian Zuloaga Group. Successive intraoceanic subduction zones to the West sparked magmatic arcs whose accretion in the continental margin produced the consolidation of much of the Mexican territory up to the current Pacific margin. Scattered isolated outcrops from the Early Mesozoic succession in central- and northeastern Mexico allow interpretation of tectonic setting and paleogeography associated to each stratigraphic unit, revealing a strongly different geologic evolution than the previously established models, opening a range of new possibilities and areas of opportunity for mining and fossil fuels exploration. However, most of the Triassic-Jurassic rocks or stratigraphic units in northern Mexico lie under many hundreds of meters of a Cretaceous-Cenozoic cover. Their recognition and preliminary evaluation implies the use of indirect techniques like geophysical methods, before drilling or subsurface mining.

  3. Estación Astronómica Antártica José L. Sérsic: reporte 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Mosconi, M.; Lazarte, G.; Cavarra, M.; Daguerre, F.

    Se presenta el estado de avance de los programas de observación en desarrollo en la estación ``J.~L.~SERSIC'', en Base Belgrano, a los 78 grados de latitud Sur. Se comentan algunas soluciones a los problemas que impone el riguroso ambiente polar en cuanto al funcionamiento y operación de los equipos.

  4. Experiences of the Student Population at an Urban University: How Do They Use a Joint Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molteni, Valeria E.; Goldman, Crystal; Oulc'hen, Enora

    2014-01-01

    The King Library in San José, California, is a unique combination of academic and public library. It serves the diverse populations of the City of San José and San José State University (SJSU). This article provides analysis of data collected in a study on the concept of "library as place" and SJSU students' sense of belonging…

  5. [Friar José Mariano da Conceição Veloso and the promotion of industrial techniques in colonial Brazil: discussion of some concepts from the chemical sciences].

    PubMed

    Luna, Fernando J

    2009-01-01

    At the turn of the 19th century, Minas Gerais Botanist Friar Veloso worked intensely on the publication of books to promote among settlers from the Portuguese empire techniques for improving agricultural production and from the incipient chemistry industry. This article analyzes the first volume of the "Alographia dos alkalis fixos...", a work that includes articles, book chapters, letters and patents from ten authors, particularly French and English, about the scientific and technical knowledge needed for the production of potassium carbonate from the ash of native plants. Some concepts and definitions used at the time of the Chemical Revolution are discussed, considering that Veloso translated them to Portuguese and introduced them to Brazil through his work.

  6. UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum Latin America and the Caribbean: Advancing TVET for Youth Employability and Sustainable Development (San José, Costa Rica, August 27-28, 2013). Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To strengthen global and regional harmonization for the advancement of TVET transformation through the capacities of UNEVOC's unique global Network of specialized TVET institutions and affiliated partners, the UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre organized a series of meetings to be held in all regions of the world. The meetings are organized…

  7. Assessment of PM10 and heavy metals concentration in a Ceramic Cluster (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen Vicente, Ana; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teofilo; Bech, Joan

    2013-04-01

    . Distribution of heavy metals in calcareous and non-calcareous soils in Spain. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 162, 127-142. Sanfeliu, T., Jordán, M. M., Gómez, E. T., Álvarez, C. 2002. Contribution of the atmospheric emissions of Spanish ceramic industries. Environmental Geology 41: 601-607. Soriano, A.; Pallares, S.; Pardo, F.; Vicente, A.B.; Sanfeliu, T.; Bech, J. 2012. Deposition of heavy metals from particulate settleable matter in soils of an industrialised area. Journal Geochemical Exploration 113: 36-44 Vicente, A. B., Sanfeliu, T. Jordán, M. M., Sánchez, A., Esteban, M. D. 2008. Air prediction models of pollutants in an industrialised area of the Mediterranean basin. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 17 [10a]: 1554-1564.

  8. Deposition of heavy metals from particulate settleable matter in soils of an industrialized area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanfeliu, Teófilo

    2010-05-01

    Particulate air pollutants from industrial emissions and natural resource exploitation represent an important contribution to soil contamination. These atmospheric particles, usually settleable particulate matter form (which settle by gravity) are deposited on soil through both dry and wet. The most direct consequences on soil of air pollutants are acidification and salinization, not to mention the pollution that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of air pollution in soil composition. For this purpose, has been conducted a study of the composition of heavy metals in the settleable particulate matter in two locations (Almazora and Vila-real) with high industrial density (mainly ceramic companies) located in the ceramic cluster of Castellón (Spain). Settleable air particles samples were collected with a PS Standard Britannic captor (MCV-PS2) for monthly periods between January 2007 and December 2009. We analyzed the following elements: Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Sb and Bi which are highly toxic and have the property of accumulating in living organisms. It has been determined the concentration of heavy metals in the soluble fraction of settleable air particles by ICP-MS. The annual variation of the results obtained in both populations shows a decline over the study period the concentrations of heavy metals analyzed. This fact is associated with the steady implementation of corrective measures in the main industrial sector in the area based on the treatment of mineral raw materials. Moreover, this decline is, in turn, a lower intake of heavy metals to the soil. REFERENCES Gómez E.T.; Sanfeliu T.; Rius J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Evolution, sources and distribution of mineral particles and amorphous phase of atmospheric aerosol in an industrial and Mediterranean coastal area" Water, air and Soil Pollution 167:311-330 Moral R., Gilkes R.J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Distribution of heavy

  9. Support Teachers' Beliefs about the Academic Achievement of Students with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Jos Castro; Morgado, Jos

    2004-01-01

    Jos Castro Silva, lecturer in sciences of education, and Jos Morgado, assistant professor, both work at the Instituto Superior de Psicologica Aplicada in Lisboa, Portugal. In this article, they describe their study of support teachers beliefs about the academic achievement of school students with special educational needs. The support teachers who…

  10. 1. Photocopy of ink sketch from American Architect and Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of ink sketch from American Architect and Building News 51(Feb. 8, 1896): 1050 James Jos. Maginnis, illustrator 1896 EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST - The Dunster, Dunster Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  11. Experimentos submarinos

    NASA Video Gallery

    NEEMO se lleva a cabo en un laboratorio submarino llamado Aquarius. De la mano del astronauta de la NASA José Hernández conoce alguno de los experimentos que los astronautas (o acuanautas) hacen mi...

  12. Executive compensation committee plays key role in board's stewardship.

    PubMed

    Galvin, J M

    1991-04-22

    Board members charged with a facility's stewardship should include executives among the key assets involved, and the way to assure executive compensation committee, says Jos. Michael Galvin. PMID:10110127

  13. 78 FR 39004 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... need; sf. varies; adequate to very poor conditions; contamination; restricted area; escort required... Rico Muniz IAP 200 Jos A (Tony) Santana Ave. Carolina PR 09879 Landholding Agency: Air Force...

  14. Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans isolated from droppings of captive birds in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Irokanulo, E O; Makinde, A A; Akuesgi, C O; Ekwonu, M

    1997-04-01

    The yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans, was found in apparently healthy birds at the Jos Wildlife Park and Zoo in Jos, Nigeria. Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans was isolated from feces of four captive bird species. Five isolates belonged to serotype A while two were serotype D. Serotype A of C. neoformans was isolated from a white face duck (Dendrocygna viduata), eagle owl (Bubo africanus cinerascene) and peacock (Pavo cristatus). The other two (serotype D), were isolated from a spotted eagle owl. PMID:9131573

  15. Three Years of Unmediated Document Delivery: An Analysis and Consideration of Collection Development Priorities.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily K; Mune, Christina; Wang, YiPing; Kendall, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Like most academic libraries, San José State University Library is struggling to meet users' rising expectations for immediate information within the financial confines of a flat budget. To address acquisition of nonsubscribed article content, particularly outside of business hours, San José State University Library implemented Copyright Clearance Center's Get It Now, a document delivery service. Three academic years of analyzed data, which involves more than 10,000 requests, and the subsequent collection development actions taken by the library will be discussed. The value and challenges of patron-driven, unmediated document delivery services in conjunction with traditional document delivery services will be considered.

  16. Digital Media and Latino Families: New Channels for Learning, Parenting, and Local Organizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Lizárraga, José Ramon; Gray, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Latino families in America increasingly enjoy access to a dizzying array of content on a variety of electronic devices, from televisions and video games to personal computers and mobile devices. Bruce Fuller, José Ramón Lizárraga, James H. Gray raise pressing questions that face Latino families as they adopt technologies that both have the…

  17. The Teaching Naked Cycle: Technology Is a Tool, but Psychology Is the New Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This article by José Antonio Bowen was presented at the 2014 annual meeting of the "Association of American Colleges and Universities" where the discussion included the question of how technology was bringing new tools and new competition to higher education, but was also changing basic rules about how "we operate" as human…

  18. Modeling the Relationship between Transportation-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Hybrid-Online Courses at a Large Urban University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Matthew; Cordero, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relationship between hybrid classes (where a per cent of the class meetings are online) and transportation-related CO[subscript 2] emissions at a commuter campus similar to San José State University (SJSU). Design/methodology/approach: A computer model was developed to calculate the number of trips to…

  19. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Dengue Virus Serotype 1 Genotype V Strains from Different Lineages.

    PubMed

    Vedovello, Danila; Menegaldo, Tauyne; Biselli-Périco, Joice M; Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Araújo Junior, João Pessoa; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2016-01-01

    Previous phylogenetic studies involving dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV1) have shown several lineages of genotype V circulating worldwide. After sequencing the complete genome of strains from São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, we identified a list of 50 different amino acids that differ between the two lineages, announced here. PMID:27688321

  20. Change Detection of Vegetation Cover, using Multi- Temporal Remote Sensing Data and GIS Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adia, Oro-Ghene

    Remote sensing technology in combination with geographic information system (GIS) can render reliable information on vegetation cover. The analysis of the spatial extent and temporal change of vegetation cover using remotely sensed data is of critical importance to agricultural sciences. This paper investigates the Spatio- Temporal change of vegetation cover of Jos and its surrounding areas. For this study landsat images

  1. Resurrection Symphony: "El Sistema" as Ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of Venezuela's "El Sistema" is rewriting the agenda of musical education in the West. Many commentators from the world of classical music react to the spectacle of dedicated young colonial musicians playing European masterworks as a kind of "miracle," accepting "Sistema" founder José Antonio…

  2. Comment on ‘Redshift formulas and the Doppler–Fizeau effect’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleckinger, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In this comment, some remarks are proposed on José-Philippe Pérez’s article ‘Redshift formulas and the Doppler–Fizeau effect’ (2016 Eur. J. Phys. 37 015604). Presentation of the gravitational redshift in second part of section 3.1 of that article is shown to be incorrect. The correct derivation is presented.

  3. A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Isidro; Nishida, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, a new satyrine species, is described from a single male specimen from Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. This new species can be distinguished from other species of Cyllopsis by its white coloration.

  4. The Story of Carora: The Origins of El Sistema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Venezuela's youth symphony program, the Fundación Musical Simón Bolívar, commonly referred to as "El Sistema," combines musical achievement with learning important life skills through orchestral practice and performance. Although the history most commonly reported outside Venezuela is of the program's director, José Antonio Abreu,…

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Dengue Virus Serotype 1 Genotype V Strains from Different Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Vedovello, Danila; Menegaldo, Tauyne; Biselli-Périco, Joice M.; Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Araújo Junior, João Pessoa

    2016-01-01

    Previous phylogenetic studies involving dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV1) have shown several lineages of genotype V circulating worldwide. After sequencing the complete genome of strains from São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, we identified a list of 50 different amino acids that differ between the two lineages, announced here. PMID:27688321

  6. Society for the History of Psychology news.

    PubMed

    Rodkey, Elissa

    2015-02-01

    Presents two brief news items. The first item discusses the archives of Roger Sperry, 1981 Nobel Prize Laureate. The note provides information as to the materials archived, their location, and contact archivist. The second item discusses the passing of José Luis Pinillos Díaz (1919-2013), a founder of Spanish psychology. PMID:25664887

  7. COMPARATIVE CHADIC--PHONOLOGY AND LEXICON.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MA, ROXANA; NEWMAN, PAUL

    IN RECENT YEARS IT HAS BEEN DEMONSTRATED THAT A LARGE NUMBER OF THE LANGUAGES IN THE LINGUISTICALLY DIVERSIFIED SUB-SAHARAN AREA OF NORTHERN NIGERIA, THE NORTHERN CAMEROONS, AND THE CHAD REPUBLIC, INCLUDING MANY OF THE LANGUAGES OF THE JOS PLATEAU GROUP, CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS A SINGLE LINGUISTIC UNIT--THE CHAD FAMILY. BY USING THE TRADITIONAL…

  8. Skype™ Conference Calls: A Way to Promote Speaking Skills in the Teaching and Learning of English (Llamadas para conferencia en Skype™: una forma de promover la habilidad de habla en la enseñanza y aprendizaje del inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaña Correa, Yeferson

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research project on the teaching and learning of English through the use of Skype™ conference calls. The research was carried out with a group of 12 English as a foreign language adult learners in the language institute of Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogotá, Colombia. The findings of this…

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2015-11-25

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil.

  10. International Perspectives in LIS Education: Global Education, Research, and Collaboration at the SJSU School of Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Sandra; Simmons, Michelle Holschuh; Christensen, Paul; Sellar, Melanie; Stenström, Cheryl; Hagar, Christine; Bernier, Anthony; Faires, Debbie; Fisher, Jane; Alman, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The IFLA Trend Report identified five trends that will impact the information environment (IFLA, 2015), such as access to information with new technologies, online education for global learning, hyper-connected communities, and the global information environment. The faculty at San José State University (SJSU) School of Information (iSchool) is…

  11. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  12. Comment on ‘Redshift formulas and the Doppler-Fizeau effect’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleckinger, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In this comment, some remarks are proposed on José-Philippe Pérez’s article ‘Redshift formulas and the Doppler-Fizeau effect’ (2016 Eur. J. Phys. 37 015604). Presentation of the gravitational redshift in second part of section 3.1 of that article is shown to be incorrect. The correct derivation is presented.

  13. "Escola Familia": A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carani, George; Carani, José; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    "Alphabetização" (literacy) of young children involves a school exclusively devoted to the early years, parental participation, and teachers specialized in early literacy. This is the basis of José Carani's proposal for an "escola familia" in the municipality of Cambé (Brazil). This "Note from the Field," based…

  14. Performing Disidentifications: Girls "in Trouble" Experiment with Digital Narratives to Remake Self-Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivashkevich, Olga

    2013-01-01

    This article uses queer performance theorist José Muñoz's metaphor of disidentification to interpret digital narratives produced by adolescent girls in the juvenile arbitration program. Muñoz views public artistic performances of marginalized subjects as a liminal strategy. While they cannot embody the normative ("good" middle…

  15. 76 FR 9630 - Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; National Ombudsman and Region VI Regional Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... hearing is for Business Organizations, Trade Associations, Chambers of Commerce and related organizations... writing, by fax or e-mail in order to be placed on the agenda. Jos M ndez, Case Management Specialist, SBA Headquarters, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite 7125, Washington, DC, phone (202) 205-6178 and fax (202) 481-2707,...

  16. Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN) was founded by José Celestino Mutis in the framework of the `Expedicion Botanica' on 20 August 1803. His first astronomer was Francisco Jose de Caldas. By the turn of the century, Julio Garavito worked in celestial mechanics—a crater on the far side of the Moon bears his name....

  17. Of Comedy and Tragedy: A Commentary on Adalberto Aguirre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limon, Jose E.

    2005-01-01

    Jos Limn maintains that Professor Aguirres account may be construed as fundamentally a story of California, albeit one told from a Chicano perspective. It is based less on any red-blooded forms of racism and more on the Roycean, Protestant, individualistic, comedic Anglo California that, in its relentless optimisms and perpetual newness, simply…

  18. Current prescription of prophylactic factor infusions and perceived adherence for children and adolescents with haemophilia: a survey of haemophilia healthcare professionals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, C D; Carpenter, S; Zappa, S; Munn, J; Leissinger, C

    2012-07-01

    The primary goal of prophylaxis in patients with severe haemophilia is to convert the phenotype from severe to moderate and to prevent the development of chronic arthropathy. Prior studies have demonstrated that prophylaxis decreases episodes of joint bleeds and chronic arthropathy. Effectiveness depends on prescription of prophylaxis and adherence to the prescribed regimen. The aim of this study was to determine if prescription of prophylaxis for children with haemophilia and perceptions of adherence to prophylaxis have changed since publication of the Joint Outcome Study (JOS). A questionnaire was sent, in electronic and written formats, to health professionals who provide care to children with haemophilia at US haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs). The response rate was 56 of 128 (44%) of the targeted HTCs. There were a few missing data and denominators are provided. All responses agreed with the results of the JOS and 30/55 (55%) reported the JOS increased their prescription of prophylaxis. Nineteen of 56 (34%) physicians or HTC staff reported that they had not prescribed prophylaxis within the last year due to concerns about adherence, and 19/56 (34%) reported they had stopped prophylaxis due to concerns about adherence within the last year. Predicted adherence decreased with increasing age. Prescription of prophylaxis appears to be increasing since publication of the JOS. Strategies to improve adherence may increase the likelihood of physician prescription of prophylaxis and make prophylaxis easier to implement for individual patients, thereby improving the clinical outcome of children and adults with haemophilia.

  19. Society for the History of Psychology news.

    PubMed

    Rodkey, Elissa

    2015-02-01

    Presents two brief news items. The first item discusses the archives of Roger Sperry, 1981 Nobel Prize Laureate. The note provides information as to the materials archived, their location, and contact archivist. The second item discusses the passing of José Luis Pinillos Díaz (1919-2013), a founder of Spanish psychology.

  20. "Tango Feroz": Teaching a History of Politics and Economics of Argentina through Sex, Drugs, and Rock and Roll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Eva Karene

    2015-01-01

    This article directly resulted from the teacher/researcher experience, describing new analyses resulting from subtitling a film for curriculum incorporation: "Tango feroz, la leyenda de Tanguito" (1993). Set in Argentina in the sixties and loosely based on the life of José Alberto Iglesias Correa, also known as Tanguito, this film…

  1. Issues in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers on issues in human resource development (HRD). "Employability By Sector of Industry: Taking Account of Supply and Demand Characteristics (Andries de Grip, Jasper B. van Loo, Jos M.A.F. Sanders) reports on development of an Industry Employability Index that integrates both supply and demand determinants of…

  2. Los mejores ejemplos

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández nos cuenta cómo cambió su vida cuando oyó en una entrevista radial a Franklin Chang Díaz, el primer astronauta hispano de la NASA. Chang-Díaz contaba sus via...

  3. More French, s'il vous plait!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, W. Russ, Ed.

    The collection of essays on French second language instruction in Canada, directed to parents, includes: "Our Brave New World" (Andrew Kniewasser); "French in Your School: Identifying and Achieving the Right Program" (Carolyn Hodych, Jos Scott); "So, You're Worried About Becoming an Immersion Parent" (Judy Gibson); "Is Core French a Valid Option?"…

  4. Has horsepox become extinct?

    PubMed

    Esparza, José

    2013-09-21

    Mystery surrounds the extent to which horsepox virus may have contributed to the vaccinia virus used to eradicate smallpox. With few documented cases of horsepox in recent years it may never be solved, says José Esparza, who seeks to raise awareness of the potential historical and  scientific importance of identifying new cases.

  5. First report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of orange rust of sugarcane were observed in Costa Rica at Coopeagri Sugar Mill located in Pérez Zeledón, San José, during July 2007 on (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar, SP 71-5574, and at Providencia Sugar Mill near Muelle and at Cutris Sugar Mill near Los Chiles, in Aug...

  6. [The social catholic doctrine in the industrializing process of Francoist Spain: the case of the Alter pharmaceutical group].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Nozal, Raúl; González Bueno, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Alter Laboratories and the group of companies developed by Juan José Alonso Grijalba (1894-1962) under Franco's regime held the Catholic social doctrine as the foundation of his business. This pharmacist was a strong advocate and propagandist of these ideas. In this paper, we outline the biography of this entrepreneur, describe his ideological principles, and analyze how these theories were implemented in the Alter Laboratories in their economic, cultural-recreational, and moral-religious dimensions. The business approach revealed by the writings of Juan José Alonso is a "patriarchal patronage"; his goal appears to have been the conversion of Alter into a "factory convent" with the programmatic foundations of Catholic humanism, in which the employer assumes a clearly despotic role and the intervention of workers is reduced to accepting the standards and perks offered by the employer. PMID:26775436

  7. Epidemiology of spondyloarthropathies in Central America.

    PubMed

    García-Kutzbach, Abraham; Montenegro, Alfredo; Iraheta, Isa; Bará, Claudia; Saénz, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    The authors reviewed retrospectively a cohort of 233 spondyloarthropathy patients observed in 2 centers in Guatemala City, Guatemala, and in hospitals in San Salvador, El Salvador, and San José, Costa Rica. Guatemalan patients were either from the clinic of Guatemalan Association against Rheumatic Diseases (n = 105) or from the private clinic of AGK (n = 78). El Salvador patients (n = 17) were from Hospital Instituto Salvadoreño del Seguro Social, and Costa Rican patients (n = 33) were from Hospital Calderón Guardia, San José, Costa Rica. Except for the Costa Rican data, which were published in 2007, the patients' medical records were analyzed using standardized questionnaires. Prevalence of spondyloarthropathy was slightly higher in females than males (57% versus 43%, respectively). The median age was 47.5 years. Most of our patients were diagnosed with reactive arthritis or undifferentiated arthritis (47% and 33%, respectively); 10% of patients had ankylosing spondylitis and 9% psoriatic arthritis.

  8. A Portuguese manor in rural Brazil; or The saga of the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano and the garden of the former episcopal palace in the late eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Maia, Moacir Rodrigo de Castro

    2009-01-01

    This is a reconstruction of the career of the Most Reverend Dom Frei Cipriano de São José and the historical garden he built for his palace in Mariana, Minas Gerais, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The grounds, which, like most of their counterparts in Minas Gerais, contained an orchard and kitchen garden, underwent a major reform to fit the mold of the classical European garden. Orderly and showing aesthetic concern, they were an admirable space at the end of the colonial period, representing as they did the enlightened metropolitan elite's growing interest in natural history and botany. A variety of documental sources were used to reconstruct the history of the grounds and the career of the person behind their design, the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano de São José. PMID:21461511

  9. Genesis and intersubjectivity: levels of mediation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2012-09-01

    I will make a brief comment on the thesis of José C. Loredo-Narciandi and José C. Sánchez-González (2012) "Neither Dichotomies Nor Dualism; Simply Genesis". Denying any reductionism and reification, they insists the importance of inseparable relation between subject and object, then discuss about genesis. I pointed out that their argument lacks an important element, i.e., mediator that differ from mere physical object. After discussing mediators nature, I discriminate the three level of interaction which mediated by mediator. The first is the pre-interaction level, the second is physical interaction level and the third is sign or language interaction level. The last argument of mine is about how we can solve the problem of reification and reductionism. In the argument it is pointed out that intersubjectivity is key concept for understanding and solving the problem appropriately. PMID:22628155

  10. The first cataract surgeons in Latin America: 1611–1830

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Wainsztein, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    We strove to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in Latin America. Probably by 1611, the Genovese oculist Francisco Drago was couching cataracts in Mexico City. The surgeon Melchor Vásquez de Valenzuela probably performed cataract couching in Lima by 1697. Juan Peré of France demonstrated cataract couching in Veracruz and Mexico City between 1779 and 1784. Juan Ablanedo of Spain performed couching in Veracruz in 1791. Cataract extraction might have been performed in Havana and Caracas by 1793 and in Mexico by 1797. The earliest contemporaneously documented cataract extractions in Latin America were performed in Guatemala City by Narciso Esparragosa in 1797. In addition to Esparragosa, surgeons born in the New World who established the academic teaching of cataract surgery included José Miguel Muñoz in Mexico and José María Vargas in Caracas. Although cataract surgery came quite early to Latin America, its availability was initially inconsistent and limited. PMID:27143845

  11. Mosquitoes on the Wing ``Tune In'' to Acoustic Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Ben; Russell, Ian

    2011-11-01

    Our current understanding of the mating game for many mosquito species is that males aggregate in noisy mating swarms and listen with their Johnston's organs (JOs) for the deeper flight tones of approaching females, to which they are attracted. As has been demonstrated, at least for the most intensely studied vector species, the mechanical resonance of the flagellum and the frequency range of the female's JO is far below that of the male's flight tones. Therefore, it has been assumed that females do not use hearing to detect the presence of males. Here we reveal that this may not be the case, and that the JOs of female Culex quinquefasciatus are exquisitely tuned to low frequency distortion products in the vibrations of the antenna due to a nonlinear interaction between her own flight tones and those of a nearby male. She can hear male flight tones by virtue of, and not despite, hearing her own flight tones.

  12. [The social catholic doctrine in the industrializing process of Francoist Spain: the case of the Alter pharmaceutical group].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Nozal, Raúl; González Bueno, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Alter Laboratories and the group of companies developed by Juan José Alonso Grijalba (1894-1962) under Franco's regime held the Catholic social doctrine as the foundation of his business. This pharmacist was a strong advocate and propagandist of these ideas. In this paper, we outline the biography of this entrepreneur, describe his ideological principles, and analyze how these theories were implemented in the Alter Laboratories in their economic, cultural-recreational, and moral-religious dimensions. The business approach revealed by the writings of Juan José Alonso is a "patriarchal patronage"; his goal appears to have been the conversion of Alter into a "factory convent" with the programmatic foundations of Catholic humanism, in which the employer assumes a clearly despotic role and the intervention of workers is reduced to accepting the standards and perks offered by the employer.

  13. Genesis and intersubjectivity: levels of mediation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2012-09-01

    I will make a brief comment on the thesis of José C. Loredo-Narciandi and José C. Sánchez-González (2012) "Neither Dichotomies Nor Dualism; Simply Genesis". Denying any reductionism and reification, they insists the importance of inseparable relation between subject and object, then discuss about genesis. I pointed out that their argument lacks an important element, i.e., mediator that differ from mere physical object. After discussing mediators nature, I discriminate the three level of interaction which mediated by mediator. The first is the pre-interaction level, the second is physical interaction level and the third is sign or language interaction level. The last argument of mine is about how we can solve the problem of reification and reductionism. In the argument it is pointed out that intersubjectivity is key concept for understanding and solving the problem appropriately.

  14. [Neurological contribution of Manuel Acuña].

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Guillermo; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    José María Barceló de Villagrán (1819-1872) was the first Professor of Topographic Anatomy in Mexico. The Mexican poet Manuel Acuña (1849-1873) was among his students. After the death of his mentor, Acuña wrote a monograph entitled“Topographic Anatomy. The Cephalo-Rachidian Cavity” (1893). For the first time we discuss the content and significance of this monograph.

  15. 77 FR 24425 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileria de Aeronáutica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and (4) Will.... Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170, S o Jos dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box 36/2, BRASIL; fax ++55 12 3927... dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box 36/2, BRASIL; fax ++55 12 3927- 2619; email...

  16. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    PubMed

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  17. The Need for More Teachers of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilson, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    José Luis Vilson is a blogger, speaker, and math teacher in New York City, where he has taught for 10 years. Parts of this article are drawn from his book "This Is Not a Test: A New Narrative on Race, Class, and Education." In this article he shares his concern for the lack of representation of black and Latino people, especially males,…

  18. Affective startle potentiation in juvenile offenders: the role of conduct problems and psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Syngelaki, Eva M; Fairchild, Graeme; Moore, Simon C; Savage, Justin C; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2013-01-01

    Emotion processing difficulties are observed in antisocial individuals exhibiting serious antisocial behavior. This study examined emotion processing in 40 male juvenile offenders (JOs) and 52 male controls by measuring startle reflex responses to aversive sounds during the passive viewing of affective and neutral images. JOs as a group exhibited reduced startle-elicited blinks across all slide categories compared to normal controls. Moreover, within the offender group those with more conduct disorder symptoms and higher levels of psychopathic traits displayed reduced startle amplitudes compared to lower-scoring offenders. The finding that startle magnitudes were inversely related to severity of conduct problems supports a dimensional or continuous approach to understanding externalizing disorders. Reductions in amygdala activity could lead to blunted startle magnitudes. The current findings not only provide further evidence that antisocial children have a general defensive motivational system dysfunction and present with impairments in neural systems that subserve emotion processing, but also show for the first time that those with more severe conduct problems have reduced startle responses compared to those who are less severely affected. The implications of these findings for interventions with JOs are discussed.

  19. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Félix, Rodrigo; Bernardes, Americo; Valente de Oliveira, José Carlos; Mauro Granjeiro, José; Epsztejn, Ruth; Ihlenfeld, Waldemar; Smarçaro da Cunha, Valnei

    2015-01-01

    SEVENTH BRAZILIAN CONGRESS ON METROLOGY (METROLOGIA 2013) Metrology and Quality for a Sustainable Development From November 24th to 27th 2013 was issued the Seventh Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013), which is a biannual conference organized and sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) and the Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro). This edition was held in the charming and historical city of Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, and aimed to join people and institutions devoted to the dissemination of the metrology and conformity assessment. The Metrologia 2013 Conference consisted of Keynote Speeches (7) and regular papers (204). Among the regular papers, the 47 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Metrology and Conformity Assessment, were selected to be published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The topics of the conference covered all important areas of Metrology, which were agglutinated in the following sessions in the present issue: . Physical Metrology (Acoustics, Vibration and Ultrasound; Electricity and Magnetism; Mechanics; Optics); . Metrology on Ionizing Radiations; . Time and Frequency; . Chemistry Metrology; . Materials Metrology; . Biotechnology; . Uncertainty, Statistics and Mathematics; . Legal Metrology; . Conformity Assessment. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) to the scientific community to promote further research in Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by Metrologia 2013. President of the congress Americo Bernardes Federal University of Ouro Preto atb@iceb.ufop.br Editor-in-chief Rodrigo Costa-Félix Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology rpfelix@inmetro.gov.br Editors José Carlos Valente de Oliveira (Editor on Mechanical Metrology

  20. The JCMT observing queue and recipe sequencer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kackley, Russell D.; Rees, Nicholas P.; Walther, Craig; Jenness, Tim

    2004-09-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), the world's largest sub-mm telescope, will soon be switching operations from a VAX/VMS based control system to a new, Linux-based, Observatory Control System1 (OCS). A critical part of the OCS is the set of tasks that are associated with the observation queue and the observing recipe sequencer: 1) the JCMT observation queue task 2) the JCMT instrument task, 3) the JCMT Observation Sequencer (JOS), and 4) the OCS console task. The JCMT observation queue task serves as a staging area for observations that have been translated from the observer's science program into a form suitable for the various OCS subsystems. The queue task operates by sending the observation at the head of the queue to the JCMT instrument task and then waits for the astronomer to accept the data before removing the observation from the queue. The JCMT instrument task is responsible for running up the set of tasks required to observe with a particular instrument at the JCMT and passing the observation on to the JOS. The JOS is responsible for executing the observing recipe, pausing/continuing the recipe when commanded, and prematurely ending or aborting the observation when commanded. The OCS console task provides the user with a GUI window with which they can control and monitor the observation queue and the observation itself. This paper shows where the observation queue and recipe sequencer fit into the JCMT OCS, presents the design decisions that resulted in the tasks being structured as they are, describes the external interfaces of the four tasks, and details the interaction between the tasks.

  1. The Orosirian-Statherian banded iron formation-bearing sequences of the southern border of the Espinhaço Range, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, Vassily Khoury; Rosière, Carlos A.; Santos, João Orestes Schneider; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2016-01-01

    The Serra da Serpentina and the Serra de São José groups are two distinct banded iron formation-bearing metasedimentary sequences along the eastern border of the southern Espinhaço Range that were deposited on the boundary between the Orosirian and Statherian periods. The Serra da Serpentina Group (SSG) has an Orosirian maximum depositional age (youngest detrital zircon grain age = 1990 ± 16 Ma) and consists of fine clastic metasediments at the base and chemical sediments, including banded iron formations (BIFs), on the top, corresponding to the Meloso and Serra do Sapo formations, respectively, and correlating with the pre-Espinhaço Costa Sena Group. The SSG represents sedimentary deposition on an epicontinental-epeiric, slow downwarping sag basin with little tectonic activity. The younger Serra de São José Group (SJG) is separated from the older SSG by an erosional unconformity and was deposited in a tectonically active continental rift-basin in the early stages of the opening of the Espinhaço Trough. The Serra do São José sediments stretch along the north-south axis of the rift and comprise a complete cycle of transgressive sedimentary deposits, which were subdivided, from base to top, into the Lapão, Itapanhoacanga, Jacém and Canjica formations. The Itapanhoacanga Formation has a maximum depositional age of 1666 ± 32 Ma (Statherian), which coincides with the maximum depositional age (i.e., 1683 ± 11 Ma) of the São João da Chapada Formation, one of the Espinhaço Supergroup's basal units. The Serra de São José Rift and the Espinhaço Rift likely represent the same system, with basal units that are facies variations of the same sequence. The supracrustal rocks have undergone two stages of deformation during the west-verging Brasiliano orogeny that affected the eastern margin of the São Francisco Craton and generated a regional-scale, foreland N-S trending fold-thrust belt, which partially involved the crystalline basement. Thrust faults have

  2. Astronomy in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiteiro, Bárbara; Rodrigues, Berta

    2016-04-01

    The motivation of young students to science is much higher when the theoretical teaching is accompanied by practice and these are engaged in activities that involve real problems of their society and requiring a scientific basis for its discussion. Several activities such as collaboration on current scientific experiments, direct contact with scientists, participation in science competitions, visits to Science Museums, artistic and craft activities, the use of simulators and virtual laboratories, increase the degree of student satisfaction and motivate them in their learning processes. This poster shows some of Astronomy activities with students of schools Agrupamento de Escolas José Belchior Viegas within the Physics and Chemistry classes.

  3. Observation of harmonically related solar radio zebra patterns in the 1-4 GHz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Karlický, M.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    A unique case of two zebra patterns related harmonically with ratio of ~ 1:2 was observed by distant radio telescopes at São José dos Campos and Ondřejov Observatories. Accompanied zebras show that the ratio of frequencies of the neighboring zebra lines is in the range of 1.009-1.037. There is a tendency of a decrease of this ratio with decreasing frequency within the specific zebra pattern. Both facts speak in favour of plasma emission models for the zebra pattern fine structure in radio burst continua.

  4. Carryover of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ in contaminated substrate corn into Nigerian native beer

    SciTech Connect

    Okoye, Z.S.C.

    1986-10-01

    Aflatoxins, the toxic secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Asp. parasiticus, constitute a serious food contamination problem in Nigeria and have been detected in the blood of healthy rural blood donors and primary liver cancer patients from the Guinea savannah region where traditionally brewed cereal beer is popular. A recent survey of traditional breweries in the Jos metropolis has shown a high incidence of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ contamination of their products. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the traditional brewing in destroying aflatoxins in mould-infected substrate grains.

  5. John of God: an enigma for the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2014-12-01

    Some cures carried out by Medium João Teixeira de Faría (John of God) are presented. He claims to channel spiritual entities (Drs. Augusto de Almeida, Oswaldo Cruz, and José Valdivino) that have instantaneous access to the physical, emotional and spiritual history of each patient who is then treated by physical or "spiritual" surgeries, herbs, meditation, prayers and the ingestion of "energized" water. People operated on have no pain during the interventions and infections have not been observed. The mechanisms responsible for the healings are unknown.

  6. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    The 6th Workshop of the International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG6) was held in São José dos Campos, Brazil, from 15 to 19 October 2012, at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC). It was sponsored and organized by CPTEC with the co-sponsoring of the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT).

  7. Mário Schenberg: Physicist, politician and art critic

    SciTech Connect

    Guzzo, M. M.; Reggiani, N.

    2015-12-17

    Mário Schenberg is considered one of the greatest theoretical physicists of Brazil. He worked in different fields of physics including thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, general relativity, astrophysics and mathematics. He was assistant of the Ukrainian naturalized Italian physicist Gleb Wataghin and worked with prestigious physicists like as the Brazilians José Leite Lopes and César Lattes, the Russian-born American George Gamow and the Indian astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. Besides, he was also an active politician and critic of art.

  8. [Incidence of dengue in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Orozco Hechavarría, N; Díaz Portuondo, I M; Abad Cañete, U; Martínez Delgado, Y

    2001-01-01

    A descriptive study of children and adolescents that got sick with dengue in the health area served by "José Martí" polyclinics in Santiago de Cuba from May to August 1997 was conducted to determine the incidence of this affection in these age groups. It was observed that dengue was more frequent in males aged 5-11 years. Bronchial asthma, epilepsy and congenital cardiopathy were the most common previous affections found. The incidence of the disease in the casuistry was low, with well-nourished males without histories of chronic processes and good clinical recovery prevailing. Only one case was classified as hemorrhagic dengue.

  9. Diethylene glycol poisoning in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Okuonghae, H O; Ighogboja, I S; Lawson, J O; Nwana, E J

    1992-01-01

    Between June and September 1990, 47 children died at Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria from ingestion of paracetamol syrup adulterated with diethylene glycol. Most of the children presented with anuria, fever, vomiting, diarrhoea and convulsions. Signs on admission were tachycardia, acidotic breathing, pallor, oedema and hepatomegaly. Laboratory findings included hyperkalaemia, acidosis, elevated creatinine level and hypoglycaemia. Management consisted of correction of dehydration and acidosis plus administration of antibiotics when indicated. None of the children had dialysis. All died within 2 weeks of admission. Proper government supervision of pharmaceutical companies and their agencies is urgently needed in order to prevent any future occurrence of such tragic deaths. PMID:1280035

  10. The Innermost Regions of Relativistic Jets: Wrapping Up the Enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    2013-12-01

    What are relativistic jets like within a million Schwarzschild radii of the accreting black hole that powers them? A meeting in Granada, Spain in June 2013, organized by José L. Gómez and his conspirators brought together observers and theorists to survey the current state of observational data and efforts to interpret them. This conference summary reviews the results, insights, arguments, conflicts, and agreements that occurred during five sunny days spent in a windowless room in a hotel at the bottom of the hill that holds the heart of the beautiful city.

  11. Contribution from optical course for the educational guidance of engineering careers students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, R. S.; Pérez, I. A.; Yeras, A. M.; González, J. J. L.; Pareja, D. Z.; Magalhães, D. S. F.; Alarcón, J. B. L.; Muramatsu, M.

    2014-07-01

    The work shows the fundamental elements of an inclusive educational guidance conception of substantive university processes and results achieved at the Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría of Havana in the contribution from optical course to develop it for the students in first and second year of the engineering programs, by means of lectures on holography and three-dimensional images of motivation and link with different specialties and the development of experimental facilities and methodology for the construction of holograms and anaglyph by students for engineering applications.

  12. Groups and Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavnani, Ravi; Miodownik, Dan; Riolo, Rick

    Violence can take place along a multitude of cleavages, e.g., (1) between political groups like the Kach Movement, pitting West Bank settlers against Israeli governments supporting the land-for-peace agenda; (2) between religious groups, such as Christians and Muslims in the Nigerian cities of Jos and Kaduna; (3) along class lines, as in India between Dalits and members of the Brahminical upper castes, upwardly mobile intermediate castes, and even other backward castes such as the Thevars; and (4) between ethnic groups such as the Hutu and Tutsi, both within and across state boundaries in Rwanda and neighboring Burundi.

  13. Gravity wave observations using an all-sky imager network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Almeida, Lazaro M.; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria; Alves Bolzan, Maurício José; Guarnieri, Fernando; Messias Almeida, Lazaro

    Gravity waves in the mesosphere were observed by airglow all-sky imager network of the UNI- VAP at São José dos Campos (23o S, 45o W), Braśpolis (22o S, 45o W) and Palmas (10o S, 48o W), a e o Brazil. Gravity wave characteristics like morphology, horizontal wavelength, period, phase speed and propagation direction will be analysed and discussed. The results will be compared with other observation sites in Brazil. Wave directionality will also be discussed in terms of wave sources and wind filtering.

  14. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.; Rodrigues, J. A.; Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    The ``International Topical Conference on Plasma Science: Advanced Plasma Concepts'' was hosted by Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon and the University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal, during the period 24-28 September 2012. The conference was organized by Padma Kant Shukla, (Ruhr University Bochum, Germany), Robert Bingham (RAL, United Kingdom) and José Tito Mendonça, (IST, Portugal). The scientific activity belongs to a series of successful meetings, which started at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, in 1989, and which has also been taking place at various other locations, including Faro and Lisbon in Portugal, and Santorini in Greece.

  15. Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

  16. 3M Brazil ergonomics: a success story in the making.

    PubMed

    Larson, N; Oshiro, R; Camargo, O

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this project is to present two case studies and provide job assessment results, share implemented solutions, and provide information about realized cost and benefits. In this session, two cases studies, one from São José do Rio Preto and the other from Sumaré, will be presented. These projects won AEIA awards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The projects describe the application of the Ergonomic Risk Reduction Program, which both improves worker's quality of life and productivity and product quality as well.

  17. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  18. Early radium experiments in Guadalajara, M'exico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alba Martínez, Durruty Jesús

    2005-04-01

    In April 01, 1904, two catholic lay priests, Severo D'iaz Galindo and Jos'e Mar'ia Arreola Mendoza, performed firsts Radium experiments in Guadalajara, M'exico, just after Radium experiments realized in Mexico City by Prof. Luis G. Le'on. Results of such experiences where published in the Bolet'in Eclesi'astico y Cient'ifico del Arzobispado de Guadalajara/ (Eclesiastic and Scientific Bulletin of the Guadalajara Archbishopric), here is show this paper and some of the first Radium plates obtained. Scientific and educational situation in Guadalajara is described and how both persons became founders of the modern scientific activity in the city.

  19. [Death causes in 428 alcoholic patients: a descriptive study].

    PubMed

    Martínez Lanz, P; Días Coto, C

    1992-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated either a direct or an indirect relationship between alcoholism and death causes. The present paper is a descriptive study about death causes in 428 alcoholic patients from San José, Costa Rica, metropolitan area, whose death occurred between 1978 and 1988. Sample subjects were males, under 90-year-old at death time. It was found out that basic death causes were: Traumatism and poisoning, 25%; circulatory system illnesses, 20%; digestive system illnesses, 18.5%, and tumors, 15%. PMID:1341126

  20. [Psychosocial intervention in hospitalization due to alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Bejarano, J; Solano, S

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents a descriptive-type research on the findings of a 1-year follow-up experiment on a 72-inpatient at the Instituto sobre Alcoholismo y Fármacodependencia of the city of San José, Costa Rica. Information wa obtained from a 59-question instrument aimed at exploring: Sociodemographic aspects, alcohol ingestion-abstention patterns; interpersonal, family and labor relationships, autodiagnosis, and evaluation of the treatment program. During the 3-week inpatient treatment, a psychosocial treatment was administered to all subjects. Owing to the substantial changes patients evidenced in the above mentioned areas, findings suggest that the objectives were fulfilled satisfactorily enough. PMID:1305364

  1. John of God: an enigma for the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2014-12-01

    Some cures carried out by Medium João Teixeira de Faría (John of God) are presented. He claims to channel spiritual entities (Drs. Augusto de Almeida, Oswaldo Cruz, and José Valdivino) that have instantaneous access to the physical, emotional and spiritual history of each patient who is then treated by physical or "spiritual" surgeries, herbs, meditation, prayers and the ingestion of "energized" water. People operated on have no pain during the interventions and infections have not been observed. The mechanisms responsible for the healings are unknown. PMID:25558757

  2. Mário Schenberg: Physicist, politician and art critic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, M. M.; Reggiani, N.

    2015-12-01

    Mário Schenberg is considered one of the greatest theoretical physicists of Brazil. He worked in different fields of physics including thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, general relativity, astrophysics and mathematics. He was assistant of the Ukrainian naturalized Italian physicist Gleb Wataghin and worked with prestigious physicists like as the Brazilians José Leite Lopes and César Lattes, the Russian-born American George Gamow and the Indian astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. Besides, he was also an active politician and critic of art.

  3. Description of the male of Oxyporus bautistae Márquez & Asiain (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Oxyporinae).

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Heredia, José Luis; Márquez, Juan

    2015-01-23

    The male of Oxyporus bautistae Márquez and Asiain, 2006 is described based on one specimen from San José del Pacífico, southern Oaxaca, Mexico. Oxyporus bautistae shares with O. mexicanus Fauvel, 1865 the bicolored color pattern in legs (black and orange). The male of O. bautistae has six black spots on tergites and the female has only two black spots; but we cannot explain whether the number of black spots represents a sexual character or individual variation. 

  4. The expedition to Peru and Chile (1777-1788): inventory of scientific production.

    PubMed

    Bueno, A G; Rodríguez Nozal, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an inventory of the scientific corpus produced by the Spanish members of the Expedition to Peru and Chile (1777-1788). This material is divided into six large sections. The first section covers the different versions of the diary of the journey taken by the Expedition. The second section covers the drafts and workbooks used by the Expedition members for the writing of "Flora Peruviana et Chilensis," the manuscripts and published editions of this work, the materials used in the preparation of both the "Prodromus" and the "Systema Vegetabilium," the contributions of the assistants on the Expedition and some monographs of taxonomic interest. The third section is dedicated to quinological studies and other pharmacological works undertaken by Hipólito Ruiz López and José Pavón Jiménez. The fourth section includes the writings concerning Ruiz's dispute with Antonio José Cavanilles. The fifth section contains texts which set forth the botanical thought of the members of the Expedition. The sixth and final section includes the Expedition members' writings on various subjects, from anthropology and ethnography to others of a purely historical nature. PMID:11609160

  5. [An evaluation of an outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a rural community in Bolivar State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    González, R; Devera, R; Madrid, C; Zghayer, S

    2000-01-01

    An epidemiological survey based on the Montenegro intradermal reaction (IDR) was carried out in San José de Hacha, south of the Bolivar State, Venezuela, on the occasion of an outbreak of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (LTA) in that locality. The IDR was applied to 121 of the 184 local inhabitants (65.8%), with a 33.9 rate of positive reactions (44/121). The highest percentage of positivity was observed among males (39.5%) (P < 0.05) and among adults, especially in the 31 to 40 year age group (52.4%) (chi2 = 18.28; g.l. = 6). With respect to occupation, agriculturist were the most reactive with 69%. of subjects IDR positive, in 65.9% (27/41) the reaction areas ranging from 5 to 9 mm. Active lesions of LTA were identified in 22 inhabitants and scars were detected in only seven cases. It is suggested that San José de Hacha is a recent focus of LTA.

  6. [Establishment of the feeding methodology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae) in Swiss mice and evaluation of the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae), in populations of Aedes aegypti].

    PubMed

    Lima, Waldemir Pereira; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça; Zuccari, Débora Aparecida Pires de Campos; Dibo, Margareth Regina

    2009-01-01

    The objectives here were to develop a procedure for feeding females of Aedes aegypti that does not cause stress in Swiss mice and to evaluate the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) in Aedes aegypti populations. Two mice were anesthetized: one was used to observe the duration of sedation and the other was placed in a cage to feed the female mosquitoes. Essential oil was diluted in acetone and used in bioassays to assess the lethal concentrations in larvae from the Cities of Bauru (SP) and São José do Rio Preto (SP) that were sensitive and resistant to temephos, respectively. The data obtained were compared with the American Rockefeller strain. The procedure with mice was approved. There was no difference between the populations regarding susceptibility to Tagetes minuta, and the assays showed LC50 of 0.24, 0.25 and 0.21 ml/l and LC99.9 of 0.35, 0.39 and 0.42 ml/l, for Rockefeller, Bauru and São José do Rio Preto, respectively. The solution did not show any residual effect. PMID:20209346

  7. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies. PMID:24823605

  8. RbSr isotopic study of rare-metal bearing and barren pegmatites in the Pan-African reactivation zone of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheis, G.; Caen-Vachette, M.

    Twenty-seven rock and seven mineral samples of SnNbTa-bearing and barren pegmatites from four localities in southwestern and one locality in central Nigeria have been investigated. Most of the pegmatites and corresponding main phase granodioritic units (Older Granites) were emplaced between 562-545 Ma; cooling to the muscovite blocking temperature was about 490 Ma. The initial Sr ratios range from 0.7155 to 0.7233, indicating an older crustal history of the sample material; there are no differences for barren and mineralized pegmatites, albitization does not affect the initial Sr ratios. The Ta-enriched pegmatites around Egbe, however, which are conformably emplaced into a basic to ultrabasic amphibolite sequence, are rather products of partial melting and leaching processes of basement units than the truly pegmatitic phase of the proximal Older Granite main phase. The time gap between their respective emplacement is about 100 Ma. The initial Sr ratio of 0.7678 for the pegmatites against 0.7229 for the Older Granite does not support a co-genetic origin. Biotite ages of 185/183 Ma from southwestern Nigeria correspond to similar ages formerly reported only around the Jos Plateau. The new evidence suggests a regionally more extensive thermal event in association with the emplacement of the anorogenic Younger Granite ring complexes of the Jos Plateau.

  9. [Medicine and enlightenment in New Spain].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A

    1998-01-01

    Fundamental ideas of the cultural movement of Enlightenment were drawn up and encouraged in England by John Locke and introduced into continental Europe by Voltaire. The essence of this movement was defined by I. Kant in 1784. These new ideas were projected into the field of medicine initially with the systematization of anatomical studies by Winslow, Vicq d' Azyr and Sénac in France, by S. Th. Sömmerring and von Haller in Germany, and by Paolo Mascagni and other anatomists in Italy. This movement settled in Spain toward the middle of the XVIII century, due to Father Feijóo and his pupils such as Piquer and Casal. In New Spain, which maintained cultural and scientific relationship with the Old World, the leaders of the movement were José Antonio Alzate in the field of biology and José Ignacio Bartolache in that of medicine. These were the founders of the first scientific journals: the "Diario Literario" (Literary Journal) by Alzate (1768) and the "Mercurio Volante" (Flying Mercury) by Bartolache (1772). Latter this physician had to face the great epidemic outbreak of smallpox in 1779. Due to that, he attributed great importance to the psychological aspect of the problem and supported the variolization proceeding introduced into Mexico by Doctor Henri Morel. Moreover, two scientific expeditions, which reached New Spain at the end of the XVIII century, allowed to systematize the study of the American vegetables and to acknowledge the usefulness of botany and chemistry as auxiliary sciences of medicine.

  10. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies.

  11. Comparison of static friction with self-ligating, modified slot design and conventional brackets

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, Raquel Morais; SMITH NETO, Perrin; HORTA, Martinho Campolina Rebello; PITHON, Matheus Melo; OLIVEIRA, Dauro Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the static frictional forces generated at the bracket/wire interface of stainless steel brackets with different geometries and angulations, combined with orthodontic wires of different diameters. Material and Methods The frictional forces were evaluated with three different types of metal brackets: a passive self-ligating (SmartClipTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA), with a modified slot design (Mini Uni TwinTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA) and conventional (Kirium, Abzil, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil). The samples were mounted in a testing device with three different angulations and tested with 0.014" and 0.018" stainless steel wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA). The static frictional force was measured using a universal testing machine (DL 500, EMIC®, São José dos Pinhais, Brazil) with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. Results There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in static friction when the three types of brackets were tested with the same wire size. The wire diameter influenced friction only when the brackets had a 10º angulation (p<0.05). The angulation influenced friction (p<0.05) when the brackets were associated with a 0.018" wire. Conclusion Brackets with a modified slot design showed intermediate static frictional force values between the conventional and self-ligating brackets tested. PMID:24037069

  12. [Geopolitical distribution of the occurrence of Fasciola hepatica in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Serra-Freire, N M; Nuernberg, S

    1992-01-01

    During 12 years feces samples from cows, water buffaloes, sheeps and goats were examined by sequential tamis filtration to show the occurrence of Fasciola hepatica eggs. The material came from 129 municipalities of Santa Catarina State, and 5 g of feces per animal were examined. The occurrence of F. hepatica was confirmed in 64.82% of the municipalities. Considering the host, F. hepatica was confirmed in goats from Florianópolis, São José, São João Batista and Guaramirim municipalities; in sheep from Brusque, Pomerode, Palhoça and São José; in water buffaloes from 9 and in cows from 86 municipalities. For this study, 13,762 feces samples were examined and in 3,814 the presence of eggs of F. hepatica was demonstrated. The percentage of occurrence for host species was 27.86 in cows, 24.72 in water buffaloes, 16.92 in sheep and 15.66 in goats. By the results it was demonstrated that Itajaí Valley at Southeast Hidrographic Basin, in Santa Catarina State is an endemic area of F. hepatica, even though Uruguai Hidrographic Basin was not referred as a geographical record for this parasite.

  13. Ionospheric Slab Thickness at the Equatorial Anomaly Region after the Deep Solar Minimum of Cycle 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte Silva, M. H.; Muella, M.; Silva, L. C. C.; de Abreu, A. J.; Fagundes, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the first results of equivalent ionospheric slab thickness estimated in the Brazilian longitudinal sector. The ionospheric slab thickness is a measure of the shape of the ionospheric profile and can be obtained from the ratio of total electron content (TEC) to the F-region peak electron density (NmF2). In this study the ionospheric slab thickness was obtained during one year of extremely low solar activity (March 2009 to February 2010). The period analyzed were separated in three seasonal groups: equinoxes, June solstice (winter) and December solstice (summer) months. The ionospheric slab thickness was studied at two stations located around the southern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). One station located in the inner edge of the anomaly region, named Palmas (10.12º S, 48.21º O, 7.73º S dip lat), and another station located under the crest of the anomaly, situated at São José dos Campos (23.07º S, 45.52º O, 19.61º S dip lat). The TEC data have been obtained from dual-frequency GPS receivers and the NmF2 data were calculated from the f0F2 parameter scaled from ionograms recorded by simultaneous measurements of digital ionosondes. The diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal variations of the ionospheric slab thickness were then analyzed. The minimum values of TEC and NmF2 were observed in both stations during the early morning, and the maximum values during afternoon hours. During the summer and equinoctial periods the slab thickness reached the higher values compared to those observed during the winter solstice months. The nearly equatorial site of Palmas showed values of daytime slab thickness larger than those observed at the low latitude station of São José dos Campos, except during the June solstice months. At São José dos Campos, a pronounced pre-dusk increase in the equivalent slab thickness was observed during the winter solstice months. From the calculated slab thickness we also inferred the atmospheric neutral

  14. Ionospheric slab thickness at the equatorial anomaly region after the deep solar minimum of cycle 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte-Silva, Marcelo H.; Muella, Marcio T. A. H.; Silva, Lidianne C. C.; de Abreu, Alessandro J.; Fagundes, Paulo R.

    2015-11-01

    The ionospheric slab thickness is a measure of the shape of the ionospheric profile and can be obtained from the ratio of total electron content (TEC) to the F-region peak electron density (NmF2). In this study the ionospheric slab thickness was obtained during one year of extremely low solar activity (from March 2009 to February 2010). The period analyzed were separated in three seasonal groups: equinoxes, June solstice (winter) and December solstice (summer) months. The ionospheric slab thickness was studied at two stations located around the southern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). One station located in the inner edge of the anomaly region, named Palmas (10.12° S, 48.21° O, 7.73° S dip lat), and another station located under the southern crest of the anomaly, situated at São José dos Campos (23.07° S, 45.52° O, 19.61° S dip lat). The TEC data have been obtained from dual-frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers and the NmF2 data were calculated from the foF2 parameter scaled from ionograms recorded by simultaneous measurements of digital ionosondes. The diurnal and seasonal variations of the ionospheric slab thickness at the EIA region were then analyzed. The minimum values of TEC and NmF2 were observed in both stations during the early morning, and the maximum values during afternoon hours. During the summer and equinoctial periods the slab thickness reached their highest values. The nearly equatorial site of Palmas showed values of daytime slab thickness larger than those observed at the low latitude station of São José dos Campos, except during the June solstice months. At São José dos Campos, a pronounced pre-dusk increase in the equivalent slab thickness was observed during the winter solstice months. The atmospheric neutral temperature (Tn) was also estimated from the correlation analysis between the MSIS modeled Tn and the calculated ionospheric slab thickness over the two observations sites. Other

  15. [Knowledge of nurses of the Family Health Strategy on health services waste].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Maíra Azevedo; Souza, Anderson de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The study addresses the problem involving the solid waste from health service and the nurses attitude towards aspects related to the management and environmental awareness. Participants were ten professionals working in the Family Health Strategy, from the municipalities of Araputanga, Mirassol D'west and São José dos Quatro Marcos. Data were collected through questionnaires, and analyzed using the software Origin®. It was observed the level of knowledge regarding the current law, management steps taken at the municipal and staff training, and also about the ability of the professionals to diagnose situations and occupational risk to public health. Despite the existence of a significant knowledge on the subject, there is still need to work on awareness and development of appropriate management practices on the health services waste. PMID:23258685

  16. The concepts of vínculo and dialectical spiral: a bridge between intra- and intersubjectivity.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Ricardo; de Leon de Bernardi, Beatriz

    2012-07-01

    The authors explore the psychoanalytic concepts of vínculo and dialectical spiral within the context of a historical review of the development of psychoanalysis in the Río de la Plata region of Uruguay and Argentina. In particular, they discuss the work of Enrique Pichon-Rivière, Madeleine and Willy Baranger, and José Bleger. Illustrative clinical material is included from a case described by Bleger. Convergences and divergences are noted between the theoretical and clinical approaches of these authors, on the one hand, and those of more traditionally Freudian, Kleinian, and other schools of analysis, on the other. Also, the authors underline some questions about the nature of vínculo that are currently under discussion in the Río de la Plata. PMID:23038897

  17. Simulium (Chirostilbia) bifenestratum (Diptera, Simuliidae), a new black-fly species from the Atlantic forest, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Neusa; Pepinelli, Mateus

    2004-02-01

    The larva, pupa, male, and female of Simulium bifenestratum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The pupae of the new species have 10 gill filaments, thick at their base and arranged in a three-dimensional way, surrounding the head and thorax. Its pupal cocoon is peculiar, not found in any of the known Brazilian black-fly species; it is very thick and hard with two openings in the anterior region. S. bifenestratum n. sp. was collected in one stream in the Bocaina mountain chain, Atlantic forest, in São José do Barreiro county, state of São Paulo, in a high (1500 m) natural grassland. Larvae and pupae were collected on the edges of small waterfalls and in places with-high speed laminar water flow, attached to the bedrock. PMID:15057346

  18. [Frequency and antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter species in a university hospital of Buenos Aires City].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Carlos Hernán; Nastro, Marcela; Dabos, Laura; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Two-hundred Acinetobacter isolates belonging to 200 patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín during the period March 2013-June 2014 were analyzed. The identification was performed by mass spectrometry and was confirmed by molecular methods. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was studied by the Vitek-2 system. A 94% correlation of both identification methods was found. Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was the predominant genomic species (92.6%) in hospital-acquired infections, whereas Acinetobacter pitti and Acinetobacter nosocomialis accounted for 3.5% and 0.5% of the isolates recovered, respectively. In community-acquired infections a major predominance of the different genomic species was observed. Acinetobacter johnsonii and A. baumannii are the most frequent species, accounting for 45.9% of the isolates recovered. Resistance to carbapenems and minocycline was only observed in A. baumannii. Mass spectrophotometry was an effective tool for the identification of the different genomic species.

  19. The congress that never was: the Madrid International Congress of Psychology (1936).

    PubMed

    Carpintero, Helio; Lafuente, Enrique

    2008-11-01

    The 11th International Congress of Psychology did not take place in Madrid in September 1936, as initially planned. Instead, it was held in Paris in July of the following year. The finding of a so-far unpublished correspondence between the main organizers of the event, the Spanish psychologists José Germain and Emilio Mira, and the Swiss psychologist Edouard Claparède, makes it possible to gain new insight into the circumstances preventing its celebration in Madrid. This paper aims at shedding some light on such circumstances by unraveling the social and political context alluded to in these letters, and connecting their contents with other significant events and documents on the various organizational aspects of the congress. PMID:19244832

  20. [Prominent personalities from the tropical dermatology field in Peru].

    PubMed

    Burstein Alva, Zuño

    2014-01-01

    This article pays tribute to three Peruvian medical personalities: José Neyra Ramirez (1929-2012), Abelardo Tejada (1931-2013) and Oscar Romero Rivas (1929-2011), highlighting their valuable contributions to the field of Tropical Dermatology and Health Medicine that benefited public health and Peruvian medical education. The article mentions the formation of a group of young researchers called “The Anacoretas”, including professors Hugo Pesce, Enrique Encinas, Juan Francisco Valegas in Lima; and Enerst Nausk and Victor Manchego in Germany, who, with the support of the Peruvian and German governments promoted and created the first university research center of Tropical Medicine on the Pacific Coast of Latin America called Daniel A. Carrion Tropical Medicine Institute at Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima (TMI/UNMSM).

  1. Pulsars In The Headlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puerto, C.

    1967 was the year of the so-called “war of the six days” or “third Arab Israeli war”, the year of the Che Guevara's death in Bolivia, the year of the military coup in Greece and, in medicine, the year of the first human heart transplant. Moreover, the signing of the international agreement on the use of space with peaceful means and the crash of the Russian shuttle Soyuz-1, with Cosmonaut Vladimir Kamarov on board also happened that year. Likewise, Spanish writer and professor of journalists, José Azorín, passed away. However, here we are interested in 1967 because it was the year of the detection of pulsars, which astronomers initially confused with signals from extraterrestrials or Little Green Men. Nowadays, they are still present in the headlines.

  2. Faunistic catalog of the caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Parque Nacional do Itatiaia and its surroundings in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia - PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range. PMID:22958122

  3. Gastric Cancer in the Excluded Stomach 10 Years after Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Tinoco, Augusto; Gottardi, Lorena F.; Boechat, Eduardo D.

    2015-01-01

    According to the Brazilian health authorities, around 2,000 new cases of gastric cancer emerge in Brazil per year (Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, 2014). Indeed, gastric cancer constitutes the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and 95% of such malignancies are adenocarcinomas (De Roover et al., 2006, and Clark et al., 2006). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a procedure frequently employed in bariatric surgery but restricted access to the excluded stomach means that discovery of gastric lesions is difficult, and diagnosis and treatment may be delayed. We report herein a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in the excluded stomach of a patient submitted to RYGB with the purpose of illustrating the difficulty of diagnosing and treating this rare condition. PMID:26229705

  4. Waldemar Wilhelm: father of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Waldemar Wilhelm (1913-1994) was honored by the Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (Colombian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) as the Father of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Colombia. Born in Karlsruhe, Germany, Wilhelm graduated as a dentist from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in 1936. He emigrated shortly thereafter to Colombia, receiving his dental license there in 1943. He completed his oral and maxillofacial surgery training at Nordwestdeutsche Kieferklinic, under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. Dr. Karl Schuchardt in Hamburg. In 1950, he settled in Bogotá, where he joined the Universidad Nacional School of Dentistry, opened Colombia's first oral and maxillofacial surgery department at Hospital San José, and trained the first maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia in 1958.

  5. Physics Education activities sponsored by LAPEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora Ley, Cesar E.

    2007-05-01

    In this work we present the first activities of the Latin-American Physics Education Network (LAPEN) organized by representatives of Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay, Peru and Spain. These activities include Seminars, Congress, Postgraduate Programs on Physics Education and several publications. The creation of LAPEN has been inspired and warranted by members of the International Commission on Physics Education of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. LAPEN was constituted in the International Meeting on Teaching Physics and Training Teachers (RIEFEP 2005) which was held in Matanzas, Cuba in November 2005. The creation of LAPEN was also warranted by the General Assembly of the IX Inter-American Conference on Physics Education held in San José, Costa Rica from 3 to 7 July 2006, and by the ICPE Committee in the International Conference on Physics Education 2006 at Tokyo, Japan. LAPEN has a Coordinator Committee integrated by a President, a Vice-president and an Executive Secretary.

  6. The work of John Hughlings Jackson: part I by JM López Piñero. 1973.

    PubMed

    López Piñero, J M

    2010-03-01

    After returning to Spain from a research period in London on a Wellcome Trust scholarship, José Maria López Piñero published in 1973 a short book entitled John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911), Evolucionismo y Neurologia (Madrid, Editorial Moneda). Written from the perspective of the classical German medical historiography that the author had imbibed from Werner Leibbrand and Annemarie Wettley, this work truly added to Jacksonian scholarship. Neither hagiographic nor nitpicking, it offered a sober assessment of the contribution of the great Yorkshireman and it was soon to become a minor classic among connoisseurs. Although important additions to Jacksonian scholarship have appeared since 1973, López Piñero's book has retained its relevance. It will be published in History of Psychiatry in two parts.

  7. Simulium (Chirostilbia) bifenestratum (Diptera, Simuliidae), a new black-fly species from the Atlantic forest, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Neusa; Pepinelli, Mateus

    2004-02-01

    The larva, pupa, male, and female of Simulium bifenestratum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The pupae of the new species have 10 gill filaments, thick at their base and arranged in a three-dimensional way, surrounding the head and thorax. Its pupal cocoon is peculiar, not found in any of the known Brazilian black-fly species; it is very thick and hard with two openings in the anterior region. S. bifenestratum n. sp. was collected in one stream in the Bocaina mountain chain, Atlantic forest, in São José do Barreiro county, state of São Paulo, in a high (1500 m) natural grassland. Larvae and pupae were collected on the edges of small waterfalls and in places with-high speed laminar water flow, attached to the bedrock.

  8. Voters and leaders in the mirror of politics: similarity in personality and voting choice in Italy and Spain.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Michele; González Castro, José Luis; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2011-08-01

    Relations between voting choice and similarity in traits between voters and political candidates are examined in two studies. The first study was conducted in Spain, where the personalities of Mariano Rajoy and José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero were assessed. The second study was conducted in Italy, where the politicians assessed were Walter Veltroni and Silvio Berlusconi. Results show in both cases a similarity between voters' self-reported personality and their appraisals of the leaders of the party for which they voted. Similarity is generally higher with respect to traits that are the most distinctive for each platform and its leader. The findings show a higher similarity between voters and their leaders on the markers of agreeableness, such as "loyal" and "sincere." Findings hold across countries and political figures, demonstrating the role that personal characteristics of both voters and candidates play in orienting political preference.

  9. Widening Expertise in Space Science in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmore, P.

    For some time, COSPAR has been planning a programme of capacity-building workshops to be held in developing countries with the intention of widening expertise in space science and promoting the use of data archives from space missions. The first of these was held at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), São José dos Campos, Brazil from 4-13th December 2001. The next two will be held at the Udaipur Solar Observatory, Udaipur, India and in Beijing, China, respectively, during 2003. The workshops are innovative in character, and their objectives and their concepts will be described, as well as the experience gained from the first workshop in Brazil.

  10. Evidence of colonization of man-made ecotopes by Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Zeledón, R; Montenegro, V M; Zeledón, O

    2001-07-01

    Triatoma dimidiata adults have been frequently found, during the last five years, in a dog kennel and a chicken coop, in the back yard of a well-built house, 15 km from San José, the capital of Costa Rica. In the chicken coop nymphs were also found. Two of the 11 dogs from the kennel were serologically positive for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The inhabitants of the house, three adults and two children, were negative. This type of colonization by the insect, which is attracted to lights, is becoming common in old and new settlements, with different degrees of success, a fact with epidemiological implications and great relevance in the control strategies that can be applied.

  11. [Treatment of epilepsy: consensus of the Brazilian specialists].

    PubMed

    Betting, Luiz Eduardo; Kobayashi, Eliane; Montenegro, Maria Augusta; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Guerreiro, Carlos A M

    2003-12-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent condition in the world. Recently a study in Brazil showed prevalence of 18/1000 inhabitants in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State. In the last decade, new therapeutic options were discovered or developed. The main therapeutic decision method is based on randomized clinical trials. This method represents the higher level of evidence. However, even these studies have limitations and in some cases the treatment of choice remains controversial. In these instances, the epilepsy experts' opinions become helpful. In 2001 a similar study had been conducted in USA. The aim of this study is to create guidelines for epilepsy treatment based on the opinion of the Brazilian experts. These guidelines can be used to create manuals and strategies for the treatment of some epileptic syndromes according to Brazilian experts. As compared to the North-American guidelines our study better reflects the resources available in our country.

  12. [Autopsy of a common error: the introduction of curare in Europe by W. Raleigh].

    PubMed

    Lienhart, A

    2009-04-01

    One of the most erroneous and repeated assertion in the history of pharmacology for anaesthetists is to say that "the curare was introduced in Europe by Sir Walter Raleigh under the name of ourari". On the contrary, the names to be reminded are: Lawrence Keymis for the first citation of the word ourari, José Gumilla for the word curare and the description of its effects, Charles-Marie de La Condamine for the import of the first known samples. The mistake was initiated by Alexander von Humboldt and developed by the physiologist Münter, a student of Johannes Müller, quoted by Claude Bernard. The repetition of this error was facilitated by the world diffusion of Claude Bernard's work.

  13. [In vitro activity of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections].

    PubMed

    Burguer Moreira, Noelia; Nastro, Marcela; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Ángela; Rodríguez, Carlos Hernán

    2016-01-01

    In vitro activity of the combination of ampicillin- ceftriaxone against 30 Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections in patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin in the city of Buenos Aires was assessed. Ampicillin- ceftriaxone synergies were determined by microdilution in Müeller-Hinton (MH) broth with and without subinhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone. Synergy was detected in 22/30 isolates. A decrease in both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed in 14/30 isolates, whereas in 6/30 isolates the decrease was observed in the MIC value and only in the MBC value in the 2 remaining isolates. The bactericidal activity of the combination showed to be higher at low concentrations of ampicillin (< 1 μg/ml). We detected in vitro synergy using the ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination and thus, its efficacy was confirmed in the treatment of severe infections by E. faecalis.

  14. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong.

  15. The largest fossil rodent

    PubMed Central

    Rinderknecht, Andrés; Blanco, R. Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved skull permits the description of the new South American fossil species of the rodent, Josephoartigasia monesi sp. nov. (family: Dinomyidae; Rodentia: Hystricognathi: Caviomorpha). This species with estimated body mass of nearly 1000 kg is the largest yet recorded. The skull sheds new light on the anatomy of the extinct giant rodents of the Dinomyidae, which are known mostly from isolated teeth and incomplete mandible remains. The fossil derives from San José Formation, Uruguay, usually assigned to the Pliocene–Pleistocene (4–2 Myr ago), and the proposed palaeoenvironment where this rodent lived was characterized as an estuarine or deltaic system with forest communities. PMID:18198140

  16. Faunistic Catalog of the Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Parque Nacional do Itatiaia and its Surroundings in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia — PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range. PMID:22958122

  17. [The strategies of the symbolic struggle for the training of the visiting nurse in the early twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Ayres, Lílian Fernandes Arial; Amorim, Wellington Mendonça de; Piva, Teresa Cristina de Carvalho; Porto, Fernando Rocha

    2012-09-01

    Based on the historical and social perspective, the scope of this documentary study were the strategies of the symbolic struggle for the training of agents in home visitation in the Courses for Visiting Nurses of the Brazilian Red Cross and the National Department of Public Health in Rio de Janeiro (Federal District), with repercussions in the Department of Health and Welfare of the State of Pernambuco between 1920 and 1926. We adopted the thinking of sociologist Pierre Bourdieu as a theoretical benchmark, showing the symbolic struggle in the field of public health between sanitarians Amaury de Medeiros and José P. Fontenelle and public health nurse Ethel Parsons, to analyze who was responsible for the scientific authority and competence of the training of visiting nurses.

  18. Environmental impact of unleaded gasolines in the bay of Cádiz (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ligero, R A; Casas-Ruiz, M; Barrera, M; López-Aguayo, F; Sales, D; García, D

    2004-03-01

    Given the strategic situation of the José León de Carranza bridge, which spans the Bay of Cádiz (in the SW of Spain) and carries very heavy motor traffic, together with knowledge of the currents and tidal flows in the zone, we have used a technique of radioactive dating of sediments to study the temporal evolution presented by contamination from lead in the sediment column. This has allowed us to observe the environmental impact, in terms of the concentration of Pb in the sea bed sediments, that has been produced in the zone by the introduction of unleaded gasolines as substitutes for traditional automobile fuels that employ organic forms of tetra methyl lead as an antidetonant agent in the fuel.

  19. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    Marshall Shepherd, professor of geography in the University of Georgia's Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, Athens, began a 1-year term as president-elect of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) on 22 January. In 2013 he will assume the presidency of the society. Also, five AGU members recently were elected as AMS councilors, with terms expiring in 2015: José Fuentes, Department of Meteorology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park; Richard Johnson, Atmospheric Science Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Christa Peters-Lidard, Hydrological Sciences Branch at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.; Wassila Thiaw, Climate Prediction Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Camp Springs, Md.; and Chidong Zhang, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Fla.

  20. Field-trip guide to the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This field trip is an introduction to the geology of the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in southern Santa Clara County. Seven stops include four short hikes to access rock exposures and views of the foothills east of Loma Prieta Peak between Gilroy and San José. Field-trip destinations highlight the dominant rock types of the "Franciscan assemblage" including outcrops of serpentinite, basalt, limestone, ribbon chert, graywacke sandstone, and shale. General discussions include how the rocks formed, and how tectonism and stream erosion have changed the landscape through time. All field trip stops are on public land; most are near reservoir dams of the Santa Clara Valley Water District. In addition, stops include examination of an Ohlone Indian heritage site and the New Almaden Mining Museum.

  1. ANNOTATION TAKEN, IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CRIMINAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AS WELL AS IN CRIMINOLOGY, TO THE DECISION OF THE PORTUGUESE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT, OF JANUARY 13, 2011--WITH RESPECT TO THE PROBLEMS OF "CONSENT" AND "MEDICAL ACT".

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Gonçalo S de Melo

    2014-07-01

    1--Summary of the decision taken by the Portuguese Constitutional Court, of January 13, 2011; 2--Complete text of the decision of the Portuguese Constitutional Court, of January 13, 2011, Judge Maria João ANTUNES (Reporter), Judge Carlos Pamplona de OLIVEIRA, Judge José Borges SOEIRO, Judge Gil GALVÃO, Judge Rui Manuel Moura RAMOS (President)--in terms of the appositive declaration to the sentence n. 487/2010: t.c.http://www. tribunalconstitucional.pt, August 1, 2011; 3--Brief annotation to the problem of the "medical act"; 3.1--Plus some conclusions on the brief annotation to the problem of the "medical act"; 3.2--Brief annotation to the problem of "consent"--continuation of the previous comments; 4--Conclusions. It must never be forgotten that "consent" does not stand as the only cause of exclusion of unlawfulness.

  2. [Food security, income, and the Bolsa Família program: a cohort study of municipalities in Paraíba State, Brazil, 2005-2011].

    PubMed

    Cabral, Caroline Sousa; Lopes, Amanda Gonçalves; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of the conditional cash transfer program known as Bolsa Família in overcoming food insecurity. A cohort study was conducted in 2005 and 2011 in a sample of families in São José dos Ramos and Nova Floresta, Paraíba State, Brazil. In 2005, 609 households were interviewed, and in 2011 we located and re-interviewed 406 families. There had been an increase in food security and mild food insecurity and an improvement in socioeconomic indicators. A significant association was observed between higher income and improved food security. The program showed a positive impact by increasing income and providing improved levels of food security and mild food insecurity. Other socioeconomic variables may be contributing to this improvement. The fight against food insecurity and malnutrition thus requires additional policies and programs that act on other determinants.

  3. Faunistic catalog of the caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Parque Nacional do Itatiaia and its surroundings in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia - PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range.

  4. Traditional knowledge and artisanal fishing technology on the Xingu River in Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, E M C; Isaac-Nahum, V J

    2015-08-01

    In artisanal fishing, the techniques used by a community reflect the characteristics of the natural environment, in particular the distribution and availability of resources, as well as local traditions and customs. However, economic development may result in the loss of these traditions. The present study documents the fishing techniques used by the communities on the Xingu River in the Brazilian state of Pará (Maribel, Altamira, Belo Monte, Vitória do Xingu, Vila Nova, Senador José Porfírio, Porto de Moz, and Gurupá). Interviews were used to investigate traditional local knowledge and the distribution of the different fishing methods within the study area. The local fishers described the use of 12 different types of net, 10 hook and line techniques, and eight kinds of spearfishing. Free diving and scuba diving are also used for the capture of ornamental fish.

  5. On Pulchritia new genus, with a reappraisal of the genera of Trichotriidae (Rotifera, Monogononta)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yongting; Segers, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the study of rotifers collected in Eastern DR Congo, we rediscovered specimens that correspond to Monostyla dorsicornuta Van Oye, 1926. This species, which we redescribe, had not been seen since it’s summary description, and lacked type material. Our analysis reveals that the animal belongs to Trichotriidae rather than to Lecane (presently considered to include Monostyla) or Lecanidae, but is nevertheless characterised by a foot structure that is remarkably convergent to that of Lecanidae, and different from all other genera of Trichotriidae. We conclude that the species and the closely related South American Macrochaetus kostei (José de Paggi, Branco & Kozlowsky-Suzuki, 2000) belong to a new genus of Trichotriidae; the two offer a rare example of African-South American vicariance in rotifers.We further provide emended diagnoses of the remaining genera of Trichotriidae, to conform these to the new information and to address some inconsistencies in these. PMID:24194651

  6. Factors Militating Against the Establishment, Management and Utilization of Instructional Television (ITV) in Higher Institutions in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaniyi Alaba, Sofowora

    This study highlights the problems facing the establishment, management and utilization of Instructional Television (ITV) in higher institutions in Nigeria. The study also discusses chronicle of activities and achievement made at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife in the effort at revamping the television system. Obafemi Awolowo University was used as a case study because it is presently the only institution apart from the Television College, Jos that has facilities and have consistently over the last decade been involved in training and teaching television production courses at the post-graduate and under-graduate level. In conclusion, for effective management and utilization of television, it was recommended that there should be statue and rationale, proper funding of education to meet the UNESCO minimum requirement of 26%. Schools broadcast and ITV services should be re-established in the country.

  7. A 18^th century thermometer recipe: The begin of experimental physics courses in Guadalajara, M'exico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alba Martinez, Durruty Jesus

    2007-03-01

    As a part of the Special Funds Collection of the Jalisco's State Public Library ``Juan Jos'e Arreola'' is a physics course manuscript attributed to Francisco Javier Clavigero s.j. (1731-1787), teacher at the Jesuit Colegio de Santo Tom'as (a college-level institution in Guadalajara before the university opening), inside of the vellum bounded volume is a unbounded folio containing instructions on how to build a thermometer. In this work are discussed some evidences of the belonging of such folio to the manuscript in spite of their differences (it is written in Spanish not in Latin as the whole), we also describe the process to construct the thermometer and how could be the experimental part of the physics course. Also is briefly exposed the importance of the educational role of Clavigero as a builder of the concept of mexicanity.

  8. [Nicanor Rojas, dean of the School of Medicine during Balmaceda's dictatorship].

    PubMed

    Costa-Casaretto, C

    1995-07-01

    The Chilean President José Manuel Balmaceda (1886-1891) had a constitutional conflict with the parliament. This conflict lead to a revolution that ended with the President's suicide, when he was refuged at the Argentinian Embassy in September 1891. President Balmaceda conducted an authoritarian government during several months. A decree from February, 1897, disposed the reorganization of the Medical School, dismissed and imprisoned the Dean, Dr Barros-Borgoño and nominated new Professors. Dr Nicanor Rojas, Professor of Gynecology was assigned as Dean and Dr Carlos Sazié as secretary. During the During the war against Perú and Bolivia, Dr. Rojas worked gratuitously and became prominent, being named Chief Surgeon of the Chilean Army. After the triumph of the revolution against President Balmaceda, Dr Rojas was discharged, and died in 1892. PMID:8560126

  9. Assessment for English Language Education on the Programs at the Agricultural Engineering School of Madrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Sinobas, Leonor; San José Martínez, Fernando; Hontoria, Kira; Adán, Angeles; Blanco, María; Calderón, Fernando; Carbonell, Victoria; Chaya, Carolina; Fondevila, Guillermo; González, Trinidad; Marín, Carmen; Mira, Sara; Molina, Antonio; Pereira, David; Quemada, Miguel; Ricote, Luis; Sánchez Monje, Rosa; Sanz, Alberto; Albir, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The convergence process among European academic degrees pursues the exchange of graduate students and the adaptation of university programs to social demand. Within the framework of the European Higher Education, European universities will need to be more competitive not only by increasing or maintaining the student enrolment, but also in their academic performance. Thus, the reinforcing of English language education within the University Programs might play an important role to reach these objectives. In this sense, a complete survey was accomplished at the Agricultural Egineering School of Madrid (ETSIA ) addressing issues such as: identification the needs for bilingual instruction at ETSIA, identification resources needed and interest and background in English language of students and professors (San José et al., 2013). The conclusions and recommendations to promote the bilingual instruction in the ETSIA, taking into account the approaches followed by other Spanish universities, are presented in this work.

  10. The concepts of vínculo and dialectical spiral: a bridge between intra- and intersubjectivity.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Ricardo; de Leon de Bernardi, Beatriz

    2012-07-01

    The authors explore the psychoanalytic concepts of vínculo and dialectical spiral within the context of a historical review of the development of psychoanalysis in the Río de la Plata region of Uruguay and Argentina. In particular, they discuss the work of Enrique Pichon-Rivière, Madeleine and Willy Baranger, and José Bleger. Illustrative clinical material is included from a case described by Bleger. Convergences and divergences are noted between the theoretical and clinical approaches of these authors, on the one hand, and those of more traditionally Freudian, Kleinian, and other schools of analysis, on the other. Also, the authors underline some questions about the nature of vínculo that are currently under discussion in the Río de la Plata.

  11. From the model of El Sistema in Venezuela to current applications: learning and integration through collective music education.

    PubMed

    Majno, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Over the last years, El Sistema--the Venezuelan project started in 1975 and now acknowledged worldwide as the most significant example of collective music education--has inspired a profusion of remarkable initiatives on all continents. From the original impulse by founder José Antonio Abreu, strong social principles of integration are combined with specific musical approaches to achieve individual empowerment as a large-scale alternative to endemic juvenile crime, counteracting the risk factors of social unease, serving as a stimulating example toward emancipation, and providing professional opportunities to the talented. Such a network, in turn, proves to be a powerful instrument of cultural progress: the tenets of "Sistema" become shared values able to foster development, reaching into issues of disability and rehabilitation. This paper presents continuities and contrasts in various ramifications of such a successful trend and outlines perspectives for further impact of this powerful transformational agent.

  12. [The cultural psychiatry in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J; Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Aceves-Pulido, Martha P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents only some of the most important contributions in the development of cultural psychiatry in Latin America. The continental efforts to understand the role that culture plays in the manifestation and treatment of mental disorders have been fruitful. The authors included are: Fernando Pagés of Argentina; Mario G. Hollweg of Bolivia; Rubim Alvaro de Pinho and Adalberto Barreto of Brazil; Carlos A. Leon and Carlos A. Uribe of Colombia; Antonio José A. Bustamante and Santa Cruz de Cuba, Carlos Leon Andrade of Ecuador, Guatemala Cristina Chavez; Sergio Villasenor J. Bayardo of Mexico; Carlos A. Seguin, Hermilio Valdizán and Javier Mariátegui in Peru; Y. Bespaldi of Consens of Uruguay; Rojas and Carlos Malpica and Jacqueline Briceño Clarac of Venezuela.

  13. Traditional knowledge and artisanal fishing technology on the Xingu River in Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, E M C; Isaac-Nahum, V J

    2015-08-01

    In artisanal fishing, the techniques used by a community reflect the characteristics of the natural environment, in particular the distribution and availability of resources, as well as local traditions and customs. However, economic development may result in the loss of these traditions. The present study documents the fishing techniques used by the communities on the Xingu River in the Brazilian state of Pará (Maribel, Altamira, Belo Monte, Vitória do Xingu, Vila Nova, Senador José Porfírio, Porto de Moz, and Gurupá). Interviews were used to investigate traditional local knowledge and the distribution of the different fishing methods within the study area. The local fishers described the use of 12 different types of net, 10 hook and line techniques, and eight kinds of spearfishing. Free diving and scuba diving are also used for the capture of ornamental fish. PMID:26691086

  14. The congress that never was: the Madrid International Congress of Psychology (1936).

    PubMed

    Carpintero, Helio; Lafuente, Enrique

    2008-11-01

    The 11th International Congress of Psychology did not take place in Madrid in September 1936, as initially planned. Instead, it was held in Paris in July of the following year. The finding of a so-far unpublished correspondence between the main organizers of the event, the Spanish psychologists José Germain and Emilio Mira, and the Swiss psychologist Edouard Claparède, makes it possible to gain new insight into the circumstances preventing its celebration in Madrid. This paper aims at shedding some light on such circumstances by unraveling the social and political context alluded to in these letters, and connecting their contents with other significant events and documents on the various organizational aspects of the congress.

  15. Peripheral vision: science and Creole patriotism in eighteenth-century Spanish America.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Helen

    2009-09-01

    This article examines the study of natural history on the imperial periphery in late colonial Spanish America. It considers the problems that afflicted peripheral naturalists-lack of books, instruments, scholarly companionship, and skilled technicians. It discusses how these deprivations impacted upon their self-confidence and credibility as men of science and it examines the strategies adopted by peripheral naturalists to boost their scientific credibility. The article argues that Spanish American savants, deprived of the most up-to-date books and sophisticated instruments, emphasised instead their sustained experience of local nature and their familiarity with indigenous knowledge. It details how some creole naturalists, such as the Mexican José Antonio Alzate, questioned the applicability of European classificatory systems to American fauna and flora, and it analyses the complex relationship between natural science and creole patriotism.

  16. Conference Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    Scientific Committee Silvia Arrese-Igor Irigoyen (CFM, CSIC - UPV/EHU, Donostia), Javier Campo (ICMA-CSIC, Zaragoza), Carlos Frontera (ICMAB-CSIC, Barcelona), Victoria García Sakai (ISIS, Chilton), Cristina Gómez-Polo (UPNa, Pamplona), Miguel Ángel González (ILL, Grenoble), Pedro Gorría (Universidad Oviedo), Jon Gutiérrez Echevarría (EHU/UPV, Bilbao), J. Iñaki Pérez Landazábal (UPNa, Pamplona), Vicente Recarte (UPNa, Pamplona), Jesús Ruíz Hervías (UPM, Madrid), Vicente Sánchez-Alarcos (UPNa, Pamplona), Antonio Urbina (UPC, Cartagena) Organizing Committee J. Iñaki Pérez Landazábal (Co-Chair), Vicente Recarte ( Co-Chair), Cristina Gómez-Polo, Silvia Larumbe Abuin, Vicente Sánchez-Alarcos Editors of the Proceedings J. Iñaki Pérez Landazábal, Vicente Recarte Plenary speakers Charles Simon (Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France), Miguel Angel Alario Franco (Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain), Dieter Richter (Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, Jülich, Germany), James Yeck (European Spallation Source, Lund, Sweden) Invited speakers Manu Barandiarán (BCMaterials & EHU/UPV), Arantxa Arbe (MFC, CSIC- UPV/EHU), José Luis Martínez (Consorcio ESS-Bilbao), Marta Castellote, IETcc-CSIC), Josep Lluis Tamarit (UPC), Diego Alba-Venero (ISIS), Elizabeth Castillo (CIC Energigune), Josu M. Igartua (EHU/UPV), Antonio Dos Santos (UPM), Alex Masalles (Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya), José Abad (UPCT), Claudia Mondelli (ILL), Oscar Fabelo (ILL), Aurora Nogales (IEM-CSIC), Jesús Rodríguez (UC), Gerardo

  17. Chronic hemodialysis in a Nigerian teaching hospital: practice and costs.

    PubMed

    Agaba, E I; Lopez, A; Ma, I; Martinez, R; Tzamaloukas, R A; Vanderjagt, D J; Glew, R H; Tzamaloukas, A H

    2003-11-01

    The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is on the rise in developing countries. To identify issues related to renal replacement therapy in ESRD patients in the developing world, we analyzed the practice and costs of hemodialysis in Nigerian ESRD patients. Ten ESRD patients were dialyzed at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, between June 15 and July 15, 2003. In these patients, we analyzed initiation, vascular access issues, frequency, duration, adequacy and economics of chronic hemodialysis. The Nigerian patients were referred to the nephrologist for the first time only when they had developed frank uremia. No patient had a permanent vascular access at the time dialysis was initiated. Only two patients had a functioning dialysis fistula, while the other eight patients were dialyzed through temporary femoral vein catheters that were removed after each dialysis. Frequency of dialysis was three times weekly in 2 patients, twice weekly in 1 patient and once weekly or less frequently in 7 patients. The duration of a dialysis session was prescribed to be 4 hours, but sessions often lasted for as long as 10 hours because of breakdowns of the antiquated dialysis machines. The urea reduction ratio was 45.3 +/- 8.6%. In every case, the cost of dialysis was borne by the patients and their families. Comparison of the cost of dialysis, with extensive re-use of supplies, to monthly incomes of Nigerians with different professions revealed that the great majority of Nigerians cannot afford three times weekly dialysis. Underdialysis in Nigerian ESRD patients is common and caused by socioeconomic factors and technologic deficits. One step towards correction of underdialysis could be sharing of the cost of dialysis by the public.

  18. 'The quicksand of forgetfulness': semantic dementia in One hundred years of solitude.

    PubMed

    Rascovsky, Katya; Growdon, Matthew E; Pardo, Isela R; Grossman, Scott; Miller, Bruce L

    2009-09-01

    This multidisciplinary article compares the pattern of memory loss described in Gabriel García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude to that exhibited by patients with semantic dementia (SD). In his renowned novel, García Márquez depicts the plight of Macondo, a town struck by the dreaded insomnia plague. The most devastating symptom of the plague is not the impossibility of sleep, but rather the loss of 'the name and notion of things'. In an effort to combat this insidious loss of knowledge, the protagonist, José Arcadio Buendía, 'marked everything with its name: table, chair, clock, door, wall, bed, pan'. 'Studying the infinite possibilities of a loss of memory, he realized that the day might come when things would be recognized by their inscriptions but that no one would remember their use'. The cognitive impairments experienced by Macondo's inhabitants are remarkably similar to those observed in SD, a clinical syndrome characterized by a progressive breakdown of conceptual knowledge (semantic memory) in the context of relatively preserved day-to-day (episodic) memory. First recognized in 1975, it is now considered one of the main variants of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Writing within the realm of magical realism and investigating the power of language as a form of communication, García Márquez provides beautiful descriptions of the loss of 'the name and notion of things' typical of the syndrome. He further speculates on ways to cope with this dissolution of meaning, ranging from 'the spell of an imaginary reality' to José Arcadio's 'memory machine', strategies that resonate with attempts by semantic dementia patients to cope with their disease. Remarkably, García Márquez created a striking literary depiction of collective semantic dementia before the syndrome was recognized in neurology. The novel also provides an inspiring and human account of one town's fight against 'the quicksand of forgetfulness'. PMID:19447824

  19. Observations of a stratospheric aerosol veil from a tropical volcanic eruption in December 1808: is this the "Unknown" ~1809 eruption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara-Murua, A.; Williams, C. A.; Hendy, E. J.; Rust, A. C.; Cashman, K. V.

    2014-04-01

    The "Unknown" eruption of 1808/1809 was the second most explosive SO2-rich volcanic eruption in the last two centuries, only eclipsed by the cataclysmic VEI 7 Tambora eruption in April 1815. However, no eyewitness accounts of the event, and therefore its location, or the atmospheric optical effects associated with its aerosols have been documented from historical records. Here we report on two meteorological observations dating from the end of 1808 that describe phenomena we attribute to volcanic-induced atmospheric effects caused by the Unknown eruption. The observations were made by two highly respected Latin American scientists. The first, Francisco José de Caldas, describes a stratospheric aerosol haze, a "transparent cloud that obstructs the sun's brilliance", that was visible over the city of Bogotá, Colombia, from 11 December 1808 to at least mid-February 1809. The second, made by physician José Hipólito Unanue in Lima, Peru, describes sunset after-glows (akin to well-documented examples known to be caused by stratospheric volcanic aerosols) from mid-December 1808 to February 1809. These two accounts provide direct evidence of a persistent stratospheric aerosol veil that spanned at least 2600 km into both Northern and Southern Hemispheres and establish that the source was a tropical volcano. Moreover, these observations confirm that the Unknown eruption, previously identified and tentatively assigned to February 1809 (±4 months) from analysis of ice core sulphate records, occurred in late November or early December 1808 (4 December 1808 ± 7 days). This date has important implications for the associated hemispheric climate impacts and temporal pattern of aerosol dispersal.

  20. Observations of a stratospheric aerosol veil from a tropical volcanic eruption in December 1808: is this the Unknown ∼1809 eruption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara-Murua, A.; Williams, C. A.; Hendy, E. J.; Rust, A. C.; Cashman, K. V.

    2014-09-01

    The Unknown eruption of 1808/1809 was the second most explosive SO2-rich volcanic eruption in the last two centuries, eclipsed only by the cataclysmic VEI 7 Tambora eruption in April 1815. However, no eyewitness accounts of the event, and therefore its location, or the atmospheric optical effects associated with its aerosols have been documented from historical records. Here we report on two meteorological observations dating from the end of 1808 that describe phenomena we attribute to volcanic-induced atmospheric effects caused by the Unknown eruption. The observations were made by two highly respected Latin American scientists. The first, Francisco José de Caldas, describes a stratospheric aerosol haze, a "transparent cloud that obstructs the sun's brilliance", that was visible over the city of Bogotá, Colombia, from 11 December 1808 to at least mid-February 1809. The second, made by physician José Hipólito Unanue in Lima, Peru, describes sunset after-glows (akin to well-documented examples known to be caused by stratospheric volcanic aerosols) from mid-December 1808 to February 1809. These two accounts provide direct evidence of a persistent stratospheric aerosol veil that spanned at least 2600 km into both Northern and Southern Hemispheres and establish that the source was a tropical volcano. Moreover, these observations confirm that the Unknown eruption, previously identified and tentatively assigned to February 1809 (±4 months) from analysis of ice core sulfate records, occurred in late November or early December 1808 (4 December 1808 ±7 days). This date has important implications for the associated hemispheric climate impacts and temporal pattern of aerosol dispersal.

  1. Location accuracy evaluation of lightning location systems using natural lightning flashes recorded by a network of high-speed cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. C. V.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Antunes, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method for the evaluation of location accuracy of all Lightning Location System (LLS) in operation in southeastern Brazil, using natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. This can be done through a multiple high-speed cameras network (RAMMER network) installed in the Paraiba Valley region - SP - Brazil. The RAMMER network (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) is composed by four high-speed cameras operating at 2,500 frames per second. Three stationary black-and-white (B&W) cameras were situated in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava. A fourth color camera was mobile (installed in a car), but operated in a fixed location during the observation period, within the city of São José dos Campos. The average distance among cameras was 13 kilometers. Each RAMMER sensor position was determined so that the network can observe the same lightning flash from different angles and all recorded videos were GPS (Global Position System) time stamped, allowing comparisons of events between cameras and the LLS. The RAMMER sensor is basically composed by a computer, a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1 and a GPS unit. The lightning cases analyzed in the present work were observed by at least two cameras, their position was visually triangulated and the results compared with BrasilDAT network, during the summer seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The visual triangulation method is presented in details. The calibration procedure showed an accuracy of 9 meters between the accurate GPS position of the object triangulated and the result from the visual triangulation method. Lightning return stroke positions, estimated with the visual triangulation method, were compared with LLS locations. Differences between solutions were not greater than 1.8 km.

  2. [Medicine and enlightenment in New Spain].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A

    1998-01-01

    Fundamental ideas of the cultural movement of Enlightenment were drawn up and encouraged in England by John Locke and introduced into continental Europe by Voltaire. The essence of this movement was defined by I. Kant in 1784. These new ideas were projected into the field of medicine initially with the systematization of anatomical studies by Winslow, Vicq d' Azyr and Sénac in France, by S. Th. Sömmerring and von Haller in Germany, and by Paolo Mascagni and other anatomists in Italy. This movement settled in Spain toward the middle of the XVIII century, due to Father Feijóo and his pupils such as Piquer and Casal. In New Spain, which maintained cultural and scientific relationship with the Old World, the leaders of the movement were José Antonio Alzate in the field of biology and José Ignacio Bartolache in that of medicine. These were the founders of the first scientific journals: the "Diario Literario" (Literary Journal) by Alzate (1768) and the "Mercurio Volante" (Flying Mercury) by Bartolache (1772). Latter this physician had to face the great epidemic outbreak of smallpox in 1779. Due to that, he attributed great importance to the psychological aspect of the problem and supported the variolization proceeding introduced into Mexico by Doctor Henri Morel. Moreover, two scientific expeditions, which reached New Spain at the end of the XVIII century, allowed to systematize the study of the American vegetables and to acknowledge the usefulness of botany and chemistry as auxiliary sciences of medicine. PMID:9780494

  3. Ocean Science Communication in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

  4. Prevalence of and risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Ebonyi, Augustine O.; Oguche, Stephen; Ejeliogu, Emeka U.; Agbaji, Oche O.; Shehu, Nathan Y.; Abah, Isaac O.; Sagay, Atiene S.; Ugoagwu, Placid O.; Okonkwo, Prosper I.; Idoko, John A.; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies on the prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce and in Nigeria there is paucity of reported data. We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for pulmonary TB (PTB) in newly diagnosed (treatment-naïve) HIV-1 infected children at the pediatric HIV clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Nigeria. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 876 children, aged 2 months – 13 years, diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between July 2005 and December 2012, of which 286 were diagnosed with PTB at presentation after TB screening. The study site was the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN)-supported Pediatric HIV clinic at JUTH, Jos. A multivariate forward logistic regression modelling was used to identify risk factors for PTB-HIV co-infection. Results The prevalence of PTB-HIV co-infection was 32% (286/876). Severe immunosuppression (SI) and World Health Organization (WHO) HIV clinical stage 3/4 were identified as independent risk factors for PTB-HIV co-infection in HIV infected children. The odds of PTB-HIV co-infection was increased two-fold in HIV-infected children with WHO clinical stage 3/4 compared to those with stage 1/2 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.76 [1.31-2.37], p<0.001) and 1.5-fold in children with SI compared to those without SI (AOR 1.52 [1.12-2.06], p=0.007). Conclusion In our setting, the burden of PTB was high among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children, and late WHO HIV clinical stage and severe immunosuppression were associated with PTB-HIV co-infection. Therefore there is a clear need to improve strategies for early diagnosis of both HIV and PTB to optimize clinical outcomes. PMID:27019829

  5. Short Communication: Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance in Antiretroviral-Naive Pregnant Women in North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sagay, Atiene S.; Chaplin, Beth; Chebu, Philippe; Musa, Jonah; Okpokwu, Jonathan; Hamel, Donald J.; Pam, Ishaya C.; Agbaji, Oche; Samuels, Jay; Meloni, Seema; Sankale, Jean-Louis; Okonkwo, Prosper; Kanki, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends periodic surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in communities in which antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been scaled-up for greater than 3 years. We conducted a survey of TDR mutations among newly detected HIV-infected antiretroviral (ARV)-naive pregnant women. From May 2010 to March 2012, 38 ARV-naive pregnant women were recruited in three hospitals in Jos, Plateau state, north central Nigeria. Eligible subjects were recruited using a modified version of the binomial sequential sampling technique recommended by WHO. HIV-1 genotyping was performed and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were characterized according to the WHO 2009 surveillance drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list. HIV subtypes were determined by phylogenetic analysis. The women's median age was 25.5 years; the median CD4+ cell count was 317 cells/μl and the median viral load of 16 was 261 copies/ml. Of the 38 samples tested, 34 (89%) were successfully genotyped. The SDRM rate was <5% for all ART drug classes, with 1/34 (2.9%) for NRTIs/NNRTIs and none for protease inhibitors 0/31 (0%). The specific SDRMs detected were M41L for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and G190A for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). HIV-1 subtypes detected were CRF02_AG (38.2%), G′ (41.2%), G (14.7%), CRF06-CPX (2.9%), and a unique AG recombinant form (2.9%). The single ARV-native pregnant woman with SDRMs was infected with HIV-1 subtype G′. Access to ART has been available in the Jos area for over 8 years. The prevalence of TDR lower than 5% suggests proper ART administration, although continued surveillance is warranted. PMID:24164431

  6. 'The quicksand of forgetfulness': semantic dementia in One hundred years of solitude.

    PubMed

    Rascovsky, Katya; Growdon, Matthew E; Pardo, Isela R; Grossman, Scott; Miller, Bruce L

    2009-09-01

    This multidisciplinary article compares the pattern of memory loss described in Gabriel García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude to that exhibited by patients with semantic dementia (SD). In his renowned novel, García Márquez depicts the plight of Macondo, a town struck by the dreaded insomnia plague. The most devastating symptom of the plague is not the impossibility of sleep, but rather the loss of 'the name and notion of things'. In an effort to combat this insidious loss of knowledge, the protagonist, José Arcadio Buendía, 'marked everything with its name: table, chair, clock, door, wall, bed, pan'. 'Studying the infinite possibilities of a loss of memory, he realized that the day might come when things would be recognized by their inscriptions but that no one would remember their use'. The cognitive impairments experienced by Macondo's inhabitants are remarkably similar to those observed in SD, a clinical syndrome characterized by a progressive breakdown of conceptual knowledge (semantic memory) in the context of relatively preserved day-to-day (episodic) memory. First recognized in 1975, it is now considered one of the main variants of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Writing within the realm of magical realism and investigating the power of language as a form of communication, García Márquez provides beautiful descriptions of the loss of 'the name and notion of things' typical of the syndrome. He further speculates on ways to cope with this dissolution of meaning, ranging from 'the spell of an imaginary reality' to José Arcadio's 'memory machine', strategies that resonate with attempts by semantic dementia patients to cope with their disease. Remarkably, García Márquez created a striking literary depiction of collective semantic dementia before the syndrome was recognized in neurology. The novel also provides an inspiring and human account of one town's fight against 'the quicksand of forgetfulness'.

  7. Medicines in Pharmacy Students’ Residence and Self-medication Practices

    PubMed Central

    Auta, A; Banwat, SB; Sariem, CN; Shalkur, D; Nasara, B; Atuluku, MO

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the types of medicines in pharmacy students’ residence and to determine if a relationship exists between keeping medicines in students’ accommodation and self-medication practices. A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 240 undergraduate pharmacy students of the University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria, was carried out. Participating students were given a self-administered questionnaire, and only 188 students returned their filled questionnaire. The data collected were entered and analyzed using SPSS 16, and the χ2-test was used to determine associations between the variables. The results revealed that 66.0% of respondents had medicines in their room. A total of 318 medicines items (2.56 items per student's room) of which 37.1% were leftover medicines were present in respondents’ rooms. Analgesics (34.3%) and antibiotics (25.2%) were the common classes of medicines present in respondents’ rooms. Respondents reported getting these medicines on prescription (25.8%) and self-medication (56.5%) or both (17.7%). Self-medication practice was common among respondents (53.2%); however, no significant relationship (P>0.05) existed between having medicine in students’ room and self-medication practices. Common reasons given by respondents for having medicines in their rooms were that they were leftover medicines and that they were keeping them for emergency use or for use in an event of a similar illness. Most respondents (72.2%) reported disposing of their unused medicines in a trash can/dust bin. This study demonstrated that the prevalence of medicine storage in students’ room and self-medication practice is high. Analgesics and antibiotics were the most common types of medicines present in students’ residence. PMID:22754265

  8. Medicines in Pharmacy Students' Residence and Self-medication Practices.

    PubMed

    Auta, A; Banwat, Sb; Sariem, Cn; Shalkur, D; Nasara, B; Atuluku, Mo

    2012-04-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the types of medicines in pharmacy students' residence and to determine if a relationship exists between keeping medicines in students' accommodation and self-medication practices. A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 240 undergraduate pharmacy students of the University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria, was carried out. Participating students were given a self-administered questionnaire, and only 188 students returned their filled questionnaire. The data collected were entered and analyzed using SPSS 16, and the χ(2)-test was used to determine associations between the variables. The results revealed that 66.0% of respondents had medicines in their room. A total of 318 medicines items (2.56 items per student's room) of which 37.1% were leftover medicines were present in respondents' rooms. Analgesics (34.3%) and antibiotics (25.2%) were the common classes of medicines present in respondents' rooms. Respondents reported getting these medicines on prescription (25.8%) and self-medication (56.5%) or both (17.7%). Self-medication practice was common among respondents (53.2%); however, no significant relationship (P>0.05) existed between having medicine in students' room and self-medication practices. Common reasons given by respondents for having medicines in their rooms were that they were leftover medicines and that they were keeping them for emergency use or for use in an event of a similar illness. Most respondents (72.2%) reported disposing of their unused medicines in a trash can/dust bin. This study demonstrated that the prevalence of medicine storage in students' room and self-medication practice is high. Analgesics and antibiotics were the most common types of medicines present in students' residence.

  9. PREFACE: Introduction to the proceedings of Dynamics Days South America 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macau, Elbert E. N.; Pereira, Tiago; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Turci, Luiz F. R.; Winter, Othon C.

    2011-03-01

    number of attendees ever. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to all the participants for their presentations, discussions, and remarkable interactions with one another. The tireless work undertaken by all the members of the International Advisory Committee and the Organizing Committee must also be recognized. We also wish to express our deep appreciation for the Scientific Societies and Research Support Agencies which supported the conference and provided all the resources which were necessary to make this idea of a South American Dynamics Days come true. Elbert E N Macau, Tiago Pereira, Antonio F B A Prado, Luiz F R Turci, and Othon C WinterEditors Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph International Advisory Committee Adilson E MotterNorthwestern UniversityEvanston - IL - USA Alfredo OzorioCentro Brasileiro de Pesquisas FísicasRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Celso Grebogi (Chair)University of AberdeenAberdeen - UK Ed OttUniversity of MarylandCollege Park - MD - USA Epaminondas Rosa JrIllinois State UniversityNormal - IL - USA Hans Ingo WeberPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Holger KantzMax Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex SystemsDresden - Germany Jason Gallas (Co-chair)Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto Alegre - RS - Brazil José Roberto Rios LeiteUniv. Federal de PernanbucoRecife - PE - Brazil Jürgen KurthsPotsdam Institute for climate Impact ResearchHumboldt University, Berlin - Germany Kenneth ShowalterWest Virginia UniversityMorgantown - WV - USA Lou PecoraNaval Research LabWashington - DC - USA Luis Antonio AguirreUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte - MG - Brazil Marcelo VianaIMPA - Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e AplicadaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Miguel A F SanjuánUniversidad Rey Juan CarlosMadrid - Spain Paulo Roberto de Souza MendesPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Roland KorbeleUniversidade de

  10. Human geomorphic footprint and global geomorphic change: implications for hydrogeomorphic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondo, Juan

    2010-05-01

    sedimentation rates in different areas showing that in most of them sedimentation has increased significantly during the last century (by about one order of magnitude in most cases) and that such increase does not seem to be related to climate but rather to human activity. If a global geomorphic change is indeed taking place, an increase in the frequency/intensity of related hazards, such as landslides or floods, should be expected. Data are presented indicating that it could be so. If what the data presented suggest is confirmed by further and deeper analyses, existing hazard and risk assessments for those processes should be reconsidered, because they would likely represent underestimates. The CAMGEO Team is formed by the following persons: Antonio Cendrero1, Gonzalo Méndez2, Jaime Bonachea1, José Gómez-Arozamena1, José Luis Cavallotto5, José Manuel Naredo3, Juan Remondo1, Lazaro V. Zuquette6, Luis Salas1, Luis M. Forte4, Marcilene Dantas-Ferreira6, Maria Angélica de O. Bezerra7, Mario da Silva, Martín A. Hurtado4, Osni J. Pejon6, Victoria Rivas1, Viola M. Bruschi1. 1) Universidad de Cantabria, Spain; 2) Universidad de Vigo, Spain; 3) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain; 4) Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina; 5) Servicio de Hidrografía Naval, Argentina; 6) Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Brazil; 7) Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  11. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  12. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the International Technical Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Yulin WU Tsinghua University China François AVELLAN EPFL-LMH Switzerland (principal) Xingqi LUO Xi'an University of Sci & Tech China Martin BÖHLE Kaiserslautern University Germany Gerard BOIS Arts et Métiers ParisTech France Luca D'AGOSTINO University of Pisa Italy Eduard EGUSQUIZA Polytechnical University Catalonia Spain Richard FISHER Voith Hydro Inc USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLA Institute Polytechnique de Grenoble France Aleksandar GAJIC University of Belgrade Serbia Wei YANG China Agriculture University China YinLu YOUNG University of Michigan USA Adrian LUNGU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Romania Arpad FAY University of Miskolcz Hungary José GONZÁLEZ Universidad de Oviedo Spain Baoshan ZHU Tsinghua University China Hongxun CHEN Shanghai University China Chisachi KATO University of Tokyo Japan Zhenyue MA Dalian University of Sci & Tech China Honggang FAN Tsinghua University China François GUIBAULT Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Canada Pengcheng GUO Xian University of Technology China Leqing WANG Zhejiang University China Toshiaki IKOHAGI Tohoku University Japan Jiandong YANG Wuhan University China Jianzhong ZHOU Huazhong University of Sci & Tech China Jinwei LI NULL China Rennian LI Lanzhou University of Sci & Tech China Houlin LIU NULL China Juan LIU Tsinghua University China Shuhong LIU Tsinghua University China Xianwu LUO Tsinghua University China Michihiro NISHI Tsinghua

  13. Spatio-Temporal Tracking and Phylodynamics of an Urban Dengue 3 Outbreak in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mondini, Adriano; de Moraes Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira; Nunes, Silvia Helena Pereira; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Massad, Eduardo; Alonso, Wladimir J.; Lázzaro, Eduardo S. M.; Ferraz, Amena Alcântara; de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo Marinho; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2009-01-01

    The dengue virus has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of ∼10.700 nucleotides with a single open reading frame that encodes three structural (C, prM, and E) and seven nonstructural (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5) proteins. It possesses four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1–4). Many phylogenetic studies address particularities of the different serotypes using convenience samples that are not conducive to a spatio-temporal analysis in a single urban setting. We describe the pattern of spread of distinct lineages of DENV-3 circulating in São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, during 2006. Blood samples from patients presenting dengue-like symptoms were collected for DENV testing. We performed M-N-PCR using primers based on NS5 for virus detection and identification. The fragments were purified from PCR mixtures and sequenced. The positive dengue cases were geo-coded. To type the sequenced samples, 52 reference sequences were aligned. The dataset generated was used for iterative phylogenetic reconstruction with the maximum likelihood criterion. The best demographic model, the rate of growth, rate of evolutionary change, and Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) were estimated. The basic reproductive rate during the epidemics was estimated. We obtained sequences from 82 patients among 174 blood samples. We were able to geo-code 46 sequences. The alignment generated a 399-nucleotide-long dataset with 134 taxa. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that all samples were of DENV-3 and related to strains circulating on the isle of Martinique in 2000–2001. Sixty DENV-3 from São José do Rio Preto formed a monophyletic group (lineage 1), closely related to the remaining 22 isolates (lineage 2). We assumed that these lineages appeared before 2006 in different occasions. By transforming the inferred exponential growth rates into the basic reproductive rate, we obtained values for lineage 1 of R0 = 1.53 and values for lineage 2 of R0

  14. Crystallization conditions of porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline granitoids in the extreme northeastern Borborema Province, NE Brazil, and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Benedita Cleide Souza; Vilalva, Frederico Castro Jobim; Nascimento, Marcos Antônio Leite do; Galindo, Antônio Carlos

    2016-10-01

    An integrated textural and chemical study on amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, titanite, epidote, and magnetite was conducted in order to estimate crystallization conditions, along with possible geodynamic implications, for six Ediacaran porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline granite plutons (Monte das Gameleiras, Barcelona, Acari, Caraúbas, Tourão, and Catolé do Rocha) intrusive into Archean to Paleoproterozoic rocks of the São José do Campestre (SJCD) and Rio Piranhas-Seridó (RPSD) domains, northern Borborema Province. The studied rocks include mainly porphyritic leucocratic monzogranites, as well as quartz-monzonites and granodiorites. Textures are marked by K-feldspar megacrysts (5-15 cm long) in a fine-to medium-grained matrix composed of quartz, plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, as well as titanite, epidote, Fesbnd Ti oxides, allanite, apatite, and zircon as accessory minerals. Amphibole, biotite and titanite share similar compositional variations defined by increasing Al and Fe, and decreasing Mg contents from the plutons emplaced into the SJCP (Monte das Gameleiras and Barcelona) towards those in the RPSD (Acari, Caraúbas, Tourão, and Catolé do Rocha). Estimated intensive crystallization parameters reveal a weak westward range of increasing depth of emplacement, pressure and temperature in the study area. The SJCD plutons (to the east) crystallized at shallower crustal depths (14-21 km), under slightly lower pressure (3.8-5.5 kbar) and temperature (701-718 °C) intervals, and high to moderate oxygen fugacity conditions (+0.8 < ΔFQM < +2.0). On the other hand, the RPSD plutons (to the west) were emplaced at slightly deeper depths (18-23 km), under higher, yet variable pressures (4.8-6.2 kbar), temperatures (723-776 °C), and moderate to low oxygen fugacity conditions (-1.0 < ΔFQM < +1.8). These results reinforce the contrasts between the tectono-strutuctural domains of São José do Campestre and Rio Piranhas-Seridó in the northern Borborema Province.

  15. Approaches to Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Inverno, Ray

    2005-07-01

    Introduction Ray d'Inverno; Preface C. J. S. Clarke; Part I. Theoretical Approaches: 1. Numerical relativity on a transputer array Ray d'Inverno; 2. Some aspects of the characteristic initial value problem in numerical relativity Nigel Bishop; 3. The characteristic initial value problem in general relativity J. M. Stewart; 4. Algebraic approachs to the characteristic initial value problem in general relativity Jõrg Frauendiener; 5. On hyperboidal hypersurfaces Helmut Friedrich; 6. The initial value problem on null cones J. A. Vickers; 7. Introduction to dual-null dynamics S. A. Hayward; 8. On colliding plane wave space-times J. B. Griffiths; 9. Boundary conditions for the momentum constraint Niall O Murchadha; 10. On the choice of matter model in general relativity A. D. Rendall; 11. A mathematical approach to numerical relativity J. W. Barrett; 12. Making sense of the effects of rotation in general relativity J. C. Miller; 13. Stability of charged boson stars and catastrophe theory Franz E. Schunck, Fjodor V. Kusmartsev and Eckehard W. Mielke; Part II. Practical Approaches: 14. Numerical asymptotics R. Gómez and J. Winicour; 15. Instabilities in rapidly rotating polytropes Scott C. Smith and Joan M. Centrella; 16. Gravitational radiation from coalescing binary neutron stars Ken-Ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 17. 'Critical' behaviour in massless scalar field collapse M. W. Choptuik; 18. Goudunov-type methods applied to general relativistic gravitational collapse José Ma. Ibánez, José Ma. Martí, Juan A. Miralles and J. V. Romero; 19. Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves and neutrinos Silvano Bonazzola, Eric Gourgoulhon, Pawel Haensel and Jean-Alain Marck; 20. Gravitational radiation from triaxial core collapse Jean-Alain Marck and Silvano Bonazzola; 21. A vacuum fully relativistic 3D numerical code C. Bona and J. Massó; 22. Solution of elliptic equations in numerical relativity using multiquadrics M. R. Dubal, S. R. Oliveira and R. A. Matzner; 23

  16. The Spanish Society of Soil Science: history and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellinfante, Nicolás; Arbelo, Dolores; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Spanish Society of Soil Science (SECS; http://www.secs.com.es) has reached sixty years of existence, after being established in 1947 at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) as an initiative of renowned scientists including José María Albareda, Salvador Rivas Goday, Fernando Burriel, Tomás Alvira and others. However, soil studies in Spain began in the first third of XX century, coordinated by Emilio Huguet del Villar, internationally outstanding researcher who was the President of the Subcommittee for the Mediterranean Region of the International Society Soil Science, with the activities of the Forest Research Institute and the Institute of Mediterranean Soils of the Regional Catalonian Government. With the creation of the CSIC and the Spanish Institute of Soil Science and Agrobiology, directed by José M. Albareda, Soil Science research was promoted in all scientific fields and through the Spanish geography. The SECS is considered equally heiress of previously existing organizations, in particular the Spanish Commission of Soil Science and Phytogeography, created in 1925, which was the Spanish voice in various international organizations and meetings related with Soil Science. After these years, Soil Science has developed considerably, showing a great diversification of fields of study and research and its applications, as well as a growing social awareness of the soil degradation processes and the need to implement measures to protect natural resources nonrenewable on a human scale, and an increasing role of universities and CSIC in Soil Science research. Currently, the SECS is a scientific organization dedicated to promoting the study, knowledge, research and protection of soil resources; spread the scientific importance of soil functions as nonrenewable natural resource in society and promote the interest in its protection; and preserve the knowledge about soils, their management and use, both from productive and environmental perspectives

  17. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839

  18. ‘The quicksand of forgetfulness’: semantic dementia in One Hundred Years of Solitude

    PubMed Central

    Growdon, Matthew E.; Pardo, Isela R.; Grossman, Scott; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    This multidisciplinary article compares the pattern of memory loss described in Gabriel García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude to that exhibited by patients with semantic dementia (SD). In his renowned novel, García Márquez depicts the plight of Macondo, a town struck by the dreaded insomnia plague. The most devastating symptom of the plague is not the impossibility of sleep, but rather the loss of ‘the name and notion of things’. In an effort to combat this insidious loss of knowledge, the protagonist, José Arcadio Buendía, ‘marked everything with its name: table, chair, clock, door, wall, bed, pan’. ‘Studying the infinite possibilities of a loss of memory, he realized that the day might come when things would be recognized by their inscriptions but that no one would remember their use’. The cognitive impairments experienced by Macondo's inhabitants are remarkably similar to those observed in SD, a clinical syndrome characterized by a progressive breakdown of conceptual knowledge (semantic memory) in the context of relatively preserved day-to-day (episodic) memory. First recognized in 1975, it is now considered one of the main variants of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Writing within the realm of magical realism and investigating the power of language as a form of communication, García Márquez provides beautiful descriptions of the loss of ‘the name and notion of things’ typical of the syndrome. He further speculates on ways to cope with this dissolution of meaning, ranging from ‘the spell of an imaginary reality’ to José Arcadio's ‘memory machine’, strategies that resonate with attempts by semantic dementia patients to cope with their disease. Remarkably, García Márquez created a striking literary depiction of collective semantic dementia before the syndrome was recognized in neurology. The novel also provides an inspiring and human account of one town's fight against ‘the quicksand of forgetfulness’. PMID

  19. The Effect of Selected Cleaning Techniques on Berkshire Lee Marble: A Scientific Study at Philadelphia City Hall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossotti, Victor G.; Eldeeb, A. Raouf; Fries, Terry L.; Coombs, Mary Jane; Naude, Virginia N.; Soderberg, Lisa; Wheeler, George S.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a scientific investigation of the effects of eight different cleaning techniques on the Berkshire Lee marble component of the facade of the East Center Pavilion at Philadelphia City Hall; the study was commissioned by the city of Philadelphia. The eight cleaning techniques evaluated in this study were power wash (proprietary gel detergent followed by water rinse under pressure), misting (treatment with potable, nebulized water for 24-36 hours), gommage (proprietary Thomann-Hanry low-pressure, air-driven, small-particle, dry abrasion), combination (gommage followed by misting), Armax (sodium bicarbonate delivered under pressure in a water wash), JOS (dolomite powder delivered in a low-pressure, rotary-vortex water wash), laser (thermal ablation), and dry ice (powdered-dry-ice abrasion delivered under pressure). In our study approximately 160 cores were removed from the building for laboratory analysis. We developed a computer program to analyze scanning-electron-micrograph images for the microscale surface roughness and other morphologic parameters of the stone surface, including the near-surface fracture density of the stone. An analysis of more than 1,100 samples cut from the cores provided a statistical basis for crafting the essential elements of a reduced-form, mixed-kinetics conceptual model that represents the deterioration of calcareous stone in terms of self-organized soiling and erosion patterns. This model, in turn, provided a basis for identifying the variables that are affected by the cleaning techniques and for evaluating the extent to which such variables influence the stability of the stone. The model recognizes three classes of variables that may influence the soiling load on the stone, including such exogenous environmental variables as airborne moisture, pollutant concentrations, and local aerodynamics, and such endogenous stone variables as surface chemistry and microstructure (fracturing, roughness, and so on). This study

  20. Study of Landcover Change in Yelwa-Heipang Area of Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria: A Geoinformatics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Gajere, E. N.; Jeb, D. N.; Agene, I. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study is a research programme carried out to detect the change in land use/land cover of Yelwa-Heipang area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. It lies within the South-Eastern part of the Jos-Plateau. It is about 40 km South of Jos city. It is located between latitude 9°35'16.65" N, longitude 8°52'29.91" E and Latitude 9°38'38.92" N, longitude 8°57'03.87" E (Naraguta topomap, sheet 168S.E). Two sets of Landsat images of 1975, 1986 and NigeriaSat-X image of 2012 were subjected to various image processing techniques and a supervised classification was carried out on the various images using ILWIS (Integrated land and water information system) software. The classification scheme used are bare-surface, built-up, farmland and vegetation. A follow up field work was carried out to confirm the results of the classification. The results were subjected to various statistical analyses and it shows natural vegetated area coverage increased from 5.80 sqkm in 1975 to 18.47 sqkm in 1986 and later reduced to 16.85 sqkm in 2012. Non-vegetated area which comprised built-up area, farmlands and bare surface, decreased from 42.2 sqkm in 1975 to 33.82 sqkm in 1986, then to 35.86 sqkm in 2012.The rate of change of natural vegetation between 1975 and 1986 was 1.152 sqkm per annum, while that of 1986 and 2012 was 0.108 sqkm per annum. Loss of naturally vegetated area in Yelwa-Heipang Barkin-Ladi is mainly as a result of urban growth and expansion, farming and gully erosion. Another important issue in the study area is the problem of soil erosion. In the past mining activity had led to accelerated gully erosion which has stripped substantial areas of lands of their vegetations. This has led to the formation of bare surface. Land cover of the study area during the period between 1975 and 2012 changed from a forested area to other land uses as a result of increase in population, demand for land for agricultural purposes and increase in the demand for firewood.

  1. Identification of Bartonella Species Isolated from Rodents from Yucatan, Mexico, and Isolation of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. yucatanensis subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Schulte Fischedick, Frederique B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Arechiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Overgaauw, Paul A M; Kasten, Rickie W; Chomel, Bruno B

    2016-10-01

    Bartonella species are highly endemic among wild rodents in many parts of the world. Blood and/or blood clot cultures from 38 rodents, including 27 Yucatan deer mouse (Peromyscus yucatanicus), 7 Gaumer's spiny pocket mouse (Heteromys gaumeri), 2 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 2 big-eared climbing rats (Ototylomys phyllotis) captured near Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, led to the isolation in 3-4 days of small gram-negative bacilli, which were identified as Bartonella spp. based on colony morphology. DNA extraction and PCR testing were also performed from heart samples of 35 of these 38 rodents. Overall, Bartonella spp. were isolated from the blood/blood clots of 22 (58%) rodents. All Bartonella-positive rodents were Yucatán deer mice from San José Pituch. Sequencing of a fragment of the gltA gene showed that all but one rodent isolates were closest to B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii and one isolate was intermediate between B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis. Further analysis of concatenated housekeeping genes (gltA, ftsZ, rpoB, and 16S rRNA) suggests that this outlier isolate is a new subspecies within the B. vinsonii genogroup, for which we proposed the name B. vinsonii subsp. yucatanensis. PMID:27626126

  2. [Urinary oestriol excretion and the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid in Bogota (2600 m) I. Normal pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A; Cristina Peña, M; Jaramillo, R

    1980-01-01

    We have studied 22 pregnancies in order to establish normal values for the urinary oestriol excretion in Bogotá, a city 2600 metres above sea level. The study subjects were normal pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of the Hospital San José de Bogotá, and belong to a racially mixed community of medium to low socio-economic level. In the study, new born weight was found low (mean +/- SEM 2.97 +/-0.06 kg) while placental weight was high (0.6 +/- 0.02 kg) with a high placenta/newborn ratio. Maternal hemoglobin was elevated (12.8 +/- 0.2g/100 ml) reflecting the effect of altitude. In 66 determinations, oestriol excretion was more than 4mg/24 hours from week 31 to 36 and of more than 5 mg/24 hours from week 35 to 40. The decreased excretion of oestriol most likely reflects impaired intrauterine fetal growth, and is probably related to nutrional, racial and socio-economic factors as well as to the altitude. In five normal term pregnancies studied, the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio was of 2 or more and amniotic fluid creatinine was also elevated, indicating maturity of the pulmonary and renal enzyme systems of the fetus.

  3. [Present and future of neurology in Spain].

    PubMed

    Illa Sendra, I; García De Yébenes Prous, J; Ramo Tello, C; Polo Esteban, J M; Molinuevo Guix, J L; Robles Bayón, A; Mulas Delgado, F; Alvarez Sabín, J; Aguilar Barbera, M; Berciano Blanco JA, J A; Blesa González, R; Carnero Pardo, C; Castillo Sánchez, J; Del Ser Quijano, T; Ferrer Abizanda, I; García-Albea Ristol, E; Gómez Isla, T; Graus Ribas, F; Jiménez Hernández, M D; Liaño Martínez, H; Matías Guiu-Guia, J; Zarranz Imirizaldu, J J; Paradas López, C; Elena Martínez, G; Maltas Pérez, G; Ponce Rodríguez, M T

    2001-11-01

    This is a document prepared by the Spanish Society of Neurology (SEN), which was given to the President of Spain (Mr. José María Aznar) last September with the main aim of examining the current situation of Neurology in our country. It analyses the present and future of Neurology in clinical assistance, teaching and research. To prepare this document the criteria of patients' associations has been considered, including the Declaration of Madrid which has been subscribed by thirty of these associations. In spite of its relevant development in the previous decades, the current situation of Neurology in Spain is far from the ideal. To reach the recommendable menber of 3 or 4 neurologists per 100,000 inhabitants it is necessary to duplicate the present number of neurologists which has been estimated around 2/100,000; this situation is especially urgent in some Autonomous Communities. The most important problems in neurological assistance are: inadequate follow-up of the chronic outpatients, low numbers of neurological beds and of duties of Neurology, as well as of neurological case of patients with urgent neurological disorders. It is also necessary to increase the number of professors of Neurology to adequately cover pregraduate teaching; again there are important differences in teaching positions among Autonomous Communities. Neurology residence should be prolonged from 4 to 5 years. Finally, it is necessary to support the appearance of superespecialised units and to promote a coordinated research with other close specialities including basic neuroscience. PMID:11742621

  4. Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection in Urban Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejas Ayuga, J. G.; Martínez Marín, R.; Marchamalo Sacristán, M.; Bonatti, J.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the spectral features of reflectance and emissivity in the pattern recognition of urban materials in several single hyperspectral scenes through a comparative analysis of anomaly detection methods and their relationship with city surfaces with the aim to improve information extraction processes. Spectral ranges of the visible-near infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) from hyperspectral data cubes of AHS sensor and HyMAP and MASTER of two cities, Alcalá de Henares (Spain) and San José (Costa Rica) respectively, have been used. In this research it is assumed no prior knowledge of the targets, thus, the pixels are automatically separated according to their spectral information, significantly differentiated with respect to a background, either globally for the full scene, or locally by image segmentation. Several experiments on urban scenarios and semi-urban have been designed, analyzing the behaviour of the standard RX anomaly detector and different methods based on subspace, image projection and segmentation-based anomaly detection methods. A new technique for anomaly detection in hyperspectral data called DATB (Detector of Anomalies from Thermal Background) based on dimensionality reduction by projecting targets with unknown spectral signatures to a background calculated from thermal spectrum wavelengths is presented. First results and their consequences in non-supervised classification and extraction information processes are discussed.

  5. The life cycle and geographical distribution of the monorchiid Proctotrema bartolii (Digenea) in the clam Darina solenoides from the Patagonian coast, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gilardoni, C; Carballo, M C; Cremonte, F

    2013-12-01

    The life cycle of Proctotrema bartolii Carballo, Laurenti & Cremonte 2011 (Digenea: Monorchiidae) at Fracasso Beach (the type locality) (42°25'S, 64°07'W), Península Valdés, Argentina, was investigated. This digenean uses the clam Darina solenoides (Mactridae) as both the first and second intermediate hosts in the natural environment. The metacercariae were located mainly at the tip of the incurrent siphon, with an infection prevalence of 100%. Experimental infections in other macroinvertebrates, such as the clam Tellina petitiana and the polychaete Glycera americana, were successful, but these and other invertebrates are not naturally infected. Silversides Odontesthes smitti and Odontesthes nigricans (Pisces: Atherinopsidae) and the mullet Eleginops maclovinus (Eleginopidae) act as the definitive hosts of both experimentally and naturally obtained adults. Fish acquire infection by eating either the siphon or the entire clam. Proctotrema bartolii seems to be endemic to the Magellan Region and is distributed where its intermediate clam host is present, from the San José Gulf in Península Valdés to the southern tip of South America.

  6. Climate change on the Yucatan Peninsula during the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Curtis, Jason H.; Medina-González, Roger; Ildefonso-Chan Can, Enrique; Albornaz-Pat, Alma; Guilderson, Thomas P.

    2005-03-01

    We studied a 5.1-m sediment core from Aguada X'caamal (20° 36.6'N, 89° 42.9'W), a small sinkhole lake in northwest Yucatan, Mexico. Between 1400 and 1500 A.D., oxygen isotope ratios of ostracod and gastropod carbonate increased by an average of 2.2‰ and the benthic foraminifer Ammonia beccarii parkinsoniana appeared in the sediment profile, indicating a hydrologic change that included increased lake water salinity. Pollen from a core in nearby Cenote San José Chulchacá showed a decrease in mesic forest taxa during the same period. Oxygen isotopes of shell carbonate in sediment cores from Lakes Chichancanab (19° 53.0'N, 88° 46.0'W) and Salpeten (16° 58.6'N, 89° 40.5'W) to the south also increased in the mid-15th century, but less so than in Aguada X'caamal. Climate change in the 15th century is also supported by historical accounts of cold and famine described in Maya and Aztec chronicles. We conclude that climate became drier on the Yucatan Peninsula in the 15th century A.D. near the onset of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Comparison of results from the Yucatan Peninsula with other circum-Caribbean paleoclimate records indicates a coherent climate response for this region at the beginning of the LIA. At that time, sea surface temperatures cooled and aridity in the circum-Caribbean region increased.

  7. Lessons learned from integrating simultaneous triple point-of-care screening for syphilis, hepatitis B, and HIV in prenatal services through rural outreach teams in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adriana; Sabidó, Meritxell; Camey, Elsy; Batres, Anabelle; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-06-01

    Mother-to-child-transmission of HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a challenge in Guatemala, especially in rural regions. A triple antenatal screening program for these infections using point-of-care (POC) testing offered through outreach teams was implemented in the municipality of Puerto de San José. One year following program implementation, antenatal care coverage increased to 99.6% (32.5% increase, P<0.001), testing uptake increased to 50.3% for HIV and syphilis (143.9% (P<0.001) and 1.3% (P=0.89) increase, respectively), and HBV testing increased from 0 to 42.2%. Lessons learned showed that, despite the expansion of triple antenatal POC screening in rural Guatemala, a shortage of healthcare workers and poor supply chain management limited screening uptake. Moreover, training is essential to help health workers overcome their fear of communicating positive results and improve partner notification. Engagement of community health workers was essential to build local capacity and facilitate community acceptance. PMID:25968489

  8. Tropical And Middle Latitude Balloon Sonde Observations Of Water Vapor And Ozone In The UTLS: A Comparison Between SEAC4RS And Ticosonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkirk, H. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Morris, G. A.; Voemel, H.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Diaz, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Since July 2005, the NASA-sponsored Ticosonde program has accumulated a large dataset of tropical water vapor and ozone balloon sonde profiles using the Cryogenic Frost Point Hygrometer (CFH) and the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone sonde. All soundings have been made at San José, Costa Rica [10N, 84W]. These data provide a unique extended record of the mean structure and variability of these important trace constituents throughout the year in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the Western Hemisphere. During this year's NASA SEAC4RS mission based at Ellington Field, TX [29.6N, 95.2W] in August and September, we launched 20 CFH/ECC soundings and a dozen ECC-only soundings. We compare the statistics of the SEAC4RS soundings in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere to those obtained from Ticosonde and from our water vapor trajectory model. The differences between the water vapor and ozone profiles are examined in light of the large-scale anti-cyclonic circulation over the North American continent during late summer and input from deep convective events over the continent. This allows a critical examination of the hypothesis that the mean structure and variability of water vapor near the tropopause over Houston is dominated by long-range advective processes, while over Costa Rica it is more closely tied to recent saturation events

  9. A clinicopathological study of human yellow fever*

    PubMed Central

    Francis, T. I.; Moore, D. L.; Edington, G. M.; Smith, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2AFig. 2BFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4538039

  10. [Cardiology writings in New Spain and in the first century of the Independent period].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The first writings on cardioangiology found in public and private libraries of New Spain from the xvi century to the first century of the Independent period in Mexico are mentioned. These go from the truly incunabular ones, books printed until the year 1500, to the physiology treatises published by European authors in the xvii and xviii centuries, as well as the cardiology texts from French authors of the first half of the xix century. The writings were depicted in the catalogs of the University library, founded in 1762, as well as in the library of a master builder of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the xvii century and that of a physician of the xviii century, Dr. José Ignacio Bartolache. The latter, in turn, edited for a brief period, from October 1772 to February 1773, a scientific-medical journal, «Mercurio Volante», which was the first scientific-hebdomadary publication in the Americas. Likewise, in the libraries of New Spain, several European scientific journals could be found, such as the one edited by the abbot Rozier, in which the initial writings of Lavoisier appeared. The exchange of ideas and knowledge, pointed out herein, attests to the always enthused interest of given individuals from New Spain on the boundless and passionate domains of cardioangiology. PMID:25260578

  11. Petrophysical analysis of limestone rocks by nuclear logging and 3D high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. F. S.; Lima, I.; Ferrucio, P. L.; Abreu, C. J.; Borghi, L.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    This study presents the pore-space system analysis of the 2-ITAB-1-RJ well cores, which were drilled in the São José do Itaboraí Basin, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. The analysis presented herein has been developed based on two techniques: nuclear logging and 3D high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography. Nuclear logging has been proven to be the technique that provides better quality and more quantitative information about the porosity using radioactive sources. The Density Gamma Probe and the Neutron Sonde used in this work provide qualitative information about bulk density variations and compensated porosity of the geological formation. The samples obtained from the well cores were analyzed by microtomography. The use of this technique in sedimentary rocks allows quantitative evaluation of pore system and generates high-resolution 3D images (˜microns order). The images and data obtained by microtomography were integrated with the response obtained by nuclear logging. The results obtained by these two techniques allow the understanding of the pore-size distribution and connectivity, as well as the porosity values. Both techniques are important and they complement each other.

  12. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  13. Electronic conductivity and structural distortion at the interface between insulators SrTiO3 and LaAlO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, J.-L.; Carrétéro, C.; Casanove, M.-J.; Bouzehouane, K.; Guyard, S.; Larquet, É.; Contour, J.-P.

    2006-07-01

    Polar interfaces, if abrupt, theoretically create diverging electro-static potentials. In practice, atomic or electronic reconstructions occur. In the case of the polar (001) interface between the insula-tors LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 pictured here, such reconstructions may be the origin of a significant conductivity. This high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) image from our Editor's Choice [1] has been recorded with an aberration-corrected TEM, so that the deformations in the image of the interface are directly related to deformations in the interface itself. The image on the left hand side is the original image, in the middle is its Fourier transform, and on the right-hand side is the map of the modulus of the 002 Fourier vector. The darker region in this map indicates an elongation of the unit cell at the interface. Such a deformation is correlated to strong band structure changes at the interface.Jean-Luc Maurice is scientist at the Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales in Palaiseau. Marie-José Casanove, author of the micrograph, is senior scientist at the Centre d'Elaboration des Matériaux et d'Etudes Structurales in Toulouse.The present special issue of physica status solidi (a) is a compilation of presentations from the recent Symposium F on Interfacial Processes and Properties of Advanced Materials (IPAM05) at the E-MRS 2005 Fall Meeting in Warsaw.

  14. Pre-Columbian landscape impact and agriculture in the Monumental Mound region of the Llanos de Moxos, lowland Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Bronwen S.; Dickau, Ruth; Mayle, Francis E.; Soto, J. Daniel; Iriarte, José

    2013-09-01

    We present a multiproxy study of land use by a pre-Columbian earth mounds culture in the Bolivian Amazon. The Monumental Mounds Region (MMR) is an archaeological sub-region characterized by hundreds of pre-Columbian habitation mounds associated with a complex network of canals and causeways, and situated in the forest-savanna mosaic of the Llanos de Moxos. Pollen, phytolith, and charcoal analyses were performed on a sediment core from a large lake (14 km2), Laguna San José (14°56.97'S, 64°29.70'W). We found evidence of high levels of anthropogenic burning from AD 400 to AD 1280, corroborating dated occupation layers in two nearby excavated habitation mounds. The charcoal decline pre-dates the arrival of Europeans by at least 100 yr, and challenges the notion that the mounds culture declined because of European colonization. We show that the surrounding savanna soils were sufficiently fertile to support crops, and the presence of maize throughout the record shows that the area was continuously cultivated despite land-use change at the end of the earth mounds culture. We suggest that burning was largely confined to the savannas, rather than forests, and that pre-Columbian deforestation was localized to the vicinity of individual habitation mounds, whereas the inter-mound areas remained largely forested.

  15. Between chaos and petrification: a summary of the Fifth IPA Conference of Training Analysts.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, R S

    1993-02-01

    The Fifth IPA Conference of Training Analysts was devoted to the problems in the integration of different theoretical and clinical perspectives in the formation of psychoanalysts, the dialectical tensions between rigidity and stultification on the one hand, and a chaotic 'anything goes' on the other. Seven presentations, from the three major geographical regions and representing a range of theoretical perspectives, though drawing upon common and shared clinical and training experiences, were widely divergent in both their descriptions and their prescriptions. The presentations by Janice de Saussure of Geneva, by Charles Kligerman of Chicago, by Marcio de Freitas Giovanetti of São Paulo, Raquel Zak de Goldstein of Buenos Aires, André Green of Paris, José Infante of Chile and André Lussier of Montreal, are arrayed along a spectrum from the most conservative to the most sweepingly radical critique of our organisations and our practices; what is shared by these seven quite disparate presentations from so many ideologically and geographically diverse quarters is a widespread dissatisfaction with so many aspects of, and so many consequences of, the operation or our extant tripartite training structure bequeathed to us by Eitingon and his colleagues almost 75 years ago and hardly changed at all ever since. PMID:8454399

  16. Between chaos and petrification: a summary of the Fifth IPA Conference of Training Analysts.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, R S

    1993-02-01

    The Fifth IPA Conference of Training Analysts was devoted to the problems in the integration of different theoretical and clinical perspectives in the formation of psychoanalysts, the dialectical tensions between rigidity and stultification on the one hand, and a chaotic 'anything goes' on the other. Seven presentations, from the three major geographical regions and representing a range of theoretical perspectives, though drawing upon common and shared clinical and training experiences, were widely divergent in both their descriptions and their prescriptions. The presentations by Janice de Saussure of Geneva, by Charles Kligerman of Chicago, by Marcio de Freitas Giovanetti of São Paulo, Raquel Zak de Goldstein of Buenos Aires, André Green of Paris, José Infante of Chile and André Lussier of Montreal, are arrayed along a spectrum from the most conservative to the most sweepingly radical critique of our organisations and our practices; what is shared by these seven quite disparate presentations from so many ideologically and geographically diverse quarters is a widespread dissatisfaction with so many aspects of, and so many consequences of, the operation or our extant tripartite training structure bequeathed to us by Eitingon and his colleagues almost 75 years ago and hardly changed at all ever since.

  17. Lights, camera, action…critique? Submit videos to AGU communications workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñas, Maria-José

    2011-08-01

    What does it take to create a science video that engages the audience and draws thousands of views on YouTube? Those interested in finding out should submit their research-related videos to AGU's Fall Meeting science film analysis workshop, led by oceanographer turned documentary director Randy Olson. Olson, writer-director of two films (Flock of Dodos: The Evolution-Intelligent Design Circus and Sizzle: A Global Warming Comedy) and author of the book Don't Be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in an Age of Style, will provide constructive criticism on 10 selected video submissions, followed by moderated discussion with the audience. To submit your science video (5 minutes or shorter), post it on YouTube and send the link to the workshop coordinator, Maria-José Viñas (mjvinas@agu.org), with the following subject line: Video submission for Olson workshop. AGU will be accepting submissions from researchers and media officers of scientific institutions until 6:00 P.M. eastern time on Friday, 4 November. Those whose videos are selected to be screened will be notified by Friday, 18 November. All are welcome to attend the workshop at the Fall Meeting.

  18. Radionuclides' Content Speciation and Fingerprinting of Nigerian Tin Mining Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, F. S.; Oladejo, O. F.; Owoade, O. K.; Almeida, S. M.; Ho, M. D.; Olaniyi, H. B.

    2012-04-01

    Sediment and process-waste samples rich in cassiterite, monazite and zircon, which are of industrial interest, were analysed for the natural series radionuclides, 232Th and 238U and the non-series radionuclide, 40K using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The natural radionuclides' radioactivity in the samples from the tin-rich areas of Jos, Nigeria was determined using K0-INAA. The obtained results have a high degree of reliability judging from the techniqués accuracy, precision and its non-dependence on secular equilibrium and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry as well as rigorous contamination-prone sample preparation requirements of other methods. Radionuclides speciation and ratios, giving radionuclide fingerprinting of the tin mining tailings is reported. The measured radionuclides activity levels are several orders of magnitude higher than UNSCEAR reference values, revealing the pollution potential of the tin mining and process activities on the surrounding areas, vis-à-vis heavy particulate matter load, leaching into various water channels and direct exposure to gamma rays emitted from the houses and facilities built from the generated wastes. The observed activity levels reflects possible worst scenario situation and the data would not only be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area but will also serve as important information for the nuclear science and technology programme about to be embarked upon. Methods of checking exposure have also been suggested.

  19. [Analysis of the microbiological quality and potential presence of Listeria monocytogenes in custard apple (Annona muricata), mango (Mangifera indica) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) pulps from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    von Breymann, Juliana; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine some of the indicators associated to shelf life, hygiene, process and storage conditions for some of custard apple, mango and passion fruit pulps distributed by the main supermarket chains of the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, as well as to examine the potential presence of Listeria monocytogenes in them. Sixty fruit pulp samples were analyzed. Tests included pH determination, total aerobic plate count, yeasts and mold count, lactic bacteria count, total and fecal most probable number and the presence/absence of Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g of the product. Fruit pulp's pH ranged between 3,1 and 3,9, and the microbiological counts obtained were relatively low except for one industry. None of the samples analyzed presented total or fecal coliforms. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes was confirmed in three samples, all of them coming from industry C. Low microbiological counts obtained may be due to the addition of preserving substances and to the pasteurization of some of the products; lack of these two elements may allow the presence of dangerous bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes.

  20. Miocene detachment faulting predating EPR propagation: Southern Baja California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bot, Anna; Geoffroy, Laurent; Authemayou, Christine; Bellon, Hervé; Graindorge, David; Pik, Raphaël.

    2016-05-01

    At the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula, we characterize the onshore structures and kinematics associated with crustal necking leading up to the Pliocene breakup and early East Pacific Rise seafloor spreading. From a combination of tectonic field investigations, K-Ar and cosmogenic isotope dating and geomorphology, we propose that the Los Cabos block represents the exhumed footwall of a major detachment fault. This north trending detachment fault is marked by a conspicuous low-dipping brittle-ductile shear zone showing a finite displacement with top to the SE ending to the ESE. This major feature is associated with fluid circulations which led to rejuvenation of the deformed Cretaceous magmatic rocks at a maximum of 17.5 Ma. The detachment footwall displays kilometer-scale corrugations controlling the present-day drainage pattern. This major detachment is synchronous with the development of the San José del Cabo Basin where syntectonic sedimentation took place from the middle Miocene to probably the early Pliocene. We propose that this seaward dipping detachment fault accommodates the proximal crustal necking of the Baja California passive margin, which predates the onset of formation of the East Pacific Rise spreading axis in the Cabo-Puerto Vallarta segment. Our data illustrate an apparent anticlockwise rotation of the stretching direction in Baja California Sur from ~17 Ma to the Pliocene.

  1. Geometric and Topological Methods for Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo, Hernan; Pariguan, Eddy; Paycha, Sylvie

    2010-04-01

    Introduction; 1. The impact of QFT on low-dimensional topology Paul Kirk; 2. Differential equations aspects of quantum cohomology Martin A. Guest; 3. Index theory and groupoids Claire Debord and Jean-Marie Lescure; 4. Renormalization Hopf algebras and combinatorial groups Alessandra Frabetti; 5. BRS invariance for massive boson fields José M. Gracia-Bondía; 6. Large N field theories and geometry David Berenstein; 7. Functional renormalization group equations, asymptotic safety, and quantum Einstein gravity Martin Reuter and Frank Saueressig; 8. When is a differentiable manifold the boundary of an orbifold? Andrés Angel; 9. Canonical group quantization, rotation generators and quantum indistinguishability Carlos Benavides and Andrés Reyes-Lega; 10. Conserved currents in Kähler manifolds Jaime R. Camacaro and Juan Carlos Moreno; 11. A symmetrized canonical determinant on odd-class pseudodifferential operators Marie-Françoise Ouedraogo; 12. Some remarks about cosymplectic metrics on maximal flag manifolds Marlio Paredes and Sofia Pinzón; 13. Heisenberg modules over real multiplication noncommutative tori and related algebraic structures Jorge Plazas; Index.

  2. Examining the ground layer of St. Anthony from Padua 19th century oil painting by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vančo, Ľubomír; Kadlečíková, Magdaléna; Breza, Juraj; Čaplovič, Ľubomír; Gregor, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we studied the material composition of the ground layer of a neoclassical painting. We used Raman spectroscopy (RS) as a prime method. Thereafter scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were employed as complementary techniques. The painting inspected was of the side altar in King St. Stephen's Church in Galanta (Slovakia), signed and dated by Jos. Chr. Mayer 1870. Analysis was carried out on both covered and uncovered ground layers. Four principal compounds (barite, lead white, calcite, dolomite) and two minor compounds (sphalerite, quartz) were identified. This ground composition is consistent with the 19th century painting technique used in Central Europe consisting of white pigments and white fillers. Transformation of lead white occurred under laser irradiation. Subdominant Raman peaks of the components were measured. The observed results elucidate useful partnership of RS and SEM-EDS measurements supported by X-ray powder diffraction as well as possibilities and limitations of non-destructive analysis of covered lower layers by RS.

  3. Lymphedema in Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome: Is It Possible to Normalize?

    PubMed Central

    Río, Angela; Domingo Garcia, Paloma; de Fatima Guerreiro Godoy, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the results of intensive therapy of lymphedema associated with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. A 24-year-old female patient reported that her family had observed edema in her right leg and port wine stains from birth. For ten years, they consulted with different specialists in the region but the prognosis did not change and no specific treatment was found. In 2014, at the age of 24, with massive lymphedema, a leg ulcer, and recurrent infections, she started treatment at the Clínica Godoy in São José do Rio Preto. She was evaluated by clinical history, physical examination, water displacement volumetry, and bioimpedance. Intensive therapy (8 hours daily) was proposed using Manual Lymphatic Therapy (Godoy & Godoy), Cervical Stimulation Therapy, Mechanical Lymphatic Therapy, a grosgrain stocking adjusted several times a day, and the use of Unna boot in the region of the ulcer. The volume of edema was reduced by about 44% within the first week with further reductions in the following weeks and healing of the ulcer. Subsequently, it was possible to control and maintain the reduction in swelling with less intense treatment. It is possible to reduce and maintain the treatment results of lymphedema associated with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. PMID:27529050

  4. Analyses of Phase Scintillation Observations Made by a Static Triple Frequency GPS-based Monitor Located Near the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paula, E. R.; Moraes, A. D. O.; Costa, E.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Abdu, M. A.; Oliveira, K.

    2015-12-01

    We present analyses of phase scintillation measurements made during a 5-month period (November 2014 - March 2015) by a triple-frequency (L1, L2C and L5) GPS receiver located in São José dos Campos, Brazil near the peak of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly. The location of the receiver and the large number of observations available for this study provide an opportunity to investigate different scintillation scenarios, including those associated with highly disturbed ionospheric events. Phase scintillation has been widely investigated at high latitudes but little has been reported in terms of observations at equatorial and low latitudes. We characterize the observed phase scintillation events according to the σφ index and investigate its relation with the amplitude scintillation index S4. The correlation between σφ for the three different frequencies are also investigated. We will present and discuss the results of our analysis and the likely implications for the GPS receivers under similar ionospheric conditions.

  5. Teaching acupuncture to medical students: the experience of Rio Preto Medical School (FAMERP), Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Bosco Guerreiro; Saidah, Rassen; Megid, Cecília Baccili Cury; Ramos, Neil Alvimar

    2013-09-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine, and in particular acupuncture, has been practised and taught in recent years in many universities in the Western world. Here, we relate our experiences since 1997 in teaching acupuncture to medical students at Rio Preto Medical School (Faculty of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP)), Brazil. Classes are given in the third and fifth years. The main goals of understanding the mechanisms of action and being able to recognise patients who may benefit from treatment and referring them have been well achieved, scoring 3.6 and 4.1, respectively, on a scale of 1-5. Also using that scale, medical students believe that acupuncture is important in the curriculum (4.6), course time is not sufficient (2.7) and they would like more information (4.6). To overcome these concerns, many students join an undergraduate study group (Acupuncture League) where they have more time to learn. We also describe the presence of foreign medical students who, since 2000, have enrolled in a course of 150 h in an exchange programme.

  6. [On the vaccination before and after Jenner].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre-Avila, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    The expression "inoculation" of smallpox was first employed by doctor Emanuel Timone, native of the Greek island of Chios and graduated from the Universities of Padua and Oxford. This method was largely employed in the XVIII century. Nevertheless, in 1798, the English physician Edward Jenner published the results of his observartions and his own experience with "vaccination", i. e. the inoculation of cowpox. These were exposed in his book "Inquiry into the causes and effects of the variolae vaccinae". This method soon substituted the variolization. However it must to be mentioned that, starting from 1770, vaccination was already performed in northern Europe by non medical personnel as for example the school teacher Peter Plett. Notwithstanding some initial opposition, vaccination quickly spreaded throughout Europe. It arrived to Spain in 1801 and thence was transferred to Spanish America and Philippines Islands with the expedition leaded by doctor Francisco Xavier Balmis. This expedition reached New Spain in June 1804, and remained there until February 1805 when embarked addressing to Philippines Islands. The other expeditionary group, leaded by doctor José Salvani, addressed toward Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, where Salvani died.

  7. The paternal function in Winnicott: the psychoanalytical frame.

    PubMed

    Faimberg, Haydée

    2014-08-01

    My first aim has been to identify the implicit assumptions underlying Winnicott's detailed notes on a fragment of an analysis dating from 1955 and published after his death. The importance given by Winnicott to the father figure as early as 1955 is one of my discoveries; another is the deep Freudian roots of his thinking. In this essay I propose a new way of linking together the concepts of 'paternal function' and the 'psychoanalytical frame'. Developing my hypothesis, I compare my reading of Winnicott and my way of reading José Bleger's study on the frame. Like Winnicott, I explore in detail a process of discovery, focusing on what the analyst and the patient are nor fully aware of …'as yet'. I am not proposing to unify Winnicott's and Bleger's thinking. My aim is to avoid the pitfall of eclecticism and, in so doing, to recognize both the related depths they sound in their thinking and their otherness. I want to share with the readers their 'meeting' in my mind. PMID:25229543

  8. Interleukin-10 gene polymorphism (-1082G/A) and allergy to efavirenz in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Raphael de Oliveira; Carvalho, Paulo Germano de; Arruda, Erico Antônio Gomes de; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Silva, Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro da; Ribeiro, Ilana Farias; Lima, Denise Girão Limaverde; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between polymorphism in the interleukin-10 gene promoter at position -1082 in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who had presented allergic reaction due to efavirenz. The study included 63 patients treated at the Hospital São José de Doenças Infecciosas, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Twenty-one patients who had presented allergic reaction to efavirenz were compared to 42 patients with no allergic reaction following exposure to this drug. Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction and submitted to the restriction fragment length polymorphism - polymerase chain reaction technique. The -1082AA genotype was significantly more frequent in allergic patients as compared to non-allergic patients (p=0.019; χ(2)=5.534; OR=3.625; 95% CI=1.210-10.860). Likewise the allele IL-10 -1082A was identified significantly more often among efavirenz allergic patients than in the non-allergic group (p=0.009; χ(2)=6.787; OR=3.029; 95% CI=1.290-7.111). These findings suggest that the polymorphism in the interleukin-10 gene promoter -1082G/A can be related to the development of allergic reactions to efavirenz.

  9. [So the confessionals speak!: Disease, gender and social class in the nineteenth century Seville].

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Juan L

    2006-01-01

    María Juana Cañaveral Villena had suffered a disease which prevented her from using her legs for more than four years. In the evening 25th October 1872 she was anointed some fat and she was given to drink three sips of water, both of them previously passed by so-called perolito de san José. This provoked a total recovery. This fact is the beginning of a research work over different aspects of the Sevillian life of those days. This study gathers together among other things the response from the ecclesiastical authorities, the sociological characteristics of the two families involved in the event, the josephine movement as a form of popular religious manifestion, the controversy over the matter held by the theologian Mateos-Gago and the group of Seville rationalist physicians, the impact in the medical and no-medical literature, as well as, the attempts to explain the disease and the cure of doña María Juana. PMID:18543451

  10. Eyewitness to history: Landmarks in the development of computerized electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Rautaharju, Pentti M

    2016-01-01

    The use of digital computers for ECG processing was pioneered in the early 1960s by two immigrants to the US, Hubert Pipberger, who initiated a collaborative VA project to collect an ECG-independent Frank lead data base, and Cesar Caceres at NIH who selected for his ECAN program standard 12-lead ECGs processed as single leads. Ray Bonner in the early 1970s placed his IBM 5880 program in a cart to print ECGs with interpretation, and computer-ECG programs were developed by Telemed, Marquette, HP-Philips and Mortara. The "Common Standards for quantitative Electrocardiography (CSE)" directed by Jos Willems evaluated nine ECG programs and eight cardiologists in clinically-defined categories. The total accuracy by a representative "average" cardiologist (75.5%) was 5.8% higher than that of the average program (69.7, p<0.001). Future comparisons of computer-based and expert reader performance are likely to show evolving results with continuing improvement of computer-ECG algorithms and changing expertise of ECG interpreters.

  11. A drowned Mesozoic bird breeding colony from the Late Cretaceous of Transylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Gareth; Vremir, Mátyás; Kaiser, Gary; Naish, Darren

    2012-06-01

    Despite a rapidly improving fossil record, the reproductive biology of Mesozoic birds remains poorly known: only a handful of undisputed, isolated Cretaceous eggs (some containing embryonic remains) are known. We report here the first fossil evidence for a breeding colony of Mesozoic birds, preserved at the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Oarda de Jos (Od) site in the Sebeş area of Transylvania, Romania. A lens of calcareous mudstone with minimum dimensions of 80 cm length, 50 cm width and 20 cm depth contains thousands of tightly packed, morphologically homogenous eggshell fragments, seven near-complete eggs and neonatal and adult avialan skeletal elements. Eggshell forms 70-80 % of the matrix, and other fossils are entirely absent. The bones exhibit clear characters of the Cretaceous avialan clade Enantiornithes, and the eggshell morphology is also consistent with this identification. Both taphonomy and lithology show that the components of this lens were deposited in a single flood event, and we conclude that it represents the drowned remains of a larger enantiornithine breeding colony, swamped by rising water, washed a short distance and deposited in a shallow, low-energy pond. The same fate often befalls modern bird colonies. Such a large concentration of breeding birds suggests aquatic feeding in this species, augments our understanding of enantiornithine biology and shows that colonial nesting was not unique to crown birds.

  12. The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics: promoting education and collaboration in genetics and ethics applied to health sciences across the continent.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto; Baldo, Guilherme; Vairo, Filippo; Lujan Lopez, Monica; Matte, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    The Latin American Network of Human Genetics (RELAGH) created the Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) to prepare young researchers and professionals of Latin America to deal with the growing challenge of the genomic medicine. ELAG promotes an annually course since 2005, which received 838 students from 17 Latin American countries over these 10 years. ELAG plays an important role to provide education in genetics applied to health sciences to fellows who live in countries with a less favorable economic situation. Influenced, among others, by the humanitarian perspective of José Maria Cantú, one of its founders, ELAG has always favored the discussion of ethical and social issues related to genetics in Latin America. Few initiatives in Latin America lasted 10 consecutive years. One of the factors responsible for the ELAG's success has been its group of faculty members, who contribute to a friendly environment prone to facilitating the exchange of their own experiences with young researchers. PMID:26007289

  13. Germ cell dynamics during the annual reproductive cycle of Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Lia Raquel de Souza; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; de Oliveira, Classius

    2011-11-01

    Thirty male specimens of Dendropsophus minutus Peters, 1972, were collected from April 2004 to March 2005 in the region de Sao José do Rio Preto/SP, to conduct a histological study during the seasonal and annual cycles. Testicular activity was inferred based on the volume occupied by each type of cellular cyst present in the seminiferous tubules, as well as the quantity of germ cells in the final development stage, the spermatozoids. All data analyzed were correlated with climatic variables (temperature, rainfall and photoperiod) registered in the region where specimens were collected. A significant variation was verified in the quantity of spermatozoids as well as in the volume occupied by spermatids and spermatozoids throughout the year and between the cold/dry and hot/ humid seasons. It has also been reported that environmental conditions are important factors closely related to species reproduction and that production of germ cells and volume occupied by germ cysts is independent of anatomical aspect of the gonads. Thus, it was possible to verify that although the species reproduces throughout the year, individuals exhibit a preferential reproduction season, resulting in a reproductive (October to the end of February) and a post-reproductive period. PMID:22035307

  14. The basement of the Punta del Este Terrane (Uruguay): an African Mesoproterozoic fragment at the eastern border of the South American Río de La Plata craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basei, Miguel A. S.; Peel, Elena; Sánchez Bettucci, Leda; Preciozzi, Fernando; Nutman, Allen P.

    2011-04-01

    The Punta del Este Terrane (eastern Uruguay) lies in a complex Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano/Pan-African) orogenic zone considered to contain a suture between South American terranes to the west of Major Gercino-Sierra Ballena Suture Zone and eastern African affinities terranes. Zircon cores from Punta del Este Terrane basement orthogneisses have U-Pb ages of ca. 1,000 Ma, which indicate an lineage with the Namaqua Belt in Southwestern Africa. U-Pb zircon ages also provide the following information on the Punta del Este terrane: the orthogneisses containing the ca. 1,000 Ma inheritance formed at ca. 750 Ma; in contrast to the related terranes now in Africa, reworking of the Punta del Este Terrane during Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenesis was very intense, reaching granulite facies at ca. 640 Ma. The termination of the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny is marked by formation of acid volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks at ca. 570 Ma (Sierra de Aguirre Formation), formation of late sedimentary basins (San Carlos Formation) and then intrusion at ca. 535 Ma of post-tectonic granitoids (Santa Teresa and José Ignacio batholiths). The Punta del Este Terrane and unrelated western terranes represented by the Dom Feliciano Belt and the Río de La Plata Craton were in their present positions by ca. 535 Ma.

  15. Leadership lessons from the Chilean mine rescue.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Faaiza; Edmondson, Amy C; Leonard, Herman B

    2013-01-01

    Three years ago, when a cave-in at the San José mine in Chile trapped 33 men under 700,000 metric tons of rock, experts estimated the probability of getting them out alive at less than 1%. Yet, after spending a record 69 days underground, all 33 were hoisted up to safety. The inspiring story of their rescue is a case study in how to lead in situations where the stakes, risk, and uncertainty are incredibly high and time pressure is intense. Today executives often find themselves in similar straits. When they do, many feel torn. Should they be directive, taking charge and commanding action? Or should they be empowering, enabling innovation and experimentation? As the successful example of André Sougarret, the chief of the mine rescue operation, shows, the answer is yes--to both. The choice is a false dichotomy. Implementing this dual approach involves three key tasks. Each has directive and enabling components. The first task is envisioning, which requires instilling both realism and hope. The second task is enrolling, which means setting clear boundaries for who is on and off the team, but inviting in helpful collaborators. The third task is engaging--leading disciplined execution while encouraging innovation and experimentation. The authors of this article describe how Sougarret ably juggled all of these tasks, orchestrating the efforts of hundreds of people from different organizations, areas of expertise, and countries in an extraordinary mission that overcame impossible odds.

  16. A clinician's experience with the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in Nigeria: a transformative decade of hope.

    PubMed

    Idoko, John

    2012-07-01

    Prior to the start of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), Nigeria struggled to fight HIV/AIDS. PEPFAR changed everything. I witnessed this change firsthand by directing the response to AIDS, first in my hospital in Jos, in central Nigeria, and now as Nigeria's HIV/AIDS coordinator. When the first AIDS case was diagnosed in Nigeria in 1986, my country had one of the world's poorest health systems, and as the pandemic spread, most Nigerians with AIDS died. Eventually, effective new drugs were developed, but they were too costly for all but a few Nigerians. Then there was a miracle: PEPFAR gave us resources, direction, and expertise to treat hundreds of thousands of people around the country. Today, Nigeria is providing treatment to 500,000 people with AIDS, and 80 percent of them receive treatment supported by PEPFAR. The US effort did more than help us treat people with HIV/AIDS; it also enabled Nigeria to strengthen its health system, improve care for pregnant women and infants, increase the provision of vaccinations, build modern laboratories, and train thousands of new health care workers and technicians.

  17. New Mobile Lidar Systems Aboard Ultra-Light Aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, Patrick; Shang, Xiaoxia; Totems, Julien; Marnas, Fabien; Sanak, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Two lidar systems embedded on ultra light aircraft (ULA) flew over the Rhone valley, south-east of France, to characterize the vertical extend of pollution aerosols in this area influenced by large industrial sites. The main industrial source is the Etang de Berre (43°28' N, 5°01' E), close to Marseille city. The emissions are mainly due to metallurgy and petrochemical factories. Traffic related to Marseille's area contribute to pollution with its ~1500000 inhabitants. Note that the maritime traffic close to Marseille may play an important role due to its position as the leading French harbor . For the previous scientific purpose and for the first time on ULA, we flew a mini-N2 Raman lidar system to help the assessment of the aerosol optical properties. Another Ultra-Violet Rayleigh-Mie lidar has been integrated aboard a second ULA. The lidars are compact and eye safe instruments. They operate at the wavelength of 355 nm with a sampling along the line-of-sight of 0.75 m. Different flights plans were tested to use the two lidars in synergy. We will present the different approaches and discuss both their advantages and limitations. Acknowledgements: the lidar systems have been developed by CEA. They have been deployed with the support of FERRING France. We acknowledge the ULA pilots Franck Toussaint, François Bernard and José Coutet, and the Air Creation ULA Company for logistical help during the ULA campaign.

  18. [Prevalence of infection by Leishmania chagasi using ELISA (rK39 and CRUDE) and the Montenegro skin test in an endemic leishmaniasis area of Maranhão, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão; Souza, Edilberto Costa; da Silva, Leopoldo Muniz; Leal, Plinio da Cunha; Cantanhede, Karleno de Lima; Bezerra, Geusa Felipa de Barros; Viana, Graça Maria de Castro

    2005-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken in 1,520 children less than 15 years of age in São José de Ribamar, Maranhão, Brazil, from June 1994 to January 1995, to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics (socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral) associated with infection by Leishmania chagasi. Montenegro skin test (MST) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-rK39 and CRUDE) test were used to detect infection. The statistical analysis used the chi2 test with Yates correction and a p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Prevalence of infection was 61.7% as measured by MST, 19.4% according to ELISA (rK39), and 19.7% by ELISA (CRUDE). Association was detected between leishmaniasis in the family, water supply, application of insecticide, and infection by L. chagasi using MST. No association with infection by L. chagasi was detected using ELISA rK39 or CRUDE. More effective control measures are needed to reduce prevalence and to detect asymptomatic cases in this high percentage of infected children.

  19. Utilization of LANDSAT-8 Data for Lithological Mapping of Basement Rocks of Plateau State North Central Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusuk, D. J.; Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.; Musa, S. I.

    2016-09-01

    This paper utilized the Landsat-8 image data to map the lithology's of Plateau state north central Nigeria. This is includes the rocks, with particular emphasis on their description and classification. We are living in geologic times and sciences that provide adequate knowledge of the natures of what we live on so as to preserve and have means of sustaining human life. Plateau State is covered by four scenes of Landsat Data, and to describe the lithology's, each scene was processed to produce images. Two different false colour composite images of Landsat-8 (FCC 7, 5 and 3 and BR composites) in RGB were generated and used for the production of 1:100,000 geological map of the study area. The identification of predominant biotitic granitic rocks was revealed and that are distributed along the Jos-Bukuru complex and underlying almost half of the entire state. Moreover, the other rock complexes such as basalts and rhyolites volcanic rocks were also discriminated. This study indicates that Landsat-8 image data has great capability to discriminate lithological units and the production of up-to-date geological maps at regional scale and could be applicable in other regions of the African continent.

  20. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Chlamydia psittaci in Captive Psittacines from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Solórzano-Morales, Ántony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88) and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29) were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in captive birds in Costa Rica. Samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with Ara macao (33), Amazona autumnalis (24), Amazona ochrocephala (21), and Ara ararauna (8) being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in four (3.4%) birds using molecular detection (PCR). The positive samples belonged to birds presented at veterinary clinics; three of them were Ara macao and one Amazona ochrocephala. Three birds were adults; all positive birds showed no symptoms of illness and lived in homes with other birds, two in San José and two in Heredia. Sequencing was used to confirm the PCR positive results, showing that two samples of C. psittaci belonged to genotype A, representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in Costa Rica. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for people living or having contact with them and that there is a possibility of infecting other birds. PMID:24163776

  1. The contribution of chemical abundances in nova ejecta to the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fanger; Zhu, Chunhua; Lü, Guoliang; Wang, Zhaojun

    2016-06-01

    According to the nova model from Yaron et al. (2005, ApJ, 418, 794) and José and Hernanz (1998, ApJ, 494, 680), and using a Monte Carlo simulation method, we investigate the contribution of chemical abundances in nova ejecta to the interstellar medium (ISM) of the Galaxy. We find that the mass ejected from classical novae is about 2.7 × 10-3 M⊙ yr-1. In the nova ejecta, the isotopic ratios of C, N, and O, that is, 13C/12C, 15N/14N, and 17O/16O, are higher by about one order of magnitude than those in red giants. We estimate that about 10%, 5%, and 20% of 13C, 15N, and 17O in the ISM of the Galaxy come from nova ejecta, respectively. However, the chemical abundances of C, N, and O calculated by our model cannot cover all observational values. This means that there is still a long way to go to understand novae.

  2. Committees and Sponsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-05-01

    Local Organizing Committee J Fernando Barbero González (IEM, CSIC) Laura Castelló Gomar (Univ. Complutense, Madrid) Mikel Fernández Méndez (IEM, CSIC) Iñaki Garay Elizondo (Univ. País Vasco) Luis J Garay Elizondo (Univ. Complutense, Madrid) Mercedes Martín-Benito (Perimeter Institute, Canada) Daniel Martín de Blas (IEM, CSIC) Guillermo A Mena Marugán (IEM, CSIC) Javier Olmedo Nieto (IEM, CSIC) Gonzalo Olmo Alba (IFIC, CSIC) Tomasz Pawlowski (Warsaw University, Poland) Eduardo J Sánchez Villaseñor (Univ. Carlos III, Madrid) Scientific International Committee Abhay Ashtekar (Penn State University, USA) J Fernando Barbero González (IEM, CSIC, Spain) John Barrett (University of Nottingham, UK) José Manuel Cidade Mourão (Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa, Portugal) Laurent Freidel (Perimeter Institute, Canada) Jerzy Lewandowski (Warsaw University, Poland) Guillermo A Mena Marugán (IEM, CSIC, Spain) Jorge Pullin (Louisiana State University, USA) Carlo Rovelli (Univ. Méditerranée, Marseille, France) Thomas Thiemann (Univ. Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany) Sponsors MinisterioBBVA CSICESF UniCarlosCPAN

  3. Study of the earthquake of the January 23, 1880, in San Cristóbal, Cuba and the Guane fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Mario Octavio Cotilla; Barba, Diego Córdoba

    2011-06-01

    All available data on the January 23, 1880, earthquake near San Cristobal, Western Cuba, are compiled and presented here. The earthquake reached a maximum intensity of eight degrees (MSK) and caused three fatalities. It was accompanied by 65 aftershocks and was felt as far away as the Florida Keys. Twentieth century specialists has associated this event, in its day the strongest recorded (Ms = 6.2) in the region, with the Pinar fault. The Pinar fault is well expressed topographically as the boundary between the Guaniguanico Range in the north and an alluvial plain to the south. Most of the major damage caused by the earthquake was located on the alluvial plain, which in consequence has been considered the epicenter area. In the study presented here, the data compiled from the first reports of Father Benito Vines Martorell, S.J., and Pedro Salteraín y Legarra, indicate that the seismic structure was located in the alluvial plain, and that it was the Guane fault, and not the Pinar fault, that was responsible for the earthquake. The Guane fault, found below the alluvial sediments, extends NE-SW for over 110 km. Its eastern extreme, near San José de las Lajas (La Habana), is linked to another active fault which represents a seismoactive knot responsible for the earthquake of March 9, 1995 (I = 5 degrees, MSK). Seismic events of the Western Cuban region are related to the transpressive interaction of the North American and Caribbean Plates, damped by oceanic structures.

  4. [Space-time variation of Scleractinia, Gorgonacea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, from shallow bottom in San Jose Island, Gulf of California].

    PubMed

    Holguin Quiñones, Oscar Efraín; González Medina, Felipe de Jesús; Solís Marín, Francisco; Félix Pico, Esteban F

    2008-09-01

    Between the years 1999 and 2000, six expeditions were made to Isla San José, in the Gulf of California. Observations and samples were taken of benthic macroinvertebrates in nine locations. Based on the samples, the specific components of three phyla were determined: Cnidaria (Scleractinia and Gorgonacea), Mollusca (Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Cephalopoda), and Echinodermata (Echinoidea and Holothuroidea). The abundance of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates was visually estimated through free dives at a depth of between two and six meters along two transects parallel to the coast. A total of 38 taxa in three groups were determined. The most abundant species are Tripneustes depressus (44.9%), Echinometra vanbruntii (18.3%), Phataria unifascialis (8.9%), Centrostephanus coronatus (8.0%), Diadema mexicanum (5%) y Eucidaris thouarsii (3.6%). No significant differences between diversity (H'), equity (J) and richness of the species (S) during the months and site of study. The similarity analysis identified two groups from locations of the eastern and western coasts. PMID:19419038

  5. [The evolution theory in the medical sciences in Chile].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-02-01

    The evolutionist ideas of Lamarck, Darwin and Haeckel entered the country through the arrival of their books. "On the origin of Species" arrived in Chile in 1869. The most outstanding immigrant european physicians that discussed these ideas were Rodulfo A Phillippi (1808-1904) and Juan José Brunner (1825-1899). Both discussed Darwin's ideas in their books and conferences as academics of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. The first Chilean physicians that read and discussed the validity of evolution theory were Adolfo Valderrama (1834-1902) and Pedro Candia Salgado. Both wrote articles about this matter in Revista Médica de Chile in 1872 and 1874. The professor of general biology, Juan Noé Crevani, italian physician and zoologist that arrived in Chile in 1912, was the first to teach directly the concepts of the evolution theory until his death in 1947. Professor Noé founded the great biological school of the twentieth century in Chile and his disciples introduced the concepts of Mendelian theory and neodarwinism in the decade of fifties. The theory of evolution was taught as a chapter of general biology in the Faculty of Medicine between 1913 and 1947, but its practical applications to medicine were introduced with the birth of medical genetics in the decade of fifties and the foundation of Chilean Genetics society in 1964, under the direction of professors Danko Brncic and Gustavo Hoecker, both awarded with the National Sciences Prize.

  6. Population structures of Brazilian tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Coconut palms of the Tall group were introduced to Brazil from the Cape Verde Islands in 1553. The present study sought to evaluate the genetic diversity among and within Brazilian Tall coconut populations. Samples were collected of 195 trees from 10 populations. Genetic diversity was accessed by investigating 13 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci. This provided a total of 68 alleles, ranging from 2 to 13 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.23. The mean values of gene diversity (He ) and observed heterozygosity (Ho ) were 0.459 and 0.443, respectively. The genetic differentiation among populations was estimated at θ^P=0.1600and the estimated apparent outcrossing rate was ta = 0.92. Estimates of genetic distances between the populations varied from 0.034 to 0.390. Genetic distance and the corresponding clustering analysis indicate the formation of two groups. The first consists of the Baía Formosa, Georgino Avelino, and São José do Mipibu populations and the second consists of the Japoatã, Pacatuba, and Praia do Forte populations. The correlation matrix between genetic and geographic distances was positive and significant at a 1% probability. Taken together, our results suggest a spatial structuring of the genetic variability among the populations. Geographically closer populations exhibited greater similarities. PMID:21637579

  7. Female condom acceptability among sex workers in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, J; Schifter, J; Feldblum, P J

    1998-04-01

    This study measured short-term female condom acceptability among 51 female sex workers in San José, Costa Rica. Each woman was trained in use of the female condom and was asked to use the device if clients refused to use male condoms during a 2-week study period (male condoms were also distributed). Two follow-up visits with short interviews were scheduled, including questions on general reaction to the female condom by the participants and their clients, ease and comfort of use, and preferences for male or female devices. At the first follow-up visit, 51% of the women reported they "liked the female condom very much" and 45% reported they "liked it somewhat." Similar results were reported after the second follow-up phase. Sixty-seven percent of the participants preferred the female condom over the male condom, and, according to the the women, over half of their clients liked the female condom "very much" or "somewhat." The most common problems during the first phase were difficulty to insert (61%) and discomfort (43%). However, during the second study phase a reduction in these problems (22% and 25%, respectively) and other use-related problems were noted. Although this new method is not yet available throughout Costa Rica, these results should encourage sexually transmitted diseases and HIV service organizations to make this method accessible to women.

  8. A psychology of liberation for Central America: the unfinished work of Ignacio Martín-Baró (1942-1989).

    PubMed

    Gondra, José María

    2013-01-01

    On November 16, 1989 the world was shocked by the news of the assassination of six Jesuits at the campus of the Universidad Centro Americana José Simeón Cañas (UCA) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Among those murdered by government soldiers was Ignacio Martín-Baró, a PhD in social psychology from the University of Chicago who at that time was the Vice-Rector for Academic Affairs and Vice-President of the Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP). Drawing on Martín-Baró's published writings and non-published academic papers and correspondence, this article traces the evolution of the Spanish-born Jesuit who became a leading authority among Latin American social psychologists. In particular, it analyzes his project of becoming a clinical psychologist under the influence of psychoanalysis, his critical social psychology aimed to "de-ideologize" the oppressed social classes of El Salvador, and his ultimate project of a psychology of liberation for Latin America. Martín-Baró's work came to a tragic end just when it began to bear fruit, but it stands as a testimony to a lifetime committed to the human values of democracy, social justice and service to society's poorest and most neglected. PMID:23866226

  9. Mucus extravasation and retention phenomena: a 24-year study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mucoceles are benign lesions related to the minor salivary glands and their respective ducts frequently affecting oral structures which are generally asymptomatic. Mucoceles are generally characterized by swollen nodular lesions preferentially located on the lower lip and differ from the so-called ranulas, which are lesions located on the floor of the mouth and related to the sublingual or submandibular glands. Methods The objective of the present study was to analyze data such as age, gender, race and site of the lesion of 173 mucocele cases diagnosed at the Discipline of Stomatology, São José dos Campos Dental School, UNESP, over a period of 24 years (April 1980 to February 2003). Results Of the 173 cases analyzed, 104 (60.12%) were females and 69 (39.88%) were males. Age ranged from 4 to 70 years (mean ± SD: 17 ± 9.53) and most patients were in the second decade of life (n = 86, 49.42%); white (n = 124, 71.68%). The lower lip was the site most frequently affected by the lesions (n = 135, 78.03%), whereas the lowest prevalence was observed for the soft palate, buccal mucosa, and lingual frenum. Conclusion In this study, mucoceles predominated in white female subjects in the second decade of life, with the lower lip being the most frequently affected site. PMID:20529263

  10. Lessons learned from integrating simultaneous triple point-of-care screening for syphilis, hepatitis B, and HIV in prenatal services through rural outreach teams in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adriana; Sabidó, Meritxell; Camey, Elsy; Batres, Anabelle; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-06-01

    Mother-to-child-transmission of HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a challenge in Guatemala, especially in rural regions. A triple antenatal screening program for these infections using point-of-care (POC) testing offered through outreach teams was implemented in the municipality of Puerto de San José. One year following program implementation, antenatal care coverage increased to 99.6% (32.5% increase, P<0.001), testing uptake increased to 50.3% for HIV and syphilis (143.9% (P<0.001) and 1.3% (P=0.89) increase, respectively), and HBV testing increased from 0 to 42.2%. Lessons learned showed that, despite the expansion of triple antenatal POC screening in rural Guatemala, a shortage of healthcare workers and poor supply chain management limited screening uptake. Moreover, training is essential to help health workers overcome their fear of communicating positive results and improve partner notification. Engagement of community health workers was essential to build local capacity and facilitate community acceptance.

  11. [Analysis of the microbiological quality and potential presence of Listeria monocytogenes in custard apple (Annona muricata), mango (Mangifera indica) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) pulps from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    von Breymann, Juliana; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine some of the indicators associated to shelf life, hygiene, process and storage conditions for some of custard apple, mango and passion fruit pulps distributed by the main supermarket chains of the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, as well as to examine the potential presence of Listeria monocytogenes in them. Sixty fruit pulp samples were analyzed. Tests included pH determination, total aerobic plate count, yeasts and mold count, lactic bacteria count, total and fecal most probable number and the presence/absence of Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g of the product. Fruit pulp's pH ranged between 3,1 and 3,9, and the microbiological counts obtained were relatively low except for one industry. None of the samples analyzed presented total or fecal coliforms. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes was confirmed in three samples, all of them coming from industry C. Low microbiological counts obtained may be due to the addition of preserving substances and to the pasteurization of some of the products; lack of these two elements may allow the presence of dangerous bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:24167958

  12. Reaching Beyond the Geoscience Stigma: Strategies for Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, P.; Metzger, E. P.

    2004-12-01

    The geosciences have traditionally been viewed with less "academic prestige" than other science curricula. Among the effects of this perception are depressed K-16 enrollments; state standards' relegation of Earth and space science concepts to earlier grades; Earth Science assignments to lower-performing students, and sometimes even to under-qualified teachers: all of which simply confirm the misconceptions. Restructuring pre-college science curricula so that Earth Science is placed as a capstone course is one way to enhance student understanding of the geosciences. Research demonstrates that reversing the traditional science course sequence (by offering Physics in the ninth grade) improves student success in subsequent science courses. The "Physics First" movement continues to gain momentum offering a possible niche for the Earth and space sciences beyond middle school. It is also critical to bridge the information gap for those with little or no prior exposure to the Earth sciences, particularly K-12 educators. An Earth systems course developed at San José State University is aligned to our state's standards; it is approved to satisfy geoscience subject matter competency by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing, making it a popular offering for pre- and in-service teachers. Expanding our audience beyond the Bay Area, the Earth Systems Science Education Alliance courses infuse real-world and hands-on learning in a cohesive online curriculum. Through these courses teachers gain knowledge, share effective pedagogies, and build geography-independent communities.

  13. [On the vaccination before and after Jenner].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre-Avila, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    The expression "inoculation" of smallpox was first employed by doctor Emanuel Timone, native of the Greek island of Chios and graduated from the Universities of Padua and Oxford. This method was largely employed in the XVIII century. Nevertheless, in 1798, the English physician Edward Jenner published the results of his observartions and his own experience with "vaccination", i. e. the inoculation of cowpox. These were exposed in his book "Inquiry into the causes and effects of the variolae vaccinae". This method soon substituted the variolization. However it must to be mentioned that, starting from 1770, vaccination was already performed in northern Europe by non medical personnel as for example the school teacher Peter Plett. Notwithstanding some initial opposition, vaccination quickly spreaded throughout Europe. It arrived to Spain in 1801 and thence was transferred to Spanish America and Philippines Islands with the expedition leaded by doctor Francisco Xavier Balmis. This expedition reached New Spain in June 1804, and remained there until February 1805 when embarked addressing to Philippines Islands. The other expeditionary group, leaded by doctor José Salvani, addressed toward Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, where Salvani died. PMID:21585013

  14. [The real philanthropic expedition of the smallpox vaccine: monarchy and modernity in 1803].

    PubMed

    Rigau-Pérez, José G

    2004-09-01

    Smallpox resulted in the death of 30 % of those who acquired it, so the preventive method discovered by Edward Jenner (London, 1798) spread very quickly. At the request in 1803 of Carlos IV, king of Spain, his government evaluated offers to carry smallpox vaccine to the colonies. The selected proposal, by doctor Francisco Xavier de Balmis, sought to take the lymph to America and Asia in a chain of arm to arm vaccination of foundlings. The Expedition set sail from Corunna on November 30, 1803, stopped in the Canary Isles, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela and after Caracas (1804) split in two groups. Balmis led some members of the Expedition to Cuba and Mexico. For the trip to the Philippines, in 1805, parents lent their children in exchange for economic compensation and the promise that the boys would be returned home. The Expedition returned to Mexico in August, 1807, but Balmis separately took vaccine to China and returned to Spain. Another contingent of the Expedition, under vice-director José Salvany, took vaccine to what we know as Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. His assistant Manuel Grajales reached the Chilean Patagonia in 1811. This article also comments on three principal themes - the institutional management of the scientific project, the conflicts that characterized its course, and the children's experience. The Vaccine Expedition was a brave and humanitarian endeavor, but also an extraordinary sanitary and administrative success. It was not until the twentieth century that a global eradication campaign eliminated smallpox in the world. PMID:15631178

  15. Sero-epizootiological investigation of infectious laryngotracheitis infection in commercial poultry of Plateau State, north central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre K; Gado, Dorcas A; Egbuji, Anthony N; Ndahi, Mwapu D; Pam, Ezekiel; Joannis, Tony M

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens with outbreaks resulting in high economic losses due to increased mortality and drop in egg production. This study reports a survey of ILT virus antibody conducted in nine local government areas (LGAs) of Plateau State involving 67 randomly selected commercial poultry flocks. In all, 938 sera were tested using the Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion (AGID) technique. Overall prevalence of 1.2% (N = 11) was recorded. ILT virus antibody was found in 2.5% (n = 9) and 7.1% (n = 2) of the tested sera from Jos South and Langtang North LGAs, respectively. No detectable ILT virus antibody was found from the other seven LGAs. This is the first report of ILT infection in poultry from the North central part of Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that the economic implication of ILT infection in Nigerian poultry population be conducted in order to know if vaccination should be adopted for control. PMID:26918306

  16. Assessment of the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins for artificial eyes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Portugal, Aline; Veloso, Letícia Rocha; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos

    2009-01-01

    Prosthetic eyes are artificial substitutes for the eyeball, made of heat-curing acrylic resin, serving to improve the esthetic appearance of the mutilated patient and his/her inclusion in society. The aim of this study was to assess the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins used for manufacturing prosthetic eyes. Thirty-six specimens measuring 64 x 10 x 3.3 mm were obtained and divided into four groups: acrylic resin for artificial sclera N1 (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), heat-cure water technique (GI) and microwave-cured (GII); colorless acrylic resin for prosthetic eyes (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), heat-cure water technique (GIII) and microwave-cured (GIV). Mechanical tests using three point loads were performed in a test machine (EMIC, São José dos Pinhais, PR, Brazil). The analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used to identify significant differences (p < 0.01). Groups GII and GIV presented, respectively, the highest (98.70 +/- 11.90 MPa) and lowest means (71.07 +/- 8.93 MPa), with a statistically significant difference. The cure method used for the prosthetic eye resins did not interfere in their flexural strength. It was concluded that all the resins assessed presented sufficient flexural strength values to be recommended for the manufacture of prosthetic eyes.

  17. Multi-center survey of House officers' choice of Medical specialties in Nigeria: preferences and determining factors.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Kelechi Emmanuel; Akpayak, Idorenyin Cletus; Amusan, Ezekiel Olatunde; Ekpe, Eyo Effiong; Adamu, Yahaya Baba; Ocheli, Emmanuel Ossai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine preferences and factors influencing the choice of medical specialties by House officers. Questionnaires were distributed to House-officers in 4 tertiary hospitals namely: the National hospital, Abuja, the University of Port-Harcourt, the Jos University, and the University of Uyo Teaching Hospitals. The data were simultaneously collected and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 version. Of the 150 questionnaires distributed, 129(86%) were duly filled. The mean age was 22.4 years (range 21-40 years), 79(61.2%) of the respondent were male. Fifty-nine(45.7%) chose training within the country while 32(24.8%) preferred outside as 107(86%) chose training in Teaching Hospitals. Teachers, Resident doctors and parents influenced choices in 34(26.3%), 17(13.1%) and 16(12.4%) respectively. Thirty-four(26.3%), 28 (21.7%), 13(10.1%) and 15(11.6%) preferred obstetrics, surgery, internal medicine and paediatrics respectively. Seventy (46.7%) chose specialties for personal likeness and 17(11.3%) for role models in that specialty. House officers preferred to pursue medical specialty in teaching hospitals within the country and they are motivated by personal fulfillment, independence of practice and role models while more prefer to specialize in more Obstetrics/ Gyaenocology and surgery.

  18. High-potential geothermal energy resource areas of Nigeria and their geologic and geophysical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.O.

    1984-04-01

    The widespread occurrence of geothermal manifestations in Nigeria is significant because the wide applicability and relative ease of exploitation of geothermal energy is of vital importance to an industrializing nation like Nigeria. There are two known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Nigeria: the Ikogosi Warm Springs of Ondo State and the Wikki Warm Springs of Bauchi State. These surficial effusions result from the circulation of water to great depths through faults in the basement complex rocks of the area. Within sedimentary areas, high geothermal gradient trends are identified in the Lagos subbasin, the Okitipupa ridge, the Auchi-Agbede are of the Benin flank/hinge line, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium. The deeper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences of the Niger delta are geopressured geothermal horizons. In the Benue foldbelt, extending from the Abalaliki anticlinorium to the Keana anticline and the Zambuk ridge, several magmatic intrusions emplaced during the Late Cretaceous line the axis of the Benue trough. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies also parallel this trough and are interpreted to indicate shallow mantle. Parts of this belt and the Ikom, the Jos plateau, Bauchi plateau, and the Adamawa areas, experienced Cenozoic volcanism and magmatism.

  19. Evaluation of ultrasonic and ErCr:YSGG laser retrograde cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    Batista de Faria-Junior, Norberto; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; de Toledo Leonardo, Renato; Camargo Villela Berbert, Fábio Luiz

    2009-05-01

    Root end cavity preparation techniques aim to create a clean and properly shaped cavity in a short time. Although the use of ultrasonics has been widely recommended, a laser can also be used. This study evaluated the time required and quality of retrograde cavity preparations using ultrasonics or ErCr:YSGG laser. Thirty single-rooted teeth were instrumented, root filled, submitted to apicectomies, and grouped. Root end cavities were prepared by using the following: group 1 (G1): CVD (6.1107-6) ultrasonic retrotips (CVD-Vale, São José dos Campos, Brazil); group 2 (G2): EMS (DT-060/Berutti) ultrasonic retrotips (EMS, LeSentier, Switzerland); and group 3 (G3): ErCr:YSGG (G6/Waterlase; Biolase Technology, San Clemente, CA) laser tips. The time taken to complete the preparation was recorded. Epoxy resin replicas of the root apices were examined under a scanning electron microscope. The parameters for evaluation were the presence of fractures, and the quality of the preparations. The Waterlase showed the highest mean time for preparation of the root end cavities (p < 0.05), and there was no significant difference between the CVD and EMS groups (p > 0.05). Fractures in the cavosurface angle occurred only in G2. G1 and G2 showed better scores for quality of preparation than G3 (p < 0.05). These results suggest that root end cavities should be prepared by ultrasonic tips.

  20. The beginnings of dermatopathology and dermatologic microbiology in Spain.

    PubMed

    del Río, E

    2014-03-01

    Crisóstomo Martínez from Valencia was a pioneering microscopist in 17th-century Europe. The first microscopic representations of skin in Spain appeared in an 18th-century work by Martín Martínez. Microbiology and histopathology progressed considerably in the late 19th century thanks to anatomists like Maestre de San Juan and surgeons like Federico Rubio Galí. The first Spanish pathologist to specialize in dermatology was Antonio Mendoza, a colleague of José Eugenio de Olavide at the Hospital San Juan de Dios in Madrid. Claudio Sala and Juan de Azúa also made significant contributions, including the description of pseudoepithelioma. Several disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Jorge FranciscoTello, such as Lorenzo Ruiz de Arcaute and Guillermo de la Rosa King, consolidated the dermatology laboratory, but the Civil War sent many into exile or deprived them of their professional status. Juan Rubió in Barcelona and Julio Rodríguez Puchol in Madrid were the immediate predecessors of today's dermatopathologists.

  1. [Parasitology and entomology in the 29th century in Latin American narrative].

    PubMed

    Schenone, H

    2000-01-01

    In the present review of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers--Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela--paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folklore representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozoiasis (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressively to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjunction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glow worms, dragonflies).

  2. Phenolic profiles of cherry tomatoes as influenced by hydric stress and rootstock technique.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva; Ruiz, Juan M; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of genetic and technological factors (cultivar and grafting) combined with the abiotic stress (water stress) on the content of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids classes and total phenolics) in cherry tomato. The identification and contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined by HPLC-MS in fruits on reciprocal grafting between a drought-tolerant cultivar (Zarina) and drought-sensible cultivar (Josefina), compared with both self-grafted and non-grafted plants. The results show how pre-harvest factors, such as grafting and water stress, can influence the phenolic content of tomato fruits. Phenolic compounds, including rutin that belongs to the group of flavonoids, display a remarkable array of biological and pharmacological activities. So, the richness of ZarxJos under water stress conditions with these compounds confirms its nutritional value and it can be used as a potential source of phenols. The results suggest that grafting on specific rootstocks more adapted to water stress conditions may be a tool to improve crop quality under artificially imposed mild water stress. PMID:23107690

  3. Phenolic metabolism in grafted versus nongrafted cherry tomatoes under the influence of water stress.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva; Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A

    2011-08-24

    Use of grafts using rootstocks capable of palliating the effects of water stress can be a possible solution to reduce yield losses. For response to stress, plants can induce the metabolism of phenylpropanoids. The aim of the present work is to determine the response of reciprocal grafts made between one tolerant cherry tomato cultivar, Zarina, and a more sensitive cultivar, Josefina. The analysis of the phenylpropanoids pathway was carried out both enzymatically and metabolically. DAHP synthase, shikimate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonium-lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, and 4-coumarate CoA ligase activities were determined, and characteristic metabolites from the pathway were measured by means of HPLC-MS. Growth in the grafts JosxZar and ZarxJos was not appreciably affected by stress. JosxZar had increased concentrations of phenolic compounds after water stress. This could be correlated with the greater activity of synthesis enzymes as well as a decrease in phenol-degrading enzymes. Phenolic metabolism is more influenced by the aerial part, and therefore it is concluded that the capacity of inducing tolerance in rootstocks depends on the genotype of the shoot. PMID:21732696

  4. [Cardiology writings in New Spain and in the first century of the Independent period].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The first writings on cardioangiology found in public and private libraries of New Spain from the xvi century to the first century of the Independent period in Mexico are mentioned. These go from the truly incunabular ones, books printed until the year 1500, to the physiology treatises published by European authors in the xvii and xviii centuries, as well as the cardiology texts from French authors of the first half of the xix century. The writings were depicted in the catalogs of the University library, founded in 1762, as well as in the library of a master builder of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the xvii century and that of a physician of the xviii century, Dr. José Ignacio Bartolache. The latter, in turn, edited for a brief period, from October 1772 to February 1773, a scientific-medical journal, «Mercurio Volante», which was the first scientific-hebdomadary publication in the Americas. Likewise, in the libraries of New Spain, several European scientific journals could be found, such as the one edited by the abbot Rozier, in which the initial writings of Lavoisier appeared. The exchange of ideas and knowledge, pointed out herein, attests to the always enthused interest of given individuals from New Spain on the boundless and passionate domains of cardioangiology.

  5. Isolated noncatalytic and catalytic subunits of F1-ATPase exhibit similar, albeit not identical, energetic strategies for recognizing adenosine nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Guillermo; Cano-Sánchez, Patricia; de Gómez-Puyou, Marietta Tuena; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; García-Hernández, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The function of F1-ATPase relies critically on the intrinsic ability of its catalytic and noncatalytic subunits to interact with nucleotides. Therefore, the study of isolated subunits represents an opportunity to dissect elementary energetic contributions that drive the enzyme's rotary mechanism. In this study we have calorimetrically characterized the association of adenosine nucleotides to the isolated noncatalytic α-subunit. The resulting recognition behavior was compared with that previously reported for the isolated catalytic β-subunit (N.O. Pulido, G. Salcedo, G. Pérez-Hernández, C. José-Núñez, A. Velázquez-Campoy, E. García-Hernández, Energetic effects of magnesium in the recognition of adenosine nucleotides by the F1-ATPase β subunit, Biochemistry 49 (2010) 5258-5268). The two subunits exhibit nucleotide-binding thermodynamic signatures similar to each other, characterized by enthalpically-driven affinities in the μM range. Nevertheless, contrary to the catalytic subunit that recognizes MgATP and MgADP with comparable strength, the noncatalytic subunit much prefers the triphosphate nucleotide. Besides, the α-subunit depends more on Mg(II) for stabilizing the interaction with ATP, while both subunits are rather metal-independent for ADP recognition. These binding behaviors are discussed in terms of the properties that the two subunits exhibit in the whole enzyme.

  6. A drowned Mesozoic bird breeding colony from the Late Cretaceous of Transylvania.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Gareth; Vremir, Mátyás; Kaiser, Gary; Naish, Darren

    2012-06-01

    Despite a rapidly improving fossil record, the reproductive biology of Mesozoic birds remains poorly known: only a handful of undisputed, isolated Cretaceous eggs (some containing embryonic remains) are known. We report here the first fossil evidence for a breeding colony of Mesozoic birds, preserved at the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Oarda de Jos (Od) site in the Sebeş area of Transylvania, Romania. A lens of calcareous mudstone with minimum dimensions of 80 cm length, 50 cm width and 20 cm depth contains thousands of tightly packed, morphologically homogenous eggshell fragments, seven near-complete eggs and neonatal and adult avialan skeletal elements. Eggshell forms 70-80 % of the matrix, and other fossils are entirely absent. The bones exhibit clear characters of the Cretaceous avialan clade Enantiornithes, and the eggshell morphology is also consistent with this identification. Both taphonomy and lithology show that the components of this lens were deposited in a single flood event, and we conclude that it represents the drowned remains of a larger enantiornithine breeding colony, swamped by rising water, washed a short distance and deposited in a shallow, low-energy pond. The same fate often befalls modern bird colonies. Such a large concentration of breeding birds suggests aquatic feeding in this species, augments our understanding of enantiornithine biology and shows that colonial nesting was not unique to crown birds.

  7. The effect of air pollutants on birth weight in medium-sized towns in the state of São Paulo☆

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Veridiana de Paula; de Medeiros, Andréa Paula Peneluppi; de Lima, Thaiza Agostini Córdoba; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of air pollution on birth weight in a medium-sized town in the State of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from live births of mothers residing in São José dos Campos from 2005 to 2009. Data was obtained from the Department of Information and Computing of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Air pollutant data (PM10, SO2, and O3) and daily averages of their concentrations were obtained from the Environmental Sanitation & Technology Company. Statistical analysis was performed by linear and logistic regressions using the Excel and STATA v.7 software programs. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to air pollutants was not associated with low birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy (OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.00-1.56). Maternal exposure to PM10 and SO2 during the last month of pregnancy led to lower weight at birth (0.28g and 3.15g, respectively) for each 1mg/m3 increase in the concentration of these pollutants, but without statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to identify a statistically significant association between the levels of air pollutants and birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy. PMID:25510993

  8. [The formative role of the laboratory in teaching the science of physiology].

    PubMed

    Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda; Urrutia Aguilar, María Esther

    2014-12-01

    Physiology teaching began with Claudius Galenus (c. 126-199 AD), known as Galen, who is considered the initiator of experimental physiology. This discipline was consolidated in the XIX century with the discoveries of Claude Bernard, which influenced the way of teaching this discipline in universities, independently from Anatomy. In Mexico, physiology teaching started in 1580. It was at the beginning of the XIX century when Valentín Gómez Farías created the professorship in Medical Sciences and Daniel Vergara Lope carried out its consolidation when he implemented a lab course. Doctor José Joaquín Izquierdo established that this subject ought to be taught by teachers with experience in research. Undoubtedly, formative physiology teaching carried out in labs must strengthen the application of method and scientific methodology in students. In this symposium, we put forward that the change in physiology teaching must promote multidisciplinary research in students, who will formulate a research question and develop an experimental model that will let them integrate their basic knowledge of physiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, and functional anatomy under the supervision of a research teacher.

  9. Ground-based Solar Observations and Plasma Bubbles in Brazilian Sector During a Period of Extreme Low Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardelli-Coelho, F.; Abalde, J. R.; Tardelli, A.; de Abreu, A. J.

    2016-04-01

    Studies presented on the relation of the Sun-Earth system are currently of great importance. Ionospheric irregularities in the F-region, caused by geomagnetic storms have significant and adverse effects on the Earth. The recent advancement in technological techniques for monitoring space weather has facilitated these studies. The focus of this study was to determine whether a geomagnetic storm interfered with the generation, propagation, and durability of plasma bubbles that occurred over a period of solar minimum in two cities in the Brazilian sector, São José dos Campos - SP, designated SJC, (23.21°S, 45.86°W; dip latitude 17.6°S), low-latitude region and near the south crest of the ionospheric equatorial anomaly; and Palmas - TO, called PAL (10.28°S, 48.33°W; dip latitude 6.7°S), near the magnetic equator, located in the geographical South, tropical region and the hemisphere opposite the magnetic equator. This study was conducted with data analysis of five years (2006-2010) for SJC and four years (2007-2010) for PAL, considering the 24th solar cycle, using an all-sky imaging photometer operating with interference filters in OI 630.0 nm emission resulting from dissociative recombination process that occurs at an altitude of 250-300 km (F-region).

  10. [The Library of Medicine of Córdoba, witness and protagonist of knowledge from the end of the 19th Century to the beginning of 21st Century].

    PubMed

    Graciela Cañete, M

    2004-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, was founded the Medicine's Library of the National University Faculty of Medicine, center of knowledge, new ideas and teaching. The history library sector hold the valuable inheritance that represent the collection of Teachers Doctors, Pablo Mirizzi, Temístocles Castellano, Pedro Ara, José F. Verna, Juan Martín Allende located with the books and thesis of the XIX century and beginning of XX century. In 1986 it integrates the National Health Science Information Network and also, the Latino American and the Caribbean Health Science Information Network. The health libraries are in front of a new paradigm. The technologies of information and communication require new methods for administration of the information's resources and services, to answer the society information needs in the knowledge age. The traditional and virtual library is one unit that complement sources in different supports, electronic publications and interactive networks. It is the nexus between the scientific inheritance and the society, and it's mission is: Give local and virtual information's services and management the information's resources, basis of the knowledge society, support of teaching, investigation and extension of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the Córdoba National University. PMID:16211994

  11. Evaluation of space adequateness of shrimp farms in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rodrigo R; Hartmann, Carlos; Tagliani, Paulo R A; Poersch, Luís H

    2011-09-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in the municipal districts of São José do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (32º00'S 52º00'W) by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth), airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000), terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE), and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes). As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises.

  12. Reply to the Comment on "Wave climate, sediment supply and the depth of the sand-mud transition: A global survey" by D.A. George and P.S. Hill [Marine Geology 254 (2008) 121-128

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, D.A.; Hill, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of concepts presented by George and Hill [George, D.A., Hill, P.S., 2008. Wave climate, sediment supply and the depth of the sand-mud transition: A global survey. Marine Geology, 254, 121-128.] regarding the depth of the sand-mud transition (hSMT) was performed by Guill??n and Jim??nez [Jorge Guill??n and Jos?? A. Jim??nez, Comment on "Wave climate, sediment supply and the depth of the sand-mud transition: A global survey" by D.A. George and P.S. Hill [Marine Geology 254 (2008) 121-128], Marine Geology, in press]. We are pleased that our proposed definition of the hSMT was confirmed to be appropriate. We are encouraged that the authors agree that wave period and wave height should both be used to determine hSMT as we demonstrated in our Eq. (1), which calculates the bed shear stress at hSMT. More in-depth research should focus on characterizing the role of sediment supply in determining hSMT. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  14. A new sebecid from the paleogene of Brazil and the crocodyliform radiation after the K-Pg boundary.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Pinheiro, André E P; Campos, Diogenes A

    2014-01-01

    A new crocodyliform, Sahitisuchus fluminensis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on a complete skull, lower jaw and anterior cervical vertebrae collected in the São José de Itaboraí Basin of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The specimen is one of the best preserved crocodyliforms from Paleocene deposits recovered so far and represents a sebecosuchian, one of the few clades that survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene biotic crisis. The new taxon is found in the same deposit as an alligatoroid, a group that experienced large diversification in the Paleogene. The sebecosuchian record suggests that after the Cretaceous-Paleogene biotic crisis, the less specialized members of this clade characterized by a higher number of teeth compared to the baurusuchid sebecosuchians survived, some having terrestrial habits while others developed a semi-aquatic life style (e.g., Lorosuchus). Starting in the Eocene, sebecid sebecosuchians became specialized with a more accentuated oreinirostry as observed in Sebecus and in Langstonia, but not showing the typical reduced dentition developed by the Cretaceous baurusuchid sebecosuchians. The basal position of Barinasuchus arveloi, a high-snouted Miocene sebecid, indicates the occurrence of an independent lineage sometime after the K-Pg biotic crisis that developed accentuated oreinirostry, suggesting a more complex history of the post-K-Pg crocodyliform radiation. PMID:24454686

  15. An Asymmetrical Network: National and International Dimensions of the Development of Mexican Physiology.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the history of Mexican physiology during the period 1910-60 when two noted investigators, José J. Izquierdo, first, and Arturo Rosenblueth, second, inscribed their work into an international network of medical research. The network had at its center the laboratory of Walter B. Cannon at Harvard University. The Rockefeller Foundation was its main supporter. Rosenblueth was quite familiar with the network because he worked with Cannon at Harvard for over ten years before returning to Mexico in the early 1940s. Izquierdo and Rosenblueth developed different strategies to face adverse conditions such as insufficient laboratory equipment, inadequate library resources, a small scientific community, and ephemeral political support. Both acquired local influence and international prestige, but the sources of financial and academic power remained in the United States. This case study provides insight into the circulation of scientific ideas and practices in an important Latin American country and suggests that the world's circulation of science among industrial and developing nations during the mid-twentieth century was intrinsically asymmetric but opened temporary opportunities for talented individuals and groups of researchers.

  16. Neurocysticercosis in Ceará State, northeastern Brazil: a review of 119 cases.

    PubMed

    Sousa, A Q; Sa, H L; Queiroz, T R; Horta, W G; Pearson, R D

    1998-06-01

    Relatively little is known about the occurrence of neurocysticercosis in northeastern Brazil. There have been no published reports from the state of Ceará, but a review of the records at the Hospital São José in Fortaleza, Brazil identified 119 patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosed between January 1988 and April 1994. Patients came from 43 municipalities in Ceará. Their ages ranged from five to 74 years; the greatest number of cases were in persons 10-40 years of age; 63% were males. Seizures were the presenting complaint in 64% of the patients and headache in 22%. Two patients, each with several hundred intracranial lesions, presented with mental status changes; one was initially given the clinical diagnosis of viral meningoencephalitis. Computed tomography scans showed that 44% of the patients had five or more lesions. Cysts were found throughout the brain. The parietal lobe was the most frequent site of involvement; 85% of patients had one or more lesions there. The brain stem was involved in 8%. There was no consistent association between the severity of the clinical abnormalities and the radiologic findings. Computed tomography of the thighs was done in 10 persons; cysts were identified in nine.

  17. [Extreme subcutaneous and intramuscular insulin resistance at type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Anielli; Tácito, Lúcia H B; Pires, Antônio C

    2011-04-01

    Insulin resistance signs reduced cellular response to this hormone and dysfunction of glucose transport to intracellular compartment. This phenomenon is associated to genetic factors and principally behavior factors correlating to obesity and its comorbidities, as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. However clinical factors of insulin resistance are still present at not obese type 1 diabetes in a known syndrome called type 1 diabetes mellitus with resistance to insulin administered subcutaneously and intramuscularly (DRIASM). This is a rare condition that consists into insulin resistance at subcutaneously and intramuscularly use and normal or near to normal sensitivity at intravenously way. Treatments until now proposed are ineffective and are related to frequent fails and complications. We report here two cases of DRIASM in 45 and 46 female patients that are different from others yet related because they have late diabetes type 1, sustained hyperglycemia associated to catabolic, microangiopathy and neuropathic complications without any ketoacidosis episode. The treatment vary from alternative ways for insulin infusion to inscription to a possible performance of pancreas transplantation like a experiment of definitive treatment. This report was approved by Research Ethic Committee from São José do Rio Preto medical school. PMID:21655874

  18. The ongoing educational anomaly of earth science placement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Messina, P.; Speranza, P.; Metzger, E.P.; Stoffer, P.

    2003-01-01

    The geosciences have traditionally been viewed with less "aCademic prTstige" than other science curricula. Among the results of this perception are depressed K-16 enrollments, Earth Science assignments to lower-performing students, and relegation of these classes to sometimes under-qualified educators, all of which serve to confirm the widely-held misconceptions. An Earth Systems course developed at San Jos??e State University demonstrates the difficulty of a standard high school Earth science curriculum, while recognizing the deficiencies in pre-college Earth science education. Restructuring pre-college science curricula so that Earth Science is placed as a capstone course would greatly improve student understanding of the geosciences, while development of Earth systems courses that infuse real-world and hands-on learning at the college level is critical to bridging the information gap for those with no prior exposure to the Earth sciences. Well-crafted workshops for pre-service and inservice teachers of Earth Science can heIp to reverse the trends and unfortunate "sTatus" in geoscience education.

  19. [The empacho in Mexico during the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto; Coronado, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    During the 19th century, empacho as a nosological entity prompted academic research by such renowned Mexican clinicians as Miguel F. Jiménez, Eduardo Liceaga, Fernando Altamirano, José Peon y Contreras, among others. Empacho is often the result of excessive eating or difficulty in digestion of certain foods, especially fruits with a peel (oranges, limes, grapefruits, apples, etc.) and legumes (beans, sweet pea, chick peas). Empacho has a greater effect on children under the age of two. It is clinically identified by diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, restlessness, the presence of abdominal distension, abdominal dullness to percussion, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and meteorism. The most common treatments during the 19th century sought to evacuate gastrointestinal content immediately through vomiting or purgative medication. The general population often used medicinal plants to provoke gastrointestinal purges, while academic doctors most frequently used castor oil as a laxative and ipecacuanha to induce vomiting. This work presents a description and analysis of the general characteristics of the popular illness, empacho. The information comes from doctors, pharmacists, homeopaths, botanists and popular groups.

  20. Psychological assessment of patients undergoing cardiac transplant in a teaching hospital (2004 to 2012)

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Sara dos Santos; Miyazaki, Maria Cristina de Oliveira Santos; Villafanha, Daniel Fernando; dos Santos Junior, Randolfo; Domingos, Neide Aparecida Micelli

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the psychological evaluations of patients with heart failure waiting for heart transplantation. Methods The data were obtained from patient records containing pre-surgery psychological evaluations performed by psychologists from the multidisciplinary cardiology team. The evaluation protocol included the Quality of Life Questionnaire (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory, and an interview script. Results The results of psychological evaluations performed between 2004 and 2012 for 60 candidates for heart transplantation were analyzed: 43 men and 17 women aged between 16 and 66 years (Mean=45.18; SD=11.91), predominantly from the São José do Rio Preto area (São Paulo state, Brazil) (83%), with incomplete elementary education (68%), and who were in stable relationships (73%). Although women presented higher mean scores for depression (21.41) than men (14.61), there was no significant difference between genders. Women's quality of life was impaired in all domains compared to men (below 50%) and was significantly poorer in the physical functioning (P=0.01), vitality (P=0.00), emotional role functioning (P=0.04), and mental health (P=0.02) domains. Conclusion Patients with psychosocial vulnerability (e.g., depression) identified before transplantation should receive psychological treatment. PMID:25372908

  1. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  2. Medicine Vendors: Self-medication Practices and Medicine Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Auta, Asa; Omale, Simeon; Folorunsho, Temitope J; David, Shalkur; Banwat, Samuel B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medicine vendors fill the gap created by inadequate skilled professionals required for medicine procurement, storage, and distribution in developing countries. Aim: To evaluate self-medication practice and medicine knowledge among medicine vendors and to determine if a relationship exists between both. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted, using a pretested questionnaire on 236 medicine vendors in Jos, Nigeria, sampled through a two-stage stratified design. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16, and the chi-square test was used to determine the association between variables. Results: Self-medication was common (75.4%) among respondents and was not associated (P>0.05) with any of the demographic characteristics studied. The classes of medicines commonly used by respondents for self-medication were analgesics (31.4%), anti-malarials (22.6%), multivitamins (17.7%), and antibiotics (11.25%). A knowledge assessment test revealed that only 34.3% of the respondents had adequate knowledge. There was no significant (P>0.05) relationship between self-medication practice and medicine knowledge, among the respondents. However, the medicine knowledge scores were significantly (P<0.05) associated with holding a certificate in health sciences, years of experience, and the place of practice of the medicine vendors. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that self-medication practice was high and inadequate medicine knowledge existed among respondents. PMID:22393544

  3. Occurrence and treatment of common health problems in a nigerian community.

    PubMed

    Auta, A; Banwat, Sb; Dayom, Dw; Shalkur, D; Avu, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Medicines are cost-effective interventions for the treatment and management of health problems. This research was carried out to determine the common health problems and medicine-use practices in treating health problems in Lamingo, Jos, Nigeria. A total of 109 households covering 676 individuals were recruited and followed up for a period of one month between 6 November 2010 and 11 December 2010. A structured interview was conducted on weekly visits to households to identify illnesses suffered by household members and treatment given. The results showed that 146 common health problems representing 1.3 cases per household per month were found. The cost of treatment per household per month was found to be $14.7. Infectious and parasitic diseases (44.6%), diseases of the digestive (11.0%) and respiratory system (9.6%) were common in the community. Self-medication was common (34.6%) and the patent medicine stores were the most common sources of medicines. Common classes of medicines used by community members were analgesics (23.6%), antimalarials (17.9%) and antibiotics (14.2%). Factors that influenced choice of treatment were previous knowledge and experience of family members with service provider and treatment (44.4%), cost (18.9%) and severity of condition (16.7%). There is, therefore, high occurrence of health problems and self-medication practices in the Lamingo community.

  4. Occurrence and Treatment of Common Health Problems in a Nigerian Community

    PubMed Central

    Auta, A; Banwat, SB; Dayom, DW; Shalkur, D; Avu, MO

    2012-01-01

    Medicines are cost-effective interventions for the treatment and management of health problems. This research was carried out to determine the common health problems and medicine-use practices in treating health problems in Lamingo, Jos, Nigeria. A total of 109 households covering 676 individuals were recruited and followed up for a period of one month between 6 November 2010 and 11 December 2010. A structured interview was conducted on weekly visits to households to identify illnesses suffered by household members and treatment given. The results showed that 146 common health problems representing 1.3 cases per household per month were found. The cost of treatment per household per month was found to be $14.7. Infectious and parasitic diseases (44.6%), diseases of the digestive (11.0%) and respiratory system (9.6%) were common in the community. Self-medication was common (34.6%) and the patent medicine stores were the most common sources of medicines. Common classes of medicines used by community members were analgesics (23.6%), antimalarials (17.9%) and antibiotics (14.2%). Factors that influenced choice of treatment were previous knowledge and experience of family members with service provider and treatment (44.4%), cost (18.9%) and severity of condition (16.7%). There is, therefore, high occurrence of health problems and self-medication practices in the Lamingo community. PMID:22523461

  5. Detection of Saint Louis encephalitis virus in dengue-suspected cases during a dengue 3 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Mondini, Adriano; Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Moraes; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Ferro, Bianca Piovezan; Cabrera, Eliana Márcia Sotello; Figueiredo, Luis Tadeu Moraes; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2011-03-01

    Arboviruses are frequently associated with outbreaks in humans and represent a serious public health problem. Among the Brazilian arboviruses, Mayaro virus, Dengue virus (DENV), Yellow Fever virus, Rocio virus, Saint Louis Encephalitis virus (SLEV), and Oropouche virus are responsible for most of human cases. All these arboviruses usually produce undistinguishable acute febrile illness, especially in the acute phase of infection. In this study we investigated the presence of arboviruses in sera of 519 patients presenting acute febrile illness, during a dengue outbreak in São José do Rio Preto City (São Paulo, Brazil). A multiplex-nested RT-polymerase chain reaction assay was applied to detect and identify the main Brazilian arboviruses (Flavivirus, Alphavirus, and Orthobunyavirus genera). The molecular analysis showed that 365 samples were positive to DENV-3, 5 to DENV-2, and 8 to SLEV. Among the positive samples, one coinfection was detected between DENV-2 and DENV-3. The phylogenetic analysis of the SLEV envelope gene indicated that the virus circulating in city is related to lineage V strains. These results indicated that during that large DENV-3 outbreak in 2006, different arboviruses cocirculated causing human disease. Thus, it is necessary to have an efficient surveillance system to control the dissemination of these arboviruses in the population.

  6. [The empacho in Mexico during the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto; Coronado, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    During the 19th century, empacho as a nosological entity prompted academic research by such renowned Mexican clinicians as Miguel F. Jiménez, Eduardo Liceaga, Fernando Altamirano, José Peon y Contreras, among others. Empacho is often the result of excessive eating or difficulty in digestion of certain foods, especially fruits with a peel (oranges, limes, grapefruits, apples, etc.) and legumes (beans, sweet pea, chick peas). Empacho has a greater effect on children under the age of two. It is clinically identified by diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, restlessness, the presence of abdominal distension, abdominal dullness to percussion, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and meteorism. The most common treatments during the 19th century sought to evacuate gastrointestinal content immediately through vomiting or purgative medication. The general population often used medicinal plants to provoke gastrointestinal purges, while academic doctors most frequently used castor oil as a laxative and ipecacuanha to induce vomiting. This work presents a description and analysis of the general characteristics of the popular illness, empacho. The information comes from doctors, pharmacists, homeopaths, botanists and popular groups. PMID:20141652

  7. [Spanish medicine and surgery in the eighteenth century: the Royal College of Cadiz].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Afonso, Juan Rafael

    2008-01-01

    We revise the condition of Spanish Surgery and Medicine, at first half of XVIII century, to appraise the labour of Seniors Surgeons of the Navy, Juan Lacomba first and Pedro Virgili after, both creators of The Royal College of Surgery of Cádiz in 1748. This Institution making the renewal of medical and surgical knowledge in the second half of the eighteenth century. In base to original documentation, summarizes the methods and conditions of teaching, pupils, teachers of subjects, from "Clinical Sessions" (sensu lato), the Library, etc. We valued innovative creations of the Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants, the Cabinet of Natural History and the first shipment of Collegiate Scholars abroad, the edition of new books on various medical, surgical, and other topics, and so on. This led, in 1791, the constitution of the "Miracle of Cádiz" which is just in a single "Carrera", in only one title and one professional to Medicine and Surgery being held in the College of Cádiz and is exported rapidly to the rest of the West. Which expresses the relation what José Celestino Mutis had with the Royal College, where he was to then develop their skills in New Granada, in Colombia today. The College published in Cádiz and in 1792, his Instruccion ... relativa de las especies y virtudes de la Quina [Instructions ... on the species and the virtues of Quina], which is the only publication during his life in Spanish peninsular territory.

  8. Identification of Bartonella Species Isolated from Rodents from Yucatan, Mexico, and Isolation of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. yucatanensis subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Schulte Fischedick, Frederique B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Arechiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Overgaauw, Paul A M; Kasten, Rickie W; Chomel, Bruno B

    2016-10-01

    Bartonella species are highly endemic among wild rodents in many parts of the world. Blood and/or blood clot cultures from 38 rodents, including 27 Yucatan deer mouse (Peromyscus yucatanicus), 7 Gaumer's spiny pocket mouse (Heteromys gaumeri), 2 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 2 big-eared climbing rats (Ototylomys phyllotis) captured near Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, led to the isolation in 3-4 days of small gram-negative bacilli, which were identified as Bartonella spp. based on colony morphology. DNA extraction and PCR testing were also performed from heart samples of 35 of these 38 rodents. Overall, Bartonella spp. were isolated from the blood/blood clots of 22 (58%) rodents. All Bartonella-positive rodents were Yucatán deer mice from San José Pituch. Sequencing of a fragment of the gltA gene showed that all but one rodent isolates were closest to B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii and one isolate was intermediate between B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis. Further analysis of concatenated housekeeping genes (gltA, ftsZ, rpoB, and 16S rRNA) suggests that this outlier isolate is a new subspecies within the B. vinsonii genogroup, for which we proposed the name B. vinsonii subsp. yucatanensis.

  9. Feature Article: Fast scanning tunnelling microscopy as a tool to understand changes on metal surfaces: from nanostructures to single atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Karina

    2005-03-01

    The Feature Article [1] describes how structural changes in metallic nanostructures can be followed with fast scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The title page shows the same spot of a Ag(111) surface at room temperature, imaged with STM approximately one hour apart. Intrinsic changes to prepared nano-structures are marked as Brownian motion of vacancy islands (rectangle), coalescence of two vacancy islands (hexagon), and decay of an adatom island (circle).Karina Morgenstern is now professor at the University of Hannover. Her research is placed within the field of nanoscience and is in particular devoted to thermally activated processes of metallic nanostructures, electronically activated reactions of molecules on metallic surfaces, and water-metal interactions.The present issue of physica status solidi (b) also contains the article Apperance of copper d9 defect centres in wide-gap CdSe nanoparticles: A high-fequency EPR study by N. R. J. Poolton et al. as Editor's Choice [2] as well as several papers on electrical and nonlinear optical properties from the European Conference on Organised Films (ECOF 2004) chaired by José Antonio de Saja, Valladolid.

  10. [On two antique medical texts].

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria Carlota

    2005-01-01

    The two texts presented here--Regimento proueytoso contra ha pestenença [literally, "useful regime against pestilence"] and Modus curandi cum balsamo ["curing method using balm"]--represent the extent of Portugal's known medical library until circa 1530, produced in gothic letters by foreign printers: Germany's Valentim Fernandes, perhaps the era's most important printer, who worked in Lisbon between 1495 and 1518, and Germdo Galharde, a Frenchman who practiced his trade in Lisbon and Coimbra between 1519 and 1560. Modus curandi, which came to light in 1974 thanks to bibliophile José de Pina Martins, is anonymous. Johannes Jacobi is believed to be the author of Regimento proueytoso, which was translated into Latin (Regimen contra pestilentiam), French, and English. Both texts are presented here in facsimile and in modern Portuguese, while the first has also been reproduced in archaic Portuguese using modern typographical characters. This philological venture into sixteenth-century medicine is supplemented by a scholarly glossary which serves as a valuable tool in interpreting not only Regimento proueytoso but also other texts from the era. Two articles place these documents in historical perspective.

  11. Identification of Urban Leprosy Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal, José Antonio Armani; Paschoal, Vania Del'Arco; Nardi, Susilene Maria Tonelli; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Ismael, Manuela Gallo y Sanches; Sichieri, Eduvaldo Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Overpopulation of urban areas results from constant migrations that cause disordered urban growth, constituting clusters defined as sets of people or activities concentrated in relatively small physical spaces that often involve precarious conditions. Aim. Using residential grouping, the aim was to identify possible clusters of individuals in São José do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil, who have or have had leprosy. Methods. A population-based, descriptive, ecological study using the MapInfo and CrimeStat techniques, geoprocessing, and space-time analysis evaluated the location of 425 people treated for leprosy between 1998 and 2010. Clusters were defined as concentrations of at least 8 people with leprosy; a distance of up to 300 meters between residences was adopted. Additionally, the year of starting treatment and the clinical forms of the disease were analyzed. Results. Ninety-eight (23.1%) of 425 geocoded cases were located within one of ten clusters identified in this study, and 129 cases (30.3%) were in the region of a second-order cluster, an area considered of high risk for the disease. Conclusion. This study identified ten clusters of leprosy cases in the city and identified an area of high risk for the appearance of new cases of the disease. PMID:24288467

  12. Identification of urban leprosy clusters.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, José Antonio Armani; Paschoal, Vania Del'Arco; Nardi, Susilene Maria Tonelli; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Ismael, Manuela Gallo y Sanches; Sichieri, Eduvaldo Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Overpopulation of urban areas results from constant migrations that cause disordered urban growth, constituting clusters defined as sets of people or activities concentrated in relatively small physical spaces that often involve precarious conditions. Aim. Using residential grouping, the aim was to identify possible clusters of individuals in São José do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil, who have or have had leprosy. Methods. A population-based, descriptive, ecological study using the MapInfo and CrimeStat techniques, geoprocessing, and space-time analysis evaluated the location of 425 people treated for leprosy between 1998 and 2010. Clusters were defined as concentrations of at least 8 people with leprosy; a distance of up to 300 meters between residences was adopted. Additionally, the year of starting treatment and the clinical forms of the disease were analyzed. Results. Ninety-eight (23.1%) of 425 geocoded cases were located within one of ten clusters identified in this study, and 129 cases (30.3%) were in the region of a second-order cluster, an area considered of high risk for the disease. Conclusion. This study identified ten clusters of leprosy cases in the city and identified an area of high risk for the appearance of new cases of the disease.

  13. An Asymmetrical Network: National and International Dimensions of the Development of Mexican Physiology.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the history of Mexican physiology during the period 1910-60 when two noted investigators, José J. Izquierdo, first, and Arturo Rosenblueth, second, inscribed their work into an international network of medical research. The network had at its center the laboratory of Walter B. Cannon at Harvard University. The Rockefeller Foundation was its main supporter. Rosenblueth was quite familiar with the network because he worked with Cannon at Harvard for over ten years before returning to Mexico in the early 1940s. Izquierdo and Rosenblueth developed different strategies to face adverse conditions such as insufficient laboratory equipment, inadequate library resources, a small scientific community, and ephemeral political support. Both acquired local influence and international prestige, but the sources of financial and academic power remained in the United States. This case study provides insight into the circulation of scientific ideas and practices in an important Latin American country and suggests that the world's circulation of science among industrial and developing nations during the mid-twentieth century was intrinsically asymmetric but opened temporary opportunities for talented individuals and groups of researchers. PMID:26041142

  14. Embryonic development of endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Alcântara, Dayane; Rodrigues, Marcio N; Franciolli, André L R; Da Fonseca, Erika T; Silva, Fernanda M O; Carvalho, Rafael C; Fratini, Paula; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto P; Ferreira, Antonio José P; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2013-08-01

    The poultry industry is a sector of agribusiness which represents an important role in the country's agricultural exports. Therefore, the study about embryogenesis of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has a great economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryonic development of the endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty fertilized eggs of domestic chickens, starting from the 1st day of gestation and so on until the 19 days of the incubation were collected from the Granja São José (Amparo, SP, Brazil). Embryos and fetus were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, identified, weighed, measured, and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy. The endoderm originates the internal lining epithelium of the digestive, immune, respiratory systems, and the organs can be visualized from the second day (48 h) when the liver is formed. The formation of the digestive system was complete in the 12th day. Respiratory system organs begin at the fourth day as a disorganized tissue and undifferentiated. Their complete differentiation was observed at the 10 days of incubation, however, until the 19 days the syrinx was not observed. The formation of immune system at 10th day was observed with observation of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa. The study of the organogenesis of the chicken based on germ layers is very complex and underexplored, and the study of chicken embryology is very important due the economic importance and growth of the use of this animal model studies such as genetic studies.

  15. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology. PMID:27117799

  16. Fundamental Physical Basis for Maxwell-Heaviside Gravitomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyambuya, Golden Gadzirayi

    2015-08-01

    Gravitomagnetism is universally and formally recognised in contemporary physics as being the linear first-order approximation of Einstein's field equations emerging from the General Theory of Relativity (GTR). Herein, we argue that, as has been done by others in the past, gravitomagnetism can be viewed as a fully-fledged independent theory of gravitomagnetism that can be divorced from Professor Einstein's GTR. The gravitomagnetic theory whose exposition we give herein is exactly envisioned by Professor Maxwell and Dr. Heaviside. The once speculative Maxwell-Heaviside Gravitomagnetic theory now finds full justification as a fully fledged theory from Professor José Hera's Existence Theorem which states that all that is needed for there to exist the four Max-well-type field equations is that a mass-current conservation law be obeyed. Our contribution in the present work, if any, is that we demonstrate conclusively that like electromagnetism, the gravitomagnetic phenomenon leads to the prediction of gravitomagnetic waves that travel at the speed of light. Further, we argue that for the gravitational phenomenon, apart from the Newtonian gravitational potential, there are four more potentials and these operate concurrently with the Newtonian potential. At the end of it, it is seen that the present work sets the stage for a very interesting investigation of several gravitational anomalies such as the ponderous Pioneer Anomaly, the vexing Flyby Anomalies, the mysterious Anomalous Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies and as well, the possibility of the generation of stellar magnetic fields by rotating gravitational masses.

  17. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries.

  18. Comparison of ground-based measurements of natural radiation to airborne radiation survey data on transects from coastal California to the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffer, P. W.; Hernández, L.; Messina, P.; Dearaujo, J.; Li, A.; Hicks, A.; White, L.

    2008-12-01

    Natural gamma radiation measurements were collected with a hand-held Geiger counter at nearly 400 locations on two general transects across the southwestern United States. The data are used to provide ground-truth comparison to published airborne radiation surveys of the region. The first transect was collected by high school students in the SF-ROCKS program at San Francisco State University in the summer of 2008 starting in San Francisco. Data were collected across the Sierra Nevada Range on I-80, and across Highway 50 in Nevada, and I-70 in Utah. Data were collected in and around Great Basin, Arches, Capitol Reef, Bryce, and Zion National Parks, and Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. A second transect extends from San José, California to Flagstaff, Arizona and includes the Mojave National Reserve, Death Valley region, and locations throughout the Navajo Reservation region in northern Arizona and western New Mexico. Radiation data (with GPS reference) were collected from all the major sedimentary rock formations and igneous rocks of the Colorado Plateau and from many igneous and metamorphic rocks throughout the Great Basin and southern California deserts. Anomalously high localized levels were noted in selected sedimentary units associated with uranium exploration targets in the Colorado Plateau region, and in caverns and rock fissures where radon gas (and accumulation of derivative fission products) are the inferred sources.

  19. Multi-center survey of House officers' choice of Medical specialties in Nigeria: preferences and determining factors.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Kelechi Emmanuel; Akpayak, Idorenyin Cletus; Amusan, Ezekiel Olatunde; Ekpe, Eyo Effiong; Adamu, Yahaya Baba; Ocheli, Emmanuel Ossai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine preferences and factors influencing the choice of medical specialties by House officers. Questionnaires were distributed to House-officers in 4 tertiary hospitals namely: the National hospital, Abuja, the University of Port-Harcourt, the Jos University, and the University of Uyo Teaching Hospitals. The data were simultaneously collected and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 version. Of the 150 questionnaires distributed, 129(86%) were duly filled. The mean age was 22.4 years (range 21-40 years), 79(61.2%) of the respondent were male. Fifty-nine(45.7%) chose training within the country while 32(24.8%) preferred outside as 107(86%) chose training in Teaching Hospitals. Teachers, Resident doctors and parents influenced choices in 34(26.3%), 17(13.1%) and 16(12.4%) respectively. Thirty-four(26.3%), 28 (21.7%), 13(10.1%) and 15(11.6%) preferred obstetrics, surgery, internal medicine and paediatrics respectively. Seventy (46.7%) chose specialties for personal likeness and 17(11.3%) for role models in that specialty. House officers preferred to pursue medical specialty in teaching hospitals within the country and they are motivated by personal fulfillment, independence of practice and role models while more prefer to specialize in more Obstetrics/ Gyaenocology and surgery. PMID:26175828

  20. Multi-center survey of House officers’ choice of Medical specialties in Nigeria: preferences and determining factors

    PubMed Central

    Okonta, Kelechi Emmanuel; Akpayak, Idorenyin Cletus; Amusan, Ezekiel Olatunde; Ekpe, Eyo Effiong; Adamu, Yahaya Baba; Ocheli, Emmanuel Ossai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine preferences and factors influencing the choice of medical specialties by House officers. Questionnaires were distributed to House-officers in 4 tertiary hospitals namely: the National hospital, Abuja, the University of Port-Harcourt, the Jos University, and the University of Uyo Teaching Hospitals. The data were simultaneously collected and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 version. Of the 150 questionnaires distributed, 129(86%) were duly filled. The mean age was 22.4 years (range 21-40 years), 79(61.2%) of the respondent were male. Fifty-nine(45.7%) chose training within the country while 32(24.8%) preferred outside as 107(86%) chose training in Teaching Hospitals. Teachers, Resident doctors and parents influenced choices in 34(26.3%), 17(13.1%) and 16(12.4%) respectively. Thirty-four(26.3%), 28 (21.7%), 13(10.1%) and 15(11.6%) preferred obstetrics, surgery, internal medicine and paediatrics respectively. Seventy (46.7%) chose specialties for personal likeness and 17(11.3%) for role models in that specialty. House officers preferred to pursue medical specialty in teaching hospitals within the country and they are motivated by personal fulfillment, independence of practice and role models while more prefer to specialize in more Obstetrics/ Gyaenocology and surgery. PMID:26175828

  1. A Neutron Burst Associated with an Extensive Air Shower?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Mauro; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Gusev, Anatoly; De Abreu, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    A portable and compact system based on a He-3 tube (LND, USA; model 25311) with an area of approximately 250 cm² and is used to record neutron count rates at ground level in the energy range of 0.025 eV to 10 MeV, in São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil (23° 12' 45" S, 45° 52' 00" W; altitude, 660m). The detector, power supply, digitizer and other hardware are housed in an air-conditioned room. The detector power supply and digitizer are not connected to the main electricity network; a high-capacity 12-V battery is used to power the detector and digitizer. Neutron counts are accumulated at 1-minute intervals continuously. The data are stored in a PC for further analysis. In February 8, 2015, at 12 h 22 min (local time) during a period of fair weather with minimal cloud cover (< 1 okta) the neutron detector recorded a sharp (count rate = 27 neutrons/min) and brief (< 1 min) increase in the count rate. In the days before and after this event, the neutron count rate has oscillated between 0 and 3 neutrons/min. Since the occurrence of this event is not related with spurious signals, malfunctioning equipment, oscillations in the mains voltage, etc. we are led to believe that the sharp increase was caused by a physical source such as a an extensive air shower that occurred over the detector.

  2. Multifractal analysis of lightning channel for different categories of lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, F. J.; Sharma, S. R.

    2016-07-01

    A study from the point of view of complex systems is done for lightning occurred at Diamantina, Sete Lagoas and São José dos Campos, during the summer from September 2009 to April 2010. For the first time, multifractal analyses were performed for different lightning categories: two-dimensional, three-dimensional, non-branched, branched, cloud, cloud-to-ground, single and multiple. We found that when using two-dimensional images of natural lightning embedded in three dimensions to perform multifractal analysis, the interpretation of the multifractal spectrum must be restricted to identification of the multi (mono) fractal character of lightning channel and to estimation of fractal dimension. We have also observed that, on the average, each category has a specific value of fractal dimension. Categories in which branches and tortuosity are more usual, like branched and cloud categories, exhibited largest fractal dimensions due to more complexity of lightning channels. The results suggest that single and multiple lightning have similar complexities in their channels, leading to the same average values of fractal, information and correlation dimensions for both categories.

  3. A comparative study of the ionospheric F-region observations in the Brazilian low latitude region and the TIMEGCM model results during the super geomagnetic storm of 20 November 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker-Guedes, F.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P.; Crowley, G.; Lima, W.

    The TIMEGCM is a global 1st principles model of the ionosphere-thermosphere I-T system with fully coupled and interactive ionospheric and thermospheric components The model requires a specification of the high latitude electric potential distribution for each time step along with specification of the auroral particle precipitation Each of these parameters is obtained by use of the AMIE Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics technique which assimilates data from nearly 200 ground-based magnetometers several DMSP satellites and the SuperDARN radar network In this paper we compare ionospheric observations from two low-latitude ionospheric sounding stations with predictions from the TIMEGCM during the super geomagnetic storm of 20 November 2003 The super geomagnetic storm with SSC at 08 03 UT on 20 November attained vert Dst vert max 472 nT at 20 00 UT 20 11 The digital ionosondes using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes CADIs are located at Palmas PAL 10 2 r S 48 2 r W dip latitude 5 5 r S a near equatorial station and S a o Jos e dos Campos SJC 23 2 r S 45 9 r W dip latitude 17 6 r S station located under the crest of equatorial ionospheric anomaly Brazil Comparisons of model predictions with ionospheric observations during intense geomagnetic disturbances are important studies related to space weather forecasting Salient features from this comparative study are presented and discussed in this paper

  4. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  5. [Detection of toxigenic genes nheA, nheB and nheC in Bacillus cereus strains isolated from powdered milk samples in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jonathan; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Pérez, Cristian; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2014-09-01

    Powdered milk is a frequently consumed product that does not need to be kept under cold conditions. Nevertheless, different microorganisms may contaminate it. Powdered milk is a highly consumed product by Costa Rican population, and Bacillus cereus is a potentially pathogenic bacteria associated to it, with the ability to develop toxins depending on the presence of the respective codifying genes. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of the toxigenic genes nheA, nheB and nheC from B. cereus strains, found in powdered milk sold at the Costa Rican national market. Five different lots of ten brands of powdered milk, distributed in the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica were analyzed. B cereus load was quantified using the Most Probable Number technique and identified using the Vitek system. The presence of the toxigenic genes was determined using the PCR technique. The isolation frequency of this bacteria in the powdered milk samples analyzed reached 50%, with populations ranging from 3 to > 100 MPN/g. Five out from nineteen strains were found positive for the three toxigenic genes, indicating contamination with potentially toxigenic B. cereus in powdered milk distributed in the national market, and an important risk for public. health.

  6. PREFACE: DISCRETE 2012 - Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, G. C.; Emmanuel-Costa, D.; González Felipe, R.; Joaquim, F. R.; Lavoura, L.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Rebelo, M. N.; Romão, J. C.; Silva, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    The Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries (DISCRETE 2012) was held at Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal, from 3-7 December 2012 and was organised by Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP) of Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. This is the sequel to the Symposia that was successfully organised in Valéncia in 2008 and in Rome in 2010. The topics covered included: T, C, P, CP symmetries CPT symmetry, decoherence, Lorentz symmetry breaking Discrete symmetries and models of flavour mixing Baryogenesis, leptogenesis Neutrino physics Electroweak symmetry breaking and physics beyond the Standard Model Accidental symmetries (B, L conservation) Experimental prospects at LHC Dark matter searches Super flavour factories, and other new experimental facilities The Symposium was organised in plenary sessions with a total of 24 invited talks, and parallel sessions with a total of 70 talks, including both invited and selected contributions from the submitted abstracts. The speakers of the plenary sessions were: Ignatios Antoniadis, Abdelhak Djouadi, Rabindra Mohapatra, André Rubbia, Alexei Yu Smirnov, José Bernabéu, Marco Cirelli, Apostolos Pilaftsis, Antonio Di Domenico, Robertus Potting, João Varela, Frank Rathmann, Michele Gallinaro, Dumitru Ghilencea, Neville Harnew, John Walsh, Patrícia Conde Muíño, Juan Aguilar-Saavedra, Nick Mavromatos, Ulrich Nierste, Ferruccio Feruglio, Vasiliki Mitsou, Masanori Yamauchi, and Marcello Giorgi. The Symposium was attended by about 140 participants. Among the social events, there was a social dinner in the historical Associação Comercial de Lisboa, which included a musical performance of 'Fado', the traditional music from Lisbon. The next symposium of the series will be organised by King's College, London University, UK, from 1-5 December 2014. Guest Editors G C Branco, D Emmanuel-Costa, R González Felipe, F R Joaquim, L Lavoura, S Palomares-Ruiz, M N Rebelo, J C

  7. Management of postoperative pain in abdominal surgery in Spain. A multicentre drug utilization study

    PubMed Central

    Vallano, Antonio; Aguilera, Cristina; Arnau, Josep Maria; Baños, Josep-Eladi; Laporte, Joan-Ramon

    1999-01-01

    Participating centres: Hospital Universitario San Juan, Alicante: Maria Jesús Olaso, Javier Agulló, Clara Faura. Hospital Torrecárdenas, Almería: Carmen Fernández Sánchez, Miguel Lorenzo Campos, Juan Manuel Rodríguez Alonso. Hospital Quirúrgic Adriano, Barcelona: Carmen Alerany Pardo, Paquita Alvarez González, Teresa Martín Benito. Hospital Universitari del Mar-IMIM, Barcelona: Magí Farré, Maite Terán. Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí, Sabadell: Montserrat Cañellas, Sergio Zavala, Josep Planell. Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau: Gonzalo Calvo, Rosa Morros, Silvia Mateo. Hospital General Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona: Carmen Bosch, María José Martínez. Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga: Maribel Lucena, José Antonio González, Gabriel Carranque. Hospital Clínico Universitario San Carlos, Madrid: Emilio Vargas, Amparo Gil López-Oliva, Míriam García Mateos. Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander: Mario González, Antonio Cuadrado. Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Macarena, Sevilla: Juan Antonio Durán, Pilar Máyquez, María Isabel Serrano. Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla: Jaume Torelló, Juan Ramón Castillo, María de las Nieves Merino. Aims Postoperative pain is common in hospital-admitted patients. Its management is determined by different therapeutic traditions and by the attitudes of health professionals in each hospital. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of prescription and administration of analgesic drugs used for postoperative pain after abdominal surgery in Spanish hospitals, to know the prevalence and the severity of postoperative pain, and to determine the extent of variability in the management of postoperative pain among the participating centres. Methods The study was a multicentre descriptive cross-sectional drug utilization study in 12 Spanish hospitals. The subjects were an unselected sample of consecutive patients undergoing abdominal

  8. Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    Quebec IREQ, Varennes Canada Etienne PARKINSON Andritz Hydro Ltd. Switzerland B V S S S PRASAD Indian Institute of Technology Madras India Stefan RIEDELBAUCH Stuttgart University Germany Michel SABOURIN Alstom Hydro Canada Inc Canada Bruno SCHIAVELLO Flowserve Corporation USA Katsumasa SHIMMEI Hitachi Ltd Japan Christoph SINGRTüN VDMA Germany Ale? SKOTAK CKD Blansko Engineering, a s Czech Republic Toshiaki SUZUKI Toshiba Corporation Japan Andy C C TAN Queensland University of Technology Australia Geraldo TIAGO FILHO Universidade Federal de Itajuba Brazi Thi C VU Andritz Hydro Ltd Canada Satoshi WATANABE Kyushu University Japan S H WINOTO National University of Singapore Singapore Woo-Seong WOO STX Institute of Technology Korea International Technical Committee François AVELLAN (principal) EPFL-LMH Switzerland Xingqi LUO (principal) Xi'an University of Technology China Martin BÖHLE Kaiserslautern University Germany Gerard BOIS ENSAM France Young-Seok CHOI KITECH Korea Luca d'AGOSTINO University of Pisa Italy Eduard EGUSQUIZA Polytechnical University Catalonia Spain Arpad FAY University of Miskolcz Hungary Richard FISHER Voith Hydro Inc USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLA Institute Polytechnique de Grenoble France Aleksandar GAJIC University of Belgrade Serbia José GONZÁLEZ Universidad de Oviedo Spain François GUIBAULT Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Canada Toshiaki IKOHAGI Tohoku University Japan Chisachi KATO University of Tokyo Japan Kwang-Yong KIM Inha University Korea Youn-Jea KIM Sungkyunkwan University Korea Smaine KOUIDRI Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6) France Shengcai LI Warwick University UK Adrian LUNGU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Romania Torbjøm K NIELSEN NTNU Norway Michihiro NISHI Tsinghua University China Peter PELZ Darmstadt University Germany Frantisek POCHYLY Brno University Czech Republic Albert RUPRECHT University of Stuttgart Germany Rudolf SCHILLING Technische University München Germany Wei SHYY HKUST Hong Kong,China Romeo SUSAN

  9. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    Colombia e-mail: dalandinezt@unal.edu.co Professor Laura T Corredor Bohórquez Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: ltcorredorb@df.ufpe.br Professor Arkady Shanenko Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: arkadyshanenko@df.ufpe.br Professor Renato F Jardim Instituto de Física Universidade de S\\~ao Paulo CP 66318 S\\~ao Paulo SP Brazil e-mail: rjardim@if.usp.br Professor Francois Peeters Department Fysica Universiteit Antwerpen Groneneborgerlann 171 B-2020, Antwerpen Belgium e-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be Organizing committee ChairmanCarlos Arturo Parra Vargas Proceedings EditorJosé Albino Aguiar Program ChairJairo Roa-Rojas SecretaryAura Janeth Barón González TreasurerArmando Sarmiento Santos Speaker ChairRafael González Hernández Fernando Naranjo Mayorga David A Landínez Téllez Jesús Oswaldo Morán José Sierra Ortega

  10. Influence of time scale wind speed data on sustainability analysis for irrigating greenhouse crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Méndez, Rodrigo; García Llaneza, Joaquín; Peillón, Manuel; Perdigones, Alicia; Sanchez, Raul; Tarquis, Ana M.; Garcia, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    Appropriate water supply at crop/farm level, with suitable costs, is becoming more and more important. Energy management is closely related to water supply in this context, being wind energy one of the options to be considered, using wind pumps for irrigation water supply. Therefore, it is important to characterize the wind speed frequency distribution to study the technical feasibility to use its energy for irrigation management purpose. The general objective of this present research is to analyze the impact of time scale recorded wind speed data in the sustainability for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown under greenhouse at Cuban conditions using drip irrigation system. For this porpoise, a daily estimation balance between water needs and water availability was used to evaluate the feasibility of the most economic windmill irrigation system. Several factors were included: wind velocity (W, m/s) in function of the time scale averaged, flow supplied by the wind pump as a function of the elevation height (H, m) and daily greenhouse evapotranspiration. Monthly volumes of water required for irrigation (Dr, m3/ha) and in the water tank (Vd, m3), as well as the monthly irrigable area (Ar, ha), were estimated by cumulative deficit water budgeting taking in account these factors. Three-hourly wind velocity (W3h, m/s) data from 1992 till 2008 was available for this study. The original data was grouped in six and twelve hourly data (W6h and W12h respectively) as well as daily data (W24h). For each time scale the daily estimation balance was applied. A comparison of the results points out a need for at least three-hourly data to be used mainly in the months in which mean wind speed are close or below the pumps threshold speed to start-up functioning. References Manuel Esteban Peillon Mesa, Ana Maria Tarquis Alfonso, José Luis García Fernández, and Raúl Sánchez Calvo. The use of wind pumps for irrigating greenhouse tomato crops: a case study in Cuba. Geophysical

  11. PREFACE: XV Chilean Physics Symposium, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, José; Ávila, Ricardo; Cubillos, Karla

    2008-02-01

    initial contact with the journal. Leopoldo Soto President, Chilean Physical Society Head of Plasma Department, Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission Editors: Leopoldo Soto, José Moreno, Ricardo Ávila, Karla Cubillos Scientific Committee Physicists from various research institutions, specialty areas, and regions of the country were invited by the Board of SOCHIFI to join the Symposium Scientific Committee, which was formed by: Julio Yánez, Universidad de Antofagasta Sergio del Campo, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso Patricio Vargas, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María Rodrigo Soto, Universidad de Chile Ulrich Volkmann, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Víctor Muñoz, Universidad de Chile Rodrigo Aros, Universidad Andrés Bello Leopoldo Soto (Chairman), Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Luis Huerta, Universidad de Talca Patricio Salgado, Universidad de Concepción Luis Roa, Universidad de Concepción Asticio Vargas, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco Cristian Martínez, Centro de Estudios Científicos, Valdivia Organizing Commitee Leopoldo Soto (Chairman), Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Erik Herrera, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear José Moreno, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Andrea Rozas, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Rodrigo Aros, Universidad Andrés Bello Gonzalo Gutiérrez, Universidad de Chile Executive Board, Chilean Physical Society April 2006 - April 2008 Leopoldo Soto, President Joel Saavedra, Secretary Rodrigo Aros: Treasurer Rodolfo Figueroa: Director Luis Huerta: Director Conference photograph

  12. Precambrian Cratons and Fold-Belts in Brazil: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuck, R.

    2008-05-01

    The main Precambrian terrains recognized in Brazil comprise the Amazonian, São Francisco and Rio de la Plata cratons, surrounded by Neoproterozoic Brasiliano fold belts, making up the Borborema, Mantiqueira and Tocantins provinces. The Amazonian craton comprises an Archean core, surrounded by Paleoproterozoic terrains (Maroni-Itacaiunas, Ventuari-Tapajós, Rio Negro-Juruena), which southwestwards give way to the Mesoproterozoic Rondoniano-San Ignacio and Sunsas belts, the latter thought to be related to the Grenville belt of North America. The São Francisco craton comprises several Archean blocks (Gavião, Serrinha, Jequié) amalgamated by the Paleoproterozoic high-grade Itabuna-Salvador-Curaçá orogen. The Rio de la Plata craton, largely covered by Phanerozoic strata, is made of Paleoproterozoic basement gneiss and several Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts. Other cratonic blocks are hidden below large Phanerozoic basins, like the Paranapanema and Parnaíba blocks below the Paraná and Parnaíba basins, respectively. Several smaller Archean/Paleoproterozoic blocks appear within the Brasiliano provinces: some were strongly reworked during the Neoproterozoic orogenic events (São José do Campestre, Pernambuco-Alagoas, Goiás, Guanhães, Juiz de Fora, Curitiba), others were only marginally affected (São Luiz, Rio Apa, Luís Alves). The Brasiliano provinces are the result of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic orogenic events within the framework of West Gondwana amalgamation. The Mantiqueira Province extends from eastern Brazil to southern Uruguay and includes the Araçuaí, Ribeira and Dom Feliciano fold belts, bordering the São Francisco, Paranapanema and Rio de la Plata cratons and surrounding the Luís Alves craton. The Tocantins province in central Brazil includes the Araguaia, Paraguay and Brasília fold belts, the former bordering the Amazonian craton, the second bordering both the southern Amazonian craton and the Rio Apa block, and the last established on

  13. EMISSION OF OZONE IN THE VALE DO PARAÍBA REGION, IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL, FOR THE YEAR 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos Zepka, A.; Sales, A. B.; Alvalá, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    The city of São José dos Campos (São Paulo, Brazil) in recent years has shown strong growth and current increase in industrial economy, leading to a sharp urban development and consequent problems of air pollution. The ozone is a major greenhouse gas, present in the troposphere by photochemical reactions in natural emissions of anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons such as volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides, which can come from lightning and soil. Due to the fact that this gas is considered the main pollutant responsible for poor air quality, the objective of this study was to characterize the behavior of the emission of ozone in the Vale do Paraíba region, in Southeastern Brazil, in association with meteorological parameters. Researches in this area are essential, because of the need for better knowledge on air quality at regional and global. The motivation for this study was based on the fact that the ozone near the surface can be considered a gas harmful to human and animal health, crops and forests as well of urban areas in general, besides being used as a major indicators of air quality by agencies of monitoring environment, such as the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), for example. This study is an initial analysis that will lead to a better understanding of chemical and physical processes that occur in the atmosphere of the city and region. Ozone and meteorological data were obtained from two locations in the city, known as INPE (23°12,04'S; 45°51,06'W) and UNIVAP (23°12,05'S; 45°57,02'W) during the year 2007. The ozone data were obtained every 15 minutes and converted in hourly and daily averages. In addition, were collected the maximum and minimum measure daily. The ozone showed similar behavior to temperature and irradiance for the period studied. In spring and summer there was an increase of ozone mixing ratio, which was produced photochemically during the increase of solar irradiance. Moreover, the periods of autumn

  14. PREFACE: International Conference on Optics of Excitons in Confined Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viña, Luis; Tejedor, Carlos; Calleja, José M.

    2010-01-01

    ), France (41), Spain (33), UK (24), Switzerland (21), Italy (14), The Netherlands (12), USA (11), other (23). The conference was made possible by generous sponsors, whom we thank earnestly: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spanish Ministry of 'Educación y Ciencia', Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, European Union (ITN- 235114), Europhysics Letters, Semiconductor Science and Technology, Consolider Research Project 'Quantum Optical Information Technology', Lasing S A, Newport, Innova Scientific, Foundation Madrid-2016 and European Physical Society. We would like to acknowledge the members of the Organizing and Program Committees, who are responsible for the success of the Conference (names are listed below). Finally, the authors are thanked for the quality of their contributions. Luis Viña Carlos Tejedor José M Calleja EDITORS Organizing Committee Luis Viña-Chair, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid María D Martín-Scientific Secretary, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid José M Calleja, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Luisa González, Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid Herko van der Meulen, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Enrique Calleja, Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología Madrid Daniele Sanvitto, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Program Committee Carlos Tejedor-Chair, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Israel Bar-Joseph, Weizmann Institute of Science Jeremy J Baumberg, Cambridge University Manfred Bayer, Universität Dortmund Jacqueline Bloch, Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures - CNRS Wolfgang Langbein, Cardiff University Marek Potemski, Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory Antonio Quattropani, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Salvatore Savasta, Università di Messina Vincenzo Savona, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne David Snoke, University of Pittsburgh Jerome Tignon, Ecole Normale Superieure Paris

  15. Turmoil at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica): Degassing and eruptive processes inferred from high-frequency gas monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moor, J. Maarten; Aiuppa, A.; Avard, G.; Wehrmann, H.; Dunbar, N.; Muller, C.; Tamburello, G.; Giudice, G.; Liuzzo, M.; Moretti, R.; Conde, V.; Galle, B.

    2016-08-01

    Eruptive activity at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica) has escalated significantly since 2014, causing airport and school closures in the capital city of San José. Whether or not new magma is involved in the current unrest seems probable but remains a matter of debate as ash deposits are dominated by hydrothermal material. Here we use high-frequency gas monitoring to track the behavior of the volcano between 2014 and 2015 and to decipher magmatic versus hydrothermal contributions to the eruptions. Pulses of deeply derived CO2-rich gas (CO2/Stotal > 4.5) precede explosive activity, providing a clear precursor to eruptive periods that occurs up to 2 weeks before eruptions, which are accompanied by shallowly derived sulfur-rich magmatic gas emissions. Degassing modeling suggests that the deep magmatic reservoir is ~8-10 km deep, whereas the shallow magmatic gas source is at ~3-5 km. Two cycles of degassing and eruption are observed, each attributed to pulses of magma ascending through the deep reservoir to shallow crustal levels. The magmatic degassing signals were overprinted by a fluid contribution from the shallow hydrothermal system, modifying the gas compositions, contributing volatiles to the emissions, and reflecting complex processes of scrubbing, displacement, and volatilization. H2S/SO2 varies over 2 orders of magnitude through the monitoring period and demonstrates that the first eruptive episode involved hydrothermal gases, whereas the second did not. Massive degassing (>3000 T/d SO2 and H2S/SO2 > 1) followed, suggesting boiling off of the hydrothermal system. The gas emissions show a remarkable shift to purely magmatic composition (H2S/SO2 < 0.05) during the second eruptive period, reflecting the depletion of the hydrothermal system or the establishment of high-temperature conduits bypassing remnant hydrothermal reservoirs, and the transition from phreatic to phreatomagmatic eruptive activity.

  16. Equatorial anomaly effects on GPS scintillations in brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, E. R.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Iyer, K. N.; Kantor, I. J.; Abdu, M. A.; Kintner, P. M.; Ledvina, B. M.; Kil, H.

    In a collaborative study, INPE and Cornell University have installed several Global Positioning System (GPS) based scintillation monitors over the Brazilian territory in order to study L Band scintillation. These scintillation monitors were developed by Cornell University to measure the amplitude scintillation observed at L1 (1.575 GHz) GPS signal and are sensitive to ionospheric irregularities of about 400 meters scale size. This paper describes some characteristics of the intensity of scintillations observed at three observation sites in Brazil: (1) São Luís (2.33 ° S, 44 ° W, dip latitude 1.3 ° S), located at magnetic equator, (2) São José dos Campos (23.21 ° S, 45.86 ° W, dip latitude 17.8 ° S), located under the equatorial anomaly peak and (3) Cuiabá (15.33 ° S, 56.46 ° W, dip latitude 6.1 ° S), an intermediate observation site located in between the magnetic equator and the equatorial anomaly peak. Analysis of data from January to March of 2000 showed that the occurrence percentage as well as the magnitude of the L Band scintillation increase with latitude from the magnetic equator to the equatorial anomaly crest as previously reported by Basu et al. (1988). Strong scintillation with S 4 index exceeding 0.5 only has been observed under equatorial anomaly peak while at magnetic equator scintillation intensity (S 4 index) did not exceed 0.3. Such studies from the network of stations set up by INPE and Cornell University in Brazil, where the effect of large declination controls the ESF statistics, will be very useful for developing a regional scintillation model for use in IRI.

  17. Detection of quinolones in poultry meat obtained from retail centers in Santiago Province, the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Silfrany, R O; Caba, R E; Solís de Los Santos, F; Hanning, I

    2013-02-01

    In the Dominican Republic, poultry consumption per capita is greater than 34 kg of poultry meat per year. However, antibiotics, specifically the quinolone group, may be overused and can result in residues in the poultry meat. These residues are of concern because consumers may have allergies to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can develop from overuse of antibiotics in production. Little is known concerning this issue specifically for Santiago Province in the Dominican Republic. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence of residual quinolones in poultry meat and determine whether any residues detected were higher than the residue maximum limits (100 μg/kg) established by food industry authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority. A total of 135 samples of chicken breast were taken from different retail meat centers in the nine municipalities of Santiago Province (Santiago, Tamboril, Sabana Iglesia, Villa Bisonó, Puñal, Villa González, Licey, Jánico, and San José De Las Matas) and were analyzed using the Equinox test (Immunotec, Swanton, VT). Of the 135 samples analyzed, 50% from Sabana Iglesia, 20% from Licey, 20% from San Jose De Las Matas, and 6.25% from Santiago contained residues of quinolones higher than the residue maximum limits. No quinolone residues were detected in samples obtained from Janico, Punal, Tamboril, Villa Bisono, or Villa Gonzalez. The results of this investigation suggest that some poultry meat sold for human consumption in Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic contains quinolone residues and may represent a health risk to some consumers. PMID:23433388

  18. Goethe's phenomenology of nature: a juvenilization of science.

    PubMed

    Skaftnesmo, Trond

    2009-01-01

    Empirical science is not a mere collection of facts. It builds theories and frames hypotheses within those theories. Empirical theories are stated as plausible answers to questions we pose to nature. According to the Galilean-Baconian tradition within science, these questions should basically explore the causes of observed phenomena, and further be restricted to the measurable and quantitative realm. Thus, the answers are generally expected to explain the effective causes behind the actual phenomena. By framing falsifiable hypotheses, the theories are tested against the empirical foundation on which they rest. In this way we try to relieve science from false theories. Thus, we have two epistemological levels: First, the theoretical level; the scientific theory explaining the phenomena, and second, the empirical level; the phenomena or facts verifying or falsifying those theories. According to the poet and multi-scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), there is however another way of science, namely an approach where these two levels fuse and become one. Goethe intended this approach to be a complementation of the Galilean-Baconian method, more than an alternative. He considered his "hypothesis-free method" to be a more comprehensive and secure way to understand nature. Whereas the Galilean-Baconian method aimed at explaining the effective causes of natural phenomena, in order to control and exploit nature for technical and industrial purposes, Goethe aimed at an exposition of the inherent meaning of the phenomena.We will explore, exemplify and discuss this approach with reference to the inherently Goethean phenomenology of evolution credited to the Dutch anatomist Louis Bolk (1866-1930), later commented and complemented by Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) and Jos Verhulst (1949 ). In the course of this presentation we will outline the Goethean approach as a method representing a juvenilization or in Bolk's terms, a fetalization of science.

  19. Recent divergences in stratospheric water vapor measurements by frost point hygrometers and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Dale F.; Read, William G.; Vömel, Holger; Selkirk, Henry B.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Davis, Sean M.; Hall, Emrys G.; Jordan, Allen F.; Oltmans, Samuel J.

    2016-09-01

    Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers (FPs) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) provide high-quality vertical profile measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). A previous comparison of stratospheric water vapor measurements by FPs and MLS over three sites - Boulder, Colorado (40.0° N); Hilo, Hawaii (19.7° N); and Lauder, New Zealand (45.0° S) - from August 2004 through December 2012 not only demonstrated agreement better than 1 % between 68 and 26 hPa but also exposed statistically significant biases of 2 to 10 % at 83 and 100 hPa (Hurst et al., 2014). A simple linear regression analysis of the FP-MLS differences revealed no significant long-term drifts between the two instruments. Here we extend the drift comparison to mid-2015 and add two FP sites - Lindenberg, Germany (52.2° N), and San José, Costa Rica (10.0° N) - that employ FPs of different manufacture and calibration for their water vapor soundings. The extended comparison period reveals that stratospheric FP and MLS measurements over four of the five sites have diverged at rates of 0.03 to 0.07 ppmv year-1 (0.6 to 1.5 % year-1) from ˜ 2010 to mid-2015. These rates are similar in magnitude to the 30-year (1980-2010) average growth rate of stratospheric water vapor ( ˜ 1 % year-1) measured by FPs over Boulder (Hurst et al., 2011). By mid-2015, the FP-MLS differences at some sites were large enough to exceed the combined accuracy estimates of the FP and MLS measurements.

  20. On β2 stepped leaders in negative cloud-to-ground lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Leandro Z. S.; Saba, Marcelo M. F.; Philip Krider, E.

    2014-06-01

    In their seminal lightning studies using streak cameras, Schonland et al. (1938) identified four negative stepped leader events that they term "β2," a "rather rare variant of the type β leader", and in it, "the second and slower stage of the leader is associated with the appearance of one or more fast dart streamers, which travel rapidly down from the cloud along the previously formed track and cease when they have caught up with the slower leader tip." Seven negative downward leaders that agreed with the description given by Schonland et al. for type β2 were recorded in Tucson, Arizona, USA, and in São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil. All cases were recorded by a high-speed camera operating at 4000 frames per second, and electric field changes were measured for three of them. Their "dart streamers" had speeds between 106 and 107 m s-1, compatible with previous observations of recoil leaders (RLs). Also, during the development of the three cases with correlated electric field changes, it was possible to identify sequences of microsecond-scale pulses preceding the propagation of a dart streamer in the channel. It is proposed that the luminous process that occurs during the development of a type β2 stepped leader is the visible manifestation of one or more RLs that begin inside the cloud and connect to the in-cloud, positive portion of the bipolar, bidirectional leader, and then travel downward to the lower end of the negative stepped leader path.

  1. Who is violent?: factors associated with aggressive behaviors in Latin America and Spain.

    PubMed

    Orpinas, P

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to evaluate the strength of the association between: 1) aggressive behaviors and 2) attitudes and self-efficacy for alternatives to violence, in different cities of the Region of the Americas and Spain. Results were based on a cross-sectional house-hold survey of a sample of the population aged 18 to 70 years. The survey was conducted in eight metropolitan areas of Latin America and Spain: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; Cali, Colombia; San José, Costa Rica; San Salvador, El Salvador; Caracas, Venezuela; and Madrid, Spain. Each sample of approximately 1,200 respondents per city was stratified by clusters and was proportional in terms of socioeconomic position and population density. In all cities and for all targets of aggression studied, people who reported using aggression were less likely to feel confident that they could solve conflicts without violence, and they were more likely to hold attitudes supporting violence. Young persons were also more likely to commit aggression against all the targets. In addition, aggression toward nonfamily members was found most frequently among young men who reported binge drinking, who either carried a firearm or would have liked to carry one, or who perceived the police as inefficient. Additional studies need to be done in each country to describe more specific attitudes associated with aggression within each subculture. Future prevention programs should focus on modifying attitudes that support violence, increasing self-efficacy in solving problems without using violence, supporting the development of a police system that people can trust, regulating firearms and access to alcohol, and raising people's education levels. PMID:10355323

  2. Arcobacter: comparison of isolation methods, diversity, and potential pathogenic factors in commercially retailed chicken breast meat from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fallas-Padilla, Karolina L; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Fernández Jaramillo, Heriberto; Arias Echandi, María Laura

    2014-06-01

    Arcobacter species have been recognized as potential food- and waterborne pathogens. The lack of standardized isolation methods and the relatively scarce knowledge about their prevalence and distribution as emerging pathogens are due to the limitations in their detection and identification. This study aimed to determine the presence and the identification of Arcobacter in chicken breast samples commercially retailed in San José, Costa Rica, as well as to describe the adherence and invasive potential of the strains to human cells (HEp-2). Fifty chicken breast samples were collected from retail markets in the metropolitan area of the country. Six different isolation methodologies were applied for the isolation of Arcobacter. Isolation strategies consisted of combinations of enrichments in de Boer or Houf selective broths and subsequent isolation in blood agar (directly or with a previous passive membrane filtration step) or Arcobacter selective agar. Suspicious colonies were identified with a genus-specific PCR, whereas species-level identification was achieved with a multiplex PCR. The overall isolation frequency of Arcobacter was 56%. From the isolation strategies, the combination of enrichment in Houf selective broth followed by filtration on blood agar showed the best performance, with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 84%. A total of 46 isolates were confirmed as Arcobacter with the genus-specific PCR, from which 27 (59%) corresponded to Arcobacter butzleri, 9 (19%) to Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and 10 (22%) were not identified with this multiplex PCR. Regarding the potential pathogenicity, 75% of the isolates presented adherence to HEp-2 cells, while only 22% were invasive to that cell line. All invasive strains were A. butzleri or nonidentified strains. The results show the presence of potentially pathogenic Arcobacter in poultry and recognize the importance it should receive as a potential foodborne pathogen from public health authorities.

  3. [Socioeconomic and demographic indicators and nutritional status of children in a rural land settlement in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Veiga, G V; Burlandy, L

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated socioeconomic indicators and nutritional status in 201 children and adolescents in a rural land settlement in São José da Boa Morte, Rio de Janeiro. Nutritional deficit was defined as a value below -2 z score for the reference median from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for weight-for-age (W/A) and stature-for-age (S/A) for children under five years of age and weight-for-stature (W/S) and S/A for children from 5.0 to 9.9 years. For adolescents, the study used cut-off points at the 5th percentile (thin) and 85th percentile (overweight) from the distribution of body mass index (BMI) in the Brazilian population. According to the study, 53.8% of the households had 4 to 6 members, 34.5% had rudimentary cesspools, 31.2% had no running water, 11.0% had no bathroom, 58.2% burned or buried their garbage, and 13.6% of the mothers were illiterate. No case of nutritional deficit was found in the 0-4.9 year age bracket, and in the 5-9.9 year bracket there were one underweight and three overweight children. The authors concluded that the low prevalence of nutritional deficits in the study group, despite the exposure to risk factors, may be related to the presence of protective factors like access to health services, and that there was an important rate of overweight among adolescents (13.3%).

  4. Genetic variants of the paraoxonases (PON1 and PON2) in the Chilean population.

    PubMed

    Acuña, M; Eaton, L; Cifuentes, L

    2004-04-01

    We estimated the frequencies of PON1 and PON2 variants (linked genes) in two hospital samples taken from the northern (San José Hospital, SJH) and eastern (Clínica Las Condes, CLC) parts of Santiago, Chile, using the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease digestion. The two hospital samples have different degrees of Amerindian admixture (SJH, 34.5%; CLC, 15.9%), which is reflected in the observed frequencies of the PON1 *B allele (SJH, 43.1%; CLC, 33.7%) and the PON2*S allele (SJH, 86.3%; CLC, 77.6%); both allele frequencies are significantly different between samples. The frequencies of the combined PON1-PON2 genotypes *A/*B-*C/*C, *A/*B-*S/*S, and *B/*B-*S/*S and of the haplotypes PON*A,C and PON*B,S were significantly different between the SJH and CLC groups. None of the genotype frequencies deviated significantly from those predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equation. No linkage disequilibrium was found between the PON1 alleles and any of the PON2 alleles in either group (all p > 0.05). In our samples 38.52% (SJH) and 26.25% (CLC) of chromosomes must have the haplotype PON*B,S, presumed to be related to the risk of coronary artery disease. Twenty-four of 193 (12.4%) SJH individuals and 7 of 122 (5.7%) CLC individuals were homozygotes for this haplotype. Finally, our data indicate ethnic-group-dependent genetic differences in the vulnerability to toxic organophosphorus. PMID:15359538

  5. Interdisciplinarity, Debate And Movie Clips As Highly Motivating Factors In Live Shows - Five Years Of Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stengler, E.; Sirera, J. M.

    2011-09-01

    A live show on any subject that includes experiments and continuous interaction with the audience is a well known approach for EPO activities that many are carrying out all over. We present such an initiative with some added ingredients such as interdisciplinarity, the use of movie clips, and especially the debate between the two presenters, a debate that is all the more attractive to the public if it not fully staged but closely represents their actual points of view. José Montesinos, from the "Orotava" Canarian Foundation for the History of Science, is and plays the role of the more mature math professor who has grown weary of the overrated value given in science to mathematics and its consequences. This poses a constant challenge to his colleague, Erik Stengler, from the Science Museum of Tenerife, the young down-to-earth hands-on scientist, who defends the usual view that science and technology are to be judged by their achievements, which have brought about the advancement of modern society. With this approach and as a collaboration between our institutions, we have produced and toured highly successful activities on: Einstein and Relativity (from 2005 to 2008, "Einstein Goes To School," including a theatre play); circularity, the number π, forces of inertia and the Newtonian revolution (in 2008/2009, "The Tension Between Circularity and The Straight Line"); and the foundations of modern astronomy (in 2009/2010 "Kepler and Galileo, Messengers of the Stars"). Audiences were very varied - students, adult students, general public, prison inmates, teachers - and all appreciated the presentations as fun, thought-provoking and highly motivating, and valued especially the interdisciplinary character of the activity. Movie clips have shown to be especially useful to recover the attention of the young when they lose the thread due to the short attention spans they presently have.

  6. Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV): Results from the 2014 AROMAT campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Tack, Frederik; Constantin, Daniel; Fayt, Caroline; Maes, Jeroen; Mingireanu, Florin; Mocanu, Ionut; Georgescu, Lucian; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) is an instrument dedicated to atmospheric trace gas retrieval from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The payload is based on a compact visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror to collect scattered sunlight. Its weight, size, and power consumption are respectively 920 g, 27x12x12 cm3, and 6 W. The custom-built 2.5 m flying wing UAV is electrically powered, has a typical airspeed of 100 km/h, and can operate at a maximum altitude of 3 km. Both the payload and the UAV were developed in the framework of a collaboration between the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) and the Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Romania. We present here SWING-UAV test flights dedicated to NO2 measurements and performed in Romania on 10 and 11 September 2014, during the Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign. The UAV performed 5 flights in the vicinity of the large thermal power station of Turceni (44.67° N, 23.4° E). The UAV was operated in visual range during the campaign, up to 900 m AGL , downwind of the plant and crossing its exhaust plume. The spectra recorded on flight are analyzed with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. The retrieved NO2 Differential Slant Column Densities (DSCDs) are up to 1.5e17 molec/cm2 and reveal the horizontal gradients around the plant. The DSCDs are converted to vertical columns and compared with coincident car-based DOAS measurements. We also present the near-future perspective of the SWING-UAV observation system, which includes flights in 2015 above the Black Sea to quantify ship emissions, the addition of SO2 as a target species, and autopilot flights at higher altitudes to cover a typical satellite pixel extent (10x10 km2).

  7. [Use of macroalgae for the evaluation of organic pollution in the Preto river, northwest of São Paulo State].

    PubMed

    Necchi Júnior, O; Branco, H Z; Dip, M R

    1994-01-01

    The Preto River, located in the northwest of São Paulo State, receives a total wastewater load of 15.150 kg DBO day-1, from which 13.685 kg DBO day-1 (90.5%) corresponds to domestic sewage, and the city of São José do Rio Preto contributes with 12.400 kg DBO day-1 (90% of domestic sewage). During the period from August 1990 through January 1991, monthly sampling was carried out to evaluate the use of macroalgae as bioindicator of organic pollution. Five sampling sites were established along the main river and the following variables were analised: temperature, conductance, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD, total and fecal coliforms, and composition and abundance of macroalgal communities. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, correlation coefficient, cluster analysis (four different approaches) and converted to biological indices (species deficit, relative pollution, saprobity, diversity and uniformity indices). A wide range in water quality was found (particularly for conductance, oxygen, BOD and COD) among the sampling sites, which were classified into three groups (polluted, moderately polluted and unpolluted/weakly polluted). As regards the occurrence and abundance of macroalgae the Rhodophyta were found only in unpolluted or weakly polluted sites, whereas Cyanophyta occurred mostly under high pollution load; the Chlorophyta species were observed under a wide range of conditions. Among the biological indices, saprobity was the most sensitive and correlated to all water variables and the other indices. Cluster analyses showed that the composition of macroalgal communities was consistent with the levels of organic pollution in the Preto River.

  8. A survey on Triatoma dimidiata in an urban area of the province of Heredia, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Zeledón, Rodrigo; Calvo, Nidia; Montenegro, Víctor M; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Arévalo, Carolina

    2005-10-01

    Triatoma dimidiata has been found in several cities and towns of those countries where the insect is a domestic or peridomestic pest. In Central America, urban infestations occur in the capitals of at least five countries. During 2001 and 2002 a survey was carried out in the county of San Rafael, Heredia province, located 15 km northwest of San José, capital of Costa Rica, in order to determine the degree of infestation by T. dimidiata in an entire city block. Six peridomestic colonies of the insect were detected in the backyards of eight households. The ecotopes occupied by the insects consisted of store rooms with old objects, wood piles or firewood, and chicken coops. A total of 1917 insects were found in the six foci, during two sampling periods, and a mean infection rate by Trypanosoma cruzi of 28.4% was found in 1718 insects examined. The largest colony found in one of the households yielded 872 insects that were thriving mainly at the expenses of two dogs. Opossums and adult insects were common visitors of the houses and it became evident that this marsupial is closely related to the peridomestic cycle of the Chagas disease agent. Lack of colonization of the insect inside the human dwellings is explained by the type of construction and good sanitary conditions of the houses, in contrast to the situation in most peridomiciliary areas. Stomach blood samples from the insects showed that the main hosts were, in order of decreasing frequency: rodents, dogs, fowl, humans, opossums, and cats. The fact that no indication of infection with Chagas disease could be detected in the human occupants of the infested houses, vis a vis the high infection rate in dogs, is discussed.

  9. Micronucleus as biomarker of genotoxicity in birds from Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Baesse, Camilla Queiroz; Tolentino, Vitor Carneiro de Magalhães; da Silva, Adriano Marcos; Silva, Arthur de Andrade; Ferreira, Giancarlo Ângelo; Paniago, Luís Pedro Mendes; Nepomuceno, Júlio César; de Melo, Celine

    2015-05-01

    Birds are considered efficient bioindicators, by their behavioral characteristics, diversified diet, and use of several vegetation layers, including in contaminated environments. The accumulation of contaminants can harm the reproductive process and survival of species, in addition to causing severe metabolic disorders. Air pollution can also affect the birds' health. Micronucleus analysis, a technique able to evaluate the organisms' sensitivity to contaminant agents, has been regarded as a practical tool for evaluating and monitoring the clastogenic and aneugenic effects caused by pollutants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of micronuclei in bird species that use forest environments and their surroundings; and to verify if the frequency and amount of micronuclei varies between species, areas and populations. Birds transiting between the Brazilian Cerrado forest and open formations were analyzed, coming from four forest fragments of Triângulo Mineiro, two close to urban areas and two more distant. Birds were captured with mist-nets for collecting blood extensions, which were used for counting micronuclei. In total, 103 individuals of 21 species were captured, and the micronucleus rate for every 5000 erythrocytes analyzed was 1.30. Only six populations had sampling sufficiency. There was no difference between the number of individuals with and without micronuclei (χ²=3.18, df=1, p=0.08). In areas closer to the urban perimeter, the micronuclei averages in birds were greater compared to the most isolated areas (H=27.534, df=3, p<0,001). In São José, the individuals of Myiothlypis flaveola presented a number of micronuclei significantly greater than the Galheiro and Água Fria (H=9.601, df=2, p=0.008). M. flaveola clearly reflected the area quality. The micronuclei analysis in birds was effective for evaluating the area quality as well as the intensity with which the birds respond to impacts caused by the surrounding matrix.

  10. Effects of Zonal Wind on Stratospheric Ozone Variations over Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidinma Okoro, Eucharia,

    2016-07-01

    The effects of zonal wind on stratospheric ozone variation over Nigeria have been studied. The areas covered in this study include; Maiduguri, Ikeja, Port-Harcourt, Calabar, Makurdi, Ilorin, Akure, Yola, Minna, Jos, Kano and Enugu in Nigeria, from 1986 to 2008. Zonal wind was computed from the iso-velocity map employing MATLAB software. The mean monthly variations of AAM and LOD at pressure levels of 20, 30 and 50 mb in the atmosphere depict a trend of maximum amplitude between April and September, and minimum amplitude between December and March. The trend observed in seasonal variation of O3 column data in the low latitude had maximum amount from May through August and minimum values from December through February. The mean monthly maximum O3 concentrations was found to be 284.70 Du (Kano) occurring in May 1989 while, an average monthly minimum O3 concentration was found to be 235.60 Du (Port-Harcourt and Calabar) occurring in January 1998. It has been established in this study that, the variation in atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) caused by variation of the universal time or length of day (LOD) transfer ozone (O3) by means of zonal wind from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere in the stations understudy. The strong effect of the pressure levels of the atmosphere on O3 variation could be attributed to its effect on the AAM and LOD. Variation in the LOD is significant in the tropics, suggesting that, the effects of the extra-tropical suction pump (ETSP) action is not the only driver responsible for O3 transportation from the tropics to extra-tropical zones. Consequently, these findings lead to a deduction that weather pattern alteration observed due to these changes could lead to climate change. Keywords: ozone variations; dynamical processes; harmattan wind; ETSP; and climatic variability

  11. CD38+CD8+ and CD38+CD4+ T Cells and IFN Gamma (+874) Polymorphism Are Associated with a Poor Virological Outcome.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Paulo Germano; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Raphael; Ribeiro da Silva, Silvia Fernandes; Ribeiro, Ilana Farias; de Miranda Lucena, Herene Barros; Martins, Lilian Roberta Costa; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena; de Arruda, Érico Antônio Gomes; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the work was to evaluate the use of CD38 on T lymphocytes, IFNγ (+874 A/T), and IL-10 (-1082 A/G) polymorphisms in HIV-infected patients under antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Sixty-one patients were selected at the outpatient clinic for HIV infection at the Hospital São José de Doenças Infecciosas, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The patients were classified into two groups, according to viral load after one year of ARV therapy. In the aviremic group (group I), a reduction of 35.5% of CD38+CD4+ T cells was observed (p = 0.02) and 49.3% of CD38+CD8+ T cells (p = 0.001). In the viremic group (group II), a reduction of 37.2% of CD38+CD4+ T cells (p = 0.067), and 21.4% of CD38+CD8+ T cells (p = 0.60) occurred. No association was found between IL-10 (-1082) polymorphism and the type of response to ARV therapy. Regarding the gene polymorphism on IFNγ (+874 T/A), 73.34% of group I and 33.3% of group II presented the AA genotype. The relative risk of the individuals carrying AA genotype or the A allele and not being able to suppress the viral load level after one year of ARV therapy was 3.44 (1.25-9.45; p = 0.014) or 2.35 (1.05-5.26; p = 0.027), respectively. Our data suggested that an augmented frequency of activated CD38+CD8+ T cells as well as the presence of the A allele of IFNγ polymorphism could contribute to a reduced virological suppression in patients under antiretroviral therapy.

  12. Alfabetización astronómica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H.

    A fines de 1991, en una revista de educación en ciencias, José L. Sérsic reflexionaba acerca de los problemas que enfrentaría la enseñanza de los conocimientos astronómicos en nuestro país, en los umbrales del Siglo XXI. Entonces postulaba como un objetivo mínimo, que los jóvenes deberían mostrar signos claros de que se hallan astronómicamente alfabetizados. Era el año en que se realizaba por primera vez una Asamblea General de I.A.U. en Buenos Aires, una oportunidad de singulares características para la comunidad astronómica local y, simultáneamente el comienzo de un cambio radical en la estructura del sistema educativo argentino. ?`Contempla ese cambio el objetivo que postulara Sérsic? ?`Estamos en condiciones de afirmar que estamos en camino de lograrlo? ?`Con qué parámetros?. Presentamos aquí un panorama general sobre algunas de las acciones realizadas en función de alcanzar esa alfabetización científica, analizando exclusivamente la actividad de enseñanza hasta el nivel universitario, sin detenernos en el mismo, ya que lo consideramos una instancia superior e independiente de aquella alfabetización. Tampoco nos referiremos a la tarea de difusión, divulgación o popularización de la Astronomía, ya que su condición de asistemática y subjetiva no es evaluable en términos de la formación integral de un individuo.

  13. Microbiological contamination of enteral feeding solutions used in Costa Rican hospitals.

    PubMed

    Arias, Maria Laura; Monge, Rafael; Chávez, Carolina

    2003-09-01

    Enteral feeding is the most common and preferred modality for providing nutritional support to hospital patients with a functional gastrointestinal tract that can not satisfy their nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, enteral feeding may be an important cause of bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial contamination level of enteral feedings distributed in Costa Rican hospitals. A total of 124 samples of enteral feeding, coming from five different hospitals from San José, Costa Rica, were evaluated during the second semester of 1997 and first of 1998 for the presence and identification of total and fecal coliforms, Pseudomonas sp. and Listeria sp. A subpopulation of the Pseudomonas isolated was analyzed for their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The concentration of Gram negative rods in the samples of enteral feeding solutions ranged from 10(3) to 10(7) CFU/mL, markedly exceeding the permissible level (10(2) CFU/mL or less). The coliforms most frequently isolated included Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coil, Serratia sp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Pseudomonas sp. was isolated in more than 70% of the samples made from commercial based solutions, fruits and vegetables. P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens were the species most frequently isolated. Listeria sp. was not isolated from enteral solutions samples. The results obtained demonstrate that it is urgent to assure strict hygiene during the preparation and handling of all enteral feed in order to avoid bacterial growth. The implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) system will be required in a near future for better quality control of enteral nutrition mixtures.

  14. Microbiological contamination of enteral feeding solutions used in Costa Rican hospitals.

    PubMed

    Arias, M L; Monge, R; Antillón, F; Chávez, C

    1999-12-01

    Enteral feeding is the most common and preferred modality for providing nutritional support to hospital patients with a functional gastrointestinal tract that can not satisfy their nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, enteral feeding may be an important cause of bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial contamination level of enteral feedings distributed in Costa Rican hospitals. A total of 124 samples of enteral feeding, coming from five different hospitals from San José, Costa Rica, were evaluated during the second semester of 1997 and first of 1998 for the presence and identification of total and fecal coliforms, Pseudomonas sp. and Listeria sp. A subpopulation of the Pseudomonas isolated was analyzed for their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The concentration of Gram negative rods in the samples of enteral feeding solutions ranged from 10(3) to 10(7) CFU/mL, markedly exceeding the permissible level (10(2) CFU/mL or less). The coliforms most frequently isolated included Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coil, Serratia sp. and Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Pseudomonas sp. was isolated in more than 70% of the samples made from commercial based solutions, fruits and vegetables. P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens were the species most frequently isolated. Listeria sp. was not isolated from enteral solutions samples. The results obtained demonstrate that it is urgent to assure strict hygiene during the preparation and handling of all enteral feed in order to avoid bacterial growth. The implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) system will be required in a near future for better quality control of enteral nutrition mixtures.

  15. Prematurity and Low Birth Weight did not Correlate with Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Maternal Serum Profiles – a Brazilian Report

    PubMed Central

    Spegiorin, Lígia Cosentino Junqueira Franco; Vaz-Oliani, Denise Cristina Mós; Galão, Eloisa Aparecida; Oliani, Antonio Hélio; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; de Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão

    2015-01-01

    Gestational Toxoplasma gondii infection is considered a major risk factor for miscarriage, prematurity and low birth weight in animals. However, studies focusing on this topic in humans are scarce. The objective of this study is to determine whether anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles correlate prematurity and low birth weight in humans. The study examined 213 pregnant women seen at the High-Risk Pregnancy Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. All serological profiles (IgM-/IgG+; IgM-/IgG-; IgM+/IgG+) were determined by ELISA commercial kits. Maternal age, gestational age and weight of the newborn at birth were collected and recorded in the Statement of Live Birth. Prematurity was defined as gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight ≤ 2499 grams. The t-test was used to compare values (p < 0.05). The mean maternal age was 27.6±6.6 years. Overall, 56.3% (120/213) of the women studied were IgM-/IgG+, 36.2% (77/213) were IgM-/IgG- and 7.5% (16/213) were IgM+/IgG+. The average age of the women with serological profile IgM+/IgG+ (22.3±3.9 years) was different from women with the profile IgM-/IgG+ (27.9±6.7 years, p = 0.0011) and IgM-/IgG- (27.9±6.4 years, p = 0.0012). There was no statistically significant difference between the different serological profiles in relation to prematurity (p = 0.6742) and low birth weight (p = 0.7186). The results showed that prematurity and low birth weight did not correlate with anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles. PMID:26192182

  16. Automatically identification of Equatorial Spread-F occurrence on ionograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillat, Valdir Gil; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Guimarães, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso

    2015-12-01

    F-region large-scale irregularities, also called plasma bubbles, are one of the most interesting equatorial ionospheric phenomena. These irregularities are generated in the equatorial region and afterwards extend to lower latitudes. They are one of the important topics of investigation in equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and, therefore, are subject to intense theoretical and experimental research. The ionosonde is the most used scientific equipment to study the ionosphere and the F-region. With advancement of digital ionosonde, it is now possible to carry out an ionospheric sounding with a cadence of 5 min or even with 1-minute cadence. To analyse a large amount of ionograms, more sophisticated tools are needed. Thus, development of algorithms to identify and analyse different aspects of ionograms has become very important to space science researchers. Multiple echoes recorded on ionograms are the signature of these irregularities in the ionograms, usually called Spread-F. Spread-F is classified into three types: range, frequency, and mixed. Thus, automatic identification of Spread-F is important in ionospheric studies, because studies usually involve the analysis and interpretation of large numbers of ionograms. The main objective of this paper is to present a new computational tool, based on fuzzy relation, designed to automatically identify the occurrence of Spread-F in ionograms. The test was conducted in ionograms recorded in the Brazilian sector (São José dos Campos (23.2°S, 45.9°W, dip latitude 17.6°S-low latitude) and Palmas (10.2°S, 48.2°W, dip latitude 5.5°S-near the magnetic equatorial)). The automatic identification of Spread-F occurrence was compared with those obtained manually and good agreement was found.

  17. Automatically identification of Equatorial Spread-F occurrence on ionograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundes, P. R.; Pillat, V. G.; Guimarães, L. N. F.

    2015-12-01

    F-region large-scale irregularities, also called plasma bubbles, are one of the most interesting equatorial ionospheric phenomena. These irregularities are generated in the equatorial region and afterwards extend to lower latitudes. They are one of the important topics of investigation in equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and, therefore, are subject to intense theoretical and experimental research. The ionosonde is the most used scientific equipment to study the ionosphere and the F-region. With advancement of digital ionosonde, it is now possible to carry out an ionospheric sounding with a cadence of 5 minutes or even with 1-minute cadence. To analyse a large amount of ionograms, more sophisticated tools are needed. Thus, development of algorithms to identify and analyse different aspects of ionograms has become very important to space science researchers. Multiple echoes recorded on ionograms are the signature of these irregularities in the ionograms, usually called Spread-F. Spread-F is classified into three types: range, frequency, and mixed. Thus, automatic identification of Spread-F is important in ionospheric studies, because studies usually involve the analysis and interpretation of large numbers of ionograms. The main objective of this paper is to present a new computational tool, based on fuzzy relation, designed to automatically identify the occurrence of Spread-F in ionograms. The test was conducted in ionograms recorded in the Brazilian sector (São José dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, dip latitude 17.6° S - low latitude) and Palmas (10.2° S, 48.2° W, dip latitude 5.5° S - near the magnetic equatorial)). The automatic identification of Spread-F occurrence was compared with those obtained manually and good agreement was found.

  18. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis) Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) at Península Valdés, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Marón, Carina F.; Beltramino, Lucas; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Seger, Jon; Uhart, Marcela; Sironi, Mariano; Rowntree, Victoria J.

    2015-01-01

    At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales’ backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974–2011 (n = 2680) and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192) in 2003–2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five), but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more) covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000. PMID:26488493

  19. Bioluminescence assay platform for selective and sensitive detection of Ub/Ubl proteases.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, Steven J; Wu, Jian; Eddins, Michael J; Leach, Craig A; Strickler, James E

    2012-11-01

    As the importance of ubiquitylation in certain disease states becomes increasingly apparent, the enzymes responsible for removal of ubiquitin (Ub) from target proteins, deubiquitylases (DUBs), are becoming attractive targets for drug discovery. For rapid identification of compounds that alter DUB function, in vitro assays must be able to provide statistically robust data over a wide dynamic range of both substrate and enzyme concentrations during high throughput screening (HTS). The most established reagents for HTS are Ubs with a quenched fluorophore conjugated to the C-terminus; however, a luciferase-based strategy for detecting DUB activity (DUB-Glo™, Promega) provides a wider dynamic range than traditional fluorogenic reagents. Unfortunately, this assay requires high enzyme concentrations and lacks specificity for DUBs over other isopeptidases (e.g. desumoylases), as it is based on an aminoluciferin (AML) derivative of a peptide derived from the C-terminus of Ub (Z-RLRGG-). Conjugation of aminoluciferin to a full-length Ub (Ub-AML) yields a substrate that has a wide dynamic range, yet displays detection limits for DUBs 100- to 1000-fold lower than observed with DUB-Glo™. Ub-AML was even a sensitive substrate for DUBs (e.g. JosD1 and USP14) that do not show appreciable activity with DUB-Glo™. Aminoluciferin derivatives of hSUMO2 and NEDD8 were also shown to be sensitive substrates for desumoylases and deneddylases, respectively. Ub/Ubl-AML substrates are amenable to HTS (Z'=0.67) yielding robust signal, and providing an alternative drug discovery platform for Ub/Ubl isopeptidases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Ubiquitin Drug Discovery and Diagnostics.

  20. Explaining Adherence Success in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Norma C; Idoko, John; Kaaya, Sylvia; Biraro, Irene Andia; Wyatt, Monique A; Agbaji, Oche; Chalamilla, Guerino; Bangsberg, David R

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa generally take more than 90% of prescribed doses of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This number exceeds the levels of adherence observed in North America and dispels early scale-up concerns that adherence would be inadequate in settings of extreme poverty. This paper offers an explanation and theoretical model of ART adherence success based on the results of an ethnographic study in three sub-Saharan African countries. Methods and Findings Determinants of ART adherence for HIV-infected persons in sub-Saharan Africa were examined with ethnographic research methods. 414 in-person interviews were carried out with 252 persons taking ART, their treatment partners, and health care professionals at HIV treatment sites in Jos, Nigeria; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Mbarara, Uganda. 136 field observations of clinic activities were also conducted. Data were examined using category construction and interpretive approaches to analysis. Findings indicate that individuals taking ART routinely overcome economic obstacles to ART adherence through a number of deliberate strategies aimed at prioritizing adherence: borrowing and “begging” transport funds, making “impossible choices” to allocate resources in favor of treatment, and “doing without.” Prioritization of adherence is accomplished through resources and help made available by treatment partners, other family members and friends, and health care providers. Helpers expect adherence and make their expectations known, creating a responsibility on the part of patients to adhere. Patients adhere to promote good will on the part of helpers, thereby ensuring help will be available when future needs arise. Conclusion Adherence success in sub-Saharan Africa can be explained as a means of fulfilling social responsibilities and thus preserving social capital in essential relationships. PMID:19175285

  1. Study of nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis in Martarega brasiliensis (Heteroptera, Notonectidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, L L V; Alevi, K C C; Moreira, F F F; Barbosa, J F; Silistino-Souza, E R; Silva Júnior, F C; Souza-Firmino, T S; Banho, C A; Itoyama, M M

    2015-01-01

    Few cytogenetic studies have been undertaken using aquatic heteropterans and the nucleolar behavior of these insects has been described in only four species, Limnogonus aduncus, Brachymetra albinerva, Halobatopsis platensis, and Cylindrostethus palmaris. The nucleolus is a cellular structure related to biosynthetic activity and it exhibits a peculiar behavior in the heteropterans of the Triatominae subfamily; it persists during all stages of meiosis. Thus, this study aims to analyze spermatogenesis in Martarega brasiliensis, with an emphasis on nucleolar behavior. Twenty M. brasiliensis adult males were used and collected from the Municipal reservoir in the city of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The species were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1), then dissected, and the testicles were extracted, torn apart, and impregnated with silver ions. During prophase, the nuclei of M. brasiliensis were composed of the nucleolus and nucleolar corpuscles, which varied in number from one to four, emphasizing that this insect has great synthetic activity during meiosis. The analysis of cells in metaphase I showed that M. brasiliensis presents a nucleolar organizing region in at least one autosome. Furthermore, the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence was not observed. All spermatids presented nucleolar markings that varied in number and position according to the stage of elongation. Moreover, it was also possible to highlight the presence of a vesicle in spermatids. Thus, this paper describes the nucleolar behavior of M. brasiliensis and highlights important characteristics during spermatogenesis, thus, increasing the knowledge about the biology of these aquatic heteropterans. PMID:26345830

  2. Contrasted sediment processes and morphological adjustments in three successive cutoff meanders of the Danube delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiron Duţu, Laura; Provansal, Mireille; Le Coz, Jérôme; Duţu, Florin

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s intensive anthropogenic disturbances have affected the channel of the St. George branch, the southern distributary of the Danube River. The meander cutoff programme since 1984-1988 induced different hydrosedimentary impacts on the local distribution of river flow velocities, discharge, and sediment fluxes between the former meanders and the man-made canals (Ichim and Radoane, 1986; Popa, 1997; Panin, 2003). This paper selects three large cutoff meander reaches of the St. George branch (the Mahmudia, Dunavăţ de Sus, and Dunavăţ de Jos meanders noted here as M1, M2, and M3, respectively) as an example to analyse the human impact in the Danube River delta. The diversion of the flow induces strong modifications by acceleration of the fluxes through the artificial canals combined with dramatically enhanced deposition in the former meander where it was observed in two cases (M1 and M3) with slight modifications in M2. An exceptional flood that occurred in April 2006 offered a good opportunity for scanning different cross sections of the meander systems. Bathymetry, flow velocity, suspended-load concentration, and liquid and solid discharge data were acquired throughout several cross sections of both natural channels and artificial canals of the three cutoffs, using acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) technology, in order to investigate the distribution of the flow and sediment and its impact on the hydrosedimentary processes in each channelized reach and adjacent former meander. Therefore, the results obtained during the 2006 flood were referred to a long-term evolution (1970-2006), analysed by GIS techniques.

  3. Earth Systems Science Curriculum Choices for Pre-Service Teachers at San Jose State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, P.; Metzger, E. P.

    2008-12-01

    San José State University was a member of the original ESSEA consortium (2003-05), and it continues its participation with the broadening ESSEA community. Having hosted the original Middle- and High School Teachers' ESSEA courses, the Geology Department and Program in Science Education have maintained their commitments toward supporting pre- and in-service teachers in geoscience concept competency and effective pedagogy. We have witnessed an encouraging trend in the numbers of K-8 (multiple subject) pre-service teachers who have enrolled in our in-house ESSEA-inspired course: Geology 103 (Earth Systems and the Environment). We have also seen an influx of prospective secondary (single subject) teachers seeking credentials in non- geoscience disciplines. California teacher credentialing requirements, especially when layered on the increasing demands of major fields of study and the California State University System's hefty General Education mandates, give prospective teachers little latitude in their academic programs. Geology 103 was developed to satisfy three logistical objectives: to comply with "geoscience content competency" as defined by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CCTC); to fulfill one of the CSU's upper-division General Education requirements, and to develop science process skills in a population that may never have had similar prior opportunities. The course is offered in two modalities: online and on-campus. The Web-based sections are currently comparing the relative effectiveness of two dissimilar online learning modalities and assessments: one delivers video/audio/animated "podcasts," while the other requires student involvement through interactive Flash media. The course is taught by professors with joint appointments in the Department of Geology and Program in Science Education, and by current and former classroom teachers to ensure that geoscience content knowledge is achieved through inquiry, systems analyses, and other

  4. Cambro-Ordovician post-collisional granites of the Ribeira belt, SE-Brazil: A case of terminal magmatism of a hot orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeriano, Claudio de Morisson; Mendes, Julio Cezar; Tupinambá, Miguel; Bongiolo, Everton; Heilbron, Monica; Junho, Maria do Carmo Bustamante

    2016-07-01

    This work presents an overview of the geology and chemical composition of the Cambrian-Ordovician post-collisional (COPC) granites and associated rocks of Ribeira belt, SE-Brazil. These COPC granites make up some of the most picturesque and highest (>2000 m) rocky peaks and cliffs of Rio de Janeiro state, an accessible case of post-orogenic granitic magmatism associated with the terminal stages of a hot Ediacaran-Cambrian (Brasiliano-Panafrican) orogen. The COPC magmatism intruded tonalitic to granitic orthogneisses of the Rio Negro arc (∼790-600 Ma) and associated paragneisses of the São Fidelis Group. Post-collisional magmatism started ∼10 m.y. after the latest collisional event, the Buzios Orogeny, lasting discontinuously from ∼510 Ma until ∼470 Ma. The 15 largest intrusive bodies in Rio de Janeiro State are referred to in the literature as the Parati/Mangaratiba, Vila Dois Rios, Pedra Branca, Suruí, Silva Jardim, Favela, Andorinha, Teresópolis, Frade, Nova Friburgo, Conselheiro Paulino, São José do Ribeirão, Sana and Itaoca granites. They crop out as rounded/elliptical stocks or gently-dipping sheets, always with sharp contacts with the country rocks, along with pegmatite and aplitic veins and dykes. COPC granites are grey and pink undeformed medium-grained biotite monzogranites with (K-feldspar) porphyritic, mega-crystic, equigranular and serial textures. Magmatic flow foliation is frequently observed. Peripheric xenolith zones are common as well as isolated xenoliths from the country rocks. In a compilation of more than 100 chemical compositions, SiO2 contents display a major mode at 71wt%. The COPC magmatism generated high-K calc-alkaline granites and quartz monzonites with predominantly metaluminous granites. Meso to melanocratic gabbroic and dioritic enclaves also have calc-alkaline affinity and likely represent more resistant mafic xenoliths from the Rio Negro Arc.

  5. Finite element analysis and fracture resistance testing of a new intraradicular post

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Eron Toshio Colauto; PAGANI, Clovis; da SILVA, Eduardo Galera; NORITOMI, Pedro Yoshito; UEHARA, André Yugou; KEMMOKU, Daniel Takanori

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate a prefabricated intraradicular threaded pure titanium post, designed and developed at the São José dos Campos School of Dentistry - UNESP, Brazil. This new post was designed to minimize stresses observed with prefabricated post systems and to improve cost-benefits. Material and methods Fracture resistance testing of the post/core/root complex, fracture analysis by microscopy and stress analysis by the finite element method were used for post evaluation. The following four prefabricated metal post systems were analyzed: group 1, experimental post; group 2, modification of the experimental post; group 3, Flexi Post, and group 4, Para Post. For the analysis of fracture resistance, 40 bovine teeth were randomly assigned to the four groups (n=10) and used for the fabrication of test specimens simulating the situation in the mouth. The test specimens were subjected to compressive strength testing until fracture in an EMIC universal testing machine. After fracture of the test specimens, their roots were sectioned and analyzed by microscopy. For the finite element method, specimens of the fracture resistance test were simulated by computer modeling to determine the stress distribution pattern in the post systems studied. Results The fracture test presented the following averages and standard deviation: G1 (45.63±8.77), G2 (49.98±7.08), G3 (43.84±5.52), G4 (47.61±7.23). Stress was homogenously distributed along the body of the intraradicular post in group 1, whereas high stress concentrations in certain regions were observed in the other groups. These stress concentrations in the body of the post induced the same stress concentration in root dentin. Conclusions The experimental post (original and modified versions) presented similar fracture resistance and better results in the stress analysis when compared with the commercial post systems tested (08/2008-PA/CEP). PMID:23032204

  6. Sphenoid Sinus and Sphenoid Bone Fractures in Patients with Craniomaxillofacial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cantini Ardila, Jorge Ernesto; Mendoza, Miguel Ángel Rivera; Ortega, Viviana Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sphenoid bone fractures and sphenoid sinus fractures have a high morbidity due to its association with high-energy trauma. The purpose of this study is to describe individuals with traumatic injuries from different mechanisms and attempt to determine if there is any relationship between various isolated or combined fractures of facial skeleton and sphenoid bone and sphenoid sinus fractures. Methods We retrospectively studied hospital charts of all patients who reported to the trauma center at Hospital de San José with facial fractures from December 2009 to August 2011. All patients were evaluated by computed tomography scan and classified into low-, medium-, and high-energy trauma fractures, according to the classification described by Manson. Design This is a retrospective descriptive study. Results The study data were collected as part of retrospective analysis. A total of 250 patients reported to the trauma center of the study hospital with facial trauma. Thirty-eight patients were excluded. A total of 212 patients had facial fractures; 33 had a combination of sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures, and facial fractures were identified within this group (15.5%). Gender predilection was seen to favor males (77.3%) more than females (22.7%). The mean age of the patients was 37 years. Orbital fractures (78.8%) and maxillary fractures (57.5%) were found more commonly associated with sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. Conclusions High-energy trauma is more frequently associated with sphenoid fractures when compared with medium- and low-energy trauma. There is a correlation between facial fractures and sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. A more exhaustive multicentric case-control study with a larger sample and additional parameters will be essential to reach definite conclusions regarding the spectrum of fractures of the sphenoid bone associated with facial fractures. PMID:24436756

  7. [The Martín Larios affair and the beginnings of neurology in Spain. Charcot refuted by Escuder, Vera and Simarro].

    PubMed

    Corral Corral, I; Corral Corral, C

    2000-01-01

    Jean Martin Charcot travelled to Spain in December 1887 in the company of Alfred Hardy for the medical examination of Martin Larios y Larios, a member of the Spanish parliament. Martín Larios had shown behavioral disturbances and had married secretly for the second time against the advice of his family, one of the richest and more dominating families in Spain during the 19th century. In their report Charcot and Hardy gave a diagnosis of mental insanity probably due to general paresis, as they had noted memory deficits and delusion of grandeur. With this and other medical reports, the family tried to obtain the legal incapacity of Martín Larios. Initially the judgements favoured the incapacity, but Martín Larios and his wife appealed with the support of the Spanish doctors José María Escuder, Jaime Vera and Luis Simarro. They demonstrated, in an exhaustive and clinically rigorous report, the normality of the mental status of Martín Larios, and refuted the diagnosis given by Charcot and Hardy. This report is one of the first examples of the clinical evaluation of a neurologic patient in Spain and shows the high clinical standards achieved by the precursors of the neurological school of Madrid. The great influence of Charcot's own school over Spanish neurology in its beginnings stands out in this report. Charcot and Hardy wrote a second report in reply to Escuder, Vera and Simarro. After a complex lawsuit, the opinion of the Spanish doctors finally prevailed against the legal incapacity of Martín Larios.

  8. Impact of self esteem on risky sexual behaviors among Nigerian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Enejoh, Victor; Pharr, Jennifer; Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Olutola, Ayodotun; Karick, Haruna; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2016-01-01

    Although improved knowledge is often the first approach in HIV prevention for adolescents, studies have shown that despite being well informed, adolescents still engage in risky sexual behavior (RSB). Low self-esteem has been considered to be a psychological explanation for behavioral problems, but little is known about the impact of self-esteem on RSB among adolescents in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adolescents with high self-esteem demonstrate lower RSB compared to those with low self-esteem. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 361 adolescents in 9 secondary schools in Jos Plateau, Nigeria. The Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem and the Brief HIV Screener (BHS) was used to measure RSB. All data were analyzed using SPSS 21. Chi square and odds ratios were calculated to determine differences in BHS questions based on predetermined low or high self-esteem categories. Independent t-test were utilized to determine difference in mean BHS scores based on self-esteem categories. Participants were 169 male (46.8%) and 192 female (53.2%) with a mean age of 16.9. Mean self-esteem score was 27.6 with no significant difference in self-esteem scores by gender. Adolescents with low self-esteem were 1.7 times more likely to be sexually active and had a higher mean BHS scores compared to adolescents with high self-esteem. Programs aimed at reducing RSB and in-turn HIV/AIDS should consider interventions to raise adolescents' self-esteem.

  9. Pairing and reproductive success in two sympatric species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing pairing and reproductive success in relation to male and female sizes of the sympatric freshwater gammarideans Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi from southern Brazil. These amphipods exhibit precopulatory mate guarding, in which a male will carry a potential mate beneath its ventral surface, guarding the female for several days until it molts and lays its eggs. The specimens were collected monthly with nets, from November 2003 to July 2004 in two trout aquaculture ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. The precopulatory pairs and ovigerous females were identified and separated in the field. In the laboratory, they were measured (cephalothorax length in mm), using a micrometer eyepiece in a stereoscopic microscope. Pairing success was estimated from the proportion of mating males and females related to their respective non-pairing individuals by size classes. Reproductive success was estimated from egg production. The mean cephalothorax length of paired males was larger than that of the unpaired males. For females, however, body size not affect pairing success for either species, because mean cephalothorax length of paired females did not differ significantly from unpaired females. Paired and unpaired males of both species of Hyalella were larger than the females. Positive assortative mating by size was observed in both species; i.e., larger males tended to pair with larger females. Male pairing success increased sharply with size. In both species, reproductive success in males increased with body size; however, the females of intermediate size classes showed greater reproductive success. This result supports the hypothesis that loading constraints play a part in structuring size-assortative pairing in these species.

  10. Structural analysis of the Itapucumí Group in the Vallemí region, northern Paraguay: Evidence of a new Brasiliano/Pan-African mobile belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanha, Ginaldo Ademar da Cruz; Warren, Lucas; Boggiani, Paulo César; Grohmann, Carlos Henrique; Cáceres, Alberto Arias

    The Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) Itapucumí Group in northern Paraguay is composed of carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, including ooid grainstones, marls, shales and sandstones, containing Cloudina fossils in the eastern region. It is almost undeformed over the Rio Apa Cratonic Block but shows a strong deformational pattern at its western edge. A detailed structural analysis of the Itapucumí Group was conducted in the Vallemí Mine, along with a regional survey in other outcrops downstream in the Paraguay River and in the San Alfredo, Cerro Paiva and Sargento José E. López regions. In the main Vallemí quarry, the structural style is characterized by an axial-plane slaty cleavage in open to isoclinal folds, sometimes overturned, associated with N-S trending thrust faults and shear zones of E-vergence and with a low-grade chlorite zone metamorphism. The structural data presented here are compatible with the hypothesis of a newly recognized mobile belt on the western side of the Rio Apa Cratonic Block, with opposite vergence to that of the Paraguay Mobile Belt in Brazil. Both belts are related to the Late Brasiliano/Pan-African tectonic cycle with a Lower Cambrian deformation and metamorphism age. The deformation could be due to the late collision of the Amazonian Craton with the remainder of Western Gondwana or to the western active plate boundary related to the Pampean Belt. The structural and lithologic differences between the western Itapucumí Group in the Vallemí and Paraguay River region and the eastern region, near San Alfredo and Cerro Paiva, suggest that this group could be divided into two lithostratigraphic units, but more stratigraphic and geochronological analyses are required to confirm this possibility.

  11. An Assessment of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor in the MERRA-2 Reanalysis: Comparisons with MLS and In Situ Water Vapor Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkirk, H. B.; Molod, A.; Pawson, S.; Douglass, A. R.; Voemel, H.; Hurst, D. F.; Jiang, J. H.; Read, W. G.; Schwartz, M. J.; Manyin, M.

    2015-12-01

    The recently released MERRA-2 reanalysis represents a significant evolution of the GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model and data assimilation system since the original MERRA project, and it is expected that MERRA-2 will be widely used in climate change studies as has its predecessor. A number of studies have demonstrated critical sensitivities of the climate system to the water vapor content of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) and it is therefore important to assess how well the MERRA-2 reanalysis represents the mean structure and variability of water vapor in this part of the atmosphere. Recent comparisons with MLS water vapor indicate that the ECMWF and original MERRA reanalyses overestimate water vapor throughout the global upper troposphere by 50-80%. These overestimates are particularly acute at 147 hPa and 215 hPa and occur in all seasons. In this presentation, we analyze differences between the MLS v.4.2 water vapor data and the new MERRA-2 reanalysis to assess improvements in the treatment of water vapor in the GEOS-5 system since MERRA. We also include in our analysis a comparison of MERRA-2 profiles with water vapor and relative humidity profiles from frostpoint hygrometers at five sites with long-term records and a sixth with an intensive campaign of one month. Three of the long-term sites, Boulder, Colorado, Lindenburg, Germany and Lauder, New Zealand, lie in middle latitudes, and two sites, San José, Costa Rica and Hilo, Hawaii, are in the tropics and subtropics, respectively. The campaign-only database is from the NASA SEAC4RS mission at Ellington Field, Houston, TX in 2013.

  12. Ligninases production by Basidiomycetes strains on lignocellulosic agricultural residues and their application in the decolorization of synthetic dyes

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Eleni; Aguiar, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Caio César; Bonfá, Maricy Raquel B.; da Silva, Roberto; Boscolo, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Wood rotting Basidiomycetes collected in the “Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista”, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, concerning Aphyllophorales order and identified as Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 and Phellinus rimosus SXS47 were tested for ligninases production by solid state fermentation (SSF) using wheat bran or rice straw as culture media. C. byrsina produced the highest laccase (200 U mL-1) and Lentinus sp produced the highest activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) (7 and 8 U mL-1, respectively), when cultivated on wheat bran. The effect of N addition on enzyme production was studied in medium containing rice straw and the data showed an increase of 3 up to 4-fold in the laccase production compared to that obtained in SSF on wheat bran. The laccases presented optimum pH at 3.0-3.5 and were stable at neutral pH values. Optimum pH for MnP and LiP activities was at 3.5 and between 4.5 and 6.0, respectively. All the strains produced laccase with optimum activities between 55-60ºC while the peroxidases presented maximum activity at temperatures of 30 to 55ºC. The crude enzymes promoted decolorization of chemically different dyes with around 70% of decolorization of RBBR and cybacron blue 3GA in 6h of treatment. The data indicated that enzymes from these basidiomycetes strains are able to decolorize synthetic dyes. PMID:24031314

  13. Unusual nighttime impulsive foF2 enhancements at low latitudes: Phenomenology and possible explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, L.; Pezzopane, M.; Zuccheretti, E.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Cabrera, M. A.; Ezquer, R. G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper is focused on unusual nighttime impulsive electron density enhancements that are rarely observed at low latitudes on a wide region of South America, under quiet and medium/high geomagnetic conditions. The phenomenon under investigation is very peculiar because besides being of brief duration, it is characterized by a pronounced compression of the ionosphere. The phenomenon was studied and analyzed using both the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) and the virtual height of the base of the F region (h‧F) values recorded at five ionospheric stations widely distributed in space, namely: Jicamarca (-12.0°, -76.8°, magnetic latitude -2.0°), Peru; Sao Luis (-2.6°, -44.2°, magnetic latitude +6.2°), Cachoeira Paulista (-22.4°, -44.6°, magnetic latitude -13.4°), and São José dos Campos (-23.2°, -45.9°, magnetic latitude -14.1°), Brazil; Tucumán (-26.9°, -65.4°, magnetic latitude -16.8°), Argentina. In a more restricted region over Tucumán, the phenomenon was also investigated by the total electron content (TEC) maps computed by using measurements from 12 GPS receivers. A detailed analysis of isoheight ionosonde plots suggests that traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) caused by gravity wave (GW) propagation could play a significant role in causing the phenomenon both for quiet and for medium/high geomagnetic activity; in the latter case however a recharging of the fountain effect, due to electric fields penetrating from the magnetosphere, joins the TID propagation and plays an as much significant role in causing impulsive electron density enhancements.

  14. The role of the traveling planetary wave ionospheric disturbances on the equatorial F region post-sunset height rise during the last extreme low solar activity and comparison with high solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, A. J.; Fagundes, P. R.; Bolzan, M. J. A.; de Jesus, R.; Pillat, V. G.; Abalde, J. R.; Lima, W. L. C.

    2014-06-01

    This investigation studies traveling planetary wave ionospheric disturbance (TPWID) type oscillations on the modulation of the F region post-sunset height rise during the electric field pre-reversal enhancement (PRE). The studied period, from January 2009 to April 2010, occurred during the extremely low solar activity, when the averaged F10.7 was 73 [W/m2 Hz]. In addition, the results are compared with those for a high solar activity period of 2003. We present ionospheric sounding observations carried out near equatorial region (Palmas 10.2°S, 48.2°W, dip latitude 5.5°S) and low latitude region (São José dos Campos 23.2°S, 45.9°W, dip latitude 17.6°S; located under the southern crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly) in the Brazilian sector. The studies found that the magnitude of the electric field during PRE time and consequently the day-to-day variations of the F region virtual height at equatorial region and low latitude are modulated by waves with periods of around 3-4, 5-6, 10-15, and 24-35 days. The observations show that during low solar activity, the TPWID oscillations are lower than during high solar activity, but with the same amplitude around 200 km. The TPWID long period oscillations of around 27 days present very distinct characteristics at the equatorial region and low latitude, indicating that these regions are not directly connected. Our study also shows that the response to the TPWID short period of around 3-4, 5-6, and 10-15 days at the equatorial region and low latitude present very clear coupling during January-February, 2009, possibly due to the sudden stratospheric warming and TPWID mechanisms.

  15. Recent Advances in Maya Studies Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Tom; Irwin, Daniel; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3i radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the baJos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The combination of water management and bajo farming is an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a

  16. [The legacy of Cajal in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Díaz, J L

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1854-1934) had achieved a sound school of neurobiology displaying an integrative and anatomo-functional paradigm of study of the Nervous System by integrating diverse morphological, physiological, and clinical sciences during the Second Spanish Republic. Such school flourished in the three locations of the Cajal Institute in Madrid, but was nearly lost during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) with the repression of the majority of the collaborators of the recently-extinct master. One part of these mature and capable researchers was able to reach sanctuary in the Americas to continue their research and teaching enterprises. Thanks to the welcoming policy of Mexican president Lázaro Cárdenas several of them developed an extensive work at the National University of Mexico (UNAM) becoming pioneers, founders of research institutions, and venerable teachers of several medical and neurological sciences. Among them are neuropsychiatrist Dionisio Nieto, pathologist Isaac Costero, both pupils of Pío del Río Hortega; physiologist José Puche and pharmacologist Rafael Méndez, both collaborators of Juan Negrín. The work of Dionisio Nieto is especially worthy to remark as beneficiary of the Cajal School since, among many other achievements, he applied the techniques of Del Río Hortega to study the neuropathology of epilepsy and schizophrenia since the 1950's. Besides from his legacy to Mexican psychiatry, Nieto's pupils have extended his neuroanatomical and histological work, such as Alfonso Escobar, or his psycho physiological leads, such as Augusto Fernández-Guardiola. The latter was another Spanish War refugee who before is death in 2004 published a profound testimonial pertaining to the neurosciences of the Spanish exile in Mexico.

  17. Canting of the occlusal plane: Perceptions of dental professionals and laypersons

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Amparo; Jacobo, Carmen; Molina, Sara M.; Rodríguez, Alicia; Bravo, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if canting of the occlusal plane influences esthetic evaluation of the smile among orthodontists, dentists and laypersons. Study Design: A frontal photo of a smile with 0º occlusal plane canting in relation to the bipupillary plane was modified using Adobe Photoshop C3 (Adobe Systems Inc, San José, California) to generate two images with occlusal plane inclinations of 2º and 4º. The three images were evaluated esthetically by orthodontists (n=40) general dentists (n=40) and laypersons (n=40). Each image was awarded a score as follows: 1=esthetically acceptable; 2=moderately acceptable; 3=esthetically unacceptable. Evaluators also placed the three images in order in preference. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05) and the Mann-Whitney tests, applying the Bonferroni Correction (p<0.016). Results: No significant differences (p> 0.05) were found between the three groups for 0º and 2º cants (median for orthodontists=1; general dentists=1; laypersons=1). Orthodontists (median score=3) made evaluations of the image with 4º occlusal plane that were significantly different from general dentists (median=2) and laypersons (median=2). All three groups put the 0º image in first place in order of esthetic acceptability, the 2º image in second place and the 4º image in third place. Orthodontists placed the 0º image in first place with significantly greater frequency (p<0.016) than laypersons. Conclusions: Occlusal plane canting of 0º and 2º were evaluated as esthetically acceptable by the three groups. The 4º occlusal plane cant was evaluated more negatively by orthodontists than by general dentists and laypersons. All three groups placed the 0º image in first place of esthetic acceptability, 2º in second place and 4º in third. Orthodontists put the 0º image in first place with significantly greater frequency than laypersons. Key words:Canting, perception, smile, orthodontics, dental esthetics. PMID:23524412

  18. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  19. [A seroepidemiological survey on the island of São Luis during a dengue epidemic in Maranhão].

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, P F; Lima, J W; Raposo, M L; Rodrigues, S G; da Rosa, J F; Amorim, S M; da Rosa, E S; Moura, C M; Fonseca, N; da Rosa, A P

    1999-01-01

    The island of São Luis in the State of Maranhão, constituted by the municipalities of São Luis-SL (835,428 inhabitants), São José de Ribamar-SJR (60,633 inhabitants) and Paço do Lumiar-PL (80,274 inhabitants), has been suffering dengue (DEN) fever epidemics since 1995, caused by DEN-1. In 1996, from August through October, an aleatory sero-epidemiologic survey was carried out in order to estimate the incidence of DEN infection and to analyze other clinical and epidemiological parameters. A questionnaire was applied and serum samples were simultaneously obtained. Serum samples were tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI). Results were analyzed using Lotus 123, Epi-info 6.0, Excel 5.0 and STATA softwares. A total of 1,217 serum samples were obtained (101 of PL, 100 of SJR and 1017 of SL). The rate of DEN was 55.4% in PL, 28% in SJR and 41.4% in SL, suggesting the occurrence of 401,933 infections. No difference was seen between males and females, but infection occurred more in the upper social class than in poor people (p < 0.003), and was more frequent in adults than in children (p < 0.0004). In SL, the incidence was stratified into seven sanitary districts (SD), and prevalence was found to range from 26.1% in SD4 to 56.8% in SD1 (p < 0.0001). Symptoms were more frequently reported by people whose HI was positive: they included fever, headache, chills, dizziness, retrobulbar pains, muscle and joint pains, nausea, anorexia and skin rash. In spite of the high incidence of infection, no hemorrhagic cases were reported.

  20. Nanoscale isotope mapping of terrestrial and lunar zircons by atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, T.; Reinhard, D. A.; Spicuzza, M. J.; Olson, D.; Coble, M. A.; Cavosie, A. J.; Ushikubo, T.; Larson, D. J.; Kelly, T. F.; Valley, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Microscopic mobility of atoms in minerals controls macroscopic metamorphic and tectonic processes in Earth's crust. Deformation and diffusion, each an expression of this mobility, are both processes of breaking and reforming bonds and take energy to proceed. Deformation can facilitate diffusion by supplying strain energy that facilitates breaking bonds and enhance diffusion rates by mobilizing dislocations, which localize atomic migration. Deformation-enhanced diffusion may therefore lower closure temperatures for geochronometers and thermobarometers. If the effect of deformation on diffusion is measurable, we must reevaluate these tools for deformed rocks. We explore this effect and its potential as the basis for estimating duration and rate of strain in the rock record. We focus on feldspar, a rheologically and modally dominant mineral in Earth's crust for which deformation and diffusion parameters are well known. Different elements have different diffusion rates within each mineral, which are differentially accelerated by a deformation-induced reduction of their activation energies for diffusion. We present the first comprehensive study of strain enhancement of diffusion in plagioclase, a combination of km-scale, thin-section-scale, and grain-scale strain and chemical measurements for major and trace elements in naturally deformed plagioclase phenocrysts from the San José Pluton, Peninsular Ranges Batholith, México. Our samples had low initial compositional contrasts and experienced low strain. Under these conditions, the effect of strain-enhanced element mobility, as predicted from our model, is below analytical detection limits. For these rocks, a static diffusion model is sufficient, and thermobarometers and geochronometers can still be applied to yield accurate results.

  1. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis) Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marón, Carina F; Beltramino, Lucas; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Seger, Jon; Uhart, Marcela; Sironi, Mariano; Rowntree, Victoria J

    2015-01-01

    At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales' backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974-2011 (n = 2680) and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192) in 2003-2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five), but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more) covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000.

  2. [Population fluctuation of Xyleborus ferrugineus and X. affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in ecosystems of Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rangel, Ricardo; Pérez, Manuel; Sánchez, Saúl; Capello, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    The Scolytinae insects are commonly known as bark or ambrosial beetles because of their feeding habits. Among them, some species restrict their reproductive activity to a host plant or a small number of them, whereas others are highly polyphagous. In order to evaluate the population dynamics of Scolytinae species, populations of Xyleborusferrugineus and X. affinis in ecosystems from Tabasco, Mexico were studied. The study was carried out from November 2010-July 2011, February 2010-January 2011 and 2007. The trapping methods used were alcohol traps, light traps and direct capture on their host plants. A total of 688 specimens ofX ferrugineus and 3 911 specimens of X. affinis were collected. The population dynamics of X. ferrugineus showed low size population in the studied ecosystems, without any marked seasonality. The highest population sizes were recorded both in dry season (March-May) and rainy season (September-December). Unlike the populations of X. ferrugineus, those of X. affinis were more abundant and showed the highest peaks during the rainy seasons (except in May at the Botanical Garden "José Narciso Rovisora"). Alcohol and light traps can be complementary methods for monitoring the populations of these types of insects. They occur most of the year and theirs population dynamics depends on food resources availability as well as environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Judging by the observed abundance it is suggested that X. affinis has been adapted and exploited resources in a better way than X. ferrugineus in those ecosystems. Correlations between abundance and climatic factors had both positive and negative values. The results reflect the behavior of populations. However, a detail assessment of the biological and abiotic factors that influence the fluctuations of these insects is required.

  3. Optimizing wind pumps system for crop irrigation based on wind data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Fernando; Tarquis, Ana M.; Sanchez, Raúl; Garcia, Jose Luis

    2015-04-01

    Crop irrigation is a major consumer of energy that can be resolved with renewable ones, such as wind, which has experienced recent developments in the area of power generation. Therefore, wind power can play an interesting role in irrigation projects in different areas [1]. A simple methodology has been developed in previous papers for technical evaluation of windmills for irrigation water pumping [2]. This methodology can determine the feasibility of the technology and the levels of daily irrigation demand satisfied by windmills. The present work compared the possibilities of this methodology adjusting the three-hourly wind velocity to the Weibull II distribution function, without considering the time sequence [2], or processing wind data using time series analysis. The study was applied to practical cases of wind pumps for irrigation of crops, both in the outside (corn) and inside greenhouses (tomato). The analysis showed that the use of three hourly time series analysis supplied a more realistic modelling of the situation with a better optimization of the water storage tank of the wind pump facility taking into account the risk of calm periods in which the pumping is null. A factor to consider in this study is available precision of the wind sampling rate. References [1] Díaz-Méndez, R., Adnan Rasheed, M. Peillón, A. Perdigones, R. Sánchez, A.M. Tarquis, José L. García-Fernández. Wind pumps for irrigating greenhouse crops: comparison in different socio-economical frameworks. Biosystems Engineering, 128, 21-28, 2014. [2] Peillón, M., Sánchez, R., Tarquis, A.M., García, J.L. The use of wind pumps for greenhouse microirrigation: A case study for tomato in Cuba. Agricultural Water Management, 120, 107-114, 2013.

  4. The epidemiology and type of injuries seen at the accident and emergency unit of a Nigerian referral center

    PubMed Central

    Adoga, Adeyi A.; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A plethora of injuries present at any accident and emergency unit, but the pattern of the injuries varies from region to region especially in ours with the increased ethno-religious clashes and terrorist attacks. This study aims to determine the epidemiology and type of injuries presenting to our center with the possibility of developing injury surveillance initiatives in our center and Nigeria as a whole. Materials and Methods: Injured patients consecutively presenting to the accident and emergency department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital within the period February 2011 to January 2012 were prospectively recorded. Results: A total of 720 injured patients admitted with an age range of 8 months to 75 years (mean = 37.9; SD = ±52.4), which consists of 544 males and 176 females giving a male to female ratio of 3.1:1. Patients aged 20-29 years were in the majority (n = 220, 30.6%) with peak incidences in the period of communal clashes. Injuries sustained from motorcycles were the highest (n = 248, 34.4%). Others were 160 (22.2%) in other vehicular and pedestrian injuries, machete (n = 128), gunshots (n = 92), burns (n = 36), bomb blast injuries (n = 16), fall from heights (n = 32) and miscellaneous (n = 8). Injuries sustained in communal clashes and terrorist attacks accounted for 236 (32.8%) presentations. The most common site of injury was the head (n = 30 4, 42.2%). Relatives, passersby and law enforcement agencies brought patients to the hospital with times between injury and presentation ranging from 1 h to 3 weeks. 40 (5.6%) patients were brought in dead. Conclusion: A collective effort - on the part of the government and the citizenry is required to ensure better outcomes and a safer society for all. PMID:24812451

  5. Linking Deformation and Diffusion to Develop a Strain Speedometer in Plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barshi, N.; Rowe, C. D.; van Hinsberg, V.

    2015-12-01

    Microscopic mobility of atoms in minerals controls macroscopic metamorphic and tectonic processes in Earth's crust. Deformation and diffusion, each an expression of this mobility, are both processes of breaking and reforming bonds and take energy to proceed. Deformation can facilitate diffusion by supplying strain energy that facilitates breaking bonds and enhance diffusion rates by mobilizing dislocations, which localize atomic migration. Deformation-enhanced diffusion may therefore lower closure temperatures for geochronometers and thermobarometers. If the effect of deformation on diffusion is measurable, we must reevaluate these tools for deformed rocks. We explore this effect and its potential as the basis for estimating duration and rate of strain in the rock record. We focus on feldspar, a rheologically and modally dominant mineral in Earth's crust for which deformation and diffusion parameters are well known. Different elements have different diffusion rates within each mineral, which are differentially accelerated by a deformation-induced reduction of their activation energies for diffusion. We present the first comprehensive study of strain enhancement of diffusion in plagioclase, a combination of km-scale, thin-section-scale, and grain-scale strain and chemical measurements for major and trace elements in naturally deformed plagioclase phenocrysts from the San José Pluton, Peninsular Ranges Batholith, México. Our samples had low initial compositional contrasts and experienced low strain. Under these conditions, the effect of strain-enhanced element mobility, as predicted from our model, is below analytical detection limits. For these rocks, a static diffusion model is sufficient, and thermobarometers and geochronometers can still be applied to yield accurate results.

  6. Using Social Science to Ensure Sustainable Development Centered on Human Well-being in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, C. A.; Durham, W. H.; Gaffikin, L.

    2012-12-01

    When then president José Figueres Ferrer invited the world to use Costa Rica as a "laboratory for sustainable development" in 1997, the country's fame as a biodiversity mecca was firmly established. Yet despite vast investment, conservation-related interventions in the cantons of Osa and Golfito along the country's southern Pacific coast have been seen as overly conservation-oriented and carried out "with its back to the communities." By ignoring human well-being, these interventions have been unable to overcome the region's vast disparities in access to resources and general state of underdevelopment despite investments of many millions of dollars in recent decades. With the country's third international airport and Central America's largest hydroelectric project proposed for the region, as well as other infrastructure-driven development currently underway, the region is poised to undergo rapid change. This presentation first describes the Osa-Golfito Initiative (INOGO), an interdisciplinary effort facilitated by the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment to development a long term strategic action plan that ensures a development trajectory focused on human and environmental well-being. Whereas a concurrent presentation will focus on biophysical components of INOGO, the focus here is on the often-overlooked contributions of social science for ensuring the region's future sustainability. An anthropological approach is taken to assess the assets and resources of the region's residents, and the obstacles and challenges as they perceive them. This groundwork provides a crucial link between individual and local realities, and the regional and national political economy, and thus provides greater probability of sustainable development occurring with its "face to the communities.";

  7. [Prevalence of microsporidia and other intestinal parasites in patients with HIV infection, Bogota, 2001].

    PubMed

    Flórez, Astrid Carolina; García, Dabeiba Adriana; Moncada, Ligia; Beltrán, Mauricio

    2003-09-01

    Opportunistic intestinal parasites are a common cause of diarrhea in HIV-infected patients. To determine the prevalence of microsporidia and other opportunistic parasites infecting HIV patients in Bogotá, Colombia, 115 patients were examined for these infections during the year 2001. The institution and the sample percent from each are as follows: Santa Clara Hospital, 33.0%; San Pedro Claver, 20.0%; Simón Bolívar Hospital, 14.8%; San José Hospital, 13.9%; Central de la Policía Hospital, 6.1%; Compensar, 5.2%; Colombian League against AIDS, 2.6%; San Ignacio Hospital, 2.6%, and the Military Hospital, 1.7%. The average patient age was 36 years, with a range from 18 to 71 years. Patients with complaint of gastrointestinal symptoms were asked to provide two consecutive stool samples. The samples were concentrated in formalin-ether and examined microscopically for intestinal coccidian parasites by direct wet slide mounts. The prevalence of intestinal opportunistic parasites was 10.4% for Cryptosporidium sp. Initially, 29% of the samples were found to be positive for microsporidian spores using a modified Ziehl Neelsen chromotrope stain, but only 3.5% of them were confirmed as positive when a calcofluor/Gram chromotrope stain was used. The general prevalence of intestinal parasites was 59.1%. The most frequently found pathogens were Blastocystis hominis, 25.2%, and Entamoeba histolytica, 13%. In other studies with HIV patients in Colombia, lower prevalences of Cryptosporidium sp. infection were observed.

  8. Long-lived radionuclides in residues from operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Gutiérrez, J. M.; Gómez-Guzmán, J. M.; Chamizo, E.; Peruchena, J. I.; García-León, M.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive residues, in order to be classified as Low-Level Waste (LLW), need to fulfil certain conditions; the limitation of the maximum activity from long-lived radionuclides is one of these requirements. In order to verify compliance to this limitation, the abundance of these radionuclides in the residue must be determined. However, performing this determination through radiometric methods constitutes a laborious task. In this work, 129I concentrations, 239+240Pu activities, and 240Pu/239Pu ratios are determined in low-level radioactive residues, including resins and dry sludge, from nuclear power plants in Spain. The use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) enables high sensitivities to be achieved, and hence these magnitudes can be re determined with good precision. Results present a high dispersion between the 129I and 239+240Pu activities found in various aliquots of the same sample, which suggests the existence of a mixture of resins with a variety of histories in the same container. As a conclusion, it is shown that activities and isotopic ratios can provide information on the processes that occur in power plants throughout the history of the residues. Furthermore, wipes from the monitoring of surface contamination of the José Cabrera decommissioning process have been analyzed for 129I determination. The wide range of measured activities indicates an effective dispersal of 129I throughout the various locations within a nuclear power plant. Not only could these measurements be employed in the contamination monitoring of the decommissioning process, but also in the modelling of the presence of other iodine isotopes.

  9. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-10-01

    The bi-annual Meeting of the Spanish Neutron Scattering Association, V RSETN, took place in Gijón (Asturias), Spain, from 28-30 June 2010, at the Hotel Silken 'Ciudad Gijón', close to the beautiful Cantabric seashore. It was the fifth in a series of successful scientific meetings, beginning in 2002 (Donostia - San Sebastián), and followed by conferences in: Puerto de la Cruz (Canary Islands, 2004), Jaca (Pyrenees, 2006) and Sant Feliú de Guixols (Costa Brava, 2008). Vicente Gotor, Rector of the University of Oviedo and Paz Fernández Felgueroso, Mayor of the city of Gijón chaired the opening ceremony. The conference covered a broad range of topics related to the use of neutron scattering techniques, from soft matter and biosciences to magnetism, condensed matter and materials applications. In addition to those topics, Spanish scientists working at neutron facilities talked about the recent upgrades of the neutron instruments. Colin Carlile (ESS, Lund), F J Bermejo (ESS, Bilbao) and Michael Steiner (Chairman of the European Neutron Scattering Association, ENSA) gave their personal views concerning the present and future perspectives of neutron scattering in Europe. They reviewed the situation of the running and new neutron facilities (European Spalation Source, ESS), the increase in the number of users and the spread of the scientific topics in which neutron scattering is used or where the impact of ESS will be most significant. Wonderful Plenary talks by Albert Furrer, Juan Manuel Pérez-Mato and José Antonio Alonso opened the scientific sessions of this three-day meeting. The V RSETN was organized by the Department of Physics of The University of Oviedo in cooperation with the Spanish Society for Neutron Techniques (SETN, 'Sociedad Española de Técnicas Neutrónicas'). The meeting attracted around 80 participants, including 13 invited talks, 23 oral presentations and more than 30 posters, both domestic and from abroad. The three best oral presentations by

  10. PREFACE Particles, Strings and Cosmology (PASCOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Susana; Hirsch, Martin; Mitsou, Vasiliki; Muñoz, Carlos; Pastor, Sergio; Amparo Tórtola, María; Valle, José W. F.; Vives, Óscar

    2010-11-01

    traditionally been aimed mainly at theorists, PASCOS2010 had a stronger emphasis on new results and future experiments. The venue for PASCOS 2010 was the Fundación Universidad Empresa (ADEIT), a modern building, located in the historical city centre of Valencia and very close to the conference hotels and to most historic buildings and monuments. The scientific programme consisted of 26 invited Plenary Talks and 99 contributions, all available online at http://pascos2010.astroparticles.es/. Young researchers were encouraged to submit abstracts, many of which were subsequently selected by the organizing committee for oral presentation in parallel sessions. This year's symposium, attended by over 160 participants from all over the globe, was of particular significance, as it came in the wake of first data from the LHC as well as the Planck satellite. In general, plenary sessions were held in the mornings, with afternoons devoted to parallel sessions focussing on the three areas of particles, strings and cosmology. Official Inauguration and Public Talk The Opening of the Symposium took place in the main Auditorium of ADEIT, starting with a brief welcome address by Professor José W F Valle, Chair of the Organizing Committee, followed by addresses of Professor Pedro Carrasco, Research Vice-Rector of the University of València, Professor José Pío Beltran, representing the President of the CSIC, and Professor Francisco Botella, Director of IFIC. There was also a very successful popular science talk by Professor Carlos Frenk, Director of the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University in the United Kingdom on 'The Structure of the Universe'. This as well as the opening of the PASCOS2010 conference was covered by the local media, and a short summary is also published in the CERN Courier. Valencia, October 2010 The Editors Susana Cabrera, Martin Hirsch,Vasiliki Mitsou, Carlos Mu~oz, Sergio Pastor, María Amparo Tórtola, José W. F. Valle and Óscar Vives The PDF

  11. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    Abigail Alvarez OlarteCINVESTAV Alba Leticia Carrillo MonteverdeDCI-UG Alberto CarramiñanaINAOE Aldo MorselliFERMI Alejandro CastillaDCI-UG Alejandro IbarraTechnical University of Munich Alma D Rojas PachecoFCFM-BUAP Alma Xochitl Gonzalez MoralesInstituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM Andrew Walcott BeckwithAmerican Institute of Beam Energy Physics Ariadna Montiel ArenasDepartamento de Física, CINVESTAV Arnulfo ZepedaCinvestav Arturo Alvarez CruzInstituto de Fisica, UNAM Axel de la MacorraUNAM, IAC Azar MustafayevUniversity of Minnesota Benjamin JaramilloDCI-UG Vincent BertinCPPM-Marseille Carlos Alberto Vaquera-AraujoDCI-UG Carlos MuñozMadrid Autonoma U. & Madrid, IFT Carmine PagliaroneINFN, FNAL Carolina Lujan PeschardDCI-UG Christiane Frigerio MartinsUniversidade Federal do ABC-São Paulo Csaba BalazsMonash University David DelepineDCI-UG David G CerdenoUniversidad Autonoma de Madrid & Instituto de Fisica Teorica Debasish MajumdarSaha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India Dibyendu PanigrahiKandi Raj College, Kandi, Murshidabad, INDIA-742137 Dupret Alberto Santana BejaranoUniversidad de Sonora Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica Ernest MaRiverside U.C. Esteban Alejandro Reyes Pírez MontañezInstituto de Física, UNAM Federico Ortiz TrejoINSTITUTO DE ASTRONOMÍA - UNAM Francisco José de Anda NavarroUniversidad de Guadalajara González Alvarez Francisco JavierCINVESTAV-Depto. Física Gustavo Medina TancoICN-UNAM Hernando Efrain Caicedo OrtizInstituto Politecnico Nacional - IPN J D VergadosCERN & Ioannina U. James R BoyceJefferson Lab Jason SteffenFERMILAB Javier Montaño DomínguezDCI-UG Jeevan SolankiMandsaur Institue of Technology MP India Joe SatoSaitama University Jorge Luis Navarro EstradaUNAM-ICN and Universidad del Atlantico (B/quilla-Col.) Jose A R CembranosUniversity of Minnesota José DíazIFIC Jose Didino Garcia AguilarDepto. de Fisica. Cinvestav Keith OliveUniversity of Minnesota Konstantia BalasiUniversity of Ioannina, Greece Lilian Prado

  12. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  13. PREFACE Particles, Strings and Cosmology (PASCOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Susana; Hirsch, Martin; Mitsou, Vasiliki; Muñoz, Carlos; Pastor, Sergio; Amparo Tórtola, María; Valle, José W. F.; Vives, Óscar

    2010-11-01

    traditionally been aimed mainly at theorists, PASCOS2010 had a stronger emphasis on new results and future experiments. The venue for PASCOS 2010 was the Fundación Universidad Empresa (ADEIT), a modern building, located in the historical city centre of Valencia and very close to the conference hotels and to most historic buildings and monuments. The scientific programme consisted of 26 invited Plenary Talks and 99 contributions, all available online at http://pascos2010.astroparticles.es/. Young researchers were encouraged to submit abstracts, many of which were subsequently selected by the organizing committee for oral presentation in parallel sessions. This year's symposium, attended by over 160 participants from all over the globe, was of particular significance, as it came in the wake of first data from the LHC as well as the Planck satellite. In general, plenary sessions were held in the mornings, with afternoons devoted to parallel sessions focussing on the three areas of particles, strings and cosmology. Official Inauguration and Public Talk The Opening of the Symposium took place in the main Auditorium of ADEIT, starting with a brief welcome address by Professor José W F Valle, Chair of the Organizing Committee, followed by addresses of Professor Pedro Carrasco, Research Vice-Rector of the University of València, Professor José Pío Beltran, representing the President of the CSIC, and Professor Francisco Botella, Director of IFIC. There was also a very successful popular science talk by Professor Carlos Frenk, Director of the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University in the United Kingdom on 'The Structure of the Universe'. This as well as the opening of the PASCOS2010 conference was covered by the local media, and a short summary is also published in the CERN Courier. Valencia, October 2010 The Editors Susana Cabrera, Martin Hirsch,Vasiliki Mitsou, Carlos Mu~oz, Sergio Pastor, María Amparo Tórtola, José W. F. Valle and Óscar Vives The PDF

  14. A Self-Paced Online Module for Teachers Using Climate Change as a Context for Bringing Sustainability Education to the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, E. P.; Santone, S.; Smith, G.; Cordero, E.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability education is an approach to learning that builds knowledge, skills, and values needed to create lasting economic prosperity, environmental health, and social justice. In collaboration with Creative Change Educational Solutions (http://www.creativechange.net/) and with funding from the Clarence E. Heller Charitable Foundation and NASA, scientists and science educators at San José State University (SJSU) are developing an online 'Introduction for Sustainability' course for middle and high school educators. The module will introduce sustainability as a context for learning, highlight connections to climate change science and solutions, and provide strategies for linking the environmental, economic and social dimensions of climate destabilization to fundamental sustainability concepts. This self-paced course will be piloted during the 2013-2014 academic year. Upon completion, participants will receive inexpensive university credit ( $50/unit) from SJSU. Course goals are to demonstrate the applicability of sustainability themes across disciplines; increase learners' knowledge about the causes and impacts of climate change and related sustainability challenges; and support learners in integrating course content and methods into their classroom teaching. Course activities combine: 1) reading selections and questions; 2) online discussion; 3) digital media (short videos and tutorials); and 4) journal entries and other written assignments, including consideration of how course content aligns with the Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards. The module is divided into five sections: 1) Defining What Matters - What Do We All Need for a Fulfilling Life?; 2) The Commons and Ecosystem Services; 3) Causes and Impacts of Climate Change; 4) Individual and Collective Actions to Mitigate Its Effects; and 5) Integrating Sustainability into the Curriculum. Initial recruitment for the course will take place among participants in workshops offered by the Bay

  15. Space education and outreach symposium (E1.). Structures for space education (2.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Ivette; Carvalho, Himilcon

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian Space Agency (AEB) sponsors an outreach program aimed at promoting Brazilian space activities among students and teachers of primary and secondary schools. The program, called AEB Escola (Brazilian Space Agency School), was created in 2003 and, since then, has taken the space theme to thousands of students and teachers. The main goal of the AEB Escola Program is to make the Brazilian Space Program known among students and teachers. Additionally, it intends to use the space theme as a way to increase youth interest in studies in general, and in sciences in particular. The program focuses on teachers who, ultimately, are the ones responsible for introducing the subject to their students. And who also guarantee the continuity of the Program. An Astronautics and Space Science course is given to teachers by researchers involved with the Brazilian Space Program activities. The course has over 100 h of activities covering the following themes: Astronomy, Satellite Launcher Vehicles, Satellites and Space Platforms, Remote Sensing, Meteorology and Environmental Sciences, and Projects's Learning. The AEB Escola Program also promotes many other activities among students including lectures, contests, interactive exhibitions and hands-on activities. One of the consequences of such initiatives was the creation of two experiments taken to the International Space Station in April 2006 by the Brazilian astronaut, Marcos Pontes. Moreover, a nationwide contest called Brazilian Astronomy and Astronautical Olympics (OBA) is held every year involving nearly half a million students, with ages ranging from 7 to 17. The top five students are taken to the International Astronomy Olympics, where Brazil has obtained many medals. The top 50 students of OBA are taken, along with their teachers, to the city of São José dos Campos, in the state of São Paulo, to participate in the Space Journey event. The journey lasts a week during which the participants get a chance to learn

  16. Surface water - groundwater relationship in the downstream part of the Komadougou Yobe River (Eastern Sahelian Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Genthon, P.; Luxereau, A.; Descloîtres, M.; Moumouni Moussa, A.; Abdou, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Komadougou Yobe (KY) is a temporary river meandering on nearly 100 km along the Niger/Nigeria border in its lower part, before reaching the endoreic Lake Chad. There, seasonal flow from July to January is related to rainfall amount on the upstream Jos Plateau, Nigeria. In the semi-arid downstream area (350 mm annual rainfall in Diffa, Niger) the KY is the main source of recharge for the sandy quaternary aquifer which is used both for irrigation and for drinking water supply. The borders of the KY in Niger are subjected to an agricultural development involving intensive irrigated cropping of sweet pepper mainly produced for sale in Nigeria. Irrigation waters are mainly extracted from the KY, and therefore irrigation must stop when the River runs dry, but irrigation from wells is now developing with an increased risk of soil salinization. The flow rate of the KY has been impacted both by the 80s and 90s droughts, also underwent by the entire Sahel, and by the building up of a series of dams starting from the 70s in Nigeria. Therefore the KY and its relations with the underlying groundwaters should be carefully monitored to provide guidelines for policy makers in charge of the development of this area. However, in this remote area, data are scarce and often discontinuous : there are for example no continuous groundwater level data from before the drought. As part of the Lake Chad French IRD project, series of campaigns involving water level, exploration geophysics, gravity, soil sampling and social studies have been carried out between 2008 and 2011. They allowed to build a numerical model for groundwater-river interactions which in some instances has been compared with previously recorded data. This model is then forced with theoretical climatic senarii based on humid 60s data and data from the drought period. This allows discussing the relationships between the river and groundwaters in a changing climate. Our results militate for the setting up of a limited

  17. Microbial monitoring in treated stone at the Royal Chapel of Granada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jroundi, Fadwa; Pinar, Guadalupe; González-Muñoz, Maria Theresa; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-05-01

    Viridiplantae. The molecular strategy used here is proposed as an effective monitoring system to evaluate the impact of the application of bacterially induced calcium carbonate mineralization as restoration/conservation procedure for decayed ornamental stone. Moreover, these results confirm that the biotreatment, proposed by González Muñoz et al (2008), is friendly for the microbiota inhabiting the stone, which reaches stability after relatively few years. References: González-Muñoz et al. (2008) Spanish Patent no. 2008/009771 Acknowledgements: Supported by the Junta de Andalucia (grants RNM-3493) and by "José Castillejo" program from the "Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte" (I-D+i 2008-2011).

  18. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Hofstede's (1983) cultural dimensions, of which uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation are of particular relevance for our analysis. Our conclusions comment on the suitability of approaches in Adaptive Delta Management rooted in different management theories are more suitable for specific delta countries than others. The most striking conclusion is the unsuitability of rational policy analytic approaches for The Netherlands. Although surprising this conclusion finds some support in the process dominated approach taken in the Dutch Delta Program. In addition, the divergence between Vietnam, Bangladesh and Myanmar, all located in South East Asia, is striking. References Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of international business studies, 75-89. Jos Timmermans, Marjolijn Haasnoot, Leon Hermans, Jan Kwakkel, Martine Rutten and Wil Thissen (2015). Adaptive Delta Management: Roots and Branches, IAHR The Hague 2015.

  19. Latent Tuberculosis Infection Diagnostic and Treatment Cascade among Contacts in Primary Health Care in a City of Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a tool for global TB control, especially in close contacts. But data is scarce in high burden countries, under field conditions, including data on the benefits of LTBI management. Objective To analyze the LTBI diagnosis and treatment cascade among contacts in primary health care (PHC) services in São José do Rio Preto—SP, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional design, conducted with contacts of pulmonary TB patients followed in all PHC services. Data was collected from May to September 2014 in the Reporting System for TB cases (TBWEB) and Reporting System for Chemoprophylaxis. Medical records and treatment follow-up forms were reviewed and all the nurses responsible for TB in PHC services were interviewed. Results Among 336 contacts included, 267 (79.4%) were screened for TB or LTBI, according to the presence or not of respiratory symptoms. Among those contacts screened, 140 (52.4%) were symptomatic, 9 (3.4%) had TB disease, 106/221 (48%) had positive TST result, meeting the criteria for LTBI treatment, and 64/106 (60.4%) actually started it. Overall, among 267 screened, only 64 (24%) started LTBI treatment. The completion rates of treatment among the contacts who started it, those with positive TST result and those screened were 56.3% (36/64), 16.3% (36/221) and 13.5% (36/267), respectively. Nurses claimed that asymptomatic TB contacts pay no attention to preventive health care and do not seek medical care as they do not have symptoms of the disease. In reviewing the medical records, high proportions of contacts without evaluation, incomplete assessment, incorrect records of contraindication for LTBI treatment, lack of notes regarding the identification and evaluation of contacts were identified. Conclusions There is a need for better organization of the surveillance and investigation routine for contacts in PHC, considering the reorganization of the work process and the features of the

  20. EDITORIAL: The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008) The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnakenberg, Uwe

    2009-07-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 08), which took place at the RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, from 28-30 September, 2008. The workshop is a well recognized and established European event in the field of micro system technology using thin-film technologies for creating micro components, micro sensors, micro actuators, and micro systems. The first MME Workshop was held 1989 in Enschede (The Netherlands) and continued 1990 in Berlin (Germany), 1992 in Leuven (Belgium), and then was held annually in Neuchâtel (Switzerland), Pisa (Italy), Copenhagen (Denmark), Barcelona (Spain), Southampton (UK), Ulvik in Hardanger (Norway), Gif-sur-Yvette (France), Uppsala (Sweden), Cork (Ireland), Sinaia (Romania), Delft (The Netherlands), Leuven (Belgium), Göteborg (Sweden), Southampton (UK), and in Guimarães (Portugal). The two day workshop was attended by 180 delegates from 26 countries all over Europe and from Armenia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Cuba, Iran, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States of America. A total of 97 papers were accepted for presentation and there were a further five keynote presentations. I am proud to present 22 high-quality papers from MME 2008 selected for their novelty and relevance to Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. All the papers went through the regular reviewing procedure of IOP Publishing. I am eternally grateful to all the referees for their excellent work. I would also like to extend my thanks to the members of the Programme Committee of MME 2008, Dr Reinoud Wolffenbuttel, Professor José Higino Correia, and Dr Patrick Pons for pre-selection of the papers as well as to Professor Robert Puers for advice on the final selection of papers. My thanks also go to Dr Ian Forbes of IOP Publishing for managing the entire process and to the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. I

  1. The Group on Earth Observations and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2006-05-01

    , transforming the data they collect into vital information for society. The GEO Secretariat was established in Geneva in May 2005 to facilitate and support GEO activities, and the first Director, José Achache, assumed leadership in September 2005. It is the centre of international coordination for the GEOSS effort.

  2. [HIV infection and non-AIDS-defining malignancies: an outpatient clinic experience].

    PubMed

    Fevereiro, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Os doentes infectados pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana têm um risco elevado de desenvolver diferentes tipos de Neoplasias. Com a introdução da terapêutica anti-retroviral de alta potência, e consequente aumento da sobrevida, assistimos a uma mudança do espectro das patologias relacionadas com a infecção, nomeadamente das doenças Oncológicas, com aumento das Neoplasias Não Definidoras em deterimento das Definidoras de SIDA.Material e Métodos: Caracterização dos doentes com infecção Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana e diagnóstico de Neoplasias Não Definidoras acompanhados ao longo de 16 anos na Consulta de Medicina/Imunodeficiência do Hospital de São José, através da consulta dos processos clínicos e avaliação retrospectiva dos aspectos demográficos, epidemiológicos, clínico-laboratoriais, tratamento e sobrevida.Resultados: Nos 1 042 doentes avaliados, foram identificados 34 casos de Neoplasias Não Definidoras, principalmente em homens (78%) e com idade mediana de 55 anos. As neoplasias mais frequentes foram: pulmão (20,6%), bexiga (17,6%), próstata (8,8%) e canal anal (5,9%), sendo o tempo médio entre o diagnóstico da infecção pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana e da Neoplasias Não Definidoras de 6,8 ± 4 anos. Na altura do diagnóstico da Neoplasias Não Definidoras a maioria dos doentes (78,8%) estava sob terapêutica anti-retroviral de alta potência, em média desde há 5,7 ± 3 anos, encontrando-se imunovirologicamente controlada. No total verificaram-se 45,5% óbitos, sobretudo em doentes com Neoplasia do pulmão (20%).Conclusão: Perante o risco de desenvolvimento de Neoplasias Não Definidoras nos doentes infectados pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana, torna-se fundamental o investimento em estratégias de prevenção, promoção de cessação tabágica e vacinação, bem como aplicação de protocolos de rastreio ajustados a esta população.

  3. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  4. Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Middle Ear Fluid Pathogens in Costa Rican Children With Otitis Media Before and After the Introduction of the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the National Immunization Program

    PubMed Central

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Mercedes Castrejon, Maria; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010–2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3–59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (≥2 PCV7 doses or ≥1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9

  5. Turmoil at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica): Degassing and eruptive processes inferred from high‐frequency gas monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Aiuppa, A.; Avard, G.; Wehrmann, H.; Dunbar, N.; Muller, C.; Tamburello, G.; Giudice, G.; Liuzzo, M.; Moretti, R.; Conde, V.; Galle, B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Eruptive activity at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica) has escalated significantly since 2014, causing airport and school closures in the capital city of San José. Whether or not new magma is involved in the current unrest seems probable but remains a matter of debate as ash deposits are dominated by hydrothermal material. Here we use high‐frequency gas monitoring to track the behavior of the volcano between 2014 and 2015 and to decipher magmatic versus hydrothermal contributions to the eruptions. Pulses of deeply derived CO2‐rich gas (CO2/Stotal > 4.5) precede explosive activity, providing a clear precursor to eruptive periods that occurs up to 2 weeks before eruptions, which are accompanied by shallowly derived sulfur‐rich magmatic gas emissions. Degassing modeling suggests that the deep magmatic reservoir is ~8–10 km deep, whereas the shallow magmatic gas source is at ~3–5 km. Two cycles of degassing and eruption are observed, each attributed to pulses of magma ascending through the deep reservoir to shallow crustal levels. The magmatic degassing signals were overprinted by a fluid contribution from the shallow hydrothermal system, modifying the gas compositions, contributing volatiles to the emissions, and reflecting complex processes of scrubbing, displacement, and volatilization. H2S/SO2 varies over 2 orders of magnitude through the monitoring period and demonstrates that the first eruptive episode involved hydrothermal gases, whereas the second did not. Massive degassing (>3000 T/d SO2 and H2S/SO2 > 1) followed, suggesting boiling off of the hydrothermal system. The gas emissions show a remarkable shift to purely magmatic composition (H2S/SO2 < 0.05) during the second eruptive period, reflecting the depletion of the hydrothermal system or the establishment of high‐temperature conduits bypassing remnant hydrothermal reservoirs, and the transition from phreatic to phreatomagmatic eruptive activity. PMID:27774371

  6. Bicarbonate Values for Healthy Residents Living in Cities Above 1500 Meters of Altitude: A Theoretical Model and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Sandoval, Juan C; Castilla-Peón, Maria F; Gotés-Palazuelos, José; Vázquez-García, Juan C; Wagner, Michael P; Merelo-Arias, Carlos A; Vega-Vega, Olynka; Rincón-Pedrero, Rodolfo; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Ramirez-Sandoval, Juan C., Maria F. Castilla-Peón, José Gotés-Palazuelos, Juan C. Vázquez-García, Michael P. Wagner, Carlos A. Merelo-Arias, Olynka Vega-Vega, Rodolfo Rincón-Pedrero, and Ricardo Correa-Rotter. Bicarbonate values for healthy residents living in cities above 1500 m of altitude: a theoretical model and systematic review. High Alt Med Biol. 17:85-92, 2016.-Plasma bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) concentration is the main value used to assess the metabolic component of the acid-base status. There is limited information regarding plasma HCO3(-) values adjusted for altitude for people living in cities at high altitude defined as 1500 m (4921 ft) or more above sea level. Our aim was to estimate the plasma HCO3(-) concentration in residents of cities at these altitudes using a theoretical model and compare these values with HCO3(-) values found on a systematic review, and with those venous CO2 values obtained in a sample of 633 healthy individuals living at an altitude of 2240 m (7350 ft). We calculated the PCO2 using linear regression models and calculated plasma HCO3(-) according to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Results show that HCO3(-) concentration falls as the altitude of the cities increase. For each 1000 m of altitude above sea level, HCO3(-) decreases to 0.55 and 1.5 mEq/L in subjects living at sea level with acute exposure to altitude and in subjects acclimatized to altitude, respectively. Estimated HCO3(-) values from the theoretical model were not different to HCO3(-) values found in publications of a systematic review or with venous total CO2 measurements in our sample. Altitude has to be taken into consideration in the calculation of HCO3(-) concentrations in cities above 1500 m to avoid an overdiagnosis of acid-base disorders in a given individual.

  7. Influence of tillage in soil penetration resistance variability in an olive orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López de Herrera, Juan; Herrero Tejedor, Tomas; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil attributes usually present a high degree of spatial variation due to a combination of physical, chemical, biological or climatic processes operating at different scales. The quantification and interpretation of such variability is a key issue for site-specific soil management (Brouder et al., 2001). The usual geostatistical approach studies soil variability by means of the semi-variograms. However, recently a multiscaling approach has been applied on the determination of the scaling data properties (Kravechenko et al., 1999; Caniego et al., 2005; Tarquis et al., 2008). This work focus in the multifractal analysis as a way to characterize the variability of field data in a case study of soil penetrometer resistance (SPR) in two olive orchards, one applying tillage for 20 years and the other one non. The field measurements and soil data were obtained at the village of Puebla de Almenara (Cuenca, Spain) (39o 47'42.37'N, 2o 49'29.23'W) with 869 m of elevation approximately. The characteristic of the soil at the surface is classified as clay loam texture according to Guidelines for soil description of FAO. The soil consists of clays and red silts with some clusters of limestone's and sands. Two transect data were collected from 128 points between the squared of the olive tree, tillage and no tillage area, for SPR readings with a sampling interval of 50 cm. In each sampling, readings were obtained from 0 cm till 20 cm of depth, with an interval of 5 cm. The multifractal spectrum for each area and depth was estimated showing a characteristic pattern and differentiating both treatments. References Brouder, S., Hofmann, B., Reetz, H.F., 2001. Evaluating spatial variability of soil parameters for input management. Better Crops 85, 8-11. Kravchenko, A.N., Boast, C.W., Bullock, D.G., 1999. Multifractal analysis of soil spatial variability. Agron. J. 91, 1033-1041. Caniego, F.J., R. Espejo, M.A. Martín, F. San José, 2005. Multifractal scaling of soil spatial variability

  8. Superdiffusion of Carbon by Vacancies Irradiated with Soft X-Rays in CZ Silicon / Superdifūzija Ar Vakancēm Iestarota Ar Mīkstajiem Rentgenstariem CZ Silīcijā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janavičius, A. J.; Mekys, A.; Purlys, R.; Norgėla, Ž.; Daugėla, S.; Rinkūnas, R.

    2015-10-01

    The soft X-ray photons absorbed in the inner K, L, M shells of Si atoms produce photoelectrons and Auger electrons, thus generating vacancies, interstitials and metastable oxygen complexes. The samples of Czochralski silicon crystals covered with 0.1 μm thickness layer of carbon have been irradiated by X-rays using different voltages of Cu anode of the Russian diffractometer DRON-3M. The influence of X-rays on the formation of point defects and vacancy complexes, and their dynamics in Cz-Si crystals have been studied by infrared absorption. We have measured and calculated dynamics of concentration of carbon and interstitial oxygen using FTIR spectroscopy at room temperature after irradiation by soft X-rays. Using transmittance measurements and nonlinear diffusion theory we have calculated densities increasing for substitutional carbon and interstitial oxygen by reactions and very fast diffusion. The superdiffusion coefficients of carbon in silicon at room temperature generated by X-rays are about hundred thousand times greater than diffusion coefficients obtained for thermodiffusion. Rezumējums: Rentgena staru fotoni, absorbēti Si atoma iekšējos slāņos, izstaro fotoelektronus un Ožē elektronus, ģenerējot vakances, starpmezglu silīcija atomus, vakanču un skābekļa kompleksus. Čohraļska silīcija kristāli, kas pārklāti ar oglekli 0.1 μm biezuma kārtā, tika apstaroti ar rentgena stariem, izmantojot krievu difraktometru DRON-3M. Oglekļa un skābekļa difūzija un koncentrāciju izmaiņa silīcijā tika izmērīta izmantojot infrasarkano staru FTIR spektroskopiju. Rentgena staru ģenerētās ļoti ātrās oglekļa difūzijas vai superdifūzijas koeficients istabas temperatūrā silīcijā ir simtiem tūkstošu reižu lielāks nekā termodifūzijas gadījumā.

  9. Tuberculosis After One Year of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Nigeria: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Achenbach, Chad J.; Feinglass, Joe; Taiwo, Babafemi; Onu, Adamu; Pho, Mai T.; Agbaji, Oche; Kanki, Phyllis; Murphy, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to determine tuberculosis (TB) incidence and evaluate TB risk in adults after one or more years of use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) through a retrospective cohort study in Jos, Nigeria. We studied a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with ART for at least 1 year. Based on immunologic and virologic responses to ART, patients were categorized into four groups: CD4 T cell count ≥350 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA level ≤400 copies/ml (group 1), CD4 T cell count ≥350 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA level >400 copies/ml (group 2), CD4 T cell count <350 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA level ≤400 copies/ml (group 3), and CD4 T cell count <350 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA level >400 copies/ml (group 4). Time to incident TB for the four groups was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Cox regression models were used to evaluate predictors of incident TB. In this cohort of 5,093 HIV-infected adults, of which 68.4% were female, with a mean age 35.1 years (standard deviation 9.1 years), we observed 98 cases of incident TB during 4 years and 3 months of follow-up. The overall TB incidence rate was 8.7 cases/1,000 patient-years of follow-up. Adjusted hazards for incident TB were 2.11 (95% CI 0.97–4.61), 2.05 (95% CI 1.10–3.79), and 3.65 (95% CI 1.15–5.06) in group 2, 3, and 4 patients, respectively, compared to group 1. Tuberculosis incidence in patients on ART is driven by poor immunologic and/or virologic response. Optimization of HIV treatment should be prioritized to reduce the burden of TB in this high-risk population. PMID:23316724

  10. Tuberculosis after one year of combination antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Akanbi, Maxwell O; Achenbach, Chad J; Feinglass, Joe; Taiwo, Babafemi; Onu, Adamu; Pho, Mai T; Agbaji, Oche; Kanki, Phyllis; Murphy, Robert L

    2013-06-01

    Our objective was to determine tuberculosis (TB) incidence and evaluate TB risk in adults after one or more years of use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) through a retrospective cohort study in Jos, Nigeria. We studied a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with ART for at least 1 year. Based on immunologic and virologic responses to ART, patients were categorized into four groups: CD4 T cell count ≥350 cells/mm(3) and HIV-1 RNA level ≤400 copies/ml (group 1), CD4 T cell count ≥350 cells/mm(3) and HIV-1 RNA level >400 copies/ml (group 2), CD4 T cell count <350 cells/mm(3) and HIV-1 RNA level ≤400 copies/ml (group 3), and CD4 T cell count <350 cells/mm(3) and HIV-1 RNA level >400 copies/ml (group 4). Time to incident TB for the four groups was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression models were used to evaluate predictors of incident TB. In this cohort of 5,093 HIV-infected adults, of which 68.4% were female, with a mean age 35.1 years (standard deviation 9.1 years), we observed 98 cases of incident TB during 4 years and 3 months of follow-up. The overall TB incidence rate was 8.7 cases/1,000 patient-years of follow-up. Adjusted hazards for incident TB were 2.11 (95% CI 0.97-4.61), 2.05 (95% CI 1.10-3.79), and 3.65 (95% CI 1.15-5.06) in group 2, 3, and 4 patients, respectively, compared to group 1. Tuberculosis incidence in patients on ART is driven by poor immunologic and/or virologic response. Optimization of HIV treatment should be prioritized to reduce the burden of TB in this high-risk population.

  11. Pd-BISMUTHOTELLURIDES and Other Tellurides from Some Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmy, H. M.

    2003-04-01

    Pd-bismuthotellurides and other tellurides are described from three Cu-Ni-PGE deposits in the Eastern Desert, Egypt: Abu Swayl, Genina Gharbia, Gabbro Akarem. The deposits are hosted in Late Precambrian mafic-ultramafic rocks and have different geologic histories. The Abu Swayel deposit occurs in conformable, lens-like mafic-ultramafic rocks in metasediments. Mineralization and host rocks are metamorphosed (amphibolite facies; 550-650ºC, 4-5 kbar) and syn-metamorphically sheared. Metamorphism and associated fluid regimes resulted in remobilization and transport of Cu-sulfides and PGE, and development of hydrosilicates. Michenerite, merenskyite, Pd-Bi-melonite, (NiPdBi)Te2, melonite, hessite, altaite and joséite-B occur as inclusions in mobilized sulfides and along cracks in garnet and plagioclase. The Genina Gharbia and Gabbro Akarem deposits are hosted in concentrically zoned, Alaskan-type, complexes; neither is metamorphosed. At Genina Gharbia, ore forms either disseminations in peridotite or massive patches in hornblende-pyroxenite in the vicinity of metasediments. Important petrographic features are a dominance of hornblende, biotite and chlorapatite and alteration of plagioclase to epidote. Disseminated and network sulfide ores are dominated by po, pn, cp and minor py; accessories are cobaltite, molybdenite and valleriite. Sulfide textures and host rock petrography suggest a prolonged late-magmatic hydrothermal event. Michenerite, merenskyite, Pd-Bi-melonite, altaite, hessite, tsumoite and native-Te are mainly present at sulfide-silicate contacts. The Gabbro Akarem deposit is hosted in dunite pipes where net-textured and massive sulfides are associated with spinel and Cr-magnetite. Michenerite, merenskyite, Pd-Bi-melonite and hessite occur mainly as inclusions in sulfides. Typical magmatic textures indicate the limited role of late- and post-magmatic hydrothermal processes. Different geological history of the different deposits enables examination of the

  12. Longitudinal differences observed in the ionospheric F-region during the major geomagnetic storm of March 31, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Abalde, J. R.; Crowley, G.; Pi, X.; Igarashi, K.; Amarante, G. M.; Pimenta, A. A.; Bittencourt, J. A.

    2003-04-01

    A new ionospheric sounding station using a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) was established for routine measurements by the " Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP) " at São Jos&{acute;e} dos Campos (23.2oS, 45.9oW; dip latitude 17.6oS), Brazil, in August 2000. Response of the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system during major geomagnetic storms is one of the key issues related to space weather studies. A major geomagnetic storm with gradual commencement at about 0100 UT was observed on 31 March 2001. The storm on 31 March had two main phases, the first with Kp=9- between 0300-0900 UT and | Dst |max =358 nT at 0900 UT and second with Kp=8+ between 1800-2100 UT and | Dst |max =285 nT. In this paper, we present and discuss salient features from the ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos on the three consecutive UT days 30 March (quiet), 31 March (disturbed) and 01 April (recovery) 2001. During most of the storm period, the foF2 values showed negative phase, whereas during both the main phases large F-region height variations were observed. In order to study the longitudinal differences observed in the F-region during the storm, the simultaneous ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos, El Arenosillo (37.1oN, 6.7o W; dip latitude 31.2oN), Spain, Okinawa (26.3oN, 127.8oE; dip latitude 21.2oN), Japan and Wakkanai (45.5oN, 141.7oE; dip latitude 41.2oN), Japan, during the period 30 March - 01 April 2001, have been analyzed. In addition, global ionospheric TEC maps from the worldwide network of GPS receivers are presented showing widespread TEC changes during both the main and recovery phases of the storm. The ionospheric sounding measurements are compared with the ASPEN-TIMEGCM model runs appropriate for the storm conditions.

  13. Validity and reliability of a health care service evaluation instrument for tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Scatena, Lucia Marina; Wysocki, Anneliese Domingues; Beraldo, Aline Ale; Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Brunello, Maria Eugênia Firmino; Netto, Antonio Ruffino; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Reinaldo Antonio; Brito, Ewerton William Gomes; Alexandre, Patricia Borges Dias; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the validity and reliability of an instrument that evaluates the structure of primary health care units for the treatment of tuberculosis. METHODS This cross-sectional study used simple random sampling and evaluated 1,037 health care professionals from five Brazilian municipalities (Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte; Cabedelo, state of Paraíba; Foz do Iguaçu, state of Parana; Sao José do Rio Preto, state of Sao Paulo, and Uberaba, state of Minas Gerais) in 2011. Structural indicators were identified and validated, considering different methods of organization of the health care system in the municipalities of different population sizes. Each structure represented the organization of health care services and contained the resources available for the execution of health care services: physical resources (equipment, consumables, and facilities); human resources (number and qualification); and resources for maintenance of the existing infrastructure and technology (deemed as the organization of health care services). The statistical analyses used in the validation process included reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. RESULTS The validation process indicated the retention of five factors, with 85.9% of the total variance explained, internal consistency between 0.6460 and 0.7802, and quality of fit of the confirmatory factor analysis of 0.995 using the goodness-of-fit index. The retained factors comprised five structural indicators: professionals involved in the care of tuberculosis patients, training, access to recording instruments, availability of supplies, and coordination of health care services with other levels of care. Availability of supplies had the best performance and the lowest coefficient of variation among the services evaluated. The indicators of assessment of human resources and coordination with other levels of care had satisfactory performance, but the latter showed the highest

  14. Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM) and Teacher Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.; Schmidt, C.; Metzger, E. P.; Cordero, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA-funded project, Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM), is designed to improve the climate literacy of California's 450,000 6th-grade students through teacher professional development that presents climate change as an engaging context for teaching earth science standards. The project fosters experience-based interaction among learners and encourages expressive creativity and idea-exchange via the web and social media. The heart of the CLINM project is the development of an online educator-friendly experience that provides content expert-reviewed, teacher-tested, standards-based educational resources, classroom activities and lessons that make meaningful connections to NASA data and images as well as new media tools (videos, web, and phone applications) based on the Green Ninja, a climate-action superhero who fights global warming by inspiring personal action (www.greenninja.info). In this session, we will discuss this approach to professional development and share a collection of teacher-tested CLINM resources. CLINM resources are grounded in earth system science; classroom activities and lessons engage students in exploration of connections between natural systems and human systems with a particular focus on how climate change relates to everyone's need for food, water, and energy. CLINM uses a team-based approach to resource development, and partners faculty in San José State University's (SJSU) colleges of Science, Education, and Humanities and the Arts with 6th-grade teachers from local school districts, a scientist from NASA Ames Research Center and climate change education projects at Stanford University, the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, and the University of Idaho. Climate scientists and other content experts identify relevant concepts and work with science educators to develop and/or refine classroom activities to elucidate those concepts; activities are piloted in pre-service science methods courses at SJSU and in

  15. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    analysis. Further members of the "Grupo de trabajo: Investigaciones aplicadas a la gestion integral del riesgo en espacios urbanos" are: Oscar Andrés López, Milgreya Cerrada, Rafael Torres, Oscar Ramírez, Elieser Sanzonetti, José Heredia, Jaime Avendaño, Fernando Mazuera, Luis Molina, Alexi Suárez, Víctor Rocabado, Mónica Paolini, Luis Yegres, Leonardo Alvarado, Herbert Rendón, Luz Rodríguez, Jorge González.

  16. Ambient neutrons of natural origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. Neutron flux in the energy range of 0.02 eV - 10 MeV is registered with two sets of proportional ^{3}He tubes placed into cylindrical paraffin thermalizers: an {bf outdoor detector }of 250 cm² area and {bf indoor detector }of 70 cm² area located on the second floor of a concrete building. The counter efficiency for thermal neutrons is 80%. The characteristics of the observed flux variation are quite different from those inherent to the neutrons of the cosmic ray origin. {bf Four types of the outdoor flux variations }are observed: 1) {bf seasonal }with a maxima in wet seasons; 2) {bf diurnal }with maximum at about 6 h local time and an amplitude up to several dozens; 3) {bf abrupt transient} ( 1 min) increases with magnitudes up to two orders higher than the mean daily flux; 4) short (several days) {bf quasi-periodic enhancements }with amplitudes up to several times higher than the mean daily flux. A large variation of the outdoor flux and its phase synchronism with that of the radon decay products means with a high probability their common origin. An apparent source of the neutrons observed is nuclear reactions of decay α-particles with the ground matter. In this case the dynamics of the outdoor flux variations of the first two types is controlled by those of the meteorological parameters in the locality. The third type events correlate with lightning strokes in the vicinity (<200 m) of the detector. The more rare fourth type correlate neither with geomagnetic disturbances nor with meteorological phenomena and are probably a result of natural radon release from the Earth's crust triggered by minor seismological activity. The indoor flux is quite stable with a possible weak maximum at16 h not exceeding 0.1.

  17. Technial Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    Associate Professor Dr Benny Peter, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Norzailawati Mohd Nor, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Malaysia Dr Josée Lévesque, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), Canada Dr Ali Ariapour, Islamic Azad University, Iran Dr Zulkiflee Abd Latif, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia Dr Lim Tien Sze, Multimedia University (MMU), Malaysia Dr Ruzinoor Che Mat, Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), Malaysia Dr Eran Sadek Said Md Sadek, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia Dr Siti Khairunniza Bejo, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Dr Ramin Nourqolipour, National Organization of Forest, Range and Watershed Manage Sr Mohktar Azizi Mohd Din, Universiti Malaya Col (Rt) Frederic Hernoust, Magelli Marzieh Mokarram, University of Isf Mohd Fadhil Abuhan, Royal Malaysian Police, Malaysia

  18. Performance of Early Warning Systems on Landslides in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    good technical base was installed in 2001 in an area with risk of lahars. The system was too complicated to be managed by the municipality or there was not sufficient training, and soon the system stopped working. In 2009, lahars were triggered by extreme rains and around 100 people died in the area previously covered by this EWSL. We discuss the reasons for the poor performance of the projects developing EWSL in Central America and present proposals to make the more efficient and sustainable. This work was carried out in the frame of a project of UNESCO (Office San José, Costa Rica) in association with CEPREDENAC-SICA within the 7-th Plan of ECHO for Central America.

  19. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  20. Ionospheric response of equatorial and low latitude F-region during the intense geomagnetic storm on 24-25 August 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus, R.; Sahai, Y.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Nagatsuma, T.; Huang, C.-S.; Lan, H. T.; Pillat, V. G.

    2012-02-01

    In this investigation, we present and discuss the response of the ionospheric F-region in the South American and East Asian sectors during an intense geomagnetic storm in August 2005. The geomagnetic storm studied reached a minimum Dst of -216 nT at 12:00 UT on 24 August. In this work ionospheric sounding data obtained of 24, 25, and 26 August 2005 at Palmas (PAL; 10.2° S, 48.2° W; dip latitude 6.6° S), São José dos Campos (SJC, 23.2° S, 45.9° W; dip latitude 17.6° S), Brazil, Ho Chi Minh City, (HCM; 10.5° N, 106.3° E; dip latitude 2.9° N), Vietnam, Okinawa (OKI; 26.3° N, 127.8° E; dip latitude 21.2° N), Japan, are presented. Also, the GPS observations obtained at different stations in the equatorial and low-latitude regions in the Brazilian sector are presented. On the night of 24-25 August 2005, the h‧F variations show traveling ionospheric disturbances associated with Joule heating in the auroral zone from SJC to PAL. The foF2 variations show a positive storm phase on the night of 24-25 August at PAL and SJC during the recovery phase. Also, the GPS-VTEC observations at several stations in the Brazilian sector show a fairly similar positive storm phase on 24 August. During the fast decrease of Dst (between 10:00 and 11:00 UT) on 24 August, there is a prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin that result in abrupt increase (˜12:00 UT) in foF2 at PAL, SJC (Brazil) and OKI (Japan) and in VTEC at IMPZ, BOMJ, PARA and SMAR (Brazil). OKI showed strong oscillations of the F-region on the night 24 August resulted to the propagation of traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) by Joule heating in the auroral region. These effects result a strong positive observed at OKI station. During the daytime on 25 August, in the recovery phase, the foF2 observations showed positive ionospheric storm at HCM station. Some differences in the latitudinal response of the F-region is also observed in the South American and East Asian sectors.

  1. GIS applied to agriclimatological zoning and agrotoxin residue monitoring in tomatoes: A case study in Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Teixeira, Luciano José Quintão; Saraiva, Sérgio Henriques; Freitas, Deivid França; Pereira, Olavo dos Santos; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; Neves, Antônio Augusto; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro; Scherer, Rodrigo

    2016-01-15

    Searches related to global warming have provided important insights into the response of terrestrial ecosystems, but few have examined the impacts on agricultural crops, particularly those associated with the monitoring of agrotoxin residues. In this context, the agriclimatological zoning is an important tool in the planning and consolidation of crops and should be considered in any initiative that involves such planning. This tool is particularly important in the analysis of agrotoxin residues and may be applied by the Program Analysis of Agrotoxin Residues in Food (PARA) created by the National Health Vigilance Agency of Brazil (ANVISA), which enables greater food security and contributes to the improvement of human health. The aim of this study was to elaborate the current and future agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, relating it with the monitoring of samples collected by PARA in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The results indicate that a temperature increase of 5 °C creates a decrease in apt areas from 37.3% to 4.3%, for a total reduction of 33 percentage points (-88.5%). It is noted that of the 41 producing municipalities, only 26 have apt areas greater than 50%, highlighting the municipalities with apt areas greater than 90%, represented by Mantenópolis (100%), Guaçuí (98.5%), São José do Calçado (97.8%), Irupi (94.4%), Santa Teresa (92.3%), and Marechal Floriano (91.4%). The veracity of agriclimatological zoning is proved by a Kendall rank correlation coefficient of 0.876, indicating that the distribution of the variables of apt areas and productivity are similar at the significance level of 0.05 with a confidence interval 95%. After validation of the agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, it is recommended that the PARA should monitor 36 municipalities rather than the current 18, representing an increase of 100%. The methodology can be adjusted to agricultural crops of other countries.

  2. Drought Legacy and the Impacts on the Amazon Forest Carbon Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatchi, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Sassan Saatchi1,2, Yifan Yu1, Xiang Xu2, Luiz Aragao3, Liana Anderson31Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA2Institute of Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90045. USA3 Remote Sensing Division, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil, 12227-010, BrazilRecent Amazonian droughts have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climate perturbations. Ground and satellite observations of 2005 and 2010 mega-droughts have shown an increase in fire occurrence and tree mortality during the period of drought. Here, we use a combination of satellite observations over a period of about 15 years to examine the legacy of the droughts in terms of impacts on the ecological structure and function of the forests in years following the droughts and the subsequent carbon exchange. Using data from microwave satellite sensors of rainfall, canopy backscatter (2000-2014) and GRACE and GOSAT, we show that the 2005 drought has a legacy of 2-5 years in western Amazonia, by increasing the disturbance in canopy trees and impacting the gross primary production of the forest significantly. Amazonian forests, particularly in the southern region were again impacted by the 2010 mega-drought, causing a legacy of 2-4 years with potential decrease in GPP and productivity observed by GOSAT fluorescence. The persistent of low canopy water content observed by a joint QSCAT and OceanSAT observations were linked to a delay in recharging of the hydrological system observed by GRACE over a period of 2-5 years. The results suggest that Amazonian forests with distinct dry seasons in southern and western regions of the basin are potentially more vulnerable to droughts compared to regions with less seasonality. The long recovery time from the 2005 and 2010 droughts suggests that the occurence of droughts in Amazonia at 5-10 year frequency may lead to long-term alteration of the

  3. The California Alliance for Sustainability: A Collaborative Pilot Project to Build Regional Advocacy and Leadership for Sustainability Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, E. P.; Smith, G.; Cordero, E. C.; Santone, S.

    2012-12-01

    For Education for Sustainability (Efs) to have the presence in the K-12 curriculum that it arguably should, considerable obstacles must be overcome. Barriers include the role of high-stakes testing in marginalizing science and social studies and the lack of environmental and sustainability content in teacher education programs. The California Alliance for Sustainability (CASE), a collaborative 18-month project funded by the Clarence E. Heller Charitable Foundation, unites San José State University (SJSU) and Creative Change Educational Solutions (CCES) (http://www.creativechange.net/) to investigate and address potential barriers to Efs in San Francisco Bay area schools and regional teacher education programs and to document best practices for integrating sustainability into teachers' existing standards-based teaching. The overarching goal of the CASE project is to create a regional infrastructure of K-12 teachers and pre-service teacher educators who use EfS as a context for educational innovation and transformation, thus supplying a focused first step for investigating how Efs can be more broadly implemented in California's classrooms. This presentation will showcase the efforts of a pilot group of classroom teachers and teacher educators to bring EfS to their teaching. In summer 2012, the CASE Project provided 16 in-service teachers and 5 pre-service teacher education faculty from SJSU and California State University East Bay with a three-day professional development workshop. Practicing teachers and teacher educators experienced joint instruction in the content and pedagogy of sustainability though investigation of topics (e.g., Sustainable Communities, Ecological Footprint Analysis, Climate Change, Resource Use, Food Systems and Life Cycle Analysis) that offer broad connections to California standards in science and other disciplines. Sustainability concepts were also discussed as an engaging context for addressing the emerging Common Core and Next Generation

  4. The role of tropical cyclones on landscape dynamics in southern Baja California, Mexico based on Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Eric; Antinao, Jose Luis; Rhodes, Edward J.; Brown, Nathan; Gosse, John

    2015-04-01

    Region-wide alluvial records provide evidence that time-transgressive changes in climate can be a major driver of landscape evolution. Historically, landfall of eastern Pacific tropical cyclones in southwestern North America during the late summer and early fall provide the strongest storms that have demonstrated geomorphic impact on the landscape. The alluvial fan record of the southern portion of Baja California (Mexico) was investigated to determine if linkages exist between region-wide fluvial deposits and tropical cyclones. The regional distribution and Pleistocene to Holocene morphostratigraphy of alluvial fans has been established for the southern portion of Baja California with primary focus on the La Paz and San José del Cabo basins. Six discrete morphopedosedimentary alluvial units (Qt1 through Qt6) were differentiated across the region using a combination of geomorphologic mapping, sedimentological analysis, and soil development further reinforced with geochronology using radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence and cosmogenic depth-profiles. A first phase of regional aggradation began before ~ 100 ka (Qt1) and culminated ~10 ka (Qt4). After deposition of Qt4, increasing regional incision of older units and the progressive development of a channelized alluvial landscape coincide with deposition of Qt5 and Qt6 units in a second, incisional phase. All units are conformed of multiple 1-3 m thick alluvial packages deposited in upper-flow regime and representing individual storms. Aggradational units (Qt1-Qt4) covered broad (>2 km) channels in the form of sheetflood deposition while incisional stage deposits are mostly confined to channels of ~0.5-2 km width. Continuous deposition of the thicker sequences is demonstrated by closely spaced luminescence dates in vertical profiles. In a few places disconformities between major units are evident and indicated by partly eroded buried soils. Analysis of historical terraces as part of the younger units

  5. The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.

    The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program (CBP) and the results of the NANOSATC-BR1, the first Brazilian CubeSat launching, expected for 2014's first semester, are presented. The CBP consists of two CubeSats, NANOSATC-BR 1 (1U) & 2 (2U) and is expected operate in orbit for at least 12 months each, with capacity building in space science, engineering and computer sciences for the development of space technologies using CubeSats satellites. The INPE-UFSM’s CBP Cooperation is basically among: (i) the Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS), from the Brazilian INPE/MCTI, where acts the Program's General Coordinator and Projects NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Manager, having technical collaboration and management of the Mission’s General Coordinator for Engineering and Space Technology at INPE’s Headquarter (HQ), in São José dos Campos, São Paulo; (ii) the Santa Maria Space Science Laboratory (LACESM/CT) from the Federal University of Santa Maria - (UFSM); (iii) the Santa Maria Design House (SMDH); (iv) the Graduate Program in Microelectronics from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (MG/II/UFRGS); and (v) the Aeronautic Institute of Technology (ITA/DCTA/CA-MD). The INPE-UFSM’s CBP has the involvement of UFSM' undergraduate students and graduate students from: INPE/MCTI, MG/II/UFRGS and ITA/DCTA/CA-MD. The NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Projects Ground Stations (GS) capacity building operation with VHF/UHF band and S-band antennas, are described in two specific papers at this COSPAR-2014. This paper focuses on the development of NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 and on the launching of NANOSATC-BR1. The Projects' concepts were developed to: i) monitor, in real time, the Geospace, the Ionosphere, the energetic particle precipitation and the disturbances at the Earth's Magnetosphere over the Brazilian Territory, and ii) the determination of their effects on regions such as the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) and the Brazilian sector of the

  6. Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial stratigraphy of southern Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinao, José Luis; McDonald, Eric; Rhodes, Edward J.; Brown, Nathan; Barrera, Wendy; Gosse, John C.; Zimmermann, Susan

    2016-08-01

    A late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial stratigraphy has been established for the basins of La Paz and San José del Cabo, in the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Six discrete alluvial units (Qt1 through Qt6) were differentiated across the region using a combination of geomorphologic mapping, sedimentological analysis, and soil development. These criteria were supported using radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence and cosmogenic depth-profile geochronology. Major aggradation started shortly after ∼70 ka (Qt2), and buildup of the main depositional units ended at ∼10 ka (Qt4). After deposition of Qt4, increasing regional incision of older units and the progressive development of a channelized alluvial landscape coincide with deposition of Qt5 and Qt6 units in a second, incisional phase. All units consist of multiple 1-3 m thick alluvial packages deposited as upper-flow stage beds that represent individual storms. Main aggradational units (Qt2-Qt4) occurred across broad (>2 km) channels in the form of sheetflood deposition while incisional stage deposits are confined to channels of ∼0.5-2 km width. Continuous deposition inside the thicker (>10 m) pre-Qt5 units is demonstrated by closely spaced dates in vertical profiles. In a few places, disconformities between these major units are nevertheless evident and indicated by partly eroded buried soils. The described units feature sedimentological traits similar to historical deposits formed by large tropical cyclone events, but also include characteristics of upper-regime flow sedimentation not shown by historical sediments, like long (>10 m) wavelength antidunes and transverse ribs. We interpret the whole sequence as indicating discrete periods during the late Pleistocene and Holocene when climatic conditions allowed larger and more frequent tropical cyclone events than those observed historically. These discrete periods are associated with times when insolation at the tropics was

  7. Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of middle ear fluid pathogens in Costa Rican children with otitis media before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the National Immunization Program: acute otitis media microbiology in Costa Rican children.

    PubMed

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Castrejon, Maria Mercedes; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K

    2015-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010-2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3-59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (≥ 2 PCV7 doses or ≥ 1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9.7%), 6B (9.7%), and 14 (9

  8. Drift zonal plasma ionospheric in the Brazilian sector during a period of extreme low solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Tardelli-Coelho, Flavia Elaine

    2016-07-01

    The zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma irregularities of large scale were analyzed; these irregularities were observed using optical emission techniques OI 630.0 nm obtained by photometers imagers installed in two locations on the campus of Urbanova UNIVAP in São José dos Campos - SP designated SJC and Campus ULBRA in Palmas - TO cited as PAL. Data were collected from five years, from 2006 to 2010, low solar activity period. Of the total of 337 nights in SJC and 329 nights in PAL analyzed were selected a total of 18 nights of significant plasma bubble occurrences, 9 nights in SJC and 9 nights in PAL, and studied under two conditions: considering fixed altitude of 280 km OI emission layer of 630.0 nm and calculating the height of this variable layer over each night analyzed. To find these varying altitudes along each night we were assisted with the analysis of CADI digital ionosonde data operating in conjunction with the imaging photometer in its observatory. The radio data available in digisonde allowed to do the analysis on 12 variables altitudes of 18 nights studied for fixed altitude; this occurred because of scattering present in ionograms for those nights and times, due to the presence of plasma bubbles in the study through the of the observatory zenith. Quantitative analysis determined the drift velocity zone for each of the analyzed bubbles 18 nights during the given fixed height and 12 nights evaluating varying altitudes along each night. The means were obtained nights analyzed in each observatory for both methods; SJC in the average velocities is derived from the plasma zone 9 nights bubbles analyzed in the method is fixed altitude 84 ± 18 m / s in the case of PAL the average velocities found is 87 ± 12 m / s. In the other case with variable altitude emission to SJC 8 nights analyzed, we reached a mean value of 87 ± 12 m / s, and for PAL, 4 of 9 nights initially selected, the average speed of the zonal drift plasma bubbles were found 85

  9. Ten years later: Evaluation of the effectiveness of 12.5% amitraz against a field population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using field studies, artificial infestation (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Campos, Gabriel Pimentel; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-12-15

    Using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and in vitro adult immersion tests, the present study evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of 12.5% amitraz administered via whole body spraying against a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus population that did not have any contact with chemical products belonging to this acaricide family for 10 years (approximately 40 generations). Two natural infestation trials, two artificial infestation trials (Stall tests) and two adult immersion tests were performed in two different stages in 2005 and 2015. Between 2002 and 2015, the bovine herd of this property was formed by approximately 450 animals from the Simmental breed that were divided into nine paddocks formed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. For the natural infestation experiments in 2005 and 2015, we selected nearly 70 animals naturally infested with ticks from the same herd that belonged to the "São Paulo" farm located in São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil. Field studies were performed in the same paddock (9). To evaluate anti-R. (B.) microplus activity in the artificially infested cattle (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, two experiments of each methodology were performed at CPPAR (the Center of Research in Animal Health located on the FCAV/UNESP campus in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil) in 2005 and 2015. R. (B.) microplus used in the artificial infestation, and adult immersion test experiments were obtained from paddocks 1-9 in 2005 and 2015 from the commercial farm where the field studies were performed. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that amitraz use in rotation with pyrethroids every 28 days for three consecutive years (2002-2004) previous to the beginning of the first trial (2005) was sufficient to generate a R. (B.) microplus strain resistant to amitraz. Moreover, using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, we verified that 40 generations of the tick species with no

  10. Analysis of the concordance between the estimated values of creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft-Gault equation and the real value determined in patients from the Hospital Clínica Bíblica.

    PubMed

    Chaverri-Fernández, Jose Miguel; Zavaleta-Monestel, Esteban; Díaz-Madriz, Jose Pablo; Ortiz-Ureña, Angie; Ramírez-Hernández, Monica; Trejos-Morales, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: analizar el efecto de las modificaciones en la fórmula de Cockcroft-Gault en la medición del aclaramiento de creatinina (CrCl) y su concordancia con el valor real calculado con la orina de 24 horas en una muestra de pacientes latinoamericanos hospitalizados en San José de Costa Rica. Método: estudio observacional, retrospectivo, con pacientes en quienes se midió la creatinina sérica en orina de 24 horas y que cumplieran los criterios de inclusión. Se determinaron los valores de aclaramiento de creatinina reales y calculados, y se estableció la concordancia entre estos, aplicando la prueba del Coeficiente de Correlación Intraclase; se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los datos. Resultados: un total de 507 pacientes (61% hombres), de los cuales se describió la edad (*ME = 60 años**DE = 17 años), estatura (*ME = 1,66 metros**DE = 0,09 metros), peso actual (*ME = 75 kg **DE = 15 kg), índice de masa corporal (*ME = 27,3 Kg/m2**DE = 4,76 Kg/m2), y valores de aclaramiento endógeno (*ME = 69,72 ml/min **DE = 33 ml/min). Se obtuvo la mejor concordancia para la fórmula con valores de peso actual y creatinina sérica sin redondeo. Conclusiones: la aplicación de la fórmula de Cockcroft-Gault que mejor concuerda con el valor real es aquella que utiliza el peso actual y no redondea valores de creatinina inferiores a 1 mg/dL. Se sugiere realizar un análisis prospectivo, determinando otras variables que podrían afectar a la medición real del CrCl, y replicar la metodología en poblaciones específicas. *ME: Media **DE: Desviación Estándar.

  11. Evaluation of GPROF-SSMI/S rainfall estimates over land during the Brazilian CHUVA-VALE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Rômulo A. J.; Braga, Ramon C.; Vila, Daniel A.; Morales, Carlos A.

    2015-09-01

    One of the major goals of the CHUVA project (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM [GlobAl Precipitation Measurement]) is to collect information about the cloud processes of the main precipitating systems over Brazil in order to evaluate and improve the quality of satellite-based precipitation estimates. Thus, this paper evaluates the performance of the Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) version 2004 for the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) sensor, carried onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16, F17 and F18 satellites, for instantaneous rain rates over land by comparing with other remote sensing based estimates such as X-band dual polarization rainfall retrievals from the CHUVA Project (named here X-band CHUVA radar) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) Precipitation Radar - version 7 (PR-V7) precipitation estimates (named here the 2A25_V7 product) for the CHUVA-VALE campaign. The analyses were performed on an area within a radius of 60 km from the X-band CHUVA radar, located at São José dos Campos, SP - Brazil (centered at 23.2°S and 45.95°W) and another delimited by 41°W-51°W and 18°S-28°S (10° x 10° box). GPROF showed an overestimate of light/moderate rain rate intensities, while underestimating the rainfall rates above 10 mm h- 1, considering the X-band CHUVA radar as reference. The same behavior was observed when compared with the 2A25_V7 database. Through a PDF analysis, GPROF was found to overestimate the frequencies of moderate rain rates (between 2 and 10 mm h- 1, above 15%), and underestimate the frequencies of light and high rain rates (< 2 mm h- 1 and > 10 mm h- 1, respectively) when compared to both the X-band CHUVA radar and 2A25_V7 reference databases. The results for the studied region suggest that GPROF has a relatively good agreement (spatial distribution and accumulated rainfall), especially for

  12. Traveling planetary wave ionospheric disturbances and their role in the generation of equatorial spread-F and GPS phase fluctuations during the last extreme low solar activity and comparison with high solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, A. J.; Fagundes, P. R.; Bolzan, M. J. A.; Gende, M.; Brunini, C.; de Jesus, R.; Pillat, V. G.; Abalde, J. R.; Lima, W. L. C.

    2014-09-01

    This investigation studies traveling planetary wave ionospheric disturbance (TPWID) type oscillations on the modulation of the F region virtual height rise during the E×B electric field pre-reversal enhancement (PRE), near sunset hours. We also studied their role in the generation of equatorial spread F (ESF) and GPS phase fluctuations during periods of the last extreme low solar activity (LSA) of January 2009 to April 2010 (F10.7bar=73). A comparison is made with periods of high solar activity (HSA) in 2003 and 2004 near equatorial region. The ionospheric irregularities investigated are medium (bottom-side) and large (plasma bubble) scales. Ionospheric F region oscillations with period of days are due to the TPWIDs, which play an important role in producing favorable or unfavorable conditions for equatorial ionospheric irregularities, changing the electron vertical profile and F region height. In this paper, we present simultaneous ionospheric sounding (ionosonde) and GPS vertical total electron content (vTEC) observations carried out near equatorial region (Palmas 10.2°S, 48.2°W) and low latitude region (São José dos Campos 23.2°S, 45.9°W; located under the southern crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly), Brazil. Observations show that the occurrence of fresh ESF during LSA and HSA and fresh GPS phase fluctuations at equatorial region follow the trend of day-to-day variations in the F region virtual height, which are due to electric field PRE modulated by TPWID wave like oscillations. During LSA, the altitude of 250 km acts as a threshold height for the generation of fresh ionospheric irregularities, whereas during HSA, the threshold height is 300 km. The observations also found a strong increase in the generation of fresh ionospheric irregularities from October 2009 to March 2010 during LSA and from September 2003 to March 2004 during the HSA. Furthermore, in LSA, the period of fresh ionospheric irregularities was less than during HSA, though both

  13. Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of middle ear fluid pathogens in Costa Rican children with otitis media before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the National Immunization Program: acute otitis media microbiology in Costa Rican children.

    PubMed

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Castrejon, Maria Mercedes; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K

    2015-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010-2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3-59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (≥ 2 PCV7 doses or ≥ 1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9.7%), 6B (9.7%), and 14 (9

  14. Bicarbonate Values for Healthy Residents Living in Cities Above 1500 Meters of Altitude: A Theoretical Model and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Sandoval, Juan C; Castilla-Peón, Maria F; Gotés-Palazuelos, José; Vázquez-García, Juan C; Wagner, Michael P; Merelo-Arias, Carlos A; Vega-Vega, Olynka; Rincón-Pedrero, Rodolfo; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Ramirez-Sandoval, Juan C., Maria F. Castilla-Peón, José Gotés-Palazuelos, Juan C. Vázquez-García, Michael P. Wagner, Carlos A. Merelo-Arias, Olynka Vega-Vega, Rodolfo Rincón-Pedrero, and Ricardo Correa-Rotter. Bicarbonate values for healthy residents living in cities above 1500 m of altitude: a theoretical model and systematic review. High Alt Med Biol. 17:85-92, 2016.-Plasma bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) concentration is the main value used to assess the metabolic component of the acid-base status. There is limited information regarding plasma HCO3(-) values adjusted for altitude for people living in cities at high altitude defined as 1500 m (4921 ft) or more above sea level. Our aim was to estimate the plasma HCO3(-) concentration in residents of cities at these altitudes using a theoretical model and compare these values with HCO3(-) values found on a systematic review, and with those venous CO2 values obtained in a sample of 633 healthy individuals living at an altitude of 2240 m (7350 ft). We calculated the PCO2 using linear regression models and calculated plasma HCO3(-) according to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Results show that HCO3(-) concentration falls as the altitude of the cities increase. For each 1000 m of altitude above sea level, HCO3(-) decreases to 0.55 and 1.5 mEq/L in subjects living at sea level with acute exposure to altitude and in subjects acclimatized to altitude, respectively. Estimated HCO3(-) values from the theoretical model were not different to HCO3(-) values found in publications of a systematic review or with venous total CO2 measurements in our sample. Altitude has to be taken into consideration in the calculation of HCO3(-) concentrations in cities above 1500 m to avoid an overdiagnosis of acid-base disorders in a given individual. PMID:27120676

  15. Education on Risk Management with Gender Equity: Experiences in United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) courses using on-site education and synchronous technologies for distance education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, J.; Marroquín, W.; Villar, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The experiences in two Risk Management courses organised by the Universidad Centroamericana "José Simeón Cañas" (UCA) and the "América Latina Genera" project of the BCPR-UNDP (Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery of the United Nations Development Programme) are presented focusing on the design of teaching material and the selection and use of information-communication technologies (ICT) during the learning process. The organisation of these courses has posed three main challenges: the integration of a gender-equity approach in a subject that has traditionally lacked of it, the preparation of specialised teaching material for an audience with varied backgrounds and experience, and a widespread distribution of students and lecturers in different countries and with significant differences in ICT resources. These courses have combined tutorials, video-conferences, forums, chats, a media centre with video and podcast, and other resources to allow a close follow-up of the students' progress and strengthen the learning process. A specialised database of information within the "América Latina Genera" project has also been used intensively. Even though the building of capacity has been important, the emphasis of the courses has been on the practical application of projects in the students' work environment and in other real situations. The first course took place between June and December 2008 and consisted of a combination of on-site and distance education. The 15 students that registered the course included officials of local and central government institutions, private consultants, university staff and members of non-governmental organisations. Lecturers from the United States Geological Survey and the International Centre for Geohazards broadcasted videoconferences from the United States and Norway, respectively. The second course started in November 2008 and is scheduled to finish in February 2009. This course has been fully developed using distance education

  16. [Seasonal and spatial structure of reef fish community in San Jose Island, Gulf of California, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barjau, Emelio; Rodríguez-Romero, Jesús; Galván, Felipe; Gutiérrez, Francisco; López, Juana

    2012-06-01

    The Gulf of California is one of the most fish diverse areas of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. In spite of its economic value, few works have considered fish community studies for optimum management. With the aim to determine the seasonal and spatial variation of fish communities in eight locations around the San José Island, some ecological research was conducted from March 2001 to February 2002. For this, visual censuses were used in 48 transects of 100x5m (500m2); specific analysis such as diversity values, the relative abundance and the biological value indexes were undertaken, and a principal component analysis applied. Our results clearly showed two climatic seasons of cold and warm waters. A total number of 26 608 organisms of 112 species and 76 genera of fishes were identified. We used the relative abundance index to determine the most important species, which were: Abudefduf troschelii, Thalassoma lucasanum, Stegastes rectifraenum, Mulloidichthys dentatus, Chromis atrilobata, Lutjanus argentiventris and Scarus ghobban. February was the month with the lowest diversity with a value of 3.12bits/ind. and October was the most diverse (4.13bits/ind.). According to the biological value index (BVI) and considering the climatic seasons, the fish species with the highest score during cold months were: A. troschelii, M. dentatus, S. ghobban, S. rectifraenum and T lucasanum. Besides, for warmer months, the same fish species were observed but in different order and abundance: A. troschelii, S. ghobban, S. rectifraenum, T lucasanum and M. dentatus. Using the biological value index, 13 species were those which had a higher overall score. The locations by the Eastern side of the island had a greater number of species and abundance of fish. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied using the seasonal data, species richness, diversity, equity, number of species and total abundance during the warmer months also a PCA within spatial data, showed that location in

  17. Recent Advances in Maya Studies Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Tom; Irwin, Daniel; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3i radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of baJos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the baJo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The combination of water management and baJo farming is an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a

  18. Clustering of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases among Adolescents from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous presence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases and the association of these risk factors with demographic and economic factors among adolescents from southern Brazil. Methods The study included 916 students (14–19 years old) enrolled in the 2014 school year at state schools in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Risk factors related to lifestyle (i.e., physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet), demographic variables (sex, age and skin colour) and economic variables (school shift and economic level) were assessed through a questionnaire. Simultaneous behaviours were assessed by the ratio between observed and expected prevalences of risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The clustering of risk factors was analysed by multinomial logistic regression. The clusters of risk factors that showed a higher prevalence were analysed by binary logistic regression. Results The clustering of two, three, four, and five risk factors were found in 22.2%, 49.3%, 21.7% and 3.1% of adolescents, respectively. Subgroups that were more likely to have both behaviours of physical inactivity and unhealthy diet simultaneously were mostly composed of girls (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.57–5.85) and those with lower socioeconomic status (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.05–3.21); simultaneous physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older adolescents (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.05–2.12). Subgroups less likely to have both behaviours of sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mostly composed of girls (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38–0.89); simultaneous physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older individuals (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49–0.87) and those of the night shift (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.43–0.82). Conclusion Adolescents had a high prevalence

  19. Moment tensor inversion of tremor events at Arenal Volcano (Costa Rica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davi, Rosalia; O'Brien, Gareth; Lokmer, Ivan; Bean, Christopher; Lesage, Philippe; de Barros, Louis

    2010-05-01

    Arenal is a small, andesitic stratovolcano located in north-western Costa Rica, 97 km from the capital San Josè. Arenal's explosive activity is preceded, and accompanied, by different types of seismic events such as long period events, explosions, tremor and sporadic tectonic swarms. Tremor is the most common type of event recorded at Arenal with durations of up to several hours. Both spasmodic (1-6 Hz) and harmonic (0.9-2 Hz) tremor are observed with no clear difference in the genesis of each; the former can progressively evolve into the latter and vice-versa. However, the origin of the tremor is, at present, not fully understood. In order to retrieve the source mechanism generating these types of events, a moment tensor inversion is performed. A dataset recorded on the volcano, during a seismic experiment carried out in 2005, is used for the inversion. This dataset consists of ten days of data, from which two main groups of tremor at different frequencies (group one at 0.8-1.5 Hz and group two at 1.8-2.5 Hz) have been selected. A major difficulty in any inversion of tremor is that a clear onset can rarely be determined and hence retrieving the direct arrivals from the source is impossible. Usually, these arrivals are heavily contaminated by scattered waves. On Arenal the initial part of the tremor bands can be isolated, therefore offering a good opportunity to invert tremor for the source mechanism. The Green's functions used in the inversion were calculated using 3D numerical simulations including the real topography of the volcano and the best estimation of the velocity model available for Arenal. This velocity model was retrieved from seismic refraction experiments and sounding using the SPAC method. For each day, different tremor starting bands have been selected and divided into the groups mentioned above. For each band a source location is determined by performing a grid search through a volume of 4735 possible source points located under the crater summit

  20. GIS applied to agriclimatological zoning and agrotoxin residue monitoring in tomatoes: A case study in Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Teixeira, Luciano José Quintão; Saraiva, Sérgio Henriques; Freitas, Deivid França; Pereira, Olavo dos Santos; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; Neves, Antônio Augusto; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro; Scherer, Rodrigo

    2016-01-15

    Searches related to global warming have provided important insights into the response of terrestrial ecosystems, but few have examined the impacts on agricultural crops, particularly those associated with the monitoring of agrotoxin residues. In this context, the agriclimatological zoning is an important tool in the planning and consolidation of crops and should be considered in any initiative that involves such planning. This tool is particularly important in the analysis of agrotoxin residues and may be applied by the Program Analysis of Agrotoxin Residues in Food (PARA) created by the National Health Vigilance Agency of Brazil (ANVISA), which enables greater food security and contributes to the improvement of human health. The aim of this study was to elaborate the current and future agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, relating it with the monitoring of samples collected by PARA in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The results indicate that a temperature increase of 5 °C creates a decrease in apt areas from 37.3% to 4.3%, for a total reduction of 33 percentage points (-88.5%). It is noted that of the 41 producing municipalities, only 26 have apt areas greater than 50%, highlighting the municipalities with apt areas greater than 90%, represented by Mantenópolis (100%), Guaçuí (98.5%), São José do Calçado (97.8%), Irupi (94.4%), Santa Teresa (92.3%), and Marechal Floriano (91.4%). The veracity of agriclimatological zoning is proved by a Kendall rank correlation coefficient of 0.876, indicating that the distribution of the variables of apt areas and productivity are similar at the significance level of 0.05 with a confidence interval 95%. After validation of the agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, it is recommended that the PARA should monitor 36 municipalities rather than the current 18, representing an increase of 100%. The methodology can be adjusted to agricultural crops of other countries. PMID:26555099

  1. Low-latitude equinoctial spread-F occurrence at different longitude sectors under low solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzopane, M.; Zuccheretti, E.; Abadi, P.; de Abreu, A. J.; de Jesus, R.; Fagundes, P. R.; Supnithi, P.; Rungraengwajiake, S.; Nagatsuma, T.; Tsugawa, T.; Cabrera, M. A.; Ezquer, R. G.

    2013-02-01

    We present the results of a comparative study of spread-F signatures over five low-latitude sites: Chiangmai (CGM; 18.8° N, 98.9° E, mag. Lat. 8.8° N), Thailand; Tanjungsari (TNJ; 6.9° S, 107.6° E, mag. Lat. 16.9° S), Indonesia; Palmas (PAL; 10.2° S, 311.8° E, mag. Lat. 0.9° S) and São José Dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 314.1° E, mag. Lat. 14.0° S), Brazil; and Tucumán (TUC; 26.9° S, 294.6° E, mag. Lat. 16.8° S), Argentina. The investigation was based on simultaneous ionograms recorded by an FMCW (frequency-modulated continuous-wave) at CGM, an IPS-71 (digital ionosonde from KEL aerospace) at TNJ, a CADI (Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde) at PAL and SJC, and an AIS-INGV (Advanced Ionospheric Sounder - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) at TUC, during the equinoctial periods March-April (R12 = 2.0 and R12 = 2.2) and September-October (R12 = 6.1 and R12 = 7.0) 2009, for very low solar activity. Spread-F signatures were categorized into two types: the range spread-F (RSF) and the frequency spread-F (FSF). The study confirms that the dynamics and the physical processes responsible for these phenomena are actually complicated. In fact, the features that arise from the investigation are different, depending on both the longitude sector and on the hemisphere. For instance, TUC, under the southern crest of the ionospheric equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), shows a predominance of RSF signatures, while both SJC, under the southern crest of EIA but in a different longitude sector, and CGM, under the northern crest of EIA, show a predominance of FSF signatures. Moreover, the spread-F occurrence over the longitude sector that includes CGM and TNJ is significantly lower than the spread-F occurrence over the longitude sector of PAL, SJC, and TUC.

  2. PREFACE: 4th National Meeting in Chaos, Complex System and Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raúl Hernández Montoya, Alejandro; Hernández Lemus, Enrique; Rubén Luévano Enríquez, José; Rodríguez Achach, Manuel Enrique; Vargas Madrazo, Carlos Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton--Jacobi equation). The present volume contains a rigorous selection of the lectures presented at the NMCCSTS4. All papers were peer reviewed and we consider the high quality and the wide range of topics covered here displays the high level that the community of complexity sciences is reaching in our country. We would like to thank all of the speakers, participants and the members of the Organizing Committee, also we would like to express our gratitude to all students and support personal involved with the logistic and technical aspects of the organization of our event. This IV edition of the National Meeting on Caos, Complex System and Time Series was sponsored by the following organizations and institutions, we warmly thank all of them: Universidad Veracruzana, IF-BUAP, UAM Azcapotzalco, INMEGEN, Conacyt (155492), all them from México and the Ministero degli Affari Esteri (MAE) from Italy. A R Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz M E Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz E Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine J R Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco C E Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz Organizing Committee José Luis Carrillo Estrada Instituto de Física, Benemerita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, carrillo@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx José Rubén Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, jrle@correo.azc.uam.mx Enrique Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine, ehernandez@inmegen.gob.mx Alejandro Raúl Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz, alhernandez@uv.mx Norma Bagatella Flores University of Veracruz, nbagatella@uv.mx Adrian Arturo Huerta Hernández University of Veracruz, adhuerta@uv.mx Manuel Enrique Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz, manurodriguez@uv.mx Carlos Ernesto Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz, cavargas@uv.mx Sol Haret Baez Barrios University of Veracruz, arbaez@uv.mx Héctor Francisco Coronel Brizio University

  3. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, O.; Calzada, J. A.; Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-02-01

    give a state of the art view of different topics. The afternoon was devoted to 6 parallel sessions, each one including the most afine topics. Also there was a poster session that could be visited in the intermediates and during the coffe breaks. A total of 23 plenary conferences, 130 parallel communications and 25 posters were presented in QTS5. All the sessions were given in the Palace of Conferences Conde Ansúrez which among other facilities also had a computer room. As social activities we had a guided walk around the historical part of the city, a visit to the nearby city of Segovia, as well as a welcome party and farewell dinner. These activities were intended to foster contact and informal discussions among the participants in the meeting. We are much indebted to several institutions that without their support the organization of the QTS5 symposium would not have been possible. In this respect we greatly acknowledge to Ministerio de Educación of Spain and Junta de Castilla y León for general financial support, to Fundación Universidades de Castilla y León for a number of grants to young researchers who otherwise would not have attended the conference, to the European Physical Society that provided a number of grants for eastern countries and to the University of Valladolid where the event took place. We want to thank all the members of the Conference Board and the International Advisory Committee of QTS5 for honoring us with their help and support. Here we must mention our gratitude to the other members of the Local Organizing Committe of QTS5, Manuel Gadella, José Manuel Izquierdo and Sengül Kuru, who are not Editors of this JPCS issue but shared with us the complex organization of this event. We acknowledge IOP Publishing for the facilities in the publication of these Proceedings. Finally, on behalf of the Local Organizing Committee, we would like to thank all the participants in the QTS5 conference for their presence, contributions, and for the good

  4. Ediacaran to Cambrian magmatic suites in the Rio Grande do Norte domain, extreme Northeastern Borborema Province (NE of Brazil): Current knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite; Galindo, Antonio Carlos; de Medeiros, Vladimir Cruz

    2015-03-01

    The Ediacaran-Cambrian plutonic activity is one of the most important geological features of the Rio Grande do Norte Domain (Borborema Province, NE Brazil). It is represented by several batholiths, stocks and dykes. Based on the petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristic of different rocks, this plutonic activity can be grouped in six separate suites: shoshonitic (Shos), porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline (PHKCalcAlk), equigranular high K calc-alkaline (EHKCalcAlk), calc-alkaline (CalcAlk), alkaline (Alk) and charnockitic alkaline (ChAlk). Geochemically, the Shos, CalcAlk and Alk suites are differentiated from the others, while ChAlc can be distinguished from the others in some diagrams. The greatest difficulty lies in distinguishing between the chemically similar PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk. To this end, existing geochronological data as well as related petrographic and textural field aspects may be used to distinguish the two mentioned suites (PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk). Petrographically, the Shos suite has composition between gabbro/diorite and quartz monzonite. Monzogranites (with subordinate granodiorites and quartz monzonites) predominate in both PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk. Calc is composed of granodiorites to tonalites. Alc is formed by alkali feldspar granites (with subordinate alkali feldspar quartz syenites and syenogranites), whereas ChAlc has quartz mangerites and charnockites. The suites were emplaced between the Ediacaran (635-541 Ma) and Cambrian (541-485 Ma), predominantly in the Ediacaran, based on 34 U-Pb datings (zircon, titanite, monazite and columbite-tantalite), 17 Rb-Sr (whole rock) and 1 Sm-Nd (total rock and mineral) internal isochrons. The Shos suite has U-Pb ages varying from 599 ± 16 (Poço Verde pluton) to 579 ± 7 (Acari and São João do Sabugi plutons), slightly older than those of the PHKCalcAlk suite, which ranges between 591 ± 4 Ma (Totoró pluton) and 544 ± 7 Ma (São José de Espinharas pluton). The Calc

  5. PREFACE: XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Adnan; Contreras, Guillermo; Raya, Alfredo; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-03-01

    de Física de Altas Energías. At a personal level, we are very grateful to Dr Juan Carlos D'Olivo (President of the Red Nacional de Física de Altas Energías), Dr Pedro Mata Vázquez (Director of COECyT), Dr Ricardo Becerril Bárcenas (Director of the Institute of Physics and Mathematics, UMSNH), Dr Rigoberto Vera Mendoza (Director of the Faculty of Science, UMSNH) and Dr José Napoleón Guzmán Ávila (Coordinator of Scientific Research, UMSNH) for their invaluable support in all organizational matters, which enabled the school to become a reality. We gratefully acknowledge the help of our colleagues in the organizing committee: Alexis Aguilar, Alejandro Ayala, Wolfgang Bietenholz, Alberto Güijosa, Gabriela Murguía, Sarira Sahu (UNAM), Eduard de la Cruz Burelo, Abdel Pérez-Lorenzana (CINVESTAV), Elena Cáceres (UCOL), David Delepine (UG), Mariana Kirchbach (UASLP), Ildefonso León (UAS), Juan Carlos Arteaga-Velázquez (for his impeccable work in managing the web page of the school) and Víctor Villanueva (UMSNH). Most of them contributed to the extra work involved in refereeing the contributions submitted for this publication. Many thanks also go to all the student volunteers for the efficiency and dedication with which they carried out their duties. At the registration desk, we relied on the hard work of Xiomara Gutiérrez, Enif Gutiérrez (UMSNH) and Mara Diaz Pancardo. Several post docs and PhD students provided invaluable support in all organizational matters: Adolfo Huet, Cliffor Compeán, Rocío Bermúdez, Saúl Sánchez, Anabel Trejo, Iraís Rubalcava, Khépani Raya, José Juan González, Saúl Hernández Ortiz (UMSNH), Alfredo Galaviz, and Alan Aganza (USON). Their help in carrying out the organization of the school was essential and without their collaboration, this school would not have been the same. We also acknowledge the help of the administrative secretary Maria Esperanza Jaramillo of IFM (UMSNH). We would like to take this opportunity to thank

  6. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  7. FOREWORD: TAUP 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottino, Alessandro; Coccia, Eugenio; Morales, Julio; Puimedónv, Jorge

    2006-04-01

    qualities, was illustrated. The TAUP Steering Committee recalls with deep gratitude that John Bahcall served continuously as a member of the TAUP International Advisory Committee and that he gave an inspired and brilliant conclusive talk at TAUP 2003 in Seattle. Our astroparticle community will miss him greatly. The TAUP 2005 Organizing Committee thanks Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Gobierno de Aragón, Zaragoza University, INFN, IUPAP, PaNAGIC and Ibercaja for sponsoring the Conference, and the Rector and Vice-Rector of the Zaragoza University for their hospitality in the magnificent Paraninfo Palace, where the meeting was held. We wish to thank Venya Berezinsky, José Bernabéu and José Angel Villar for their invaluable contribution in the scientific shaping of the conference and in the preparation of the present volume. Very special thanks are due to Ms Mercedes Fatás and Ms Franca Masciulli, our workshop secretaries, for their continuous and excellent work in the organization of the conference, and to Ms Leopolda Benazzato for her invaluable assistance during the conference. We also gratefully thank the technical staff: Cristina Gil, Francisco Javier Mena and Alfonso Ortiz de Solórzano for their invaluable help. As announced at the end of the conference, TAUP 2007 will be held in Sendai, Japan, hosted by the Tohoku University with the chairs of Professors Atsuto Suzuki and Kunio Inoue. COMMITTEES TAUP STEERING COMMITTEE F. T. Avignone, U. South Carolina B. Barish, CALTECH E. Bellotti, U. Milano/INFN J. Bernabéu, U. Valenciav A. Bottino (chair), U. Torino/INFN V. de Alfaro, U. Torino/INFN T. Kajita, ICRR Tokyo C. W. Kim, JHU Baltimore/KIAS Seoul E. Lorenz U. München V. Matveev, INR Moscow J. Morales, U. Zaragoza D. Sinclair, U. Carleton TAUP 2005 INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE J. J. Aubert, CNRS Marseille J. Bahcall, U. Princeton M. Baldo-Ceolin, U. Padova/INFN L. Bergström, U. Stockholm R. Bernabei, U. Roma Tor Vergata/INFN A. Bettini, U. Padova/INFN S

  8. PREFACE: 4th National Meeting in Chaos, Complex System and Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raúl Hernández Montoya, Alejandro; Hernández Lemus, Enrique; Rubén Luévano Enríquez, José; Rodríguez Achach, Manuel Enrique; Vargas Madrazo, Carlos Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton--Jacobi equation). The present volume contains a rigorous selection of the lectures presented at the NMCCSTS4. All papers were peer reviewed and we consider the high quality and the wide range of topics covered here displays the high level that the community of complexity sciences is reaching in our country. We would like to thank all of the speakers, participants and the members of the Organizing Committee, also we would like to express our gratitude to all students and support personal involved with the logistic and technical aspects of the organization of our event. This IV edition of the National Meeting on Caos, Complex System and Time Series was sponsored by the following organizations and institutions, we warmly thank all of them: Universidad Veracruzana, IF-BUAP, UAM Azcapotzalco, INMEGEN, Conacyt (155492), all them from México and the Ministero degli Affari Esteri (MAE) from Italy. A R Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz M E Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz E Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine J R Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco C E Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz Organizing Committee José Luis Carrillo Estrada Instituto de Física, Benemerita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, carrillo@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx José Rubén Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, jrle@correo.azc.uam.mx Enrique Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine, ehernandez@inmegen.gob.mx Alejandro Raúl Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz, alhernandez@uv.mx Norma Bagatella Flores University of Veracruz, nbagatella@uv.mx Adrian Arturo Huerta Hernández University of Veracruz, adhuerta@uv.mx Manuel Enrique Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz, manurodriguez@uv.mx Carlos Ernesto Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz, cavargas@uv.mx Sol Haret Baez Barrios University of Veracruz, arbaez@uv.mx Héctor Francisco Coronel Brizio University

  9. Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    Quebec IREQ, Varennes Canada Etienne PARKINSON Andritz Hydro Ltd. Switzerland B V S S S PRASAD Indian Institute of Technology Madras India Stefan RIEDELBAUCH Stuttgart University Germany Michel SABOURIN Alstom Hydro Canada Inc Canada Bruno SCHIAVELLO Flowserve Corporation USA Katsumasa SHIMMEI Hitachi Ltd Japan Christoph SINGRTüN VDMA Germany Ale? SKOTAK CKD Blansko Engineering, a s Czech Republic Toshiaki SUZUKI Toshiba Corporation Japan Andy C C TAN Queensland University of Technology Australia Geraldo TIAGO FILHO Universidade Federal de Itajuba Brazi Thi C VU Andritz Hydro Ltd Canada Satoshi WATANABE Kyushu University Japan S H WINOTO National University of Singapore Singapore Woo-Seong WOO STX Institute of Technology Korea International Technical Committee François AVELLAN (principal) EPFL-LMH Switzerland Xingqi LUO (principal) Xi'an University of Technology China Martin BÖHLE Kaiserslautern University Germany Gerard BOIS ENSAM France Young-Seok CHOI KITECH Korea Luca d'AGOSTINO University of Pisa Italy Eduard EGUSQUIZA Polytechnical University Catalonia Spain Arpad FAY University of Miskolcz Hungary Richard FISHER Voith Hydro Inc USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLA Institute Polytechnique de Grenoble France Aleksandar GAJIC University of Belgrade Serbia José GONZÁLEZ Universidad de Oviedo Spain François GUIBAULT Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Canada Toshiaki IKOHAGI Tohoku University Japan Chisachi KATO University of Tokyo Japan Kwang-Yong KIM Inha University Korea Youn-Jea KIM Sungkyunkwan University Korea Smaine KOUIDRI Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6) France Shengcai LI Warwick University UK Adrian LUNGU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Romania Torbjøm K NIELSEN NTNU Norway Michihiro NISHI Tsinghua University China Peter PELZ Darmstadt University Germany Frantisek POCHYLY Brno University Czech Republic Albert RUPRECHT University of Stuttgart Germany Rudolf SCHILLING Technische University München Germany Wei SHYY HKUST Hong Kong,China Romeo SUSAN

  10. Ediacaran to Cambrian magmatic suites in the Rio Grande do Norte domain, extreme Northeastern Borborema Province (NE of Brazil): Current knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite; Galindo, Antonio Carlos; de Medeiros, Vladimir Cruz

    2015-03-01

    The Ediacaran-Cambrian plutonic activity is one of the most important geological features of the Rio Grande do Norte Domain (Borborema Province, NE Brazil). It is represented by several batholiths, stocks and dykes. Based on the petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristic of different rocks, this plutonic activity can be grouped in six separate suites: shoshonitic (Shos), porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline (PHKCalcAlk), equigranular high K calc-alkaline (EHKCalcAlk), calc-alkaline (CalcAlk), alkaline (Alk) and charnockitic alkaline (ChAlk). Geochemically, the Shos, CalcAlk and Alk suites are differentiated from the others, while ChAlc can be distinguished from the others in some diagrams. The greatest difficulty lies in distinguishing between the chemically similar PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk. To this end, existing geochronological data as well as related petrographic and textural field aspects may be used to distinguish the two mentioned suites (PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk). Petrographically, the Shos suite has composition between gabbro/diorite and quartz monzonite. Monzogranites (with subordinate granodiorites and quartz monzonites) predominate in both PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk. Calc is composed of granodiorites to tonalites. Alc is formed by alkali feldspar granites (with subordinate alkali feldspar quartz syenites and syenogranites), whereas ChAlc has quartz mangerites and charnockites. The suites were emplaced between the Ediacaran (635-541 Ma) and Cambrian (541-485 Ma), predominantly in the Ediacaran, based on 34 U-Pb datings (zircon, titanite, monazite and columbite-tantalite), 17 Rb-Sr (whole rock) and 1 Sm-Nd (total rock and mineral) internal isochrons. The Shos suite has U-Pb ages varying from 599 ± 16 (Poço Verde pluton) to 579 ± 7 (Acari and São João do Sabugi plutons), slightly older than those of the PHKCalcAlk suite, which ranges between 591 ± 4 Ma (Totoró pluton) and 544 ± 7 Ma (São José de Espinharas pluton). The Calc

  11. Arsenic contamination of natural waters in San Juan and La Pampa, Argentina.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, J; Watts, M J; Shaw, R A; Marcilla, A L; Ward, N I

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic (As) speciation in surface and groundwater from two provinces in Argentina (San Juan and La Pampa) was investigated using solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge methodology with comparison to total arsenic concentrations. A third province, Río Negro, was used as a control to the study. Strong cation exchange (SCX) and strong anion exchange (SAX) cartridges were utilised in series for the separation and preservation of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)). Samples were collected from a range of water outlets (rivers/streams, wells, untreated domestic taps, well water treatment works) to assess the relationship between total arsenic and arsenic species, water type and water parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids, TDS). Analysis of the waters for arsenic (total and species) was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in collision cell mode. Total arsenic concentrations in the surface and groundwater from Encon and the San José de Jáchal region of San Juan (north-west Argentina within the Cuyo region) ranged from 9 to 357 μg l(-1) As. Groundwater from Eduardo Castex (EC) and Ingeniero Luiggi (LU) in La Pampa (central Argentina within the Chaco-Pampean Plain) ranged from 3 to 1326 μg l(-1) As. The pH range for the provinces of San Juan (7.2-9.7) and La Pampa (7.0-9.9) are in agreement with other published literature. The highest total arsenic concentrations were found in La Pampa well waters (both rural farms and pre-treated urban sources), particularly where there was high pH (typically > 8.2), conductivity (>2,600 μS cm(-1)) and TDS (>1,400 mg l(-1)). Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of well waters in La Pampa for domestic drinking water in EC and LU significantly reduced total arsenic concentrations from a range of 216-224 μg l(-1) As to 0.3-0.8 μg l(-1) As. Arsenic species for both provinces were predominantly As(III) and As(V). As

  12. From surfaces to magnetic properties: special section dedicated to Juan Rojo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaraque, A.; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O.; González-Barrio, Miguel A.

    2013-12-01

    Barandiaran, V A Chernenko, E Cesari, D Salas, J Gutierrez and P Lazpita Magnetism in nanoparticles: tuning properties with coatingsPatricia Crespo, Patricia de la Presa, Pilar Marín, Marta Multigner, José María Alonso, Guillermo Rivero, Félix Yndurain, José María González-Calbet and Antonio Hernando Ordered arrays of metal-organic magnets at surfacesSara Barja, Daniel Stradi, Bogdana Borca, Manuela Garnica, Cristina Díaz, Josefa M Rodriguez-García, Manuel Alcamí, Amadeo L Vázquez de Parga, Fernando Martín and Rodolfo Miranda Surface defects and their influence on surface propertiesO Rodríguez de la Fuente, M A González-Barrio, V Navarro, B M Pabón, I Palacio and A Mascaraque

  13. FOREWORD: TAUP 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottino, Alessandro; Coccia, Eugenio; Morales, Julio; Puimedónv, Jorge

    2006-04-01

    qualities, was illustrated. The TAUP Steering Committee recalls with deep gratitude that John Bahcall served continuously as a member of the TAUP International Advisory Committee and that he gave an inspired and brilliant conclusive talk at TAUP 2003 in Seattle. Our astroparticle community will miss him greatly. The TAUP 2005 Organizing Committee thanks Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Gobierno de Aragón, Zaragoza University, INFN, IUPAP, PaNAGIC and Ibercaja for sponsoring the Conference, and the Rector and Vice-Rector of the Zaragoza University for their hospitality in the magnificent Paraninfo Palace, where the meeting was held. We wish to thank Venya Berezinsky, José Bernabéu and José Angel Villar for their invaluable contribution in the scientific shaping of the conference and in the preparation of the present volume. Very special thanks are due to Ms Mercedes Fatás and Ms Franca Masciulli, our workshop secretaries, for their continuous and excellent work in the organization of the conference, and to Ms Leopolda Benazzato for her invaluable assistance during the conference. We also gratefully thank the technical staff: Cristina Gil, Francisco Javier Mena and Alfonso Ortiz de Solórzano for their invaluable help. As announced at the end of the conference, TAUP 2007 will be held in Sendai, Japan, hosted by the Tohoku University with the chairs of Professors Atsuto Suzuki and Kunio Inoue. COMMITTEES TAUP STEERING COMMITTEE F. T. Avignone, U. South Carolina B. Barish, CALTECH E. Bellotti, U. Milano/INFN J. Bernabéu, U. Valenciav A. Bottino (chair), U. Torino/INFN V. de Alfaro, U. Torino/INFN T. Kajita, ICRR Tokyo C. W. Kim, JHU Baltimore/KIAS Seoul E. Lorenz U. München V. Matveev, INR Moscow J. Morales, U. Zaragoza D. Sinclair, U. Carleton TAUP 2005 INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE J. J. Aubert, CNRS Marseille J. Bahcall, U. Princeton M. Baldo-Ceolin, U. Padova/INFN L. Bergström, U. Stockholm R. Bernabei, U. Roma Tor Vergata/INFN A. Bettini, U. Padova/INFN S

  14. PREFACE: XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Adnan; Contreras, Guillermo; Raya, Alfredo; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-03-01

    de Física de Altas Energías. At a personal level, we are very grateful to Dr Juan Carlos D'Olivo (President of the Red Nacional de Física de Altas Energías), Dr Pedro Mata Vázquez (Director of COECyT), Dr Ricardo Becerril Bárcenas (Director of the Institute of Physics and Mathematics, UMSNH), Dr Rigoberto Vera Mendoza (Director of the Faculty of Science, UMSNH) and Dr José Napoleón Guzmán Ávila (Coordinator of Scientific Research, UMSNH) for their invaluable support in all organizational matters, which enabled the school to become a reality. We gratefully acknowledge the help of our colleagues in the organizing committee: Alexis Aguilar, Alejandro Ayala, Wolfgang Bietenholz, Alberto Güijosa, Gabriela Murguía, Sarira Sahu (UNAM), Eduard de la Cruz Burelo, Abdel Pérez-Lorenzana (CINVESTAV), Elena Cáceres (UCOL), David Delepine (UG), Mariana Kirchbach (UASLP), Ildefonso León (UAS), Juan Carlos Arteaga-Velázquez (for his impeccable work in managing the web page of the school) and Víctor Villanueva (UMSNH). Most of them contributed to the extra work involved in refereeing the contributions submitted for this publication. Many thanks also go to all the student volunteers for the efficiency and dedication with which they carried out their duties. At the registration desk, we relied on the hard work of Xiomara Gutiérrez, Enif Gutiérrez (UMSNH) and Mara Diaz Pancardo. Several post docs and PhD students provided invaluable support in all organizational matters: Adolfo Huet, Cliffor Compeán, Rocío Bermúdez, Saúl Sánchez, Anabel Trejo, Iraís Rubalcava, Khépani Raya, José Juan González, Saúl Hernández Ortiz (UMSNH), Alfredo Galaviz, and Alan Aganza (USON). Their help in carrying out the organization of the school was essential and without their collaboration, this school would not have been the same. We also acknowledge the help of the administrative secretary Maria Esperanza Jaramillo of IFM (UMSNH). We would like to take this opportunity to thank

  15. PREFACE: The XI Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    Veracruz. We acknowledge the help of our colleagues in the Organizing Committee: Norma Bagatella Flores (FFIA-U. Veracruzana), Heriberto Castilla Valdés (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Lorenzo Díz Cruz (FCFM-BUAP), Juan José Godina Nava (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Gerardo Herrera Corral (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), German Mandujano Vallejo (FFIA-U. Veracruzana), Miguel Ángel Pérez Angón (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Efraín Rojas Marcial (FFIA-U. Veracruzana) and Carlos Vargas Madrazo (FFIA-U Veracruzana). Many thanks also to our Conference Secretaries Patricia Carranza and Soledad López for the efficiency with which they carried out their job and their dedication. Special thanks go to María Guadalupe Colorado Hernández and Javier Ignacio Fragoso Tizapan, whose help in carrying out the School was essential, without their collaboration this School would not have been the same. We take this opportunity to thank most warmly all the speakers for delivering excellent lectures which made this event a success. Moreover, to our utmost delight, the students participated very enthusiastically and we hope that this school will contribute considerably towards their academic development. The future of scientific endeavour always depends upon the students. Adnan Bashir (IFM-UMSNH) Jens Erler (IF-UNAM) Rául Hernández (FFIA-UV) Myriam Mondragón (IF-UNAM) Luis Villaseñor (IFM-UMSNH)

  16. Obituary -- Salvador González Bedolla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, H. José

    1997-04-01

    It is with great sadness that I must communicate the passing of our colleague Salvador Félix González Bedolla. The observational astronomers of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional owe much to his pioneering effort at San Pedro Mártir, work that formed him as an astronomer, and helped him become one of the best photometric observers in México and, at the Instituto de Astronomóa of the UNAM, the academic technician with the highest productivity of articles derived from observations at the OAN. Salvador was an excellent student. He obtained the highest achievement award (Gabino Barreda) in high school, studied physics at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and also finished the credits for his Master's degree in Physics with only his thesis separating him from his degree, an act which was constantly put off until his death. He began his career in Astronomy in 1973 under Dr. Eugenio Mendoza. Later he worked with Josef Warman in the observation of short period stars in the Observatorio `José Arbol y Bonilla'' in Zacatecas, México. I then began working continuously with him in this field of research which, thanks to his great work capacity, produced very good results. He continued in these fields of research not only within the Institute of Astronomy, but also in other research facilities, especially two: With the variable group from the Observatory at Nice, France, beginning in 1985, specializing in the pulsation of early stars. His main interest was in the β Cep stars and in the possibility of relating these stars to the new types of variables (such as the OB stars, the `53 Per' variables, the `ultrashort' period and the ``slow'' and Be variables) discovered near this zone. Hence, in view of this, his efforts were aimed at monitoring the stars that belong to these new groups in order to discover if they are really different from the classical β Cep stars. Moreover, beginning in 1984, Salvador began working with a group of astronomers from

  17. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Quantum Theory and Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadella, Manuel; Izquierdo, José Manuel; Kuru, Sengül; Negro, Javier; del Olmo, Mariano A.

    2007-07-01

    This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical dedicated to the subject of Quantum Theory and Symmetries as featured in the conference '5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries', University of Valladolid, Spain, July 22-28 2007 (http://tristan.fam.cie.uva.es/~qts5/). Invited speakers at that meeting as well as other researchers working in the field are invited to submit a research paper to this issue. Please note that papers from speakers presenting contributed talks will be published separately in a volume of Journal of Physics Conference Series. Editorial policy The Editorial Board has invited Manuel Gadella, José Manuel Izquierdo, Sengül Kuru, Javier Negro and Mariano A del Olmo to serve as Guest Editors for the special issue. Their criteria for the acceptance of contributions are as follows: •The subject of the paper should relate to the subject of the workshop (see list of topics in the website of the conference http://tristan.fam.cie.uva.es/~qts5/) •Contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual procedure of the journal. •Conference papers may be based on already published work but should either (a) contain significant additional new results and/or insights or (b) give a survey of the present state of the art, a critical assessment of the present understanding of a topic, and a discussion of open problems. •Papers submitted by non-participants should be original and contain substantial new results. Guidelines for preparation of contributions •The deadline for contributed papers will be 30 October 2007. This deadline will allow the special issue to appear in June 2008. •There is a nominal page limit of 16 printed pages (approximately 9600 words) per contribution. For papers exceeding this limit, the Guest Editors reserve the right to request a reduction in length. Further advice on publishing your work in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and

  18. PREFACE: XIV Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delepine, D.; Napsuciale, M.; Ibarguen, H. S.

    2015-11-01

    The Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields (MWPF) is a biennial meeting organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society designed to gather specialists in different areas of high energy physics to discuss the latest developments in the field. The fourteenth edition of this meeting was held from November 25 to 29, 2013, at the colonial city of Oaxaca de Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico. The XIV Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields consisted of invited lectures, discussion and poster sessions. Experimental and theoretical developments were presented by distinguished physicists, addressing the most recent results in the field. The invited review talks included topics on collider physics, neutrino physics, physics beyond the Standard Model, flavor and hadronic physics, astroparticle physics, dark matter physics and effective theories, among others. The highlight topic of the conference was the presentation of the most resent results from the most popular high energy experiments in the world. The discovery of a particle consistent with the long-sought Higgs boson, considered one of the most important discoveries of the 21st century, was fully addressed by José Benítez and Kirill Prokofiev from CERN. The overview of the results of ALICE on the first run of the LHC was extensivly covered by Antonio Ortiz, from Lund University, and Daniel Tapia, from Universití Paris-Sud. The prospects and status of the new Belle II experiment were presented by Yoshi Sakai from KEK. The plans and projects of Tevatron on the new era of accelerators were explained by Gene Fisk from FERMILAB. Eric Vázquez from SNOLAB presented a wonderful explanation about the Dark Matter detection and the most resent results about the searches for it. The largest high energy cosmic rays detector, the Pierre Auger, was presented by Luis Villasñnor from University of Michoacán. On Friday 29th of November, we had an excursion to the archeological site of Mitla and to Santa

  19. Reconstruction of sea surface water dynamics in the North Atlantic during the Mid-Pleistocene (~540-400 ka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Marta; Flores, José-Abel; Palumbo, Eliana; Alonso-García, Montserrat; Sierro, Francisco-Javier; Ornella Amore, Filomena

    2014-05-01

    . Sierro, José A. Flores, Arctic front shifts in the subpolar North Atlantic during the Mid-Pleistocene (800-400ka) and their implications for ocean circulation, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology,Volume 311, Issues 3-4, 15 November 2011, Pages 268-280, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.09.004. F.O. Amore, J.A. Flores, A.H.L. Voelker, S.M. Lebreiro, E. Palumbo, F.J. Sierro, A Middle Pleistocene Northeast Atlantic coccolithophore record: Paleoclimatology and paleoproductivity aspects, Marine Micropaleontology, Volumes 90-91, June 2012, Pages 44-59, , http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2012.03.006. E. Palumbo, J.A. Flores, C. Perugia, Z. Petrillo, A.H.L. Voelker, F.O. Amore, Millennial scale coccolithophore paleoproductivity and surface water changes between 445 and 360ka (Marine Isotope Stages 12/11) in the Northeast Atlantic, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volumes 383-384, August 2013, Pages 27-41, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.04.024.

  20. BOOK REVIEW Analytical and Numerical Approaches to Mathematical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John M.

    2007-08-01

    The 319th Wilhelm-and-Else-Heraeus Seminar 'Mathematical Relativity: New Ideas and Developments' took place in March 2004. Twelve of the invited speakers have expanded their one hour talks into the papers appearing in this volume, preceded by a foreword by Roger Penrose. The first group consists of four papers on 'differential geometry and differential topology'. Paul Ehrlich opens with a very witty review of global Lorentzian geometry, which caused this reviewer to think more carefully about how he uses the adjective 'generic'. Robert Low addresses the issue of causality with a description of the 'space of null geodesics' and a tentative proposal for a new definition of causal boundary. The underlying review of global Lorentzian geometry is continued by Antonio Masiello, looking at variational approaches (actually valid for more general semi-Riemannian manifolds). This group concludes with a very clear review of pp-wave spacetimes from José Flores and Miguel Sánchez. (This reviewer was delighted to see a reproduction of Roger Penrose's seminal (1965) picture of null geodesics in plane wave spacetimes which attracted him into the subject.) Robert Beig opens the second group 'analytic methods and differential equations' with a brief but careful discussion of symmetric (regular) hyperbolicity for first (second) order systems, respectively, of partial differential equations. His description is peppered with examples, many specific to relativstic continuum mechanics. There follows a succinct review of linear elliptic boundary value problems with applications to general relativity from Sergio Dain. The numerous examples he provides are thought-provoking. The 'standard cosmological model' has been well understood for three quarters of a century. However recent observations suggest that the expansion in our Universe may be accelerating. Alan Rendall provides a careful discussion of the changes, both mathematical and physical, to the standard model which might be needed

  1. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  2. Towards Developing Systematics for Using Periodic Studies of the Hydrothermal Manifestations as Effective Tool for Monitoring Largely 'inaccessible' Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M.

    2010-12-01

    The San José and Tupungatito volcanoes, located near Santiago (Chile), are the potential hazards, given their geological and historical record of explosive eruptions with pyroclastic flows, most recently in 1960 and 1987 respectively (Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution). What aggravates the potential risk of these very high (>5290m elevation) snow- and ice-covered volcanoes is their location at the source of relatively narrow mountain drainage systems that feed into the Maipo River, flowing through the southern outskirts of Santiago. Sector-collapse and debris-flow, as a result of volcano-ice/snow interaction, can form lahars causing immense destruction to the life and property in the Maipo Valley (Cajón del Maipo). These lahars can cause submergence and burial of vast downstream areas under several meters thick sediment, as in the case of 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, USA. In the event of a major eruption, Santiago city will be at peril, with all the drinking water supply installations either destroyed or contaminated to the extent of being abandoned. Besides, ash and tephra will halt the air traffic in the region, particularly in Santiago-Mendoza sector between Chile and Argentina. In a proposed research project (for which funding is awaited from CONICYT, Chile under its Initiation into Research Funding Competition), hydrothermal systems associated with the aforementioned volcanoes will be periodically studied to monitor these volcanoes, in order to develop a Systematics for using the peripheral hydrothermal manifestations, together with nearby surface water bodies, as means for monitoring the activities of the volcano(es). Basic premise of this proposal is to use the relationship between volcanic and hydrothermal activities. Although this association has been observed at many volcanic centers, no attempt has been made to use this relation effectively as a tool for monitoring the volcanoes. Before an eruption or even with increased

  3. Generation of Continental Rifts, Basins and Swells by Lithosphere Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milelli, L.; Fourel, L.; Jaupart, C. P.

    2012-12-01

    Domal uplifts, volcanism, basin formation and rifting have often struck the same continent in different areas at the same time. Their characteristics and orientations are difficult to reconcile with mantle convection or tectonic forces and suggest a driving mechanism that is intrinsic to the continent. The rifts seem to develop preferentially at high angles to the edge of the continent whereas swells and basins seem confined to the interior. Another intriguing geometrical feature is that the rifts often branch out in complicated patterns at their landward end. In Western Africa, for example, magmatic activity currently occurs in a number of uplifted areas including the peculiar Cameroon Volcanic Line that stretches away from the continental margin over about 1000 km. Magmatic and volcanic activity has been sustained along this line for 70 My with no age progression. The mantle upwelling that feeds the volcanoes is not affected by absolute plate motions and hence is attached to the continent. The Cameroon Volcanic Line extends to the Biu swell to the North and the Jos plateau to the West defining a striking Y-shaped pattern. This structure segues into several volcanic domes including the Air, the Hoggar, the Darfur, the Tibesti and the Haruj domes towards the Mediterranean coast. Another example is provided by North America, where the late Proterozoic-early Ordovician saw the formation of four major basins, the Michigan, Illinois, Williston and Hudson Bay, as well as of major rifts in southern Oklahoma and the Mississipi Valley within a short time interval. At the same time, a series of uplifts developed, such as the Ozark and Nashville domes. Motivated by these observations, we have sought an explanation in the continental lithosphere itself. We describe a new type of convective instability at the base of the lithosphere that leads to a remarkable spatial pattern at the scale of an entire continent. We carried out fluid mechanics laboratory experiments on buoyant

  4. Comparison of Two Theory-Based, Fully Automated Telephone Interventions Designed to Maintain Dietary Change in Healthy Adults: Study Protocol of a Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Heeren, Timothy; Friedman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    interventions are 6 months. All 405 participants who qualify for the trial will complete surveys administered by blinded interviewers at baseline (randomization), 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Results Data analysis is not yet complete, but we hypothesize that (1) TLC-GST > TLC-SCT > control at all follow-up time points for F&V consumption, and (2) intervention effects will be mediated by the theoretical constructs (eg, self-efficacy, goal pursuit, conflict, shielding, and facilitation). Conclusions This study used a novel study design to initiate and then promote the maintenance of dietary behavior change through the use of an evidence-based fully automated telephony intervention. After the first 6 months (the acquisition phase), we will examine whether two telephony interventions built using different underlying behavioral theories were more successful than an assessment-only control group in helping participants maintain their newly acquired health behavior change. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00148525; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00148525 (Archived by Webcite at http://www.webcitation.org/6TiRriJOs). PMID:25387065

  5. Quantum Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Giulio; Chirikov, Boris

    2006-11-01

    in two-electron atoms R. Blümel and W. P. Reinhardt; Part III. Semiclassical Approximations: 20. Semiclassical theory of spectral rigidity M. V. Berry; 21. Semiclassical structure of trace formulas R. G. Littlejohn; 22. h-Expansion for quantum trace formulas P. Gaspard; 23. Pinball scattering B. Eckhardt, G. Russberg, P. Cvitanovic, P. E. Rosenqvist and P. Scherer; 24. Logarithm breaking time in quantum chaos G. P. Berman and G. M. Zaslavsky; 25. Semiclassical propagation: how long can it last? M. A. Sepulveda, S. Tomsovic and E. J. Heller; 26. The quantized Baker's transformation N. L. Balazs and A. Voros; 27. Classical structures in the quantized baker transformation M. Saraceno; 28. Quantum nodal points as fingerprints of classical chaos P. Leboeuf and A. Voros; 29. Chaology of action billiards A. M. Ozorio de Almeida and M. A. M. de Aguiar; Part IV. Level Statistics and Random Matrix Theory: 30. Characterization of chaotic quantum spectra and universality of level fluctuation laws O. Bohigas, M. J. Giannono, and C. Schmit; 31. Quantum chaos, localization and band random matrices F. M. Izrailev; 32. Structural invariance in channel space: a step toward understanding chaotic scattering in quantum mechanics T. H. Seligman; 33. Spectral properties of a Fermi accelerating disk R. Badrinarayanan and J. J. José; 34. Spectral properties of systems with dynamical localization T. Dittrich and U. Smilansky; 35. Unbound quantum diffusion and fractal spectra T. Geisel, R. Ketzmerick and G. Petschel; 36. Microwave studies in irregularly shaped billiards H.-J. Stöckmann, J. Stein and M. Kollman; Index.

  6. Quantum Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Giulio; Chirikov, Boris

    1995-04-01

    in two-electron atoms R. Blümel and W. P. Reinhardt; Part III. Semiclassical Approximations: 20. Semiclassical theory of spectral rigidity M. V. Berry; 21. Semiclassical structure of trace formulas R. G. Littlejohn; 22. h-Expansion for quantum trace formulas P. Gaspard; 23. Pinball scattering B. Eckhardt, G. Russberg, P. Cvitanovic, P. E. Rosenqvist and P. Scherer; 24. Logarithm breaking time in quantum chaos G. P. Berman and G. M. Zaslavsky; 25. Semiclassical propagation: how long can it last? M. A. Sepulveda, S. Tomsovic and E. J. Heller; 26. The quantized Baker's transformation N. L. Balazs and A. Voros; 27. Classical structures in the quantized baker transformation M. Saraceno; 28. Quantum nodal points as fingerprints of classical chaos P. Leboeuf and A. Voros; 29. Chaology of action billiards A. M. Ozorio de Almeida and M. A. M. de Aguiar; Part IV. Level Statistics and Random Matrix Theory: 30. Characterization of chaotic quantum spectra and universality of level fluctuation laws O. Bohigas, M. J. Giannono, and C. Schmit; 31. Quantum chaos, localization and band random matrices F. M. Izrailev; 32. Structural invariance in channel space: a step toward understanding chaotic scattering in quantum mechanics T. H. Seligman; 33. Spectral properties of a Fermi accelerating disk R. Badrinarayanan and J. J. José; 34. Spectral properties of systems with dynamical localization T. Dittrich and U. Smilansky; 35. Unbound quantum diffusion and fractal spectra T. Geisel, R. Ketzmerick and G. Petschel; 36. Microwave studies in irregularly shaped billiards H.-J. Stöckmann, J. Stein and M. Kollman; Index.

  7. The association between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms and periventricular leukomalacia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Marta Lúcia; Braga, Fernanda Braojos; Cardoso, Mariana Rodero; Lopes, Ana Cláudia; Piatto, Vânia Belintani; Souza, Antônio Soares

    2016-01-01

    Background Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a frequent consequence of hypoxic-ischemic injury. Functional cytokine gene variants that result in altered production of inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α] and interleukin-1beta [IL-1β]) or anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10 [IL-10]) cytokines may modify disease processes, including PVL. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a relationship between the two proinflammatory polymorphisms (TNF-α-1031T/C and IL-1β-511C/T) and the anti-inflammatory polymorphism IL-10-1082G/A and PVL risk in Brazilian newborns with and without this injury. Materials and methods A cross-sectional case-control study performed at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Children’s Hospital and Maternity of the São José do Rio Preto Medical School (FAMERP). Fifty preterm and term newborns were examined as index cases and 50 term newborns as controls, of both sexes for both groups. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and the sites that encompassed the three polymorphisms were amplified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results Gestational age ranged from 25 to 39 weeks, in the case group, and in the control group it ranged from 38 to 42.5 weeks (P<0.0001). Statistically significant association was found between TNF-α-1031T/C high expression genotype TC (odds ratio [OR], 2.495; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–5.63; P=0.043) as well as between genotypes (TC + CC) (OR, 2.471; 95% CI, 1.10–5.55; P=0.044) and risk of PVL. Statistically significant association was found between IL-1β-511C/T high expression genotypes (CT + TT) (OR, 23.120; 95% CI, 1.31–409.4; P=0.003) and risk of PVL. Statistically significant association between IL-10-1082G/A high expression genotype GG (OR, 0.07407; 95% CI, 0.02–0.34; P<0.0001) as well as between IL-10-1082G high expression allele (OR, 0.5098; 95% CI, 0.29–0.91; P=0,030) and PVL reduced risk was observed

  8. Foreword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirne, José

    2006-08-01

    increase the contacts between university and college researchers and people from industry in particular themes of joint interest. At the moment there are two sub-groups, the Light-Weight Armour Group (LWAG) and the Group of Transport Security (CRASH), developing their activities and organizing regular workshops. But DYMAT is keen on seeing others. I cannot finish this small text without thanking most sincerely the CEA (Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique) at Valduc, and their collaborators, for having accepted the task of organising the Conference. A particular and very special thank you to Richard Dormeval, not only for the excellent and arduous work that, as chairman of the Conference, developed during the long period of its preparation, but also for his continuous assistance as Vice-President of the DYMAT Association over the last three years. I would equally like to thank the friendly and engaged team of the Administrative Council of the Association for all their work in reading, selecting and re-reading manuscripts, thus assuring our Conference is of a high academic level. Together with my colleagues at the DYMAT Bureau, I hope that this Conference can contribute on the development of the knowledge in the field of the dynamic behaviour of materials. Especially I hope that the participants can profit from these days exchange their experiences and develop contacts and projects. Please, enjoy these days in Dijon. Coimbra, the 11th of May 2006 José Cirne President of Dymat Association

  9. Uncoupling between soil and xylem water isotopic composition: how to discriminate mobile and tightly-bound water?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín Gómez, Paula; Aguilera, Mònica; Pemán, Jesús; Gil Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2014-05-01

    xylem water. References 1. Dawson, T. E. & Ehleringer, J. R. Isotopic enrichment of water in the 'woody' tissues of plants: Implications for plant water source, water uptake, and other studies which use the stable isotopic composition of cellulose. (1993). 2. Cernusak, L. a, Farquhar, G. D. & Pate, J. S. Environmental and physiological controls over oxygen and carbon isotope composition of Tasmanian blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus. Tree Physiol. 25, 129-46 (2005). 3. Bertrand, G. et al. Determination of spatiotemporal variability of tree water uptake using stable isotopes (δ 18 O, δ 2 H) in an alluvial system supplied by a high-altitude watershed, Pfyn forest, Switzerland. Ecohydrology (2012). doi:10.1002/eco.1347 4. Tang, K. & Feng, X. The effect of soil hydrology on the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of plants ' source water. 185, (2001). 5. Brooks, J. R., Barnard, H. R., Coulombe, R. & McDonnell, J. J. Ecohydrologic separation of water between trees and streams in a Mediterranean climate. Nat. Geosci. 3, 100-104 (2009). Acknowledgements This study was funded by RESILFOR project (AGL 2012-40039-C02-02) and FPU fellowship from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (FPU12/00648). We thank Instituto de Formación Agroambiental de Jaca and Unidad de Salud de los Bosques de Aragón for their support on field work and we feel very grateful to Miguel Ángel Lázaro for climbing the studied trees, José María Alcaire for one year of rain collection and Pilar Sopeña and Ma Josep Pau for laboratory analysis. Helpful comments by Jordi Voltas on statistical analysis have improved the quality of the work.

  10. Quartzite of historic buildings in Brazil: designations and degradation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Antônio

    2015-04-01

    Quartzite dated with ages between 2.60 and 1.75 Ga were used in historic buildings in Brazil, almost exclusively in Minas Gerais. Dating from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, these buildings can be viewed in the cities of Ouro Preto and Tiradentes, as well as part of the architectural complex of the old Colégio Caraça, located in the homonymous ridge. Here, the quartzite used is the oldest (approx. 2.60 Ga). Designated as Cambotas, the material crops out in the vicinity of the complex. On the other hand those quartzite used in the constructions in Ouro Preto are stratigraphically from the Moeda Formation (between 2.6 and 2.56 Ga), or from Itacolomy Group (between 2.12 and 1.75 Ga). The first, designated Lajes, is exposed in the Ouro Preto Ridge, while the second, designated Itacolomy, crops out in the homonymous ridge. In buildings of Tiradentes were employed quartzites with ages also from Lower Proterozoic. They belong to the Tiradentes Formation and are exposed in the São José Ridge, near the city. In these regions, where these monuments were built, the metamorphic rocks of sedimentary origin predominate and it can be affirmed that resulted from a low-grade metamorphism (schists and phyllites from the greenschist facies). The quartzite occur associate and consist essentially of quartz, but may show different contents of accessory minerals such as mica, kyanite and opaque minerals (iron oxides). Depending on the content of mica can show planar structures. Structures of the sediment phase can still be observed, such as banding by compositional variation or other such as cross bedding. The different degradation patterns of these quartzite occur singly or in combinations and were influenced by the textures and structures of these rocks. From all those patterns, the most common has to do with chromatic modifications of the stone materials (patina) occurred due to varying degrees of oxidation and formation of hydroxides. Because of this, the quartzite can

  11. A Unique Partnership to Promote Diversity in the Geosciences, San Jose, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlock, R.; Metzger, E.; Johnson, D.

    2006-12-01

    We report here on a particularly satisfying partnership of academic institutions that focuses on enhancing the participation of underrepresented students in the geosciences. The Bay Area Earth Science Institute (BAESI) at San José State University (SJSU) has provided professional development opportunities to over 1,500 area teachers since 1990. BAESI offerings include summer and weekend workshops, field trips, classroom visits, and a lending library of curricula, sample sets, A/V materials, and equipment. The National Hispanic University (NHU) is a private, non-profit university that enrolls about 700 students, 80% of whom are of Hispanic descent. Another 13% are from other minority groups, 74% are from low-income families, and 70% are women. NHU houses the Latino College Preparatory Academy (LCPA), a charter high school that provides an alternative for students who struggle in traditional schools due to language issues. In the 1990s, administrators at SJSU and NHU set up formal agreements about course articulation, reciprocity, and joint degree programs. In 2002, informal discussions between BAESI and NHU staff led to collaboration on an NSF proposal to strengthen NHU's geoscience curriculum. Since then, the scope of BAESI-NHU actions has expanded greatly: (1) NHU and LCPA staff attended a week-long BAESI professional development workshop funded by NSF, and have attended numerous BAESI field trips. (2) BAESI staff visit NHU and LCPA classrooms to showcase SJSU's Geology Department and to enrich existing Chemistry and Physics classes with geoscience applications. (3) A nascent "Geologist-In-Residence" program pairs SJSU geology students with teachers at LCPA. (4) NHU students have interned with Metzger on local research projects. (5) BAESI brokered donation of an extensive USGS rock collection to NHU. (6) NHU, BAESI, and NASA-Ames staff collaborate on an online Earth Science curriculum for middle-school teachers. (7) We will adapt BAESI summer workshops to a one

  12. SEAC 2011 Stars and Stones: Voyages in Archaeoastronomy and Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenta, F.; Ribeiro, N.; Silva, F.; Campion, N.; Joaquinito, A.; Tirapicos, L.

    2015-05-01

    Culture was held in Évora, Portugal, from September 19th to 23th, 2011, and was attended by 85 participants from 29 countries. A total number of 71 talks and 4 posters were presented. Among them 20 invited lectures given by Michael Rappenglüück, José Manuel Malhão Pereira, Jarita Holbrook, Giulio Magli, Nicholas Campion, J. Kim Malville, David Pankenier, Alejandro Martín López, Ivan Sprajc, Mariusz Ziólkowski, Marciano da Silva, Lionel Sims, Emilia Pasztor, Frank Prendergast, Fernando Pimenta, A. César González-Garcia, Henrique Leitão, Shi Yunli and Stanislaw Iwaniszewski and 3 public lectures given by Luísa Pereira, Juan Belmonte Avilés and Clive Ruggles. Most of the contributions were submitted for publication and went through a peer-review process. The present volume is the result of this process, arranged in the same thematic sections as the Conference was organised.

  13. Implementing ACCM critical care guidelines for septic shock management in a Cuban pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Cartaya, José M; Rovira, Luis E; Segredo, Yamilet; Alvarez, Idalys; Acevedo, Yoandra; Moya, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sepsis is the most common direct cause of death worldwide and septic shock the syndrome's most serious complication. In 2002, the pediatric intensive care unit of the José Luis Miranda Pediatric University Hospital in Santa Clara (Villa Clara Province), Cuba, began implementing the recently published guidelines of the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) for management of pediatric and neonatal septic shock, observing a drop in case fatality from 34.6% to 19% between the years 2003 and 2007. ACCM updated these Guidelines in 2007. OBJECTIVE Describe experiences with the use of the 2007 ACCM updated Guidelines and discuss their possible impact in reducing case fatality. METHODS Between 2008 and 2010, a study was conducted of 280 children and adolescents, from newborns through 18 years, admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with a diagnosis of septic shock. The diagnostic and therapeutic criteria used were those recommended in the ACCM's 2007 updated Guidelines. The dependent variable was case fatality. Independent variables were age, sex, comorbidity or prior chronic disease, origin and course of sepsis, hemodynamic state, blood glucose level, hyperglycemia, organ dysfunction, volume of fluid therapy administered, use of mechanical ventilation and therapeutic response. RESULTS In the 3-year period, 28-day case fatality was 11.1% (31/280). A total of 45 patients had comorbidities, with 14 deaths and a case fatality rate of 31.1% vs. 7.2% (17/235) in previously healthy patients. Cold shock with a hemodynamic state of low cardiac output and high systemic vascular resistance predominated (68.9%), with low cardiac output and low systemic vascular resistance the least common type (12.5%), but the one with highest case fatality (34.4%). Hyperglycemia was present in 39.6% of patients, with 15.3% case fatality; case fatality was higher (25.6%) when hyperglycemia was in the 10-15.9 mmol/L range. Fluid therapy of 40-100 mL/kg was administered

  14. PREFACE: WMO/GEO Expert Meeting On An International Sand And Dust Storm Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, C.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-03-01

    support of Spain to host a regional centre for the European/African/Middle East node of SDS-WAS and to play a lead role in implementation. In August 2007, the Korean Meteorological Administration hosted the 2nd International Workshop on Sand and Dust Storms highlighting Korean SDS-WAS activities as well as those of Asian regional partners. From 7-9 November 2007, Spain hosted the WMO/GEO Expert Meeting on SDS-WAS at the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. This consultation meeting brought 100 international experts together from research, observation, forecasting and user countries especially in Africa and the Middle East to discuss the way forward in SDS-WAS implementation. The general objective of the WMO/GEO Expert Meeting on an International Sand and Dust Storm Warning System was to discuss and recommend actions needed to develop a global routine SDS-WAS based on integrating numerical SDS prediction and observing systems, and on establishing effective cooperation between data producers and user communities in order to provide SDS-WAS products capable of contributing to the reduction of risks from SDS. The specific objectives were: to identify, present and suggest future real-time observations for forecast verification and dust surveillance: satellite, ground-based remote sensing (passive and active) and in-situ monitoring to present ongoing forecasting activities to discuss and identify user needs: health, air quality, air transport operations, ocean, and others to identify and discuss dust research issues relevant for operational forecast applications to present the concept of SDS-WAS and Regional Centers The meeting was organised around invited presentations and discussions on observations, modelling and users of the SDS-WAS. C Pérez and J M Baldasano Editors INTERNATIONAL STEERING COMMITTEE José María Baldasano (Chairman) - Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Spain Emilio Cuevas - Instituto Nacional de Meteorología, Spain Leonard A Barrie - World Meteorological

  15. PREFACE: Spanish Relativity Meeting/ERE2009Gravitation in the Large

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazkoz, Ruth; Vera, Raül

    2010-04-01

    Scientists working in Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology in Spanish institutions have been organising the Spanish Relativity Meetings (ERE) for more than 30 years now, and 2009 was the turn of the group at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) to continue this well established tradition. There is no doubt these meetings have become a benchmark in the field not only because of the high scientific level reached in each edition, but also because of the almost legendary relaxed atmosphere. The support of our sponsors --Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, through the funding actions FIS2008-03716-E and FIS2008-04494-E, Basque Government, UPV/EHU, and Spanish Relativity and Gravitation Society (SEGRE)-- and specially the scientific and social contributions of all the participants turned the ERE2009 a memorable edition for us, and we hope this is also the impression of everyone else involved in this meeting. The organising committee was very pleased to present an excellent panel of invited speakers to dissert on four topics that are gathering enormous interest and activity: Quantum and thermodynamical effects in Gravity, Modern Cosmology, Numerical Relativity and Black holes. But the meeting also boasted a high scientific level thanks to the more than a hundred other participants from many different countries whose enthusiasm was an excellent proof of the good health of Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology as a research area. The scientific programme started on the 7th, with an opening by a representative of the Principal of the University of the Basque Country, along with the Deputy Mayor of Bilbao, and the Chair of the conference, José M.M. Senovilla. Lectures were delivered on the 7th, 8th, 9th and 11th of September 2009 following a scheme of plenary sessions in the morning (the first lecture always being an invited one) and two parallel sessions in the afternoon. There were of course coffee-breaks to refresh bodies and spirits and encourage the

  16. Development of Solar Powered Feeding Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks in low Solar Density Conditions / Bezvadu Sensoru Tīklu Elektroapgādes Sistēmas Izstrāde, Kas Izmanto Saules Paneļus Un Darbojas Pazeminātas Saules Radiācijas Apstākļos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratjevs, K.; Zabasta, A.; Selmanovs-Pless, V.

    2015-08-01

    In the recent years, there has been significant research focus on the safety and reliability of data harvesting and optimal energy consuming by wireless sensor network nodes. If external electrical power fails, the node needs to be able to send notifications to the utility demanding the use of backup energy strategies. The authors of the research offer an approach that can help to use PV panels as an alternative power source for WSN nodes in particular irradiation conditions. Survey and testing of the main types of PV panels offered on the market in conditions closed to real ones, in which WSN nodes are maintained, have been implemented. Based on the test results, maximum power control module parameters can be calculated in order to achieve the best effectiveness of the power control system for a selected type of PV panel or panel group. The novelty of the research is an approach that includes an original test bed design for PV testing, PV testing method and selection of design and MPP control module parameters, which ensure maximum effectiveness of WSN node power feeding. Pēdējos gados vairāki pētījumi ir veltīti problēmām, kas ir saistītas ar enerģijas patēriņa mazināšanu un efektīvu izmantošanu bezvadu sensoru tīklu mezglos. Kad sensors mezgls ir izsmēlis enerģijas krājumu, tas vairs nefunkcionē un atslēdzas no kopēja tīkla, kas var būtiski ietekmēt visa tīkla veiktspēju. Šī pētījuma mērķis ir izveidot barošanas vadības moduli, lai nodrošinātu stabilu elektroapgādes spriegumu autonomi strādājošiem radio signāla atkārtotājiem, sensoriem vai vārtejām, kas darbojas bezvadu sensoru tīklos. Pētījuma ietvaros izstrādāta metode saules paneļu kvalitatīvai salīdzināšanai starp tehnoloģijām vai savā starpā, izvērtējot to atbilstību mērķa pielietojumam. Izstrādātā metode sniedz iespēju veikt kontrolētus testus pie variējošiem, simulētiem gaismas apstākļiem, ļauj prognozēt enerģijas resursus

  17. PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerta, Julio

    2008-10-01

    Some years ago a group of Latin American physicists took the initiative to consult about the viability of organizing a meeting on plasma physics for researchers and students of the region. The result was that it was not only a good idea, but a necessity in order to show and share everyone's work, and to keep updated on latest advances and technologies on plasma physics. It was decided that for new researchers as well as students of Physics, it would prove to be the best way to keep them posted on such matters. This was the birth of a series of meetings known as Latin American workshops on plasma physics that take place every two years in a different Latin American country. In Venezuela we have had the opportunity to organize two editions of this interesting and important reunion of physicists. The first of these Latin American workshops on plasma physics was held in Cambuquira (Brazil) in 1982. After organizing the first six editions of the workshop, the VII LAWPP meeting was realized in Caracas in January 1997. It was designed with a structure similar to the first edition. It developed in two stages, a first week devoted to short courses with lecturers in different fields of plasma physics and a second week for contributed and invited presentations. Participants from sixteen different countries were present, half of them from this continent and the other half from overseas, demonstrating the international character of this meeting. There have been four more editions of the workshop and once again, we have had the opportunity to organize this latest edition of the series: the XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics, which took place in Caracas, Venezuela from the 17th to the 21st of September 2007. The structure was modified, because contributed and review papers were together during the first stage, with short courses realized during the second one, called mini-courses, and given by several high level contributors such as José Boedo, Leopoldo Soto, Claude

  18. PREFACE: DISCRETE '08: Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, José; Botella, Francisco J.; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.

    2009-07-01

    guideline of Symmetry and Symmetry Breaking was an added value to the interest of such an event. The Symposium was attended by 160 participants, among which 63 from Spain, 77 coming from the rest of Europe, 10 from USA and 10 from the rest of the world. The Symposium started with a welcome address by Dr Vasiliki Mitsou, Co-Chair of the Organising Committee, and Professor Francisco J Botella, Director of IFIC. The scientific plenary sessions started with a discussion on the search for Time Reversal Violation, independent of CP and/or CPT symmetries, by Helen Quinn. Related to this important subject, David Wark made a presentation of the state of the art in the measurement of Electric Dipole Moments. The status and prospects of CP-violation Experiments was reviewed by Tatsuya Nakada, whereas Andrzej Buras made a comprehensive discussion on the search for New Physics with Rare Decays and CP Violation. The implications for Cosmology were presented by Mikhail Shaposhnikov with a talk on Baryogenesis. The pending understanding of the Flavour Problem was discussed by Graham G Ross in his presentation on Family Symmetries. Going beyond the paradigm imposed by local quantum field theories, Nikolaos Mavromatos described the scenario of CPT Violation and Decoherence in Quantum Gravity. Antonio Di Domenico presented the status on the search for CPT Violation and Decoherence in the Neutral Kaon System and José L F Barbón covered the territory of Strings, Symmetry and Holography. The problem of the Quantum Vacuum was addessed by Mariano Quirós in his presentation on the nature of the Electroweak Higgs sector. In Cosmology, Pierre Binetruy treated the fascinating question of the possible concepts to explain the Dark Energy in the Universe. On the theme of High Energy Messengers from the Cosmos, Graciela Gelmini presented the solved and unsolved questions associated with the High Energy Cosmic Rays, Manel Martínez discussed methods to study Fundamental Physics with Cosmic Gamma Rays

  19. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  20. A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel. The species of the genus Hydrochasma Hendel are revised, including 27 new species (type locality in parenthesis): H. andeum (Ecuador. Guayas: Boliche (02°07.7'S, 79°35.5'W)), H. annae (United States. Utah. Grand: Swasey Beach (15.3 km N Green River; 39°07'N, 110°06.6'W; Green River; 1255 m)), H. capsum (Ecuador. Orellana: RíoTiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. castilloi (Ecuador. Loja: Catamayo (03°59'S, 79°21'W)), H. crenulum (Peru. Cuzco: Paucartambo, Atalaya (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°53.3'S, 71°21.6'W; 600 m)), H. denticum (Ecuador. Orellana: Río Tiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. digitatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Diamante (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°19.9'S, 70°57.5'W; 400 m)), H. distinctum (Costa Rica. Limón: Parque Nacional Barbilla, Sector Casas Negras, (10°0.8'N, 83°28.1'W; 300 m)), H. dolabrutum (Dominican Republic. Barahona: Barahona (18°12'N, 71°5.3'W)), H. edmistoni (Dominican Republic. Azua: near Pueblo Viejo (18°24.8'N, 70°44.7'W)), H. falcatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)), H. glochium (Dominican Republic. Peravia: San José Ocoa (10 km NE; 18°35'N, 70°25.6'W)), H. kaieteur (Guyana. Kaieteur Falls (05°10.5'N, 59°26.9'W)), H. lineatum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. George: Filette (1 km SE; 10°47'N, 61°21'W)), H. miguelito (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. octogonum (Ecuador. Manabí: Pichincha (01°02.7'S, 79°49.2'W)), H. parallelum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (16 km S; 10°22'N, 61°01'W)), H. peniculum (Dominican Republic. Pedernales: Pedernales (18°01.8'N, 71°44.7'W)), H. rictum (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. robustum (Brazil. São Paulo. Ubatuba, Praia Puruba (23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach)), H. sagittarium (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago: St. John: Parlatuvier (creek; 11°17.9'N